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Nwabrije Ugochukwu Emmanuel Airline Reservation System

Dec 16 2011

Airline Reservation System Chapter 1 1.1 Introduction

In todays airline industry users or customers can reserve seat or book flight from any place in the world as long as they are connected to internet. The Innovation of technology has made traveling in the air easier for customers with airline reservation or booking just a click away. The fastest means of transportation today is by air. Thousands of people flock the airline industry this days so that they can arrive their destination within a short period of time. Vehicles, train e.t.c cannot drive across the Atlantic Ocean or the Pacific Ocean, so customers tend to travel to other state, countries, and continents using air transportation. Their by with an hours interval the customers would have arrive their destination. Therefore, if thousands of people use the aero- planes on a daily basis to travel from one place to another. Dont you think there should be a system to help this users book flight, reserve seat, pay for flight, at their homes or at the airport? Definitely yes. There should be because in a business environment customers come first, then the profits, it is obvious airline industries makes million of dollars on a daily basis from customers, so why not improve the market into a more technical oriented one. That is when airline reservation system came into existence. Users can reserve seat, book flight and set the date if their departure and arrival using a global distributed system called the internet. These airline industries have website whereby users can reserve and book for flights with ease, despite the geographical area, country or spoken language. Before now Airline Reservation system used to be a standalone system, where by each airline has its own system disconnected from ticket agency or other operating airlines. But because of the Airline Deregulation period which occurred in the 1978 which theme was based on the importance of computerized airline reservation system and their accessibility travel agency was able to purchase reservation systems such as Airline reservation system.

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Nwabrije Ugochukwu Emmanuel Airline Reservation System

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Finally, The Airline Reservation system allows users of the system to log into the system, reserve flight, book flight, pay for flight, select seat, set departure airport and date, set arrival airport, with ease. Chapter 2 2.1 Literature Review:

David J. wardel, said in his published journal titled Airline Reservation System A report and Overview: that Airline computerized reservation systems are in the primary form of travel computerizations in the world. These systems manage the millions of business transactions Also David J. Wardel wrote The Computer Reservation System function as extremely powerful and valuable distribution and marketing tools for their airline owners. Today's travel agency competitive environment Is largely defined and controlled by airline Computer Reservation System (CRS). 2.2 History of Airline Reservation System.

David J. Wardel said in his journal that before the electronic age reservation were managed manually using records book and manifest and other printed media, many reservation system in todays world are still met in this way. The Author Dick Pere Ilaye said in his published journal Titled Airline Reservation System ( ARS) that Airline Reservation System used to be a standalone system whereby every airline had its own system disconnected from other Airline Reservation system or ticketing agents and makes uses of only a designated numbers of airline employees. Also Dick Pere Ilaye made mention in his journal that during the 1970s Travel Agency pushed for the access to the Airline systems and also that todays air travel information is linked, stored and retrieved by a network of computer Reservation systems ( CRS), Which are accessible by multiple airlines and travel agents. Dick Pere Ilaye said that an American Airline was the first to establish an automated booking system in the year 1946 using a system to track information and improve efficiency. This automated booking system endured years of development and alterations.
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Nwabrije Ugochukwu Emmanuel Airline Reservation System

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The Next booking systems were developed in the year 1953 by a Trans- Canada airline, this Trans Canada Airlines developed a computer based system with remote terminals that eventually took over operations in 1953. In the same year that the Trans Canada company developed their computer based system , the American Airlines worked closely with IBM to develop an improved system and the Airline Reservation System (ARS) and the semi- Automated Business Research System ( SABRE), which was lunched thereafter in 1960.The development ARS was completed in 1964 and has been recognized as the largest data processing system in existence. From the 1960s to 1970s Airline Industries invented a lot on research on how to improve the Airline Reservation System any towards the end of the 1970s Airlines have been able to own their private Airline Reservation System. The United Airlines were responsible for the development of the Apollo Reservation system and shortly after the development of the Apollo Reservation system travel agents were given access to make the use of the system.

