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Photo Voltaic Cell as Power Quality conditioner For Grid connected system

Under the Esteemed Guidance of

Mr. Y.RAJASEKHAR REDDY


M.Tech, Assistant Professor
By A. Hari Prasad (09c61d5405)

Outline
Introduction Power Quality Modeling of Case study Photovoltaic Cell FACTS MPPT Algorithm Power Quality of power Inverters Shunt Controllers for Voltage Dip Mitigation Simulation Results Conclusions References

Introduction
A computer simulation derived study of photovoltaic cells/ modules, utilizing MATLAB, is demonstrated. This aspect of MATLAB is used to simulate a circuit based model for PV cells/ modules with voltage mitigation solver. In future, the supporting services provided by photovoltaic (PV) systems could speed up their penetration in to power systems. Furthermore, low power PV systems can be used effectively to enhance the power quality using MPPT algorithm. This project presents a single-phase photovoltaic system that furnishes grid voltage support and compensation of harmonic distortion at the point of common coupling (PCC).

Power Quality
Any power problem that results in failure or disoperation of customer equipment manifests itself as an economic burden to the user, or produces negative impacts on the environment. the power issues which degrade power quality include: Power Factor, Harmonic Distortion, Voltage Transients, Voltage Sags or Dips, Voltage Swells

Power Quality
Power quality can be improved through: Power factor correction, Harmonic filtering, Special line notch filtering, Transient voltage surge suppression, Proper earthing systems. The advantages of PQ are Economic Impact, System Losses, Power Service Initial Capital Investments, Equipment Reliability, Power System Adequacy, Environment.

Modeling of Case study


Distributed Power Generating Stations

In this project, the relation has been adopted to optimize the power extraction from PV panels (MPPT).

Photovoltaic Cell
The solar cell is the elementary building block of the photovoltaic technology. Solar cells are made of semiconductor materials, such as silicon.

Photovoltaic Cell
Types of Electrical Connections
Series Connections Parallel Connections Array Connections

Photovoltaic Cell
Series Connection Parallel Connection

Photovoltaic Cell System Design


stand-alone photovoltaic system grid-connected photovoltaic system

Photovoltaic Cell
hybrid system incorporating a photovoltaic array and a motor generator set

Photovoltaic Cell - Inverter


A Solar inverter or PV inverter is a type of electrical inverter that is made to change the direct current (DC) electricity from a photovoltaic array into alternating current (AC) for use with home appliances and possibly a utility grid Types: Stand-alone inverters, Grid tie inverters, Battery backup inverters

Photovoltaic Cell protection

antianti-islanding

Normally, grid-tied inverters will shut off if they do not detect the presence of the utility grid. If, however, there are load circuits in the electrical system that happen to resonate at the frequency of the utility grid, the inverter may be fooled into thinking that the grid is still active even after it had been shut down. This is called islanding. Islanding refers to the condition of a distributed generation (DG) generator continuing to power a location even though power from the electric utility is no longer present.

Photovoltaic Cell protection

antianti-islanding

An inverter designed for grid-tie operation will have anti-islanding protection built in; it will inject small pulses that are slightly out of phase with the AC electrical system in order to cancel any stray resonances that may be present when the grid shuts down. Islanding may be detected passively, actively or by utility notification.

FACTS
applications of FACTS-devices are:
Power flow control, Increase of transmission capability, Voltage control, Reactive power compensation, Stability improvement, Power quality improvement, Power conditioning, Flicker mitigation, Interconnection of renewable and distributed generation and storages.

FACTS

Conventional Vs Facts Devices

FACTS - Devices
The most used FACTS-device is the SVC or the version with Voltage Source Converter called STATCOM. Shunt Devices: These shunt devices are operating as reactive power compensators. Series Devices: Series devices have been further developed from fixed or mechanically switched compensations to the Thyristor Controlled Series Compensation (TCSC) or even Voltage Source Converter based devices.

FACTS - SVC

Types of SVC

FACTSFACTS- D- Statcom

STATCOM structure and voltage / current characteristic

6 Pulses STATCOM

FACTS - TCSC

principle setup of a TCSC (Series Device)

FACTS - DFC

Principle configuration of DFC

FACTS - UPFC

Principle configuration of an UPFC

FACTS - UPFC

Basic UPFC functional scheme

MPPT Algorithm
MPPT, is an electronic system that operates the Photovoltaic (PV) modules in a manner that allows the modules to produce all the power they are capable of. The problem considered by MPPT methods is to automatically find the voltage VMPP or current IMPP at which a PV array delivers maximum power under a given temperature and irradiance.

