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Corporate Standard STD 5062 , 2E Dept / Issued by 6857 Hans Lilja Issue 5

Corporate Standard

STD 5062,2E

Dept / Issued by

6857 Hans Lilja

Issue

5

Established

2004-03 JOG

Page 1(113)

NOT FOR NEW DESIGN AS OF 2004-03-01 This standard is valid when there is a
NOT FOR NEW DESIGN AS OF 2004-03-01
This standard is valid when there is a reference to it.
”Not for new design” is only an indication to our design departments.

Geometrical tolerances

Indication, definitions and measuring principles

Orientation

This issue differs from issue 4 in that the standard no longer applies to new design.

For new designs, standards STD 112-0003, STD 112-0004 (Volvo Group), VCS 5062,29 and VCS 5062,39 (Volvo Car Corporation) shall be used.

This standard conforms to SS-ISO 1101-1984 with the following exceptions:

The standard contains measuring principles and rules for measuring which are to be followed when interpreting the requirements. This is not included in ISO 1101.

A cylindrical tolerance zone is defined at angularity of a line. This is not done in ISO 1101.

At Volvo, theoretically exact dimensions need only be framed if there is risk of misinterpretation. According to ISO 1101, the values shall always be framed.

The standard contains rules for the evaluation of abstract (unreal) features. This is not included in ISO 1101.

The rule stating that a negative deviation of 0,01 x the length may be deducted from the extension of the toleranced feature is not included in ISO 1101.

The fact that tolerance on profile of any line and tolerance on profile of any surface can be specified in relation to datums is in this standard shown under positional tolerances and is then called position of any profile and position of any surface respectively. ISO 1101 states only that tolerance on profile of any line and tolerance on profile of any surface can be specified in relation to datums.

Contents

1

Scope and field of application

2

General

2.1

Definition of tolerance zone

2.2

Toleranced feature

2.3

Tolerance zone form

2.4

Form of toleranced feature within tolerance zone

2.5

Applicability of tolerance along feature

2.6

Datum feature

2.7

Form deviations of datum features

2.8

Establishing size of form deviation and extension of toleranced feature

2.9

Establishing form deviation of circular and cylindrical features

2.10

Measuring principles and rules for measuring

3

Symbols

4

Evaluation of abstract (unreal) features

5

Tolerance frame

5.1

Data in the tolerance frame

5.2

Symbol for number of features

5.3

Supplementary requirement

5.4

More than one tolerance requirement

6

Toleranced feature

7

Tolerance zones

7.1

Tolerance extension

7.2

Direction of tolerance zone

7.3

Special direction of tolerance zone

7.4

Same tolerance value for more than one feature

   
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Corporate Standard

STD 5062,2E

NOT FOR NEW DESIGN AS OF 2004-03-01

 

This standard is valid when there is a reference to it. ”Not for new design” is only an indication to our design departments.

Issue

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Page

2

8

Symbols for datums

8.1

Datum indicated by datum letter

8.2

Location of datum triangle

8.3

Datum indicated without datum letter

8.4

Sequence of datum letters

9

Restrictive specifications

9.1

Tolerance for a restricted length of the feature

9.2

Tolerance for the whole feature and restricted length of the feature

9.3

Tolerance for a restricted part of the feature

9.4

Datum applied to a restricted part of the feature

10

Theoretically exact dimensions

11

Projected tolerance zones

12

Maximum material principle

13

Definitions of tolerances

13.1

General

13.2

One type of tolerance may control several types of deviations

13.3

Graphical representation of tolerance zones

14

Detailed definitions of tolerances form tolerances

14.1

Straightness tolerance

14.2

Flatness tolerance

14.3

Circularity tolerance

14.4

Cylindricity tolerance

14.5

Profile tolerance of any line

14.6

Profile tolerance of any surface Orientation tolerances

14.7

Parallelism tolerance

14.8

Perpendicularity tolerance

14.9

Angularity tolerance Positional tolerances

14.10 Positional tolerance

14.11 Concentricity and coaxiality tolerance

14.12 Symmetry tolerance Run-out tolerances

14.13 Circular run-out tolerance

14.14 Total run-out tolerance

15 Reference on drawing

1 Scope and field of application

The standard comprises principles of symbolisation and indication on technical drawings of toler- ances of form, orientation, position and run-out, and establishes the appropriate geometrical defini- tions. The term ”geometrical tolerances” will be used in this standard as synonymous with these tolerances.

Geometrical tolerances shall be indicated with respect to the function requirements. Manufacturing and inspection requirements may also influence the way in which geometrical tolerances are speci- fied.

The indication of geometrical tolerances does not mean that a specific method for manufacture, measurement and inspection is required.

This standard also contains measuring principles and certain rules for measurement which are not included in ISO 1101.

   
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Corporate Standard

STD 5062,2E

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Issue

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When specifying requirements for parts within thin-walled product design, that is thin-walled parts mainly included in the body, exterior and interior, as well as other parts for which the master location system in accordance with STD 5026,2 is used, STD 5026,25 Geometrical tolerances for thin-walled product design shall be applied.

2

General

2.1 Definition of tolerance zone

A geometrical tolerance for a feature defines the tolerance zone within which this feature shall be

contained.

2.2 Toleranced feature

A feature is a specific characteristic of a part, such as axis, median plane, surface, hole, recess or

profile.

2.3 Tolerance zone form

Depending on the characteristic which is to be toleranced and the way in which it is indicated, the tolerance zone is one of the following:

the area within a circle

the area between two concentric circles

the area between two equidistant lines or between two parallel straight lines

the space within a cylinder

the space between two coaxial cylinders

the space between two equidistant surfaces or two parallel planes

the space within a bent pipe

2.4 Form of toleranced feature within tolerance zone

The toleranced feature may be of any form or orientation within the tolerance zone in question unless

a more restrictive indication is given, for example by an explanatory note.

2.5 Applicability of tolerance along feature

The tolerance applies to the entire length or surface of the toleranced feature unless otherwise indi- cated.

2.6 Datum feature

The datum feature is an actual feature of a part. It is used to determine the location of a datum. See STD 5062,15,

2.7 Form deviations of datum features

Geometrical tolerances which are assigned to features related to a datum do not restrict the form deviations of the datum feature itself. The form of the datum feature shall be sufficiently accurate for its purpose and it may therefore be necessary to specify tolerances of form for the datum feature.

   
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STD 5062,2E

NOT FOR NEW DESIGN AS OF 2004-03-01

 

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Issue

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2.8 Establishing size of form deviation and extension of toleranced feature

The straightness or flatness of an individual toleranced feature is deemed to be correct when the distance from its individual points to a superimposed line or surface of ideal geometrical form is equal to or less than the value of the specified tolerance. The orientation of the ideal line or surface shall be chosen so that the maximum distance (h 1 in figure 1) between it and the actual profile or surface of the feature concerned is the least possible value.

of the feature concerned is the least possible value. Fig 1 Possible orientations of the line

Fig 1

Possible orientations of the line or surface:

Corresponding distance:

In the case of figure 1:

Therefore, the correct orientation of the ideal line or surface is A 1 - B 1 . The distance h 1 is to be equal to or less than the specified tolerance.

The above rule leads to the least possible rejection when the feature in question is checked.

When establishing the size of the form deviation in accordance with the tolerance definition, the use of a superimposed line/surface is presumed. This requires extensive and time-consuming verificat- ion. A simpler method is the use of a tangent line/surface as below. This leads to a greater rejection which, however, shall be compared with the lower cost for verification.