Nevertheless several airlines started developing their own systems, Delta Airlines Lunched the Delta Automated Travel Account Systems (DATAS) in 1968, United Airlines and Trans world Airlines followed in 1971 with the Apollo Reservation system and Programmed Airline Reservation System (PARS). Later on travels agents began pushing for a system that could automate their side of the princess by accessing the Airline Reservation System directly to make reservations. Because of the assessment of the Travel to agent to make reservation directly the Airline industry provided an Airline deregulation rule, this Airline deregulation occurred in the year 1978, it deals with the magnifying the importance of the computerized airline reservation systems and their accessibility.

The main purpose of the 1978 Airline Deregulation Act in the U.S was to eliminate government control over commercial aviation and ensure competitive behavior and fair business practices in the Airline Industry.

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Nwabrije Ugochukwu Emmanuel Airline Reservation System

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2.3

Definition of Airline Reservation System.

Before defining the term Airline Reservation System, terms such as System, computerized, Airline Industry, And reservation should be define. System: can be defined as a set of detailed method or procedure which is used to carry out a duty or a task. Computerized: this has to do with the entering of a process, or store information in a computer information system, Reservation: Simply means the act of keeping back, with held. In terms of records and data it also means a written record or promise of an arrangement by which the task or datas are secured in advance. Airline Industry: can be define as the type of industry which is responsible for the transportation of passengers such as peoples, cargos, good and service from on destination to another through air by means of Helicopter or Aero-plane in other to make profit.

Airline Reservation System. Airline Reservation system could be define as a computerized system which allows users to store, retrieve, Reserve, information and also conduct business transaction related to air travel.

2.4

Existing system:

Most Airline Reservation system today is designed based on (http) Hypertext transfer protocol, and client server Architecture, millions of users log into this sites on a daily basis to book flight and reserve flight, Airline Reservation site like Air Asia. Existing website like Airasia.com have a good human computer that allows users to feel free and roam around the site, making reservations and paying for reserved seats.

2.5

Airline Reservation system Design Architecture

There are two main Airline Reservation Design Architecture and they are 1. Service oriented Architecture 2. Traditional software oriented Architecture.

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Nwabrije Ugochukwu Emmanuel Airline Reservation System

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Service Oriented Architecture: this type of architecture is used in a distributed system, where by ticketing agents are referred to as services, this architecture is usually implemented using XML (extensible Markup Language), WSDL (Web service description Language), SOAP (Simple object access protocol) and UDDI (Universal Description Discovery and Integration). In this architecture the designed web service that was implemented to follow this architecture would be uploaded to the service registry using UDDI so that client or customer can access the web service from their local operating system. By so doing the customer can access the implemented web service from their various homes, they can reserve flights with ease, search for seats and make payment with ease without going to the airport to do it the old fashioned way.

Traditional Software Oriented Architecture: This type of architecture is the type of architecture that involves ticketing agent desktop application software that is not connected to the web service and it requires customers to move down to the ticketing reservation place to book or reserve flight.

Most undeveloped nations still make use of architecture, but this ticketing reservation architecture requires a lot of time and effort from both the ticketing agent and the customer, while in the service oriented architecture you can reserve flight with just a click away.

2.6

Pros and cons of Airline Reservation System.

Anything that has an advantage also has a disadvantage, people log into the Airline reservation system based on the pros of the system and most times over looks the cons of the system. Pros of Airline Reservation system. The advantages of Airline Reservation systems are 1. Convenience. This advantage simply means that users of the proposed system can book or reserve ticket anytime they want, be it at day or at night, also the proposed Airline reservation system has no geographical boundary. 2. Easy changes: This advantage allows user to change flight any time they want, if they want to postpone the date of their journey. Most existing Airline reservation site allows users to make changes before log in.
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Nwabrije Ugochukwu Emmanuel Airline Reservation System

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3. Early check in: Airline Reservation system allows users to check in up to 24 hours before their flight, select seat and print boarding passes from home, by doing so users of the Airline reservation system can skip long line at the Airport.

Cons of Airline Reservation System. The disadvantages of Airline Reservation are: 1. Live Help: when users of Airline reservation system reserves seat online , and they have any worries or Question, this worries and Question cant be attend to online, they need an administrative advice to help them solve their problem. 2. Customization: Most Airline Reservation system Advertise cheap Tickets, but add taxes and surcharge to make it expensive. 3. Special Need: Users of the Airline Reservation system cant confirm any special need at the time of their online reservation, such as requesting a wheel chair.