MPPT Algorithm - Types


Fractional Open-Circuit Voltage Fractional Short-Circuit Current Perturb and Observe Incremental Conductance

Power Quality of power Inverters


Line Commutated Inverters: used for high power converters. self-commutated converters: used for small PV-inverters. Different inverter concepts are
Single-stage concept of H-bridge PWM DC-DC converter coupled to the grid with a low frequency (LF) isolation transformer Multi-stage concept of PWM DC-DC converter front-end including a high-frequency (HF) isolation transformer, and a 50Hz unfolding bridge coupled to the grid.

Power Quality of power Inverters


Single-stage concept Multi-stage concept

Shunt Controllers for Voltage Dip Mitigation


Shunt devices are usually adopted to compensate small voltage variations that can be controlled by reactive power injection. The shunt controller can be current or voltage controlled current controlled: grid-feeding component [Fig (a)] voltage controlled : gridsupporting component [Fig (b)]

Shunt Controllers for Voltage Dip Mitigation


Vector diagram of the shunt controller providing only reactive power. (a) Currentcontrolled converter in normal conditions. (b) Voltagecontrolled converter in normal condition. (c) Vector diagram for compensation of a voltage dip of 0.15 pu.

Shunt Controllers for Voltage Dip Mitigation

Vector diagram of the shunt controller providing both active and reactive powers. (a) Normal conditions. (b)
Vector diagram for compensation of a voltage dip of 0.15 pu

Shunt Controllers for Voltage Dip Mitigation

Grid-connected PV system with shunt controller functionality

Shunt Controllers for Voltage Dip Mitigation


MPPT Algorithm

Matlab Modelling

Simulation Results
Performance of the voltage-controlled shunt converter with MPPT algorithm: grid voltage E and load voltage Vload

Simulation Results

Performance of the voltage-controlled shunt converter with MPPT algorithm: grid current Ig, converter current IC, and load current Iload.

Simulation Results

Active and reactive power provided by the shunt-connected multifunctional converter to compensate the voltage sag of 0.15 pu.

Simulation Results

Power voltage characteristic of the PV array and current and voltage on the PV side in the presence of a grid voltage sag of 0.85 pu

Simulation Results

Performance of the voltage-controlled shunt converter with MPPT algorithm: grid voltage E and load voltage Vload

Simulation Results

Performance of the voltage-controlled shunt converter with MPPT algorithm: grid current Ig, converter current , and load current Iload.

Simulation Results

Active and reactive power provided by the shunt-connected multifunctional converter to compensate the voltage sag of 0.15 Pu.

Conclusions
In this project, a single-phase PV system with shunt controller functionality has been presented. The PV converter is voltage controlled with a repetitive algorithm. An MPPT algorithm has specifically been designed for the proposed voltage-controlled converter. It is based on the incremental conductance method, and it has been modified to change the phase displacement between the grid voltage and the converter voltage maximizing the power extraction from the PV panels.

References
[1] F. Blaabjerg, R. Teodorescu, M. Liserre, and A. V. Timbus, Overview of control and grid synchronization for distributed power generation systems, IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., vol. 53, no. 5, pp. 1398 1409, Oct. 2006. [2] F. Blaabjerg, R. Teodorescu, Z. Chen, and M. Liserre, Power converters and control of renewable energy systems, in Proc. ICPE, Pusan, Korea, Oct. 2004. [3] T.-F. Wu, H. S. Nien, H.-M. Hsieh, and C.-L. Shen, PV power injection and active power filtering with amplitude-clamping and amplitude scaling algorithms, IEEE Trans. Ind. Appl., vol. 43, no. 3, pp. 731 741, May/Jun. 2007. [4] M. Ciobotaru, R. Teodorescu, and F. Blaabjerg, On-line grid impedance estimation based on harmonic injection for grid-connected PV inverter, in Proc. IEEE Int. Symp. Ind. Electron., Jun. 4 7, 2007, pp. 2437 2442. [5] IEEE Standard for Interconnecting Distributed Resources with Electric Power Systems, IEEE Std. 1547-2003, 2003.

Queries