When measuring is carried out from a tangent line/surface, we get deviations that are equal to or greater than those obtained when measuring from superimposed line/surface.

Determination of the form deviation from a tangent line/surface shall be applied when a measuring principle indicating this is specified on the drawing.

A 1 - B 1 h

1

h

1

<

A 2 - B 2

h

h

2

2

<

A 3 - B 3

h

h

3

3

   
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Normally, tangent line/surface gives the position which the feature assumes when fixed. See figure 2. If the feature has form deviations of such a nature that its surface is convex and allows a stable position by means of two or more tangent surfaces, the determination may be carried out from any- one of the tangent surfaces unless otherwise indicated.

any- one of the tangent surfaces unless otherwise indicated. Fig 2 When determining the extension of

Fig 2

When determining the extension of the toleranced feature, the ”negative deviation” for measuring range" 0,01xL, where L is the extension of the toleranced feature, shall always be deducted. See figure 3. A positive deviation, e.g. a burr, shall always be included.

A positive deviation, e.g. a burr, shall always be included. Fig 3 2.9 Establishing form deviation

Fig 3

2.9 Establishing form deviation of circular and cylindrical features

For the definition of circularity and cylindricity, the location of the two concentric circles or coaxial cylinders shall be chosen so that the radial distance between them is the least possible value.

Example:

distance between them is the least possible value. Example: Fig 4 Possible location of the centre

Fig 4

Possible location of the centre of the two concentric circles or the axes of the two coaxial cylinders and their minimal radial distance.

Centre (C 1 ) for A 1 locates two concentric circles or two coaxial cylinders.

Centre (C 2 ) for A 2 locates two concentric circles or two coaxial cylinders with minimal radial distance.

   
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Corresponding radial distance: r 1

In the case of figure 2:

Therefore, the correct location of the two concentric circles or the two coaxial cylinders is the one designated A 2 . The radial distance r 2 should then be equal to or less than the specified tolerance.

r

2

r 1

r 2

<

2.10 Measuring principles and rules for measuring

By measuring principles is in this standard meant basic methods to measure compliance with the tolerance requirement. The measuring principle shall always be indicated on the drawing. The measuring principles are designated by Roman numerals and are indicated in the last box of the tolerance frame. See example in figure 5.

II

0,1 A Fig 5
0,1
A
Fig 5

Section 14 illustrates the available measuring principles by describing the measuring methods. It should be noted that the measuring principles can be met with measuring methods and equipment other than those shown in the figures.

A measuring principle designated by a Roman I complies with the requirements specified in the tol-

erance definition. If no measuring principle is indicated, measuring principle I shall be applied.

All measuring principles with higher numbers, that is, II, III, IV and so on, are simplified measuring principles and do not comply with the requirements specified in the tolerance definition. For these measuring principles there is no relation between the degree of simplification and the designation of the measuring principle, that is, measuring principle IV can be closer to the tolerance definition than measuring principle II is.

For interpretation of an indicated measuring principle see section 14 where an explanation is given under the relevant tolerance type. The measuring principles are established for each tolerance type, e.g., measuring principle II for one tolerance type need not have the same meaning when applied to another type of tolerance.

Measuring principle shall be chosen with a view to the function requirements. Manufacturing and inspection requirements can also influence the selection of measuring principle.

The specification of a specific measuring principle means that the measuring principle in question is decisive for the interpretation of the tolerance requirement.

for the interpretation of the tolerance requirement. A requirement with maximum material principle indicated on

A requirement with maximum material principle indicated on the drawing by means of an

that the tolerance definition is modified with respect to the tolerance zone. The specified measuring principle then applies to this modified tolerance zone.

Where the text to the measuring principle runs ”Checked with, e.g., a function gauge”, the require- ment shall be checked in such a way that a requirement which is checked without a function gauge and passed would also pass if it were to be checked with a function gauge.

When the text to the measuring principle runs ”for the required number of sections/generators/ points” this means that measuring shall be carried out in so many sections that it is highly probable that the tolerance will not be exceeded when measuring in other sections is carried out.

means

2.10.1 Measuring force

When measuring with indicating measuring device, the measuring force shall be max 1 N.

For soft objects, contactless measuring is recommended.

When the measuring force influences the measuring result, this shall be re-calculated with a view to this. Variations in the measuring force during the measuring shall also be taken into consideration.

   
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2.10.2 Anvil size

Depending on the form of the measuring surface, the anvil shall be selected from the table below, unless otherwise indicated.

Table 1

Form of surface to be measured

Anvil radius in

Radius of surface to be

mm

measured in mm

Flat and convex surfaces

2,5 or flat anvil

 

Concave

2,5

above 10

surfaces

0,5

up to and incl. 10

When soft objects are checked with a sensing anvil, it is recommended that the anvil is flat and has a circular or square cross-section. Diameter of anvil (side) B = 1 + 0,005 x L, where L is the greatest length in mm of the measured surface. See figure 6. Measuring pressure = 0,01 N/mm 2 .

See figure 6. Measuring pressure = 0,01 N/mm 2 . Fig 6   UNREGISTERED COPY -

Fig 6

   
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3

Symbols

Table 2 Symbols for toleranced characteristics

Features and tolerances

Toleranced

Symbol

Section

characteristic

Single features

Form

Straightness

   

tolerances

tolerances 14.1

14.1

Flatness

Flatness 14.2

14.2

Circularity

Circularity 14.3

14.3

Cylindricity

Cylindricity 14.4

14.4

Profile of any line 1)

Profile of any line 1 ) 14.5

14.5

Profile of any surface 2)

Profile of any surface 2 ) 14.6

14.6

Related

Orientation

Parallelism

Related Orientation Parallelism  
 

features

tolerances

14.7

Perpendicularity

Perpendicularity 14.8

14.8

Angularity

Angularity 14.9

14.9

Positional

Position

Positional Position  
 

tolerances

14.10

Position of any profile 1)

Position of any profile 1 ) 14.10

14.10

Position of any surface 2)

Position of any surface 2 ) 14.10

14.10

Concentricity and

Concentricity and 14.11

14.11

coaxiality

Symmetry

Symmetry 14.12

14.12

Run-out

(Circular) run-out

Run-out (Circular) run-out  
 

tolerances

14.13

Total run-out

Total run-out 14.14

14.14

1)

Refers to bent lines

2)

Refers to curved surfaces

   
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Table 3 Additional symbols

Description

Symbol

Section

Toleranced feature indication

direct

Toleranced feature indication direct 6

6

by letter

A

 
7.4

7.4

Datum indication

direct

Datum indication direct 8.3

8.3

by letter

A
A

8.1

Datum target

 

See STD

∅2
∅2
A1
A1

5062,15

Theoretically exact dimension

50
50

10

Projected tolerance zone

Projected tolerance zone 11

11

Maximum material principle

Maximum material principle 12

12

Measuring principle

 

I, II, III etc.

