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TheBoxerRising
75
f oreignersf rom a t t a c k , a nd t ogiv et heA l l iesnoexc u se
f orext end ingt heirc a m p a ignof rev engea ga inst t hep eo-
p l e. Thu sYu a n- Shi- Ka irisk ed ev eryt hingbyp u rsu ing
t hisp ol ic yinSha nt u ng, t hou ghhisC hinesesu bord ina t es
of t hesa m era c ea shim sel f w erem a nyof t hem bit t erl y
op p osed t ohim . H a d henot ha d a t hisd isp osa l l a rge
bod iesof t roop s, t ra ined a c c ord ingt oE u rop ea nm et hod s,
u p onw hom m hec ou l d
rel y,
hissu c c essink eep inghisp rov -
inc einord erw ou l d ha v ebeenm oret ha nd ou bt f u l . A sit
w a s, nof oreignerw a sk il l ed inSha nt u ng, a nd t heA l l ied
t roop sd id not m ol est t ha t p rov inc e . Sim il a rl y, t heM a n-
c hu , Tu a nFa ng, w how a st hent em p ora ryGov ernorof
Shensi, int erv ened d irec t l yt op rot ec t t hef oreignersa nd
sent t hem , w hent heirl iv esseem ed l ik el yt obeend a ngered ,
u nd erst rongesc ort t op l a c esof sa f et y . Thishea nd Yu a n-
Shi- Ka id id , a l t hou ght he w hol e p ow erof t heE m p ress
D ow a gera nd t heP a l a c ew a s, a st heyk new , f riend l yt ot he
Soc iet yw hic hha d orga nised t heseou t brea k s ; a nd it is
st rongev id enc et ha t p u bl ic sp irit a nd p a t riot ic resist a nc et o
p op u l a rc l a m ou rw erebynom ea nsu nk now nqu a l it ies
a m ongt heM a nd a rinsw hoha v ebeensoind isc rim ina t el y
a bu sed int heW est
.
Theirc ond u c t , a nd t ha t of ot hersw hora nsim il a rrisk s
inord ert od ef end f oreignersw it hw hom t heyc ou l d ha v e
nora c ia l orrel igiou ssym p a t hy, c ont ra st sv eryf a v ou ra bl y
w it h
t hec ond u c t of t heA l l ied of f ic ia l s, c iv il a nd m il it a ry,
w hoa c t u a l l yord ered f ineol d t em p l est obebu rnt t o t he
grou nd m erel ybec a u set herev ol u t ionist sha d u sed t hem a s
st orehou sesa nd ba rra c k s . O na nim p a rt ia l su rv eyof t he
insu rrec t iona nd it ssu p p ression, it seem st ha t t heBoxers
a nd t heA l l iesst ood on m u c ht hesa m e l ow p l a neint he
m a t t erof hu m a nit ya nd c iv il isa t ion ; ha j t ha t t heC hinese
a u t horit iesf requ ent l yd isp l a yed c ha ra c t erist ic sf a rsu p erior
t obot hset sof ba rba ria nsu nd erm ost t ryingc irc u m st a nc es .
Thed ev a st a t ionof w hol ed ist ric t sbyt hea rm iesof t he
76

TheA w a k eningof A sia
A l l ies, t hel oot ing, ra p ing, p l u nd ering, bu rningof P ek ing,
t hef right f u l ba rba rit yof t heRu ssia nsint hebu t c heriesof
Bl a d ov est c henk , a nd t hebru t a l it ya nd greed of t heGet -
m a nsa t Kia u - C ha u w il l ev errem a ina sa not herbl a c k m a rk
a ga inst E u rop ea nc iv il isa t ionint heFa rE a st .
N ot u nt il t hegrea t w a rbet w eenJ a p a na nd Ru ssia in
1904- 5d id C hina a sa w hol ebegint ou nd erst a nd t ha t
t hed a yf orrej ec t ingt hep ra c t ic a l ef f ec t sof E u rop ea n
k now l ed gea nd ed u c a t ionw a sp a st . Thet im eind eed ha d
c om ef orC hina eit hert ol ea rnint henew sc hool , ort o
su bm it t op a rt it ionbyE u rop ea nP ow ers, p erha p sev ent o
d om ina t ionbyt heha t ed a nd d esp ised J a p a nese . Ba rel y
t enyea rsha d p a ssed eret heid ea sw hic ht hegeniu sof t he
E m p erorH u a ng- H su ha d f a il ed t oim p ressu p onhisp eo-
p l ew erec om m onl ya c c ep t ed . I nt hem ea nt im e, t hew ork
of ed u c a t iona nd orga nisa t iont hrou ghou t t heSou t hern
P rov inc es, w it hw hic ht hena m eof t hem u c h- p ersec u t ed
Su nYa t Senism ost c l osel ya ssoc ia t ed inE u rop e, ha d gone
onra p id l y, insp it eof a l l t heef f ort sof t heC ou rt of P ek ing
a nd it sem issa riest osu p p resst hep rop a ga nd a a nd d est roy
it sc hief .
Su nYa t Sena nd hisf ol l ow ersha d rec ognised f orm a ny
yea rst ha t t horou ghgoingc ha ngesw ereessent ia l t osa v e
C hina f rom d issol u t ionorf oreignc onqu est . I nsp ired by
a highc onc ep t ionof w ha t C hina m ight d o, t heyst ea d il y
p rep a red t hec onserv a t iv em ind of t hep eop l et oa c c ep t t he
nec essa ryt ra nsf orm a t ion . Theya l sot ook a d v a nt a geof
t heinc rea singnu m bersof C hinesest u d ent sw hoha d gone
t oE u rop e, A m eric a a nd J a p a ninord ert oa c qu ireW est -
ernl ea rning, t oim bu et hem w it ha sp ira t ionsof ret u rning
t ot heirc ou nt rya shel p ersint herev ol u t iona nd reorga n-
isa t ion, w hent hest a t eof a f f a irsj u st if ied a v igorou sa t t a c k
u p ont heM a nc hu sa nd t heest a bl ishm ent of a new gov ern-
m ent .
C irc u m st a nc esgrea t l yhel p ed ref orm ersa nd rev ol u -
t
TheBoxerRising
77,
t ionist sof ev erysc hool
.
Ru ssia ha d f orm a nya l ong
yea ra p p ea red t ot heC hinesea st hem ost f orm id a bl eof
a l l t heE u rop ea nP ow ers, a nd t heonew hic hbest u nd er-
st ood how t om a k eherinf l u enc ef el t . Shew a sa l w a ysa t
ha nd , herc onqu est sinA sia ha d beenc ont inu ou sa nd a p -
p a rent l yc a rried ou t ona syst em a t ic p l a n . Byd egreesshe
ha d p ressed f orw a rd f rom t hew est a nd nort h, u nt il a
grea t ra il w a yp a rt l yru nningt hrou ghC hineset errit ory
ha d beenc onst ru c t ed f rom t heRu ssia nE m p ireinE u rop e
t ot heRu ssia nE m p ireont heP a c if ic O c ea n . Ru ssia ha d
nev erf a v ou red C hrist ia np rosel yt ism w it hinC hinesebou n-
d a ries . TheGreek C hu rc h, w it ha l l it sa rd ou rf orc on-
v ersion, ha d beenhel d ba c k byRu ssia nst a t esm enf rom a ny
d a ngerou sv ent u res in f a v ou rof sp rea d ingt ha t f orm of
C hrist ia nit yint heFl ow eryL a nd . Therew a snof ric t ion
w it ht hem , t heref ore, f rom inc onsid era t ea nd boot l essre-
l igiou sz ea l , norha d t heRu ssia nst a k ena nyp a rt int he
nef a riou sop iu m t ra f f ic w hic hba d p roc u red f ort heE ng-
l ishsu c ha ninf a m ou sna m e . C ru el a nd f eroc iou st he
M u sc ov it esha d of t enshow nt hem sel v est obe . Bu t t hey
u nd erst ood A sia t ic sa nd A sia t ic w a ys, m a nyof t he Ru s-
sia nof f ic ia l sbeingA sia t ic st hem sel v es .
Sof a r a s t heC hinese c ou l d see, ' Ru ssia ha d beenin-
v a ria bl ysu c c essf u l , ha d m et w it hnoc hec k inhergrea t
a d v a nc ea c rossA sia , ha d t a k en, t hel ea d inp rev ent ing
J a p a nf rom exa c t ingf rom t heirc ou nt ryt hef u l l t erm st o
w hic h sl i c onsid ered hersel f ent it l ed a f t ert heTrea t yof
Shim onosek i, a nd w a st henm u c ht hest rongest na t ion
in
t heFa rE a st . Ru ssia , t oo, a t t hec l oseof t heC hinesew a r
. w it hJ a p a n, ha d hersel f p rop osed a c l oseu nd erst a nd ing
w it hC hina a nd ha d c onc l u d ed a p rel im ina rya greem ent
w it hher . C hinesest a t esm enf el t , t heref ore, t ha t , how ev er
d a ngerou sRu ssia m ight bet ot hem int hef u t u rea nd by
rea sonof herrec ent a nnexa t ionsint hep resent , t ha t grea t
na t ionc ou l d berel ied u p ont ow it hst a nd t hep rogress
78

TheA w a k eningof A sia
of J a p a nont hem a inl a nd a nd t hef ina l a p p rop ria t ionof
Korea byt heseim p u d ent bu t t oosu c c essf u l J a p a neseis-
l a nd ers, a st heyseem ed f rom t he, C hinesep oint of - v iew .
W ha t f ol l ow ed a p p ea red l it t l eshort of a m ira c l et o
C hineseM inist ers, w ho, a w a k eningf rom t heirt orp ora nd
f ool ishov er- c onf id enc eof t hep rev iou sd ec a d e,
t hou ght
t ha t t heynow u nd erst ood how p ow erl esst heE a st w a sin
c om p a risonw it ht heW est . Thef irst shoc k t oC hinese
c om p l a c enc yw a sgiv enw henin1904t het w obel l igerent s,
J a p a na nd Ru ssia , m a d ec om m onc a u seinp a yingnot t he
sl ight est a t t ent iont ot heint egrit yof C hineset errit ory
.
C hina w a sa neu t ra l int hec onf l ic t . Shet ook nop a rt
w ha t ev erint hest ru ggl e
. Yet Ru ssia a nd J a p a n, f ind ing
it c onv enient t of ight t heirf ight ou t onC hinesegrou nd ,
c a l m l yd id soint heirow nw a ya nd a t t heirow nc on-
v enienc e .
P oor, ha rm l ess, u nm il it a ryC hina c ou l d onl yl ook on
p ow erl essw hil eherow np rov inc esw erera v a ged byt he
c ont end inga rm ies, w hil eherc it iesw ereoc c u p ied , d ef end -
ed , a t t a c k ed , besieged , rega rd l essof herp rot est s, a nd t he
sa c red t om bsof t heM a nc hu E m p erorsw erev iol a t ed by
t hep resenc ea nd m isbeha v iou rof Ru ssia na nd J a p a nese
t roop s
. Thishu m il ia t ionw a sbit t erl yresent ed . Bu t not h-
ingc ou l d bed one
. Thed ef enc el ess, l ik et hea bsent , a re
a l w a ysint hew rong
. Thisw a sba d enou gh . Thev ic t ory
of neit herc om ba t a nt c ou l d benef it C hina ; bu t , of t het w o
c onf l ic t ingna t ions, t heC hinesew erena t u ra l l ym ore
f a -
v ou ra bl et ot heRu ssia nst ha nt ot heirl a t ec onqu erors
.
M oreov er, t heyt hou ght Ru ssia w a ssu ret ow in
. There-
su l t , a sa l l t hew orl d k now s, w a squ it et hec ont ra ry
. J a p a n
bea t Ru ssia . A sia d ef ea t ed E u rop e .
Thena t onc eit w a s
borneinu p ont heC hinesem oref orc ibl yt ha nev ert ha t
J a p a n, bya d op t ingE u rop ea nm et hod sof w a rf a rea nd or-
ga nisa t ion, ha d a ssu m ed t hel ea d ership of t heFa rE a st
.
TheBa t t l eof M u k d ena nd t heTrea t yof P ea c esigned a t
The
BoxerRising

79
P ort sm ou t h, N ew H a m p shire, ent irel yc ha nged t hew hol e
f a c eof w orl d - p ol ic yf orE a st a nd W est a l ik e
. Theyha d
a l soc om p l et el yt ra nsf orm ed C hinesep ol ic y
.
I t w a sinev it a bl eet ha t C hineseE m p erorsa nd C hinese
st a t esm enshou l d a t l a st yiel d t ot heu nerringl ogic of f a c t s
.
W ha t ha d beenf a r- seeingbu t u nrea l isa bl est a t esm a nship
ont hep a rt of a m ona rc ha hea d of hist im ebec a m enow
p ol it ic a l nec essit y, ev enf orm enof m od era t ea bil it y
. This
isnot t osa yt ha t t hec hief a d v isersof t heM a nc hu E m -
p eror, f rom 1905t o19o8 , w ereof inf eriorc a p a c it y . P rinc e
C hu n, Yu a n- Shi- Ka i, C ha nC hihTu nga nd ot hersw ere
f a ra bov et hea v era geof int el l igenc e . Bu t w it ht hel esson
of t heBoxerrisinga nd t hesha m ef u l l oot ingof P ek ing
behind t hem , a nd t hest a rt l ingv ic t oryof t heJ a p a neseov er
t heRu ssia nsonC hineset errit oryright inf ront of t hem ,
t w of a c t sw eret hru st u p onC hina w hic hnot ev ent hem ost
st u p id c ou l d ov erl ook . A nE a st ernra c ea d op t ingE u ro-
p ea nm et hod sof w a rf a rem u st inev it a bl yd ef ea t a not her
E a st ernra c ew hic hp ersist ed inf ol l ow ingt heol d w a ys .
A nE a st ernra c ea d op t ingW est ernm et hod sof w a rf a re
c a nev end ef ea t E u rop ea nsa t t heirow nga m e . Thisl a st
w a st hegrea t m ora l f orC hina of t heRu sso- J a p a neseW a r .
Theref ore, it p osit iv el yra ined E d ic t sinf a v ou rof E u -
rop ea nid ea sa nd . t henew l ea rningof t heW est . Therev o-
l u t ionw hic hp rov ok ed rea c t ionw a sf ol l ow ed byref orm s
w hic hengend ered rev ol u t ion
.
A new sp irit a rosea m ong
t hep eop l ea sw el l a sa m ongt heC hinesel it era t ia nd m en
of bu siness . Thenc ef orw a rd , p rogressw a sa l m ost a sra p id ,
t hou ghnot sosyst em a t ic a l l yorga nised , a st ha t w hic hha d
t a k enp l a c eea rl ierinJ a p a n . Theim m ensed if f erenc ein
a rea a nd p op u l a t ion, t hef a rgrea t erc onserv a t ism of t he
inha bit a nt s, t he, l a c k of a nym il it a ryc a st et od irec t t here-
orga nisa t ionof t hea rm y, t hea nt a gonism bet w eent heC hi ;
nesea nd t heirM a nc hu ru l ers, w erem u c hm oref orm id a bl e
obst a c l est osp eed yc ha nget ha nt heinsu rrec t ionof som e
8 o

TheA w a k eningof A sia
of t heol d f eu d a l ' c hief sa ga inst t herev iv ed ru l e of t he
M ik a d o.
Bu t w ha t w a sd onew a snev ert hel essm ost su rp rising
a nd enc ou ra gingf ort hef u t u re . I n 1905 a C om m ission
w a sset onf oot t oexa m ineint ot hea d m inist ra t iv esys-
t em sof f oreignc ou nt ries . Rep resent a t iv egov ernm ent , a
rev ol u t ioninit sel f , w a st obec a ref u l l yinv est iga t ed . O n
Sep t em ber 1, 19o6 , a nE d ic t w a sissu ed w it ht heM a nc hu
E m p eror' ssa nc t ion, d ec reeingt heest a bl ishm ent of a P a r-
l ia m ent a ryf orm of gov ernm ent a t a d a t enot f ixed . I n
N ov em berof t hesa m eyea ra nE d ic t w ent f ort ht oreor-
ga niset heof f ic esof t hec ent ra l a d m inist ra t ion
. A yea r
l a t er, N ov em ber, 19o7, it w a sd ec id ed t ha t a singl eI m -
p eria l A ssem bl y, not a d ou bl ec ha m berof H ou seof L ord s
a nd H ou seof C om m ons, w a srequ ired . I n 19o7,
a l so, a n
A d v isoryC ou nc il w a sest a bl ished . O nA u gu st 27,
1908 ,
a nE d ic t a nnou nc ed t hec onv oc a t ionof a P a rl ia m ent nine
yea rsl a t er, a nd onD ec em ber3 rd t heE d ic t w a sc onf irm ed .
I nt hisyea rt heD ow a gerE m p ress, w hoha d soresol u t el y
a nd ru t hl essl yf ou ght t heel a bora t esc hem eof p rogress
inref orm , d ied
. W it hherd ea t ha nd t hec onsequ ent c essa -
t ionof herinf l u enc eev ent sm ov ed f a st erst il l . O c t ober,
1909, sa w c l a ssesset t l ed f ort hef orm a t ionof a Sena t e
orI m p eria l C ou nc il . O neyea rm ore, a nd t heN a t iona l
A ssem bl yhel d it sf irst m eet ing . Thism ea nt t heop ening
of a new era f ort hep ol it ic a l a nd soc ia l l if eof t hem ost
p op u l ou sa nd a nc ient E m p ireint hew orl d
.
Thu s, inl esst ha nsixyea rs, st il l u nd erM a nc hu d om i-
na t ion, t hew hol eba sisof C hineseru l eha d beenc ha nged
a nd a nyret u rnt ot heol d st a t eof t hingsha d beenren-
d ered im p ossibl e . ' Fu rt herp rogressw a sinf a c t d ec reed
byev ent s . Thisha d beenf oreseena nd p rep a red f orin
" t hep u rel yC hinesem ov em ent inea c hof t hegrea t p rov -
inc es, w hereE l ec t ora l A ssem bl iesha d beena l rea d yest a b-
l ished in 1gog. H a p p il y, a l so, t heC hinesest a t esm ena nd
TheBoxerRising

8 1
genera l sa nd a git a t ors, w hoorga nised t hisra p id t ra nsf or-
m a t ion, w erew iseenou ght orec ogniset ha t p op u l a rd e-
m a nd sf orrev ol u t ionm u st insu c hst irringt im esbeba c k ed
u p byd isc ip l ined f orc esw hic hc ou l d berel ied u p ont o
su p p ort t henew gov ernm ent . TheM a nc hu sha d noc ha nc e
of su c c essa ga inst t heC hinesel ev iest ra ined ont heE u ro-
p ea np l a n . Soin 1911 t heTa rt a rd yna st y, w hic hha d been
m a st ersof C hina f ornea rl yt hreehu nd red yea rs, w a sgot
rid of m u c hm oreea sil yt ha nc ou l d ha v ebeenexp ec t ed ,
a nd w it ha na m ou nt of bl ood shed f a rinf eriort ot ha t w hic h
ha sa t t end ed inf init el yl essim p ort a nt d ev el op m ent sinE u ro-
p ea nc ou nt ries .
" C hina f ort heC hinese, " t hec ryw hic hha d beenra ised
byt heBoxers, t hea sp ira t ionw hic hf ou nd v oic eont he
d ea t hof t heE m p ressD ow a ger, bec a m enow t hera l l ying
c ryof p rogressiv eC hina a l l ov ert heE m p ire . O nc em ore
- f ort het w ent y- sec ond t im e, it issa id - t heTa rt a rin-
v a d ersha d beend ep osed a nd t heirsu p p ort ersw erebeing
sent ba c k t oc ol oniset heu nc u l t iv a t ed l a nd sof t henort h .
A l l t hisw a sd onew it ht hesym p a t hya nd good w il l of t he
W est ernP ow ersa nd J a p a n
. Thesha m ef u l p ol ic yof t he
p a rt it ionof C hina w hic hha d f ou nd f a v ou rinE u rop ef or
yea rsbef orea nd w a st hinl yd isgu ised byt hed ec l a ra t ion
of " sp heresof inf l u enc e" f ort hisort ha t c om m erc ia l brig-
a nd f rom t heW est , a id ed byt hest il l m oref orm id a bl e
briga nd c l osea t ha nd , m et w it ha c hec k w hic hit ist obe
hop ed w il l d ev el op int op erm a nent a nd ef f ec t iv eresist a nc e .
A c onsol id a t ed C hina of t heC hinese, w it ha su f f ic ient
a rm y, a na d equ a t ena v y, a nd c ont inu ou sd ev el op m ent of
herint erna l resou rc es, w ou l d sp eed il yexerc isea p rop or-
t iona t einf l u enc eont hep ol it ic sof t heP a c if ic . Bu t , t oen-
su resa f et yf rom t hep red a t oryna t ionsbyw hic hsheis
enc om p a ssed , t heRep u bl ic m u st f ina l l ya ba nd onherp ol ic y
of u np rep a red nessa nd non- resist a nc et oa t t a c k . Bysel f -
d ef enc ea l onec a nt hism a gnif ic ent c ou nt ry, w it hit ssp l en-
8 2

TheA w a k eningof A sia
d id resou rc esinm ena nd m a t eria l , besec u red a ga inst a t -
t em p t sa t d om ina t ionf rom w it hou t - a t t em p t sm ored a n-
gerou st oherind ep end enc et ha na nybyw hic hsheha s
beenp rev iou sl yt hrea t ened .
W henf irst t hep ossibil it yof t heej ec t ionof t heM a n-
c hu sa nd t heest a bl ishm ent of a sel f - gov erningC hina d e-
v el op ed int oa p ra c t ic a l p ol ic y, m a nyE u rop ea nsym -
p a t hiserst hou ght t ha t a rev iv a l of t heM ingd yna st yof
t heSou t hm ight bed esira bl e, if t hed irec t d esc end a nt s
of t ha t C hineseI m p eria l f a m il yc ou l d bef ou nd . Those
d esc end a nt sw erek now n, bu t noneof t hem w a sa t a l l qu a l i-
f ied f or t hep osit ionof E m p eror . N ev ert hel ess, t hev iew
w a ssost rongl yhel d t ha t onl ya nE m p erorru l ingf rom
P ek ingc ou l d hol d t henew l y- em a nc ip a t ed C hina t oget her
t ha t it w a ssom et im ebef oret heid ea of a C hineseRep u bl ic ,
st ea d f a st l ya d v oc a t ed f rom t hef irst bySu nYa t Sena nd
his a ssoc ia t es, f ou nd genera l f a v ou r . Rep u bl ic sha d not
beensogenera l l ysu c c essf u l el sew heret ha t t heyc ou l d be
rega rd ed a sa f orm of gov ernm ent su it ed t oa highl yc on-
serv a t iv eE a st ernna t ionw hic hha d l iv ed u nd ersu c c essiv e
I m p eria l d yna st iesf ort hou sa nd sof yea rs . A Rep u bl ic of
a d em oc ra t ic k ind p resu p p osesa d em oc ra c y, a nd d em oc -
ra c y, int heW est ernsense, isu nk now nint heE a st . The
ent irea bsenc eof hered it a rynobil it yha d nev erinv ol v ed a s
it sc onsequ enc ed em oc ra t ic c ont rol ina nysha p e . C om -
p et it iv eexa m ina t ionsf orof f ic ia l p osit ions, ev enw heret hey
w erec ond u c t ed w it hou t a nysu sp ic ionof briberyorf a -
v ou rit ism , ord om ina nt inf l u enc eorsu bst it u t ion, w ereen-
t irel yd if f erent f rom p op u l a rnom ina t ionorel ec t ion . Tha t
C hina t heref oreshou l d a d op t Rep u bl ic a ninst it u t ions, of
w hic ht herew a sa t t het im eonl yoneest a bl ished exa m p l e
inE u rop eona l a rgesc a l e, a p p ea red a l m ost inc onc eiv a bl e
t ool d resid ent sa t t heTrea t yP ort sora t P ek ing .
N ev ert hel esst heinf l u enc eof Su nYa t Sena nd his
sc hool p rev a il ed , a nd Su nYa t Senm ight him sel f ha v e
TheBoxerRising

8 3
beent hef irst P resid ent . Bu t hega v ew a yt oYu a n- Shi-
Ka i, t hea bl ea nd f ea rl essV ic eroyof Sha nt u ng in t heBoxer
d a ys, w hoha d a rm ed a nd t ra ined a nef f ic ient C hinesef orc e .
Theu nf ort u na t eresu l t sof t hisa p p oint m ent t ot heRe-
p u bl ic a nd Yu a nhim sel f w ereseenl a t er
. ForYu a n- Shi-
Ka i, w hil ea genu ineC hina m a n, a ref orm er, a nd a p ro-
t ec t orof f oreigners, w a sst il l of t heol d sc hool of M a n-
d a rins, t hou ghst rongl yind oc t rina t ed w it ht henew m il i-
t a ryid ea s . H ew a sa rbit ra ry, t yra nnic a l a nd sel f - ind u l -
gent , a nd , a shega ined inc rea sed p ow er, hisc onc ep t ion of
hisp osit iona sP resid ent d if f ered l it t l ef rom t ha t w hic ha
rea c t iona ryM a nc hu w ou l d
ha v ehel d u nd ersim il a rc irc u m -
st a nc es .
Bu t m ea nw hil e- bef orea sw el l a sim m ed ia t el ya f t er
t hea c t u a l rev ol u t iona nd ov ert hrow of t heM a nc hu s- t he
w hol eC hinesesyst em ha d beenm od if ied int hem ost su r-
p risingw a y . C ha ngeof soc ia l ha bit s, a ba nd onm ent of a n-
c ient c u st om s, u p root ingof ol d - w orl d c erem onies, a p p l i-
c a t iont oed u c a t iona l p u rp osesof rel igiou sbu il d ingsl ong
d ev ot ed t ov a riou sk ind sof w orship , a rea l l inf init el ym ore
d if f ic u l t t obringa bou t t ha na l t era t ionsinp ol it ic a l f orm s
ort herem ov a l of a nobnoxiou sd yna st y . I nt hesem a t t ers,
how ev er, C hina , w henonc eshebega nt om ov e, p rogressed
w it hev engrea t erc el erit yt ha nJ a p a na genera t ionbef ore .
Thu st heu np ra c t ic a l ol d ru l esinrega rd t oed u c a t ion, ev en
l esssu it ed t om od ernid ea st ha nt hea nt iqu a t ed d ev ot ion
t oGreek a nd Rom a nl it era t u rew hic hst il l p rev a il sinE ng-
l ishp u bl ic sc hool sa nd u niv ersit ies, w ereent irel yrel a xed
f rom oneend of C hina t ot heot her
. Thep ressingnec es-
sit yf ora c qu iringW est ernk now l ed ge, w hil enot giv ing
u p t heinc u l c a t ionof t henobl et ru t hsof C onf u c ia nm or-
a l it y, w a sim p osed f rom a bov ea nd rea d il ya c c ep t ed bel ow .
I nSep t em ber, 19o5, a nE d ic t w a sp rom u l ga t ed w hic hd id
a w a yw it ht heol d m et hod of exa m ina t ionsf rom 19o6 on-
w a rd s . Thenew syst em est a bl ished w a sessent ia l l ym od -
8 4
TheA w a k eningof A sia
erninev eryw a y .
Thou sa nd sof t em p l esw erenow u sed
a ssc hool room s, w hil et hep eop l e, w how ou l d f orm erl yha v e
resent ed su c hu sea sa nou t ra ge, m a d el it t l eornoobj ec t ion
.
I nsp it eof t hel a rgenu m bersof C hinesew hoha d gonef or
inst ru c t iont oE u rop ea nd A m eric a a nd t hem a nyt hou sa nd s
w hoha d resort ed t oJ a p a nf ort hesa m ep u rp ose, t hegrea t
d if f ic u l t yw a st of ind enou ghC hineset ea c herst om eet t he
d em a nd f ort het horou ghinc u l c a t ionof t henew id ea s .
Theext rem eC hinesed ef erenc et oa u t horit y, w hic hha d
hind ered t hea d v a nc eof k now l ed gea nd f ost ered a p rej u -
d ic ed c onserv a t ism f ora gesbef ore, t ol d st rongl yint he
ot herd irec t ionnow t ha t t heru l ersof t hec ou nt ryw ere
c onv inc ed t ha t it w a su nsa f et ost a nd u p ont heol d w a ys
a nd issu ed m a nd a t esf ora c om p l et ec ha nget ot henew .
Thissa m eC onf u c ia nl a w of im p l ic it obed ienc et op a t erna l
inj u nc t ionsf rom a bov erend ered t hea d op t ionof t hesys-
t em rec om m end ed f rom onhighf a rea siert ha nw ou l d
ha v ebeenp ossibl ew it ha p eop l el esssu bserv ient t of a m il y
ru l ea nd of f ic ia l d om ina t ion . W hent hec ryst a l l ised m ou l d s
of ed u c a t iona l inst ru c t ionw ereev enp a rt ia l l ybrok ena ny-
t hingbec a m ep ossibl eint heC hina of t hep resent a nd nea r
f u t u re .
A highl yint el l igent ra c ew a sa l l a t onc erel iev ed
f rom t heint el l ec t u a l bond a geof c ent u riesa nd ent ered a ga in
u p ont ha t u p w a rd a nt ionw a rd c a reert ow a rd st hek now l -
ed gea nd c ont rol ov erna t u rew hic hha d onc eena bl ed C hina
t ol ea d t hec iv il ised w orl d , a nd m a ynot im p ossibl yd oso
a ga in .
Fort heC hineseof ol d w erea bov ea l l origina t ors
a nd m enof init ia t iv e . TheJ a p a nese, t heKorea ns, t he
M a l a ya nsa nd ot hersd id bu t f ol l ow int hef oot st ep sof t he
grea t C hinesed isc ov erersa nd inv ent ors, w hoha d bol d l y
a nd v igorou sl ybl a z ed t het ra il f ort hem t hrou ght hev a st
f orest sa nd d enseu nd ergrow t hof hu m a nignora nc e
. E u -
rop eit sel f ow esm u c hof it sk now l ed get ot hep a t ient w ork
of t heC hineseof l onga go, w hosed esc end a nt sw e, t he
w hit esof t o- d a y, ha v et ooof t end esp ised
.
TheBoxer
Rising

8 5
Thef reshst a rt w a s, a sa l rea d ysa id , a c c om p a nied by
a new v iew of m il it a ryt ra ining .
- Thesol d ier, f orm erl y
c ont em ned a sa non- w ork erinsp it eof hissk il l ina rm s,
ha sbec om ea l l a t onc ea nim p ort a nt p erson, l ik ehisriv a l
int hosec ou nt riesw herep ea c ew a snot c ou nt ed t heessen-
t ia l t hing . I f u niv ersit iesf orp ea c ef u l st u d ya rebeing
f orm ed a l l ov ert heE m p ire, m il it a rya c a d em iesw it ht he
l a t est c u rric u l u m f orsc ient if ic sl a u ght erha v el ik ew isebeen
est a bl ished inhot ha st e .
I m it a t ingint hisresp ec t t hew orst
a nd m ost u nhea l t hym et hod sof t heW est , ba rra c k sf il l ed
w it hsol d iersa rem a k ingt heira p p ea ra nc einm a nyof t he
grea t c it ies . Thesu p erst it iou sgrot esqu erieof M a nc hu w a r-
f a rew hic hha d it sf u l l sha reev enint hew a ra ga inst J a p a n
a nd c onst it u t ed a not ic ea bl ew ea p onint hea rsena l of t he
Boxersha sd isa p p ea red f orev er
.
Thegrim a c esa nd yel l s,
t hehid eou sm a sk sa nd bow sa nd a rrow sof t herec ent p a st
ha v egiv enp l a c et osyst em a t ic E u rop ea nd ril l , a nd t hem en
a rea rm ed w it ht hebest of E u rop ea nw ea p ons . " A rsena l s
a ret obeseena t ev erygrea t c ent re ; c a nnona nd a l l t he
m u nit ionsof w a ra rebeingm a d ew it hint heem p ire : This
isnot t hec a sea t onet ow nm erel y, ora t t w o, bu t a t ev ery
c a p it a l . . . . Thew hol eem p ireseem st obea rm ing, not in
ext ra ord ina ryha st ebu t w it ht horou ghness, w it hd ogged -
nessa nd w it hresou rc esw it hw hic hnoE u rop ea nna t ion
c a nc om p a re
. " Theseobserv a t ionsof a nu np rej u d ic ed
A m eric a nt ra v el l erm a ybesom ew ha t exa ggera t ed . C hina
c a nnot p ret end a t p resent t ost a nd a sa m il it a ryp ow eron
t hesa m ep l a nea sJ a p a norE ngl a nd orA m eric a
.
Bu t t he
p ossibil it iesof t hef u t u reu nd erherow nd ev el op m ent , or
u nd erJ a p a nesel ea d ership , c a nnot bec ont em p l a t ed w it hou t
seriou sref l ec t ion, orev ena p p rehension .
H ow l ongha v eE u rop ea nsl a u ghed a t t heid iot ic c om -
p l a c enc yw it hw hic hC hinesew om enc rip p l ed t hem sel v es
f orl if ebyc om p ressingt heirf eet : int oa f orm l essm a ss,
w hil eov erl ook ingt hef ool isha nd ha rm f u l f a shiononc e
8 6

TheA w a k eningof A sia
a d op t ed byel ega nt W est ernw om eninc onst ric t ingt heir
ow nw a ist s? Bu t it ha d bec om ea f a shionc onsec ra t ed by
t heu seof c ent u riesa nd rend ered m ored if f ic u l t t oov er-
c om ebyt heha bit u a l c onf inem ent of C hinesew om enof
good st a t ion
. A sha rd , a p p a rent l y, t heref ore, t ou p root
w it hina f ew yea rs a s t oind u c et heJ ew st op a rt w it ht heir
hol yrit eof c irc u m c ision .
Thew om ent hem sel v esw ered ev ot ed t ot heirow nc u s-
t om a ryl a m eness . Theyrega rd ed a sba rba ria nst hoseof
t heirow nsexinW est ernC hina it sel f w horef u sed t hu s
t od isqu a l if yt hem sel v esf orsom eof t hem ost im p ort a nt
d u t iesof l if e . N ev erw ou l d t heyu nbind t heirow nf eet
orp erm it t heirf em a l ec hil d rent ost a l k a l ongl ik em enin
t heop enst reet . Yet bet w een 1905 a nd 1911, ev enbef ore
t herev ol u t ion, t ha t ist osa y, inp rov inc ea f t erp rov inc e
t hisa nc ient p ra c t ic eof bind ing' t hef eet c a m et oa nend
.
Bou nd f eet w erebec om ingt heexc ep t ion . Girl sw honev er
w ent ou t now t roop t osc hool insom ed ist ric t s . Theya re
beginningt orea d a nd ev ent ot hink f ort hem sel v es . The
el a bora t ep a int ingof t hef a c ew hic hw a st heru l eisa l so
f a d ingou t . I nt heirsexu a l a rra ngem ent ssom el ibert yis .
beingsec u red , sot ha t girl sm a yref u sehu sba nd sc hosen
f ort hem , if nec essa ry . Theu nbind ingof t hef eet issym p -
t om a t ic of rel ea seinot herd irec t ions
. Theem a nc ip a t ion
of w om a nisinm a nyd ist ric t sm oret ha n- k eep ingp a c e
w it ht heem a nc ip a t ionof t hem en . Therep ressionw a s
m u c hgrea t er : t hef reed om ga ined isrel a t iv el ym orec om -
p l et e .
Sim il a rl yw it ht hequ eu e . Tha t w a sa sym bol of
M a nc hu su p rem a c yenf orc ed byt heTa rt a rc onqu erors
a nd E m p erors . Bu t , int hec ou rseof genera t ions, t he
su bj u ga t ed C hina m enha d bec om ea c c u st om ed t oa nd p rou d
of t hism et hod of w ea ringt heir" ba c k ha ir . " E v enin
d ist a nt c ol oniesu nd ert heBrit ishf l a g, w heret heyw ere
p erf ec t l yf ree, ha d t hey, w ished , t oc u t of f t hisl onga p -
TheBoxerRising

8 7
p end a ge, sod ea rt oou row nsa il orsof ol d , t heC hinese
im m igra nt snev erd isp ensed w it ht heirqu eu es . Theirp res-
enc ew a sa sf a m il ia rt ot hem a nd a sl it t l eirk som ea st heir
u seof c hop st ic k s . Yet , int hisc a se, a l so, rev ol t p rev a il ed
ov erc u st om a nd f a shion . W it ht hed isa p p ea ra nc eof t he
M a nc hu sa nd t heina u gu ra t ionof t heRep u bl ic , t hew ea ring
of p igt a il sgra d u a l l ybec a m el essgenera l a nd ha snow been
giv enu p a l m ost ev eryw here . Rec ognised a sd u et oM a n-
c hu u su rp a t ion, it w a sd isc a rd ed a sa nev id enc eof t hev ic -
t oryof C hina hersel f ov ert heTa rt a rinv a d ers, a nd som e-
t hingw hic hbel it t l ed t hem int heeyesof t henew c om m er-
c ia l f oreignersw how erep ressinginu p onherf rom t he
sea .
Thu sE u rop ea nsa nd A m eric a nsha v einev eryd irec -
t iont od ea l w it ha new a nd a na w a k ened C hina . E d u c a -
t ion, soc ia l c u st om s, m il it a ryorga nisa t ion, ec onom ic a d -
v a nc e, ra c ia l isol a t iona rea l l inp roc essof f u nd a m ent a l
t ra nsf orm a t ion . Yet , t hou gh, a sw il l beseen, t heya re
a d op t ingW est ernm a t eria l im p rov em ent sa nd m et hod sof
d ev el op m ent ona sc a l ea nd ov era next ent of c ou nt ry
w hic ha m a z est hem ost sa ngu ine, a l l a d m it t ha t t heyw il l
nev erw el c om eE u rop ea nsw hoset t l ea m ongt hem . L ik e
t heJ a p a nese, t heyw il l m a k eu seof f oreignk now l ed gea s
f a ra sm a ybec onv enient , bu t onl yu p ont heirow nt erm s .
Theyseev eryc l ea rl yt ha t , how ev erm u c hE u rop ea nsm a y
beina d v a nc eof t heC hineseinm a t eria l grow t h, inot her
resp ec t st heW est ernBa rba ria nsof t heO p iu m W a rsa nd
t heP ek ingp l u nd eringsa reW est ernBa rba ria nsst il l . They
ont heirsid ec ont inu et orega rd t heC hinesea sa ninf erior
p eop l e, a nd t rea t t hem , w herev ert heyc a nord a re, a sin-
f eriorp eop l et o- d a y .
A na rist oc ra t ic E ngl ishc l ergym a n, now a bishop , w ent
t oC hina , f il l ed w it ht ha t c onsu m m a t ea ssu ra nc ew hic hso
end ea rst heA ngl o- Sa xont oc u l t iv a t ed C el est ia l s, w hosea n-
c est orsw erea grea t a nd c iv il ised p eop l ew hil ehisf orbea rs
8 8
TheA w a k eningof A sia
w erep row l inga m id t hef orest sof N ort hernE u rop eha l f -
c l a d
. H ew ent - t hink of it - inord ert oc onv inc et hein-
ha bit a nt sof t ha t c ou nt rynot onl yt ha t c a nnona nd rif l es
a rem oreef f ec t iv ew ea p onst ha nbow sa nd a rrow s, a nd ra il -
w a ysa nd m ot or- c a rsp ref era bl et op a l a nqu ins, bu t t ha t he
him sel f c ou l d t ea c ht hem a f a rhigherA sia t ic rel igiont ha n
a nyt heyha d yet em bra c ed .
Thesim p l ef a c t , observ e, t ha t C hrist ia nit yha sbeen
t a u ght inC hina f orm oret ha nt hreehu nd red yea rst ov ery
l it t l ep u rp ose, bym enw hoha d m a d et hem sel v esm a st ers
of t hel a ngu a ge, ha d a d a p t ed t hem sel v est ot heu sa gesof t he
p eop l e, a nd byt heirt a c t , sc ient if ic a c qu irem ent s- a nd c a -
p a c it yf ora d m inist ra t iononc enea rl yobt a ined c ont rol of
t heent ireE m p ire, d oesnot int hel ea st d a shou rsel f - c on-
st it u t ed a p ost l e' ssu bl im esel f - c onf id enc e . H ek now snot
a
w ord of C hinesehim sel f , a nd ha sl it t l eexp erienc eint he
c ou nt ry, yet byhisp ersist enc ehef orc essom eof t hem ost
im p ort a nt of t heof f ic ia l c l a sst o" a rgu e" w it hhim ona b-
st ru sep oint sof hisow nd if f ic u l t a nd el a bora t ec reed
.
I m a ginea C hinesebonz eget t ingt heV ic eroyof I nd ia , t he
V ic eroyof I rel a nd a nd t hea bl est " l it era t i" f rom t heBrit -
ishU niv ersit iest od ev ot ehou rsonend t ot hed isc u ssion
of C onf u c ia nism a nd L a ot seism , int erru p t ed onl ybya n
a d m ira bl el u nc heonp rov id ed byt heA rc hbishop of C a nt er-
bu ry' sexqu isit ec ook
! W ha t sort of rec ep t ionw ou l d t he
C hinesed ev ot eerea l l yenc ou nt er? I t isnot p l ea sa nt t ot hink
of
. Yet t hisisw ha t bef el l t herev erend gent l em a ninin-
f id el C hina , a nd hereishisa c c ou nt of hist rea t m ent byhis
ent ert a iners :
" Thec ou rt esyof t heC hineseof f ic ia l s, t hec ha rm of t heir
m a nner, t hem ixt u reof d ignit ya nd good - na t u rew hic his
su c ha c ha ra c t erist ic of t heirbeha v iou rm a k esc ont rov ersy
w it ht hem d el ight f u l . I d onot t hink a nyonew hoha sk now n
t hem c a nbebu t grea t l ya t t ra c t ed byt heirc ou rt esya nd k ind -
ness .
A l l C hinesea rec ou rt eou s, bu t t heC hinesel it era t i,
TheBoxer
. Rising

8 9
p erha p sna t u ra l l y, grea t l yexc el t heirf el l ow - c ou nt rym enin
t hisc ha rm ingc ha ra c t erist ic . " The
k ind l ya rroga nc eof a l l
t his, su p erim p osed
ona v ehem ent a rgu m ent inf a v ou rof
est a bl ishinga nE ngl ishC hrist ia nU niv ersit yinC hina ,
nev eroc c u rst ot hisa m ia bl et ra v el l er . Yet inot herd irer
t ionsheisa bl et od isc erna nd c om m ent u p ont hed isa gree-
a bl equ a l it iesof hisow nc ou nt rym enw it hsom ep ersp ic a c -
it ya nd j u d gm ent
. Thu sheisrea l l ya l it t l eshoc k ed w hen
hed isc ov erst ha t inSha ngha i- a grea t C hinesec it y, byt he
w a y- f oreignersha v esoc om p l et el yobt a ined c ont rol of t he
p u bl ic ga rd enst ha t a not ic eisp u t
: u p ont heirbeha l f : " N o
C hinesesha l l bea d m it t ed exc ep t serv a nt sina t t end a nc eon
f oreigners
. " C u l t iv a t ed C hineseof f ic ia l sof t het yp ew it h
w hom t heE ngl ishec c l esia st ic ha d hel d hisc ont rov ersy, a s
w el l a shighl yed u c a t ed C hinesem erc ha nt sa nd sc hol a rs,
a rea l l exc l u d ed !
M oreov er, soent irel ya ref oreignersm a s-
t ersof t hem u nic ip a l it yt ha t t hereisnot a singl eC hinese
rep resent a t iv eont heC it yC ou nc il . C hina f ort heC hinese
ind eed
!
Theinc ongru it yof t hissort of c ond u c t seem st oha v e
st ru c k a nA m eric a nobserv erev enm oref orc ibl y
. H eis
l ook ingona t a not hergrea t C hinesec it yw it hit sE u rop ea n
set t l em ent , a nd het hu sinv it eshisrea d erst ol ook w it h
him : " C ont ra st t hef ort s, f oreignf ort s, ont hew a l l , t he
host a gesgiv ent of oreigners, w honot onl yc l a im t od w el l
int heM a nc hu c it y, bu t obl igep a rt of t hew a l l t obep ro-
hibit ed t oC hinese, l est t hef oreignset t l em ent beov erl ook ed !
I m a ginea sec t ionof W a shingt ont a k enp ossessionof by
M oroc c a nsa nd Trip ol it a ns, w it hTu rk sa nd A ra bsa nd
P ersia nsset t l inga l ongsid e, O rient a l sol d iersga rrisoningit ,
f ree- bornA m eric a nsbid d enk eep a w a yl est t heE u rop ea n
su sc ep t ibil it iesbehu rt !
W ou l d A m eric a t ol era t et ha t l ong,
a f t erhernew a rm yw a sinw ork ingord er? L ook d ow n
yond er
. A t t hef oot of t hew a l l isa squ a d of c a d et sf rom
t hena v a l a c a d em yp ra c t isingbu gl ec a l l s
. W hoa ret hose
90