Chapter 3. 3.1 Proposed system Design and Methodology.

Proposed System Design: The Proposed system for this Airline Reservation system, would allow users to reserve flight, reserve seat, select departure date and departure airport, set arrival airport, would allow users to choose flight based on the price range of the flight and based on the time allocated for the trip . The proposed system would be designed using vb.net because it supports good human computer interaction.

Figure 1: Collaborative Diagram


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Nwabrije Ugochukwu Emmanuel Airline Reservation System

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Use Case Diagrams.

Figure 2: Use case Diagram

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Nwabrije Ugochukwu Emmanuel Airline Reservation System

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Use case Description This use case the shows how a customer of an Airline Reservation system can reserve flight online Actors: Customer, Administrator

Precondition:

The customer must book flight before payment,, the customers and admin must make sure the flight details such as departure airport and date are correct

Basic Flow of Event

-Users Log into the system - users enters flight details - users enter personal details such as name, address and social security number -users reserve ticket -users pay for ticket by credit card or pay pal

Alternate Flow

-If the users of the systems enters wrong information, like if the departure date is after the supposed arrival date, A pop message would show - if no destination is added the system would tell the user to ass a destination

Key Scenarios

-The users of this system must enter the correct details before sending the http Request

Post Condition

-Successful Completion: The user has finished making the Reservation and has obtained a receipt -Failure Completion: The user did not enter details correct, incorrect password, did not pay.

Special Requirement

-Users must be connected to the internet - Users should use webs browsers such as google chrome and internet Explorer.
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Nwabrije Ugochukwu Emmanuel Airline Reservation System

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Sequence Diagram.

Figure 3: Sequence Diagram Discussion. The Sequence diagram above helps to elaborate on how a user of the proposed system can reserve or book ticket in an Airline Reservation system. The users makes reservation, by entering flight details and customer details, the systems responds by showing the system the available flights and cost of the Flights. The users of this system having seen the price of the seats proceeds by selecting seat, if the user cannot select a seat, the system can help Assign seat to the user, but if the user sees the seat he or she prefers he can proceed and select it and the proceed and make payment, the system would automatically Generate a receipt for the user.
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Nwabrije Ugochukwu Emmanuel Airline Reservation System

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Activity Diagram

Figure 4: Activity Diagram Discussion. The Activity Diagram shows the activity taken by the actors of the Airline Reservation system, where by users of the system reserves flight, users can also check flight Availability, the server for the Airline reservation system would reply by providing Flight details, flight choices and prices. After getting the flights price and choices users of this system proceeds and book flight, makes payment, confirm seat, the Airline Reservation system would respond by issuing a ticket to the customer.

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Nwabrije Ugochukwu Emmanuel Airline Reservation System

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State Machine Diagram.

Figure 5: state chart diagram Discussion. The Diagram above shows the state in which task are being carried out in the Airline Reservation system, the first state shows the flight schedule state, in this state the users of this system go through the see flight details, book flight, the next state is availability of seat, where users have to select seat and book seat, the Final state is when the users of the airline reservation system departs the Airport.

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Nwabrije Ugochukwu Emmanuel Airline Reservation System

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Class Diagram

Figure 6: class diagram Discussion: The class diagram above shows the cardinality, multiplicity and relationship between the different classes in the system. Flight Ticket That one flight can have many Tickets. Customer Airline More Than 1 customer can be registered to one Airline. Customer ticket More than 1 customer can reserve more than 1 ticket and Airline Reservation: Finally one airline has more than 1 flights registered to it.

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Nwabrije Ugochukwu Emmanuel Airline Reservation System

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Methodology The proposed system would be design based on the service oriented Architecture (SOA) that was mentioned in the literature review and mesh topology for connecting all the branches to one centralized database, I proposed to use SOA architecture because this type of architecture or approach is the most efficient, flexible and reliable approach used in airline reservation system today. Another reason is because it requires clients to make reservation from their different location at any given time and date, as long as there is an available flight and the clients as enough finances in his or her debit card. Also it has no geographical boundary. So therefore the proposed system would be implemented using SOA Architecture and mesh topology because it supports wireless networking. And since the proposed distributes system is a wireless one and also a web based project. The two methods would be useful.

