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# Assignment 12: DC Circuits

Due: 8:00am on Friday, February 17, 2012 Note: To understand how points are awarded, read your instructor's Grading Policy.

Equivalent Resistance
Consider the network of four resistors shown in the diagram, where = 2.00 , = 7.00 . The resistors are connected to a constant voltage of magnitude . = 5.00 , = 1.00 , and

Part A Find the equivalent resistance of the resistor network. Hint A.1 How to reduce the network of resistors Hint not displayed Hint A.2 Find the resistance equivalent to Hint A.3 Three resistors in series Hint not displayed Express your answer in ohms. ANSWER: 9.43 = Correct Part B Two resistors of resistance = 3.00 and = 3.00 are added to the network, and an additional resistor of and Hint not displayed

resistance

= 3.00

## is connected by a switch, as shown in the diagram..

Find the equivalent resistance of the new resistor network when the switch is open. Hint B.1 How to reduce the extended network of resistors Hint not displayed Hint B.2 Find the resistance equivalent to Hint B.3 Four resistors in series Hint not displayed Express your answer in ohms. ANSWER: 13.5 = Correct Part C Find the equivalent resistance of the resistor network described in Part B when the switch is closed. Hint C.1 How to reduce the network of resistors when the switch is closed Hint not displayed Hint C.2 Find the resistance equivalent to Hint C.3 Four resistors in series Hint not displayed Express your answer in ohms. ANSWER: 8.60 = Correct and Hint not displayed , , and

## Series Resistors with Different Areas

Four wires are made of the same highly resistive material, cut to the same length, and connected in series. 1. 2. 3. 4. Wire 1 has resistance Wire 2 has resistance Wire 3 has resistance Wire 4 has resistance and cross-sectional area . and cross-sectional area . and cross-sectional area . and cross-sectional area .

A voltage

## is applied across the series, as shown in the figure.

Part A Find the voltage across wire 2. Hint A.1 Resistance of wires Hint not displayed Hint A.2 Find the current through wire 2 Hint not displayed Hint A.3 The voltage across wire 2 Hint not displayed Give your answer in terms of ANSWER: = Correct , the voltage of the battery.

## Brightness of Light Bulbs Ranking Task

Part A Consider a circuit containing five identical light bulbs and an ideal battery. Assume that the resistance of each light bulb remains constant. Rank the bulbs (A through E) based on their brightness. Hint A.1 How to approach the problem Hint not displayed Hint A.2 Comparing bulb A to bulb B Hint not displayed Hint A.3 Comparing bulb D to bulb E Hint not displayed Hint A.4 Comparing bulb C to bulb D or E Hint not displayed Hint A.5 Comparing bulb C to bulb A or B Hint not displayed Rank from brightest to dimmest. To rank items as equivalent, overlap them. ANSWER:

Correct Now consider what happens when a switch in the circuit is opened.

Part B What happens to the brightness of bulb A? Hint B.1 How to approach this part Hint not displayed Hint B.2 Consider changes in resistance Hint not displayed ANSWER: It gets dimmer. It gets brighter. There is no change. Correct Part C What happens to bulb C? Hint C.1 How to approach this part Hint not displayed Hint C.2 Find the current in bulb C earlier Hint not displayed Hint C.3 ANSWER: Find the current in bulb C now Hint not displayed It gets dimmer. It gets brighter. There is no change.

Correct This is why appliances in your home are always connected in parallel. Otherwise, turning some of them on or off would cause the current in others to change, which could damage them.

## Resistance and Wire Length

You have been given a long length of wire. You measure the resistance of the wire, and find it to be . You then

## cut the wire into identical pieces Part A

If you connect the pieces in parallel as shown resistance of the wires connected in parallel? Hint A.1 Find the resistance of the wire segments Hint not displayed Hint A.2 Resistors in parallel Hint not displayed Express your answer in terms of ANSWER: = Correct and .

## Kirchhoff's Rules and Applying Them

Learning Goal: To understand the origins of both of Kirchhoff's rules and how to use them to solve a circuit problem. This problem introduces Kirchhoff's two rules for circuits:

Kirchhoff's loop rule: The sum of the voltage changes across the circuit elements forming any closed loop

is zero. Kirchhoff's junction rule: The algebraic sum of the currents into (or out of) any junction in the circuit is zero.

If you apply the juncion rule to the junction above , you should find that the ezpression you get is equivalent to what you just obtained for the junction labeled 1. Obviously the conservation of charge or current flow enforces the same relationship among the currents when they separate as when they recombine. Part C Apply the loop rule to loop 2 (the smaller loop on the right). Sum the voltage changes across each circuit element around this loop going in the direction of the arrow. Remember that the current meter is ideal. Hint C.1 Elements in series have same current Hint not displayed Hint C.2 Sign of voltage across resistors Hint not displayed Hint C.3 Voltage drop across ammeter Hint not displayed Express the voltage drops in terms of ANSWER: Correct Part D Now apply the loop rule to loop 1 (the larger loop spanning the entire circuit). Sum the voltage changes across each circuit element around this loop going in the direction of the arrow. Express the voltage drops in terms of , , , the given resistances, and any other given quantities. ANSWER: Correct There is one more loop in this circuit, the inner loop through the battery, both ammeters, and resistors and . If you apply Kirchhoff's loop rule to this additional loop, you will generate an extra equation that is redundant with the other two. In general, you can get enough equations to solve a circuit by either 1. selecting all of the internal loops (loops with no circuit elements inside the loop) or 2. using a number of loops (not necessarily internal) equal to the number of internal loops, with the extra proviso that at least one loop pass through each circuit element. , , , the given resistances, and any other given quantities.

Exercise 26.28
Part A

## , find the magnitude of current in the

0.800 Correct

Find the magnitude of current in the middle branch. ANSWER: 0.200 = Correct Part C Find the magnitude of current in the lower branch. ANSWER: 0.600 = Correct Part D What is the potential difference ANSWER: -3.20 = Correct of point relative to point ?

## Finding Current by Changing Resistors

A battery provides a voltage of 7.00 and has unknown internal resistance . When the battery is connected across a resistor of resistance = 6.00 , the current in the circuit is = 1.00 .

Part A If the external resistance is then changed to Hint A.1 How to approach the problem Hint A.2 Internal resistance explained Hint not displayed Hint A.3 Find the internal resistance Hint not displayed Express your answer numerically in amperes. ANSWER: 1.40 = Correct = 4.00 , what is the value of the current in the circuit? Hint not displayed

Problem 26.59

Exercise 26.38
A galvanometer having a resistance of 20.0 has a 1.00 shunt resistance installed to convert it to an ammeter. It is then used to measure the current in a circuit consisting of a 15.0 resistor connected across the terminals of a 25.0- battery having no appreciable internal resistance. Part A What current does the ammeter measure? ANSWER: 1.57 Correct Part B

What should be the true current in the circuit (that is, the current without the ammeter present)? ANSWER: 1.67 Correct Part C By what percentage is the ammeter reading in error from the true current? Express your answer using two significant figures. ANSWER: 6.0 = Correct %

Problem 26.79

## is maintained at a constant potential of 400 above

What is the reading of a voltmeter with the proper range and with resistance point and ground? ANSWER: 114 = Correct Part B What is the reading of a voltmeter with resistance ANSWER: 263 = Correct Part C What is the reading of a voltmeter with infinite resistance? ANSWER: 267 = Correct ?