TheA w a k eningof A sia
yel l ow f a c esinW est ernd ress? Sol d iersw it hm od ern
w ea p ons. A nd w hoa ret heseinna v a l u nif orm ?
P ol ic e
of a new t yp e
. " Tha t ist hesort of v ision, f ol l ow ingu p on
a l l t ha t ha sgonebef ore, w hic hm u st a rou seseriou sre-
f l ec t ionint hem ost su p erf ic ia l m ind .
Soonew ou l d im a gine, a t l ea st . Yet onl ya f ew yea rs
ha v ep a ssed sinc ea highl yint el l igent E ngl ishm a n, w ho
isa c c ep t ed a sa na u t horit yona l l E a st ernqu est ions, w rot e
a sif C hina m u st a l w a ysbet a l k ed d ow nt obyE u rop ea ns .
I t seem ed t ohim t ha t if E u rop ea nsgrew f a v ou ra bl et o
C hina a f t erc ont inu a l resid enc eint hec ou nt ry, it m u st be
d u et osom einj u riou sinf l u enc ew hic ht heC hineseexert
ov ert hosew hoc om eha bit u a l l y in c ont a c t w it ht hem ! There
a ga inisst il l t henot eof C hineseinf eriorit y . Fort hisrea -
son, no m a t t erw ha t v iew t heC hineset hem sel v esm a yt a k e,
t heya ret obep erm a nent l yd ic t a t ed t oint heirow nc ou n-
t rybyt hef oreignersont hesp ot . M issiona ries, f orex-
a m p l e, ha v ebeen, d irec t l yorind irec t l y, t hec a u seof m u c h
of t het rou bl ew hic hha sa risena ga inst t hew hit eset t l ers
ou t sid et heTrea t yP ort s . I t isqu it ep ossibl eind eed t ha t
oneof t hem ost p ot ent c a u sesof t heBoxerrisingw a st he
inc red ibl yf ool ishE d ic t , issu ed a t t hesa m et im ew it hot her
im p ort a nt bu t p rem a t u red ec rees, w hic hd ec l a red t ha t C a t ho-
l ic bishop sshou l d rec eiv et hesa m ehonou rsa nd bea c c ord ed
t hesa m ec erem oniesa sC hineseof f ic ia l sof t hehighest ra nk .
Thisw a sd u et oc ont inu ou sa nd t hrea t eningp ressu reex-
ert ed byt heFrenc ha u t horit iesa t P ek inga nd t heirc l eric a l
f riend sa t hom e . N ot hingc ou l d bem orec a l c u l a t ed t o
a rou seba d f eel ing . Yet t het oneof t heE ngl ishw rit er
c it ed a bov e, w hosev iew sonI nd ia a rev ehem ent l yrea c -
t iona ry, issc a rc el yl essobj ec t iona bl et ha nt heFrenc hd e-
m a nd f orexc ep t iona l rec ognit ionof t heec c l esia st ic a l en-
v oys of t heP op e . " Them issiona riesha v ea right t ogot o
C hina a nd t oC hina t hey w il l c ont inu et ogo, how ev eru n-
d esira bl et heirp resenc et herem a ybec onsid ered . " Tha t
TheBoxerRising
91
ist heop inionof SirV a l ent ineC hirol . A nd hegoesf a r-
t her . M issiona riesa ret hep ioneersof c om m erc ea nd f or-
eigninf l u enc e . " M issiona ryw ork inC hina isnot onl ya
p rosel yt isingbu t a l soa hu m a nisinga genc y, a nd ev erym is-
siona ryest a bl ishm ent isa c ent ref rom w hic hc iv il isingin-
f l u enc esra d ia t eov ert hew hol ea rea of it sop era t ions . "
Bu t t ha t is j u st w ha t p a t riot ic a nd f a rseeingC hina -
m enu nd erst a nd p erf ec t l yw el l f rom t heirow np oint of
v iew .
Theyu nd erst a nd , t ha t ist osa y, p rec isel yw ha t
" c iv il isinginf l u enc es" - w hit em a n' s" k u l t u r" - m ea nint he
E a st ; t ha t , how ev erf inea c reed C hrist ia nit ym a ybeinit -
sel f , it isu nsu it ed t oC hina u nd erexist ingc ond it ionsa nd
is l ia bl e, byt hez ea l of it sa p ost l es, t orou seexa c t l yt hose
m isu nd erst a nd ingsa nd st iru p t hosea nim osit iesw hic hit
ism ost d esira bl et oa v oid . E u rop ea nsa sa w hol e, bu t p a r-
t ic u l a rl yt heE ngl isha nd A m eric a ns, a reesp ec ia l l yst rong
ont hed ignit ya nd f reed om of t heind iv id u a l a sa nin-
d iv id u a l . H est a nd sou t a ssom et hingbyhim sel f , ha v ing
right sa nd d u t iesa p a rt f rom hisf a m il y, a nd ind ep end ent
ev enof t hec om m u nit y . H isf u t u resa l v a t iona f t erd ea t h
d ep end su p onhim sel f , a nd hisrel a t ionst ohisa nc est ors
ha v el ongsinc ebeenobl it era t ed orm erged ina genera l re-
sp ec t f ort hep a st
. TheC hineseha v enosu c hid ea sa st hese,
t heyrega rd t hem a sim p rop era nd im m ora l , a nd w isht oha v e
not hingt od ow it ht hem a sgu id ingt heirc ond u c t t hrou gh
l if eorind ea t h . Theonl ysu c c essa c hiev ed byC hrist ia nit y
inC hina ha sbeenga ined byt hrow ingov erboa rd som eof
t hem ost c herished t enet sof t hef a it hw hic hisnow d om i-
na nt inE u rop e, a nd byrec ognisinga nc est orw orship , t he
su p rem a c yof t hef a m il ya nd u nsha k a bl ed u t yt ot hec om -
m u nit ya st heessent ia l sof c iv il ised exist enc e . H ere, onc e
m ore, isit p roba bl et ha t , sinc eC hina isbec om inga w a re
of herow nst rengt ha nd isrisingou t of t hest a gna t ionof
a ges, shew il l ext end w el c om ea nd ensu rep rot ec t iont o
92

TheA w a k eningof A sia
ec c l esia st ic a l a git a t orsw ho, sinc erea st heym a ybe, int ro-
d u c ea l l t heel em ent sof int erna l c onf l ic t ?
Therem ov a l of t heM a nc hu d yna st ya nd t heest a bl ish-
m ent of t heC hineseRep u bl ic in 1911 w a sa rev ol u t ion
w hic honl yga v esa nc t iont oresu l t sa l rea d ya c hiev ed a nd ,
byc onst it u t inga f reeFed era t ionof t heP rov inc es, p rep a red
t hew a yf orf u rt herp rogress . Thel ea d ersof t hisa l m ost
p ea c ef u l t ra nsf orm a t ionw ereinf a v ou rof m ov ingt he
c a p it a l f rom P ek ingt ot heSou t h. Thisp ol ic yw a sf a v ou red
byt heRep u bl ic a nsf orm a nyrea sons . N ot onl yw a sP ek ing
t heTa rt a rc a p it a l , w henc et heC hineset hem sel v esha d been
ru l ed byf oreignba rba ria nsf orm a nygenera t ions, bu t it
w a st oof a rf rom t hec ent reof t hec ou nt rya nd ha d l ost
m u c hof it sp ol it ic a l a nd na t iona l im p ort a nc eow ingt ot he
w hol esa l ea nnexa t ionsa nd l ea singsof t errit orybyRu ssia
a nd J a p a nd u ringt hep a st t w ent yyea rs . I t w a sf ou nd ,
nev ert hel ess, t ha t t hec ha nge, how ev erd esira bl e, c ou l d not
t henbem a d e . Yu a n- Shi- Ka i, w hoa t f irst rec eiv ed t he
su p p ort of a l l t heE u rop ea #P ow ersa nd w a snot op p osed
byJ a p a n, hel d c ont rol of t hel a nd f orc es . H isa p p oint m ent
a sP resid ent of t heRep u bl ic p ra c t ic a l l yset t l ed t hequ est ion
t ha t P ek ingshou l d rem a int hec a p it a l a nd c ent reof a d -
m inist ra t iv ea u t horit ysol onga shehel d t heof f ic eof P resi-
d ent .
I t soona p p ea red t ha t t hism a st erf u l p ersona gew a sa l -
m ost t hew orst rep u bl ic a nw hoc ou l d ha v ebeenc hosenf or
t hep ost . Tra d ingu p ont heignora nc eof resid ent E u ro-
p ea nsof t hegrea t c ha ngesw hic hw eret a k ingp l a c ea l l
rou nd t hem ; sec u ringt hef ina nc ia l hel p of t heGrea t P ow -
erst ot heext ent of m a nym il l ionsst erl ing, insp it eof t he
p rot est of t heRep u bl ic a nA ssem bl y ; su rrou nd inghim sel f
a ssoona shec ou l d w it hsom eof t hem ost d esp ic a bl eC hinese
a gent sof t heol d regim ea nd hol d ingc ont rol of hisa rm yby
st rongm a rt ia l l a w , Yu a n- Shi- Ka ic onst it u t ed him sel f a
d ic t a t orof t het yp eof P orf irioD ia z inM exic oorE nv er
TheBoxer : Rising
93
P a sha inTu rk ey . H ew a sm orec orru p t a nd m orebru t a l
ev ent ha nt hesew ret c hes . A nd hew a sf a v ou red , l ik et hem ,
byf oreignf ina nc iers . Theyw a nt ed ra il w a ys, l oa ns, m in-
ingc onc essionsa nd soon . Yu a n- Shi- Ka i, l ik ehisf irst
p a t ron, L iH u ngC ha ng, w a nt ed m oneya nd p ow era nd t he
m ea nsof ext ra v a ga nc ea nd d eba u c hery . Thesehec ou l d ob-
t a inbyt hea id of hisf oreignp a t rons .
I t w a sa sa d p ersona l d et eriora t ion, a nd t hel ea d ers
of t herep u bl ic a np a rt y, H w a ngH siu a nd Su nYa t Sen,
bot hrea l p a t riot s, t heonea sol d iera nd t heot hera st a t es-
m a na nd a p hil osop her, m a d ea grea t m ist a k ew hent hey
ga v ew a yt oYu a na t t hebeginningof hism isc hiev ou s
P resid ent ia l c a reer . A reignof t errorbega n . A l l t heol d
m a c hineryof d el a t ion, t ort u rea nd exec u t ion, w hic hha d
beenset inm ot ionbyt heD ow a gerE m p ress, w a sf u rbished
u p a f resha nd p u t t of u l l u sebyYu a n . H isop p onent sw ere
f orc ed t of l eet hec ou nt ryt osa v et heirl iv es . H w a nga nd
Su nYa t Sent ook ref u geinJ a p a n, w hil eYu a np u rsu ed his
c ou rsef ora t im eu nc hec k ed . Thef oreignersinC hina st il l
ba c k ed Yu a na l ik el oc a l l ya nd int heP ressa t hom e . D es-
p ot ic ru l ew a snec essa ry, t heya v erred , f ort hebenef it of t he
C hineset hem sel v es .
H a p p il yf ort heRep u bl ic a nd f ort hef u t u reof C hina ,
Yu a n, not c ont ent ed w it ht hesu bst a nc eof d esp ot ic p ow er,
yea rned f orit ssha d ow a sw el l . H ew ished t oest a bl isha
new d yna st ya t P ek ing, of w hic hhea nd hissonshou l d be-
c om et hef irst a nd sec ond E m p erors
. Tha t w a st oom u c h
f ort henew sp irit of t heC hinese . Rev ol t f ol l ow ed u p on
rev ol t , p rov inc ea f t erp rov inc esec ed ed f rom Yu a n' sP resi-
d enc y . O p p osit ionsp ra ngu p f rom ev eryqu a rt er . This
resist a nc ew a sa nev enm orerem a rk a bl eev id enc eof t he
grow t hof sou nd p u bl ic op iniona m ongt hesehu nd red sof
m il l ionsof p eop l et ha nt heexp u l sionof t heM a nc hu s .
Thou ghYu a nd rew ba c k f rom hisa t t em p t t oa sc end t he
94

TheA w a k eningof A sia
I m p eria l t hrone, his
f a il u re w a sc om p l et ea nd hisd ea t h
p roba bl yc a m ea t a f ort u na t et im ef orhim sel f .
N ot w it hst a nd ingt heou t brea k sinv a riou sl oc a l it ies
a nd t hed isp osit ionof som eof t hep rov inc est om a int a in
a nind ep end enc esc a rc el yc om p a t ibl ew it ht hef ed era t iv e
p ol ic yof t heRep u bl ic , t hef ou nd ersof t henew Gov ern=
m ent , a nd inp a rt ic u l a rit sc hief gu id ingsp irit , Su nYa t
Sen, a rec onf id ent t ha t t hisf orm of p ol it ic a l orga nisa t ion
isbest su it ed t ot hec ha ra c t era nd d isp osit ionof t heirc ou n-
t rym ena nd w il l su c c eed . U nqu est iona bl y, if t heRep u bl ic
c a nbem a int a ined , w it hsu f f ic ient m il it a rya nd m ora l ba c k -
ingt oensu ref reed om f rom ext erna l int erf erenc e, t hisw il l
bebest f orC hina hersel f a nd f ort hosew hoha v et hec l osest
rel a t ionsw it hher
.
Tha t Su nYa t Sena nd m a nyof his
f riend sk now E u rop ea nd A m eric a w el l a nd t ha t l ea d ing
m il it a rya nd na v a l c om m a nd erssha ret heirop inionsa st o
t hep ol ic yt obea d op t ed , giv esgrea t hop ef ort hef u t u re .
Thed a ngerof t hesu c c essof f u rt herE u rop ea nd esignsof
p a rt it ionisred u c ed , f irst byt hed ev el op m ent of C hina her-
sel f , next byt hew ea k eningof t heW est ernP ow ersenga ged
int heGrea t W a r, a nd t henbyt hec ert a int yt ha t a nya t -
t em p t a t int erf erenc ebyf orc eort hrea t of f orc ew ou l d a t
onc ebringinJ a p a nont hesid eof C hina .
Thea m bit ionsof t hisl a st f orm id a bl ena t iona ret he
w orst d a ngert ha t t hrea t ensC hina ' s
ind ep end enc e, a nd
C hinesest a t esm enm u st a l rea d ybeonl yt oow el l a w a reof
t his.
TheW orl d W a rha sst rengt hened J a p a n' sp osit ion
a srega rd sa l l ot herP ow erst oa next ent t ha t isnot a s
yet f u l l yc om p rehend ed inE u rop e . C onf id enc einJ a p a n' s
l oya l t ya nd p a c if ic int ent ionsis, inm yop inion, ent irel ym is-
p l a c ed . J a p a nist heGerm a nyof t heE a st , a nd C hina is
onl yt hef irst na t iont oexp erienc ehow m u c hsheha sl ea rnt
f rom herE u rop ea np rot ot yp einst a t ec ra f t a nd st ra t egy
.
Thisw il l beseenm orec l ea rl yw henI t rea t of t hegenera l
p ol ic yof J a p a nbef orea nd d u ringt hew a r . ThoseE u rop ea n
TheBoxerRising
95
st a t esm ena nd p u bl ic ist s, t heref ore, w how eref ool ishenou gh
t oa id a nd a bet Yu a n- Shi- Ka iinhisnef a riou sp l ot t ings
a ga inst t heC hineseRep u bl ic , a nd t hu sw ea k ened t heRe-
p u bl ic ' sc a p a c it yt oresist p ressu ref rom w it hou t , a rel a rgel y
resp onsibl ef ort hef ol l ow ingd em a nd sc a t egoric a l l ym a d e
byJ a p a nu p onC hina a f t ert hec a p t u reof Tsing- t a u a nd t he
oc c u p a t ionof Kia u - C ha u . Germ a nyw a sv erysoona nd
v eryea sil yd isp osed of int heFa rE a st , a nd a sm a l l E ngl ish
briga d ef rom I nd ia t ook p a rt int hea ssa u l t u p ont he
Germ a nf ort ress . Bu t nosoonerw a sJ a p a ninp ossession
t ha nC hina f ou nd t ha t t heim p ort a nt p ort a nd d ist ric t w hic h
ha d been" l ea sed " t ot heE m p irea t a d ist a nc ew a snow ex-
c l u siv el ya t t hed isp osa l of t hest il l m ored a ngerou sE m p ire
c l oseby, w ha t ev erp rom isest hel a t t erm ight ha v ep rev iou sl y
m a d e. D irec t l yJ a p a nk new t ha t t heE u rop ea nna t ionsw ere
inv ol v ed insohu gea nd l a st inga w a rt ha t it ga v ehera
f reeha nd int heE a st , a nd t hem om ent shef ou nd t ha t t he
U nit ed St a t esneit herw ou l d norc ou l d c hec k her, shem a d e
t hef ol l ow inga m a z ingd em a nd su p onC hina
J a n . i8 ,
1 9 1 5 .
" TheJ a p a neseGov ernm ent a nd t heC hineseGov ernm ent ,
beingd esirou sof m a int a iningt hegenera l p ea c einE a st ern
A sia a nd f u rt herst rengt heningt hef riend l yrel a t ionsa nd
good neighbou rhood exist ingbet w eent het w ona t ions, a gree
t ot hef ol l ow inga rt ic l es : -
I .
" A rt ic l e
I .
TheC hineseGov ernm ent enga gest ogiv ef u l l
a ssent t oa l l m a t t ersu p onw hic ht heJ a p a neseGov ernm ent
m a yherea f t era greew it ht heGerm a nGov ernm ent rel a t ing
t oa l l right s, int erest sa nd c onc essionsw hic hGerm a ny, by
v irt u eof t rea t iesorot herw ise, p ossessesinrel a t iont ot he
P rov inc eof Sha nt u ng .
" A rt ic l e 2 . TheC hineseGov ernm ent enga gest ha t w it hin
t heP rov inc eof Sha nt u nga nd a l ongit sc oa st , not errit oryor
96

TheA w a k eningof A sia
isl a nd w il l bec ed ed orl ea sed t oa t hird P ow eru nd era ny
p ret ext .
" A rt ic l e3 . TheC hineseGov ernm ent c onsent st oJ a p a n' s
bu il d inga ra il w a yf rom C hef ooorL u ngk ow t oj oint heKa io-
c hou - Tsina nf u Ra il w a y .
" A rt ic l e4 . TheC hineseGov ernm ent enga ges, int hein-
t erest of t ra d ea nd f ort heresid enc eof f oreigners, t oop en
byhersel f a ssoona sp ossibl ec ert a inim p ort a nt c it iesa nd
p ort sint heP rov inc eof Sha nt u nga sC om m erc ia l P ort s . W ha t
p l a c essha l l beop ened a ret obej oint l yd ec id ed u p onina sep a -
ra t ea greem ent .
I I .
" TheJ a p a neseGov ernm ent a nd t heC hineseGov ernm ent ,
sinc et heC hineseGov ernm ent ha sa l w a ysa c k now l ed ged t he
sp ec ia l p osit ionenj oyed byJ a p a ninSou t hM a nc hu ria a nd
E a st ernI nnerM ongol ia , a greet ot hef ol l ow inga rt ic l es : -
" A rt ic l ei . Thet w oC ont ra c t ingP ow ersm u t u a l l ya gree
t ha t t het erm of t hel ea seof P ort A rt hu ra nd D a l nya nd t he
t erm of t hel ea seof t heSou t hM a nc hu ria Ra il w a ya nd t he
A nt u ngM u k d enRa il w a ysha l l beext end ed t oc ov era p eriod
of gyyea rs .
" A rt ic l e 2 . J a p a nesesu bj ec t sinSou t hM a nc hu ria a nd
E a st ernI nnerM ongol ia sha l l ha v et heright t ol ea seorow n
l a nd requ ired eit herf orerec t ingsu it a bl ebu il d ingsf ort ra d e
a nd m a nu f a c t u reorf orf a rm ing .
" A rt ic l e3 . J a p a nesesu bj ec t ssha l l bef reet oresid ea nd
t ra v el inSou t hM a nc hu ria a nd E a st ernI nnerM ongol ia a nd
t oenga geinbu sinessa nd m a nu f a c t u reof a nyk ind w ha t so-
ev er.
" A rt ic l e4 . TheC hineseGov ernm ent a greest ogra nt t o
J a p a nesesu bj ec t st heright of op eningm inesinSou t hM a n-
c hu ria a nd E a st ernI nnerM ongol ia . A srega rd sw ha t m ines
a ret obeop ened , t heysha l l bed ec id ed u p onj oint l y .
" A rt ic l e5
. TheC hineseGov ernm ent a greest ha t inre-
sp ec t of t he( t w o) c a sesm ent ioned hereinbel ow t heJ a p a nese
Gov ernm ent ' sc onsent sha l l bef irst obt a ined bef orea c t ionis
t a k en
: -
TheBoxerRising
( a ) W henev erp erm issionisgra nt ed t ot he su bj ec t
of
a t hird P ow ert obu il d a ra il w a yort om a k ea l oa nw it h
a t hird P ow erf ort hep u rp oseof bu il d inga ra il w a yin
Sou t hM a nc hu ria orE a st ernI nnerM ongol ia .
( b)
W henev era l oa nist obem a d ew it ha t hird P ow er
p l ed gingt hel oc a l t a xesof Sou t hM a nc hu ria orE a st ern
I nnerM ongol ia .
" A rt ic l e6 . TheC hineseGov ernm ent a greest ha t if t he
C hineseGov ernm ent em p l oysp ol it ic a l , f ina nc ia l orm il it a ry
a d v isersinSou t hM a nc hu ria orE a st ernI nnerM ongol ia , t he
J a p a neseGov ernm ent sha l l bef irst c onsu l t ed .
" A rt ic l e7 . TheC hinese' Gov ernm ent a greest ha t t hec on-
t rol a nd m a na gem ent of t heKisiu - C ha ngc hu nRa il w a ysha l l be
ha nd ed ov ert ot heJ a p a neseGov ernm ent f ora t erm of 99
yea rsd a t ingf rom t hesigningof t hisa greem ent .
" TheJ a p a nesea nd C hineseGov ernm ent sseeingt ha t J a p -
a nesef ina nc iersa nd t heH a nyehp ingC om p a nyha v ec l osere-
l a t ionsw it hea c hot hera t p resent , a nd d esiringt ha t t he
c om m onint erest sof t het w ona t ionssha l l bea d v a nc ed , a gree
t ot hef ol l ow inga rt ic l es-
" A rt ic l ei . Thet w oc ont ra c t ingp a rt iesm u t u a l l ya gree
t ha t w hent heop p ort u nem om ent a rriv est heH a nyehp ing
C om p a nysha l l bem a d ea j oint c onc ernof t het w ona t ions,
a nd t heyf u rt hera greet ha t , w it hou t t hep rev iou sc onsent of
J a p a n, C hina sha l l not byherow na c t d isp oseof t heright s
a nd p rop ert yof w ha t soev erna t u reof t hesa id C om p a nynor
c a u set hesa id C om p a nyt od isp osef reel yof t hesa m e
.
" A rt ic l e 2 . TheC hineseGov ernm ent a greest ha t a l l
m ines
int heneighbou rhood of t hoseow ned byt heH a nyehp ing
C om p a nysha l l not be p erm it t ed , w it hou t t hec onsent of t he
sa id C om p a ny, t obew ork ed byot herp ersonsou t sid eof t he
sa id C om p a ny
; a nd f u rt hera greest ha t if it isd esired t o
c a rryou t a nyu nd ert a k ingw hic hit isa p p rehend ed m a yd i-
rec t l yorind irec t l ya f f ec t t heint erest sof t hesa id C om p a ny,
t hec onsent of t hesa id C om p a nysha l l f irst beobt a ined .
97
TheA w a k eningof A sia
I V .
" TheJ a p a neseGov ernm ent a nd t heC hineseGov ernm ent ,
w it ht heobj ec t of ef f ec t iv el yp reserv ingt het errit oria l int eg-
rit yof C hina , a greet ot hef ol l ow ingsp ec ia l a rt ic l e : -
" TheC hineseGov ernm ent enga gesnot t oc ed eorl ea set o
a t hird P ow era nyha rbou ror . ba yorisl a nd a l ongt hec oa st
of C hina .
V .
" A rt ic l ei . TheC hinese . C ent ra l Gov ernm ent sha l l em -
p l oyinf l u ent ia l J a p a nesea sa d v isersinp ol it ic a l , f ina nc ia l a nd
m il it a rya f f a irs .
" A rt ic l e 2. J a p a nesehosp it a l s, c hu rc hesa nd sc hool sin
t heint eriorof C hina sha l l begra nt ed t heright of ow ningl a nd
.
" A rt ic l e3 . I na sm u c ha st heJ a p a neseGov ernm ent a nd
t heC hineseGov ernm ent ha v eha d m a nyc a sesof d isp u t ebe-
t w eenJ a p a nesea nd C hinesep ol ic ew hic hc a u sed nol it t l em is-
u nd erst a nd ing, it isf ort hisrea sonnec essa ryt ha t t hep ol ic e
d ep a rt m ent sof im p ort a nt p l a c es( inC hina ) sha l l bej oint l y
a d m inist ered byJ a p a nesea nd C hineseort ha t t hep ol ic ed e-
p a rt m ent sof t hesep l a c essha l l em p l oynu m erou sJ a p a neseso
t ha t t heym a ya t t hesa m et im ehel p t op l a nf ort heim p rov e-
m ent of t heC hinesep ol ic eserv ic e .
" A rt ic l e4 . C hina sha l l p u rc ha sef rom J a p a na f ixed
a m ou nt of m u nit ionsof w a r( sa y5op erc ent . orm oreof
w ha t isneed ed byt heC hineseGov ernm ent ) ort ha t t here
sha l l beest a bl ished inC hina a j oint l y- w ork ed Sino- J a p a nese
a rsena l . J a p a neseexp ert sa ret obeem p l oyed a nd J a p a nese
m a t eria l t obep u rc ha sed .
" A rt ic l e5 . C hina a greest ogra nt t oJ a p a nt heright of
c onst ru c t inga ra il w a yc onnec t ingW u c ha ngw it h Kiu k ia ng
a nd N a nc ha ng, a not herl inebet w eenN a nc ha nga nd H a ng-
c how , a nd a not herbet w eenN a nc ha nga nd C ha o- C how .
" A rt ic l e6 . I f C hina need sf oreignc a p it a l t ow ork m ines,
bu il d ra il w a ysa nd c onst ru c t ha rbou rw ork s( inc l u d ingd oc k -
ya rd s) int heP rov inc eof Fu k ienJ a p a nsha l l bef irst c on-
su l t ed
.
TheBoxerRising
99
" A rt ic l e7 .
C hina a greest ha t J a p a nesesu bj ec t ssha l l ha v e
t heright of m issiona ryp rop a ga nd a inC hina
. "
Theset erm sc a rryt heirow nm ea ningont hef a c eof
t hem . I f a c c ep t ed inf u l l t heyinv ol v ed t hesu bj u ga t ion
of C hina t oJ a p a ninev eryresp ec t . C hina t herea f t erc ou l d
m ov eneit herha nd norf oot w it hinherow nbord ersorin
rel a t iont of oreignna t ionsw it hou t J a p a n' sc onsent . Tha t
p ossibl ed om ina t ionw hic ht heE u rop ea nP ow ersha d f ore-
seena nd p rev ent ed in18 95w ou l d ha v ebeenqu iet l ya c -
c om p l ished in1915, t w ent yyea rsl a t er
.
Som ew hok now
t heFa rE a st w el l hint ed a t t het im et ha t t hisext ra ord ina ry
m ov ew a sm a d e, not w it ht heexp ec t a t iont ha t it w ou l d be
su c c essf u l a t t hem om ent , bu t a sa not ic et ot hew orl d a t
l a rget ha t " A sia f ort heA sia t ic s" ha d d ev el op ed int osom e-
t hingm oret ha na c ry . A l so, it w a sa m et hod of d ec l a ring
t ha t J a p a n' sint erest sint henew Rep u bl ic w eregrea t er
t ha nt hoseof a l l t herest of t hena t ionsp u t t oget her . The
m a t t er, a s w il l beseenl a t er, p a ssed a l m ost u nnot ic ed in
E u rop e, a nd w a sc a ref u l l yk ep t ou t of sight byt heGov ern-
m ent of J a p a n' sc hief A l l yint heW est - E ngl a nd .
Theset erm sha v enev erbeenf orm a l l ya c c ep t ed byC hina ,
bu t J a p a nha sa c t ed f ort hel a st t hreeyea rsa l m ost a sif
t heyha d beenra t if ied . Fu rt her, byt heTrea t iesof M a y,
1915, bet w eenC hina a nd J a p a n, t hel a t t erP ow erobt a ined
a l l t hea d v a nt a gest heGerm a nsf orm erl yp ossessed int he
P rov inc eof Sha nt u ng ; a nd not errit oryorisl a nd w it hint his
P rov inc e" w il l bel ea sed orc ed ed t oa nyf oreignP ow er
u nd era nyp ret ext . " Thew hol eof Kia u - C ha u Ba yist o
beop ened a sa C om m erc ia l P ort , a nd J a p a nha st heright t o
a
c onc essionu nd erherexc l u siv ej u risd ic t ion . I nrega rd
t oSou t hM a nc hu ria a nd E a st ernI nnerM ongol ia , t heir
ra il w a ys, j u risd ic t ion, et c . , a sw el l a sP ort A rt hu ra nd
D a l nya nd t hem ininga rea s, J a p a nga ined p ra c t ic a l l ya l l
shea sk ed f or .
ioo

TheA w a k eningof A sia
Theonl yoneof t heP ow ersw hoserem onst ra nc eon
t hesu bj ec t ha sbeenp u bl ished , a nd t ha t a l m ost a sif it w ere
a nu nim p ort a nt m a t t er, w a st heU nit ed St a t es, w hosed es-
p a t c h, sent bot ht oC hina a nd J a p a n, inM a y,
1915,
ra n
a sf ol l ow s :
" I nv iew of t hec irc u m st a nc esof t henegot ia t ionsw hic h
ha v et a k enp l a c eorw hic ha renow p end ingbet w eent he
Gov ernm ent of C hina a nd t heGov ernm ent of J a p a na nd
t hea greem ent sw hic hha v ebeenrea c hed a nd t heresu l t s
t hereof , t heGov ernm ent of t heU nit ed St a t esha st hehon-
ou rt onot if yt heGov ernm ent of t heC hineseRep u bl ic t ha t
it c a nnot rec ognisea nya greem ent oru nd ert a k ingw hic h
ha sbeenent ered int obet w eent heGov ernm ent sof C hina
a nd J a p a nim p a iringt het rea t yright sof t heU nit ed St a t es
a nd it sc it iz ensinC hina , t hep ol it ic a l ort errit oria l int egrit y
of t heRep u bl ic of C hina ort heint erna t iona l p ol ic yc om -
m onl yk now na st heO p enD oorp ol ic y . "
W het herev ent u a l l yt hisw il l ha v ea nef f ec t u p onJ a p a n-
esep ol ic yrem a inst obeseen . Sof a rt hep osit ionbet w een
C hina a nd J a p a ninrel a t iont ot heorigina l d em a nd sre-
m a insa sst a t ed . A nd , ind eed , t hesit u a t ionisst il l m ore
seriou st ha nit isd esc ribed t obea bov e . J a p a n, beyond a l l
qu est ion, ha sbeenu singherp osit iona st heA l l yof t he
W est ernP ow ersa nd t heU nit ed St a t est oobt a inf ina l c on-
t rol not m erel yof t hep rov inc eof Sha nt u ng, w hic ht hec a p -
t u reof Tsing- t a u a nd t hed em a nd f ort heTsing- t a u -
Tsina nra il w a yp u t sent irel ya t herm erc y, bu t t op l a c et he
w hol eof C hina u nd erJ a p a nesed om ina t ion . Thisp ol ic yof
int erp enet ra t ionof t hev a st t errit oryof t heC hineseRe-
p u bl ic isbeingc a rried ou t bya na d m ixt u reof f ina nc ia l ,
d ip l om a t ic a nd m il it a rya ggression- t hereisnoot herd e-
sc rip t ionof J a p a n' sp roc eed ingsw hic hw il l m eet t hec a se .
Thed em a nd sof J a nu a ryi8 t h, 1915, a rebeingf orc ed u p on
C hina inf a rm orest ringent sha p et ha nt hosew hic ha t f irst
w erep resent ed byJ a p a nt ot heE u rop ea nP ow ersa st he
TheBoxerRising

p oi
rea l t ext
. Thu st hehea v yl oa nsa t f u l l y8 p erc ent . int erest
f orc ed u p ont heP resid ent of t heRep u bl ic , a nd t hest ip u l a -
t ionsbyw hic ht heyw erea c c om p a nied inrega rd t ora il -
w a ys, t ra nsp ort , genera l t ra d ea nd m u nit ions, a requ it eon
t hel inesl a id d ow nbyGerm a nba nk sbef oret hew a r, w hen
l oa nsw eregra nt ed f ort hep u rp oseof ga iningind u st ria l
a nd c om m erc ia l su p rem a c yina nyc ou nt ry .
Bu t t hereissc a rc el ya nyneed f ort hesel oa nsw hic h,
f rom t heec onom ic st a nd p oint , J a p a nisrea l l yinnoc ond i-
t iont om a k e
. H erd ip l om a t ic d em a nd s, if su p p ort ed by
m il it a ryoc c u p a t ionof C hineset errit ory, a requ it esu f f i-
c ient t ogiv eJ a p a nt hea bsol u t em a st eryof t hehu nd red s
of m il l ionsof p eop l ea nd a l l t hev a st resou rc esof t he
Fl ow eryL a nd w hic hsheha sc ov et ed ev ersinc e18 94- 5-
" C hina f ort heJ a p a nese" ist hep ol ic ynow beingp u r-
su ed w it ha rel ent l essp ersist enc ew hic ha l l t hef orc esof t he
A l l iesm a ybeu na bl et oc hec k , u nl esst heya t onc ec ol l ec t iv e-
l yc a l l a ha l t t ot heGov ernm ent of J a p a na nd f ol l ow u p
p rot est a nd rem onst ra nc ebyv igorou sa c t ion .
TheC hinesek now w el l w ha t isbeingp rep a red f ort hem
.
Theya requ it ew el l a w a ret ha t w hil et heA l l iesha v ebeen
d ef ea t ingt heGerm a nyof E u rop e, C hina isbeingsa c rif ic ed
t ot hep ossibl eGerm a nyof A sia . W ea ret ol d ina J a p a n-
eseof f ic ia l orga nt ha t " t hesol u t ionof C hina ' sp robl em is
of grea t im p ort a nc et oJ a p a na nd ha sl it t l et od ow it hGrea t
Brit a in . " Tha t isp l a insp ea k ing, c ert a inl y, inrega rd t oa
P ow erw it hw hic ha Trea t yisinexist enc ef orm a l l ygu a r-
a nt eeingequ a l right sinC hina . The" t ru e" sol u t ionisp ro-
p ou nd ed byt hew rit erw henhea d v oc a t es, ov era nd a bov e
c om p l ia nc ew it ht het w ent y- oned em a nd s : t hea bol it ionof
t heRep u bl ic a nf orm of gov ernm ent ; J a p a nesea d m inis-
t ra t orst ot henu m berof sev era l t hou sa nd sina l l t heim -
p ort a nt p ost s, exerc isingc om p l et ec ont rol ov erC hina ' s
d ip l om a t ic a d m inist ra t iona nd m il it a rya f f a irs
; J a p a nese
102

TheA w a k eningof A sia
sc hool st hrou ghou t C hina ; a Trea t yt obec onc l u d ed em bra c -
inga l l t hesep oint s .
Theef f ec t of J a p a nesep ol ic y, w henc a rried t hrou ght o
c om p l et ion, w il l benot hingshort of t hea bsorp t ionof t he
w hol eof C hina int ot hesp hereof J a p a neseinf l u enc e . E v en
t hea d v a nc eof t heJ a p a neset roop sint oSiberia isa l rea d y
beingm a d eu seof inord ert ost rengt hent hec l a im sof
J a p a nt op erm a nent c ont rol of t heent ireE a st ernp ort ionof
t ha t grea t p rov inc e .
A f u rt herbrief su m m a ryof w ha t isbeinga c hiev ed by
t hissyst em a t ic inv a sionof C hina ont hesa m el inest ha t w ere
f ol l ow ed inrega rd t oKorea m a yop ent heeyesof Grea t
Brit a in, t heU nit ed St a t esa nd Fra nc e, t het hreeE u rop ea n
P ow ersnow m ost c l osel yint erest ed - Ru ssia beinginc a p -
a bl eof d ef init ea c t ionf orsom et im et oc om e- t ot hev ery
seriou sd a ngert ha t m a yshort l yc onf ront E u rop eint he
Fa rE a st .
O f c ou rse, if C hina w erew el c om ingJ a p a nese
c ont rol a nd J a p a neseru l ea sbenef ic ia l t ot heC hineset hem -
sel v esE u rop ea nsc ou l d onl ya c c ep t t ha t p osit ion, t hou ghit
isind irec t c ont ra v ent ionof a l l exist ingTrea t ies . Bu t ,
not oriou sl y, t hisisnot t hec a se
. TheC hinesed ist ru st
a nd d isl ik et heJ a p a nesea nd ha v enot t hesl ight est d esire
t oseeJ a p a nha nd l ingt heirv a st p op u l a t ion, inord er
t oext end st il l f a rt hert hea m bit iou sp l a nsof t hem ost im -
p ort a nt J a p a nesest a t esm en .
H ereisw ha t isbeinga im ed a t a nd w il l beobt a ined ,
u nl essE u rop ea nP ow ersc om et ot hea id of C hina . First ,
t hehighl yim p ort a nt P rov inc eof Sha nt u ng, sosit u a t ed t ha t ,
w it ht hec om m a nd of it sp ort sa nd it sexist ingra il w a yc on-
nec t ionsinJ a p a neseha nd s, it bec om esa p erm a nent , m ena c -
ingt hrea t t ot heind ep end enc eof N ort hernC hina . I np l a c e
of Germ a ny, w it hherm il it a rya nd na v a l ba sest hou sa nd s
of m il esa w a y, C hina w il l ha v enow t of a c ea nA sia t ic P ow -
erw it hit sm il it a rya nd na v a l ba sesc l osea t ha nd ; w it ha n
a rm ya l rea d yinoc c u p a t ionof v eryim p ort a nt st ra t egic a l
TheBoxerRa ising

103
p ost s, a nd w it ha k now l ed geof C hinesec ond it ionsa nd
C hinesep ol it ic sw hic hnoE u rop ea nc ou nt ryc a nhop et o
riv a l .
Bu t t hisisonl ya beginning
.
Thew hol eof Sou t hM a n-
c hu ria a nd E a st ern M ongol ia , m a gnif ic ent
rec ru it ing
grou nd sf ort heJ a p a nesea rm y, w it hf ineresou rc esof t heir
ow n, w ou l d bec om e, t oa l l int ent sa nd p u rp oses, int egra l
p ort ionsof t heJ a p a neseE m p ireont hem a inl a nd . Then
t heV a l l eyof t heYa ng- t se- Kia ng, w it hit senorm ou sm in-
era l w ea l t h, a nd inc a l c u l a bl ep ossibil it iesof ec onom ic a nd
soc ia l d ev el op m ent , w ou l d p a ssexc l u siv el yint ot heha nd s
of t heJ a p a nese . Thep osit iont hu sa c qu ired c ou l d not bu t
st rengt henenorm ou sl yt hew hol eJ a p a nesep l a nof c om -
m erc ia l , ind u st ria l a nd a d m inist ra t iv ec ont rol
. For, onc ein
oc c u p a t ionof t hisgrea t region, J a p a nw ou l d bea bl et oc u t
C hina int w oa nd f om ent syst em a t ic a l l yt hed if f erenc esbe-
t w eenSou t herna nd N ort hernC hina , a l rea d yexist ing, u n-
t il shec ou l d c om eina st he" sa v iou r" of bot hf rom int erne-
c inea na rc hy .
C hina , byhersel f , m oreov er, w il l bed ep riv ed of a l l
p ossibl ec ha nc eof resist a nc e .
J a p a nt a k esc a reof t ha t .
M od ernw a risa f u nc t ionof ind u st ry
. Theind u st riesof
p ea c em u st a t onc ebet ra nsf orm ed int oind u st riesf orw a r
.
W heret hisisnot p ossibl em u nit ionsm u st bebrou ght in
f rom w it hou t
.
Ru ssia isa c ru c ia l . exa m p l eof t het ru t h
of t ha t . C hina , if l et a l one, w ou l d , a l m ost c ert a inl y, in
v iew of d a ngersa hea d , set t ow ork t oest a bl ishim p ort a nt
w a rind u st riesof herow n .
This, inf a c t , isw ha t sheha s
a l rea d ybegu nt od o .
Bu t t hisp ol ic yont hep a rt of C hina ,
if p u shed f a rt her, m ight end a nger' J a p a n' sc om ing su -
p rem a c y . Theref ore, it ist obeena c t ed , u nd ert hesec l a im s
f rom t heI sl a nd E m p ire, t ha t J a p a nsha l l ha v esol ec on-
t rol ov era l l t hem u nit ionsof w a rt ha t C hina m a yneed
.
Thent hereist hep rov isiona nd c ont rol of p ol ic eov er
l a rged ist ric t s of C hina .
Thisisof grea t im p ort a nc e, in
104

TheA w a k eningof A sia
ord ert om a int a inp ea c ea nd p rov id ep rosp erit yf orv a st
p op u l a t ions.
Sot hesep ol ic ea ret obenot C hinesebu t
J a p a nese
. O bv iou sl y, su c hp ol ic ew ou l d beent it l ed t obea r
a rm s, f ort hep u rp oseof d ef end ingt hem sel v esa nd ot her
p eop l e : a p ea c ef u l a rm yof p erm a nent oc c u p a t ioninf a c t .
O nt het op of a l l t heseJ a p a neseref orm sc ond u c t ed in
C hineseint erest w it hf orc ed C hinesec onsent ist obeim -
p osed t hem ost t rem end ou sbu rea u c ra c yof w hic ht hew orl d
ha syet hea rd . Thet hou sa nd sof J a p a nesea d m inist ra t ors,
a l rea d yc l a im ed a sessent ia l , w ou l d p erv a d ea nd d om ina t e
ev eryd ep a rt m ent of C hina . H erw hol eGov ernm ent w ou l d
beJ a p a nese . H erp ol it ic a l , herf ina nc ia l , herm il it a rya f -
f a irsw ou l d bew hol l ya nd sol el yc a rried onbyim p ort ed
f oreignersf rom J a p a n, w how ou l d l ea v et ot heC hineseno
su c hl oc a l right st om a na get heirow nbu sinessa sev ent he
M a nc hu d yna st iesc onc ed ed . C onsequ ent l y, C hina , w it hin
a genera t ionorso, w ou l d bec om et horou ghl yJ a p a nese .
A nd , of c ou rse, nobod yw ou l d ha v et hesl ight est right t o
int erf ere, a nym oret ha nt heyha v einKorea a t t hep resent
t im e . A sia f ort heA sia t ic s . C hina f ort heJ a p a nese . A
d oc t rineof exc l u sionof a l l f oreignersexc ep t t heJ a p a nese
isp a rt of t hisv a st sc hem ew hic ht heexigenc iesof t he
Grea t W a rha v ehid d enf rom W est ernE u rop e . I t isim -
p ossibl e, inm yop inion, t oexa ggera t et heim p ort a nc eof
w ha t isst ea d il ygoingon
.
W ea ret a l k ingof p ea c e, p erm a -
nent p ea c e, of a L ea gu eof N a t ions, of t heu niv ersa l
brot herhood of m a n . A nd a l l t het im ea p oorbu t w el l -
p eop l ed , w el l - t ra ined , w el l - d isc ip l ined a nd m ost a m bit iou s
E m p irea t t heot hersid eof t hew orl d ha sp rep a red a p l a n
of a nnexa t ionf ora hu gec ont igu ou sRep u bl ic w it hsom e
400, 000, 000
of inha bit a nt sw hic h, u nd erhergu id a nc e, w il l
a t nod ist a nt d a t ebec om ebyf a rt hem ost p ow erf u l St a t e
int hew orl d .
Thism a ybeinev it a bl et hou ghI d onot t hink it is . Bu t
if Grea t Brit a in, t heU nit ed St a t esa nd Fra nc ea l l ow C hina
TheBoxerRising

105
t obep l a c ed u nd erJ a p a neseru l e, a s
Korea isa l rea d y, t hen,
inm yop inion, t hep rosp ec t sf orp ea c eint henot rem ot e
f u t u rew il l sc a rc el yha v ebeenim p rov ed byt hed ef ea t of
Germ a ny
.
C H A P TE RV I I I
TH E D E V E L O P M E N TO FC H I N A FO RTH E C H I N E SE
W H E N
E u rop ea nw rit ersa nd sp ea k erst rea t of C hina a nd
herd ev el op m ent t heya l m ost inv a ria bl yd osof rom a p u re-
l ysel f ishp oint of v iew
. Theya reea gert o" op enu p "
C hina inord ert osel l t heirgood sa t a p rof it
; t heya re
a nxiou st osp rea d t heirrel igioninord ert oext end t hein-
f l u enc eof t heirow nid ea s
. C hinesest a t esm ena nd t he
C hinesep eop l em a ybequ it eright , nev ert hel ess, ind ec l a ring
t ha t bot hf oreignt ra d esa nd f oreignrel igionssha l l onl y
beint rod u c ed int ot heirow nt errit oryu nd ersu c hrest ric -
t ionsa st heym a yseef it t oim p ose
. Thehist oryof t he
op iu m t ra f f ic , t heseiz u reof l a rgep ort ionsof t heirc ou nt ry
byt hef oreignt ra d ers, a nd t heru shf orc onc essionst obe
hel d a nd m a na ged byst ra ngersf rom w it hou t ha v et a u ght
t heC hinesea l esson
.
Sof a ra sE u rop eisc onc erned , w hil eint erc ou rsew it h
f oreignersisgrow inga nd t heirhel p inc ert a ind irec t ions
isnot ref u sed , t hed et erm ina t iont ha t C hina sha l l bem is-
t ressinherow nc ou nt ry, w hic hw a sst rongl yexp ressed
u nd ert heM a nc hu s, isc ert a inl ynot w ea k eningu nd ert he
Rep u bl ic . I nc onsid ering, t heref ore, t herem a rk a bl ea nd
ra p id ec onom ic c ha ngesw hic ha renow t a k ingp l a c eint ha t
E m p ireit isw el l t obea rinm ind t ha t t heyd onot ina ny
w a yint erf erew it ht hed em a nd of " C hina f ort heC hinese
. "
N orshou l d w eov erl ook t hef a c t t ha t , m u c ha st heC hinese
d isl ik et heJ a p a nesea nd resent t hesu c c essw hic ht heyha v e
a c hiev ed a nd t hem a nnerinw hic h, byw a ra nd d ip l om a c y,
t heyha v esec u red l a rgep ort ionsof C hineset errit ory, yet
io6
C hina f ort heC hinese