2.10 and

14

   
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Table 4

Symbols used in section 14 to illustrate how the measuring principles shall be interpreted

Symbol

Interpretation

Measuring plane, auxiliary plane (surface plate)

Measuring plane, auxiliary plane (surface plate)

Fixed support

Fixed support

Adjustable support

Adjustable support

Continuous linear traverse

Continuous linear traverse

Intermittent linear traverse

Intermittent linear traverse

Continuous traverse in several directions

Continuous traverse in several directions

Continuous turning

Continuous turning

Intermittent turning

Intermittent turning

Rotation

Rotation

Indicating measuring instrument (dial indicator)

Indicating measuring instrument (dial indicator)

Measuring stand with indicating measuring instrument Symbols for measuring stands can be drawn in different
Measuring stand with indicating measuring instrument Symbols for measuring stands can be drawn in different

Measuring stand with indicating measuring instrument

Symbols for measuring stands can be drawn in different ways in accordance with the verification equipment used

   
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4 Evaluation of abstract (unreal) features

Evaluation of features in accordance with the table shown below is theoretical. For practical reasons, one often departures from the theoretical evaluation when establishing a feature. In many cases an expanding or slightly tapered mandrel can be used instead of an inscribed cylindrical mandrel when aligning a feature against the real cylinder surface of a hole. A shrink mandrel (tensioning sleeve) can be utilized as circumscribed cylinder for a shaft.

Table 5

Abstract feature

Evaluated as:

Figure

Centre of the cross- section of a hole

Centre of the largest inscribed circle

Centre of the cross- section of a hole Centre of the largest inscribed circle

Centre of the cross- section of an axis

Centre of the smallest circumscribed circle

Centre of the cross- section of an axis Centre of the smallest circumscribed circle

Axis of a hole

The axis of the largest inscribed cylinder

Axis of a hole The axis of the largest inscribed cylinder

Axis of a shaft

The axis of the smallest circumscribed cylinder

Axis of a shaft The axis of the smallest circumscribed cylinder

Median plane of a feature

The median plane determined by the two contact surface

Median plane of a feature The median plane determined by the two contact surface
   
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5 Tolerance frame

5.1 Data in the tolerance frame

The tolerance requirements shall be indicated in a rectangular frame which is divided into two or more compartments. The following shall be indicated in the compartments from left to right (see figures 7, 8, 9 and 10):

the symbol for the characteristic which is to be toleranced.

the tolerance value in the unit used for linear dimensions. If the tolerance zone is circular or cylindrical, the sign shall be indicated before the tolerance value.

letter(s) for datum(s) when the toleranced feature is specified in relation to one or more datums.

the established measuring principle.

0,1
0,1

Fig 7

0,1 A Fig 8
0,1
A
Fig 8
∅ 0,1 A C B
∅ 0,1 A C B

0,1

A

C

B

Fig 9

IV
IV

Fig 10

5.2 Symbol for number of features

When the feature applies to more than one feature, e.g. six holes, this shall be indicated above the tolerance frame by 6x. See figure 11.

6x ∅ 0,1
6x
∅ 0,1

Fig 11

5.3 Supplementary requirement

Indications qualifying the form of the feature within the tolerance zone shall be written near the tol- erance frame and shall be connected to this by means of a leader line. See figures 12 and 13.

0,3 EJ KONVEX / NOT CONVEX Fig 12
0,3
EJ KONVEX / NOT CONVEX
Fig 12
EJ KONVEX / NOT CONVEX 0,1 A
EJ KONVEX / NOT CONVEX
0,1
A

Fig 13

5.4 More than one tolerance requirement

If it is necessary to specify more than one tolerance characteristic for a feature, the tolerance speci- fications shall be given in separate tolerance frames one under the other. See figure 14.

0,1 0,6 B Fig 14
0,1
0,6
B
Fig 14

6 Toleranced feature

The tolerance frame shall be connected to the toleranced feature by means of a leader line termi-

   
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nating with an arrowhead in the following way.

on the outline of the feature or on an extension of the outline (but clearly separated from dimension lines) when the tolerance refers to the line or surface itself. See figures 15 and 16.

on a leader line connected to the relevant surface by means of a point. See figure 17.

to the relevant surface by means of a point. See figure 17. Fig 15 Fig 16

Fig 15

relevant surface by means of a point. See figure 17. Fig 15 Fig 16 Fig 17

Fig 16

surface by means of a point. See figure 17. Fig 15 Fig 16 Fig 17 −

Fig 17

as an extension of the dimension line, when the tolerance refers to the axis or median plane of the feature. See figures 18, 19 and 20.

or median plane of the feature. See figures 18, 19 and 20. Fig 18 Fig 19

Fig 18

plane of the feature. See figures 18, 19 and 20. Fig 18 Fig 19 Fig 20

Fig 19

of the feature. See figures 18, 19 and 20. Fig 18 Fig 19 Fig 20 −

Fig 20

on the axis, when the tolerance applies to the common axis or the median plane of all or certain selected features. See figures 21, 22 and 23.

An indication in accordance with figures 21, 22 and 23 may only be used when it is fully clear which feature(s) is/are toleranced.

NOTE: In the examples illustrated by figures 22 and 23, maximum material principle is recommended on the toleranced features if the function so permits. This shall be done to make it possible to check the requirements from an economical point of view.

to check the requirements from an economical point of view. Fig 21 Fig 22 Fig 23

Fig 21

the requirements from an economical point of view. Fig 21 Fig 22 Fig 23   UNREGISTERED

Fig 22

requirements from an economical point of view. Fig 21 Fig 22 Fig 23   UNREGISTERED COPY

Fig 23

   
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For parts where the function of the toleranced feature and datum feature is the same, the tolerance requirement shall be indicated as shown in figure 24. Previously, such a tolerance requirement was indicated in accordance with figure 25.

requirement was indicated in accordance with figure 25. Fig 24 Fig 25 7 Tolerance zones 7.1

Fig 24

was indicated in accordance with figure 25. Fig 24 Fig 25 7 Tolerance zones 7.1 Tolerance

Fig 25

7 Tolerance zones

7.1 Tolerance extension

The tolerance zone extends (unless otherwise indicated) in the direction of the arrow of the leader line joining the tolerance frame to the tolerance feature. See figures 26, 27 and 28. Figure 27 and 28 shows more explicitly that the extension of the tolerance zone is in the same orientation as an imagined plane through A and B. Indication in accordance with figure 27 shall therefore be applied.

If the tolerance value is preceded by the sign , the tolerance zone is circular or cylindrical and, in that case, the direction of the arrow is unimportant. See figure 29 which shows a cylindrical tolerance zone.

See figure 29 which shows a cylindrical tolerance zone. Fig 26 Fig 27 GAUGING Fig 28

Fig 26

figure 29 which shows a cylindrical tolerance zone. Fig 26 Fig 27 GAUGING Fig 28 Fig

Fig 27

GAUGING

shows a cylindrical tolerance zone. Fig 26 Fig 27 GAUGING Fig 28 Fig 29   UNREGISTERED

Fig 28

a cylindrical tolerance zone. Fig 26 Fig 27 GAUGING Fig 28 Fig 29   UNREGISTERED COPY

Fig 29

   
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7.2 Direction of tolerance zone

In general, the direction of the width of the tolerance zone (in each section) is normal to the specified geometry of the part. See figures 30 and 31.

the specified geometry of the part. See figures 30 and 31. Fig 30 Fig 31 7.3

Fig 30

geometry of the part. See figures 30 and 31. Fig 30 Fig 31 7.3 Special direction

Fig 31

7.3 Special direction of tolerance zone

The direction of the tolerance zone shall be indicated when desired not normal to the specified geo- metry of the part. See figures 32 and 33.

the specified geo- metry of the part. See figures 32 and 33. Fig 32 Fig 33

Fig 32

geo- metry of the part. See figures 32 and 33. Fig 32 Fig 33 7.4 Same

Fig 33

7.4 Same tolerance value for more than one feature

When the same tolerance value applies to more than one single feature with individual tolerance zones, this can be indicated as shown in figures 34 and 35. Where it cannot be misinterpreted as to which features are referred to, indication may be in accordance with figure 11.

referred to, indication may be in accordance with figure 11. Fig 34   UNREGISTERED COPY -

Fig 34

   
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to our design departments. Issue 5 Page 16 Fig 35 7.5 Common tolerance zone By common

Fig 35

7.5 Common tolerance zone

By common tolerance zone is meant that all specified features shall be within the tolerance zone indicated.

