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1 | P a g e N u me r i c a l P r o b l e ms o n Ma r i n e G y r o c o mp a s s

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Q. In latitude 25.0 S, SA (spin axis) of a FG (free gyro) is in position S40E and horizontal. Find
the tilt after 6 hours.



Solution:
PZ= 65, ZX = 90, tilt after 6 hours = 90 ZY =?
In triangle PZX,
Cos PX = Cos Z Sin PZ
Cos PX = Cos 40 Sin 65
Cos PX = 0.694272
PX = PY = 46.031

Again, in triangle PZX,
Cos P = - Cot PZ Cot PX
Cos P = - Cot 65 Cot 46.031
P or angle ZPX = 116.732
Angle XPY = 6 hours = 90. Thus, angle ZPY = 26.732

In triangle PZY,
Cos ZY = Cos P Sin PZ Sin PY + Cos PZ Cos PY
Cos ZY = Cos 26.732 Sin 65 Sin 46.031 + Cos 65 Cos 46.031
ZY = 28.839 and tilt = 61.16 up (Ans.)

Q. In latitude 25.0 N SA of a FG is tilted 55 d 20 m upwards and pointing in certain direction,
Next time, when it was in the same direction, the tilt had decreased to 7 d 20 m. Find the
direction of the SA.
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Solution:
From P drop a perpendicular PN on ZY. The perpendicular will bisect XY, so that YN = NX
PZ = 65.0, ZX = 34 d 40 m, NX = 24, ZN = 58 d 40 m

In triangle PZN,
Sin (90-Z) = Tan ZN Tan (90-PZ)
Cos Z = Tan 58.6667 Cot 65
Z = 40, hence azimuth = N40W (Ans.)

Q. SA of a FG is dipping 10.0 down. Later it points N30E and is horizontal. Find the latitude.


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Solution:
NY = 10.0 PN = L (Lat) =? PX = PY = 10 + L
In triangle PZX,
Sin (90-PX) = Cos Z Cos (90-PZ)
Cos PX = Cos Z Cos L
Cos (10+L) = Cos Z Cos L
Cos 10 Cos L Sin 10 Sin L = Cos Z Cos L
Tan L = (Cos 10 Cos 30)
Sin 10
Or Latitude = 34.374 N

Q. SA of a FG(A) in 60 d 00 m latitude and 000 d 00 m long is pointing E W with E end tilted
30.0 up. At the same time another FG (B) is lying with its SA pointing N S and tilted 30.0 up
from horizon. The two axes are parallel to each other. Find latitude and longitude of FG (B). (
Ans. 34 d 20.5 m S , 073 d 53.9 m E ).



Solution:
PZ
A
= 30, Z
A
X = 60, Z
B
X = 60, Angle P = ? and PX =?
In triangle PZ
A
X,
Sin PZ
A
= Tan Z
A
X Tan (90-P)
Tan P = Tan Z
A
X Cosec PZ
A

P = 73.899
Thus longitude = 000.00 + 73.899 = 73.899 E (Ans.)

Again in triangle PZ
A
X,
Sin (90-PX) = Cos Z
A
X Cos PZ
A

Cos PX = Cos 60 Cos 30
PX = 64.341
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Now, PZ
B
= PX + Z
B
X = 64.341 + 60.0 = 124.341
Hence Latitude = 90 - PZ
B
= - 34.341 = 34.341 S (Ans.)

Q. In lat 40.0 S, SA of a FG is pointing N and is tilted 25.0 up at 00h 00m 00s GMT. What time
will it be horizontal and in what direction?






Solution:
PZ = 50, NY = 25, PX = PY = PN - NY = 50 + 90 - 25 = 115, P =? , Z =?
In triangle PZX,
Sin (90-PX) = Cos Z Cos (90-PZ)
Cos PX = Cos Z Sin PZ

Cos Z = Cos 115
Sin 50

Z = 123.48 = N56.52W, the direction in which the SA will point when horizontal (Ans.)

Again in triangle PZX,

Sin (90-P) = - Tan (90-PX) Tan (90-PZ)
Cos P = - Cot PX Cot PZ
Cos P = - Cot 115 Cot 50
P = 66.966 = 4.4644 sidereal hours = 4.4644 x 23.934444 / 24 = 4.4522055 solar hours
= 4h 27m 08m GMT, the time the SA will be horizontal. (Ans.)