107
A sia t ic sha v ea c a p a c it yf oru nd erst a nd inga nd a c t ingw it h
A sia t ic st ha t E u rop ea nsc a nnev erf a t hom
. TheC hinese
ha v enod esirew ha t ev ert oc om eu nd erJ a p a neseru l e- f a r
f rom it . Theyha v eseenw ha t t ha t m ea nsinKorea , w here
t yra nnya nd c ru el t yof t hem ost a t roc iou sc ha ra c t erha v e
beenp ra c t ised int hena m eof c iv il isa t ion, ord era nd hu -
m a nit y . Them et hod sof su p p ressionu sed inForm osa
t ow a rd st heC hineseset t l ed int ha t isl a nd ha v ebeenno
bet t er ; t hou ght hec ond it ionsint hisc a serend ered ha rsh
a c t ionp ossibl y m ore exc u sa bl e .
Bu t , insp it eof a l l t his,
w ereit t oc om et oa c hoic ebet w eenE u rop ea np a rt it iona nd
J a p a nesea sc end enc y, t hereisl it t l ed ou bt w hic hw ou l d ha v e
t hep ref erenc e .
M ea nw hil eC hina isa d op t ingW est ernim p rov em ent s
t osu c ha next ent t ha t a v a st ec onom ic a nd soc ia l rev ol u t ion
isbeingbrou ght a bou t , sim il a rt ot ha t w hic hha st a k enp l a c e
inJ a p a n, t hou ghond if f erent l ines .
Thegrea t E u rop ea n
W a rha sc om p el l ed t heC hineset orel yu p ont hem sel v esf or
c ert a inof t heirint erna l d ev el op m ent sw hic hf oreignersha d
f orm erl yc a rried ou t f ort hem .
TheGrea t W a rha s, inf a c t ,
ext end ed it s - inf l u enc et oC hina ev en in ind u st ria l a f f a irs .
Bu t j u st a sJ a p a n, w hil ea t f irst u singE u rop ea nm et hod s,
c ont riv ed t ot u rnt hem ev ent u a l l yint om ea nsf orou st ing
t hef oreigner
; sot heC hinese, w ho, a t f irst , w eref a rm ore
u nd ert hec ont rol of w hit em ent ha nt heirriv a l sof t he
I sl a nd E m p ire, a renow p roc eed ingint hesa m ed irec t ion .
C om p l et eem a nc ip a t ionist heirobj ec t . TheC hinesew ou l d
ra t hersl a c k enp rogresst ha np u rc ha seinc rea sed ra p id it yof
d ev el op m ent bysu bm issiont oE u rop ea norA m eric a nc a p i-
t a l ist s .
Sinc et heBoxerrisingt he . c onst ru c t ionof ra il w a ys,
inst ea d of beingha m p ered , ha sbeenf a v ou red byt hep rin-
c ip a l c ent ra l a nd l oc a l a u t horit ies .
Thisc a m ea bou t a l -
t hou ght herev ol u t iona ga inst t heM a nc hu sw a sp a rt l y
f ost ered byd enu nc ia t ionof t hena t iona l isa t ion, orc ent ra l -
108

TheA w a k eningof A sia
isa t ion, of ra il w a yst henbeinga t t em p t ed
. Thep eop l ea l so
a rest ea d il yl osingt heirp rej u d ic esa ga inst ra il w a ys, a st he
inj u ryd onet ol oc a l ind u st riesa nd t ra nsp ort a genc iesis,
t heyf ind , c om p ensa t ed inot herd irec t ions
. I nsp it eof
c ost l yf ina nc inga nd t heba d c ond u c t of t hef oreignm a n-
a gersinsom einst a nc es, t he 5, 000 m il esof ra il w a ysbu il t
a nd ru nninginC hina ha v ea c hiev ed a grea t erf ina nc ia l su c -
c esst ha nha sev erbeena t t a ined ina nyc ou nt ry .
A c c ord ing
t ot hel a t est st a t ist ic s, t hep rof it su p ont heP ek inga nd
M u k d enRa il w a y, a f t erd ed u c t ing
5
p erc ent , u p ont he
c a p it a l em ba rk ed , a m ou nt ed t ou p w a rd sof 18 Y2 p erc ent .
f ort heyea r1913 . Theyea rbef oret henet ea rningson
a sim il a rba sisw ere19/ p erc ent , ont het ot a l c a p it a l .
A yet m orerem a rk a bl einst a nc eof su c c essf rom t he
f irst ist hesec t ionof t hera il w a yf rom P ek ingt oSinyu a n,
a d ist a nc eof 400 m il es . Thesec t ion, P ek ing- Ka l ga n, a l -
rea d ybu il t , c onsist sof 125 m il es, m u c hof it t hrou ghex-
c ep t iona l l yd if f ic u l t c ou nt ry . I t w a sc onst ru c t ed a nd f ina nc ed
ent irel ybyt heC hineset hem sel v es ; a nd , ev enont hisp or-
t ion, w it hou t a nyof t het hrou ght ra f f ic w hic hw il l herea f t er
besec u red , it ea rnsa l rea d y 20 p erc ent . u p ont hec a p it a l
em p l oyed . Sim il a rsa t isf a c t oryresu l t sa rebeingobt a ined
ont heP ek ing- H a nk ow ra il w a y . I nf a c t , ev eryw herein
C hina t hera il w a ysa rea grea t f ina nc ia l su c c ess . N ow on-
d er, t heref ore, t ha t t heC hinese, a p a rt f rom t heird esire
t oexc l u d ef oreignersa sf a ra sp ossibl ef rom ra il w a ym a n-
a gem ent , shou l d bea nxiou st oobt a inc om p l et ec ont rol f or
t hem sel v es . Thist heyha v ed onea sf a ra st heyc a n .
Bu t t hep ric est heyha v eha d t op a y, t orec ov erp ossession
of t hel inesgra nt ed byc onc essiont oou t sid ers, ha v e, of
c ou rse, im m ensel yred u c ed t hea v era geof int erest obt a in-
a bl ebyt hep u rc ha sers .
Tha t t hep ol ic yof a c qu isit ionisf u l l yj u st if ied isc l ea rl y
show nbyt hef a c t t ha t , ev end u ringt herev ol u t iona nd t he
p eriod of u nset t l em ent w hic hf ol l ow ed u nd ert heRep u bl ic ,
C hina f or
t heC hinese

109
su c hsu rp risingresu l t sw ereobt a ined
. M oreov er, a m id
a l l t het u rm oil , t heC hinesera il w a yem p l oyeesw ork ed
st ea d il yon, w it hou t a nyrega rd t ot hep ol it ic a l d ist u rba nc e,
t hou ght hera il w a yst hem sel v esw erel a rgel yu sed f ort he
t ra nsp ort of t het roop snec essa ryt osec u ret hev ic t oryof
t heRep u bl ic a nsov ert heM a nc hu s
. A nd t hec onst ru c t ion
of t hed esigned ra il w a ysp roc eed ed a l m ost a sif t hem ost
c ru c ia l rev ol u t ionint hehist oryof t heE m p irew erenot go-
ingona t a l l
. Therec ent w a r, ha v ingc om p l et el yshu t of f
t hesu p p l yof f oreignc a p it a l a nd sk il l ed f oreigna id , on
t hec onc essionsgra nt ed t oou t sid ers, ha sf orc ed t heC hinese
t oc a rryou t t heirim p rov em ent st hem sel v es, a nd t heya re
c onst ru c t ingra il w a ysinm oret ha noned ist ric t byC hinese
engineers, C hinesem a na gersa nd C hinesel a bou rexc l u -
siv el y . Thel a c k of c a p it a l f rom a broa d sl a c k enst hera t e
of p rogressbu t d oesnot st op it a l t oget her . Thu st he
C hinesew il l now bea bl e, w hil em a k ingu seof f oreignc a p i-
t a l w henneed ed , t oim p oserest ric t ionsw hic h, a t t hebegin-
ningof t heirra il w a yc onst ru c t ionp ol ic y, w ered if f ic u l t , if
not im p ossibl e, t oenf orc e .
A not herexa m p l eof w ha t c a nbed onebyna t iv eef f ort
ist heSa nM ingRa il w a yinoneof t hed ist ric t ssou t h- w est
of C a nt on . H erea l ineha sbeenp roj ec t ed , c a rried ou t
a nd a t ow nship bu il t qu it eina c c ord a nc ew it ht hem ost
m od ernE u rop ea nid ea sof l oc a l d ev el op m ent . Thera il -
w a yst a rt sf rom Ku ngYik Fou , w hic hoc c u p ied a sit ec ov -
ered onl ybyric e- f iel d sw hent hesu rv eyorssel ec t ed it a s
t hegrou nd f ort heerec t ionof a t ow nship .
W it hint w o
yea rst hisnew t erm inu sw a sl a id ou t w it hst ra ight , w el l -
l it a sp ha l t ed st reet s . Bu il d ingsof sol id c onst ru c t ionw ere
erec t ed , w it hshop s, of f ic es, et c . , a sw el l a sa l a rgehot el . A
bigc om m erc ia l c ent reisgrow ing, c onnec t ed byt hera il -
w a yw it ht hesea a nd op eningu p t hed el t a of t heriv er .
Thew hol ew a sp l a nned , bu il t a nd f ina nc ed byt heC hinese
t hem sel v es . Sim il a rc ha ngesa rebeingbrou ght a bou t
in
110

TheA w a k eningof A sia
m a nyd irec t ions, a nd f a c t ories, ironw ork s, et c . , a rebeing
est a bl ished a nd m a na ged su c c essf u l l yent irel ybyC hinese .
O nenot a bl ep oint a bou t t heC hinesera il w a ysist he
ext ra ord ina ryf ina nc ia l su c c esst heyha v ea c hiev ed , insp it e
of t hef a c t t ha t t heord ina ryroa d st hrou ghou t t heE m p ire
a resom eof t hew orst int hew orl d .
Thev a st l yim p rov ed
p ost a l syst em seem st oha v eha d l it t l eef f ec t sof a rinc rea t -
inga nd k eep ingu p good p u bl ic highw a ys . N ow inGrea t
Brit a ina nd m ost E u rop ea nc ou nt riesf a irl ygood roa d sha d
beengra d u a l l ym a d ebet w eent hem a inc it iesa nd t ow ns
l ongp riort ot hec onst ru c t ionof t hera il w a ys
. Thesew ere
int rod u c ed bec a u set hehighroa d sf orhorsev ehic l esw ere
f ou nd t obequ it einsu f f ic ient t om eet t hed em a nd sof in-
c rea singt ra f f ic , a nd c a na l s, t hou ghm u c hc hea p erf orf reight
t ha neit herc om m onroa d sorra il w a ys, w ereexc eed ingl y
sl ow f ort ra nsit a nd w erenev era d equ a t el yd ev el op ed .
I nC hina t hisha snot beent hec a sea t a l l . Roa d sw ere
p ra c t ic a l l ynon- exist ent . A nd , t hou ghC hina ha ssom eof
t hef inest c a na l sint hew orl d , bu il t int heol d d a ys, t hey
ha v enot beenext end ed f orgenera t ions .
Ra il w a ys, t here-
f ore, w ereint rod u c ed int ot hisd ensel y- p eop l ed c ou nt rya l -
m ost u nd ersim il a rc ond it ionst ot hosep rev a il inginnew
t errit ories .
O rd ina ryroa d sha v et obec onst ru c t ed t ol ea d
u p t ot hera il roa d s, a nd a st hisisd onea nd t hera il w a ys
t hem sel v esa reext end ed t oc onnec t a l l t hem a inc ent resof
t ra d e, it seem sim p ossibl et oov er- est im a t et het ra f f ic w hic h
w il l grow u p f ort hep u rp oseof int erna l su p p l y, w it hou t
c onsid eringf oreignt ra d ea t a l l
. N a t u ra l a sit m a ybet ha t
f oreignersof a l l na t iona l it iesa nd a l l ra c esshou l d beea ger
t ot a k ea d v a nt a geof t heop eningsa f f ord ed f orc om m erc e
w it ht hisv a st p op u l a t ion, t heyw il l soonl ea rnt ha t C hina
ha sw it hinhersel f su c him m enseresou rc esof a l l k ind s,
a nd ext end sov ersu c hw id el yd if f erent c l im a t es, t ha t a t
need shec ou l d ea sil ysu p p l ya l l herw a nt sa nd f ind a l l her
C hina f ort heC hinese

I I I
ow nm a rk et s, w it hou t ref erenc et oa nyot herna t ionw ha t -
ev er .
Thu s, a t t hep resent t im e, t heC hinesea resoshort of
f u el t ha t hot w a t erisa grea t l u xu ry . U nl ik et heJ a p a nese,
t hep oorerc l a ssesinC hina c a nha rd l yev erget hot ba t hs,
t hou ghw hent hesea rerea d il yobt a ina bl e, a sa t Singa p ore
a nd ot herp l a c est ow hic ht heC hineseem igra t e, t heyt a k e
t ot hem na t u ra l l yenou gh . Bu t w hent heenorm ou sc oa l
su p p l yisop ened u p , hereisa v a st m a rk et a t ha nd f or
int erna l hea t ingof a l l k ind . Thera il w a ys, t henew ind u s-
t ries, C hinesev essel sont hesea a nd a l ongt hec a na l s, w il l
c rea t ea nenorm ou sd em a nd f ora l l t hisc oa l . A nd t he
p rov inc eof Sha nsia l oneha sbeenest im a t ed byf irst - ra t e
a u t horit iest oc ont a inenou ghw ork a bl ec oa l t ol a st , t a k ing
a c c ou nt of a nyc onc eiv a bl einc rea seinit su se, f oru p w a rd s
of i, oooyea rs
. Thehu gena t iona l c oa l su p p l y, of w hic h
t hisonep rov inc eisonl yp a rt , w il l short l ybed ev el op ed
a nd c onnec t ed w it ht hegrea t c it iesa nd m ost p op u l ou s
d ist ric t sbyra il w a y, a nd t henc ef orw a rd w em a yexp ec t t o
seeC hina ent eru p onyet a not herrem a rk a bl ep ha seinit s
grea t hist ory .
I t isnot l ik el yt ha t t heC hinesew il l t a k eu p sp eed il yt he
c oop era t iv ep ha seof ind u st ry . Theec onom ic c irc u m -
st a nc esa nd soc ia l env ironm ent ha v enot yet rea c hed t he
st a gew heret hisisp ossibl e . I na l l p roba bil it ya c onsid -
era bl ep eriod of c om p et it ionm u st c om e, a sinJ a p a na nd
E u rop e, bef oresu c ha t ra nsf orm a t ionc a nbebrou ght a bou t
.
D u ringt hisp eriod t heC hinesew il l bet hem sel v esm ost
f orm id a bl ec om p et it orsont hem a rk et sof t hew orl d . M ore
f orm id a bl eev ent ha nt heJ a p a neseif t heyw ork ind e-
p end ent l y . M ost f orm id a bl eof a l l if t heyw ork inc oni-
bina t ionw it ht hoseisl a nd ers- w hic hisbynom ea nsu n-
l ik el y
.
Fort heC hineseint heirow nc ou nt ry, a sa broa d , a re
t hem ost p ersist ent a nd ind ef a t iga bl et oil erst he, w orl d ha s
112

TheA w a k eningof
A sia
ev erseen
. L ik et heE ngl ish, t heya rec ont ent t o be w a ge-
sl a v es, sol onga st heyget w ha t t heyc onsid ert obegood
p a y . Theya rerea d yt ow ork l onghou rsinf a c t oriesa t
ra t esof w a gesw hic ht heE u rop ea nl a bou rerof sim il a r
c a p a c it yw ou l d sc of f a t . Byu niv ersa l a d m ission, ina l l
gra d esof em p l oym ent , t heya rep rov ingt hem sel v esl it t l e,
if a t a l l , inf eriort ot heirw hit ec om p eers . M yow nop in-
ion, f rom w ha t I ha v eseenof t hem ou t sid eC hina , ist ha t ,
sol onga st heya red ec ent l yt rea t ed a nd ba rga insm a d ew it h
t hem a rest ric t l yf u l f il l ed , t heya rec a p a bl e, t ru st w ort hya nd
t horou ghl yw el l - beha v ed
. Yet t heC hinesew hoem igra t e
t oA m eric a , A u st ra l ia , et c . , a requ it et hel ow ergra d e of
t hegenera l C hinesep op u l a t ion .
Theef f ec t of t hew a ru p onC hina ' sf oreignp ol ic yha s
been m u c hgrea t ert ha nw a sa t f irst a nt ic ip a t ed . Thou gh
J a p a n, a c t ingst ric t l yina c c ord a nc ew it hheru nd erst a nd -
ingsa nd t rea t iesw it hGrea t Brit a in, d ec l a red hersel f a t
onc eont hesid eof t heA l l iesa ga inst Germ a ny, a nd ren-
d ered t hem exc el l ent serv ic eint heP a c if ic a nd byt hep ro-
v isionof m u nit ions, t hereseem ed ev eryp roba bil it yt ha t
t heRep u bl ic of C hina w ou l d bea bl et om a int a ina st ric t
neu t ra l it y, t em p ered onl ybyJ a p a nesehigh- ha nd ed d ip l o-
m a c y . TheGerm a nsd id a l l t heyc ou l d t oensu ret hec on-
t inu a nc eof C hina ' sneu t ra l it ya nd t orend erit a sbenev o-
l ent a sp ossibl et ow a rd st hem sel v es . Theyrel ied f orsu c -
c ess, not onl yu p ont hegrea t inf l u enc ew hic ht heira gent s
ha d obt a ined byt im el yl oa nst ot herea c t iona rysec t ionof
t henew Rep u bl ic a ns, bu t a l sou p ona nel a bora t ep rop a ga nd a
c ond u c t ed int heirf a v ou rt hrou ghou t t heP rov inc es, a t
a nexp enserel a t iv el ya l m ost c om p a ra bl et ot hehu gesu m s
sp ent f ort hel ik ep u rp osebyC ou nt Bernst orf f int heU nit ed
St a t es .
Bu t it seem ed im p ossibl ef orGerm a ny, u nd erherI m -
p eria l D yna st y, t oa c t w it hgood f a it h, orev enord ina ry
p ru d enc e, t ow a rd sneu t ra l sw it hw hom it w a sherint erest
C hina f or t heC hinese

113
a sw el l a s hera p p a rent w ish t oingra t ia t ehersel f . C on-
sequ et nt l y, a f t ert hem ost ea rnest ef f ort s, a t t end ed bysom e
su c c ess, t op ersu a d et heC hineset ha t t herebel l iou st ribes
on t hef ront ierof t heFrenc hp ossessionsw erea rm ed a nd
su p p ort ed byt heFrenc hRep u bl ic , t heGerm a ns, byt heir
p ira t ic a l p ol ic ya t sea , d est royed a t
a bl ow ev eryt hingt hey
ha d d onet oim p resst heC hineseGov ernm ent w it ht heir
v a st p ow era nd u nf a il ingsu c c ess . Thou ght heP resid ent
him sel f , l ik ehisp red ec essor, w a sd isinc l ined t ot a k ea n
a c t iv ep a rt int hew a r, t hep op u l a rsent im ent w a st oost rong
f orhim , a nd hew a sc om p el l ed byP a rl ia m ent t obrea k of f
d ip l om a t ic rel a t ionsw it ht heC ent ra l P ow ers, t od ec l a re
w a ru p ont hem , a nd t of ol l ow u p t hisp ol ic ybyst ronga c t ion
a ga inst Germ a nc it iz ensa nd Germ a np rop ert yinC hina .
Thu sC hina , t heol d est a nd m ost p op u l ou sE m p irein
t hew orl d , j u st c onv ert ed int oa m od ernp ol it ic a l Rep u bl ic ,
t ook it sst a nd w it hit sriv a l a nd rec ent enem y, J a p a n, sid e
bysid ew it ht heE u rop ea nA l l iesa nd t heU nit ed St a t es
of A m eric a int hew orl d - w id ew a r . I t m a ybet ha t t his
st ep ont hep a rt of C hina w il l berega rd ed int im et oc om e
a sbynom ea nst hel ea st im p ort a nt ev ent int hehist ory
of t hest u p end ou sc onf l ic t w hic hha sd ev a st a t ed E u rop e .
E a st a nd W est , C hina , J a p a na nd I nd ia , byGerm a ny' sm a d
t a c t ic sof ou t ra gea nd p ira c y, w erebrou ght int oa l l ia nc enot
onl yw it hE u rop ebu t w it hA m eric a . I t w a sSu nYa t Sen,
t heW a shingt onof C hina , t hem a nt ow hom m oret ha n
a nyot hert heC hineseRep u bl ic ow esit sf ou nd a t ionint he
f irst inst a nc ea s w el l a sit sc onsol id a t iona f t erYu a n- Shi-
Ka i' sha rm f u l p ol ic ya nd d ea t h, w hosent c ongra t u l a t ions
onbeha l f of 3 50, 000, 000 of ed u c a t ed a nd p ea c ef u l A sia t ic s,
t ot heRep u bl ic of t heU nit ed St a t esw hent heP resid ent of
A m eric a w a sa l sof orc ed int ow a r . Thef a c t t ha t int his
w a ya l l t hegrea t est c iv il ised na t ionsont hegl obe, ou t sid e
t heC ent ra l P ow ers, ha v ebec om eent it l ed t oa sha reint he
c om m onset t l em ent of a f f a irs, giv esgrea t hop et ha t a ny
114
TheA w a k eningof A sia
ec onom ic a nd soc ia l a nt a gonism sw hic hm a ya risew il l be
ha rm onised a nd a c ol l isiona v ert ed bet w eent hew hit e, / ra c es
a nd t hegrow ingf orc esof A sia .
A t t hep resent t im et heU nit ed Kingd om p ossessesone-
ha l f of t het ot a l f oreignt ra d ew it hC hina . N ea rl ya l l t he
d isc u ssioninou rP resst u rnsont hep robl em of how t he
E ngl isha ret oret a int hisov erw hel m ingsu p eriorit yint he
f a c eof Germ a n, A m eric a na nd J a p a nesec om p et it ion . Ger-
m a nyisf ort het im ebeingou t of t hef ra y, bu t onl yf or
t het im ebeing . A m eric a isgrea t l yt rou bl ed byt he" c l os-
ingof t heop end oor" t hrou ghJ a p a n' sa c t iond u ringt he
w a r. J a p a nhersel f isu singherm il it a rya nd na v a l st rengt h,
a s
w el l a shersu p eriorc a p a c it y, f orint erp enet ra t ionof
C hina , d u et oherk now l ed geof t heC hinesel a ngu a gea nd
ea sya d a p t a bil it yt oC hineseha bit sa nd c u st om s, t ost ea l a
m a rc hu p ona l l t hew hit em en, A l l iesa nd enem iesa l ik e, in-
t end ingt oobt a ina nu l t im a t em onop ol yof C hineseext erna l
c om m erc e . I t isc a p it a l ist a nt a gonism of t hem ost a c u t e
c ha ra c t er, inw hic h, ' t oa l l a p p ea ra nc e, J a p a nw il l ev ent u a l l y
c om eou t t hew inner, sof a ra sherE u rop ea nc om p et it ors
a rec onc erned
.
H er" sp heresof inf l u enc e, " a sa l rea d y
seen, ha v eim m ensel yext end ed sinc eA u gu st ,
1914 :
herc om -
m erc ia l p rogressm oret ha nk eep sp a c ew it hherm il it a ry,
na v a l a nd d ip l om a t ic su c c ess . Bu t ev enm ored if f ic u l t t o
c op ew it hinyea rst oc om ew il l beC hineseint erna l p rod u c -
t ion. Thec ot t ont ra d e, inp a rt ic u l a r, isoneinw hic h
C hina m a yea sil ysu f f ic ef orhersel f . N or, t oj u d gebyw ha t
ist a k ingp l a c ea l rea d y, need shef ea rt ha t int hem a nu -
f a c t u reof irona nd st eel shem u st l ongbed ep end ent u p on
f oreignsu p p l ies . I nf a c t , t hec om p et it ionw hic hism ost t o
bef ea red int heC hineset ra d eist ha t f rom C hina hersel f ,
a nd nol ongt im em a yel a p sebef oreL a nc a shireha st op on-
d ert hist ru t hv eryseriou sl y
.
W het hert hed ec a ya nd ru in
of t hef a c t oryind u st ryinL a nc a shirea nd York shirew ou l d
C hina f ort heC hinese

115
rea l l ybed isa d v a nt a geou st oGrea t Brit a ina s a w hol eis
a not herm a t t er .
TheJ a p a neseP rem iera nd C ou nt U shid a ha v erec ent l y
l a id st ressu p ont herenew ed st rengt hof t heA ngl o- J a p a nese
A l l ia nc ea nd ha v ed ec l a red t ha t J a p a nha snod esirew ha t -
ev grf ort errit oria l exp a nsion
. Theyd onot d isgu ise, how -
ev er, t ha t t heyw isht oobt a inc om m erc ia l d om ina t ion, in
c ert a ind irec t ions, ev enshou l d t heyret u rnSha nt u nga nd
Tsing- Ta u t oC hina . Tha t t heC hinesed onot f eel v ery
sa f e, insp it eof t hesea ssu ra nc es, isc ert a in . I t isu nrea -
sona bl et oexp ec t t ha t t heyshou l d . Thed em a nd sm a d eby
J a p a nin
1915
ha v est il l not beenw it hd ra w n, nor, sof a ra s
a t p resent a p p ea rs, d oest heP ea c eC onf erenc eint end t o
m ed d l eint hism a t t er. M ea nw hil e, C hina isd iv id ed int o
t w oc onf l ic t ingsec t ions
.
Theset w op a rt iesof t heN ort h
a nd Sou t ha rem eet inginc onf erenc e, a nd it ishop ed by
p a t riot ic C hineset ha t som esa t isf a c t orya rra ngem ent f or
c om m ona c t ionw il l bec om et o ; t hera t hert ha t J a p a n is a c -
c u sed of f om ent ingt hed isc ord inherow nint erest . U nt il
a nu nd erst a nd ing is a rriv ed a t , t het a l k of t henom ina l
P resid ent a t P ek ingw it hE u rop ea nint erv iew ersgoesf or
l it t l eornot hing .
M u c ha sw em a ya d m iret hea bil it ya nd st a t ec ra f t by
w hic hJ a p a nha sa c qu ired herem inent p osit ionin t he
Fa rE a st , it isw el l t oha v enoil l u sionsa st oherf u nd a m ent a l
p ol ic y . J a p a nisa w a rl ik e, C hina isa p ea c ef u l , p ow er .
J a p a n, ev ennow , isa v eryp oorc ou nt ry . C hina isric h, a nd
p ossessesinc a l c u l a bl eresou rc esf ort he - c rea t ionof w ea l t h .
J a p a nrega rd sC hina a shert rea su re- hou seof ra w m a t eria l s
f orherind u st ries, a st heyexist a t p resent ; t hem a rk et f or
herind u st riesa st heym a ybeint henea rf u t u re ; a nd t he
id ea l c ou nt ryinw hic hshec a nexerc isehergrea t p ow ers
of orga nisa t iona nd d ev el op m ent l a t eron . C hina f eel s
c onf id ent t ha t , if giv enf a irp l a y, shec a nop enu p , c onnec t
byroa d a nd ra il w a y, a d m inist era nd c o- ord ina t eherow n
116

TheA w a k eningof A sia
v a st a nd w ea l t hyt errit oriesf orhersel f . Bu t sheisa t
p resent innop osit iont oresist t hec l a im sof J a p a nt oexer-
c iseexc ep t iona l a u t horit y, a nd t oobt a inu np rec ed ent ed
p riv il egesw it hint hebord ersof C hina , u nl esssheha ssu p -
p ort f rom w it hou t . I nv iew of w ha t ha sha p p ened sinc e
18 95, C hina m a yw el l beexc u sed f ornot a c c ep t ingv erba l
enga gem ent sa sbind ing, shou l d t herebe- a st hereu nd ou bt -
ed l yis- v eryst rongrea sononJ a p a n' ssid ef orbrea k ing
t hem .
W ha t ev erm a ybesa id , t heref ore, a st ot hev a l u eof t he
A ngl o- J a p a neseTrea t ies, w hic h, u nl essrenew ed , c om et o
a nend in rg2i, it isobv iou sl ynot t ot heint erest of C hina
hersel f , of Grea t Brit a in, orof t heU nit ed St a t es, t osa y
not hingof Fra nc ea nd ot herE u rop ea nP ow ers, t ha t J a p a n
shou l d c a rryona sim il a rp ol ic yt ow a rd sC hina t ot ha t
w hic hsheha ssosu c c essf u l l yc om p l et ed inrega rd t oKorea .
C hina isgrea t l ya l a rm ed a t J a p a nesea m bit iona nd her
a st u t em et hod sof " p ea c ef u l p enet ra t ion, " su p p ort ed a l w a ys
byp ow erf u l f orc esonl a nd a nd onsea . C hina u nd ert he
c om p l et ec ont rol of J a p a nw ou l d bea sgrea t a d a ngera s
t heGerm a nm a st eryof C ent ra l a nd E a st ernE u rop et op er-
m a nent p ea c e, L ea gu eof N a t ionsornoL ea gu eof N a -
t ions .
C H A P TE RI X
TH E GRO W TH O FJ A P A N
TH E d ev el op m ent of J a p a nint hec ou rse
of t hep a st f ort y
yea rsha sbeensom et hinga l t oget heru np rec ed ent ed inhu -
m a nhist ory .
E v enE u rop ea nsw how it nessed , c l osea t
ha nd , t hec ha ngest ha t w eret a k ingp l a c e, bynom ea nsf u l l y
a p p rec ia t ed w ha t w a sgoingonu nd ert heirow neyes
. The
t ra nsf orm a t ionf rom f eu d a l ism t om od ernc a p it a l ism , w hic h
ha snot beena c hiev ed int hem ost a d v a nc ed E u rop ea nc ou n-
t riesw it hin a p eriod of f ou rhu nd red yea rs, w a sa c c om -
p l ished inJ a p a nina t ent hp a rt of t ha t t im e . From f irst
t ol a st t hew hol est oryha sbeenm ost d ra m a t ic
. A p eop l e
d esc ribed , not f if t yyea rsa go, byone of
t heshrew d est of
ou ra m ba ssa d orsa s" highl yint el l igent c hil d ren, " bec a m e,
bet w een18 7oa nd 19io, oneof t hegrea t P ow ersof t he
w orl d
: f ight ing, negot ia t ing, t rea t y- m a k ing, m a nu f a c t u ring,
t ra d ingona t l ea st equ a l t erm sw it hE u rop ea nna t ions, f rom
w hom int ha t short sp a c eof t im et heyha d l ea rnt a l l t he
essent ia l sof m od ernm il it a rya nd ind u st ria l l if e .
Tha t t hisisonl ya beginninga l l now u nd erst a nd a nd
not a f ew f ea r . Them oresot ha t t hisra p id riseinst rengt h,
a st hea bl est J a p a nesew rit ersp oint ou t , ha s, st ric t l ysp ea k -
ing, beena c c om p l ished bynorev ol u t ion . Thereha v ebeen
grea t risings, d esp era t ec iv il w a rs, ext ra ord ina ryc l a ssd is-
p l a c em ent s, a c om p l et eov ert hrow of " M a yorsof t he
P a l a c e, " m oreinf l u ent ia l t ha na nyof t hev ic e- k ingsw ho
hel d sw a yinFra nc e . Yet t hesa m eroya l f a m il yof d iv ine
d esc ent , w hosem em bersha v esa t a sM ik a d oind irec t su c -
c essionont heI m p eria l t hronef oru nnu m bered c ent u ries,
117
118

TheA w a k eningof A sia
hol d su nc ha l l enged ru l et o- d a y .
Therem ov a l of t hem on-
a rc hha sa p p a rent l ynev erbeent hou ght of
. H isgod l ik e
su p rem a c yrem a inst hem ost p erm a nent , u nc ha ngea bl ef ea -
t u reina l l t hev a ried m ov em ent sof J a p a nesegrow t h .
H is
sa c red a u t oc ra c y, c a ref u l l yc onc ea l ed byp ol it ic a l a nd p a r-
l ia m ent a ryf orm s, rem a ins, a nd isl ik el yt orem a in, a sf u l l y
a c c ep t ed inp ra c t ic ebyt hesc ep t ic a l J a p a nesesc hol a r, w ho
ret u rnsf rom hisE u rop ea nst u d iesv ersed ina l l t hesc ienc e
a nd c u l t u reof t heW est , a sbyt hel ea st ed u c a t ed c ool ie
w hop u l l sa l onga ric k sha w
.
Thec onc ent ra t ionof J a p a nesep a t riot ism ont hesu -
p rem eru l er, a nd t hew orship of a nc est rya nd a nc est ors,
a sif ev erp resent a t a l l t im esint hel if ea nd d ea t hof t he
orga nisersa nd d ef end ersof t hec ou nt ry, giv et ot heJ a p a n-
esenot onl yinm il it a rybu t
in c iv il a f f a irsa na rd ou rof
p ersona l serv ic e, w heret heint erest sof t hena t iona rein-
v ol v ed , w hic hisqu it eu nequ a l l ed ina nym od ernSt a t e . N ot
ev enGerm a ny, w it hit sorga nised c u l t of Ka iser, St a t ea nd
Fa t herl a nd right orw rong, show ed su c hd ev ot iont ot he
id ea l of na t iona l su c c essa nd p re- em inenc ea sJ a p a n . A nd
a p p a rent l yt hef u l l d ev el op m ent of t hegrea t f a c u l t iesw hic h
u nd erl a yt heol d J a p a nesec iv il isa t ionha sbynom ea nsyet
beenrea c hed . E v eryst ep t a k enf orw a rd is c a ref u l l y
u t il ised inord ert oensu rew it hsa f et yt henext a d v a nc e . I f
t hed esired end c a nbea c hiev ed p ea c ef u l l y, som u c ht he
bet t er ; bu t t hep rep a ra t ionsf orw a r, shou l d p ea c enegot ia -
t ionsf a il , a renev errel a xed . I f , t heref ore, C hina w it hher
v a st resou rc esa nd im m ensep op u l a t ionof ind u st riou s, ed u -
c a t ed , p ea c e- l ov ingt oil ersm a yint hef u t u rebec om et he
l ea d ingna t ionof t hew hol ew orl d , it c a nnot bed isp u t ed
t ha t f orm a nyyea rst oc om eJ a p a nw il l rem a int hel ea d ing
na t ionof t heFa rE a st .
Soc om p l et ea l ibra ryof book sont hehist oryof J a p a n
ha sbeenc om p il ed byJ a p a nese, E u rop ea na nd A m eric a n
w rit ersof l a t eyea rst ha t it isp ossibl et osu rv eyt hep rog-
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119
ressof t hec ou nt ryint hep a st a nd it sp osit ionint he
p resent f rom a l m ost ev eryp oint of v iew
. TheJ a p a nese
t hem sel v esrec k ont heirm od erna nna l sf rom t hev isit of
C om m od oreP erry' sA m eric a nsqu a d ronin18 53 .
A t t ha t
d a t et heyha d beenshu t ou t f rom f oreignint erc ou rse, f or-
eignset t l em ent a nd f oreignt ra d ef ora p eriod of f u l l yt w o
hu nd red yea rs
. Thisp ol ic yof exc l u sionw a sd u et ot he
ou t ra geou sa t t em p t sof t heJ esu it sa nd ot herC a t hol ic ord ers
t oobt hinp ol it ic a l d om ina t ionint heI sl a nd E m p ire . O nl y
t heC hinese, a nd t heD u t c ht oa v eryl im it ed ext ent , w ere
exc ep t ionst ot hisc om p l et eboyc ot t of ou t sid ers .
Thu sf orsev enent iregenera t ionsJ a p a nha d su f f ic ed
f orhersel f a nd ha d d ev el op ed hersoc ia l syst em ind ep end ent
of a nyext erna l inf l u enc ew ha t soev er . Sinc e, d u ringt his
p eriod , herp eop l eha d beenont hew hol ep rosp erou sa nd
ha d grea t l yinc rea sed innu m bers ; sinc e, a l so, t hegrea t
Togow a ra f a m il y, w hic hhel d t herea l gov ernm ent of t he
c ou nt ryu nd ert hea t rop hied su p rem a c yof t heM ik a d o, ha d
p rod u c ed a seriesof a bl em ent oa c t a sv ic e- k ingsov ert he
grea t f eu d a l nobil it y ; sinc e, l ik ew ise, t hef a t eof I nd ia a nd
t heru t hl essa t t a c k sof E u rop ea nsu p onC hina w erenot u n-
k now nt oJ a p a neseru l ersa nd l ea rned m en- it isnot su r-
p risingt ha t w henC om m od oreP erryd em a nd ed , m oret ha n
sixt yyea rsa go, t ha t t hec ou nt ryshou l d beop ened t oA m eri-
c a nint erc ou rse, hem et w it ha c ool rec ep t iona nd a p l a in
" N o . "
Thec iv il w a rsoc c a sioned byC hrist ia nint rigu es
a nd p ol it ic o- rel igiou sent erp rise, w henhu nd red sof sp l end id
ol d t em p l esw erebu rnt d ow na nd t hou sa nd sof J a p a nese
w erek il l ed a nd w ou nd ed onbot hsid es, ha d l ef t t ood eep a
m a rk onJ a p a nt obef orgot t en .
Fea rof a renew a l of su c h
im p ort ed t rou bl esf rom a not hersid ena t u ra l l yinf l u enc ed
t heJ a p a neseint heira t t it u d et ow a rd t hew hit enew - c om ers
f rom t heU nit ed St a t es, w hom t hey, of c ou rse, a ssoc ia t ed
w it hE u rop ea ns.
Bu t t heA m eric a nenv oyw a sshrew d a sw el l a sf irm a nd
120

TheA w a k eningof A sia
d ext erou s . O nhissec ond v isit int hef ol l ow ingyea rhis
p rosp ec t sof su c c essw erem u c hgrea t er .
I nt hem ea nt im e,
t hew hol equ est ionha d beenc a ref u l l yd isc u ssed byt he
J a p a nese, a nd herl ea d ingm enha d c om et ot hec onc l u sion
t ha t J a p a nc ou l d not p erm a nent l ysec l u d ehersel f f rom t he
ou t sid ew orl d
. Theonl yt hingt obed onew a st ok eep su c h
f a t ef u l int erc ou rsew it hint hena rrow est p ossibl el im it s . I t
w a sc l ea rt ha t t heA m eric a nC om m od orea nd env oyd id not
int end t op u t u p w it ha ref u sa l . H eha d t hem ea nsf oren-
f orc inghisd em a nd sa t hisd isp osa l . Theref oret hec a u -
t iou sbu t c l ev erp eop l ew it hw hom hew a sd ea l inga rra nged
ina f riend l ym a nnera qu est ionw hic hm ight ot herw iseha v e
beend ec id ed byf orc eof a rm s . J a p a nin18 54w a sa ga in
op ened t o som eext ent t of oreignt ra d ea nd set t l em ent
.
A m eric a w a sa c t ingnot onl yf orhersel f bu t f ora l l c iv il ised
. c ou nt ries . N ot ev enyet , p erha p s, d ow ef u l l ya p p rec ia t e
t hem ea ningof t hisst ep . A c om p l et el ynew el em ent w a s
t henint rod u c ed int ot hep ol it ic sof t heFa rE a st a nd of t he
w orl d a t l a rge .
I w a st a l k ingm a nyyea rsa got om yf riend t hew el l -
k now nA m eric a ngeogra p hera nd engineer, t hel a t eC ol onel
C hu rc h, a bou t t hep ossibl ea c t ionof J a p a na nd C hina , w hen
t heyu nd erst ood t heirow nst rengt h, a nd ha d a d op t ed a nd
a p p l ied t hem et hod sof W est ernE u rop et om il it a rya nd
ind u st ria l d ev el op m ent , , int heisl a nd sa nd ont hem a inl a nd
.
I nt hec ou rseof ou rc onv ersa t ionhesa id
: " W henI w a s
enc a m p ed ont hehea d w a t ersof t heA m a z on, t ra v el l ing
d ow nf rom Bol iv ia in18 6 9, I sa w a qu eer, c l u m sya nim a l
bu sil yl ic k ing u p t hea nt sw hic hw erew ork ingrou nd t he
ba seof a biga nt - hea p .
Thea nt sinsid ep a id noa t t ent ion
t ot hef a t eof t heirf el l ow s . Thisw ent onf orsom et im e,
a nd t hed ep red a t orw a sd oingexc eed ingl yw el l
. Su d d enl y
it oc c u rred t ohim t ha t , a l t hou ght herew eresom a nya nt s
ou t sid e, t herem u st bea grea t m a nym orew it hin
. Sohe
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121
m a d ef u l l u seof hisf orep a w sa nd brok ed ow nt hehea p .
W it hint w ohou rshisbonesw erew hit eningint hesu n
.
" A nd t ha t w il l f ina l l ybet hef a t eof t hew hit era c esif
t heyt ryt obrea k u p t hehu m a na nt - hea p of t hesw a rm ing
E a st . "
L it t l ed id t heA m eric a nsim a gine, w hent heybrok ein
u p onrel u c t a nt J a p a n, t ha t t heym ight bep rov id ingC hina
a nd a l l A sia , a nd it shu nd red sof m il l ionsof p eop l e, w it h
p rec isel yt ha t w a rl ik el ea d ership t heyneed ina nyd if f ic u l -
t iesw hic hm a ya risebet w eent heE a st a nd W est int henea r
f u t u re . Thet w ohu nd red yea rsof sec l u sionha d c rea t ed
a m onga l a rgesec t ionof t hep eop l eof J a p a na sp irit of
w a rl ik ef el l ow ship , of p ersona l sa c rif ic ea nd
ind iv id u a l
d ev ot ionu np rec ed ent ed inou rk now l ed geof t heE a st . W it h
t hesequ a l it iesw erec om bined a c a p a c it yf ora c c ep t ingnew
id ea s, im it a t ingf oreigninv ent ionsa nd inst it u t ions, a nd
a d a p t ingt hel a t est a p p l ia nc est ot heirow nneed sw hic h,
l ik ew ise, ha d nev erbef orebeenseeninA sia
.
N ot hingof
t hisw a sk now neit hert oE u rop ea nsort ot heJ a p a nese
t hem sel v esw hent ha t f irst st ep w hic hc ou nt sw a st a k enby
t heU nit ed St a t esinJ a p a n .
Sinc et hent hec a ra p a c eof t he
a nt - hea p ha sbeenf ra c t u red inea rnest .
I n18 56 , w it ht hec onsent of t heShogu na nd t hea c -
qu iesc enc eof t hegrea t D a im yos, t hef irst A m eric a nC onsu l
w a sa l l ow ed t oest a bl ishhisC onsu l a t ea t Shim od a a nd a
c om m erc ia l t rea t yw a ssigned . O t herc om m erc ia l t rea t ies
w ereshort l ya f t erw a rd sc onc l u d ed w it hE ngl a nd , Fra nc e,
Ru ssia a nd ot herc ou nt ries . Therew a sst il l a v eryst rong
op p osit iont ot hisc ou rse in J a p a n . Bu t resist a nc et ot he
Shogu nGov ernm ent a nd it sf eu d a l su p p ort ersw a srel ent -
l essl yp u t d ow nf ort het im ebeing, a nd t het rea t iesw ere
c onf irm ed a nd enf orc ed bya u t horit y .
Thu s, f ol l ow ingu p t hel ea d giv enbyA m eric a , E u ro-
p ea nna t ionsw erenot sl ow t op u sht heirt ra d eint heop en-
inga f f ord ed . A su su a l , f oreignerst hou ght t ha t if t hey
122

TheA w a k eningof A sia
w erenot w el c om et ot heJ a p a neset heyou ght t obe, a nd ,
a ssu m inga l l t hosea irsof su p eriorit y, a nd d isp l a yingt he
c ongenit a l ru d enesssosp ec ia l l yof f ensiv et oc ou rt eou sa nd
p ol it ep eop l esu c ha st heJ a p a nese, t heyqu ic k l yst irred u p
a bit t erf eel inga ga inst t hem sel v es . Thisbrou ght a bou t a
c onf u sed m a ssa c reof E u rop ea nsa t t heTrea t yP ort sa l -
rea d yop ened , w it hinsixyea rsof t heina u gu ra t ionof t he
new p ol ic y . Su c hm et hod sof exhibit ingra c ia l d isl ik ea re,
of c ou rse, not ina c c ord a nc ew it ht hec om it yof na t ions .
C iv il ised c ou nt riesm a k el it t l ea l l ow a nc ef ort hesesu d d en
ebu l l it ionsof d isl ik e, a c c om p a nied by d isord erl yhom i-
c id e, a t t heexp enseof t heirow np eop l e, nom a t t erhow
m u c hp rov oc a t ionm a yha v ebeengiv en- a l w a ysp rov id ed
t ha t , a sw a st hent hec a sew it hJ a p a n, t heof f end ingna -
t iona l it yism u c ht hew ea k erp a rt y . W herest rengt hisd is-
p l a yed ont heot hersid ea l essst ringent d ip l om a c yisgen-
era l l yu sed
.
Thec a u seof t he' ou t brea k , ont hisoc c a sion, w a st he
high- ha nd ed a c t ionof Ru ssia inref erenc et ot heisl a nd
of Sa gha l ien, w hic hbyright bel onged t oJ a p a n . There-
f oret heJ a p a neseGov ernm ent a p p ea l ed f orhel p t oGrea t
Brit a ina nd ot herf oreignp ow ersa ga inst Ru ssia. Thisin
t u rnga v eriset oa f u riou sa git a t iona m ou nt inga l m ost t o
a c iv il w a rbet w eent het w ona t iv esec t ions : t hosew ho
f a v ou red su c hinv it a t ionst ot heobj ec t iona bl ef oreignera nd
t hosew horega rd ed t hisa c t ionbyt heJ a p a neseGov ernm ent
a sd eroga t oryt ot hena t ion . From a na t t a c k u p ont heir
c ou nt rym enw hod esired f oreigna id a nd w ererea d yt oex-
t end f oreignp riv il eges, t hed ist u rba nc esp rea d t oa na ssa u l t
byt herea c t iona ryorp a t riot ic m obont hef oreignerst hem -
sel v es . M a nyof t hesew erek il l ed orinj u red . Theirre-
sp ec t iv eGov ernm ent sd em a nd ed im m ed ia t ea p ol ogy a nd
c om p ensa t ionf rom t heShogu na nd hisa d m inist ra t ion, w ho
st il l c onst it u t ed t he d ef a c t o Gov ernm ent of J a p a n . The
J a p a nesea u t horit iesw ereu na bl eoru nw il l ingt om eet t he
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123
d em a nd sof t hef oreignP ow ers, ona c c ou nt of ou t ra ges
c om m it t ed bya set of p eop l e, w how ere, inf a c t , inrev ol t
a ga inst t hep ol ic yw hic ht heShogu nhim sel f ha d init ia t ed
a nd c a rried ou t . Theynot u nrea sona bl yd isc l a im ed re-
sp onsibil it yf ora c t sd irec t ed qu it ea sm u c ha ga inst t hem -
sel v esa sa ga inst t hef oreignersw ho, inc id ent a l l y, su f f ered
sev erel y
.
TheP ow ers, how ev er, p ossibl yw it hequ a l j u s-
t ic e, c l a im ed t ha t a Gov ernm ent c a p a bl eof m a k ingTrea t ies
int hena m eof t hena t ionc ou l d not ev a d eit sobl iga t ions, if
su bj ec t sof t hec ou nt riesinv ol v ed w erek il l ed orw ou nd ed ,
w hil ea c t ingw it hint hest ric t l im it sof t heirTrea t yright s .
I nt heend c ont rov ersyc ea sed a nd bom ba rd m ent byE u -
rop ea nv essel sbega n . J a p a nw a sbom ba rd ed a t Ka goshim a
in18 6 2, a nd t henbyGrea t Brit a in, t heU nit ed St a t esa nd
Fra nc e, a t Shim onosek iin18 6 3 , a nd , ha v ingnom ea ns
of m a k ingef f ec t iv erep l y, w a sf orc ed t ogiv ew a y . For-
eignt roop sw erel a nd ed , a nd J a p a n, w hic hha d beenim -
m u nef rom host il einv a sionsinc et hec om p l et ef a il u reof t he
exp ed it iond isp a t c hed a ga inst herbyt hegrea t C hineseE m -
p erork now nt ou sa sKu bl a iKha n, w a st hrea t ened u nd er
c ond it ionsw hereresist a nc ew a shop el ess . I t w a sa t er-
ribl el esson . I t sf u l l m ea ningw a snot l ost eit heru p ont he
ref orm ersort herea c t iona riesof J a p a n . TheJ a p a nese,
how ev ersk il f u l a nd c ou ra geou st heym ight beint heu seof
t heirow nna t iv ew ea p ons, sa w t ha t t heyc ou l d ha v eno
c ha nc ew ha t ev erof hol d ingt heirow n, st il l l essof d ef ea t -
ingE u rop ea ns, onl a nd oronsea , u nt il t heyt hem sel v esp os-
sessed E u rop ea nm ea nsof of f enc ea nd d est ru c t ion . W ha t
C hina onl ybega nt oseein18 95a nd 1900t hel ea d ersof
J a p a ngra sp ed m oret ha nt hirt yyea rsea rl ier.
Su c hw a st hesec ond grea t st ep int hea d v a nc eof t his
a l m ost u nk now nA sia t ic c ou nt ryt oit snow rec ognised p o-
sit ionint heE a st .
A st u t ea sw eret hest a t esm enw hot ook
a na c t iv ep a rt int herem ov a l of t heShogu nin18 6 8 , a nd
t herest ora t ionof t hea l m ost p ow erl essE m p erort ot he
124