Such a requirement shall be indicated with the phrase "common tolerance zone” above the tolerance frame in accordance with figures 36 and 37.

Where it cannot be misinterpreted as to which features are concerned, no arrows are needed for each feature but indication may be as shown in figure 11.

each feature but indication may be as shown in figure 11. Fig 36 Fig 37  

Fig 36

feature but indication may be as shown in figure 11. Fig 36 Fig 37   UNREGISTERED

Fig 37

   
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8 Symbols for datums

8.1 Datum indicated by datum letter

When a toleranced feature is related to a datum, this is generally shown by datum letter(s). The same letter which defines the datum is repeated in the tolerance frame. The datum is represented by a capital letter enclosed in a square which is connected to a filled datum triangle. See figure 38. In SS- ISO 1101 the datum triangle may be unfilled as shown in figure 39.

the datum triangle may be unfilled as shown in figure 39. Fig 38 Fig 39 8.2

Fig 38

datum triangle may be unfilled as shown in figure 39. Fig 38 Fig 39 8.2 Location

Fig 39

8.2 Location of datum triangle

The datum triangle with the datum letter shall be placed:

on the outline of the feature or on an extension of the outline but clearly separated from the dimension line when the line or the plane constitutes the datum. See figure 40.

the line or the plane constitutes the datum. See figure 40. Fig 40 − as an

Fig 40

as an extension of the dimension line when the datum is the axis or median plane. See figures 41, 42 and 43.

NOTE - If there is insufficient space for two arrowheads on the dimension line, one of them may be replaced by the datum triangle. See figures 42 and 43.

be replaced by the datum triangle. See figures 42 and 43. Fig 41 Fig 42 −

Fig 41

by the datum triangle. See figures 42 and 43. Fig 41 Fig 42 − on the

Fig 42

on the axis or median plane when the datum is:

Fig 42 − on the axis or median plane when the datum is: Fig 43 a)

Fig 43

a) the axis or median plane of a single feature (for example a cylinder).

   
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If a datum is indicated directly on the axis as shown in figures 44 and 45, it must be clear which fea- tures constitute the datum.

45, it must be clear which fea- tures constitute the datum. Fig 44 Fig 45 If

Fig 44

must be clear which fea- tures constitute the datum. Fig 44 Fig 45 If a surface

Fig 45

If a surface in the drawing plane is chosen as a datum, a leader line that terminates with a point on the datum shall be used. See figure 46.

with a point on the datum shall be used. See figure 46. Fig 46 8.3 Datum

Fig 46

8.3 Datum indicated without datum letter

If the tolerance frame can be directly connected to the datum by a leader line, the datum letter may be omitted as shown in figures 47 and 48.

datum letter may be omitted as shown in figures 47 and 48. Fig 47 Fig 48

Fig 47

letter may be omitted as shown in figures 47 and 48. Fig 47 Fig 48 8.4

Fig 48

8.4 Sequence of datum letters

A single datum is identified by one (1) datum letter. See figure 49.

A datum formed by two features is identified by two datum letters separated by a hyphen.

See figure 50.

A Fig 49
A
Fig 49

A-B

Fig 50

If the sequence of two or more datums is of importance, the datum letters shall be placed in different compartments as shown in figure 51, where the sequence from left to right shows the order of priority.

   
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If the sequence of two or more datums is of no importance, for example in connection with maximum material principle on several datum features, the datum letters shall be indicated in the same compartment. See figure 52.

A B C
A B C

A

B

C

Fig 51

A M B M
A M B M

A

M
M
B M

B M

Fig 52

In those cases unsatisfactory guidance is obtained with the datum features, alignment against another feature has to be carried out. For the part shown in figure 53 datum features B and C give an unsatisfactory guidance. To get an unambiguous alignment, the part must be aligned with A.

an unambiguous alignment, the part must be aligned with A. Fig 53 9 Restrictive specifications 9.1

Fig 53

9 Restrictive specifications

9.1 Tolerance for a restricted length of the feature

If the tolerance applies to a restricted length within the total length of the feature, the value of the restricted length shall be indicated in the tolerance frame after the tolerance value and separated from it by an oblique line. See figure 54. The requirement applies to any measuring length within the total length.

In the case of a surface, the same indication shall be used. This means that the tolerance applies to all lines of the specified length in any position and any direction on the surface. See figure 54. The restricted length shall be found in all directions on the surface.

0,01/100A

A

Fig 54

9.2 Tolerance for the whole feature and restricted length of the feature

If a smaller tolerance of the same tolerance type is added to the tolerance on the whole feature, but restricted over a limited length, the smaller tolerance shall be indicated below the tolerance for the whole feature. See figure 55.

A

0,1 0,05/200 Fig 55
0,1
0,05/200
Fig 55
   
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9.3 Tolerance for a restricted part of the feature

If the tolerance applies to a restricted part of the feature only, this shall be indicated as shown in figure 56.

feature only, this shall be indicated as shown in figure 56. Fig 56 If a surface

Fig 56

If a surface in the drawing plane is to be toleranced, a leader line that terminates with a point on the toleranced surface shall be used. See figure 57.

on the toleranced surface shall be used. See figure 57. Fig 57 9.4 Datum applied to

Fig 57

9.4 Datum applied to a restricted part of the feature

If the datum is applied to a restricted part of the datum feature, this shall be indicated as shown in figure 58.

feature, this shall be indicated as shown in figure 58. Fig 58   UNREGISTERED COPY -

Fig 58

   
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10 Theoretically exact dimensions

If a tolerance of form, orientation or position is specified for a feature, the dimension determining the theoretically exact form, orientation or position respectively must not be toleranced. The corre- sponding actual dimensions may only vary by the tolerances of form, orientation or position specified within the tolerance frame.

SS-ISO 1101 specifies that dimensions determining the theoretical profile, surface, angle or position shall be framed. At Volvo the general practice shall be to frame these dimensions only when there is risk of interpreting them as dimensions to which a general tolerance on the drawing applies. In such a case, the dimensions shall be framed by rectangles as shown in figures 59 and 60.

shall be framed by rectangles as shown in figures 59 and 60. Fig 59 Fig 60

Fig 59

framed by rectangles as shown in figures 59 and 60. Fig 59 Fig 60 11 Projected

Fig 60

11 Projected tolerance zones

In some cases, the tolerance of orientation and position shall apply not to the feature itself but to the external projection of it. Such projected tolerance zones shall be indicated by the symbol

projected tolerance zones shall be indicated by the symbol ( = projected). See figure 61. Fig

( = projected). See figure 61.

be indicated by the symbol ( = projected). See figure 61. Fig 61   UNREGISTERED COPY

Fig 61

   
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12 Maximum material principle

If maximum material principle is permitted, this shall be indicated by the symbol placed after:

the tolerance value (see figure 62)

the datum letter (see figure 63)

or both (see figure 64)

depending on whether the maximum material principle is to be applied to the toleranced feature, to the datum feature or to both of these features.