A network Diagram for the proposed Airline Reservation System. The network Diagram above shows how three different branches of the proposed system scattered all over the world operate, the first branch being KL, second Abuja Nigeria, third New York America. The diagram shows how these three branches are connected to ensure consistency and reliability.

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Nwabrije Ugochukwu Emmanuel Airline Reservation System

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Since this is a mesh topology network, if server 1 is down, server 2 would be able to provide the same consistency and reliability needed to help transfer files, or to help customer make ticket reservation. So goes to the switch, if one switch or a router is faulty the other takes control over the systems. No one would even have a clue about what is going in there. 3.2 Pseudo code For Airline Reservation.

Class Airline Reservation Set Ticket Price as Integer (int); Set Ticket Number as Integer (int); Set Admin username as String; Set Customer user name as String; Set Admin password as Integer(int); Set Customer password as Integer (int); Ticket Price =" 200"; User name = User password = Admin = admin; Password= 12345; If Admin Textbox. Text= admin and passwordTextBox.Text = Password Then Display Homepage (); Else MsgBox. Show (Incorrect user Name and Password); End If.

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Nwabrije Ugochukwu Emmanuel Airline Reservation System

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If UsernameTextBox.text = and User PasswordTextBox.Text = Then Display HomePage(); Else MsgBox. Show (Incorrect user Name and Password); End if If Flight Details = Matching Flight Then Display Flight Cost Else Enter Flight Details End if Set customer Details if customer Details = "True" Then Display Seat Map Else Enter Customer Detail End if if Display seat ="Selected" then show Payment Information Else Assign Seat() End IF

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Nwabrije Ugochukwu Emmanuel Airline Reservation System

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if payment = ticket Price then Issue Ticket MSG BOX.SHOW ("wait for your Receipt"); Else Do WHILE payment < Ticket Price MSG BOX.SHOW (" The payment fee is Insufficient"); End do while Do WHILE Payment > Ticket Price MSG BOX. Show (" The money is paid is more than Required"); End DO WHILE END IF End class Chapter 4 4.1 Evaluation and Discussion

The Evaluation of this system would be done using Remote Procedure Call (RPC), we used the remote procedures call to evaluate the system because it deals with the distributed nature of service between the client and a server. In other to evaluate this system the (10) ten basics step of Remote Procedure Call (RPC), would have to be put into due consideration. The airline reservation system we are about to consider here is being assumed that the client/customer have not gain access yet to the system to commence reservation or booking, he or she still needs to log into the system and connect to the server.

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Nwabrije Ugochukwu Emmanuel Airline Reservation System

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Step 1. Client Procedure call clients stub in Normal way. In this step the customer of the Airline reservation system, enters the name of the website in the http page of his or her computer. For example: If the domain name of the system is http:Airlinereserve.com, the customer opens up a web browser and types the name. By so doing, the customers is calling the client stub informing the stub that he or she wants to access the http:Airlinereserve.com web page. Step 2: Clients Stub Builds message and call local OS In this step, the client stub would have to convert the domain name entered by the customer into something the local operating system can understand and process. If the messages have been converted into what the operating system can understand then the client stub would send a message to operating system informing the operating system about the request of the customer. Step 3: Client OS sends message to the Remote OS In this step the client operating system, after receiving the message from the client stub about the customer request, would send the same converted message send to it by the client stub to the remote operating system. This so because the converted message was converted so that operating system can pronounce so be it remotely or not. Step 4: Remote OS gives message to server Stub. In this step, the remote operating system, which is the operating system that the Airline reservation is implemented, receives the converted message from the client operating system, go through the message, make sure there is no error and sends the message to the website server stub, so that the message can be converted there and sent to the server. Also take note, the remote system send information to the server stub on a first in first out basis because of the amount of task it processes on a daily basis