TheA w a k eningof A sia
l ong- f orgot t en
a c t iv e d om ina t ion, w hic h,
int heory, st il l
bel onged t ot heM ik a d o, w ec a nnot bel iev et ha t t heyha d a ny
id ea of t heresu l t sw hic hw ou l d f ol l ow f rom t hisrem a rk -
a bl ep ol it ic a l resu rrec t ion .
N ev ert hel ess, w ec a nnow d isc ernt ha t t heyt ook t he
onl yp ossibl ec ou rsebyw hic ht heirc ou nt ryc ou l d d ea l a d e-
qu a t el yw it ht henew p ol ic y, a nd sa f el yint rod u c et hep e-
riod of reorga nisa t iona nd a d a p t a t ionrend ered essent ia l
byE u rop ea nint erv ent ion
. Thu st heysom od if ied J a p a nese
int erna l a rra ngem ent st ha t oneof t hegrea t est p ol it ic a l , so-
c ia l a nd m il it a ryt ra nsf orm a t ionst hew orl d ha sev erseen
w a sc a rried t hrou ghw it hc om p a ra t iv el yl it t l ec iv il w a rf a re .
I t w a sp ra c t ic a l l yim p ossibl et om a k et hisw hol esa l ec ha nge
w it hou t a nyop ena nt a gonism orv iol ent st rif e
. Them a rv el
ist ha t a l l resist a nc et ot henew ord erof t hingsshou l d
ha v ebeensop rom p t l ysu p p ressed , a nd su p p ressed , t oo, by
na t iona l t roop s, w hoha d noneof t het ra d it iona l a p t it u d e
a nd c u l t iv a t ed c hiv a l ryof t herebel Sa m u ra it ow hom t hey
w ereop p osed
. E v enm orerem a rk a bl ew a st hebeha v iou r
of t heD a im yos, orgrea t f eu d a l d ignit a riesa nd t heseSa m u -
ra it hem sel v es, inv ol u nt a ril ygiv ingu p t heira nc ient p riv i-
l egesa nd p ensionsinord ert oensu ret hesu c c essof t he
c onst it u t iona l regim eu nd ert hequ a si- a u t oc ra c yof t heM i-
k a d o.
Tha t a d om ina nt c a st eshou l d t hu sp ea c ef u l l ysu r-
rend erit sa nc est ra l p osit ion, f ort hebenef it of a syst em of
gov ernm ent w hic hit sm em bersc ou l d sc a rc el ya p p rec ia t e,
isa nexa m p l eof p a t riot ic sel f - sa c rif ic ep rev iou sl yu n-
k now n .
W ha t w a sinef f ec t a rev ol u t ioninJ a p a n- t hesu rrend er
of t heShogu na t ebyt hel a st of t heShogu nsa nd t hed ow n-
f a l l of t hef eu d a l syst em - isref erred t obyt heJ a p a nese
t hem sel v esa sa " Rest ora t ion" of I m p eria l P ow ersw hic h
ha d f a l l enint od esu et u d eint hec ou rseof hu nd red sof yea rs .
D u ringt hesel ongc ent u riest heM ik a d oha d a l w a ysbeen
nom ina l l yt hesu p rem ea u t horit y, a nd t heShogu nst hem -
TheGrow t hof J a p a n

125
sel v esc l a im ed t od eriv et heirow nd el ega t ed p ow erf rom
him a nd not f rom a nyhered it a rysu c c essionof t heirow n
.
O w ingp a rt l yt ot hea c t ionof SirH enryP a rk es, t heBrit -
ishA m ba ssa d ora t t het im eof t hec onf irm a t ionof t he
Trea t iesw it hf oreignc ou nt ries, t herep resent a t iv eof t he
l ongl ineof M ik a d os, w it ha l l hisa f f l a t u sof d iv ineorigin,
w a sl it era l l yd u gu p f rom sec l u siona nd end ow ed w it hf resh
I m p eria l v igou r
. O nA p ril iit h, 18 6 8 , t hisp ol ic yw a s
d ef init el yc a rried ou t w it hev enl essd if f ic u l t yt ha na t t end ed
t hed isp l a c em ent of J a m es
I I . by W il l ia m I I I . a nd hia
H a nov eria nsu c c essorsinGrea t Brit a in .
Thou ghf ora
short t im et herew a sv igorou sf ight ing, noP ret end ersa rose
t herea f t ert oc ha l l enget heright a nd p osit ionof t heM ik a d o .
Byt heoa t ht a k enbyt hel a t eE m p erorM u t su hit oin
18 6 8 he, a srep resent ed byP rinc eI t o, u nd ert ook t oed u -
c a t et hep eop l ef ort heird u t iesa sm em bersof a c onst it u -
t iona l c ou nt ry
. Thisw a sd onesyst em a t ic a l l yf rom a bov e
a sw el l a sbyc ont inu ou sinst ru c t ion, st ea d il yim p rov ingin
sc op ea nd ef f ec t iv eness, bel ow
. Thea bl est J a p a nesep ol it i-
c ia nsa nd st u d ent sw eresent t oE u rop ea nd t heU nit ed
St a t es, inord ert oinv est iga t et horou ghl yt hef orm s, a nd
giv et heirrep ort su p ont hea d v a nt a ges, of t hed if f erent c on-
st it u t iona l syst em sa c c ep t ed int hev a riou sSt a t es . The
w hol einqu iryw a sc ond u c t ed w it hA rist ot el ia nexa c t it u d e,
u nd erf a rm ored if f ic u l t c irc u m st a nc est ha nt hosew hic h
c onf ront ed t hegrea t Greek p hil osop her . Therew a sno
a t t em p t a t su d d enint rod u c t ionof a nyc u t - a nd - d ried sc hem e
ord oc t rina irec onc ep t ionof c onst it u t iona l gov ernm ent .
W ha t a f t erc a ref u l c onsid era t ionc ou l d bem ost a d v a nt a ge-
ou sl ya d a p t ed t oJ a p a nesem a nnersa nd c u st om sa nd
t hou ght sa nd id ea sw a st a k en : t herem a ind erw a sl ef t . I t
w a sa sort of p ol it ic a l ec l ec t ic ism su c ha sha d nev erbeen
a t t em p t ed inp ra c t ic ebef ore . A nd , a sa l ea rned a nd ex-
p erienc ed J a p a nesew rit erha sa bl yp u t it , t heresu l t w a s
t ha t p ol it ic a l p a rt iesa rosebef ore
.
a nyp u bl ic A ssem bl y
126

TheA w a k eningof A sia
w a sest a bl ished . Thesep ol it ic a l p a rt iesrend ered a P a r-
l ia m ent nec essa ryt ogiv eexp ressiont ot hev iew sof t he
p eop l eof w hom t heyw erec om p osed
. Thisw a sd irec t l y
c ont ra ryt ow ha t oc c u rred inE ngl a nd , t heM ot herof P a r-
l ia m ent s, w heret heH ou seof C om m ons, orA ssem bl yof
Bu rgesses, exist ed f ora l ongt im ebef orep ol it ic a l p a rt iesin
a nym od ernsensea rose .
Bu t t heJ a p a nesed em oc ra c ya nd it sp ol it ic a l syst em a re
v eryd if f erent f rom a nyE u rop ea ninst it u t ion, j u st a st he
J a p a nese" C onst it u t iona l M ona rc hy" isa t ot a l l yd ist inc t
c onc ep t ionof k ingship f rom a nyt ha t ha sev erbeenseenin
E u rop e . TheJ a p a nesea reA sia t ic s, a nd inp ol it ic s, a sin
p ol ic y, A sia t ic st heyrem a in . Thef orm sresem bl eou rs
t hesp irit w hic hu nd erl iest hem isinnow iset hesa m e, nor
ev ensim il a r . H ow ev er, f rom t hism em ora bl ed a t eon-
w a rd s, t hep l ed geof t hel a t eE m p erorha st hrou ghou t been
f a it hf u l l yobserv ed .
Grea t a sha v ebeent hed if f ic u l t iesa nd
nu m erou st hea bu ses, int erna l a nd ext erna l , w hic hJ a p a n
ha sha d t of a c e, t ha t u nd ert a k ingt o" ed u c a t et hep eop l et o
t herequ irem ent sof a C onst it u t iona l St a t e" ha sbeenst ea d il y
p u rsu ed .
P u bl ic op inionisa p l a nt of v erysl ow grow t h, a nd ,
ev enint hem ost a d v a nc ed E u rop ea nna t ions, it sinf l u enc e
isf a rl essp ow erf u l t ha nisc om m onl ysu p p osed . Therea re
m a nyw a ysinw hic h, ev enw hereit exist sa nd m a ya d -
v a nt a geou sl yexert it sel f , p u bl ic op inionc a nbed ec eiv ed or
t w ist ed hit hera nd t hit herbya nu nsc ru p u l ou sGov ernm ent .
W eha v eha d p l ent yof exa m p l esof t ha t inE u rop e . Bu t
inJ a p a nonrea l l yim p ort a nt m a t t ersit c a nnot ev enyet be
sa id t ha t t hep eop l et a k ea nint el l igent a nd ef f ec t iv eint erest
int heirow na f f a irs ; t hou gh, a sw il l beseenl a t er, t hea d -
v a nc ed p a rt ies, a nd inp a rt ic u l a rt heSoc ia l ist s, , ha v ed one
t heiru t m ost t ost iru p t hep eop l et oc onst it u t iona l a git a -
t ion, int heint erest sof genu inesoc ia l a nd p ol it ic a l ref orm ,
TheGrow t hof J a p a n

127
a nd rec ent ev ent sp oint t ot hea c hiev em ent of som esu c c ess
int hisresp ec t .
I n18 71t hef eu d a l syst em w a sent irel ya broga t ed , a nd
t ha t c l ea red t hegrou nd f ort hosec ha ngesint hel oc a l a nd
c ent ra l a d m inist ra t ionw hic hbrou ght t hem int oc l oserre-
l a t ionship w it hsim il a rinst it u t ionsinE u rop e . Bu t t en
yea rsp a ssed - a l ongt im ew it hJ a p a n' sra t eof d ev el op -
m ent - bef ored ef init est ep sw eret a k ent oset onf oot rep -
resent a t iv egov ernm ent ina nyt hingl ik et heE u rop ea nsense
of t het erm . E ight yea rsm orew ent bybef oret henew
C onst it u t iont ook sha p einf orm a l l a w . I nt hec ou rseof
t heset w ent yyea rsf rom 18 6 8 t o18 8 9a st ronga nd f orm id -
a bl ebu rea u c ra c yha d grow nu p ont heru insof t heol d
f eu d a l a rra ngem ent s . O nm oret ha noneoc c a sion, not a bl y
inrel a t iont oKorea in18 73 , a nd u p onsom esu sp ic iou sl a nd
sa l esbyt heGov ernm ent a t a l a t erd a t e, t herew erep op u l a r
risingsa nd t hed em a nd of p ol it ic a l f a c t ionsf orgrea t er
f reed om of d isc u ssionl ed t oseriou sou t brea k sw hic hw ere
sev erel ysu p p ressed .
W it ht hef orm a l p rom u l ga t ionof t heC onst it u t ion in
18 8 9, f ol l ow ed byt hec rea t ionof a Sec ond H ou sea nd a
p eera ge, J a p a nent ered f ina l l yu p onherrem a rk a bl eexp eri-
m ent of t hea d a p t a t ionof W est ernp ol it ic a l inst it u t ionst o
a nA sia t ic f ou nd a t ion .
I t ssu c c essingenera l a f f a irsc a n-
not bed isp u t ed . Bu t , sof a ra srega rd sherext erna l p ol ic y,
a nd herext ra ord ina rygrow t hof m il it a ry, na v a l a nd c om -
m erc ia l st rengt h, t hosea rep roba bl yright w hosa yt ha t t he
c onst it u t iona l d em oc ra c yha sl it t l erea l signif ic a nc e ; t ha t
J a p a nrem a insf ort hep resent a highl yorga nised a nd ef f i-
c ient bu rea u c ra c y, w it ha ru l erd eif ied byt hec om m onp eo-
p l e, a nd a St a t esoc onsol id a t ed t ha t p ol it ic a l m a noeu v res
w il l nev erbea l l ow ed t oint erf erew it ht herea l isa t ionof
na t iona l a m bit ionsa t hom eora broa d .
TheC onst it u t ion, how ev er, a sf orm a l l yp roc l a im ed a nd
now m a int a ined , l ea v esp l ent yof op eningsf ord em oc ra t ic
128

TheA w a k eningof A sia
d ev el op m ent , a st hep eop l ebec om ea c c u st om ed t oexerc ising
t heirp ol it ic a l p ow er .
Thesec ond obj ec t of t heE m p eror, a c c ord ingt oP rinc e
I t o, f rom 18 6 8 onw a rd s, w a s" t of ort if yt hena t ionw it ht he
best resu l t sa nd resou rc esof m od ernc iv il isa t ion, inord er
t osec u ref ort hec ou nt ryp rosp erit y, st rengt ha nd c u l t u re
a nd t hec onsequ ent rec ognised st a t u sof m em bership u p on
a nequ a l f oot ingint hef a m il yof t hem ost p ow erf u l a nd
c iv il ised na t ionsof t hew orl d . " Thisisa sd ef init ea p ol ic y
a sit w a sp ossibl et oent eru p on ; bu t it d oesnot a p p ea rin
t heC onst it u t iona l O a t hit sel f , a nd t hegenera l it iesof t he
oa t hc ert a inl yd onot exp resst hesegrea t a sp ira t ionsso
c l ea rl y . P roba bl yt heygrew u p a st hem ea nsf orgra t if ying
t hem w eresec u red .
Thep rogressof J a p a nha sgenera l l yf ol l ow ed t hel ines
t hu sind ic a t ed byP rinc eI t o . Bu t t hec ha ngeha sbeen
w rou ght byext ensionf rom m il it a rya nd na v a l reorga nisa -
t iont oind u st ria l a nd c om m erc ia l d ev el op m ent . From t he
f irst , t heol d w a rl ik esp irit w a sc u l t iv a t ed a nd sc ient if ic a l l y
u sed f ort hep u rp osesof t henew era . I nhera rm ya nd
na v yJ a p a nqu iet l ya nd p ersist ent l ya d op t ed a l l t hose im -
p rov em ent sind isc ip l ine, t ra ining, m a t eria l a p p l ia nc esa nd
highl y- t ra ined m ed ic a l a nd su rgic a l sk il l w hic h E u rop e
c ou l d t ea c hher
. C irc u m st a nc esbeinga st heyw ere, t here
w a snoint erna l op p osit iont oel a bora t ep rep a ra t ionsc a rried
ond u ringm a nyyea rsa p p a rent l yf orp rov isiona ga inst
f oreigna t t a c k . TheE u rop ea nbom ba rd m ent sw erequ it e
su f f ic ient grou nd f orm a k ingt horou ghl yrea d yt om eet a ny
sim il a ra t t a c k sint hef u t u re . Thu s, f rom 18 73 onw a rd s,
w henu niv ersa l m il it a ryserv ic ew a sord a ined , J a p a n, a l -
m ost u nk now n ev en t oE u rop ea nobserv ersont hesp ot , be-
c a m ea f orm id a bl ea d v ersa ryonl a nd a nd onsea . Thed e-
t a il sof t hem a nnerinw hic hherp ow erw a sbu il t u p a re
of m u c hl essint erest t ha nt hef a c t t ha t shec om p l et el ysu c -
c eed ed int hec ou rseof t w ent yyea rsinc a rryingou t a l l
TheGrow t hof J a p a n

129
a t w hic hherst a t esm ena im ed .
W henshew a srea d yt he
resu l t sa c hiev ed w erest a rt l ing .
Throu ghou t t hism ost im p ort a nt p rep a ra t oryp eriod ,
c onst it u t iona l gov ernm ent w a sw ork ed u p t oa nd ev ent u a l l y
est a bl ished .
Bu t int hesixt eenyea rsbet w eent heest a b-
l ishm ent of u niv ersa l m il it a ryserv ic ea nd t hea d op t ionof
rep resent a t iv ef orm sof l egisl a t iona nd a d m inist ra t ion, a
c onc ep t ionof na t iona l d u t y, a c c om p a nied by' a k now l ed ge
of grow ingna t iona l st rengt h, ha d beenc a ref u l l yinc u l c a t ed
a m ongt hep eop l ea nd t hew hol ec ou nt ryw a sinsp ired , by
d egrees, w it ht henew w a rl ik eent hu sia sm , a d a p t ed t om od -
ernc ond it ions, bu t ba sed u p ont heexp a nsionof t heol d
id ea l s . Sev era l m inorissu esw erera ised bya c t ionf rom
w it hou t , a nd t hesu c c essof J a p a ninobt a iningrec ognit ion
of herint erna t iona l p osit ionf ort if ied J a p a nesest a t esm en
int hel ineof p ol ic yw hic ht heyw erep u rsu ing . P u bl ic
d isc u ssiona nd t hegrow t hof a . new sp a p erp ress, ba c k ed
u p byp ol it ic a l p a rt ies, sof a ra ssu c hp a rt iesc ou l d t hen
bef orm ed a nd exp ressc ol l ec t iv eop inions, t end ed int he
sa m ed irec t ion- t hec onsol id a t ionof st rongna t iona l f eel -
inga nd a d et erm ina t iont oa ssert t hena t iona l d ignit y .
Genera l a sw el l a ssp ec ia l ed u c a t ionw ent ha nd inha nd
w it ht hisw id ena t iona l p ol ic y . J a p a neseru l ersp u rsu ed
ef f ic ienc yw it ha l l t hez ea l of t heGerm a ns, a nd w it hou t
show inga t hom et ha t c oa rsem il it a rist bru t a l it yw hic hha s
rend ered Germ a nd isc ip l inea byw ord inE u rop ef orsc ien-
t if ic ru f f ia nism . Tru e, inKorea , Form osa , a nd ont he
m a rc ht oP ek ing, J a p a nesesol d iersa nd a d m inist ra t ors
show ed t ha t t heyw erenot a t a l l ina d v a nc eof ot herm il i-
t a rist s, A sia t ic orE u rop ea n, int heirru t hl essd ea l ingsw it h
t hosew host ood int heirw a y, c iv il ia nsorsol d iers . Bu t
inJ a p a nit sel f , a p p a rent l y, t heof f ic ersbeha v ed w it hd e-
c enc yt ow a rd st heirow nt roop s, a l ik einp ea c ea sinw a r ;
w hil et hegrea t c a ret a k enof t hesol d ierst hem sel v es, in
a l l m a t t ersrel a t ingt ot heirhea l t ha nd w el l - being, w erea
13 0

TheA w a k eningof A sia
l essont ot hew hit em enf rom w hom t heyha d origina l l y
l ea rnt .
M ea nw hil e, m a nu f a c t u rea nd t ra d ea nd ship p ingw ere
f ost ered w it ht hesa m ea ssid u it ya sot herd ep a rt m ent sof
t hena t iona l l if e .
I nt erna l d ev el op m ent , a sw il l beseen
l a t er, k ep t p a c ew it hm il it a ryt ra ininga nd c iv il ia norga n-
isa t ion . N op a insw eresp a red t obringJ a p a nina l l re-
sp ec t su p t ot hel ev el of t hosena t ionsw hic h, a l m ost u n-
k now nt ohersel f , a nd w hol l yd isrega rd ed byt hem , shew a s
beginningt oc onsid era sherriv a l sint hest ru ggl e
f or
p rosp erit y, w ea l t ha nd p ol it ic a l inf l u enc e . I nd u st ria l grow t h
f ol l ow ed u p oninst ea d of p rec ed ingp rep a ra t ionf orw a r
.
Thet w ohu nd red yea rsa nd m oreof c om p l et esec l u siont hu s
f orm ed a nint rod u c t iont oa su d d enp l u ngeint ot hef u l l
st rea m of w orl d p ol it ya nd w orl d c om m erc e . " J a p a nsha l l
m a k ehersel f " m ight w el l ha v ebeent hem ot t ow hic ht he
ol d - new J a p a nha d borrow ed f rom I t a l y .
Therew a snoa t -
t em p t a t sec rec y . Fa rf rom it . J a p a np ersist ent l ya ssert ed
hersel f , a l ik ebef orea nd a f t ert hep rom u l ga t ionof t he
C onst it u t ionbyt heE m p erorin18 8 9 .
From t hef irst , her
p eop l erega rd ed t hoseint erna t iona l a rra ngem ent s f orc ed
u p onherbyt heE u rop ea nP ow ers, w hic hhind ered her
c om p l et ec ont rol ov erherow na f f a irsa nd est a bl ished f or-
eignC ou rt sa nd a c c ord ed f oreignp riv il egesinherow n
t errit ory, a sev id enc eof na t iona l inf eriorit ya nd m a rk sof
na t iona l d egra d a t ion
.
J a p a nesest a t esm ennev erc ea sed t op ressf ort hef u l l est
rec ognit ionof t heent irel yind ep end ent p osit ionof J a p a n,
byt herev ision, orind eed rev oc a t ion, of a l l t het rea t iesob-
t a ined f rom her . C ou nt O k u m a a nd C ou nt A ok i, a ssu c -
c essiv eForeignM inist ers, f ol l ow ingu p ont heef f ort sof
C ou nt I nou yew it ht heP ow ersin18 8 6 , u nc ea singl yd e-
m a nd ed t ha t J a p a nshou l d ha v eent irec ont rol ov erf oreign-
ersint hec ou nt ry, shou l d rem ov ef oreignj u d ges f rom
J a p a neset ribu na l s, shou l d rec ov erherf u l l right t oena c t
TheGrow t hof J a p a n

13 1
herow nt a rif f sa nd shou l d exc l u d ef oreignersf rom her
c oa st ingt ra d e
. I nshort , t heyd em a nd ed t ha t J a p a nshou l d
ha v ep rec isel yt hesa m est a nd ing in a l l int erna t iona l m a t -
t ersa sE ngl a nd , Fra nc e, t heU nit ed St a t esorRu ssia . Bu t
it w a snoea sym a t t ert obringt hist op rop era nd honou ra bl e
set t l em ent . Som eof t hec ou nt er- d em a nd sm a d ebyt he
f oreignP ow ersnow seem qu it eou t ra geou s
.
Thosew eret hed a ysw hena l l A sia t ic sw ererega rd ed a s
hu m a nbeingsona m u c hl ow erp l a net ha nE u rop ea ns-
a sort of ha l f - w a yc rea t ionbet w eent hehigh- m ind ed C a u -
c a sia na nd t hef et ish- w orship p ingH ot t ent ot . Tha t a nu p -
st a rt l it t l eE m p irel ik eJ a p a nshou l d c l a im equ a l it yw it h
grea t a nd a nc ient c iv il ised na t ionsw a sa m a t t ernot f or
seriou snegot ia t ionbu t f orrid ic u l ea nd c ont em p t . J a p a n,
l ik eC hina , ha d been" op ened " bybom ba rd m ent f ort he
benef it not of t heJ a p a nesebu t of E u rop ea ns, a nd it w a s
p rep ost erou st ha t a l l l egit im a t ea d v a nt a gesga ined byf orc e
of a rm sshou l d begiv enu p , m erel ybec a u set heJ a p a nese
Gov ernm ent ha d c rea t ed a sort of sp u riou sp a t riot ism a m ong
t hep eop l e, w horesent ed t herea l l yp hil a nt hrop ic d esigns
of w hit em enf rom w it hou t !
Thisisrea l l ynoexa ggera t ionof t het oneof t heE u ro-
p ea nof f ic ia l negot ia t orsf rom 18 8 oonw a rd s, a sm a ybe
seenf rom t herec ord sonbot hsid esof w ha t t ook p l a c e . .
Thef oreignresid ent sinJ a p a n, ind eed , t ook u p a p osit ion
w hic hc ou l d onl yha v ebeenj u st if ied if J a p a nha d beenon
t hehighroa d t obec om ea c onqu ered c ou nt ry, ora t l ea st
a su bord ina t ena t ionu nd erE u rop ea ngu a ra nt eea nd gu id -
a nc e . I nsp it eof t het ra nsf orm a t ionw hic hJ a p a nha d a l -
rea d yu nd ergone, not w it hst a nd ingt heext ra ord ina ryseries
of ev ent sw hic hha d l ed u p t ot heexist ingsit u a t ion, t hese
A sia t ic p eop l ew erest il l , a c c ord ingt ot hisid ea , w heret hey
ha d beenf if t yyea rsbef ore .
E v ent heC hinesed esp ised t he
l it t l eJ a p sa nd p u t t hem onm u c ht hesa m el ev el a st heba r-
ba rou st ribesont heW est ernf ront ierof t heirE m p ire.
13 2

TheA w a k eningof A sia
Fort u na t el y, a f t er sev era l yea rs of p et t yd ip l om a t ic
t ra f f ic k ing, w hic hm oret ha nonc enea rl yl ed t ow a r, Grea t
Brit a in, a nd t hent heot herP ow ers, ga v ew a yp ra c t ic a l l y
t oa l l J a p a nesec l a im s . J a p a n, w it hou t resort t oa rm sbu t
bysheerf orc eof rea sona nd good d ip l om a c y, rec ov ered a l l
t hec ont rol ov erherow na f f a irsof w hic hsheha d beend e-
p riv ed .
Thisrel ief of J a p a nf rom u nrea sona bl ef oreignint er-
v ent ionw a sf irst a c k now l ed ged t obej u st a nd f orm u l a t ed
a sa Trea t y, byGrea t Brit a in, onJ u l y16 , 18 94- onl y
t w ent y- f iv eyea rsa go- a nd ot herP ow ersf ol l ow ed ont he
sa m el ines
. I t isnot ew ort hyt ha t int hev erysa m em ont h
( onJ u l y25t h) t hew a rw it hC hina a bou t Korea bega n .
Thisw a rw it hC hina w a st heev ent w hic hp a rt ia l l y, bu t
onl yp a rt ia l l y, rev ea l ed t oE u rop et hest rengt hof t henew
E m p iret ha t ha d c om et ot hef ront int heFa rE a st .
C H A P TE RX
J A P A N TRI E SH E RSTRE N GTH
TH E rel a t ions of J a p a nw it hKorea ext end ov erm a ny,
m a nyc ent u ries, beginningev enw it ht hem yt hic a l t ra d i-
t ionsof p rehist oric t im e . J a p a nw a sc iv il ised f rom C hina
t hrou ghKorea , a nd it ist oKorea t ha t she, a d m it t ed l yow es
herm ost im p ort a nt d om est ic ind u st riesa sw el l a shera rt .
TheJ a p a neset hem sel v esrec ognisef u l l yt heirind ebt ed ness
t ot heKorea nsint heseresp ec t s ; a nd a l m ost sa c red rec ord s
of t hegra t it u d eof t hena t iont ot heirC hinesea nd Korea n
t ea c hersa ret obef ou nd f requ ent l yinJ a p a nt o- d a y
. Their
inf l u enc ep erv a d ed t hew hol eof J a p a neset hou ght , l it era t u re
a nd genera l d ev el op m ent . Thisd id not p rev ent J a p a nf rom
c om p l et el yc onqu eringt hec ou nt ryint het hird c ent u ryof
t heC hrist ia nera , a nd sherem a ined m ist ressof Korea f or
sev era l hu nd red yea rs . L a t er, a l l hol d u p ont hem a inl a nd
w a sgiv enu p , a nd J a p a nw it hd rew t oherow nt errit ory
.
Bu t t hegeogra p hic a l sit u a t ionof Korea inrel a t iont oJ a p a n
issu c ht ha t , u nl esst heru l ersof t ha t na t ionw eref riend l y
a nd t heJ a p a nesec ou l d rel yu p ont hesu p p ort of t heKorea n
C ou rt , d if f ic u l t iesw erec ert a int oa rise, sosoona s t he
p ol ic yof J a p a nbrou ght herint oc l osec ont a c t w it ht he
ou t sid ew orl d .
P rev iou sl y, c onsid era bl enu m bersof C hinesea nd Ko-
rea nsha d set t l ed inJ a p a na nd ha d bec om erec ognised m em -
bersof t hec om m u nit yw it hou t a nyf ric t ion . Thisisu sed
a sev id enc ebyt heJ a p a neset oshow t ha t t heyha v eno
p rej u d ic ea ga inst t hec iv il ised p eop l eof t hem a inl a nd , t o
w hom ind a ysgonebyt heyha d ow ed som u c h . Bu t t hey
13 3
13 4

TheA w a k eningof A sia
c ou l d not f orget t ha t , c ent u riesbef ore, t hegrea t , inv a sion
of J a p a nbyC hina int het hirt eent hc ent u ry, w hic hw ou l d
p roba bl yha v esu c c eed ed bu t f ort heint erv ent ionof a hu r-
ric a ne, ha d beenorga nised f rom Korea
. I f , t heref ore,
Korea inm od ernt im es, u nd erC hineseinf l u enc e, t u rned
a ga inst J a p a n, orif Ru ssia , now st ea d il ya p p roa c hingf rom
t heW est a nd N ort h, ga ined t heu p p erha nd int heKing-
d om of C hu sen, t hent ha t p op u l ou sp eninsu l a m ight bec om e
a seriou sd a ngert ot heI sl a nd E m p ire
. A nd J a p a n, f iv e-
a nd - t w ent yyea rsa go, w a snot nea rl ysoc onf id ent of her
ow nst rengt ha sshena t u ra l l yist o- d a y .
J a p a nt hou ght shec ou l d a f f ord t oru nnorisk s, shou l d
Korea f a l l u nd erhost il ec ont rol , na t iv eorf oreign
. Thou gh
t heKorea nsha d p a id t ribu t et oJ a p a nf orsev era l genera -
t ions, t hisd id not nec essa ril ygiv et heJ a p a nesea nyhol d
u p onKorea it sel f ; a nd t heJ a p a nesea c k now l ed ged it t hem -
sel v es, w hen, int heirf irst Trea t y, t heyrec ognised Korea
a sa nind ep end ent sov ereignSt a t ea nd sent l a t era nE m ba ssy
t ot heKorea nc a p it a l .
U nf ort u na t el y, in18 94, a seriesof
ou t ra gesw erec om m it t ed byt heKorea nsint heirc a p it a l ,
w it ht hesu p p ort of t heirow nGov ernm ent , a nd a t l a st w it h
t hec ou nt ena nc ea nd a id of C hineset roop s, u nd ert hec om -
m a nd of t hel a t eP resid ent of t heC hineseRep u bl ic , Yu a n-
Shi- Ka i .
Thisw ou nd u p bya na t t a c k u p ont heJ a p a nese
L ega t iona t Seou l , w hic hw a sbu rnt d ow n
. H ow ev er, w a r
w a st hena v ert ed byt hesel f - rest ra int of t heJ a p a neseGov -
ernm ent , w hic hc ont ent ed it sel f w it hv erym od era t et erm s
.
Therea f t er, t hest ru ggl ebet w eenC hina , Ru ssia a nd
J a p a nf ort hed om ina nt p osit ioninKorea t ook a na c u t e
sha p e . A t f irst t heC hineseha d ev erya d v a nt a ge, a nd w ere
not onl yf a v ou red byt heKorea nsbu t ha d v irt u a l c ont rol
of t heKorea nC ou rt a nd Gov ernm ent
. A ru l eof m ism a n-
a gem ent a nd c orru p t ionont hep a rt of t heKorea nof f ic ia l s
w a sf ol l ow ed byc onsp ira c iesa nd risings . Thesel ed t ot he
int erv ent ionint heint erna l a f f a irsof Korea of a l l t hree
J a p a nTriesH erSt rengt h
13 5
p ow ers, C hina , Ru ssia a nd J a p a n, w it ha v iew t oa reorga n-
isa t ionof t hew hol ea d m inist ra t ion . Bot hC hina a nd Ru s-
sia st rongl yobj ec t ed t ot hep resenc eof J a p a neset roop sin
Korea , t hou ght hisw a sj u st if ied byt heTrea t yof Tient sin,
w hent heC hineseGov ernm ent it sel f sent t roop st here . A n
a t t em p t t oa rra ngej oint a c t ionw it hC hina w a sref u sed , a nd
t hesink ingof a C hineset ra nsp ort bya J a p a nesew a rv es-
sel brou ght a bou t t hew a rbet w eenC hina a nd J a p a nin
18 94 - 95 .
Thisw a rw a st hem ost im p ort a nt ev ent t ha t ha d oc -
c u rred int hehist oryof A sia sinc et heM a nc hu c onqu est
of t heC hineseE m p ire . A t t hec om m enc em ent , a sa l rea d y
rem a rk ed , nea rl ya l l t heE u rop ea nsw how erebest a c qu a int -
ed w it ha f f a irsint heFa rE a st a nt ic ip a t ed t heea syv ic t ory
of t hehu geC hineseM ona rc hyov errp ret ent iou sl it t l eJ a p a n
.
TheJ a p a nesew erest il l c ont em ned , not onl ybyt heC hinese
t hem sel v esbu t byt heRu ssia nsa nd ot herE u rop ea nna -
t ions . E v enGrea t Brit a in, w hic hha d sorec ent l ysigned
a Trea t yv eryf a v ou ra bl et oJ a p a nesec l a im s, seem st oha v e
beenignora nt of t heinev it a bl eresu l t of t hec onf l ic t , be-
t w eena c om p a ra t iv el ysm a l l bu t a c t iv e, p rogressiv ea nd w a r-
l ik ena t ion, p ossessed of t hel a t est m od ernw ea p onsa nd
hu ge, u nw iel d y, bel a t ed C hina , w it hnoef f ec t iv ef orc eson
l a nd oronsea .
Tot hea m a z em ent of t hew hol eE a st ernw orl d , J a p a n
w a sc om p l et el yv ic t oriou sf rom t hef irst a nd a l l t hrou gh
.
TheC hineseGov ernm ent ha d ent irel yov erra t ed it s
st rengt h :
t heE u rop ea nP ow ersw erec om p l et el yt a k enby
su rp rise
. I f sheha d beenl ef t a l onet herec a nbel it t l ed ou bt
t ha t J a p a nw ou l d , t hena nd t here, ha v eent ered u p ona
p ol ic yof d om ina t ionw hic hina f ew yea rsw ou l d ha v e
p l a c ed t hew hol eC hineseE m p irea t herc ont rol
. Tha t , a c -
c ord ingt oA sia t ic id ea s, m u st bet hena t u ra l resu l t of su c h
obv iou ssu p eriorit ya sJ a p a nha d d isp l a yed ina short bu t
d ec isiv ec a m p a ign . Bu t t hea c t u a l t erm sof t heTrea t y
13 6

TheA w a k eningof A sia
of P ea c e, signed a t Shim onosek ionA p ril 14, 18 95, w ere
f a rf rom c ont a ininga nyd em a nd f orsu p rem a c y
. J a p a n
obv iou sl yf el t a l rea d yt ha t j ea l ou sl ook ers- onw ou l d not
t ol era t ea st ep w hic hc ou l d rend ert heI sl a nd E m p ireoneof
t hegrea t est P ow ersint hew orl d
. Theorigina l Trea t y,
t heref ore, w a sm od era t eenou gh :
i
. Rec ognit ionof t hef u l l a nd c om p l et eind ep end enc e
of Korea byC hina .
2 .
C essionof t heL ia ot u ngP eninsu l a ( P ort A rt hu r,
et c
. ) , a nd t hea d j a c ent w a t ers, t oJ a p a n
.
3
. C essionof Form osa a nd t heP esc a d orest oJ a p a n
.
4
. P a ym ent t oJ a p a nof a nind em nit yof
200, 000, 000
t a el s .
5 .
O p eningu p of Sha shih, C hu nk ing, Su c how a nd
I - I a ngc how t ot ra d e
.
6
. O p eningof t heYa ngt se- Kia ngt ona v iga t ion .
Theset erm s, how ev er, a nd t hesu rp risingou t c om eof
t hew a rit sel f a t onc ec onv inc ed Ru ssia nst a t esm ent ha t t hey
ha d how a riv a l f orinf l u enc ea nd a c qu isit ionof t errit ory
int heFa rE a st t ha t m ight p rov einf init el ym orep ow erf u l
t ha np ea c ef u l , a p a t het ic C hina , w how ou l d p u t u p w it ha l -
m ost a nyp ressu ref rom E u rop ea nna t ions
. Ru ssia , t here-
f ore, w it ht hesu p p ort of Fra nc ea nd Germ a ny, d em a nd ed
t ha t t heL ia ot u ngP eninsu l a , t heonl yrea l l yim p ort a nt
c onc essionc l a im ed byJ a p a nf rom C hina , shou l d begiv en
u p
. Thegrou nd f ort hisd em a nd exp ressl yw a st ha t t he
J a p a nesep ossessionof t heL ia ot u ngP eninsu l a , ow ingt oit s
geogra p hic a l p osit ion, w ou l d bea c onst a nt m ena c et o
P ek inga nd rend eril l u soryt heind ep end enc eof Korea
. I t
c a nnot bed enied t ha t t hesec ont ent ionsw ereent irel yj u st i-
f ia bl e .
Bu t t hisd id not m a k et hesu rrend era nym ore
p a l a t a bl et oJ a p a n, w hoonl yga v ew a yt ot heobv iou sa sser-
t ionof su p eriorf orc ew hic h, a t t ha t t im e, sheha d nom ea ns
of ef f ec t iv el yresist ing .
W ha t f ol l ow ed inKorea show ed t hev iew t heJ a p a n-
J a p a nTriesH erSt rengt h

13 7
eserea l l yt ook of t heirp osit ioninrega rd t ot ha t k ingd om .
Theya c t ed a sif t heyw erem a st erst here : a bl yw henC ou nt
I nou yew a st heirM inist er ; f ool ishl ya nd p rov oc a t iv el y
w henGenera l M iu ra t ook hisp l a c e . O w ingt ot hep roc eed -
ingsof t hel a t t era nd t heresent m ent oc c a sioned inSeou l
a nd Korea genera l l y, Ru ssia c a m et ot hef ront a nd ob-
t a ined a l m ost c om p l et ec ont rol . Thehop el essw ea k nessof
C hina d isc l osed byt hisw a r, a nd a f t erw a rd st hec onf u sion
c a u sed byt heBoxerrising, enc ou ra ged t heE u rop ea nP ow -
erst oent eru p ona genera l c a m p a ignof p ea c ef u l enc roa c h-
m ent , t heresu l t of w hic hw a st ha t J a p a nf ou nd hersel f f a c e
t of a c ew it ht hep ossibil it yof t hed ism em berm ent of C hina
byt errit oria l a nnexa t ions, a nd c rea t ionof " sp heresof inf l u -
enc e" a l l ov ert heE m p ire, t he sol e int erest of t heE u rop ea n
P ow ers . M a p s, inf a c t , w erep u bl ished int heyea rsbet w een
1 8 95a nd 19o4w hic hc ool l ya p p rop ria t ed t ot hisort ha t
W est ernna t ionv a st d ist ric t sw hic ht heyw eret oexp l oit
a nd d ev el op m u c ha st heyp l ea sed . J a p a nesep ol ic yseem ed
ent irel yf ru st ra t ed . " A sia f ort heA sia t ic s" bec a m ea m ere
d rea m .
N ord id t hea c t iv ep a rt w hic ht hea d m ira bl yequ ip p ed
a nd of f ic ered a rm yof J a p a nt ook int herel ief of P ek ing
m end m a t t ersm u c hf rom herp oint of v iew . Fornow Ru s-
sia obt a ined t heright f rom C hina t oc a rryherSiberia n
ra il w a yt hrou ghM a nc hu ria , sec u red a d ef init el ea seof t he
L ia ot u ngP eninsu l a , w hic hsheha d c om p el l ed J a p a nt o
giv eu p , p ra c t ic a l l yobt a ined p ossessionof t heric ht errit ory
of M a nc hu ria , a nd w a sd a il yinc rea singherc ont rol ov er
Korea . Germ a ny, Fra nc ea nd Grea t Brit a inha d l ik e-
w iset a k enw ha t t heyw a nt ed , or t hou ght t heym ight w a nt
.
Ru ssia t hena ba nd oned a nyp ret enc eof a c t inginc om m on
w it ht heot herP ow ers, orint hegenera l int erest , sof a ra s
M a nc hu ria w a sc onc erned ; a l t hou ghsheha d beena p a rt y
t ot hea rra ngem ent bet w eena l l t heE u rop ea nc ou nt ries, a nd
a t t ha t t im eGrea t Brit a ina nd Germ a nyw erea c t ingu nd er
13 8

TheA w a k eningof A sia
a greem ent int heE a st t osa f egu a rd t heint egrit yof C hina .
Thu sRu ssia w a st hena t ionw hic hha d ga ined m ost su b-
st a nt ia l l y, f irst byJ a p a n' sv ic t oryov erC hina a nd next by
t heBoxerrisings . Shet ook a d v a nt a geof t heinc rea sing
w ea k nessof C hina a nd t heinc a p a c it yof J a p a nt oresist
herp ol ic y .
I nc onsequ enc e, J a p a nf ou nd hersel f d ep riv ed of a l l
d irec t inf l u enc einKorea , a nd sa w M a nc hu ria a nd t he
L ia ot u ngP eninsu l a ent irel yinRu ssia nha nd s
. Thisw a sa
d a ngerou sp osit ionf ort herisingI sl a nd E m p ire . P rec isel y
t hosep eril sw hic hJ a p a nesest a t esm enha d l ongf oreseen,
a nd t ried t oa v ert , now c onf ront ed t heirc ou nt ryint he
m ost m ena c ingsha p e . Ru ssia , t heE u rop ea nP ow erw hic h
t hena p p ea red t hem ost f orm id a bl ea nd a m bit iou sint he
w orl d , hel d c ert a ingeogra p hic a l t errit oriesa nd st ra t egic a l
p ort sw hic h, w henJ a p a nseem ed l ik el yt ohol d t hem , ha d
beend ec l a red p eril ou st oKorea a nd ev ent oC hineseind e-
p end enc e .
U nd ert hesec irc u m st a nc est heI sl a nd E m p irew a sf orc ed
t ot a k eint oc onsid era t ionherw hol ef u t u rep ol ic yint he
E a st . Thea l t erna t iv ew hic hp resent ed it sel f t oherst a t es-
m enw a st om a k et erm sa t onc ew it hRu ssia - a p ol ic ya d v o-
c a t ed byp erha p st hea bl est m a ninJ a p a n- ort oent eru p on
a Trea t yw it hGrea t Brit a in, w hoa t t hisp eriod w a sinf u l l
bl a st of a nt a gonism t oSt . P et ersbu rg, t hou ghbynom ea ns
d ev oid of resent m ent t ow a rd sGerm a nyf ort hea t t it u d e
t a k enbyt heKa iserinrega rd t ot heBoerW a r . A f t er
a good d ea l of hesit a t ionbet w eent het w oE u rop ea nP ow ers,
t hea rgu m ent sof C ou nt H a ya ship rev a il ed , a nd J a p a nen-
t ered u p onherf a t ef u l C onv ent ionw it hE ngl a nd of 1902
w hic h, renew ed a nd c onf irm ed in 1905 a nd a ga inin 1911,
sec u red t oJ a p a nt heop p ort u nit yf orexp a nd inga nd c on-
sol id a t ingherst rengt h . Thisc onv ent ionha sa l rea d yp ro-
d u c ed resu l t sw hic hw erec ert a inl ynot a nt ic ip a t ed byt he
E ngl ishForeignO f f ic ew hent hea greem ent w a sent ered
J a p a nTriesH erSt rengt h