∅ 0,04 M A
∅ 0,04 M A

0,04

M
M

A

Fig 62

∅ 0,04 A M
∅ 0,04 A M

0,04

A

M
M

Fig 63

∅ 0,04 M A M
∅ 0,04 M A M

0,04

M
M

A

M
M

Fig 64

If the datum is not identified by a letter, maximum material principle for the datum shall be indicated in the third compartment of the tolerance frame. See figures 65 and 66.

∅ 0,04 M Fig 65
∅ 0,04
M
Fig 65
∅ 0,04 M M Fig 66
∅ 0,04
M
M
Fig 66
   
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13 Definitions of tolerances

13.1 General

The tolerance zones for the various geometrical tolerances are defined in the following pages. In all the illustrations of the definitions only those which concern the definition in question are shown.

13.2 One type of tolerance may control several types of deviations

Where required for functional reasons, one or more characteristics may be toleranced to define the geometrical accuracy of a feature. When the geometrical accuracy is defined by certain types of tolerance, other deviations will in some cases be controlled by the tolerance indicated (for example, straightness deviation is limited by parallelism tolerance when inspecting in accordance with the measuring principles that meet the requirements of the tolerance definition). Thus it will rarely be necessary to indicate tolerances for all these characteristics, since other deviations will be included in the tolerance zone defined by the symbol used.

13.3 Graphical representation of tolerance zones

For some tolerance zones (for example, straightness of a generator and parallelism for a line in one direction) there are two possible methods of graphical representation:

by two parallel planes a distance t apart. See figure 67 by two parallel lines a distance t apart. See figure 68

67 by two parallel lines a distance t apart. See figure 68 Fig 67 Fig 68

Fig 67

two parallel lines a distance t apart. See figure 68 Fig 67 Fig 68 There is

Fig 68

There is no difference in the meaning of the two representations (such a tolerance does not restrict the deviation in any direction perpendicular to the tolerance arrow). The simpler method as shown in figure 68 is normally used in this standard.

   
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14 Detailed definitions of tolerances form tolerances Form tolerances

14.1 Straightness tolerance

form tolerances Form tolerances 14.1 Straightness tolerance The tolerance zone when projected in a plane is

The tolerance zone when projected in a plane is limited by two parallel straight lines a distance t apart. See figure 69.

The tolerance zone is applicable to generators, edges and specified sections in surfaces. It is usually possible to specify a measuring principle which permits measuring from a tangent surface (line), something which simplifies inspection.

surface (line), something which simplifies inspection. Fig 69 Fig 70 The tolerance zone is limited by

Fig 69

(line), something which simplifies inspection. Fig 69 Fig 70 The tolerance zone is limited by a

Fig 70

The tolerance zone is limited by a cylinder of diameter t if the tolerance value is preceded by the sign . See figure 70.

The cylindrical tolerance zone may be applied, for example, to solids of revolution in connection with maximum material principle.

If maximum material principle is not permitted, the requirement for straightness of an axis should, if possible from a functional point of view, be replaced by a requirement for straightness of a generator.

Indication and interpretation

Measuring principle

generator. Indication and interpretation Measuring principle Fig 71 Each generator on the cylinder surface shall be

Fig 71

Each generator on the cylinder surface shall be contained between two parallel lines 0,1 apart in a plane containing the axis.

I

parallel lines 0,1 apart in a plane containing the axis. I Fig 72 Two points on

Fig 72

Two points on a generator, as far apart as possible, shall be aligned to the same distance from the measuring plane.

The generator shall be measured at the required number of measuring

The measuring results shall be recorded in a diagram and the straightness deviation of the generator shall be evaluated.

The measuring shall be carried out on the required number of

   
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Indication and interpretation

Measuring principle

I

I

I

Fig 73

Fig 74

Each generator on the cylinder surface shall be contained between two parallel lines 0,1 apart in a plane containing the axis.

The measuring shall be repeated on the required number of generators. The values obtained for each generator measured shall be recorded in a diagram and evaluated.

The maximum variation in distance on an individual generator constitutes the straightness deviation of the generator.

NOTE: The superimposed line is not obtained until at the evaluation.

V

V

V

Fig 75

Fig 76

Each generator on the cylinder surface shall (when checked in accordance with the adjacent measuring principle) be contained between two parallel lines 0,1 apart in a plane containing the axis.

Two points on a generator, as far apart as possible, shall be aligned to the same distance from the measuring plane.

The generator shall be measured at the required number of measuring points

 

The measuring shall be carried out on the required number of generators

The largest difference obtained between max and min readings on an individual generator shall be regarded as the straightness deviation of the generator.

The difference between max and min readings is always greater than or equal to the deviation which would have been obtained if measuring had been carried out in accordance with the definition of the tolerance (measuring principle I).

   
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Indication and interpretation

Measuring principle

VI

VI

VI

Fig 77

 

Fig 78

Each generator on the cylinder surface shall (when checked in accordance with the adjacent measuring principle) be contained between two parallel lines 0,1 apart in a plane containing the axis.

The check shall be carried out on the required number of generators.

The measuring shall be carried out on the required number of generators.

The maximum variation in distance on an individual generator shall be regarded as the straightness deviation of the generator.

 

NOTE: For convex lines not giving a stable position, the measuring object shall be guided against the measuring plane in such a way that the measured deviation becomes a minimum (superimposed line).

The deviation measured is always greater than or equal to the deviation which would have been obtained if the check had been carried out in accordance with the definition of the tolerance (measuring principle I).

 

I

of the tolerance (measuring principle I ) .   I Fig 79   Fig 80 Each
of the tolerance (measuring principle I ) .   I Fig 79   Fig 80 Each

Fig 79

 

Fig 80

Each line on the upper surface parallel to the plane of projection in which the indication is

The measuring shall be carried out on the required num-

shown, shall be contained between two parallel lines 0,2 apart. See figure 83.

Any portion of lengths 100 of any line of the upper surface, parallel to the plane of projection in which the indication is shown, shall be contained between two parallel lines 0,1 apart. See figure 83.

ber of lines. The values obtained for each line shall be recorded in a diagram and evaluated.

The maximum deviation in distance on an individual line constitutes the straightness deviation of the line.

NOTE: The superimposed line is not obtained until at the evaluation.

   
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Indication and interpretation

Measuring principle

VI

VI

VI

Fig 81

 

Fig 82

Each line on the upper surface, parallel to the plane of projection, shall (when checked in accor- dance with the adjacent measuring principle) be contained between two parallel lines 0,2 and 0,1 apart respectively. See figure 83.

The check shall be carried out on the required number of lines.

The measuring shall be carried out on the required number of lines.

The maximum variation in distance obtained shall be regarded as the straightness deviation of the line.

 

The straightness deviation shall be measured both in the longitudinal and in the transverse direction

NOTE: For convex lines not giving a stable position, the measuring object shall be guided against the measuring plane in such a way that the measured deviation becomes a minimum (superimposed line ).

The deviation measured is always greater than or equal to the deviation which would have been obtained if the check had been carried out in accordance with the defi- nition of the tolerance (measuring principle I).