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Step 5: Server Stub Unpacks Parameters, calls Server In this phase of RPC, what the server stubs does after receiving the message from the remote operating system and converting it into a language the server would understand, it would then call the server of the proposed designed system, also note stub can either sends a message on a first in first out (FIFO) or a Last in first out (LIFO) basics, but the important thing to note here is the fact that message send to the server are all queued up in the server stub, and are attended one after the other by any means necessary, sometimes the server stub responds to smaller request first before responding to the bigger request. Step 6: Server does work and return result to the stub. This is the phase where the server receives the parameters sent by the server stub; the server then goes through the request of the customer, where the converted message would indicate the customer needs access to the airline reservation system, the server can respond if the domain name entered is the correct one, or if the customer is connected to the internet otherwise an error message would b send to client telling the customer to write the url page correctly or get connected to the internet. The main this in this step is that this is where most of the work are done, because anything the server replies here is what would be transmitted down to the customer operating system and then the customer. Step 7: Server stubs packs it in Message and calls local OS. In this phase this server stub has receives the respond from the server, the respond might be either access granted or declines, it is not the job of the server stub to ask the server why? Rather it is the job of the server stub to convert this message sent to it by the server to a message server operating system would understand quickly and send it. Step 8: Server OS sends Message to the client OS. This phase is more or less known as a correspondence phase, because in this phase server operating system would alert the customers operating system, that the server has received the request of the user and has studied it and has now responded to it. The server operating system now deliver the message to the client operating system, telling the cline operating system, that if access id granted the customer should go out and use the system to reserve, book, and pay for
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flights, but if the respond given by the server is access not granted then the server operating system would tell the client operating system to either connect to the internet or type the website name correctly. If you can remember in step 8: server stub sent similar message if not the same to the client operating system, and now server operating system is sending the same message to the client operating system. It does this because the Airline Reservation Operating systems needs to be sure that the customers operating system got the message it sent using the server stub, also server operating wanted to know if the message received by the client operating system is still the same message the server sent. Step 9: Client OS gives message to the Client stub. In this phase the client operating systems has already received the information or message from the server and the server stub, which shows whether the customer can access the internet or not if the customer has internet service in his operating system then he or she can access Airline Reservation system website, otherwise the server would send a network error to t client operating system, or a low network coverage message to the client operating system. Also in this phase the messaged sent from the client operating system to the client stub is sent on a first in first out (FIFO) basis. So client stub has to convert the parameters and sends the message back to the client by either given access to the system if there is internet coverage or not given access if there is no internet coverage. Step 10: Stub unpacks result, return to client This is the last phase of the remote procedure call, in this phase the client has gain access to the Airline Reservation system, and the customer is now making reservation and booking flight. It doesnt matter where you are located in the world as long you have internet connection you can make you of a web based Airline Reservation system, just like the customer here. All thanks to Global distribution system and Remote procedure calls in web services.

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Nwabrije Ugochukwu Emmanuel Airline Reservation System

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Conclusion The research above was based journals, books, reports e.tc the research shows how an airline reservation system is implemented, the pros and cons of airline reservation system, the design architecture used in airline reservation system. The research also discussed about the history of Airline reservation system, from the inception of airline business to this day that almost everything if not everything are all based on IT related technology.

Furthermore the proposed system was discussed and how the proposed system would be designed, I did made mention in the report that the proposed system would be designed using Service oriented Architecture because it is the type of architecture used for web based system. And also mesh topology because the proposed system would all be connected to one centralized database.

Finally, the pseudo code of the proposed system was developed and also the proposed Airline reservation system was evaluated using RPC Evaluation for web service.

In conclusion, Airline reservation system is a major part of the airline reservation system, it is as important to the clients as it is to the airlines, because as much as customers want s to reserve flight and travel around the world. Airline industry wants to keep records of all their flights and also use this business to make profit. With millions of users using this system on a daily basis to reserve flight Airline companies stand to make a lot of profit.

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Nwabrije Ugochukwu Emmanuel Airline Reservation System

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References 1. Kaavya kuppa Airline reservation system CIS 896 Department of computing and information science Kansas State University 2. Kaavya kuppa Airline reservation system Department of computing and information science Kansas State University, Page 35-36 3. James Edwin Airline Reservation system software January 13th 2011 4. Shaik Mahmeed et.al Airline Booking system 5. Mr Sarbjit singh Airline Reservation system ROLL NO 03, Page 2- 5 6. Sohel khan et.al Airline Reservation system Page 3-7 7. David J Warderl Airline Reservation system July 1991, Page 3- 20 8. Fang Fang Chua et.al Design and Implementation of Airline Reservation web service using service oriented ArchitectureJune 30th july 2010 London, UK

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