13 9
u p on, norbyt heH ou seof L ord sw henit sm em bersrose
a nd a p p l a u d ed it sc onf irm a t ion, u p onL ord L a nsd ow ne' s
ent eringt ha t A ssem bl yin1905 .
N oim m ed ia t eresu l t sf ol l ow ed , beyond Fra nc e' sd ec l a ra -
t iont ha t shest ood byRu ssia , int heE a st a sint heW est .
Bu t t hesignif ic a nc eof t hev irt u a l Trea t yof A l l ia nc ebe-
t w eenE ngl a nd a nd J a p a n- l ea v inga sid ea l t oget hert he
l a t est c l a u sew hic henga ged J a p a nt osa f egu a rd Brit ishin-
t erest sinI nd ia - w a su nm ist a k a bl e . I t w a ssom et hingm ore
t ha na na c k now l ed gm ent of J a p a n' sequ a l it yw it ha grea t
E u rop ea nna t ion, w hosea nc ient d om ina t ionov era nem -
p ireinA sia p l a c ed hera hea d of a l l herriv a l s . I t w a sa
m a nif est st rengt heningof J a p a na ga inst Ru ssia , inret u rn
f orA sia t ic su p p ort t oa E u rop ea nE m p ire, w hoseC ol onist s
exc l u d ed J a p a neseent irel yf rom t heirshores .
Thereisnoneed t orec it et heinc id ent sw hic hl ed u p t o
t hew a rbet w eenJ a p a na nd Ru ssia . ' E nou ght orec a l l t he
w el l - k now nf a c t st ha t t herep resent a t iv esof t heTsa rin
E a st ernA sia , grea t l yu nd erra t ingt hef orc e of t heirA sia t ic
op p onent , a nd egged onbygreed of ga inf rom t errit ories
c l a im ed byt heirGov ernm ent , ind ef ia nc eof t heJ a p a nese,
d el ibera t el yp rov ok ed t hew a rof 19o4 . Theyf el t c onf i-
d ent t ha t , insp it eof a l l t hed isa d v a nt a gesof c a rryingona
c a m p a igna t su c ha grea t d ist a nc ef rom t heirba se, a nd w it h
onl yonera il w a yl ineof su p p l yov erm a nyt hou sa nd sof
m il es, t heyw ou l d w inw it hea se . TheFrenc hw ereof t he
sa m eop inion . E v enm eninhighp osit ion, w hoou ght t o
ha v ebeenw el l inf orm ed , ha d nod ou bt w ha t ev era st ot he
resu l t . Tohint inP a risa t t hep roba bil it yof a J a p a nese
v ic t oryont hed a yw hent heJ a p a nesec rossed t heYa l u ,
w a st a k ena s, ind ip l om a t ic l a ngu a ge, " a nu nf riend l ya c t . "
A l l E u rop ew a sm isl ed ev enm orec om p l et el yt ha nint he
c a seof C hina . Ru ssia nev erw ona ba t t l eonl a nd oron
sea .
H erov er- c onf id enc e, inc a p a c it y, l a c k of a d equ a t e
p rep a ra t iona nd c orru p t ionga v et heJ a p a neset hev ic t ory .
140

TheA w a k eningof A sia
Theyt hem sel v esbel iev e, ora f f ec t t obel iev e, t ha t t hey
w ered ep riv ed of t hef u l l rew a rd of t heira m a z ingsu c c ess
byt heint erv ent ionof t heU nit ed St a t esa nd t hef orc ed
Trea t yof P ort sm ou t h . O t hers, w it hnop rej u d ic einf a v ou r
of Ru ssia , hol d t heop iniont ha t , ha d t hew a rc ont inu ed , t he
Ru ssia ns, w hof ou ght ev enbet t erint heba t t l eof M u k d en
t ha nt heyd id int heirp rev iou sd esp era t ea nd u nf ort u na t e
enga gem ent s, w ou l d ha v ew onint heend . Thed isc u ssion
of su c hp ossibil it iesof t hep a st isf u t il e . Beyond t hef a c t
t ha t J a p a nbea rsa gru d gea ga inst A m eric a f or ha v ing
brou ght a bou t p ea c ea t t ha t j u nc t u re, t herea l l yim p ort a nt
f ea t u reof t hew hol ebu sinessist ha t J a p a n, t hena nd t here,
t ook herp l a c ed ef init el ya soneof t hegrea t m il it a rya nd
na v a l P ow ersof t hew orl d , est a bl ished hersel f f irm l ya st he
l ea d erof A sia a ga inst E u rop e, a nd v irt u a l l yobt a ined a l l ,
a nd m u c hm oret ha na l l , of w hic hsheha d beend ep riv ed by
Ru ssia ' sint erv ent ion, a f t ersheha d c ru shed t heC hinese,
t enyea rsea rl ier .
Thou ght het ru t hha snot ev enyet beenf u l l yrec og-
nised , eit herinE u rop eorA m eric a , a nd E ngl a nd a nd her
C ol oniesinp a rt ic u l a rha v eshu t t heireyest oobv iou sf a c t s,
J a p a nt henc ef ort hst ood f orw a rd a st hec ha m p ionof A sia
a ga inst E u rop e . Thec ent u riesof E u rop ea nd ep red a t ions
inA sia ha d a t l a st m et w it hresist a nc esow el l orga nised a nd
sosu c c essf u l t ha t t henew A sia t ic P ow era t onc el ea p ed int o
t hef ront ra nk . W hoc a nw ond ert ha t w it ht hist riu m p h
f reshint heirm ind s, t heJ a p a neseshou l d t a k ef u rt herst ep s
int hesa m ed irec t ion? I t isoneof t hem ost t renc ha nt p iec es
of p ra c t ic a l ironyinm od ernp ol it ic st ha t Grea t Brit a in,
w it hherhu geI nd ia nE m p ire, shou l d ha v ef el t c om p el l ed ,
byt heexigenc iesof E u rop ea na f f a irs, t oa id J a p a ninse-
c u ringa f reeha nd int heE a st .
" Them eref a c t t ha t E ngl a nd ha sa d op t ed t hisa t t it u d e
show st ha t sheisind ireneed a nd shew a nt st ou seu st o
bea rsom eof herbu rd ens
. " Su c hw a st hel a t eC ou nt
J a p a nTriesH erSt rengt h

141
I nou ye' sop inioninD ec em ber, 1901
. H ow t heJ a p a nese
negot ia t orsm u st ha v el a u ghed int heirsl eev es, t heref ore,
w henL ord L a nsd ow nea rgu ed t ha t , inret u rnf orBrit ish
p rot ec t ionof J a p a neseint erest sinKorea , a J a p a neseu nd er-
t a k ingt osa f egu a rd Brit ishint erest sint heV a l l eyof t he
Ya ng- t sew a sinsu f f ic ient !
J a p a nm u st c onsequ ent l ya gree
a sw el l t op rot ec t I nd ia f orE ngl a nd ! J osep hC ha m berl a in
su p p ort ed L ord L a nsd ow neint ha t a m a z ingc ont ent ion .
A nd t hisw a sbef oreJ a p a nha d bea t enRu ssia ! N ow ond er,
I sa y, t ha t a f t erherrem a rk a bl ec a m p a ign, " t hem a nif est
d est iny" of t heI sl a nd E m p ireshoneou t c l ea ra nd bright
bef oret hec ool , d et erm ined m enw hoa bsol u t el yc ont rol
J a p a n' sf oreignp ol ic y .
Sinc et henJ a p a nha sbeenw ork ingm orea ssid u ou sl y
t ha nev er, inw a ra nd inp ea c e, f ort hesu p rem a c yof t heFa r
E a st f ort hel ea d ership of A sia . W ha t , p riort ot hew a rs
w it hC hina a nd Ru ssia , ha d beena na l m ost u nc onsc iou s
senseof p ossibil it y, a d im , d isem bod ied a sp ira t iont ow a rd s
a nebu l ou shegem ony, bec a m ea d ef init eobj ec t t obest riv en
f orp ersist ent l ya ga inst a l l E u rop ea nna t ions, f riend sor
enem ies, w how erel ik el yt oc ha l l engeJ a p a nesep ol ic y
. . The
" O p enD oor" inC hina , t ow hic hsom u c him p ort a nc ew a s
a t t a c hed byt heW est ernP ow ers, w a srea l l ya c c ep t ed by
J a p a nonl ya s
a f orm of w ord st oc ov era v eryd if f erent
a im
. Thereisnoneed t oim p u t eba d f a it hort u rp it u d et o
J a p a nont hisa c c ou nt
. Sheha d nev erd isgu ised f rom E u -
rop e, f rom t het im ew henC hina ' sw ea k nessw a sd isc l osed
in18 94, a nd J a p a nw a sf orc ed t oc a nc el herd em a nd sin
18 95, t ha t sherega rd ed herp osit ioninC hina a st heba sic
p reoc c u p a t ionof herent iref oreignp ol ic y
. From t het im e
of herv ic t oryov erRu ssia , how ev er, c irc u m st a nc esc om -
bined t ogiv eherst a t esm enoneop p ort u nit ya f t era not her
of st rengt heningherint erna t iona l inf l u enc e
. Theyw erenot
sl ow t ot a k ea d v a nt a geof t heseop enings
. Theyp rov ed
142

TheA w a k eningof A sia
neit herm orenorl essu nsc ru p u l ou st ha nt heirE u rop ea n
c om p eers .
TheTrea t yof P ort sm ou t hm u st ev erbec onsid ered a sa
f resha nd not a bl est a rt ing- p oint int hehist oryof t here-
l a t ionsbet w eenE u rop ea nd A sia . I t rec ord ed , f ora l l
t im ea nd ina nu nm ist a k a bl esha p e, t hev ic t oryof a na l -
m ost u nk now na nd rem ot eA sia t ic na t ionov era nE m p ire
w hic hf orgenera t ionsha d beenrega rd ed a sa d a ngert oE u -
rop e, w hic hha d d ef ea t ed a nd c ru shed a ninv a sionhea d ed
byt hegrea t est genera l of m od ernt im es, a nd , insp it eof
t em p ora ryha l t s, w a sm a rc hingf orw a rd , w it hou t ha st ea nd
w it hou t rest , t od om ina nt inf l u enc eont heP a c if ic O c ea n,
c om bined w it hev ent u a l c ont rol ov erC onst a nt inop l e, A sia
M inora nd t heP ersia nGu l f . Sot hrea t eningt ot hew orl d
a nd t ot hea m bit ionsof ot herP ow ersd id t hem ight of t he
M u sc ov it eE m p irea p p ea rbef oret heJ a p a neseW a r, t ha t
Germ a ny, ha v ingobt a ined herf oot hol d a t TsingTa u sev en
yea rsea rl ier, rej oic ed a t t heTrea t iesbet w eenE ngl a nd a nd
J a p a na sc onst it u t inga ba l a nc et ot hest rengt hof her
f orm id a bl eriv a l f orp l a c esint hesu n .
Bu t t heTrea t yof P ort sm ou t hw a sonl yt hec om m enc e-
m ent of a seriesof Trea t ies, A greem ent s, E xt ensionsa nd
C onf irm a t ions . Byt heseC onv ent ionsJ a p a n, w hil ep l ed ging
hersel f t im ea f t ert im e, a nd int hem ost f orm a l m a nner, t o
resp ec t t heint egrit ya nd ind ep end enc eof C hina , nev ert hel ess
c ont riv ed t oengineerhersel f int oa p ol it ic a l a nd st ra t egic a l
sit u a t iont ha t ena bl ed hert ou seherv a riou sa l l iesw it hou t
beingu sed byt hem . Thu sinl esst ha nt w oyea rsa f t er
t ha t P ea c ebet w eenRu ssia a nd J a p a n, w hic hsec u red t ot he
l a t t erf reed om f rom int erf erenc einKorea , a hol d ont he
L ia ot u ngP eninsu l a a nd equ a l right sw it ha l l t heE u rop ea n
na t ionsinC hina , t hew hol eof t herel a t ionsbet w eent he
P ow ersw a sc om p l et el yt ra nsf orm ed .
Threem ont hsof 1907w it nessed t hesigna t u reof t he
Fra nc o- J a p a neseA greem ent inP a ris ; t heRu sso- J a p a nese
J a p a nTriesH erSt rengt h

143
u nd erst a nd ing
inSt . P et ersbu rg ; a nd t heA ngl o- Ru ssia n
C onv ent ion l ik ew isein
St . P et ersbu rg. TheA ngl o-
J a p a neseTrea t yrem a ined a sit ha d beenc onf irm ed in19o5
.
I t w a sa nera of a c c om m od a t iona l l rou nd .
Fra nc et ook
t hel ea d w it hJ a p a nin19o6 , a nd a J a p a nesel oa nof
£ 12, 000, 000 w a sissu ed inP a risont hev irt u a l ba sisof
a nu nd erst a nd ingbet w eenRu ssia a nd herl a t eenem y
.
Therew a sa genera l c om bina t ionof t hep a rt iesm ost c l osel y
int erest ed .
Thep ol ic yof t heind ep end enc ea nd int egrit y
of t heC hineseE m p irem et w it hgenera l a c c ep t a nc e, t he
U nit ed St a t esj oininginw it ht heot hert hreeP ow ers, E ng-
l a nd , Ru ssia a nd J a p a n, u nd ert heA greem ent ( Root -
Ta k a l iyu ) of N ov em ber, 19o8 .
N ow ond ert ha t t herew eref et esa nd rej oic ingsin
Tok io . J a p a nc ou l d w el l a f f ord t oborrow E u rop ea nc a p i-
t a l byt ensof m il l ionsst erl inga nd u seit t obu il d u p her
int erna l p rosp erit y, w hil ew a it ingf ort henext op p ort u -
nit yt oa ssert hersel f .
N ow ond er, a l so, t ha t Germ a ny,
t a k ingnop a rt int hesev a riou sa greem ent s, resent ed t he
su c c essw hic h, f ort het im ebeinga t a nyra t e, a t t end ed
t hem . TheKa isersu d d enl yd esc ried t heYel l ow P eril w rit
l a rgea c rosst hew hol em a p of t heFa rE a st , a nd w a snot
sl ow t op roc l a im hisv iew st ot hew orl d in19o8 , t hesa m e
yea rt ha t t heA m eric a nTrea t yw it hJ a p a nw a ssigned .
Thissp eec hw a sf ol l ow ed u p bya l ongseriesof Germ a n
int rigu esinC hina a ga inst J a p a neseinf l u enc e, w hic hha d
now v irt u a l l yt hesil ent su p p ort of t hegrow ingst rengt h
of t heTrip l eE nt ent ebet w eenE ngl a nd , Fra nc ea nd Ru s-
sia . Theseint rigu esonl yserv ed t of ort if yt ha t c om bina -
t ionsof a ra sp ol ic yint heFa rE a st w a sc op c erned
. N or
d id t heend ea v ou rsof Germ a nyt oc rea t ed if f erenc esbe-
t w eenE ngl a nd a nd J a p a nha v ea nygrea t ersu c c ess .
J a p a n
ind eed , w it ht hec onsent , ora t a nyra t ew it hou t t hea c t iv e
int erf erenc e, of t heTrip l eE nt ent e, d ef init el ya nnexed Ko-
rea in19io- a next rem el yim p ort a nt st ep w hic ha t t ra c t ed
144

TheA w a k eningof A sia
f a rl essa t t ent iont ha nit ou ght t oha v ed onebot hin E ng-
l a nd a nd A m eric a . Theind ep end enc ea nd int egrit yof t he
C hineseE m p ire, t ow hic hJ a p a nha d p l ed ged hersel f t o
t heE u rop ea nP ow ersa nd t heU nit ed St a t es, w a st hu s
c om p l et el ynu l l if ied a nd t he" O p enD oor" w a sv irt u a l l y
c l osed inrega rd t oKorea .
Tha t k ingd om bec a m et henc ef ort ha nint egra l p a rt of
t hegrow ingJ a p a neseE m p ire, su bj ec t t oit sd om ina t ion
inev eryresp ec t , a nd v a st l yinc rea singit sp ow er, inw a r
a sinp ea c e
.
W it ht hep ra c t ic a l c ont rol of t heL ia ot u ngP eninsu l a
J a p a nt hu sa ssu m ed a p osit ionont hem a inl a nd w hic h
t hrea t ened t heind ep end enc eof a l l N ort hernC hina , u n-
l esst heC hineset hem sel v esshou l d f ol l ow int hew a k eof
t heI sl a nd ers, t hrow a sid et heirp ea c ef u l p ol ic ya nd im it a t e
t heirriv a l bya rm inga nd t ra iningt hem sel v esef f ic ient l y
onl a nd a nd onsea a c c ord ingt ot hebest E u rop ea nm od el s
.
Thea p p rop ria t ionof Korea show ed m oresha rp l yt ha n
ev ert herea l obj ec t sof J a p a nesest a t esm a nship a nd ga v e
c l ea rind ic a t ionof t hel inesa l ongw hic hit w ou l d m ov e
t oa t t a int hem . M oreov er, t het yra nnya nd c ru el t yw hic h
a c c om p a nied t heest a bl ishm ent of J a p a neseru l einSeou l
a nd a l l ov erKorea p rov ed c onc l u siv el yt ha t , c ou rt eou sa nd
p ersu a siv e a s shem ight beinherint erc ou rsew it hW est ern
c ou nt ries, J a p a nw a s, a nd w ou l d rem a in, t horou ghl yA sia t ic
inherw a yof d ea l ingw it ha nyov ert resist a nc et oher
a u t horit yorev enm od era t ec rit ic ism of herp ol ic y .
U nf ort u na t el y, t hebeha v iou rof E u rop ea nt roop sin
I nd ia , C hina , Tonqu in, Siberia a nd el sew hereinA sia ha s
beenof su c ha c ha ra c t ert ha t J a p a nha sa nea syret ort a t
ha nd shou l d sheberep roa c hed w it hexc essiv eba rba rit y
.
Forgood orf oril l , Korea w a st ot heJ a p a nesea c on-
qu ered c ou nt ry, a nd t hem il d Korea nsha d t oa c c om m o-
d a t et hem sel v esa sbest t heym ight t ot heef f ic ient a d m in-
ist ra t ionof t hed esc end a nt sof t hep eop l ew hom t heir
J a p a nTriesH erSt rengt h

145
a nc est orsha d resc u ed f rom ba rba rism c ent u riesbef ore .
Them et hod sof su bj u ga t ionem p l oyed w ereont hesa m e
l ev el a st hosep ra c t ised byt heJ a p a nesec ont ingent in
t hea d v a nc et ot herel ief of P ek ingd u ringt heBoxersiege
a nd inForm osa a f t ert ha t isl a nd w a sc onc ed ed t oJ a p a n
byC hina in18 95 . Su c ha ninc rea seof p op u l a t iona s
J a p a nd eriv ed f rom t hesea nnexa t ionsgrea t l ya d d ed t o
herp ow erbot hof of f enc ea nd d ef enc e, w hil et hec a l m in-
d if f erenc ew it hw hic hherE u rop ea nf riend s, Germ a nyex-
c ep t ed , v iew ed t hesec ha ngesc ou l d not bu t enc ou ra geher
t om a k ef u rt herp rogressonsim il a rl ines .
O negrea t a d v a nt a gea rose, nev ert hel ess, f rom t hev a st
a rra yof a greem ent sbet w eent heA l l ied P ow ers( a st hey
ha v esinc ebec om e) a nd t heGov ernm ent of Tok io. W hen
t herev ol u t ionoc c u rred inC hina in1911- w ha t t im et he
A ga d irqu est ionha d brou ght E u rop et ot hev erybrink
of w a r- a l l t hena t ionsm ost d irec t l yint erest ed inC hina ' s
t ra d ea nd sol ic it ou sa bou t C hina ' sd ev el op m ent , f ol l ow ed
sc ru p u l ou sl y, ina c c ord a nc ew it ht heirc onv ent ions, t he
p ol ic yof " ha nd sof f
. " Theya l l , inf a c t , a c c ep t ed t hesu c -
c essf u l a nt i- M a nc hu rev ol t a nd a c k now l ed ged t heRep u bl ic ,
w hosel ea d ersw ereshort l ya f t erw a rd sc om p el l ed t ot a k e
ref u geinJ a p a n . W hen, how ev er, t hef irst P resid ent of
t heRep u bl ic , Yu a n- Shi- Ka i, a f t erha v ingsec u red l oa ns
f rom E u rop e, a t t em p t ed t oest a bl ishhim sel f a sE m p eror
a f t ert heGrea t W a rha d begu n, a nd ev ensent hissona s
E nv oyt oBerl in- t henJ a p a np u t herv et oont hisa rbi-
t ra ryst ep a nd f orc ed t hew ou l d - beu su rp ert oa ba nd onhis
p roj ec t
.
W it ht heGrea t W a rJ a p a nm a d ehera p p ea ra nc ea s
t heA l l yof t heTrip l eE nt ent eint heirresist a nc et ot he
C ent ra l E u rop ea nP ow ers . A nd she, w hoin
1911 ha d
c onc l u d ed Trea t iesof C om m erc ew it hherA l l iesona bso-
l u t el yequ a l t erm s, now t ook u p a p osit ionw hic hp rom i-
nent l yga v ehert hel ea d inA sia t ic a f f a irs- - a l ea d w hic h
146

TheA w a k eningof A sia
shew il l ret a inu nt il C hina hersel f f u l l yw a k esu p t ot he
f a c t sof na t iona l exist enc e
. O nA u gu st 15, 1914, J a p a n
d em a nd ed f rom Germ a nyt heim m ed ia t esu rrend erof Kia u
C ha u . D ec l a ra t ionof w a rf ol l ow ed , a nd Germ a nw a r-
ship sw eresu nk . TsingTa u w a sa t t a c k ed a nd t a k en, w it h
som e
1, 200 A ngl o- I nd ia nt roop shel p ing .
Thew hol ep rov -
inc eof Sha nt u ngw a sa t J a p a n' sm erc y, " t oberet u rned t o
C hina a f t ert hew a r . " TheC a rol inea nd M a rsha l l I sl a nd s
w erel ik ew iseoc c u p ied . J a p a na l soga ined a d v a nt a gesin
M a nc hu ria , rega rd l essof C hineseobj ec t ions, ha v ingp re-
v iou sl yj oined w it hherA l l iesint heP a c t of L ond ont o
t heef f ec t t ha t t hereshou l d benosep a ra t ep ea c e .
A sherp ort ionof t heA l l ied d ef enc ea ga inst Germ a ny,
t heJ a p a nesef l eet ha sc ont rol l ed t heP a c if ic O c ea n, a nd
t hu sa id ed t heA u st ra l ia nC ol oniesingiv ingsu p p ort t o
E ngl a nd a nd t heE nt ent egenera l l y
.
A l l t his, w hil ep a rt
of t hegenera l c a m p a ign, ha sserv ed grea t l yt ost rengt hen
herow np osit ion . Thebet t erf eel ingw it hRu ssia w hic h
f ol l ow ed c a rried herst il l f a rt her : f irst byt hesu p p l yt o
Ru ssia of l a rgequ a nt it iesof m u nit ionsw hic hshed id not
requ irehersel f , a nd f orw hic hGrea t Brit a inp a id , t hrou gh
herM u sc ov it eA l l y ; a nd next bya Trea t yw it hRu ssia ,
of w hic ht heonl yd et a il sk now na ret ha t t het w oP ow ers
m u t u a l l ygu a ra nt eeonea not her' st errit oriesint heE a st .
Ru ssia t hu sd ef init el ya nd f ina l l ysec u red t oJ a p a na l l a nd
m oret ha na l l f orw hic ht hegrea t M u sc ov it eE m p ireha d
m a d ew a rin1904- 5, a nd , besid es, p ra c t ic a l l yga v eJ a p a n
a " f reeha nd " inC hina . Thu sof t henon- A sia t ic na t ions
w hoha d a greed w it hJ a p a nt om a int a int he" O p enD oor"
f ora l l c ou nt riesint heC hineseE m p ire, t heU nit ed St a t es
a l onew a sl ef t u nha m p ered , t oop p osea nyp l a nst ha t J a p -
a nesest a t esm enm ight ha v ef orm ed f ort hef u rt herext en-
sionof t hef ixed p ol ic yof t heirc ou nt ry
. Thisw a st he
f a c t , a nd t heU nit ed St a t esrea l ised it
.
J a p a nha d m a d ea l l nec essa ryp rep a ra t ionst om eet
J a p a nTriesH erSt rengt h

147
a nyd if f ic u l t iest ha t m ight a rise .
Sheha d est a bl ished sev -
era l t hou sa nd J a p a nesel a bou rersw it hinst rik ingd ist a nc e
of t heP a na m a C a na l , sheha d m a d ec a ref u l su rv eysof
c onv enient l a nd ing- p l a c esinM exic o, not a bl ya t Tobol o-
ba m p o, sheha d ent ered int orel a t ionsw it ht heM exic a n
l ea d ers, sheha d d ra f t ed p rel im ina rya greem ent sw it hE c u a -
d or, t ou c hinga na v a l st a t ionint heGa l a p a gosI sl a nd s,
a nd sheha d sop l a c ed hersel f inrega rd t ot heP hil ip p ines
t ha t t heU nit ed St a t esw ou l d f ind it im p ossibl et ok eep
c ont rol of t hoseisl a nd sa ga inst her, p erm ea t ed a st heyw ere
w it hJ a p a nesea gent s .
H erp osit ionw a sa l sogrea t l yst rengt hened byheroc -
c u p a t ionof t heM a rsha l l I sl a nd s, w hil et henu m bersof
J a p a neseem p l oyed int heSa nd w ic hI sl a nd s- a l l t ra ined
m en- m a d eit ext rem el yd if f ic u l t f ort heU nit ed St a t est o
hol d t ha t st ra t egic a l l yim p ort a nt grou p , int heev ent of w a r,
ev enif t herew erenom ov em ent sim u l t a neou sl ya m ongt he
J a p a neseinC a l if ornia . I t ha s, a t a nyra t e, beenm a d e
qu it ec l ea rt ot hem oreobserv a nt of A m eric a np u bl ic ist s
a nd st ra t egist st ha t , shou l d a nyseriou st rou bl ea risew it h
J a p a n, t heyc ou l d not rel yu p ont heP a na m a C a na l . E it her
f rom neu t ra l c a u sesorf rom enem ya t t a c k t ha t w a t erw a y
m ight beint erru p t ed a t a nym om ent . Thism ea nt t ha t t he
A m eric a nN a v a l Ba sew ou l d benot 3 , 000
or
4, 000 bu t 14 ;
ooom il esd ist a nt f rom t hem a int hea t reof host il it ies .
Theref ore, t hou ght heA m eric a nf l eet w a sm u c hm orep ow -
erf u l nu m eric a l l yt ha nt heJ a p a nesef l eet , t hissu p eriorit y
m ight not bebrou ght int op l a ysoonenou ght od ea l ef f ec -
t iv el yw it ht heJ a p a nesev essel sbef orea l l t ha t J a p a nw ished
t oa c hiev ef ort het im ebeingha d beenef f ec t ed .
M ea nw hil e, J a p a nha st hel ea d int heFa rE a st a nd
seem sl ik el yt ok eep it
. Them a j orit yof E ngl ishm en, a nd
ev ent hem a j orit yof A m eric a ns, w hoa rest il l m orec l osel y
c onc erned t ha nJ a p a n' sA l l yE ngl a nd w it ht hep ol ic yof
t hisp ow erf u l a nd a m bit iou sSt a t e, ha v ebu t a su p erf ic ia l
148
TheA w a k eningof A sia
id ea
of t hep ossibl esp rea d of it sinf l u enc eint henea r
f u t u re
. Yet t hisisnot f orw a nt of w a rning . A m eric a ns
inp a rt ic u l a rha v ebeent ol d byt heirow nc ou nt rym en, m il i-
t a ryof f ic ersa sw el l a sc iv il ia ns, w hoha v esp ec ia l l yst u d ied
t hesu bj ec t , a bou t t hesort of a nt a gonism w hic hm a yl ie
a hea d . Germ a ns, t oo, w horega rd ed t hep robl em of t he
Fa rE a st a nd t heP a c if ic O c ea nf rom a t ot a l l yd if f erent
p oint of v iew , w ent int ot hem a t t erw it ht heirc u st om a ry
t horou ghnessbef oret hew a r, a nd exp ressed v irt u a l l yt he
sa m eop inion .
Theybel iev et ha t J a p a nisp rep a ring, w it h
t hesa m erel ent l essef f ic ienc yw hic hshed isp l a yed inm a k -
ingrea d yf orherc a m p a ignsa ga inst C hina a nd Ru ssia , t o
d ea l w it ht heU nit ed St a t esw hent im ea nd op p ort u nit y
of f er .
A m eric a nst hem sel v esf reel ya d m it t ha t t hest il l rising
P ow erof A sia ha sa m p l egrou nd sf orseriou sil l - f eel ing
a ga inst t heGrea t Rep u bl ic . Brea c hesof int erna t iona l l a w
a nd na t iona l p l ed gesha v ebeenc om m it t ed byt heU nit ed
St a t esGov ernm ent t im ea f t ert im e
. The 150, 000 J a p a nese
- m ost l yt ra ined sol d iers, byt hew a y- w hoha v et a k en
t hep l a c eof t heC hineseont heP a c if ic Sl op ea rerega rd ed
w it ht hesa m ehost il it ya st heirf oreru nnersf rom t hem a in-
l a nd of A sia .
A m a ssa c reof t heJ a p a neseim m igra nt s,
bef oret heyc ou l d orga nisea nd d ef end t hem sel v es, w a s
not l onga goc onsid ered p ossibl e
. Sinc et hent heJ a p a nese
Gov ernm ent ha sit sel f c hec k ed t heem igra t ionof it ssu b-
j ec t st oA m eric a , a nd a set t l em ent ha sbeent em p ora ril y
a rriv ed a t .
Bu t , if w ea ret oj u d get hesea bl ea nd f a r- seeingp eo-
p l ea nd t heirst a t esm enbyw ha t w eou rsel v esshou l d d oin
a sim il a rc a se, it seem sv eryu nl ik el yt ha t t heyw il l su bm it
p erm a nent l yt osu c ha ba d geof inf eriorit ya st hisa rra nge-
m ent im p l ies, esp ec ia l l ysinc et heC a l if ornia nsm a k e no
sec ret of t heirc ont em p t a nd d isl ik ef ort heiru nw el c om e
gu est s.
M oreov er, not onl yra c ia l , bu t c om m erc ia l , a n-
J a p a nTriesH erSt rengt h

149
t a gonism sa rea t w ork . I t isw el l k now nt ha t t hegrea t
A m eric a nm a nu f a c t u ringTru st sha v eneed of t heou t l et
of f ered byt hem a rk et sof C hina , w hereJ a p a neseinf l u enc e
a nd J a p a nesec hea p nessa rea l rea d yga ininggrou nd in
riv a l ryw it ht hem . There is a l it t l eSoc ia l ism in
J a p a n
a nd m oreinA m eric a
; bu t it sv ot a riesw il l not benu m erou s
orp ow erf u l enou ghineit herc ou nt ryt ost a v eof f a c a p i-
t a l ist w a r, soonerorl a t er, u nl essot herc irc u m st a nc esren-
d ert hem grea t a ssist a nc e . Thep ol ic yof t heJ a p a nesein
M exic oa nd t heSou t hA m eric a nSt a t esa l sot hrea t ens
A m eric a nc a p it a l ist int erest s .
Rec ent ev ent sha v egrea t l yc ha nged t hesit u a t ion .
TheU nit ed St a t esha v ingbeend riv en, byt heGerm a np ol -
ic yof u nl im it ed ou t ra gea nd p ira c yont hehighsea s, int o
m a k ingc om m onc a u sew it ht heA l l iesof t heE nt ent e
a ga inst t heC ent ra l P ow ers, ha sf ou nd hersel f obl iged
t oc onst it u t ea nef f ec t iv ea rm ya nd t ost rengt henherna v y
.
Thisisa c om p l et ea l t era t ionof t hegenera l a t t it u d eof t he
grea t A m eric a nRep u bl ic w hic hc a nnot f a il ev ent u a l l yt o
ha v eit sinf l u enc eint heP a c if ic . J a p a nisnol ongerf a c e
t of a c ew it ha P ow erof enorm ou sw ea l t ha nd resou rc es,
a d d ic t ed t op ea c ea t a nyp ric e, a nd u np rep a red t oenc ou n-
t erorga nised a nd ef f ic ient a t t a c k . M oreov er, t heU
. S . A .
isnow p ra c t ic a l l yina l l ia nc enot onl yw it hGrea t Brit a in
( hit hert oa " su sp ec t " c ou nt ryont heA m eric a nsid eof t he
A t l a nt ic ) , Fra nc ea nd Ru ssia , bu t a l sow it hJ a p a nher-
sel f . E u rop eha sbeen" bl ed w hit e" byt hew a r :
A m eric a
ha snot . Thou gh, t heref ore, t hep ol ic yof J a p a nc a n
sc a rc el yc ha ngeit su l t im a t eint ent ion, t herew il l bea grea t er
obst a c l eint hep a t hof it sim m ed ia t erea l isa t ion . Thea n-
t a gonism of int erest srem a ins, bu t J a p a nisnot t heonl y
P ow erw hic hha sga ined st rengt hbyt hew a r
. TheU nit ed
St a t esha ssof a rd onet hesa m e .
W eneed not , how ev er, t a k eGenera l H om erL ea ' s
p essim ist ic p re- w a rv iew a bou t J a p a n' sp ossibl ea t t a c k u p on
150

TheA w a k eningof A sia
C a l if ornia inord ert ou nd erst a nd t ha t , if J a p a nm ea nst o
ha v eherow nw a y in C hina , it w il l beexc eed ingl yd if f ic u l t
f ort heU nit ed St a t est op rev ent her, a sm a t t ersst a nd t o-
d a yinE u rop e . W ha t m a yc om ea f t ert hew a rnoonec a n
sa y . E v ent heL ea gu eof N a t ionsw ou l d f ind it noea sy
m a t t ert ow it hst a nd t hec l a im of " A sia f ort heA sia t ic s"
c ha m p ioned byJ a p a n
. J a p a n' sd em a nd su p onC hina of
J a nu a ry18 t h, 1915, f ol l ow ed byt hesu rrend erof t heC hi-
neseRep u bl ic onp oint sw hic hent irel yd est royt hef igm ent
of t het errit oria l int egrit yof C hina a nd c l oset heop en
d oorof m oret ha nonegrea t p rov inc e, show t ha t t hew hol e
qu est ionof herp ol ic y on t heP a c if ic O c ea nha ngsu p on
herrel a t ionst ot ha t v a st c ou nt ry . J a p a nw il l nom ore
a l l ow t heU nit ed St a t est oint erf erew it hherp ol ic yint ha t
resp ec t t ha nshep erm it t ed Ru ssia t od oso .
J a p a neseem igra t iona nd t herel a t ionof J a p a neseset -
t l erst ot heA m eric a nGov ernm ent a nd t heA m eric a nSt a t es
a resm a l l m a t t ersc om p a red w it ht hel ea d ership of t he
A sia t ic p eop l est ow hic hJ a p a na sp iresa nd ha sp a rt ia l l y
a t t a ined . Sinc et heGrea t W a rha sv a st l yim p rov ed not
onl yherp ol it ic a l bu t herf ina nc ia l p osit ion, a nd sinc et he
c om p a ra t iv el ym od era t eC ou nt O k u m a ha sbeensu c c eed ed
f irst byt hem il it a rist Tera u c hia sP rim eM inist er, a nd t hen
bya d em oc ra t ic p a rt yGov ernm ent , it isst il l p ossibl e
t ha t w esha l l hea rof m ored em a nd sa ga inst t heind ep end -
enc eof C hina . I nt ha t c a se, a l t hou ghSu nYa t Senha s
t hou ght it sa f et oret u rnt oSha ngha i, t hed ea t hof H u a ng-
H su , w hoha d t hec onf id enc eof t henew C hinesesol d iery,
isa v eryseriou sl osst ot hegrea t p ea c ef u l Fed era t ionof
P rov inc esw hic hc a l l sit sel f t heC hineseRep u bl ic . These
a ret hed a ysw hent hek ingd om sof p ea c esu f f erv iol enc e
a nd t hev iol ent t a k et hem byst orm . Thet a l eof t heW est
m a ysoonbet ol d a ga in in t heE a st .
I t isna t u ra l a nd , inm yj u d gm ent , p ra isew ort hy, t ha t
J a p a nshou l d resent , a nd end ea v ou rt orend erim p ossibl ef or
J a p a nTriesH erSt rengt h

151
ev er, t hesort of t rea t m ent w hic hw eE u rop ea nsha v ed ea l t
ou t t oC hina a nd ot herp a rt sof A sia f orc ent u ries . E ng-
l a nd , Ru ssia , Fra nc e, Germ a ny, H ol l a nd , P ort u ga l , Sp a in,
ha v ea l l ha d a ha nd int hisinf a m ou sbu siness . I t c ou l d
sc a rc el ybesu rp rising, t heref ore, if A sia shou l d st riv et o
a v engeu p onE u rop esom eof t hehorrorsof t hep a st , a sshe
ga insst rengt ha nd p u t st hem et hod sof c iv il ised w a rf a re
a t t hed isp osa l of f u l l yt hree- f if t hsof t hehu m a nra c e .
Tha t isa grow ingd a ngerw hic hou rd esc end a nt sm a y
ha v et of a c e .
Bu t t ha t J a p a nshou l d u set hep resent t er-
ribl est a t eof a f f a irsinE u rop et oim p oseu p ont heu nw il l ing
p op u l a t ionof C hina - p ossessingev enbyt hea d m issionof
t hehighest J a p a nesest a t esm enqu a l it iessu p eriort ot heir
ow n- isa p ol ic yw hic hou ght t oberesist ed a ssoona sp os-
sibl e, if t heC hineset hem sel v esd esirehel p a ga inst t hisa g-
gression .
TheJ a p a nesea renot p op u l a rinA sia , a nd t heir
u np op u l a rit yha su nd ou bt ed l yinc rea sed d u ringt hep a st f ou r
yea rs . O nt heot herha nd , w ha t ev ert heird if f erenc esm a y
be, A sia t ic su nd erst a nd onea not hera t bot t om f a rbet t er
t ha nt heyu nd erst a nd , ort ru st , orl ik e, E u rop ea ns, orA m eri-
c a ns . Thist heU nit ed St a t esisbeginningt o' c om p rehend
.
I t m a ybea sw el l f orot herna t iona l it iesof t heW est t oc on-
sid ert hew hol esit u a t ionf rom t hisp oint of v iew .
P a rt ic u l a rl yist hist hec a sew it hGrea t Brit a in . N ot
onl yd oesshest il l hol d t hel ea d ingp osit ionint ra d ew it h
C hina , bu t , ont hew hol e, E ngl ishm enget onbet t erw it h
t heC hineset ha nd oa nyot herE u rop ea ns . Sol onga sc om -
p et it iv ec om m erc eexist s, t heref ore, a nd p ol it ic a l inf l u enc e
hel p st hena t ionw hic hd oest hisl a rgebu siness, t hea p p ea r-
a nc eont hesc eneof a na c t iv ec om p et it orc l osea t ha nd , w el l
v ersed int heC hinesel a ngu a gea nd C hinesew a ys, isof t he
u t m ost im p ort a nc e
. J a p a neset ra d erst a k em orep a ins, a re
c ont ent w it hsm a l l erp rof it sa nd a rerea d yt od ea l , ona
sm a l l ersc a l e, w it hinf eriorp rod u c t st ot hosew hic hE ngl ish
m erc ha nt sa red isp osed t oha nd l e . Theyd onot ga in
152

TheA w a k eningof A sia
grou nd ra p id l y bec a u se t heyha v ea l ow erst a nd a rd of
c om m erc ia l m ora l it yt ha nt ha t t ow hic ht heC hinesep ro-
d u c ersa nd t ra d ersha v ebeena c c u st om ed , a nd c ert a inv ery
d ou bt f u l t ra nsa c t ionsint hep u rc ha seof C hinesec u rrenc y
d id t hem ha rm d u ringt hew a r, w henev eryt hingw a sin
t heirf a v ou r .
Bu t , insp it eof ev eryt hing, J a p a nesem erc ha nt sa nd
t ra f f ic k ers w il l p roba bl ym a k egrea t w a yinC hina int he
nea rf u t u re . E v enk eenp ersona l d isl ik ea nd c ont em p t f or
sha rp p ra c t ic ec a nsc a rc el yhea d ba c k p erm a nent l y
t he
c om m erc ia l a d v a nc eof t hosew ho, ina d d it iont ot hea d -
v a nt a gesof l a ngu a gea nd ra c e, p ossesssu p eriora d a p t a bil -
it y, grea t era ssid u it y, a rec ont ent w it hsm a l l erp rof it s, a nd ,
a bov ea l l , sel l c hea p good s .
N ow t ha t J a p a nha sa d d ed
t oa l l t hisp ersist ent a nd t hrea t eningp ol it ic a l p ressu reu p on
t heC hineseGov ernm ent t hea c qu isit ionof " sp heresof in-
f l u enc e" a nd v a st st ret c hesof t errit oryw hic hc l oset he
op end oort oa l l t ra d ebu t herow n, obv iou sl yit w il l be
noea sym a t t erf orE u rop ea nst ok eep u p t heirc om m erc e
w it hC hina ont hep resent sc a l e .
E ngl a nd , t hec l oseA l l y
of J a p a n, beginst of eel herriv a l ry, insp it eof a l l Trea t y
obl iga t ions, a sm u c ha st heU nit ed St a t es,
w hic hc a n
sc a rc el ybec onsid ered a v eryf riend l yP ow er, t hou ghc ir-
c u m st a nc esha v em a d et heA m eric a nRep u bl ic p ra c t ic a l l y
a nA l l yof t heI sl a nd E m p ire .
Theba t t l eof ind u st ria l
a nd t ra d ingc om p et it ion w il l
gost ea d il yoninw a ra sin
p ea c e, inp ea c ea sinw a r
.
C H A P TE RXI
TH E M I STRE SSO FA SI A
I N t heea rl y, p a rt of 1916 , ow ingt ot hea d v ersec rit ic ism
of J a p a nesep ol ic yinC hina , not onl ybyE ngl ishresi-
d ent sbu t bya p ort ionof t heE ngl ishP ress, t he
J a p a n
Tim es obt a ined a nd p u bl ished t hec onsid ered op inionsof
a l l t hel ea d ingJ a p a nesest a t esm en, ba nk ers, f ina nc iersa nd
j ou rna l ist s a s
t ot heA ngl o- J a p a neseTrea t iesof A l l ia nc e
.
Theyp ra c t ic a l l yd id not d if f era bou t t hegrea t v a l u eof
t heset oJ a p a n .
Thea broga t ionof t hem , byeit hersid e,
w a su na nim ou sl yrega rd ed a sa l m ost inc onc eiv a bl ea nd
highl yinj u riou s
. Som em od if ic a t ionsm ight bem a d egrow -
ingou t of c ha nged c ond it ions, bu t t heba sisof t heTrea t ies
m u st rem a inu nt ou c hed .
Thegenera l a greem ent isre-
m a rk a bl e
Thu s, C ou nt O k u m a , t henP rim eM inist er, w hil ein-
sist ingu p ont henec essit yf ora l l t heA l l iest o" st ic k t o-
get her" inord ert od ef ea t Germ a ny, goesont osa y : " I
a ssert p osit iv el y, w it hou t a nyf ea rof su c c essf u l c ont ra -
d ic t ion, t ha t J a p a nisl oya l t oherA l l ia nc e, f riend l yt o
Grea t Brit a ina nd f a it hf u l t oa l l heru nd ert a k ings . The
A ngl o- J a p a neseA l l ia nc eisj u st a sst rongt o- d a ya sev er
it w a s
. J a p a nbenef it sbyt heA l l ia nc e, a nd sod oesGrea t
Brit a in . "
C ou nt Tera u c hi, t hesu c c essorof C ou nt O k u m a a s
P rem ier, w a sf orsom eyea rsV ic eroya nd Gov ernor- Gen-
era l of Korea , a nd isgenera l l yrega rd ed inE u rop ea s
t hel ea d erof t hem il it a rist , a nnexa t ionist a nd - a nt i- C hinese
sec t ionof J a p a nesep ol it ic s
. I t isc l a im ed f orhim t ha t ,
153
154