The surface shall in each section be contained between two parallel lines a distance t apart. The lines shall in their turn be parallel to the projection in which the tolerance is indicated.

to the projection in which the tolerance is indicated. Fig 83   UNREGISTERED COPY - Possible

Fig 83

   
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Indication and interpretation

Indication and interpretation Fig 84 The axis of the part shall be contained within a cylinder

Fig 84

The axis of the part shall be contained within a cylinder of diameter 0,1 + maximum material principle.

a cylinder of diameter 0,1 + maximum material principle. Fig 86 The axis common to the

Fig 86

The axis common to the two holes (D1 and D2) shall be contained within a cylinder of diameter 0,1 + maximum material principle.

a cylinder of diameter 0,1 + maximum material principle. Fig 88 The axis of the part

Fig 88

The axis of the part shall (when checked in accordance with the adjacent measuring principle) be contained within a cylinder of diameter 0,1 + maximum material principle.

Measuring principle

I

I

Fig 85

Checked with, e.g., a function gauge.

I

I

Fig 87

Checked with, e.g., a function gauge.

II

II

Fig 89

Checked with, e.g., a function gauge.

   
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Indication and interpretation

Measuring principle

I

I

I

Fig 90

 

Fig 91

The axis of the part shall be contained within a cylinder of diameter 0,1.

The measuring object shall be clamped between two coaxial centres or corresponding which are parallel to the measuring plane.

The measuring shall be carried out along two generators opposite each other.

Half the difference in value between the dial indicators,

that is Ma Mb

for each point shall be recorded in a

2

diagram and the diagram shall be evaluated.

The required number of generators shall be measured and the largest straightness deviation in an individual section of the axis, constitutes the straightness deviation of the axis.

III

III

III

Fig 92

 

Fig 93

The axis of the part shall (when checked in accordance with the adjacent measuring principle) be contained within a cylinder of diameter 0,1.

The cylinder surface shall be measured in a radial section while being rotated one

The measuring shall be repeated in the required number of

 

The maximum difference between max and min readings in the radial section with the largest difference between max and min readings shall be regarded as the straightness deviation.

   
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Measuring principle

Indication and interpretation

NOT FOR NEW DESIGN

principle Indication and interpretation NOT FOR NEW DESIGN Fig 94 Interpretation, see measuring principle. IV Fig

Fig 94

Interpretation, see measuring principle.

IV

DESIGN Fig 94 Interpretation, see measuring principle. IV Fig 95 Straightness for the axis of a

Fig 95

Straightness for the axis of a cylinder surface.

The part shall be placed (in two 90° V-yokes) on two sections a distance b apart.

The cylinder surface shall be measured in a radial section while being rotated one revolution.

The measuring shall be repeated in the required number of sections.

Half of the maximum difference between max and min readings shall be regarded as the straightness deviation.

   
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14.2 Flatness tolerance

Issue 5 Page 31 14.2 Flatness tolerance The tolerance zone is limited by two parallel planes

The tolerance zone is limited by two parallel planes a distance t apart. See figure 96.

by two parallel planes a distance t apart. See figure 96. Fig 96 Indication and interpretation

Fig 96

Indication and interpretation

Measuring principle

I

I

Indication and interpretation Measuring principle I Fig 97 Fig 98 The median plane of the part

Fig 97

Fig 98

The median plane of the part shall be contained between two parallel planes 0,1 apart + maximum material principle.

Checked with, e.g., a function gauge.

(It shall be possible for the measuring object to pass through the gap)

I

I

possible for the measuring object to pass through the gap) I Fig 99 Fig 100 The

Fig 99

Fig 100

The surface shall be contained between two paral- lel planes 0,1 apart.

The measuring object shall be placed on three supports, two adjustable and one fixed.

Three points on the surface as far apart as possible shall be aligned to the same distance from the measuring plane.

The surface shall be measured at the required number of points.

The difference between max and min readings shall be recorded in a level type diagram for evaluation.

Measuring with autocollimator is also referred to this measuring principle.

NOTE: The superimposed surface is not obtained until at the evaluation.

   
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Indication and interpretation

Measuring principle

Page 32 Indication and interpretation Measuring principle Fig 101 Interpretation, see measuring principle. NOT FOR NEW

Fig 101

Interpretation, see measuring principle.

NOT FOR NEW DESIGN

II

Flatness.

Aligned and measured in accordance with figure 100.

The difference between max and min readings shall be regarded as the flatness deviation.

The difference obtained is always greater than or equal to the deviation which would have been obtained if the check had been carried out in accordance with the defi- nition of the tolerance.

   
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Indication and interpretation

Measuring principle

III

III

III

Fig 102

Fig 103

The surface shall (when checked in accordance with the adjacent measuring principle) be con- tained between two parallel planes 0,1 apart.

The measuring object shall be placed on a measuring plane so that a stable position is obtained.

The measuring plane shall be of such dimensions that the entire measuring object is placed on this measuring plane when measuring is carried out.

 

The surface shall be measured at the required number of points.

The largest difference between max and min readings shall be regarded as the flatness deviation.

Note: For convex surfaces not giving a stable position, the measuring object shall be guided against the measur- ing plane in such a way that the deviation becomes a minimum.

III

in such a way that the deviation becomes a minimum. III Fig 104 A parallel shall

Fig 104

A parallel shall be placed on the toleranced surface as a tangent plane.

The parallel shall be indicated in such a way that it is parallel to the measuring plane.

The parallel shall be removed and the toleranced surface measured in several directions.

The largest difference between max and min readings shall be regarded as the flatness deviation.

The difference between max and min readings is always greater than or equal to the deviation which would have been obtained if the check had been carried out in accordance with the definition of the tolerance (measuring principle I).

   
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Indication and interpretation

Measuring principle

IV

IV

IV

Fig 105

Fig 106

The surface shall (when checked in accordance with the adjacent measuring principle) be con- tained between two parallel planes 1 apart.

Measuring device with three fixed support points 2 x L apart shall be placed on the surface.

The dial gauge shall be placed in accordance with figure 106 where a is to be preferred.

 

L = 100 mm unless otherwise indicated.

The surface shall be measured at the required number of points by displacement of the measuring device.

The largest difference between max and min readings shall be regarded as the flatness deviation.

This measuring principle means an undefined require- ment, but it often meets requirements from a practical point of view.

The difference obtained between max and min readings will depend on the different levels of the surface at which the support points happen to be placed when the measur- ing device is displaced.

   
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14.3 Circularity tolerance

Issue 5 Page 35 14.3 Circularity tolerance The tolerance zone in the considered plane is limited

The tolerance zone in the considered plane is limited by two concentric circles a distance t apart. See figure 107.

A circularity tolerance is applicable to edges

and sections. The function often permits the use of a measuring principle according to which three-point measurement or measuring

of difference in diameter (two point measure-

ment) may be applied.

in diameter (two point measure- ment) may be applied. Fig 107 Indication and interpretation Measuring principle

Fig 107

Indication and interpretation

Measuring principle

I

I

I

Fig 108

Fig 109

The circumference of the edge shall be contained between two co-planar concentric circles a radial distance 0,1 apart.

Measuring device: Instrument for measuring variation in radius from a fixed centre.

The edge or the cylinder surface shall be measured in a radial section while being rotated one revolution

Fig 110

Fig 110

The measuring shall be repeated on the cylinder surface in the required number of sections.