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Q. In lat 28.5 N, SA of a FG is pointing north and horizontal at 02h 12m 25s LMT. Later it was
observed that maximum azimuth was reached. Find azimuth and tilt at the time of second
observation. Also find the LMT time when maximum azimuth is reached.





Solution:
PZ = 61.5, PX = PN = Latitude = 28.5, X = 90 (moment of maximum azimuth)
In triangle PZX,
Sin (90-PZ) = Cos PX Cos ZX
Cos ZX = Cos 61.5 Sec 28.5
ZX = 57.115, thus Tilt = 32.885 (Ans.)

Sin (90-Z) = Tan (90-PZ) Tan ZX
Cos Z = Tan 28.5 Tan 57.115
Z = 32.885 (Ans.)

Sin (90-P) = Cos ZX Cos (90-Z)
Cos P = Cos 57.115 Sin 32.885
P = 72.8545 = Angle ZPX
Angle NPX = 107.14553 = 7.1430352 sidereal hours
= 7.123524 solar hours = 07h 07m 24.7s
Thus, time of occurrence: 09h 19m 49.7s LMT (Ans.)




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Q. Five hours after SA of a FG was pointing N and below the horizon, it was horizontal. If the
latitude was 35 N, find the azimuth at the moment. What will be the tilt, when it bears east later.
Also, find the time elapsed between the two observations.


Solution:
Lat = 35, PZ = 55, Angle NPX = 75, PX = PY
In triangle PZX,
Sin (90-PZ) = Tan Z Tan (90-P)
Tan Z = Cos 55 Cot 15
Z = 64.96 (Ans.)

Again in triangle PZX,
Sin (90-PX) = Cos Z Cos (90-PZ)
Cos PX = Cos 64.96 Sin 55
PX = 69.714 = PY

Now in triangle PZY,
Sin (90-PY) = Cos ZY Cos PZ
Cos ZY = Cos 69.714 Sec 55
ZY = 52.81, hence tilt = 37.19 up (Ans.)

Again in triangle PZY,
Sin (90-P) = Tan PZ Tan (90-PX)
Cos P = Tan 55 Cot 69.714
P = 58.1369
Time interval from X to Y = Angle ZPX Angle ZPY = 105 58.1369
= Angle 46.8631
= 03h 07m 27.1s (Ans.)

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Q. A SA of a FG pointing was horizontal pointing in direction S38W. A few hours later the other
end of the axis crosses meridian with the tilt 68.5 d up. What is your latitude and tilt when next
time the SA crosses meridian.




Solution:
Z = 38, NU = 68.5, PN = L (latitude)
Now, PU = PD = PX = NU L = 68.5 L
In triangle PZX,
Sin (90-PX) = Cos Z Cos (90-PZ)
Cos PX = Cos 38 Cos L
Cos (68.5 L) = Cos 38 Cos L
Tan L = Cos 38 Cos 68.5
Sin 68.5
L (latitude) = 24.372 N (Ans.)

Now, PX = NU L = 68.5 24.372 = 44.128
Tilt below horizon = PD PN = PX L = 44.128 24.372 = 19.756 down (Ans.)




Q. A FG in lat 60.0 N is set with SA pointing 072 and tilted 20.0 up. Determine the tilt, when the
axis is in meridian and direction when SA is horizontal next.

8 | P a g e N u me r i c a l P r o b l e ms o n Ma r i n e G y r o c o mp a s s
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Solution:
PZ = 30.0, Z = 72, ZY = 70.0
In triangle PZY,
Cos PY = Cos Z Sin PZ Sin ZY + Cos PZ Cos ZY
Cos PY = Cos 72 Sin 30 Sin 70 + Cos 30 Cos 70
PY = 63.81 = PX = PM

Tilt at meridian = SM = SP PM = SZ + PZ PM = 90 + 30 63.81
= 56.19 up and pointing south.

In triangle PZX,
Sin (90-PX) = Cos Z Cos (90-PZ)
Cos Z = Cos PX Cosec PZ
Cos Z = Cos 63.81 Cosec 30
Z = 28.03, hence azimuth = N28.03W














9 | P a g e N u me r i c a l P r o b l e ms o n Ma r i n e G y r o c o mp a s s
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Q. A FG in 60.0 S is horizontal and pointing N-S. Where will it point in siderial day?