TheA w a k eningof
A sia
sinc e i9io, heha sbeena m ost su c c essf u l a d m inist ra t or
ont hem a inl a nd a nd t ha t , ow ingt ohisst ernbu t honest
ru l e, Korea , w hic hhef ou nd inp ov ert ya nd squ a l or, is
now p rosp erou sa nd c ont ent ed . H egiv esit a shisv iew
t ha t t heA ngl o- J a p a neseA l l ia nc eha sbeenof grea t m u -
t u a l benef it , a sha sbeena m p l yd em onst ra t ed , a nd a d d s : " I
m ost f irm l ybel iev et ha t t herel a t ionsbet w eenJ a p a na nd
Grea t Brit a ina ret ooa m ic a bl ea nd st a nd ont oof irm a
f oot ingt obesha k en . "
Ba ronKa t o, w hoha sbeenf ou rt im esForeignM in-
ist era sw el l a sA m ba ssa d orinL ond on, a nd isnow t he
l ea d erof t hem ost inf l u ent ia l p a rt yint heH ou seof Rep -
resent a t iv es, goesm oreint od et a il a nd isev enm orep osi-
t iv eont hesa m esid e . O nJ a nu a ryist , 1915, bef oret he
a m a z ingd em a nd sm a d ebyJ a p a nu p onC hina ont he18 t h
of t hesa m em ont h, heset f ort hhisp osit iona t l engt hin
a nim p ort a nt J a p a nesej ou rna l : " I t m a t t ersnot w hot a k es
t hereinsof gov ernm ent int hisc ou nt ryorw ha t C a binet
isinp ow er, ou ra t t it u d et ow a rd sE ngl a nd ' a nd t heA l l i-
a nc ew il l rem a int hesa m e . . . . I t ist heroc k onw hic h
ou rf oreignp ol ic iesst a nd . A l l ot herent ent esora gree-
m ent sa rem erel ysu p p l em ent a ryt ot hism a inp l a nk inou r
na t iona l p l a t f orm
. N om inist eria l c ha ngec a na l t ert his
p osit ionort hisp ol ic y . TheA ngl o- J a p a neseA l l ia nc e
st a nd sf ort hep ea c eof t heFa rE a st . I f a nym a nt hink s
t hisA l l ia nc ew a sc onc eiv ed orent ered int osim p l ybec a u se
it m ight beu sef u l int im esof w a r, heism ist a k en
.
I nit s
rel a t iont ot hesit u a t ioninC hina , f orinst a nc e, t heA l l ia nc e
isoneof p ea c ef u l gu a rd ia nship , sa f egu a rd ingC hina ' sin-
t egrit ya nd t hep rinc ip l eof equ a l op p ort u nit y" - equ a l op -
p ort u nit yinKorea , t heL ia ot u ngP eninsu l a a nd Fu k ien ! -
" w hic ha rea sessent ia l inc onserv ingt heint erest sof J a p a n
a st hoseof Grea t Brit a in . Sol onga st heA ngl o- J a p a nese
A l l ia nc est a nd s, nop ow erc a nbrea k t heint egrit yof C hina
orrea l l yt hrea t ent hep rinc ip l eof equ a l op p ort u nit y" -
TheM ist ressof A sia
' 55
A ga in- " TheA ngl o- J a p a neseA l l ia nc eha sv a st l yinc rea sed
t hep rest igeof J a p a n . . .
. Bu t t heA ngl o- J a p a neseA l -
l ia nc eisbenef ic ia l t oGrea t Brit a ina l so
. D u ringt hep res-
ent w a r, Grea t Brit a inha sbeena bl et ow it hd ra w hership s
f rom t heFa rE a st ; w herea s, if t heA l l ia nc eha d not been
a c t iv ea nd a c t iv el yc a rried ou t byJ a p a n, a c onsid era bl e
p ort ionof t heBrit ishf l eet m u st ha v ebeensent t ot hese
w a t ers . "
Ba ronTa k a ha shi, t hel ea d erof t heO p p osit ionint he
H ou seof P eersa nd a st a t esm a nof grea t exp erienc ein
f ina nc e, w how a sext rem el yd ist ru st f u l of t hea d m inist ra -
t ionsinw hic hC ou nt O k u m a a nd a f t erw a rd sC ou nt
Tera u c hiw ereP rim eM inist ers, nev ert hel essisof t hesa m e
op inion
a s hisp ol it ic a l a d v ersa riesont hisp a rt ic u l a rm a t -
t er . Thu s : " Thel ea d ingm enof t hisc ou nt ry- t hem en
of a l l c l a sses, oc c u p a t ionsorp ol it ic a l l ea nings- a rein
sym p a t hyw it hGrea t Brit a ina nd t heA l l ies . A c onsensu s
of t hew el l - ba l a nc ed op inionof t heE m p irew il l show t he
w hol ep eop l et obeinp erf ec t a c c ord w it hu p hol d ingt he
A ngl o- J a p a neseA l l ia nc e
. Thisist ru einp ol it ic a l , soc ia l ,
ed u c a t iona l a nd ec onom ic c irc l es . Thereis, inf a c t , norea l
d iv isionof op inion . "
Ba ronShibu sa w a , t hegrea t est f ina nc ierof J a p a n, a
m a nsev ent y- sixyea rsof a ge, w ho, c a p a bl eA m eric a nssa y,
got t hebet t erof t hem a l l rou nd w henona v isit t ot he
U nit ed St a t es, j oinsint hegenera l c horu sof a p p roba t ion
of t heA ngl o- J a p a neseA l l ia nc e . Thisisa sim p ort a nt a n
a d hesiont ot hep ol ic ya sa nyof t hep rec ed ing, a nd Ba ron
Shibu sa w a issu p p ort ed bym ost inf l u ent ia l ba nk ersa nd
c om m erc ia l m en .
O nt heot herha nd , w hil ea greeinga l soa st ot hev a l u e
of t heA ngl oj a p a neseA l l ia nc e, herec ognisest ha t t here
issom egrou nd f ort heobj ec t iont ha t Grea t Brit a inis
get t ingt hebest of t heba rga in . Su c ha m a na st heem i-
nent j ou rna l ist , M r . M a t su ya m a , d enou nc est hea t t it u d e
s
156

TheA w a k eningof A sia
of t heBrit ishint heFa rE a st . Thesep eop l e, hea v ers,
esp ec ia l l yt heresid ent sinC hina , show a t end enc yt od is-
l ik et heJ a p a nese . Thisisu nd ou bt ed l yt ru eof t hed w el l ers
inP ek inga nd Sha ngha i, a nd it w ou l d bea d v isa bl eif t hey
c ou l d c u l t iv a t e a
l it t l em oreof A sia t ic c ou rt esya nd c a l m -
ness . Thed a yha sgonebyw heneit herJ a p a neseorC hi-
nese
nesec a nbet rea t ed w it ha rroga nc eord isresp ec t . A nd , a s
M r. M a t su ya m a t ru l yrem a rk s, E ngl ishm engenera l l y, a nd
E ngl ishm erc ha nt sint heE a st inp a rt ic u l a r, w erep re-
serv ed f rom t hegrea t d a ngersw hic ht heyw ou l d c ert a inl y
ha v eenc ou nt ered ha d J a p a nbeenev ena neu t ra l int he .
w a r. Bu t t hised it orw ind su p bya ssert ingt ha t " t he
A ngl o- J a p a neseA l l ia nc eisa bsol u t el ynec essa ryf orbot h
Grea t Brit a ina nd J a p a n . A f t ert hew a rGerm a nym a y
a t t em p t t orega inherinf l u enc eint heO rient w it hrenew ed
v igou r, a nd m a ya t t em p t t ow rea k v engea nc e, esp ec ia l l y
onJ a p a n . . . . TheA ngl o- J a p a neseA l l ia nc eshou l d bet he
ba sisof a l l d ip l om a c yint heFa rE a st . "
Ba ronM ega t a p u t st hec ru xof t hew hol em a t t erm ost
c l ea rl ya nd f orc ibl y, w hil ea d m it t ingt ha t
t heE ngl ish
A l l ia nc eisof t hegrea t est serv ic et oJ a p a na nd ou ght t o
bem a int a ined inord ert op reserv ep ea c eint heFa rE a st
.
Bu t onep rim ord ia l c onsid era t ionw eighsw it hJ a p a n . a nd
m u st nev erbeov erl ook ed byGrea t Brit a in . H ereit is
" J a p a nist henext d oorneighbou rof C hina , a nd J a p a n
ist hem ost d eep l yc onc erned int hem a int ena nc eof p ea c e
int heO rient
. Theref ore, bec a u seof t hisp rop inqu it y, *
geogra p hic a l l ya nd ec onom ic a l l y, J a p a nm u st bep rom p t
t oa ssert herop inion, exert herinf l u enc ea nd insist u p on
herright sinC hina , inord ert op rev ent w a st ebyc onf l a gra -
t ion, brea c hesof t hep ea c ea nd il l ega l p roc ed u re . . . . So
l onga st hisisd onea nd c l ea rl yu nd erst ood , sol onga s
right sof p osit iona nd sinc erit yof p u rp osea rerec ognised
*
Thissa m ew ord isu sed byM r . L a nsinginhisrec ent N ot et o .
C ou nt I shii
.
TheM ist ressof A sia

157
byt hep eop l eof t het w ona t ions, a l l w il l gow el l a nd t here
w il l benot hingt ost a yort ohind ert hew ork ingof t he
A ngl o- J a p a neseA l l ia nc e, ort hep rogress of good u nd er-
st a nd ingbet w eent het w op eop l es
. "
Su rel yt ha t isp l a inenou gha nd t hrow sa st a rt l ingl ight
u p ona l l t hep rev iou sexp ressionsof good w il l . L et t he
rea d ernot et hesep a ssa gesf rom t hem ou t hof J a p a nese
of t hef irst st a nd inginev eryd ep a rt m ent , a nd t a k et hem
inc onj u nc t ionw it ht hed em a nd su p onC hina byJ a p a n
a l rea d yrec ord ed . I t isu sel esst od isgu iset het ru t h
. J a p a n
isa im inga t d om ina t ioninC hina a nd rel iesu p ont heA ngl o-
J a p a neseA l l ia nc et ohel p hert oa t t a int hisgrea t end .
Theint egrit yof C hineset errit orya nd t he" O p enD oor"
w hic hc onst it u t et heba sisof t heA ngl o- J a p a neseA l l ia nc e
m a ybegiv enu p byGrea t Brit a inf orsom et em p ora rya nd
d ishonou ra bl ea d v a nt a geint heFa rE a st .
Bu t , how ev er
m u c hw em a yresp ec t a nd a d m ireJ a p a n, how ev era nxiou s
w em a ybet obel iev einherd esiret oa c t ina c c ord a nc e
w it hherp l ed ges, w em u st l ook a t t hep osit iona sit rea l l y
is. TheJ a p a nesec l a im a c ont rol l ingv oic eint hef u t u re
of C hina , w it hherenorm ou sp op u l a t iona nd herv a st p o-
t ent ia l w ea l t h .
Theya reont hehighroa d t osec u reit ,
rega rd l essof Grea t Brit a inora nyot herna t ion . W ha t
t hism a ym ea nt ot hew orl d a t l a rgec a nbej u d ged by
t hosew horea d t herec ent hist oryof J a p a n . A l l ot herd e-
t a il sof w orl d - p ol ic ym a yerel ongseem t rif l inginc om p a ri-
sonw it ht his
. Thesu ic id eof t hew hit era c em a yl ea v et he
p l a net op ent ot hesu p rem a c yof t heyel l ow .
W eha v ebeena c c u st om ed , f ora nent iregenera t ion, t o
rea d a nd hea rof t hec ha rm , t het a st e, t hesim p l ic it y, t he
c ou rt esy, t hec l ea nl iness, t hesel f - sa c rif ic e, t hec heerf u l ness,
t heint el l igenc eof t heJ a p a nese. Theirc ou ra ge, t heird e-
v ot ion, t heirhighc onc ep t ionof ind iv id u a l , f a m il ya nd
p a t riot ic d u t yha v ea l sobeenm ost p ic t u resqu el yp u t be-
f ore
u
s . i n
t hep resent a sw el l a sint hep a st . Thed el ight f u l
158

TheA w a k eningof A sia
st yl ea nd p oet ic im a gina t ionof L a f c a d ioH ea rna nd ot her
p l ea singw rit ersha v et hrow na gl a m ou rov ert hew hol e
A rc hip el a go.
N oA sia t ic sha v eev erbeenbrou ght soc l ose
t ou sbyE u rop ea nsof geniu sa nd byt heirow na d m ira bl y
orga nised syst em of p u bl ic it ya nd p rop a ga nd a int hena -
t iona l int erest
. Thereis, inf a c t , a f a sc ina t iona bou t t he
I sl a nd E m p irew hic hha sobsc u red f oru su nt il l a t el yt he
a p p rec ia t ionof t heseriou ssid eof J a p a nesec ha ra c t era nd
p ol ic y .
N ow w et end p ossibl yt oexa ggera t et heinf l u enc e
a nd p ow erof t hegrea t riv a l t oE u rop ea nt ra d ea nd E u ro-
p ea np ol it yint heFa rE a st .
Bu t ou rl a t ea l l yRu ssia , on
t heoneha nd , a nd ou renem yGerm a ny, ont heot her, bot h
show c l ea rl y, t heonebya Trea t yv irt u a l l ya c k now l ed ging
t hed om ina nt p osit ionof J a p a n, t heot herbyc ont inu ou s
ef f ort st oc om et ot erm sw it hJ a p a ninsom ew a y( d esp it e
t hec ont em p t u ou sa t t it u d eof J a p a nesest a t esm en) , t ha t
t heynow f u l l yrec ogniset hec ha nget ha t ha st a k enp l a c e .
Grea t Brit a in, Fra nc ea nd t heU nit ed St a t esou ght not ,
t heref ore, t obel essc l ea r- sight ed int hem a t t er.
C H A P TE RXI I
I N D U STRI A L J A P A N
FRO M
t heea rl iest d a ysw henJ a p a nbega nt oreorga nise
t hesu p erst ru c t u reof hersoc iet ysot ha t shem ight hol d
herow na ga inst E u rop ea nd ic t a t iononl a nd a nd onsea ,
sheset t ow ork a l sot orec onst it u t et hew hol eind u st ry
of t hec ou nt ry on sim il a rl inessof a ra st heyw eresu it ed
t oA sia t ic c u st om sa nd l a w s .
Thep rogressof J a p a nha s
beenf rom m il it a rya nd na v a l d ev el op m ent t ot heim p rov e-
m ent sina gric u l t u rea nd m a nu f a c t u renec essa ryt om a in-
t a ingrea t f ight ingf orc es
. J a p a nt o- d a yha sa na rm ya nd
a na v ya t l ea st t w ic ea sst ronga st heyw erea t t hec l ose
of t heRu sso- J a p a neseW a r
.
Thegenera l op inionof t hose
best qu a l if ied t oj u d geist ha t shew il l not bec ont ent ed u nt il
t heya rea t l ea st t w ic et heirp resent st rengt ha nd t ha t her
na v yinit sv a riou sd ep a rt m ent sm a ybea bl et ohol d it s
ow na ga inst a nyf orc et ha t t heU nit ed St a t esa t a c rit ic a l
m om ent c ou l d bringrou nd C a p eH ornint oJ a p a nese
w a t ers .
N ow , J a p a nisst il l a p oorc ou nt ryc om p a red w it hsu c h
na t ionsa st heU nit ed Kingd om , Fra nc e, Germ a ny, ort he
U nit ed St a t es .
E v ent heE m p ireof Ru ssia bef oret hew a r
w a sc onsid era bl yric hert ha nJ a p a n .
H ow , t hen, ist heI s-
l a nd E m p ire, ev enw it hit sp resent p op u l a t ionof som e
70, 000, 000,
inc l u d ingnow a d a ysKorea , Form osa a nd t he
L ia ot u ngP eninsu l a , t op a yint erest onit sl a rgef oreign
l oa nsa nd bea ra t t hesa m et im et hew eight of t hesehea v y
a rm a m ent s?
Thisqu est ionw a sf a c ed byJ a p a nesest a t es-
m ena t a v eryea rl yp eriod int herec ord of t henew d e-
I 59
I 00

TheA w a k eningof A sia
v el op m ent .
Theysa w a t onc et ha t it w a su sel esst oent er
u p onsu c ha na m bit iou sp ol ic ya st ha t w hic hop ened ou t
bef oret hem , esp ec ia l l ya f t ert heirsu c c essf u l
w a rw it h
C hina , u nl esst heya d a p t ed a l l p ossibl em od ernim p rov e-
m ent sina gric u l t u re, m a nu f a c t u re,
t ra nsp ort , ra il w a ys,
ship p ing, f ina nc ea nd m ining
. Theed u c a t ionof t hep eop l e
m u st a l soa c c om p a nyt hisa c t iv it y
. Thu sa l onec ou l d J a p a n
hop et oc ont inu eont heu p w a rd p a t hw hic hherl ea d ers
ha d t ra c ed f orher
. N ot hingw a som it t ed w hic hc ou l d l ea d
t ot hea t t a inm ent of herobj ec t
.
M ist a k esw erem a d einsom ed irec t ions, of c ou rse
; bu t
nev erina nyE u rop ea nc ou nt ry, not ev eninGerm a ny, w a s
t hec om p l et ep rogra m m eof t heind u st ria l a nd soc ia l t ra ns-
f orm a t ionof a na t ionc a rried ou t sosyst em a t ic a l l ya sin
J a p a n .
H ere, a sint hea rm ya nd na v y, E u rop ea nid ea s
w ereu sed a nd a d a p t ed , bu t E u rop ea ninf l u enc ew a snev er
a t a nym om ent a l l ow ed t od om ina t e
.
Therew eret hose
w hohop ed , t hew rit era m ongt hem , t ha t t heJ a p a nese, w ho
ha d exa m ined a nd c rit ic ised t hea d v a nt a gesa nd d ef ec t sof
m od ernE u rop ea nsoc iet y, w ou l d ha v ed onet heiru t m ost
t oa v oid t het erribl em isc hief c a u sed t oa nyw ork ingp op u -
l a t ionbyt heint rod u c t ionof u nrest ra ined c a p it a l ism , t he
grea t f a c t oryind u st riesa nd t hec onsequ ent bit t erc om p et i-
t ionf ora m eresu bsist enc ew a gebym en, w om ena nd c hil -
d ren
. L it t l eornoa t t em p t ha sbeenm a d eint hisd irec t ion .
Theresu l t s, a sw il l beseenl a t er, a red ep l ora bl e .
J a p a nese
ind u st ria l I m p eria l ism , l ik eha p p y- go- l u c k yc om m erc ia l ism
inGrea t Brit a in, ha sbeena c u rset ot hep eop l e .
Bu t t heec onom ic c ha ngef rom na t iona l p ov ert yt oc om -
p a ra t iv ena t iona l a f f l u enc eisbeingbrou ght a bou t nonet he
l ess
. Thena t u ra l sk il l of t hep eop l e, t heirp ow erof a d a p t a -
t iona nd t heirp ersona l ind u st ry, w henc om bined w it ht he
m ost im p rov ed m a c hinerya nd a l ow ra t eof w a ges, a re
rend eringt hem v eryf orm id a bl ec om p et it orsint hew orl d
m a rk et , w hil et hereha sbeennoneof t ha t f a t a l negl ec t
I nd u st ria l J a p a n

16 1
of a gric u l t u re, w hosef u l l ef f ec t E ngl a nd m u st now exp eri-
enc e . I t is, inf a c t , sa d t op u t t hec l ea rl y- t hou ght - ou t
m et hod ic a l a d v a nc eof J a p a ninherc om bina t ionof hom e
d ef enc ea nd w a rl ik est rengt h, w it hu nc ea singint erna l d e-
v el op m ent , besid et hef l ou nd eringinc a p a c it yd isp l a yed by
E ngl a nd d u ringt hep resent genera t ion . Thec ont ra st is
hu m il ia t ingt oa nyonew hot a k est het rou bl et oinv est iga t e
t hef a c t s .
A gric u l t u reis, a nd a l w a ysha sbeen, byf a rt hem ost
im p ort a nt ind u st ryof J a p a n, a nd t hegrow t hof m a nu f a c -
t u resa nd c om m erc eha snot ind u c ed t heGov ernm ent t o
negl ec t t his, t hef ou nd a t ionof a l l sou nd na t iona l p ros-
p erit y . Theyha v erec ognised , a s a rec ent w rit erha sst a t ed ,
t ha t " it isnoexa ggera t iont osa yt ha t u p ona gric u l t u re
a nd a gric u l t u rist sd ep end st heexist enc eof t heE m p ire . "
Thesm a l l c u l t iv a t ors, w hosea v era gehol d ingsa renot
l a rgert ha nt hoseof t heC hinesep ea sa nt ry, c onst it u t et he
hea l t hiest a nd m ost v igorou sc l a ssint heE m p ire : t hem en
w hod id t hebest of t hef ight inga ga inst C hina a nd Ru ssia
a nd a ret heba c k boneof t heJ a p a nesea rm iest o- d a y . The
l a nd it sel f isnot f ert il e, a nd t hec l im a t eisnot sp ec ia l l yf a -
v ou ra bl ef ort il l a ge . C onsequ ent l y, ru ra l l if eisha rd a nd
t hest a nd a rd of su bsist enc el ow . H om eind u st ryof a l l
k ind sisbrou ght int oinc rea set hep rod u c t of t hef a m il y
a nd rel iev et hem f rom a c t u a l ha rd ship . Them oref or-
t u na t e, w hoa reenga ged int hesil k a nd w ea v ingind u s-
t ries, ow ninga t t hesa m et im et heirp l ot sof l a nd , a ret he
best of f , a nd st a nd inm u c ht hesa m ep osit iona st hec u l t i-
v a t orsa nd w ea v ersof t heeight eent hc ent u ryint henort h
of E ngl a nd , ort hesm a l l v igneronsof sou t hernFra nc e
.
Thoseof t hea gric u l t u ra l p op u l a t ionw hoha v et op a yrent
t ol a nd l ord s, ort il l t hel a nd f orl a rgep rop riet ors, a rew orse
of f . Thet end enc ya l soof t heru ra l p op u l a t iont od rif t int o
t hec it ies, insea rc hof highw a gesa nd rel ief f rom exc es-
siv ea nd u ngra t ef u l t oil , isgrow inginJ a p a na sel sew here .
16 2

. TheA w a k eningof A sia
I nc l u d ingt heou t p u t of a l l d ep a rt m ent sof hom eind u s-
t ryof ev eryk ind , t het ot a l a nnu a l v a l u eof t hep rod u c t s
of a gric u l t u reisp u t a t a na v era geof £ 156 , ooo, oooa yea r
f rom a p op u l a t ionof u p w a rd sof 3 0, 000, 000 enga ged in
w ork u p ont hesoil , orl esst ha n£ 5p erhea d gross, exc l u -
siv eof t a xa t ionorc ost of m a nu res
. Thesem a k ea d ed u c -
t ionf rom t hist ot a l of nea rl y15s . p erhea d . Rec k oned in
m oney, t heref ore, t het ot a l inc om eof a f a m il yof f iv e
p ersonsof t hea gric u l t u ra l c l a ssd ep end ent u p ont hesoil
d oesnot exc eed £ 2o a yea r, inret u rnf ort heexha u st ing
l a bou rof m a n, w om a na nd c hil d ren . Thisisl a rge, no
d ou bt , inc om p a risonw it ht heret u rnobt a ined byt hep a u p er
ryot sof Brit ishI nd ia , bu t it isa p oorrem u nera t ion, ev en
w henc om p a red w it ht heil l p a id a nd ba d l y- hou sed a gri-
c u l t u ra l l a bou rersof sou t hernE ngl a nd .
O nl ysev ent eenp erc ent . of t het ot a l a rea of J a p a nis
c u l t iv a t ed , a nd t hec ha ra c t erof t herem a ind erd isp l a ysl it -
t l ep roba bil it yof a nygrea t ext ension . A st hep op u l a t ion
isinc rea singsof a st t ha t it c a nsc a rc el ybea bsorbed in
t hec it ies, t hequ est ionof em igra t ionw il l p roba bl ybec om e
m orep ressinga syea rsgoon
.
Thism u st bec onsid ered
ina l l d isc u ssionof J a p a n' sf oreignp ol ic y, a nd it ssol u t ion
w il l bec om em oreim p ort a nt shou l d shec om binew it hC hina
ina d em a nd f ora f reeou t l et f orhersu rp l u sl a bou rerst o
u noc c u p ied orsp a rsel y- p eop l ed t errit ories
. Forobv iou sl y, if
a f a m il yof f iv eont hea v era gerec eiv esnom oret ha neight
shil l ingsa w eek , rec k oned inou rc u rrenc y, t hou gh t he
sm a l l f reehol d ersm a yget m oref ort heirl a bou r, t heoc -
c u p iers, w hop a yt ot hel a nd ow nernea rl ya ha l f of t heir
grossp rod u c e, a nd t hel a bou rerf orw a ges, w hoha sno
p rop ert y, m u st rec eiv el ess ; a nd it isf rom t hesec l a sses
t ha t t heem igra nt st oC a l if ornia a nd ot hert errit oriesa re
c hief l yd ra w n
.
N ev ert hel ess, t heef f ort sof t heJ a p a neseGov ernm ent
a nd t heint el l igenc ea nd ind u st ryof t hep eop l e, a c c om -
I n d u s t r i a l J a p a n
1 6 3
p a r r i e d b y a r e d u c t i o n o f a g r i c u l t u r a l t a x a t i o n , a r e p r o -
d u c i n g r e m a r k a b l e r e s u l t s . T h e m o s t r e c e n t s t a t i s t i c s
a v a i l a b l e s h o w t h a t a l t h o u g h t h e e x t e n t o f c u l t i v a t e d l a n d
h a s n o t v e r y g r e a t l y i n c r e a s e d , t h e a v e r a g e y i e l d p e r a c r e
h a s i m p r o v e d s t e a d i l y i n t h e p a s t t w e n t y y e a r s , a n d t h e r e
i s e v e r y r e a s o n t o b e l i e v e t h a t t h i s u p w a r d t e n d e n c y w i l l
s t i l l c o n t i n u e , t h o u g h n o t a t t h e s a m e r a t e . Wh a t m a y b e
a c h i e v e d b y d i r e c t a n d c a p a b l e S t a t e i n t e r v e n t i o n i s s h o w n
i n t h e c a s e o f t o b a c c o , w h e r e b y c a r e f u l a t t e n t i o n a n d s e l e c -
t i o n a s m a l l e r c u l t i v a t e d a r e a a n d l e s s e n e d p r o d u c t i o n b r i n g s
i n a h i g h e r r e t u r n o w i n g t o i m p r o v e d q u a l i t y . A Go v e r n -
m e n t Co m m i s s i o n i s c o n s t a n t l y e n g a g e d i n i n t r o d u c i n g a d -
v a n t a g e o u s m e t h o d s o f c u l t u r e a n d s u b s t i t u t i n g a n i m a l s
a n d m a c h i n e r y f o r d i r e c t h u m a n l a b o u r w h e r e v e r t h i s i s
f o u n d p r o f i t a b l e .
B u t i m p o r t a n t a s a g r i c u l t u r e i s a n d m u s t e v e r r e m a i n
f o r J a p a n - i f h e r s t a t e s m e n r e t a i n t h e i r c a p a c i t y o f c o r -
r e c t l y j u d g i n g t h e n a t i o n a l i n t e r e s t s - s h e r e l i e s u p o n h e r
a d v a n c e i n t h e g r e a t m o d e r n i n d u s t r i e s f o r t h e m e a n s t o
h o l d p e r m a n e n t l y t h e p o s i t i o n w h i c h s h e h a s g a i n e d b y
h e r ' w a r s a n d h e r d i p l o m a c y . S h e h a s n o t , h o w e v e r , a d -
v a n c e d i n t h i s r e s p e c t a s m u c h a s s h e r e q u i r e d , o r a s h e r
l e a d e r s h o p e d .
I t i s e a s y
t o u n d e r s t a n d t h e e n o r m o u s d i f f i -
c u l t y o f i n t r o d u c i n g i n t o a n a g r i c u l t u r a l c o u n t r y , a l m o s t a t
a b l o w a s i t w e r e , a n d w i t h o u t a n y t h o r o u g h p r e p a r a t i o n
o r t r a i n i n g , t h e c o m p l e t e p a r a p h e r n a l i a o f m o d e m i n d u s t r y
a n d m a n u f a c t u r e . T h e w o n d e r i s n o t t h a t J a p a n h a s f a i l e d
i n t h e c o u r s e o f a g e n e r a t i o n t o r i v a l f u l l y t h e g r e a t i n - -
d u s t r i a l c o u n t r i e s , w h i c h h a d s o l o n g a s t a r t o f h e r o n t h e
m a r k e t s o f t h e w o r l d , b u t t h a t s h e h a s b e e n a b l e t o a c h i e v e
s o m u c h w i t h i n s o s h o r t a p e r i o d .
Ha d s h e n o t a s s u m e d t h e n e c e s s i t y f o r a p o l i c y o f
a g g r e s s i o n a n d e x p a n s i o n o n t h e m a i n l a n d a n d t h e c o n -
s t a n t e n d e a v o u r t o s e c u r e
a
d o m i n a n t p o s i t i o n i n Ch i n a ,
J a p a n w o u l d a l r e a d y h a v e e s t a b l i s h e d h e r d o m e s t i c c o n -
1 6 4

T h e Aw a k e n i n g o f As i a
c e r n s a n d f o r e i g n t r a d e u p o n a t h o r o u g h l y s o u n d b a s i s . I n
l e s s t h a n t h i r t y y e a r s h e r e x p o r t s a n d i m p o r t s h a v e i n -
c r e a s e d m o r e t h a n f i f t e e n - f o l d ; s h e h a s f r e e d h e r h a n d s
f r o m t h e t r a m m e l s o f c o m m e r c i a l c o n v e n t i o n s w i t h f o r e i g n
n a t i o n s a n d c a n i m p o s e s u c h p r o t e c t i v e d u t i e s a s s h e p l e a s e s ;
s h e h a s c e a s e d t o b e d e p e n d e n t u p o n e x t e r n a l s o u r c e s f o r
w a r s h i p s a n d m u n i t i o n s ; s h e h a s b u i l t u p a n d i s e x t e n d i n g
a n i m p o r t a n t m e r c a n t i l e m a r i n e
; a n d j u s t a t t h e t i m e w h e n
h e r f i n a n c i a l c i r c u m s t a n c e s h a d b e c o m e r a t h e r s t r a i n e d , t h e
g r e a t w o r l d w a r , w h i c h m e a n s s o m e t h i n g n o t f a r s h o r t o f
r u i n t o h e r Al l i e s , e n a b l e d J a p a n , a f t e r t h e f a l l o f T s i n g -
T a u a n d t h e d e s t r u c t i o n o f Ge r m a n s e a p o w e r i n t h e E a s t ,
t o s u p p l y R u s s i a , a t t h e c o s t o f E n g l a n d , w i t h q u a n t i t i e s
o f m u n i t i o n s a t a l a r g e p r o f i t t o h e r s e l f .
J a p a n e s e i m p a t i e n c e a t t h e r a t e o f p r o g r e s s s e e m s d u e
r a t h e r t o t h e e x c i t a b i l i t y o f a n e w - b o r n n a t i o n t h a n t o
t h a t c o o l , u n b i a s s e d j u d g m e n t o f e v e n t s t o w h i c h w e h a v e
b e e n a c c u s t o m e d i n J a p a n ' s f o r e i g n a n d Co l o n i a l p o l i c y .
T h i s l a s t r e m a r k a b l e t u r n o f i n d u s t r i a l a n d f i n a n c i a l e v e n t s
i n f a v o u r o f J a p a n s h o w s i t s e l f i n a n u n m i s t a k a b l e m a n n e r
i n t h e r e c e n t s t a t i s t i c s o f h e r e x p o r t s a n d i m p o r t s .
T h u s a g r i c u l t u r e , m i n i n g , m a n u f a c t u r e a d v a n c i n g ; c o m -
m e r c e s t e a d i l y g r o w i n g ; p o p u l a t i o n i n c r e a s i n g , a p a r t f r o m
t h e 1 7 , o o o , o o o a d d e d i n 1 91 0 b y t h e a n n e x a t i o n o f K o r e a
t o t h e i n h a b i t a n t s o f J a p a n p r o p e r
; a n d n o w t h e e c o n o m i c
a d v a n t a g e d u e t o t h e Gr e a t Wa r
: a l l t o g e t h e r g i v e J a p a n
t h e p o s i t i o n a t h o m e w h i c h e n a b l e s h e r t o t a k e a b o l d l i n e
a b r o a d .
N o r c a n w e f a i l t o s e e t h a t t h e Go v e r n m e n t i s p u r -
s u i n g w i t h t h e 5 3 , 000, 000 o f J a p a n e s e a n d 1 7 , 000, 000 o f
K o r e a n s , f o r m i n g t h e s o l i d c o m b i n a t i o n o f 7 0, o o o , o o o , a
h o m e p o l i c y w h i c h , f r o m t h e c a p i t a l i s t p o i n t o f v i e w , i s
c a l c u l a t e d t o s t r e n g t h e n h e r s t i l l f u r t h e r . I t i s l a m e n t a b l e ,
f o r i n s t a n c e , t o c o m p a r e w h a t J a p a n i s d o i n g i n t h e m a t t e r
o f e d u c a t i o n a n d s c i e n t i f i c t r a i n i n g o f h e r c h i l d r e n a n d
I n d u s t r i a l J a p a n

X6 5
y o u n g p e o p l e w i t h w h a t w e E n g l i s h a r e d o i n g i n I n d i a
.
I n Gr e a t B r i t a i n i t s e l f , E n g l i s h s c h o o l t r a i n i n g i s i n m a n y
r e s p e c t s b e h i n d J a p a n e s e
; a n d t h e c r i m i n a l n e g l e c t
a n d
i n e f f i c i e n c y o f E n g l i s h e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l i n g d u r i n g t h e l a s t
f o u r y e a r s h a s i n c r e a s e d t h i s i n f e r i o r i t y
. T h e r e a r e n o
f e w e r t h a n 7 , 000, 000
c h i l d r e n i n t h e e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l s o f
J a p a n a n d 5 00, 000
y o u t h s i n t h e s p e c i a l a n d t e c h n i c a l
s c h o o l s .
T h e h e l p i n g h a n d o f Go v e r n m e n t i s e x t e n d e d
t h r o u g h o u t , a n d s t u d e n t s a r e e n c o u r a g e d a n d a i d e d i n t h e i r
e n d e a v o u r t o i m p r o v e t h e i r e f f i c i e n c y b y f o r e i g n t r a v e l a n d
i n v e s t i g a t i o n .
S o e x c e l l e n t , l i k e w i s e , a r e t h e J a p a n e s e
e d u c a t i o n a l e s t a b l i s h m e n t s a n d U n i v e r s i t i e s t h a t t h o u s a n d s
o f Ch i n e s e a r e n o w g o i n g t o J a p a n i n o r d e r t o a c q u i r e t h a t
m o d e r n k n o w l e d g e f r o m t h e We s t w h i c h t h e Ch i n e s e t h e m -
s e l v e s r e c o g n i s e i s i n d i s p e n s a b l e t o t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e i r
c o u n t r y , b u t w h i c h t h e y a r e u n a b l e t o f u r n i s h a t h o m e
.
J a p a n i s p r o v i d i n g n o t m e r e l y m i l i t a r y a n d n a v a l b u t i n -
t e l l e c t u a l l e a d e r s h i p f o r t h e h u n d r e d s o f m i l l i o n s o f t h e
v a s t E m p i r e b y w h o s e i n h a b i t a n t s s h e i s n e v e r t h e l e s s d i s -
l i k e d a n d d e s p i s e d
.
Wh e n , a l s o , w e s p e a k o f J a p a n a s m a i n l y a n a g r i c u l -
t u r a l c o u n t r y , t h i s , t h o u g h t r u e i n i t s e l f , g i v e s a n i n a d e -
q u a t e c o n c e p t i o n o f t h e g r e a t s t r e n g t h o f t h e u r b a n p o p u l a -
t i o n , w h i c h i s
i n c r e a s i n g i n J a p a n a s i n o t h e r c i v i l i s e d
c o u n t r i e s . Ap a r t f r o m T o k i o w i t h i t s
2 , 000, 000 i n h a b i -
t a n t s , a n d O s a k a w i t h 1 , 4 00, 000, t h e r e a r e f i v e o t h e r c i t i e s
w h i c h h a v e t o g e t h e r a p o p u l a t i o n o f 2 , 000, 000,
a n d t h e r e
a r e i n a l l s i x t y - s i x t o w n s w i t h a p o p u l a t i o n . o f o v e r 3 0, 000
e a c h .
M o r e o v e r , t h e g r e a t e r p a r t o f t h e l a r g e r c i t i e s a n d
t o w n s a r e m a s s e d t o g e t h e r i n c o m p a r i s o n w i t h t h e t o t a l
a r e a o f t h e J a p a n e s e i s l a n d s
. R a i l w a y s n o w c o n n e c t t h e
m a i n i n d u s t r i a l a n d a g r i c u l t u r a l c e n t r e s , s u p p l e m e n t i n g t h e
a d m i r a b l e w a t e r c o m m u n i c a t i o n s b y s e a a n d c a n a l
.
T h i s c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f i n d u s t r i a l i s m a n d i m p r o v e m e n t
i n t r a n s p o r t c o m b i n e t o m a k e J a p a n a c e n t r e o f m a t e r i a l
1 6 6

T h e Aw a k e n i n g o f As i a
i n f l u e n c e w h i c h c a n s c a r c e l y f a i l t o i n c r e a s e h e r p r e s s u r e
u p o n Ch i n a i n t i m e t o c o m e . A g l a n c e a t t h e m a p s h o w s
h o w t h i s l o n g p r o c e s s i o n o f i s l a n d s f r o m S a g h a l i e n t o
F o r m o s a , l y i n g l i k e a s e r i e s o f w h a r v e s a l o n g t h e c o a s t
o f E a s t e r n As i a , w i t h i t s o u t p o s t s a n d i n l e t s a t K o r e a ,
o n t h e Li a o t u n g Pe n i n s u l a , a t K i a u Ch a u , a n d n o w a t
F u k i e n , g i v e s J a p a n a n e n o r m o u s c o m m e r c i a l a s w e l l a s a
s t r a t e g i c a l a d v a n t a g e i n t h e c o m p e t i t i v e w a r o f t h e n e a r
f u t u r e a s c o m p a r e d w i t h h e r r i v a l s i n E u r o p e o r i n Am e r -
i c a . N e v e r i n h i s t o r y w a s s o r e m a r k a b l y f a v o u r a b l e a
g e o g r a p h i c a l s i t u a t i o n i n t h e h a n d s o f o n e n a t i o n , c o n t r o l l e d
b y m e n c a p a b l e o f t a k i n g f u l l a d v a n t a g e o f i t a n d l o o k i n g
t o t h e f u t u r e o f As i a a s i n s o m e s o r t t h e h e r i t a g e o f t h e
J a p a n e s e r a c e .
Wh e n w e c o n s i d e r t h e q u e s t i o n o f l a b o u r , o f w a g e s ,
o r t h e d o m i n a t i o n o f c a p i t a l , o f p h y s i c a l e n d u r a n c e u n d e r
t h e n e w i n d u s t r i a l c o n d i t i o n s , t h e o u t l o o k
f o r J a p a n i s
n o t s o f a v o u r a b l e f o r p e r m a n e n t s u c c e s s
. U n l e s s , i n t h i s
d e p a r t m e n t a s i n o t h e r s , t h e J a p a n e s e a r e r e a d y t o d e a l w i t h
a n d r e m e d y t h e d e f e c t s o f a r u t h l e s s s y s t e m o f m a t e r i a l a n d
p e r s o n a l e x p l o i t a t i o n , t h e y m a y f i n d t h e g r o u n d b r e a k u n d e r
t h e m l a t e r .
T h e o l d J a p a n i s b e i n g d e s t r o y e d b y c a p i t a l i s m , a n d
i t i s s t i l l d o u b t f u l w h e t h e r J a p a n e s e l a b o u r e r s a n d a r t i s a n s
a r e s o w e l l s u i t e d t o f a c e t h e p r e s s u r e o f t h e i n t e r m e d i a t e
p e r i o d a s t h e m o r e p h y s i c a l l y p o w e r f u l a s w e l l a s m o r e
s t o l i d Ch i n e s e . T h e e x t r e m e l y p a c i f i c , l o n g - s u f f e r i n g a n d
p e r s i s t e n t n a t u r e o f t h e Ch i n e s e t e l l s i n t h e i r f a v o u r . As
c o m p e t i t o r s i n a g r i c u l t u r e o n t h e m a i n l a n d a n d i n h a r d
m a n u a l w o r k o f a l l ` k i n d s i t i s s a i d t h a t t h e J a p a n e s e h a v e
a l r e a d y p r o v e d u n a b l e t o h o l d t h e i r o w n a g a i n s t Ch i n e s e
o r e v e n K o r e a n s . S o l i k e w i s e i n f a c t o r i e s . E m p l o y e r s
c a n g e t m o r e e f f e c t i v e a n d m o r e c o n t i n u o u s w o r k o u t o f
Ch i n e s e t h a n o u t o f J a p a n e s e . S i n c e w o m e n a l m o s t e n -
t i r e l y t a k e t h e p l a c e o f m e n i n J a p a n e s e t e x t i l e i n d u s t r i e s ,
I n d u s t r i a l J a p a n

1 6 7
J a p a n m a y h a v e t h e a d v a n t a g e f o r t h e t i m e b e i n g , b u t i n
t h e l o n g r u n s u c h t o i l a s i s n o w e n f o r c e d u p o n J a p a n e s e
w o m e n m u s t c e r t a i n l y d e t e r i o r a t e t h e i r p r o g e n y , a s i t h a s
i n Gr e a t B r i t a i n a n d t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s .
T h e f a c t o r y s y s -
t e m a s a w h o l e h a s n o t b e e n p u s h e d s o f a r a s i t h a s b e e n
i n E u r o p e , a n d t h e a w f u l h o r r o r s o f La n c a s h i r e a n d Y o r k -
s h i r e i n t h e f i r s t h a l f o f t h e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y h a v e n o t
y e t b e e n r e p r o d u c e d t o t h e i r f u l l e x t e n t i n J a p a n .
B u t w h e n w e r e a d o f "f a c t o r i e s b u zzi n g n i g h t a n d
d a y
; t h o u s a n d s o f y o u n g g i r l s s t i l l c o n t r a c t i n g t o l i v e f o r
t h r e e y e a r s i n a ` c o m p o u n d , ' l i k e s o m a n y p e a s i n a p o d ,
a n d t o w o r k i n t h e m i l l s f o r t w e l v e h o u r s p e r d a y o n e
w e e k a n d t w e l v e h o u r s p e r n i g h t t h e n e x t " ; w h e n w e b e a r
i n m i n d t h a t t h e s e f e m a l e w a g e - s l a v e s c o m i n g m o s t l y f r o m
t h e c o u n t r y d i s t r i c t s , t h e d a u g h t e r s o f s m a l l a g r i c u l t u r i s t s ,
r e c e i v e a s w a g e s f r o m f o u r p e n c e t o s e v e n p e n c e a d a y f o r
t w e l v e h o u r s o f e x h a u s t i n g t o i l ; w h e n w e f u r t h e r c o n -
s i d e r t h a t i n a l l t r a d e s , t h o u g h w a g e s a r e r i s i n g , t h e c o s t
o f m e r e s u b s i s t e n c e i s i n c r e a s i n g s t i l l m o r e - w h e n w e s u m
a l l t h i s u p , w e c a n s e e t h a t J a p a n , b y p l u n g i n g h e a d l o n g
i n t o u n r e s t r a i n e d c o m p e t i t i v e c a p i t a l i s m , i s r u n n i n g s o c i a l
r i s k s a g a i n s t w h i c h t h e s a d e x p e r i e n c e o f o u r o w n a n d
o t h e r c o u n t r i e s m i g h t w e l l h a v e w a r n e d h e r
. N o t h i n g m o r e
h o r r i f i e s f o r e i g n e r s w h o v i s i t J a p a n o r t o u c h a t J a p a n e s e
p o r t s t h a n t o s e e w o m e n w i t h c h i l d r e n s t r a p p e d o n t h e i r
b a c k s , c o a l i n g t h e g r e a t s t e a m e r s a s t h e y c o m e i n
. T h i s
i s f a i r l y t y p i c a l o f w h a t w a s g o i n g o n u n t i l t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n
o f n o n e t o o s t r i n g e n t J a p a n e s e F a c t o r y Ac t s i n 1 91 1 .
I n f a c t , t h e d i d p e r s o n a l a n d k i n d l y r e l a t i o n s b e t w e e n
m a s t e r s a n d w o r k e r s , w h i c h f o r m e d a p o r t i o n o f t h e a n -
c i e n t d a y s o f J a p a n , a n d l a s t e d u p t o t h e g r e a t c h a n g e , a r e
d i s a p p e a r i n g . I t i s a s i f t h e B r i t i s h M i d d l e Ag e f e u d a l i s m
a n d g u i l d s y s t e m , w i t h a l l i t s r e s t r i c t i o n s a n d c a s t e s a n d
r e g u l a t i o n s a n d g r a d e s , h a d b e e n p l u n g e d a t a s t r o k e i n t o
t h e p u r e l y c o m p e t i t i v e , l a i s s e z- f a i r e ,
p e c u n i a r y c a p i t a l i s m
1 6 8

T h e Aw a k e n i n g o f As i a
o f t h e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y . E v e n i n E n g l a n d , w e h a v e n o t
y e t u n d e r s t o o d t h a t c h i l d r e n a r e t h e m o s t i m p o r t a n t p o r -
t i o n o f a n y c o m m u n i t y ; t h o u g h t h i s t r u t h i s w e l l k n o w n
t o , a n d a c t e d u p o n b y , m a n y s a v a g e t r i b e s . I n J a p a n c h i l -
d r e n ' s v i t a l i t y i s s a p p e d , t h e i r i n t e l l i g e n c e s t u n t e d , a n d
t h e i r m o r a l i t y i m p e r i l l e d b y e n d l e s s f a c t o r y w o r k . T h e
l e s s o n s o f E u r o p e h a v e n o t b e e n l e a r n e d . T h e r e i s r e a s o n ,
h o w e v e r , t o h o p e t h a t m u c h m o r e v i g o r o u s s t e p s w i l l b e
t a k e n a s t h e s a n e a n d s e n s i b l e p a r t o f t h e n a t i o n w a k e s
u p t o t h e t r u t h , a n d t h e w o r k e r s g a i n i n f l u e n c e a s a c l a s s .
I n t h e m e a n t i m e , J a p a n m a y b e s a i d t o f o r m t h e c l a s s i c -
a l e x a m p l e o f f u l f i l m e n t o f t h e p r e d i c t i o n t h a t w h e r e v e r
c a p i t a l i s m , w i t h i t s ` a t t e n d a n t c o m p e t i t i o n , g r e a t f a c t o r y i n -
d u s t r y , p r o d u c t i o n f o r p r o f i t a n d w a g e - s l a v e r y g a i n s
g r o u n d , t h e r e S o c i a l i s m w i l l a s s u r e d l y f o l l o w
.
T h e r e a r e
c o u n t r i e s s u c h a s F i n l a n d , F r a n c e a n d I t a l y , w h e r e a l t h o u g h
t h e g r e a t i n d u s t r i e s h a v e n o t b y a n y m e a n s r e a c h e d t h e i r
f u l l d e v e l o p m e n t , y e t S o c i a l i s m , o w i n g t o v a r i o u s c a u s e s ,
h a s m a d e r a p i d p r o g r e s s . I n J a p a n t h e r i s e o f c a p i t a l i s m
h a s b e e n a c c o m p a n i e d a t o n c e b y a d e v e l o p m e n t o f S o -
c i a l i s m . O f c o u r s e , t h e r e f o r e , w e f i n d t h e J a p a n e s e c a p i -
t a l i s t s , w i t h t h e i r a t t e n d a n t p r o f e s s o r s , h a r d a t w o r k t o
p r o v e t h a t t h e r e i s n o t , a n d o u g h t n o t t o b e , a n y a n t a g o -
n i s m b e t w e e n c a p i t a l a n d l a b o u r
. F o r t h e m t h e r e i s n o
c l a s s w a r
.
T h e l a b o u r e r s , t h e y s a y , w h o s e l l t h e i r p o w e r
t o l a b o u r a s a c l a s s t o t h e c a p i t a l i s t s a s a c l a s s , a r e d i r e c t l y
i n t e r e s t e d i n s e e i n g t h e i r e m p l o y e r s g e t r i c h
. T h e s e e m -
p l o y e r s , i t i s t r u e , b e c o m e w e a l t h y b y t a k i n g a l l t h e w e a l t h
t h e l a b o u r e r s c r e a t e o v e r a n d a b o v e t h e b a r e s u b s i s t e n c e
w a g e s p a i d . B u t t h e m o r e s u r p l u s v a l u e t h e y o b t a i n b y
t h i s p r o c e s s t h e m o r e l a b o u r e r s t h e y a r e a b l e t o ' e m p l o y
.
Co n s e q u e n t l y , l a b o u r e r s s h o u l d d o t h e i r u t m o s t t o i n c r e a s e
t h e p r o d u c t i v e n e s s o f l a b o u r i n o r d e r t h a t a d d i t i o n a l r e -
a l i s e d c a p i t a l s h o u l d b e a t t h e d i s p o s a l o f t h e g r e a t o r g a n -
i s e r s o f i n d u s t r y . S u c h h a r m o n y i s i n p r o f i t e e r i n g s o u l s !
I n d u s t r i a l J a p a n