The readings obtained shall be recorded in a polar dia- gram, one for each measuring section

Evaluation: The circularity deviation is the difference in radius between two concentric circles, one inscribed and the other circumscribed, where the difference between their radii is the smallest possible. (MZC)

The circumference shall in each section be con- tained between two co-planar concentric circles a radial distance 0,1 apart.

The circularity deviation shall be determined in the section with the largest difference in radius.

NOTE: The measuring principle is applicable to in- ternal and external surfaces (holes and shafts).

   
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Indication and interpretation

Measuring principle

II

II

II

Fig 111

Fig 112

The circumference shall (when checked in accor- dance with the adjacent measuring principle) in each cross-section be contained between two co- planar concentric circles a radial distance 0,1 apart.

The axis of the measuring object shall be perpendicular to the measuring direction and axially fixed.

The cylinder surface shall be measured in a radial section while being rotated one revolution.

The measuring shall be repeated in the required number of sections.

 

Half of the maximum difference between max and min readings in the measuring section having the largest reading difference shall be regarded as the circularity deviation.

Measuring shall be carried out in two different measuring devices, 90° and 120° respectively, whereby certain lobing is also checked.

III

III

III

Fig 113

Fig 114

The circumference shall (when checked in accor- dance with the adjacent measuring principle) in each cross-section be contained between two co-

planar concentric circles a radial distance 0,1 apart.

The axis of the measuring object shall be perpendicular to the measuring direction and axially fixed.

The measuring shall be repeated in the required number of sections.

 

Half of the maximum difference between max and min readings in the measuring section having the largest reading difference shall be regarded as the circularity deviation.

Measuring shall be carried out in two different measuring devices, 90° and 120° respectively, whereby certain lobing is also checked.

   
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Corporate Standard

STD 5062,2E

NOT FOR NEW DESIGN AS OF 2004-03-01

 

This standard is valid when there is a reference to it. ”Not for new design” is only an indication to our design departments.

Issue

5

Page

37

Indication and interpretation

Measuring principle

IV

IV

Fig 115

The circumference shall (when checked in accor- dance with the adjacent measuring principle) in each cross-section be contained between two co- planar concentric circles a radial distance 0,1 apart.

Measured in accordance with figure 112 but only in a 120° measuring device.

Half of the maximum difference between max and min readings in the measuring section having the largest reading difference shall be regarded as the circularity deviation.

 

No requirement concerning checking of lobing.

V

V

Fig 116

The circumference shall (when checked in accor- dance with the adjacent measuring principle) in each cross-section be contained between two co- planar concentric circles a radial distance 0,1 apart.

Measured in accordance with figure 114 but only in a 120° measuring device.

Half of the maximum difference between max and min readings in the measuring section having the largest reading difference shall be regarded as the circularity deviation.

 

No requirement concerning checking of lobing.

   
Corporate Standard STD 5062 , 2E NOT FOR NEW DESIGN AS OF 2004-03-01   This

Corporate Standard

STD 5062,2E

NOT FOR NEW DESIGN AS OF 2004-03-01

 

This standard is valid when there is a reference to it. ”Not for new design” is only an indication to our design departments.

Issue

5

Page

38

Indication and interpretation

Measuring principle

VI

VI

VI

Fig 117

Fig 118

The circumference shall (when checked in accor- dance with the adjacent measuring principle) in each cross-section be contained between two co- planar concentric circles a radial distance 0,1 apart.

The axis of the measuring object shall be perpendicular to the measuring direction.

The cylinder surface shall be measured in a radial section by a number of two-point measurements.

The measuring shall be repeated in the required number of sections.

 

Half of the maximum difference between max and min readings in the measuring section having the largest reading difference shall be regarded as the circularity deviation.

No requirement concerning checking of lobing.

The most common measuring method for checking circularity is a combination of the three-point and the two-point measurement systems and is indicated by one of the measuring principles II - V + VI.

Example:

by one of the measuring principles II - V + VI. Example: 0,2 II + VI
0,2 II + VI

0,2

II + VI

   
Corporate Standard STD 5062 , 2E NOT FOR NEW DESIGN AS OF 2004-03-01   This

Corporate Standard

STD 5062,2E

NOT FOR NEW DESIGN AS OF 2004-03-01

 

This standard is valid when there is a reference to it. ”Not for new design” is only an indication to our design departments.

Issue

5

Page

39

14.4 Cylindricity tolerance

Issue 5 Page 39 14.4 Cylindricity tolerance The tolerance zone is limited by two coaxial cylinders

The tolerance zone is limited by two coaxial cylinders a distance t apart. See figure 119.

Measuring the cylindricity in accordance with the tolerance definition (measuring principle I) is time-consuming and expensive and cannot be used for certain types of parts.

and expensive and cannot be used for certain types of parts. Fig 119 MEASURING PRINCIPLE I

Fig 119 MEASURING PRINCIPLE I SHALL THEREFORE ONLY BE SPECIFIED WHEN INSPECTION IN ACCORDANCE WITH SIMPLIFIED MEASURING PRINCIPLES II-IV IS NOT PERMITTED FOR FUNCTIONAL REASONS.

From the measuring point of view it may sometimes be suitable to indicate special tolerances for the straightness and circularity of the feature instead of cylindricity, if necessary supplemented with parallelism for opposite generators.

Indication and interpretation

Indication and interpretation Fig 120 The toleranced surface shall be contained be- tween two coaxial cylinders

Fig 120 The toleranced surface shall be contained be- tween two coaxial cylinders a radial distance 0,1 apart.

Measuring principle

I

I

Fig 121 Measuring device: Instrument for measuring variation in radius from a fixed centre. The principle is the same even if the measuring device is rotated. Measuring shall be carried out in the required number of radial sections from the same axis. Connected polar dia- grams and diagrams showing generator form in different axial sections are required for evaluation of the measur- ing results.

NOT FOR NEW DESIGN

NOT FOR NEW DESIGN

(Instead, straightness for the axis + maximum material principle for the same tolerance require- ment shall be indicated.)

for the same tolerance require- ment shall be indicated.) Fig 122 The surface shall be cylindrical

Fig 122 The surface shall be cylindrical within 0,1 mea- sured on the radius t + permitted maximum mate- rial principle.

I

I
I

Fig 123 Cylindricity with max material principle for a cylinder surface. Measuring with a function gauge in accordance with Taylor's principle. Permissible cylindricity deviation is the difference between the diameter of the function gauge and the min size of the feature. It should be noted that the deviation can amount to the dimensional tolerance plus double the cylindricity tolerance.

   
Corporate Standard STD 5062 , 2E NOT FOR NEW DESIGN AS OF 2004-03-01   This

Corporate Standard

STD 5062,2E

NOT FOR NEW DESIGN AS OF 2004-03-01

 

This standard is valid when there is a reference to it. ”Not for new design” is only an indication to our design departments.

Issue

5

Page

40

Indication and interpretation

Measuring principle

II

II

II

Fig 124

Fig 125

The toleranced surface shall (when checked in accordance with the adjacent measuring principle)

Measuring of cylindricity in a V-block with an indicating device placed in front of the V-block.

be contained between two coaxial cylinders a radial distance 0,1 apart.

The V-block shall be longer than the measuring object.

The cylinder surface shall be measured in a radial section during one revolution .

The measuring shall be repeated in the required number of sections .