Solution:
In the given situation SA can be pointing N or S. If it points N, it will point exactly N and will
never rise and will remain below the horizon throughout. Hence this possibility is ruled out and
the SA is then pointing initially at X coinciding with S.
After half a sidereal day, it will drift through 180 degrees and be at Y.
Now, PX = PY = latitude = 60.0
NY = NS PX PY = 180 60 -60
= 60.0, hence the SA will point N with upward tilt of 60.0 (Ans.)

Q. Find percentage change in M.O.I, of a rotor if mass is increased by 20% and radius of
gyration is decreased by 20%.

Solution:
MOI = Mr
2

Old mass = M, new mass = 1.2M
Old radius = r, new radius = 0.8r
Now, %age change given by:

(Old MOI new MOI) x 100
Old MOI

= [1.2M x (0.8r)
2
- Mr
2
] x 100
Mr
2

- 0.232 x 100 = - 23.2 %

Thus the MOI of the rotor will decrease by 23.2 % (Ans.)

10 | P a g e N u me r i c a l P r o b l e ms o n Ma r i n e
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Q. At 00h 00m 00s GMT in latitude 45.0 S and longitude 000.0, SA of a FG is pointing 120 (T).
At what time will it point 270 (T) on the same day?



Solution:
PZ =45.0, Z = 60.0, PX = PY
In triangle PZX,
Sin (90-PX) = Cos Z Cos (90-PZ)
Cos PX = Cos 60 Cos 45
PX = 69.295 = PY

Sin (90-PZ) = Tan Z Tan (90-P)
Cot P = - Tan 60 Sec 45
P = 112.21 = Angle ZPX

Now in triangle PZY,
Sin (90-P) = Tan PZ Tan (90-PY)
Cos P = Tan 45 Cot 69.295
P = 67.792 = Angle ZPY
Total time elapsed = Angle ZPX + Angle ZPY
= 112.21 + 67.792 = 180.002
= 12.000133 sidereal hours
= 11.967355 solar hours = 11h 59m 2.5s (Ans.)





11 | P a g e N u me r i c a l P r o b l e ms o n Ma r i n e
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Q. At equator SA of a FG is pointing N60E and is horizontal. Find tilt and direction after 3
hours. Also find the maximum tilt attained.



Solution:
PZ = 90, ZX = 90, Z =60
In triangle PZX,
Sin (90-PX) = Cos Z Cos (90-PZ)
Sin PX = Cos Z Sin PZ
PX = 60 = PY

Sin (90-PZ) = Tan Z Tan (P-90)
Sin 0 = Tan 60 Tan (P-90)
P = 90
In triangle PZY,
Z =? , ZY =? , and P = 45
Sin (90-ZY) = Cos P Cos (90-PY)
Cos ZY = Cos 45 Sin 60
ZY = 52.24, hence. Tilt = 37.76 up

Sin P = Tan Z Tan (90-PY)
Tan Z = Sin 45 Tan 60
Z = 50.77, hence azimuth = N50.77E

Max tilt attained = NM = PX = 60 up





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Q. At equator SA of a FG is pointing N60E and tilted 20 up. Find direction and tilt after 8 hrs.
Also find the max tilt attained. ( Ans.tilt: 32.260 , Az: 56.247; Max tilt 61.976 )




Solution:
Angle P ZX = 60, ZX = 70
Sin (90-PX) = Cos Z Cos (90-ZX)
Cos PX = Cos 60 Cos 20
PX = 61.976 = PY

Sin Z = Tan P Tan (90-ZX)
Tan P = Sin 60 Tan 70
P i.e. Angle ZPX = 67.204
Angle ZPY = 8 x 15 Angle ZPX = 52.796

In triangle PZY,
Sin (90-ZY) = Cos P Cos (90-PY)
Cos ZY = Cos P Sin PY
ZY = 57.74, hence Tilt = 32.260 (Ans.)

Sin P = Tan Z Tan (90-PY)
Tan Z = Sin 52.796 Tan 61.976
Z = 56.247, hence azimuth = N56.247W (Ans.)

Maximum Tilt attained = PM = PX = PY = 61.976 (Ans.)