1 6 9
T h e w o r k e r s o f J a p a n s e e m t o h a v e u n c o n s c i o u s l y r e -
v o l t e d a g a i n s t t h i s n e w r e l i g i o n o f t h e s l a v e - d r i v e r s m o d -
e r n i s e d , b e f o r e S o c i a l i s m g a i n e d a n y h o l d
.
Hu g e m a s s e s
o f m e n , s c a r c e l y e v e n o r g a n i s e d i n t h e i r t r a d e s , r e c o g n i s e d
i n d i s t i n c t l y t h a t t h e i r i n t e r e s t s w e r e o n e a s a g a i n s t t h e i r
m a s t e r s
. S o f o r m i d a b l e d i d t h e e x p r e s s i o n o f t h i s g e n e r a l
o p i n i o n , i n t h e f o r m o f p u b l i c m e e t i n g s a n d d e m o n s t r a -
t i o n s , t h r e a t e n t o
b e , t h a t a t t h e v e r y c o m m e n c e m e n t t h e y
w e r e s u p p r e s s e d b y t h e p o l i c e
. T h e o l d s t o r y i n r e g a r d t o
a n y a t t e m p t b y t h e p e o p l e t o e m a n c i p a t e t h e m s e l v e s a n d
u s e m a c h i n e r y f o r t h e c o m m o n g o o d
. S o c i a l i s m g a v e a
s c i e n t i f i c , h i s t o r i c b a s i s t o t h e w o r k i n g - c l a s s u n r e s t .
B u t t h i s a d v a n c e d i d n o t c o m e a t o n c e
. T h e e f f o r t s o f
T o k i c h i T a r i u a n d S h i m o s u I n a g a k i i n t h e e a r l y ' e i g h t i e s
f a i l e d t o o b t a i n a n y s u p p o r t , a l t h o u g h t r a d e u n i o n i s m h a d
a l r e a d y m a d e c o n s i d e r a b l e p r o g r e s s , n o t a b l y a m o n g t h e
r a i l w a y s e r v a n t s .
Wh a t e v e r w o r k m a y h a v e b e e n d o n e
p r i v a t e l y , n o d e f i n i t e a s s o c i a t i o n w a s f o r m e d u n t i l 1 8 8 9
f o r t h e e x p r e s s p u r p o s e o f i n v e s t i g a t i n g S o c i a l - D e m o c r a t i c
t e a c h i n g .
T h i s w a s c a l l e d t h e S o c i e t y f o r t h e S t u d y o f
S o c i a l i s m . T h e n a m e s o f t h e p r i n c i p a l f o u n d e r s w e r e t h e
t w o S o c i a l i s t s g i v e n a b o v e , w i t h I s o h Ab e , S e n K a t a y a m a ,
S a k u m a a n d M i y a k e
. "At t h e i r r e g u l a r m e e t i n g s t h e y g a v e
i n t u r n l e c t u r e s o n s u c h e m i n e n t S o c i a l i s t s a s S t
. S i m o n ,
F o u r i e r , Pr o u d h o n , M a r x , e t c
. , a n d o n t h e p r i n c i p l e s l a i d
d o w n b y t h e m .
T h i s As s o c i a t i o n l a s t e d f o r t w o y e a r s ,
a n d d u r i n g t h a t t i m e s o m e o f t h e m e m b e r s a d v o c a t e d S o -
c i a l i s m a n d o t h e r s w e r e o p p o s e d t o i t . B u t a t t h e e n d o f
1 900
t h e As s o c i a t i o n d e c i d e d t o t a k e u p a c t i v e w o r k , a n d
c o n s e q u e n t l y i t w a s d e e m e d e s s e n t i a l t h a t i t s h o u l d c o n s i s t
o f
. S o c i a l i s t m e m b e r s o n l y : t h e n o n - S o c i a l i s t m e m b e r s
t h e r e u p o n w i t h d r e w , a n d t h e t i t l e w a s c h a n g e d t o T h e S o -
c i a l i s t i c S o c i e t y . "
E a r l y i n 1 901
t h e J a p a n e s e S o c i a l - D e m o c r a t i c Pa r t y
1 7 0

T h e Aw a k e n i n g o f As i a
w a s f o r m e d . I t w a /i m m e d i a t e l y d i s s o l v e d b y t h e Go v -
e r n m e n t . He r e i s t h e p r o g r a m m e i s s u e d b y t h e l e a d e r s
i . T o e x t e n d t h e p r i n c i p l e o f U n i v e r s a l B r o t h e r h o o d .
2 . T o e n f o r c e d i s a r m a m e n t f o r t h e s a k e o f U n i v e r s a l
Pe a c e .
3 . T o a b o l i s h t h e e x i s t i n g s y s t e m o f c l a s s d i s t i n c t i o n s .
4 . T o e s t a b l i s h p u b l i c o w n e r s h i p i n l a n d a n d c a p i t a l .
5 . T o e s t a b l i s h p u b l i c o w n e r s h i p i n m e a n s o f c o m m u n i -
c a t i o n , s u c h a s r a i l w a y s a n d s h i p s .
6 . T o e q u a l i s e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f w e a l t h .
7
. T o e q u a l i s e t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f p o l i t i c a l r i g h t s .
8 . T o m a k e t h e S t a t e b e a r t h e e x p e n s e o f f r e e e d u c a t i o n
f o r t h e p e o p l e .
T h i s i s m a n i f e s t l y a s c o m p l e t e a r e v o l u t i o n a r y s e r i e s
o f p r o p o s a l s a s h a s e v e r b e e n ' s e t f o r t h i n a n y c i v i l i s e d
c o u n t r y . I n s o m e r e s p e c t s i t i s s i m p l e r a n d m o r e i n t e l l i -
g i b l e t h a n m o s t o f t h e p r o g r a m m e s o f t h e s a m e k i n d t h a t
I h a v e s e e n i n o t h e r l a n g u a g e s . N o w o n d e r t h a t t h e J a p -
a n e s e Go v e r n m e n t , a t t h a t t i m e w h o l l y d e v o t e d t o c a p i t a l -
i s m a n d i t s c o n c o m i t a n t e c o n o m i c a n d s o c i a l o p p r e s s i o n o f
t h e m a s s o f t h e p e o p l e , r e f u s e d t o a l l o w f a i r p l a y t o t h e
S o c i a l D e m o c r a t s
. E v e n t h e i r i m m e d i a t e p r a c t i c a l p r o -
p o s a l s l e a d i n g u p t o t h e r e a l i s a t i o n o f t h e s e g r e a t i d e a l s
w e r e r e g a r d e d a s h a r m f u l t o t h e Go v e r n m e n t . K a t a y a m a
a n d o t h e r s w e r e o r d e r e d b y t h e p o l i c e t o d i s s o l v e t h e p a r t y ,
a n d a l l a t t e m p t t o r e v i v e i t u n d e r a n o t h e r n a m e w a s a t
o n c e s u p p r e s s e d .
T h u s d e p r i v e d o f a n y o p p o r t u n i t y f o r o p e n p r o p a g a n d a ,
t h e S o c i a l D e m o c r a t s w e r e c o m p e l l e d t o d e v o t e t h e m s e l v e s
t o e c o n o m i c e d u c a t i o n o n l y . B e f o r e a n d d u r i n g t h e R u s -
s i a n Wa r t h e J a p a n e s e S o c i a l D e m o c r a t s j o i n e d w i t h t h o s e
w h o m w e m a y c a l l S o c i a l i s t i c R a d i c a l s i n a n a g i t a t i o n
I n d u s t r i a l J a p a n

I CI
a g a i n s t t h e w h o l e p o l i c y
o f t h e Go v e r n m e n t . T h i s l e d t o
f u r t h e r p e r s e c u t i o n .
N e v e r t h e l e s s , t h e y m a d e p r o g r e s s , a n d b y d e g r e e s t h e
p r e t e n c e o f f e a r o f a d a n g e r o u s s e c r e t s o c i e t y b r o u g h t w i t h
i t t h e f o r m o f r e p r e s s i o n t o w h i c h S o c i a l i s t s o f a l l c o u n t r i e s
a r e a c c u s t o m e d .
I m p r i s o n m e n t , s u p p r e s s i o n o f n e w s p a p e r s
a n d t h e n o f f i c i a l p r o s e c u t i o n s , c o n d e m n a t i o n s a n d h a n g i n g s
s o o n f o l l o w e d
. J a p a n e s e s t a t e s m e n , i n f a c t , s h o w e d t h e m -
s e l v e s a s r u t h l e s s a g a i n s t a c t i v e r e f o r m e r s a n d r e v o l u t i o n -
a r i e s a t h o m e a s t h e y h a d b e e n b y t h e i r o w n a d m i s s i o n
a g a i n s t t h e u n f o r t u n a t e M a n c h u r i a n s , Ch i n e s e a n d K o r e a n s
a b r o a d
. Co n s e q u e n t l y m a n y J a p a n e s e S o c i a l D e m o c r a t s
w e r e c o m p e l l e d t o f l e e t h e c o u n t r y a n d t a k e r e f u g e i n E u -
r o p e a n d Am e r i c a .
T h u s w a s s e e n t h e s t r a n g e c o n t r a s t
t h a t w h i l e J a p a n w a s g r a n t i n g a s y l u m t o Ch i n e s e r e v o l u -
t i o n a r y l e a d e r s s u c h a s S u n Y a t S e n , Hu a n g - Hs u a n d t h e i r
f r i e n d s , J a p a n e s e S o c i a l D e m o c r a t s w e r e i m p r i s o n e d a n d
e x e c u t e d a n d o t h e r s w e r e c o m p e l l e d t o f l y f o r t h e i r l i v e s
.
N e v e r t h e l e s s , S o c i a l i s m i n J a p a n i s m a k i n g w a y s t e a d i l y
.
T h e r e i s a l r e a d y a l a r g e l i t e r a t u r e o n t h e s u b j e c t
.
T h e c o n t r o v e r s i e s w h i c h h a v e b e e n c a r r i e d o n s o v i g o r -
o u s l y i n E u r o p e a n d Am e r i c a h a v e b e e n r e n e w e d i n J a p a n
.
T h e r e a r e a l r e a d y t w o w e l l - d e f i n e d s e c t i o n s :
t h e S t a t e S o -
c i a l i s t s , w h o a n s w e r t o t h e F a b i a n S o c i e t y , w i t h i t s b u -
r e a u c r a t i c i d e a l s , a n d t h e r e v o l u t i o n a r y S o c i a l i s t s o r S o c i a l
D e m o c r a t s , p r o c e e d i n g o n t h e s a m e l i n e s a s t h e F r e n c h a n d
E n g l i s h p a r t i e s b e a r i n g t h e s a m e n a m e
. B y c o m m o n c o n -
s e n t p e r s e c u t i o n h a s f a i l e d t o p r e v e n t t h e p r o p a g a n d a o f
i d e a s .
T h e m a r t y r s o f S o c i a l D e m o c r a c y h a v e n o t s a c r i -
f i c e d t h e i r l i v e s o r t h e i r l i b e r t i e s i n v a i n
. Pr o f e s s o r Ab e ,
h i m s e l f a S o c i a l i s t , w r i t i n g o f S o c i a l i s m i n Co u n t O k u m a ' s
e x h a u s t i v e w o r k o n J a p a n , w i n d s u p h i s s u r v e y i n t h e s e
w o r d s : "S o c i a l i s t i c i d e a s h a v e
b e e n w i d e l y d i f f u s e d
t h r o u g h o u t t h e E m p i r e i n t h e p a s t f e w y e a r s , a n d a n i n -
c r e a s i n g n u m b e r o f s c h o l a r s a n d s t a t e s m e n n o w d e v o t e
1 7 2

T h e Aw a k e n i n g o f As i a
t h e m s e l v e s t o i t s s t u d y , w h i l e a g r e a t m a n y s t u d e n t s t a k e
a n i n t e r e s t i n t h e s u b j e c t . I t w o u l d b e a g r e a t m i s t a k e t o
j u d g e o f t h e i n f l u e n c e o f S o c i a l i s m f r o m t h e y e t s m a l l
n u m b e r o f p r o f e s s e d S o c i a l i s t s o n l y . T h e S o c i a l i s t i c s p i r i t
i s a f l o a t e v e r y w h e r e . " T h i s p a s s a g e a p p e a r s i n w h a t i s
v i r t u a l l y a n o f f i c i a l p u b l i c a t i o n , e d i t e d b y t h e a b l e s t a t e s -
m a n w h o t i l l r e c e n t l y w a s Pr i m e M i n i s t e r . I t s p r e s e n c e
t h e r e g o e s f a r t o p r o v e t h a t t h e J a p a n e s e , n o t w i t h s t a n d i n g
t h e a b o m i n a b l e p e r s e c u t i o n r e f e r r e d t o , a n d t h e s u p r e m a c y
f o r t h e t i m e b e i n g o f a g g r e s s i v e m i l i t a r i s m , h a v e s o m e r e a -
s o n f o r c l a i m i n g t o b e a w i d e - m i n d e d p e o p l e .
Pr o g r e s s i s g o i n g o n b e l o w a l l t h e t i m e . T h o u g h p u b -
l i c o p i n i o n i s n o t s o f a r d e v e l o p e d i n J a p a n a s h e r c h a m -
p i o n s , n a t i v e a n d f o r e i g n , c o n t e n d i t i s , w e c a n n o t d o u b t
t h a t t h e n a t i o n a l i n t e l l i g e n c e w h i c h h a s s o r a p i d l y d e v e l o p e d
S o c i a l i s t s o f g r e a t c a p a c i t y a n d h i g h s c i e n t i f i c i d e a l i s m , w i l l
e r e l o n g m a n i f e s t i t s e l f i n a n e n d e a v o u r t o p r e p a r e f o r t h e
c o m i n g f o r m s o f s o c i a l l i f e , w h i c h m u s t s o o n e r o r l a t e r
d i s p l a c e t h e m u s h r o o m g r o w t h o f c a p i t a l i s m . T h e a n t a g o -
n i s m b e t w e e n t h i s c a p i t a l i s m a n d t h e w a g e d o m b e l o w i s
i n c r e a s i n g . T h e o p p o s i t i o n o f s o c i a l i s e d i n d u s t r i a l i s m t o
a g g r e s s i v e i m p e r i a l i s m m u s t l i k e w i s e g a i n s t r e n g t h . T h o s e
s a m e p r o b l e m s w h i c h E u r o p e a n d Am e r i c a h a v e t o f a c e a n d
s o l v e , o r e l s e g o u n d e r i n t h e s t r u g g l e o f c l a s s e s , m u s t l i k e -
w i s e b e h a n d l e d i n J a p a n
. Ca p i t a l i s t s w i l l t h e n b e c a l l e d
u p o n t o m a k e s a c r i f i c e s t o e n l i g h t e n e d p a t r i o t i s m l i k e t h o s e
m a d e b y t h e m a j o r i t y o f t h e D a i m y o s a n d S a m u r a i f i f t y
y e a r s a g o . I t m a y b e t h a t t h e y , a n d w i t h t h e m t h e n a t i o n
a t l a r g e , w i l l r i s e t o t h i s h i g h c o n c e p t i o n o f n a t i o n a l p r o g -
r e s s , n a t i o n a l w e l l - b e i n g a n d n a t i o n a l d i g n i t y .
Al r e a d y t h e r e a r e e v i d e n c e s o f r a p i d l y a p p r o a c h i n g
c h a n g e s i n t h i s d i r e c t i o n . T h e p r e s e n t Go v e r n m e n t o f
J a p a n i s t h e f i r s t d e f i n i t e l y p a r t y a d m i n i s t r a t i o n
w h i c h
h a s e v e r h e l d c o n t r o l o f t h e c o u n t r y a n d i t s E m p i r e .
T h e
Ca b i n e t i t s e l f i s c o m p o s e d o f m e n w h o s e s o c i a l s t a n d i n g
I n d u s t r i a l J a p a n
1 7 3
i n t h e i r y o u t h a n d e a r l y m a n h o o d w o u l d h a v e b e e n e n o u g h
t o e x c l u d e t h e m f r o m o f f i c e a v e r y f e w y e a r s , n o t t o s a y
m o n t h s , a g o . T w o o f
- t h e m e m b e r s h a v e a c t u a l l y r i s e n
t o t h e i r p r e s e n t p o s i t i o n f r o m t h e r a n k s o f w h a t m a y b e
f a i r l y d e s c r i b e d a s t h e p r o l e t a r i a t , h a v i n g b e g u n t h e i r c a r e e r
i n t h e l o w e s t c l a s s o f p r o d u c e r s a n d d i s t r i b u t o r s . M o r e -
o v e r , t h e g r e a t r i c e r i o t s a y e a r o r s o a g o , w h i c h t o o k t h e
J a p a n e s e Go v e r n m e n t m o r e t h a n a f o r t n i g h t t o s u p p r e s s ,
w e r e n o t o n l y v i o l e n t e x p r e s s i o n s o f p o p u l a r e x a s p e r a t i o n
a t s h o r t a g e o f n e c e s s a r y f o o d a c c o m p a n i e d b y v e r y h i g h
p r i c e s , b u t w e r e e v i d e n c e s o f a g r o w i n g d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f
t h e m a s s o f t h e J a p a n e s e w o r k e r s t o s e c u r e m o r e d i r e c t
i n f l u e n c e u p o n t h e m a n a g e m e n t o f n a t i o n a l a f f a i r s a n d t h e
s o c i a l o r d e r .
He n c e w e c a n d i s c e r n t h a t d e m o c r a t i c p r o g r e s s h a s b e -
g u n a n d t h a t J a p a n , l i k e t h e We s t e r n n a t i o n s , h a s t o f a c e ,
i n t h e n e a r f u t u r e , i m p o r t a n t c h a n g e s , a c c e l e r a t e d i n t h e i r
d e v e l o p m e n t b y c i r c u m s t a n c e s a r i s i n g o u t o f t h e Gr e a t Wa r .
S u c h i n e v i t a b l e a n t a g o n i s m s c a n n o t b e s u i t a b l y d e a l t w i t h
a n d p u t a n e n d t o b y m e r e f o r c e . T h i s J a p a n e s e s t a t e s m e n
o f t h e n e w s c h o o l a t h o m e , a n d t h e i r a b l e d i p l o m a t i s t s
a b r o a d , c l e a r l y s e e . T h e y a r e n o w c a r e f u l l y s t u d y i n g h o w
t o a v e r t f r o m t h e i r o w n c o u n t r y s u c h a n a r c h i c a l o u t b u r s t s
a s h a v e d e v a s t a t e d R u s s i a a n d a r e t h r e a t e n i n g Ge r m a n y .
T h i s i s n o e a s y t a s k , a n d t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f s u c c e s s d e p e n d s
u p o n p r o m p t a n d c a p a b l e e c o n o m i c a n d s o c i a l a c t i o n . T h e
J a p a n e s e t h e m s e l v e s a r e h o p e f u l o f a p e a c e f u l s o l u t i o n .
Ha v i n g l e a r n t m u c h f r o m E u r o p e , t h e l e a d i n g p o w e r o f
As i a m a y , b y h e r p e a c e f u l i n t e r n a l r e o r g a n i s a t i o n , t e a c h
E u r o p e i n t u r n .
B u t t h i s c a n s c a r c e l y b e h a r m o n i s e d w i t h
i m p e r i a l i s t a m b i t i o n s a n d m i l i t a r i s t l u s t o f c o n q u e s t . I n
s h o r t , J a p a n , a s a w o r l d - p o w e r a n d a s t h e c h a m p i o n o f
As i a f o r t h e As i a t i c s , h a s a g l o r i o u s f u t u r e b e f o r e h e r , i f
s h e r e f u s e s t o s a c r i f i c e t h e g r e a t n e s s o f h e r p e o p l e a t h o m e
t o t h e i l l u s o r y g l o r y o f d o m i n a t i o n a b r o a d .
CHAPT E R XI I I
AS I AT I C
E M I GR AT I O N
I T w a s b y e m i g r a t i o n a n d c o l o n i s a t i o n t h a t t h e Ch i n e s e
b r o u g h t t h e m s e l v e s d i r e c t l y i n t o c o n t a c t w i t h E u r o p e a n
c i v i l i s a t i o n i n t h e l a t t e r h a l f o f t h e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y .
T h e e m i g r a n t s s h o w e d r e m a r k a b l e c a p a c i t y f o r a d a p t i n g
t h e m s e l v e s t o c i r c u m s t a n c e s a n d f o r c o m p e t i n g w i t h w h i t e
m e n i n a l m o s t e v e r y d e p a r t m e n t o f i n d u s t r y
. Gr e a t a l a r m
w a s f e l t a t t h e i r c o m i n g , e v e n i n c o m p a r a t i v e l y s m a l l n u m -
b e r s , t o Ca l i f o r n i a a n d t h e Au s t r a l i a n Co l o n i e s . T h i s w a s
a v e r y d i f f e r e n t m a t t e r f r o m t h e i n f a m o u s k i d n a p p i n g o f
Ch i n e s e c o o l i e s w h i c h h a d l o n g g o n e o n a t t h e Po r t u g u e s e
p o r t o f M a c a o , - w h e n c e t h o u s a n d s o f u n f o r t u n a t e Ch i n e s e
w e r e s h i p p e d o f f t o s l a v e r y a n d d e a t h i n t h e g u a n o m i n e s
o f t h e Ci n c h a I s l a n d s - o r f r o m t h e m o r e o r d e r e d i n d e n -
t u r e d l a b o u r i m p o r t e d i n t o T a h i t i a n d t h e S a n d w i c h I s -
l a n d s . T h o u g h m a n y o f t h e Ch i n a m e n w e r e b r o u g h t t o
t h e Pa c i f i c s l o p e a n d Au s t r a l i a b y t h e g r e a t Ch i n e s e E m i -
g r a t i o n Co m p a n i e s u n d e r c o n t r a c t , a m u c h l a r g e r p r o p o r -
t i o n l a n d e d a s p r a c t i c a l l y f r e e m e n , a n d s e t t o w o r k o n
t h e g o l d d i g g i n g s , i n l a u n d r y w o r k , a s d o m e s t i c s e r v a n t s
a n d h e l p s , a s r a i l w a y n a v v i e s , a s s k i l l e d a r t i f i c e r s a n d a s
g a r d e n e r s .
T h e y w e r e , a s a r u l e , s u c c e s s f u l . T h e i r i n t e l l i g e n c e ,
p e r s i s t e n c e , g o o d - h u m o u r a n d t h r i f t r e n d e r e d t h e m
f o r -
m i d a b l e r i v a l s t o t h e w h i t e s ; w h i l e t h e i r c o m p a r a t i v e l y
c h e a p s t a n d a r d o f l i f e , a n d t h e l o n g h o u r s w h i c h t h e y
w e r e r e a d y t o w o r k , e n a b l e d t h e m t o u n d e r s e l l E u r o p e a n
l a b o u r t o a n e x t e n t w h i c h , h o w e v e r a d v a n t a g e o u s i t m i g h t
1 7 4
As i a t i c E m i g r a t i o n I 7 5
b e t o t h e c a p i t a l i s t s w h o e m p l o y e d t h e m , w a s b y n o m e a n s
s a t i s f a c t o r y t o t h e w h i t e a r t i s a n s a n d l a b o u r e r s w h o m
t h e y d e p r i v e d o f t h e i r j o b s .
As a t t h i s t i m e E n g l i s h ,
Am e r i c a n s a n d o t h e r f o r e i g n e r s w e r e d e m a n d i n g f r e e e n -
t r a n c e i n t o , Ch i n a a n d t h e e n j o y m e n t o f e x c e p t i o n a l r i g h t s
w h e n l a n d e d , t h e o b j e c t i o n s t o Ch i n e s e i m m i g r a t i o n i n t o
v e r y t h i n l y p o p u l a t e d t e r r i t o r i e s s e e m e d q u i t e c o n t r a r y t o
f a i r d e a l i n g . B u t t h a t m a d e n o d i f f e r e n c e . A v e h e m e n t
a g i t a t i o n w a s s e t o n f o o t a g a i n s t t h e As i a t i c s ' a l i k e i n Au s -
t r a l i a a n d i n Am e r i c a
.
T h e a r g u m e n t s g e n e r a l l y u s e d i n f a v o u r o f t h e i r e x c l u -
s i o n a v o i d e d a t f i r s t , a t a n y r a t e i n Au s t r a l i a , t h e q u e s t i o n
o f t h e i r e c o n o m i c c o m p e t i t i o n w i t h t h e w h i t e l a b o u r e r s
.
T h e o p p o s i t i o n w a s b a s e d o n e t h i c a l a n d s a n i t a r y g r o u n d s .
O b j e c t o r s p u t t h e c a s e t h u s
: "Ch i n a m e n d i d n o t b r i n g
t h e i r w i v e s w i t h t h e m .
T h e y w e r e a v i c i o u s , d e g r a d e d s e t
w h o c o r r u p t e d t h e w h i t e c o m m u n i t y . T h e y f o r m e d a
t o w n o f t h e i r o w n i n t h e m i d s t o f t h e w h i t e c i t i e s a n d
c a r r i e d o u t t h e i r o w n l a w s a n d m a i n t a i n e d t h e i r o w n c u s -
t o m s , r e g a r d l e s s o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n a r o u n d t h e m
. I n o r d e r
t o k e e p a p r o p e r c o n t r o l o v e r t h e m a n d p r e v e n t t h e m f r o m
c o m m i t t i n g As i a t i c c r i m e s a s p e c i a l p o l i c e w a s n e e d e d ,
w h i c h e n t a i l e d a d d i t i o n a l e x p e n s e u p o n t h e r e s t o f
t h e
c o m m u n i t y . T h e y w e r e g r e a t g a m b l e r s , w h o w o u l d s t a k e
t h e i r o w n l i v e s a n d f r e e d o m a n d l o s e t h e m t o t h e i r c o m -
p a t r i o t s r a t h e r t h a n n o t p l a y a t a l l , t h u s e n g e n d e r i n g a s o r t
o f c h a t t e l s l a v e r y
. T h e y w e r e a d d i c t e d t o o p i u m - s m o k i n g
a n d s p r e a d t h i s d e t e s t a b l e a n d m o s t h a r m f u l v i c e a m o n g
t h e w h i t e s .
Ha v i n g n o w o m e n o f t h e i r o w n , t h e y s e t t o
w o r k , d e l i b e r a t e l y a n d i m p r o p e r l y , t o p e r v e r t a n d c a j o l e
w h i t e g i r l s a n d w o m e n t o a c t a s t h e i r m i s t r e s s e s , o r e v e n
t o b e c o m e t h e i r w i v e s . T h e y l i v e d w r e t c h e d , u n w h o l e s o m e
l i v e s p a c k e d c l o s e i n i l l - v e n t i l a t e d d e n s w h i c h b e c a m e a
s o u r c e o f d a n g e r a n d a b r e e d i n g g r o u n d f o r l o a t h s o m e d i s -
e a s e s f o r t h e Co l o n y i n w h i c h t h e y s e t t l e d .
Al l t h e m o n e y
. 1 7 6

T h e Aw a k e n i n g o f As i a
t h e y e a r n e d b y t h e i r i n d u s t r y , a n d s a v e d b y t h e i r e x c e s s i v e
t h r i f t , w a s n o t u s e d f o r t h e b e n e f i t o f t h e p e o p l e a m o n g
w h o m t h e y d w e l t , b u t w a s s e n t o f f t o Ch i n a t o t h e i r r e l a -
t i v e s i n t h a t c o u n t r y , o r t o l i e i n Ch i n e s e b a n k s , u n t i l t h e i r
o w n r e t u r n . T h e g o o d s i m p o r t e d f o r t h e i r u s e , /a n d n e a r l y
t h e w h o l e o f t h e t r a d e w h i c h t h e i r p r e s e n c e e n g e n d e r e d ,
p a s s e d s o l e l y t h r o u g h t h e h a n d s o f Ch i n e s e m e r c h a n t s ,
a n d , e x c e p t f o r t h e p a y m e n t o f f r e i g h t , d i d n o t a d v a n t a g e
t h e w h i t e d e a l e r s i n a n y w a y
. T h u s , d u r i n g t h e w h o l e o f
t h e i r e x i s t e n c e o u t s i d e t h e F l o w e r y La n d , Ch i n e s e i m m i -
g r a n t s o f e v e r y g r a d e w e r e i n n o s e n s e Co l o n i s t s , n o r d i d
t h e y b e c o m e g e n u i n e c i t i ze n s .
E v e n w h e n t h e y d i e d i n
t h e c o u n t r y t h e y w e n t t o , t h e y t o o k g o o d c a r e t h a t t h e i r
b o d i e s s h o u l d n o t f e r t i l i s e t h e s o i l t h e y h a d l i v e d u p o n a n d
c u l t i v a t e d
: t h e i r c o r p s e s w e r e c o n v e y e d b a c k t o Ch i n a i n
o r d e r t h a t t h e i r d u s t m i g h t m i n g l e , w i t h t h e e a r t h s a n c t i f i e d
b y t h e a s h e s o f t h e i r a n c e s t o r s o f l o n g a g o . "
I t w a s a f o r m i d a b l e i n d i c t m e n t , s o m e c o u n t s o f w h i c h
w e r e f o u n d e d o n l e g i t i m a t e g r i e v a n c e s . B u t , t a k e n a s a
w h o l e , t h e Ch i n e s e w e r e q u i e t , h a r d - w o r k i n g p e o p l e w h o
w e r e e x c e e d i n g l y u s e f u l i n d e v e l o p i n g s p a r s e l y - p e o p l e d t e r -
r i t o r i e s , w h o a l s o p e r f o r m e d d u t i e s , e s p e c i a l l y i n t h e d i r e c -
t i o n o f s m a l l f a r m i n g a n d t h e c u l t i v a t i o n o f v e g e t a b l e s ,
w h i c h w e r e e n t i r e l y n e g l e c t e d b y t h e w h i t e s e t t l e r s . T h e
r e a l o b j e c t i o n t o t h e i r p r e s e n c e w a s t h a t a l r e a d y s t a t e d .
T h e w h i t e w o r k e r s f o u n d t h a t t h e s e i n t e l l i g e n t As i a t i c s ,
w h o s e e m e d t o l i v e o n l y t o t o i l a n d a c c u m u l a t e s a v i n g s ,
c o u l d u n d e r s e l l t h e m i n t h e l a b o u r m a r k e t a n d ` m i g h t b r i n g
d o w n t h e r a t e o f w a g e s b e l o w a n y r e a s o n a b l e s t a n d a r d o f
E u r o p e a n s u b s i s t e n c e . T h e s e v i g o r o u s Ce l e s t i a l s w i t h t h e i r
b r o a d h a t s , s t r a n g e a t t i r e a n d c u r i o u s h a b i t s o f w o r k i n g
a n d w a l k i n g , t h r e a t e n e d , i n s h o r t , t h e w e l l - b e i n g o f t h e i r
w h i t e c o m p e t i t o r s , o r s o t h e y t h o u g h t . He n c e , a s c a r g o
a f t e r c a r g o o f t h e m l a n d e d i n S a n F r a n c i s c o , o r M e l b o u r n e ,
a n d w e r e h o u s e d i n m i s e r a b l e t e n e m e n t s , w h e r e t h e y s l e p t
As i a t i c E m i g r a t i o n

1 7 7
p a c k e d h e a d a n d t a i l l i k e s a r d i n e s i n a t i n , b r e a t h i n g
a n
a t m o s p h e r e s o t h i c k a n d f e t i d t h a t m a n y
a c u r i o u s v i s i t o r
w h o p e e p e d i n u p o n t h e m a t n i g h t s o o n s u f f e r e d p h y s i c a l
u p s e t f o r h i s p a i n s - a s c a r g o a f t e r c a r g o o f t h e s e r o b u s t
Ch i n e s e c a m e o v e r , t h e n u m b e r s o f t h e n e w a r r i v a l s w e r e
g r o s s l y e x a g g e r a t e d a n d a v e r y b i t t e r f e e l i n g w a s a r o u s e d
a m o n g t h e p o p u l a c e .
V i s i o n s o f m i l l i o n s o f t h e s e o b j e c t i o n a b l e b u t n e v e r -
t h e l e s s e d u c a t e d a n d c i v i l i s e d i n t e r l o p e r s t a k i n g c h a r g e o f
Au s t r a l i a , o r t h e Pa c i f i c S l o p e o f Am e r i c a , w e r e c o n j u r e d
u p b e f o r e t h e e y e s o f t h e w h i t e Co l o n i s t s , a n d i t w a s p o i n t e d
o u t t o t h e m , b y m e n o f a b i l i t y a n d l i t e r a r y p o w e r , t h a t m i l -
l i o n s m o r e w o u l d s c a r c e l y b e m i s s e d f r o m t h e v a s t s t o r e -
h o u s e o f 4 o o , o o o , o o o p e o p l e w h e n c e t h e y c a m e
. T h e Ch i -
n e s e p r o b l e m w a s a b u r n i n g r a c i a l q u e s t i o n i n t h e o r y , a n d
a r i o t o u s m o b q u e s t i o n i n p r a c t i c e
. T h e Y e l l o w D a n g e r
b e c a m e a s f o r m i d a b l e a p e r i l i n s o c i a l a f f a i r s a s Y e l l o w
J a c k i n c o m m o n p h y s i o l o g y
. Ch i n a T o w n i n S a n F r a n -
c i s c o , Li t t l e B o u r k e S t r e e t i n M e l b o u r n e , w e r e h e l d u p a s
s p e c i m e n s o f a n o l d a n d d e g r a d e d c i v i l i s a t i o n , i m p o r t e d
f r o m As i a , t o c o r r u p t a n d e m b r u t e t h e h i g h r e f i n e m e n t o f
t h e m i n i n g c a m p s a n d f r e e - m e a l s a l o o n s w h e r e t h e E u r o -
p e a n h e l d s w a y .
I s a w t h i s Ch i n e s e i m m i g r a t i o n c l o s e a t h a n d w h e n i t
o c c a s i o n e d m o s t a l a r m , b o t h i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s a n d i n
Au s t r a l i a
. As I h a v e p e r s o n a l l y a l w a y s l i k e d t h e Ch i n e s e
w h o m I h a v e m e t , w h e t h e r b e l o n g i n g t o t h e c o o l i e o r t o
t h e m e r c h a n t a n d t r a d e r c l a s s , a n d h a v e f o u n d t h e m , s o f a r
a s m y e x p e r i e n c e o f e m p l o y i n g t h e m w e n t , a s t r a i g h t f o r -
w a r d , t r u s t w o r t h y a n d c a p a b l e f o l k , m y v i e w o n t h e m a t t e r
o f Ch i n e s e i m m i g r a t i o n a n d Ch i n e s e c o m p e t i t i o n i s c e r -
t a i n l y n o t p r e j u d i c e d a g a i n s t t h i s g r e a t As i a t i c p e o p l e
. I
h a v e , i n f a c t , m u c h a d m i r a t i o n f o r t h e m , a n d I h a v e n e v e r
c e a s e d t o w o n d e r a t t h e c o o l , m a t t e r - o f - f a c t w a y i n w h i c h
t h e y a d a p t e d t h e m s e l v e s , w i t h o u t i n a n y w a y g i v i n g u p
1 7 8

T h e Aw a k e n i n g o f As i a
t h e i r n a t i o n a l i t y , o r c h a n g i n g t h e i r o w n d r e s s o r c u s t o m s ,
t o t h e v e r y d i f f e r e n t c i v i l i s a t i o n i n t o t h e m i d s t o f w h i c h
t h e y h a d p l u m p e d t h e m s e l v e s d o w n .
I h a v e s e e n t h e m a t w o r k i n Au s t r a l i a o n g o l d - f i e l d s
w h o l l y a b a n d o n e d b y w h i t e d i g g e r s b u t w h i c h t h e y c o n -
t i n u e d b y e n d l e s s t o i l t o w o r k a t a p r o f i t . I h a v e w i t n e s s e d
t h e i r a d m i r a b l e a s s i d u i t y i n s u p p l y i n g m i n i n g c a m p s a n d
e v e n c o n s i d e r a b l e t o w n s a n d c i t i e s w i t h e x c e l l e n t v e g e t a b l e s ,
t h a t , b u t f o r t h e i r m a r k e t - g a r d e n i n g , w o u l d h a v e b e e n d e s t i -
t u t e o f a n y f o o d o f t h e k i n d . I h a v e o b s e r v e d t h e i r e x c e l -
l e n t s e r v i c e a s l a u n d r y m e n , d o m e s t i c s e r v a n t s a n d c o o k s
w h e n t h e r e w e r e n o w h i t e s a t h a n d w h o w o u l d d e v o t e t h e m -
s e l v e s t o t h e s e a v o c a t i o n s ; a n d t h u s , h a v i n g w a t c h e d a l l t h i s
g o i n g o n , I c a n n o t s h u t m y e y e s t o t h e t r u t h t h a t , i n w h a t
a r e c a l l e d n e w c o u n t r i e s , t h e Ch i n e s e a r e e x c e e d i n g l y u s e -
f u l a n d w o r t h y p e o p l e . T o d e n o u n c e t h e i r m e t h o d o f l i f e
w h e n w e l e a v e o u r o w n d i s g u s t i n g p i g g e r i e s o f s l u m s u n -
r e m e d i e d i n Lo n d o n a n d Gl a s g o w , N e w Y o r k a n d Ch i c a g o ,
a p p e a r e d t o m e t h e h e i g h t o f h y p o c r i s y . N o c i t i e s i n E u -
r o p e o r Am e r i c a c o u l d t u r n o u t s k i l l e d a n d u n s k i l l e d a r -
t i s a n s a n d w o r k m e n b y t h e t h o u s a n d , e d u c a t e d , c a p a b l e ,
i n d u s t r i o u s a n d s e l f - r e s p e c t i n g , a s t h e c o a s t c i t i e s o f Ch i n a
d i d i n t h e ' s i x t i e s a n d ' s e v e n t i e s o f t h e l a s t c e n t u r y . T h e i r
a c t i v i t y a n d d a r i n g w e r e a s r e m a r k a b l e a s t h e i r p e r s i s t -
e n c e .
A b a r q u e p u t i n t o N a n d i B a y , i n w h a t w a s t h e n a r e -
m o t e p a r t o f F i j i , i n 1 8 6 9
. T h e f e w w h i t e s w h o w e r e t h e n
s e t t l e d i n t h e n e i g h b o u r h o o d w e n t q u i c k l y t o t h e s h o r e t o
f i n d o u t w h o t h e n e w - c o m e r s w e r e a n d w h a t w a s t h e i r
o b j e c t i n c o m i n g
. T h e b a r q u e w a s b o u n d f o r t h e p r i n c i p a l
s e t t l e m e n t , Le v u k a , a n d w a s o u t o f i t s c o u r s e . I n t h e f i r s t
b o a t t o t o u c h l a n d w a s a Ch i n a m a n , w h o s e p i d g i n E n g l i s h
w a s j u s t i n t e l l i g i b l e
. I a s k e d h i m w h a t h e w a s d o i n g i n
t h e v e s s e l , f o r h e h a d n o a p p e a r a n c e o f a s e a m a n a b o u t h i m
.
I t s t r u c k m e t h e m o m e n t I h a d p u t t h e q u e s t i o n t h a t h e
As i a t i c E m i g r a t i o n

1 7 9
m i g h t j u s t a s w e l l h a v e i n q u i r e d t h e s a m e t h i n g o f m e
-
f o r h o w I h a d g o t w h e r e I t h e n w a s I s c a r c e l y k n e w
. Ho w -
e v e r , h i s a n s w e r w a s
. t h a t s o m e
3 , 000 o f h i s c o u n t r y m e n
w e r e "o u t o f t h e i r t i m e , " a s i n d e n t u r e d l a b o u r e r s i n T a h i t i ,
a n d h e h a d c o m e o u t i n t h i s v e s s e l t o s e e i f t h e r e w a s a n y
o p e n i n g f o r t h e m i n t h e F i j i I s l a n d s .
I m e t "J o h n " a g a i n
l a t e r , i n S y d n e y .
He s a w t h e r e w a s n o t h i n g t o b e d o n e i n
t h e F i j i s f o r h i s c o o l i e s a n d w a s t h e n c a s t i n g a b o u t f o r a
p a s s a g e b a c k t o T a h i t i i n a n o t h e r c r a f t
.
A f e w m o n t h s a f t e r t h i s , I w e n t u p f r o m Au c k l a n d ,
N e w Z e a l a n d , t o t h e S a n d w i c h I s l a n d s
. T h a t g r o u p w a s
t h e n f u l l o f Ch i n e s e , a n d I s e e m t o r e m e m b e r t h a t I g o t
m o r e t h a n o n e e x c e l l e n t d i n n e r c o o k e d b y a Ch i n a m a n
a t Ho n o l u l u o n m y w a y t o S a n F r a n c i s c o . T h e r e a g a i n
t h e Ch i n e s e q u e s t i o n l o o m e d l a r g e , a n d B r e t Ha r t e , w h o m
I c a l l e d u p o n a n d g o t t o k n o w , h a d j u s t w r i t t e n h i s f a m o u s
i r o n i c a l s t a n za s a b o u t t h e He a t h e n Ch i n e e . Ch i n a T o w n ,
a f t e r w a r d s s o l a r g e l y u s e d i n n o v e l s a n d s k e t c h e s o f Ca l i -
f o r n i a n l i f e a n d a d v e n t u r e , w a s t h e n b y n o m e a n s s o e x -
t e n s i v e , o r p o s s e s s e d o f s u c h r e m a r k a b l e u n d e r g r o u n d a n d
a b o v e g r o u n d r e s i d e n c e s , a s i n y e a r s t o c o m e . B u t i t w a s
a n e x t r a o r d i n a r y As i a t i c q u a r t e r f o r a n O c c i d e n t a l c i t y
e v e n t h e n - a b i t o f Ch i n a g r o w i n g u p , w i t h i t s t h e a t r e s ,
o p i u m - d e n s , r e s t a u r a n t s a n d b i t t e r f a c t i o n s , i n t h e h e a r t
o f S a n F r a n c i s c o . I t w a s o b v i o u s t h a t t h e i n h a b i t a n t s h a d
"c o m e t o s t a y " u n t i l , h a v i n g m a d e e n o u g h m o n e y t o s a t i s f y
t h e m , t h e y r e t u r n e d t o Ch i n a a n d w e r e r e p l a c e d b y o t h e r s
o f t h e i r c o u n t r y m e n .
, _
U n d e r t h e c o n d i t i o n s t h e n e x i s t i n g , t h e Ch i n e s e , I f e l t
s u r e , w o u l d s o o n p e r v a d e t h e w h o l e o f Ca l i f o r n i a a n d p o s -
s i b l y s p r e a d f a r t h e r i n l a n d .
T h a t w a s t h e g e n e r a l o p i n i o n ,
t h o u g h h e r e , a s i n Au s t r a l i a , t h e i m m i g r a t i o n h a d o n l y j u s t
b e g u n . F r o m S a n F r a n c i s c o a c r o s s t h e c o n t i n e n t b y r a i l
w a s m y n e x t j o u r n e y . T h e r e w e r e t h e Ch i n e s e a g a i n
. T h e
Ce n t r a l Pa c i f i c R a i l r o a d h a d o n l y j u s t b e e n c o m p l e t e d a n d
z8 o

T h e Aw a k e n i n g o f As i a
l i n k e d u p w i t h t h e o t h e r s e c t i o n s o f t h e g r e a t t r a n s c o n -
t i n e n t a l l i n e . At o n e o f t h e h i g h e s t s t a t i o n s , i n t h e h e a r t o f
t h e R o c k y M o u n t a i n s , a l a r g e n u m b e r o f Ch i n e s e r a i l w a y
n a v v i e s w e r e c o l l e c t e d o n t h e p l a t f o r m .
B e f o r e t h e t r a i n
l e f t , t h e l e t t e r s f r o m Ch i n a w h i c h h a d c o m e i n b y t h e l a s t
m a i l s t e a m e r w e r e b e i n g d i s t r i b u t e d t o t h e m - l e t t e r s a n d
p o s t c a r d s . T h e r e s t o o d t h e Ch i n a m e n r e a d i n g t h e i r c o m -
m u n i c a t i o n s f r o m h o m e , w r i t t e n i n a l a n g u a g e u n k n o w n t o
t h e Am e r i c a n s a n d o t h e r t r a v e l l e r s w h o s t o o d a r o u n d , a s
i f t h e y h a d l i v e d f o r y e a r s i n t h e c o u n t r y .
I h a v e r e c a l l e d t h e s e p e r s o n a l i n c i d e n t s b e c a u s e I f e e l
c o n f i d e n t t h a t s o o n e r o r l a t e r , i f t h e e x i s t i n g c o m p e t i t i v e ,
c a p i t a l i s t , w a g e - p a y i n g s o c i a l s y s t e m c o n t i n u e s , t h i s m a t t e r
o f Ch i n e s e i m m i g r a t i o n a n d Ch i n e s e c o m p e t i t i o n w i l l b e -
c o m e a g a i n a v e r y s e r i o u s q u e s t i o n i n d e e d , i n t h e U n i t e d
S t a t e s o f Am e r i c a a a n d i n t h e E n g l i s h Co l o n i e s
. T h e r e a r e
a l r e a d y s o m e 9, 000, 000
o f Ch i n e s e o u t o f Ch i n a ; a n d i n
t h e M a l a y S t r a i t s S e t t l e m e n t a n d e l s e w h e r e t h e y d o v e r y
w e l l u n d e r t h e B r i t i s h f l a g . B u t a n e m i g r a t i o n o f 9, 000, 000
m u s t b e , o f c o u r s e , a m e r e b a g a t e l l e t o Ch i n a . T h e r e a l l y
i m p o r t a n t f a c t i s t h a t , e r e l o n g , a s w h i t e m e n f e a r e d n e a r l y
f i f t y y e a r s a g o , f u r t h e r m i l l i o n s m a y i n s i s t u p o n t r y i n g
t h e i r f o r t u n e s a g a i n i n c o u n t r i e s a l r e a d y p a r t i a l l y p e o p l e d ,
n o t b y M a l a y s o r o t h e r As i a t i c s , b u t b y m e n o f E u r o p e a n
r a c e .
N o w , I h a v e s a t i s f i e d m y s e l f t h a t , s h o u l d t h i s b e s o ,
t h e w h i t e w o r k e r s c a n n o t h o l d t h e i r o w n p e r m a n e n t l y
a g a i n s t Ch i n e s e c o m p e t i t i o n i n t h e l a b o u r m a r k e t . T h e
l o w e r s t a n d a r d o f l i f e , t h e g r e a t e r p e r s i s t e n c e , t h e s u p e r i o r
e d u c a t i o n o f t h e Ch i n e s e w i l l b e a t t h e m , a n d w i l l c o n t i n u e
t o b e a t t h e m - a l w a y s t o t h e a d v a n t a g e o f t h e c a p i t a l i s t s .
T h a t w a s t h e r e a s o n w h y , i n 1 8 7 9, t h e f u r t h e r i m p o r t a t i o n
o f Ch i n a m e n i n t o t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s , a n d s h o r t l y a f t e r i n t o
Au s t r a l i a , w a s f o r b i d d e n b y l a w , a n d h e a v y p e n a l t i e s w e r e
As i a t i c E m i g r a t i o n