Half of the maximum difference between max and min readings on the entire cylinder surface shall be regarded as the cylindricity deviation.

The measuring shall be carried out in two V-blocks, 90° and 120° respectively, whereby also certain lobing is checked.

III

III

Fig 126

The toleranced surface shall (when checked in accordance with the adjacent measuring principle) be contained between two coaxial cylinders a radial distance 0,1 apart.

Aligned and measured in accordance with figure 125 but only in a 120° V-block.

Half of the maximum difference between max and min readings on the entire cylinder surface shall be regarded as the cylindricity deviation.

 

No requirement concerning checking of lobing.

   
Corporate Standard STD 5062 , 2E NOT FOR NEW DESIGN AS OF 2004-03-01   This

Corporate Standard

STD 5062,2E

NOT FOR NEW DESIGN AS OF 2004-03-01

 

This standard is valid when there is a reference to it. ”Not for new design” is only an indication to our design departments.

Issue

5

Page

41

Indication and interpretation

Measuring principle

IV

IV

Indication and interpretation Measuring principle IV Fig 127 Fig 128 The toleranced surface shall (when checked

Fig 127

Fig 128

The toleranced surface shall (when checked in accordance with the adjacent measuring principle) be contained between two coaxial cylinders a radial distance 0,1 apart.

The cylinder surface shall be measured in a radial section while being rotated one

The measuring shall be repeated in the required number of

 

Half of the maximum difference between max and min readings on the entire cylinder surface shall be regarded as the cylindricity deviation.

No requirement concerning checking of lobing.

V

V

V

Fig 129

Fig 130

The toleranced surface shall (when checked in accordance with the adjacent measuring principle) be contained between two coaxial cylinders a radial distance 0,3 apart.

The straightness deviation of the generator is measured. It may be 0,3 max.

The measuring shall be repeated on the required number of generators.

 

The cylinder surface shall be measured in the required number of sections by the required number of two-point measurements.

The difference between max and min readings obtained on the entire cylinder surface may be 0,3 max.

No requirement concerning checking of lobing.

   
Corporate Standard STD 5062 , 2E NOT FOR NEW DESIGN AS OF 2004-03-01   This

Corporate Standard

STD 5062,2E

NOT FOR NEW DESIGN AS OF 2004-03-01

 

This standard is valid when there is a reference to it. ”Not for new design” is only an indication to our design departments.

Issue

5

Page

42

14.5 Profile tolerance of any line

Issue 5 Page 42 14.5 Profile tolerance of any line The tolerance zone is limited by

The tolerance zone is limited by two lines enveloping circles of diameter t, the centres of which are situated on a line having the true geometrical form. See figure 131.

See also section 14.10.4 Profile position.

The tolerance zone is bent and tubular and is limited by all spheres of diameter t, the centres of which are situated on a line having the true geometrical form. See figure 132. This tolerance zone is not included in SS-ISO 1101.

See also section 14.10.4 Profile position.

in SS-ISO 1101. See also section 14.10.4 Profile position. Fig 131 Fig 132 Indication and interpretation

Fig 131

1101. See also section 14.10.4 Profile position. Fig 131 Fig 132 Indication and interpretation Measuring principle

Fig 132

Indication and interpretation

Measuring principle

I

I

I

Fig 133

Fig 134

The profile shall be contained between two lines determined by circles of diameter 0,1, the centres of which are situated on a line having the true geometrical form.

Two points on the profile, as far apart as possible, shall be aligned to the same distance from the measuring plane.

The profile shall be measured at the required number of measuring points.

 

The readings obtained are recorded in a diagram where two equidistant lines are plotted in relation to the theo- retically exact profile.

Measuring with profile projector is also referred to this measuring principle.

   
Corporate Standard STD 5062 , 2E NOT FOR NEW DESIGN AS OF 2004-03-01   This

Corporate Standard

STD 5062,2E

NOT FOR NEW DESIGN AS OF 2004-03-01

 

This standard is valid when there is a reference to it. ”Not for new design” is only an indication to our design departments.

Issue

5

Page

43

Indication and interpretation

Measuring principle

 
II

II

Fig 135

The profile shall (when checked in accordance with the adjacent measuring principle) be con- tained between two lines determined by circles of diameter 0,1, the centres of which are situated on a line having the true geometrical form.

The measuring object shall be aligned and measured in accordance with figure 134.

The difference between max and min readings shall, when compared to theoretically exact profile, lie within

t ± tolerance

, in this case ± 0,05.

 
   

2

The difference obtained is always greater than or equal to the deviation which would have been obtained if the check had been carried out in accordance with the defi- nition of the tolerance (measuring principle I ).

III

III

III

Fig 136

Fig 137

The surface shall (when checked in accordance with the adjacent measuring principle) in each section parallel to the plane of projection be con- tained between two lines determined by circles of diameter 0,1, the centres of which are situated on a line having the true geometrical form.

The dimensions of the profile template correspond to the

GO side (theoretically exact profile + tolerance ).

2

The profile template shall be placed on the surface. (The profile template constitutes tangent line to a section in the surface).

 

The distance between profile template and surface shall be gauged by means of, e g, measuring wires and must not exceed the value specified in the tolerance frame.

The check shall be repeated in the required number of sections.

The largest distance obtained shall be regarded as the profile form deviation.

The deviation is always larger than or equal to the devia- tion which would have been obtained if the check had been carried out in accordance with the definition of the tolerance (measuring principle I).

   
Corporate Standard STD 5062 , 2E NOT FOR NEW DESIGN AS OF 2004-03-01   This

Corporate Standard

STD 5062,2E

NOT FOR NEW DESIGN AS OF 2004-03-01

 

This standard is valid when there is a reference to it. ”Not for new design” is only an indication to our design departments.

Issue

5

Page

44

Indication and interpretation

Measuring principle

I

I

I

Fig 138

Fig 139

The axis of the part shall be contained within a "bent pipe" of diameter 0,2, the axis of which is of the theoretically exact form + maximum material principle.

Checked with, e.g., a function gauge.

II

II

principle. Checked with, e.g., a function gauge. II Fig 140 Fig 141 The axis of the

Fig 140

Fig 141

The axis of the part shall (when checked in accor- dance with the adjacent measuring principle) be contained within a "bent pipe” of diameter 0,2, the axis of which is of the theoretically exact form + maximum material principle.

By means of the straightedge it shall be checked that no part of the measuring object is placed above the surface of the fixture.

   
Corporate Standard STD 5062 , 2E NOT FOR NEW DESIGN AS OF 2004-03-01   This

Corporate Standard

STD 5062,2E

NOT FOR NEW DESIGN AS OF 2004-03-01

 

This standard is valid when there is a reference to it. ”Not for new design” is only an indication to our design departments.

Issue

5

Page

45

14.6 Profile tolerance of any surface

The tolerance zone is limited by two surfaces enveloping spheres of diameter t, the centres of which are situated on a surface having the true geometrical form. See figure 142.

See also section 14.10.5 Surface position.

See figure 142. See also section 14.10.5 Surface position. Fig 142 Indication and interpretation Measuring principle

Fig 142

Indication and interpretation

Measuring principle

Fig 142 Indication and interpretation Measuring principle Fig 143 The toleranced surface shall be contained be-

Fig 143

The toleranced surface shall be contained be- tween two surfaces determined by spheres of diameter 0,1, the centres of which are situated on a surface having the true geometrical form.