1 8 1
e n a c t e d a g a i n s t i t s i n f r i n g e m e n t . T h e e x c l u s i o n r e m a i n s
l e g a l l y i n f o r c e t o - d a y .
I t w a s a v e r y s t r o n g m e a s u r e . M o r e o v e r ,
. i t w a s a
m e a s u r e w h i c h w a s d i r e c t e d n o t o n l y a g a i n s t t h e Ch i n e s e
b u t , s o f a r a s Au s t r a l i a w a s c o n c e r n e d , a g a i n s t o t h e r
As i a t i c s . E v e n I n d i a n s , w h o f o r m a p o r t i o n o f t h e r e c o g -
n i s e d p o p u l a t i o n o f t h e B r i t i s h E m p i r e , w e r e p r e v e n t e d
f r o m l a n d i n g o n t h e g r e a t S o u t h e r n Co n t i n e n t , u n l e s s t h e y
p a i d a f i n e , o r e n t r a n c e m o n e y , t o t h e a m o u n t o f o n e h u n -
d r e d p o u n d s s t e r l i n g . An d t h i s Ac t w a s s o s t r i n g e n t a n d
s o u n i v e r s a l l y a p p l i c a b l e t h a t , s e v e r a l y e a r s a g o , a s p e c i a l
l a w h a d t o b e p a s s e d t h r o u g h t h e Au s t r a l i a n As s e m b l i e s
e n a b l i n g t h e f a m o u s c r i c k e t e r , R a n j i t s i n g h i , n o w t h e j a m
o f R a m n u g g a r , t o l a n d a n d p l a y f o r E n g l a n d a g a i n s t Au s -
t r a l i a , i n t h e t e s t c r i c k e t m a t c h e s , w i t h o u t r e d u c i n g h i s
f u n d s t o t h a t e x t e n t i n f a v o u r o f h i s h o s p i t a b l e e n t e r t a i n e r s .
He r e , t h e r e f o r e , w e h a d a d i r e c t a n d b i t t e r e c o n o m i c
a n d s o c i a l a n t a g o n i s m b e t w e e n E u r o p e a n s e t t l e r s a n d
As i a t i c s a s r e p r e s e n t e d c h i e f l y b y t h e Ch i n e s e , i n t h e
s p a r s e l y - p e o p l e d c o n t i n e n t s o f N o r t h Am e r i c a a n d Au s -
t r a l i a , w h i c h r e s u l t e d i n t h e d e c l a r a t i o n o f a v i r t u a l w a r
o f e x c l u s i o n a g a i n s t t h e o l d e r r a c e . I n S o u t h Am e r i c a ,
p a r t s o f t h e We s t I n d i e s , t h e D u t c h Co l o n i e s a n d e l s e w h e r e ,
t h e f e e l i n g w a s n o t s o s t r o n g a n d t h e a c t i o n w a s n o t s o
d e c i s i v e .
B u t n o w t h e w h o l e q u e s t i o n h a s b e e n r a i s e d a f r e s h b y
e m i g r a n t s f r o m t h e r i s i n g Po w e r o f t h e F a r E a s t , a n d
t h e a n t a g o n i s m h a s a s s u m e d a p h a s e w h i c h m a y e a s i l y g i v e
r i s e t o v e r y g r e a t d i f f i c u l t i e s i n t h e n e a r f u t u r e , t h o u g h f o r
t h e t i m e b e i n g a t r u c e - i t i s n o . m o r e t h a n a t r u c e - h a s
b e e n a r r a n g e d .
I n t h i s n e w d e v e l o p m e n t t h e J a p a n e s e
h a v e t a k e n t h e p l a c e o f t h e Ch i n e s e .
T h e Ch i n e s e h a d , p e r f o r c e , s u b m i t t e d , w i t h o u t m o r e
t h a n a m i l d p r o t e s t , t o t h e l a w s a g a i n s t t h e a d m i s s i o n o f
t h e i r c o u n t r y m e n i n t o Am e r i c a a n d Au s t r a l i a . T h e y w e r e
1 8 2

T h e Aw a k e n i n g o f As i a
a g r e a t p e o p l e w h o s e c i v i l i s a t i o n , b a s e d u p o n m u c h o f w h a t
w e c a l l m o d e r n s c i e n t i f i c k n o w l e d g e , w a s i n f u l l g r o w t h
b e f o r e e v e n E g y p t h a d a t t a i n e d a d o m i n a n t p o s i t i o n a n d
p r o b a b l y m a n y h u n d r e d s o f y e a r s b e f o r e t h e Gr e e k s h a d
e n l i g h t e n e d t h e M e d i t e r r a n e a n
. B u t t h e y w e r e i n n o p o s i -
t i o n t o f i g h t .
S o t h e y a l l o w e d E u r o p e a n s t o s e t t l e i n t h e i r
o w n q u a r t e r s i n t h e g r e a t Ch i n e s e s e a p o r t s , t o h o l d f o r
t h e m s e l v e s a n i m p o r t a n t p o r t i o n o f Pe k i n g
; w h i l e t h e y g a v e
w a y e n t i r e l y u p o n t h e r i g h t o f t h e Ch i n e s e t o e a r n t h e i r
l i v i n g i n t e r r i t o r y o c c u p i e d b y t h e w h i t e r a c e
.
B u t t i m e s w e r e c h a n g i n g i n t h e E a s t , a n d J a p a n e s e
e m i g r a t i o n c a m e a b o u t u n d e r v e r y d i f f e r e n t c i r c u m s t a n c e s .
T h e e x c l u s i o n l a w o f 1 8 7 9 d i d n o t d i r e c t l y a p p l y t o t h e m
.
S o t h e y r a p i d l y t o o k t h e p l a c e o f t h e Ch i n e s e i n t h e S a n d -
w i c h I s l a n d s , a f e w y e a r s l a t e r , a n d b e g a n t o o c c u p y t h e
s a m e p o s i t i o n i n Ca l i f o r n i a
. B y t h i s t i m e , h o w e v e r , J a p a n ,
b y h e r a d o p t i o n o f E u r o p e a n m e t h o d s o f w a r f a r e a n d h e r
m a r v e l l o u s s u c c e s s i n h e r c a m p a i g n s , f i r s t a g a i n s t Ch i n a
a n d t h e n a g a i n s t R u s s i a , h a d s e c u r e d h e r p l a c e a s a c i v i l i s e d
p o w e r , c a p a b l e o f t r e a t i n g o n e q u a l t e r m s w i t h t h e m o s t
i m p o r t a n t E u r o p e a n n a t i o n s
. J a p a n h a d b e e n t h e Al l y o f
E n g l a n d s i n c e 1 902 , h a d e n t e r e d u p o n t h e c l o s e s t p o s s i b l e
r e l a t i o n s w i t h R u s s i a , a n d w a s g e n e r a l l y r e g a r d e d a s t h e
r i s i n g f o r c e i n F a r E a s t e r n p o l i t i c s .
Wh e n , t h e r e f o r e , h e r c o u n t r y m e n w e r e b r u t a l l y a t t a c k e d
i n Ca l i f o r n i a , w h e n t h e i r s h o p s a n d p l a c e s o f b u s i n e s s w e r e
d e s t r o y e d a n d t h e i r l i v e s p l a c e d i n j e o p a r d y - w h e n ,
i n
s h o r t , t h e o l d m e t h o d s u s e d a g a i n s t t h e Ch i n e s e t o i n t i m i -
d a t e t h e m a n d t o c o m p e l t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s Go v e r n m e n t t o
e x c l u d e t h e m w e r e p u t i n f o r c e a g a i n s t t h e J a p a n e s e - a
v e r y d i f f e r e n t s i t u a t i o n a r o s e .
T h e J a p a n e s e h a d a p e r f e c t
r i g h t t o s e t t l e i n Ca l i f o r n i a a n d e l s e w h e r e i n Am e r i c a
.
T h e i r p r e s e n c e w a s p r o t e c t e d b y T r e a t y , a n d t h e v a r i o u s
o b j e c t i o n s f o r m u l a t e d a g a i n s t t h e Ch i n e s e d i d n o t a p p l y
t o t h e s e c l e a n , q u i e t , c a p a b l e As i a t i c s
. T h e y h a d , t h e r e -
As i a t i c E m i g r a t i o n

1 8 3
f o r e , e v e r y g r o u n d t o c o m p l a i n o f t h e t r e a t m e n t o f t h e i r
e m i g r a n t s a n d , w h a t w a s m u c h m o r e i m p o r t a n t , t h e y h a d
t h e m e a n s o f d e f e n d i n g t h e m , i f n e c e s s a r y , b y f o r c e
. M o r e -
o v e r , t h e y c l a i m e d , a s c i v i l i s e d , e d u c a t e d m e n a n d w o m e n ,
t h a t t h e i r c h i l d r e n s h o u l d h a v e t h e s a m e r i g h t s i n t h e s c h o o l s
a s t h e c h i l d r e n o f Am e r i c a n c i t i ze n s
.
He r e t h e r a c e p r e j u d i c e , w h i c h p l a y s
a v e r y m u c h
g r e a t e r p a r t i n s o c i a l a n d p o l i t i c a l Am e r i c a t h a n i s g e n -
e r a l l y k n o w n i n E u r o p e , c o m e s i n v e r y s t r o n g l y i n d e e d
.
T h i s w a s t h e s e c o n d g r e a t m o t i v e o f t h e h o s t i l i t y t o t h e
Ch i n e s e
: t h e e c o n o m i c c o m p e t i t i o n i n t h e w a g e s m a r k e t
b e i n g t h e f i r s t . B o t h r e a s o n s a p p l i e d t o t h e J a p a n e s e a n d
q u i t e a s f o r c i b l y .
T h e J a p a n e s e w e r e f o r m i d a b l e i n t h e
l a b o u r m a r k e t , w e r e e v e n i n s o m e r e s p e c t s p e r h a p s m o r e
o b j e c t i o n a b l e t h a n t h e Ch i n e s e . T h e y w e r e e q u a l l y m e m -
b e r s o f a n a l i e n r a c e : i n f a c t , a Ch i n a m a n a n d a J a p a n e s e ,
b o t h n o w w i t h o u t p i g t a i l s , w h e n d r e s s e d i n E u r o p e a n g a r b ,
c a n s c a r c e l y b e d i s t i n g u i s h e d b y w h i t e m e n ' s e y e s f r o m
o n e a n o t h e r .
T h e J a p a n e s e , h o w e v e r , d i d b r i n g t h e i r
w o m e n w i t h t h e m , a n d t o a l l a p p e a r a n c e i n t e n d e d t o t a k e
r o o t i n t h e c o u n t r y , w h i c h t h e Ch i n e s e , b e i n g i n t h e m a i n
b i r d s o f p a s s a g e , w e r e n o t l i k e l y t o d o .
T h e s c h o o l q u e s t i o n f o r J a p a n e s e c h i l d r e n b r o u g h t t h e
w h o l e m a t t e r t o a c r i s i s .
I t w a s a c r u c i a l p o i n t . I t w a s
o n e u p o n w h i c h t h e J a p a n e s e Go v e r n m e n t c o u l d a n d c a n
s c a r c e l y g i v e w a y p e r m a n e n t l y , w i t h o u t a d m i t t i n g t h e i n -
f e r i o r i t y o f t h e i r p e o p l e t o Am e r i c a n s - a n d t h i s t h e y a r e
n o t a t a l l d i s p o s e d t o c o n c e d e .
Co n s e q u e n t l y , t h e f e e l i n g
b e t w e e n t h e t w o c o u n t r i e s b e c a m e i n c r e a s i n g l y b i t t e r .
T h e
J a p a n e s e w e r e q u i t e w i t h i n t h e i r r i g h t s , a l i k e i n p r o t e s t i n g
a g a i n s t t h e i l l - t r e a t m e n t o f t h e i r c o u n t r y m e n , a g a i n s t t h e
l a w p r e v e n t i n g t h e o w n e r s h i p o f l a n d b y J a p a n e s e , a g a i n s t
t h e e x c l u s i o n o f J a p a n e s e c h i l d r e n f r o m t h e Am e r i c a n f r e e
s c h o o l s , a n d a g a i n s t t h e r e f u s a l o f t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s t o
r e c e i v e a n y m o r e J a p a n e s e i m m i g r a n t s . B u t t h e Go v e r n -
1 8 4

T h e Aw a k e n i n g o f As i a
m e n t o f Wa s h i n g t o n , p r e s s e d b y t h e a g i t a t i o n o f t h e w h o l e
o f t h e S t a t e s o f t h e Pa c i f i c S l o p e , w a s u n a b l e t o a g r e e
t o t h e J a p a n e s e d e m a n d s , h o w e v e r r i g h t t h e y m a y h a v e
f e l t t h e m t o b e .
I t w a s a t t h i s , t i m e t h a t I r e c e i v e d a l e t t e r f r o m m y
f r i e n d D r . S e n K a t a y a m a , t h e l e a d e r o f t h e S o c i a l i s t Pa r t y
i n J a p a n . K a t a y a m a h a d b e e n f o r c e d t o l e a v e h i s c o u n t r y
a n d t o s e t t l e i n Ca l i f o r n i a , o w i n g t o t h e r e l e n t l e s s p e r s e c u -
t i o n , f o l l o w e d b y n u m e r o u s c o n d e m n a t i o n s t o d e a t h a n d
l o n g i m p r i s o n m e n t , s e t o n f o o t a g a i n s t S o c i a l i s t s i n J a p a n
b y t h e J a p a n e s e a u t h o r i t i e s . K a t a y a m a i s w e l l k n o w n t o
t h e S o c i a l i s t s o f E u r o p e . He w a s p r e s e n t a t t h e g r e a t I n -
t e r n a t i o n a l S o c i a l i s t Co n g r e s s o f Am s t e r d a m , w h i c h w a s
h e l d i n t h e m i d d l e o f t h e R u s s o - J a p a n e s e Wa r , O n e o f
t h e m o s t d r a m a t i c i n c i d e n t s o f t h a t Co n g r e s s , w h i c h d i d n o t
l a c k f o r s t i r r i n g e p i s o d e s , w a s w h e n K a t a y a m a , a s d e l e g a t e
a n d l e a d e r o f t h e J a p a n e s e . S o c i a l D e m o c r a t s , a n d Pl e c h -
a n o f f , h o l d i n g t h e s a m e p o s i t i o n i n r e s p e c t t o t h e R u s s i a n
S o c i a l D e m o c r a t s , c a m e f o r w a r d o n t h e p l a t f o r m a n d s h o o k
h a n d s a m i d v e h e m e n t a p p l a u s e . T h e w h o l e o f t h e h u n d r e d s
o f d e l e g a t e s p r e s e n t r o s e i n t h e i r p l a c e s a n d c h e e r e d . I t
w a s a s t r i k i n g s c e n e . S o c i a l i s t s a t t h a t t i m e s t i l l b e l i e v e d
i n t h e i n t e r n a t i o n a l f r a t e r n i t y o f t h e w o r k e r s - a n i l l u s i o n
w h i c h , i n 1 91 4 , w a s s o c o m p l e t e l y d e s t r o y e d f o r t h e t i m e
b e i n g b y t h e a c t i o n o f t h e Ge r m a n S o c i a l D e m o c r a t s i n
h e a r t i l y s u p p o r t i n g t h e r u t h l e s s m i l i t a r i s t a g g r e s s i o n o f
t h e i r J u n k e r c a s t e .
He r e i s K a t a v a m a ' s l e t t e r
"3 903 S ACR AM E N T O S T . ,
S AN F R AN CI S CO , CAL . , U . S . A .
"D R . * H . HY N D M AN .

D e c . 1 2 , r 91 4 .
"D E AR S I R , - I t
i s
v e r y , v e r y s a d t h i n g t h a t y o u r p r e d i c t i o n
b e c a m e n o w f u l f i l l e d i n E u r o p e . B u t t o y o u , d e a r D r
. , a n
* I r e g r e t t o s a y I a m n o t a D o c t o r o f a n y b r a n c h o f l e a r n i n g o r
s c i e n c e . - H . M . H .
As i a t i c E m i g r a t i o n

1 8 5
h o n o u r o f y o u r f a r s i g h t e d j u d g m e n t m u s t b e b e s t o w e d b y t h e
w o r l d
! T h o s e w h o r i d i c u l e d o r b u f f e t e d a t y o u r w i s e p r e d i c -
t i o n a r e f i g h t i n g o n b o t h s i d e s a n d a r e g i v e n t h e i r p r i n c i p l e s
o f i n t e r n a t i o n a l s o c i a l i s m u p t o t h e m i s g u i d e d p a t r i o t i s m , a n d
a p p a r e n t l y r e a s o n a b l e p r e t e x t f o r n a t i o n a l d e f e n c e !
"I l e f t n o w s o m e t h r e e m o n t h s a g o J a p a n f o r t h i s c o u n t r y
a n d n o w I a m w o r k i n g a m o n g t h e J a p a n e s e i n t h e Pa c i f i c
c o a s t s
. J a p a n d o e s a s y o u k n o w s t i l l p e r s e c u t e s o c i a l i s t s a n d
d o e s n o t p e r m i t t h e m t o a g i t a t e f o r t h e c a u s e o f s o c i a l i s m , n a y
m o r e t h e J a p a n e s e a u t h o r i t i e s d o n o t a l l o w u s t o w o r k f o r t h e
l a b o r i n g c l a s s i n t e r e s t e v e n i n "t h e l i n e o f p u r e a n d s i m p l e
t r a d e s u n i o n i s m . I a m r e a l l y d r i v e n o u t o f m y c o u n t r y b e -
c a u s e o f s o c i a l i s m , f i n a n c i a l l y i t w a s i m p o s s i b l e f o r m e
t o
g e t l i v i n g i n J a p a n , e v e n t h e n i f I c o u l d d e v o t e m y l i f e f o r
t h e i n t e r e s t o f t h e w o r k i n g c l a s s e s I w o u l d s u f f e r e d e v e r y p r i -
v a t i o n a n d p o v e r t y b u t I c o u l d d o n o t h i n g , I w a s t o o w e l l
k n o w n t o t h e a u t h o r i t i e s t o w o r k i n d i s g u i s e , I w a s u t t e r l y
h o p e l e s s f o r t h e r e s t o f
m y l i f e i n J a p a n , s o I d e c i d e d t o l e a v e
m y c o u n t r y , f i r s t I i n t e n d e d t o b e a t V i e n n a S o c i a l i s t Co n g r e s s
b u t i t w a s i m p o s s i b l e a s y o u k n o w i t , s o I c o u l d c o m e h e r e f o r
m y o w n a n d m y f a m i l y ' s s a k e
.
"N o w d e a r D o c t o r t h e r e a r e s o m e o n e h u n d r e d a n d s i x t y
t h o u s a n d J a p a n e s e i n t h e U . S . A
. T h e y a r e m o s t l y w o r k e r s
u n s k i l l e d o r f a r m l a b o r e r s .
Wi t h e x c e p t i o n o f Ha w a i i t h e
J a p a n e s e a r e a l l l i v i n g a m i d s t o f a n t i - J a p
. m o v e m e n t w h i c h
h a s b e e n e v e r g r o w i n g a n d e v e r f a r r e a c h i n g i n t h e U . S . A .
T h e a n t i - J a p a n e s e m o v e m e n t h a s b e e n h e a d e d b y i n f l u e n t i a l
m e n o f t w o p o l i t i c a l p a r t i e s s u c h a s e x - Pr e s
. R o o s e v e l t , He a r s t
a n d J o h n s o n , t o g e t h e r w i t h Go m p e r s a n d B e r g e r
. T h e m a s s o f
t h e Am e r i c a n s a r e i g n o r a n t o f t h e r e a l s i t u a t i o n
. T h e y j u d g e
t h e m a t t e r b y t h e n e w s p a p e r s a n d w o r l d ' s m a p , a t i n y l i t t l e
m a p c o m p a r e d w i t h t h e Am e r i c a - a n d t h e y t h i n k i t i s n o n s e n s e
t o t h i n k o f Am e r i c a g o i n g t o w a r w i t h J a p a n
. T h i s i g n o r i n g
t h e s i t u a t i o n b y t h e m a s s o f Am e r i c a n w o r k e r s i s v e r y d a n g e r -
o u s a n d l i a b l e t o c a u s e t h e w a r b e t w e e n J a p a n a n d t h e U
. S . A .
As y o u k n o w J a p a n e s e w o r k e r s a r e n o t o r g a n i s e d a n d e a s i l y
m i s l e d b y t h e j i n g o p a r t y .
B u t t h e p r o b l e m i s s t i l l m o r e
p r e s s i n g f o r n e a r l y t w o h u n d r e d t h o u s a n d J a p a n e s e a r e t o - d a y
1 8 6

T h e Aw a k e n i n g o f As i a
i n Am e r i c a n s o i l , a n d t h e y a r e a l m o s t a l l p e r s e c u t e d b y t h e
w h i t e p e o p l e s i m p l y b e c a u s e t h e y a r e o f y e l l o w c o l o r s k i n .
S i n c e t h e E u r o p e a n w a r b e g a n t h e J a p a n e s e i n Am e r i c a b e -
c a m e s t r i c k e n w i t h f e a r a n d a n x i e t y f o r t h e y r e a d f r o m d a y t o
d a y a b o u t p e r s e c u t i n g o r s h o o t i n g d o w n t h e p e a c e f u l a n d n o n -
f i g h t i n g p o p u l a t i o n b y b o t h s i d e s , e s p e c i a l l y b y Ge r m a n s . I t
i s o n l y n a t i o n a l i t y t h a t c a u s e e v e n s u c h a h a t r e d a n d e n m i t y
r e s u l t i n g i n b r u t a l p e r s e c u t i o n a n d b u t c h e r i n g i n n o c e n t w o m e n
a n d c h i l d r e n t h e r e . T h e J a p a n e s e i n Am e r i c a f e a r a n d d r e a d ,
I t h i n k n o t u n r e a s o n a b l y , o f t h e p o s s i b l e w a r b e t w e e n J a p a n
a n d Am e r i c a a n d t h e i r c o n s e g t } e n t l o t t h a t m i g h t b e f a r m o r e
h o r r i b l e t h a n t h o s e o f Ge r m a n s i n F r e n c h s o i l o r E n g l i s h i n
Ge r m a n y a t t h e p r e s e n t t i m e , f o r t h e y a r e e n t i r e l y d i f f e r e n t
r a c e f r o m t h e p e o p l e i n t h i s c o u n t r y .
"N o w i t i s n o t a q u e s t i o n w h i c h s i d e s h a l l w i n i n t h e c o m i n g
c o n f l i c t , i f s u c h a c o n f l i c t c a m e t o b e t r u e , n o . Wh i c h e v e r s i d e
m a y g e t t h e f i n a l v i c t o r y i n t h e s u p p o s e d c o n f l i c t , t h a t w o u l d
b e n o t m u c h c o n s e q u e n c e a c t u a l l y t o t h e l a b o r i n g c l a s s e s o f
b o t h c o u n t r i e s ; t h e y s h a l l s u f f e r e q u a l l y i n t h e w a r j u s t a s t h e y
a r e s u f f e r i n g i n E u r o p e t o - d a y .
"I t i s t o o c o m p l i c a t e d t o d e a l w i t h t h e r e l a t i o n b e t w e e n t w o
c o u n t r i e s i n q u e s t i o n , b u t I a m t r y i n g t o f i n d o u t s o m e w a y s
t o a v e r t t h e f u t u r e c o n f l i c t o f t w o n a t i o n s a n d m o r e o v e r , I a m
e n d e a v o u r i n g t o f i n d o u t w h a t s h a l l b e t h e b e s t . a t t i t u d e t h a t
t h e J a p a n e s e i n Am e r i c a s h o u l d a s s u m e u n d e r s u c h a c o n -
d i t i o n . Y o u m i g h t t h i n k i t b e s t w a y f o r b o t h i f t h e J a p a n e s e
s h a l l l e a v e t h e U . S . A. a n d g e t t h e i r h o m e . N o w n o J a p . i m -
m i g r a n t c o m e s n o w a d a y s f r o m J a p a n u n d e r t h e g e n t l e m e n ' s
a g r e e m e n t , a n d i t i s n o t e a s y m a t t e r f o r a l l t h e J a p a n e s e o f
t w o h u n d r e d t h o u s a n d s s h a l l l e a v e t h e i r a b o d e s i n Am e r i c a .
M a n y o f t h e m a r e n o w t e n , t w e n t y a n d e v e n t h i r t y y e a r s i n
t h i s c o u n t r y .
"D e a r D r . Wi l l y o u k i n d l y t e l l m e w h a t s h a l l I a d v i c e m y
o w n c o u n t r y m e n w o r k e r s h e r e t h a t w i l l b e t h e b e s t o n t h e
s i t u a t i o n ? An t i - J a p a n e s e m o v e m e n t n o w i n t h e U . S . A . i s n o t
a g a i n s t t h o s e J a p a n e s e w h o m i g h t c o m e h e r e a f t e r . I t i s a n t i -
J a p a n e s e w h o a r e a l r e a d y h e r e , y e s , t h e y a r e h e r e , c o m i n g
u n d e r t h e n t h e m o s t f a v o r a b l e c i r c u m s t a n c e s , m a n y o f t h e m
As i a t i c E m i g r a t i o n

1 8 7
c o m e h e r e a n d t o Ha w a i i b e c a u s e t h e y w e r e c a l l e d f o r b y t h e
t r u e Am e r i c a n s n a m e l y t h e s u g a r p l a n t e r s a n d r a i l r o a d k i n g s I
An d t h e y a r e n o w p e r s e c u t e d s o c i a l l y a n d f i n a n c i a l l y a n d l o s i n g
o n e a f t e r a n o t h e r t h e p r i v i l e g e s t h a t t h e y h a v e e n j o y e d e q u a l l y
i n t h e p a s t w i t h Am e r i c a n s o r t h o s e o t h e r n a t i o n a l i t i e s !
"I a m i n t e n d i n g t o p u b l i s h a l i t t l e p a p e r f o r t h e i n t e r e s t
o f t h e J a p a n e s e i n Am e r i c a s o I w i s h y o u w r i t e m e a n a d v i c e
t o t h e J a p a n e s e i n Am e r i c a a s t o t h e i r f u t u r e w h a t i s t h e b e s t .
"I r e m a i n y o u r s
"S E N . K AT AY AM A . "
I d o n o t t h i n k t h e r e i s a n y d o u b t w h a t e v e r t h a t w h e n
h e w r o t e , h i s a l a r m w a s g e n u i n e a n d e n t i r e l y w a r r a n t e d .
T h e J a p a n e s e h a d b e e n a b o m i n a b l y t r e a t e d b y t h e Am e r i -
c a n s o f Ca l i f o r n i a a n d t h e Pa c i f i c S l o p e g e n e r a l l y . T h e
Co l o n i s t s o f B r i t i s h Co l u m b i a h a d j o i n e d i n t h e o u t c r y ,
n o t w i t h s t a n d i n g t h e s u c c e s s i o n o f T r e a t i e s 1 9o 2 , 1 905 ,
a n d 1 91 1 , b e t w e e n t h e m o t h e r c o u n t r y a n d J a p a n . T h e r e
w a s , t h e r e f o r e , q u i t e a p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t i n t h e e v e n t o f
w a r b e t w e e n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s a n d t h e I s l a n d E m p i r e
s o m e t h i n g o f t h e k i n d a n t i c i p a t e d b y K a t a y a m a m i g h t h a v e
t a k e n p l a c e . O n t h e o t h e r h a n d , t h e J a p a n e s e , t h o u g h s c a t -
t e r e d , w e r e n o t d e f e n c e l e s s , a n d a g r e a t n u m b e r o f t h e m
w e r e t r a i n e d s o l d i e r s . Ha p p i l y , t h e J a p a n e s e Go v e r n m e n t ,
w i t h t h a t c o o l , f a r - s e e i n g p o l i c y w h i c h s o f a r h a s a l w a y s
d i s t i n g u i s h e d i t s g r e a t Co u n c i l o f F o r e i g n Af f a i r s , d e -
c i d e d n o t t o p u s h m a t t e r s t o a n e x t r e m i t y . T h e y e v e n
w i t h d r e w t h e i r j u s t c l a i m s a n d u n d e r t o o k t o r e s t r i c t J a p -
a n e s e e m i g r a t i o n t o t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s a s f a r a s p o s s i b l e .
B u t t h e y d i d n o t d o s o b e c a u s e t h e y w e r e u n a b l e t o p r e s s
t h e i r r i g h t s b y f o r c e o f a r m s , b u t b e c a u s e , p r e s u m a b l y , t h e y
d i d n o t f e e l t h a t t h i s w a s t h e t i m e , n o r p e r h a p s t h e s p e c i a l
q u e s t i o n , o n w h i c h t h e y w i s h e d t o a s s e r t t h e m s e l v e s t o
t h a t e x t e n t .
I t i s w e l l , h o w e v e r , f o r t h e s a k e o f t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s
a n d t h e B r i t i s h Co l o n i e s , t h a t t h e f u l l t r u t h a b o u t t h e
1 8 8

T h e Aw a k e n i n g o f As i a
J a p a n e s e a s Co l o n i s t s s h o u l d b e t h o r o u g h l y u n d e r s t o o d .
T h e m a t t e r s h o u l d b e e x a m i n e d a n d c o n s i d e r e d w h o l l y w i t h -
o u t p r e j u d i c e .
Wh a t e v e r m a y b e t h e d r a w b a c k s , f r o m t h e
p o i n t o f v i e w o f c o m p e t i t i o n o n a l o w e r s t a n d a r d o f l i f e ,
t h e s e o b s t a c l e s a r e s p e e d i l y o v e r c o m e
. T o b e g i n w i t h , M i s s
B r o w n ' s s t a t e m e n t s a b o u t t h e m , t h a t "T h e J a p a n e s e a r e
p e a c e a b l e , l a w - a b i d i n g , t i r e l e s s l y i n d u s t r i o u s , h o m e - s e e k i n g ,
m o r a l , t e m p e r a t e , g r a t e f u l a n d g e n e r o u s .
T h e y r e q u i r e n o
p o l i c i n g , t h e r e a r e n o d i s t u r b a n c e s
; n o w o m a n h a s e v e r
b e e n m o l e s t e d , " a r e c o n f i r m e d b y t h e s p e c i a l Co m m i s s i o n
a p p o i n t e d b y t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s Go v e r n m e n t
. B u t t h e y a r e
a l s o w e l l e d u c a t e d , q u i c k t o l e a r n E n g l i s h , a n d a m b i t i o u s .
T h i s l a t t e r q u a l i t y i n p a r t i c u l a r t h e Am e r i c a n s d i s l i k e
. T h e
J a p a n e s e t h i n k t h e m s e l v e s q u i t e a s g o o d a s t h e Ca l i f o r n i a n s ,
a n d t h e y d o n o t t r o u b l e t o d i s g u i s e t h e i r o p i n i o n .
Pr o f e s s o r M i l l i s , Pr o f e s s o r o f Po l i t i c a l E c o n o m y i n
t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f K a n s a s , a f t e r t w e l v e y e a r s o f i n v e s t i g a -
t i o n , s p e a k s o f t h e m i n t h e v e r y h i g h e s t t e r m s i n e v e r y
r e s p e c t .
T h e y c o m p a r e , h e s a y s , f a v o u r a b l y "i n t h e m a t -
t e r o f s c h o o l i n g a n d l i t e r a c y w i t h i m m i g r a n t s f r o m E u -
r o p e a n d a r e v a s t l y s u p e r i o r t o Ch i n e s e a n d M e x i c a n s
. "
T h e i r c l e a n l i n e s s i s r e m a r k a b l e : d r u n k e n n e s s a n d o p i u m -
s m o k i n g a r e a l m o s t u n k n o w n .
He a l s o e n t i r e l y a g r e e s
w i t h t h e g o o d o p i n i o n e x p r e s s e d o f t h e m i n o t h e r r e s p e c t s
.
I n e v e r y t h i n g e x c e p t c o l o u r , c r e e d a n d r a c e t h e y a r e m o s t
d e s i r a b l e m e m b e r s o f t h e c o m m u n i t y . M o r e o v e r , t h e y a r e
e x t r e m e l y a n x i o u s t o g e t o u t o f t h e w a g e - e a r n i n g c l a s s ,
w h e r e t h e i r c o m p e t i t i o n , u n d o u b t e d l y , i s d i f f i c u l t f o r w h i t e
l a b o u r e r s t o m e e t .
M o s t o f t h e i m m i g r a n t s i n t o Ca l i f o r n i a
a r e a g r i c u l t u r i s t s . D i r e c t l y t h e y a r e a b l e t o d o s o t h e y
t a k e u p l a n d
. S u c h a d m i r a b l e c u l t i v a t o r s a r e t h e y t h a t
t h e y c a n p a y t h e i r w a y a n d t h r i v e u p o n l a n d u n d e r s u c h
h e a v y r e n t s a s w e r e n e v e r b e f o r e k n o w n
. Wh e r e p o s s i b l e
t h e y p u r c h a s e l a n d a n d s e t t l e d o w n t o a c o m f o r t a b l e , a n d
i n e v e r y m a n n e r r e s p e c t a b l e , f a m i l y l i f e
. T h e c h i l d r e n ,
As i a t i c E m i g r a t i o n

1 8 9
w h e n t h e y g o t o t h e c o m m o n s c h o o l s , d i f f e r l i t t l e f r o m t h e
r e s t o f t h e s c h o l a r s , e x c e p t t h a t t h e y a r e m o r e a d a p t a b l e
a n d m u c h m o r e c o u r t e o u s t h a n t h e Am e r i c a n c h i l d r e n .
I n f a c t , f r o m e v e r y p o i n t o f v i e w t h e J a p a n e s e i n t h e
We s t o f Am e r i c a a r e r e p u t e d t o b e a n a d m i r a b l e p e o p l e
.
Y e t l a w s h a v e b e e n p a s s e d n o t o n l y p r e v e n t i n g t h e m f r o m
a c q u i r i n g l a n d b y p u r c h a s e b u t t h e y a r e n o t e v e n a l l o w e d
t o l e a s e l a n d f o r m o r e t h a n t h r e e y e a r s . T h e r e c a n b e
n o d i s p u t e a b o u t t h e t r u t h o f t h e c o n t e n t i o n t h a t t h e y
h a v e b e e n a n d a r e b a d l y t r e a t e d b y t h e Am e r i c a n Go v -
e r n m e n t s i m p l y a n d s o l e l y b e c a u s e t h e y a r e J a p a n e s e a n d
b e c a u s e w h a t t h e y m i g h t d o i n t h e w a y o f c o m p e t i t i o n i s
g r e a t l y f e a r e d .
T h e y i n h e r i t t h e p r e j u d i c e a g a i n s t t h e
Ch i n e s e o f t h i r t y - f i v e a n d f o r t y y e a r s a g o , a p r e j u d i c e w h i c h
w a s t h e n p o s s i b l y j u s t i f i a b l e . B u t t h e J a p a n e s e , u n l i k e
t h e Ch i n e s e , s e t t l e i n t h e c o u n t r y p e r m a n e n t l y , i f t h e y a r e ,
a l l o w e d t o d o s o
; t h e y t i l l t h e l a n d t h e y t a k e u p a d m i r a b l y ;
t h e i r w i v e s w o r k w i t h t h e m o n t h e i r h o l d i n g s , a n d t h e i r
c h i l d r e n g r o w u p t o b e a s i n d u s t r i o u s , a s c a p a b l e , a s s e l f -
r e s p e c t i n g a n d e v e n b e t t e r e d u c a t e d t h a n t h e m s e l v e s . T h e y
a r e b e g i n n i n g t o d e m a n d f u l l r i g h t s o f n a t i o n a l i s a t i o n a s
Am e r i c a n c i t i ze n s . T h e r e s e e m s n o r e a s o n w h a t e v e r w h y
t h e s e r i g h t s s h o u l d n o t b e c o n c e d e d
. T h e r e i s n o t h i n g b u t
r a c e a n d r e l i g i o u s a n t a g o n i s m a g a i n s t i t , p r o v i d e d a l w a y s
t h a t , b y a r e a s o n a b l e a n d f r i e n d l y a r r a n g e m e n t w i t h t h e
J a p a n e s e t h e m s e l v e s , t h e n u m b e r s o f t h e i m m i g r a n t s b e
l i m i t e d w i t h i n g i v e n p e r i o d s . T h i s , i t a p p e a r s , t h e J a p a n e s e
Go v e r n m e n t i s w i l l i n g t o c o n c e d e .
B u t t h e s a m e p o s i t i o n h a s a r i s e n w i t h r e g a r d t o B r i t -
i s h Co l u m b i a a n d Au s t r a l i a . I t c a n n o t b e d e a l t w i t h , i n
m y o p i n i o n , b y p e r m a n e n t e x c l u s i o n , i f J a p a n i n s i s t s u p o n
h e r r i g h t s a s a c i v i l i s e d p o w e r
.
T h o s e w h o i m a g i n e , t h e r e f o r e , t h a t t h e w h o l e q u e s t i o n
o f As i a t i c e m i g r a t i o n t o N o r t h Am e r i c a a n d Au s t r a l i a
h a s b e e n m o r e t h a n t e m p o r a r i l y s e t t l e d a r e , i n m y j u d g -
1 9o

T h e Aw a k e n i n g o f As i a
m e n t , d e c e i v i n g t h e m s e l v e s a l t o g e t h e r
. I t i s p o s s i b l e , o f
c o u r s e , t h a t t h e i n t e r n a l d e v e l o p m e n t o f J a p a n , a n d b e h i n d
h e r o f Ch i n a , m a y a f f o r d a f u l l o u t l e t f o r t h e i l l - p a i d l a b o u r
o f t h e i n d u s t r i o u s m i l l i o n s i n J a p a n a n d t h e t e n s o f m i l -
l i o n s o f Ch i n a .
B u t t h i s d o e s n o t s e e m i n t h e l e a s t l i k e l y
f o r m a n y a l o n g y e a r t o c o m e .
Wh e n , c o n s e q u e n t l y , t h e
v a s t p o p u l a t i o n s o f E a s t e r n As i a m o v e i n e a r n e s t t o w a r d s
a p e a c e f u l c o l o n i s a t i o n o f t h e E u r o p e a n s e t t l e m e n t s b o r -
d e r i n g o n t h e Pa c i f i c O c e a n , a n d w h e n t h e y d o t h i s w i t h
t h e s u p p o r t a n d u n d e r t h e l e a d e r s h i p o f t h e Go v e r n m e n t s
o f J a p a n a n d Ch i n a , i t i s d i f f i c u l t t o s e e h o w t h e i r d e m a n d
f o r f r e e a c c e s s t o s u c h s p a r s e l y - p e o p l e d t e r r i t o r i e s a s S o u t h -
e r n Ca l i f o r n i a , B r i t i s h Co l u m b i a a n d We s t e r n Au s t r a l i a
c a n b e e f f e c t i v e l y r e s i s t e d
.
N o r , w h e n t h e y h a v e o n c e l a n d e d , i s i t e a s y t o u n d e r -
s t a n d h o w t h e y a r e t o b e p r e v e n t e d f r o m c o m p e t i n g v i g o r -
o u s l y w i t h w h i t e l a b o u r .
I t i s a s c e r t a i n a s a n y t h i n g c a n
b e t h a t S o c i a l i s m , o r t h e g e n e r a l o r g a n i s a t i o n o f i n d u s t r y
u p o n t h e b a s i s o f c o - o p e r a t i o n i n s t e a d o f c o m p e t i t i o n , w i l l
n o t m a k e h e a d f a s t e n o u g h t o h a n d l e t h i s e c o n o m i c a n d
s o c i a l p r o b l e m b e f o r e i t i s f o r c e d u p o n t h e w o r l d o n a
v a s t s c a l e . T h e t e n d e n c y e v e n o f E u r o p e a n n a t i o n s t o
r e s o r t t o Ch i n e s e l a b o u r a t a p i n c h h a s b e e n s h o w n d u r i n g
t h e w a r b y t h e F r e n c h , a s w e l l a s t h e B r i t i s h , a n d t h i s
t e n d e n c y m a y i n c r e a s e i n t i m e t o c o m e . M e a n w h i l e , I
r e g a r d t h e f a c t b e y o n d d i s p u t e t h a t , u n d e r c a p i t a l i s m , c o m -
p e t i t i v e w a g e d o m a n d p r o d u c t i o n f o r p r o f i t , t h e E u r o p e a n
a n d Am e r i c a n w o r k e r s c a n n o t h o l d t h e i r o w n a g a i n s t t h e
M o n g o l i a n t o i l e r s .
T h e s u b j e c t o f e m i g r a t i o n a n d i m m i g r a t i o n
. w a s
b r o u g h t u p m o r e t h a n o n c e a t I n t e r n a t i o n a l S o c i a l i s t Co n -
g r e s s e s , a n d s p e c i a l Co m m i s s i o n s , o n w h i c h I s e r v e d m y -
s e l f , w e r e a p p o i n t e d t o d e a l w i t h t h e q u e s t i o n
. B u t t h e
i g n o r a n c e o f t h e m a t t e r d i s p l a y e d b y t h e m a j o r i t y o f t h e
m e m b e r s o f t h e Co m m i s s i o n s w a s s o g r e a t , a n d t h e i r d i s -
As i a t i c E m i g r a t i o n

1 91
i n c l i n a t i o n t o l o o k f a c t s i n t h e f a c e , w h i c h i n a n y w a y c o n -
f l i c t e d w i t h t h e i r u n i v e r s a l h u m a n i t a r i a n t h e o r i e s w a s
s o s t r o n g , t h a t t h e R e p o r t s p r e s e n t e d w e r e p r a c t i c a l l y v a l u e -
l e s s
. N o a t t e m p t w a s r e a l l y m a d e t o t r e a t t h e s e r i o u s c o m -
p l i c a t i o n s i n v o l v e d
. E u r o p e a n w o r k e r s i n s h o r t a r e n o t ,
a s y e t , c o m p e t e n t t o h a n d l e t h e w h o l e o f t h i s i m m i g r a t i o n
p r o b l e m , a n d Am e r i c a n a n d Au s t r a l a s i a n w o r k e r s a r e , f o r
t h e m o s t p a r t , b i t t e r l y p r e j u d i c e d .
E m i g r a t i o n f r o m I n d i a , b e i n g d i r e c t l y c o n t r o l l e d b y
t h e I n d i a n Go v e r n m e n t , d o e s n o t p r e s e n t t h e s a m e f e a t u r e s ,
o r c r e a t e t h e s a m e d i f f i c u l t i e s , t h a t h a v e a r i s e n a n d
w i l l
a l m o s t i n e v i t a b l y a r i s e a g a i n i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h t h e o u t -
f l o w f r o m Ch i n a a n d J a p a n
. B u t t h e e c o n o m i c a n t a g o n i s m
t o t h e Ar y a n Hi n d o o s i s a s s t r o n g o n t h e p a r t o f t h e w h i t e s
a s t h e i r o b j e c t i o n t o t h e M o n g o l As i a t i c s .
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m a n i f e s t e d o f l a t e y e a r s b y t h e l e g i s l a t i o n a g a i n s t t h e m i n
Au s t r a l i a , a l r e a d y m e n t i o n e d , a n d m o r e r e c e n t l y i n S o u t h
Af r i c a a n d B r i t i s h Co l u m b i a .
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w o r k e r s w h o c o m p e t e w i t h w h i t e l a b o u r e r s , b u t a s s m a l l
t r a d e r s w h o o u t b i d a n d u n d e r s e l l E u r o p e a n t r a f f i c k e r s e
T h e i r c l a i m t o B r i t i s h c i t i ze n s h i p h a s n o t p r o t e c t e d t h e m
f r o m m o s t u n j u s t a n d s h a m e f u l t r e a t m e n t b y t h e i r f e l l o w -
s u b j e c t s o f t h e B r i t i s h E m p i r e .
T h i s c a n n o t g o o n s a f e l y .
As As i a b e g i n s t o a s s e r t h e r s e l f a n d t o t a k e h e r r i g h t f u l
p l a c e i n t h e w o r l d , I n d i a , l i k e o t h e r p o r t i o n s o f t h a t g r e a t
c o n t i n e n t , w i l l d e m a n d t h a t h e r p e o p l e s h o u l d c e a s e t o b e
t r e a t e d a s i n f e r i o r b e i n g s , w h e n b r o u g h t i n t o c o n t a c t w i t h
t h o s e w h o s e i n t e r e s t s t h e y h a v e h e l p e d t o d e f e n d o n t h e
b a t t l e f i e l d s o f E u r o p e .
T h e r e c a n b e l i t t l e d o u b t t h a t i n t h e n e a r f u t u r e t h i s
w h o l e m a t t e r o f r a c e c o m p e t i t i o n i n . t h e i n d u s t r i a l s p h e r e ,
o u t s i d e As i a i t s e l f , w i l l b e f o r c e d u p o n t h e c o n s i d e r a t i o n
o f t h e B r i t i s h E m p i r e a n d t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s i n p a r t i c u l a r .
T h e s o o n e r , t h e r e f o r e , t h e s u b j e c t i s d i s c u s s e d w i t h o u t
p r e j u d i c e a n d s o m e r e a s o n a b l e d e c i s i o n r e a c h e d , t h e b e t t e r .
1 92

T h e Aw a k e n i n g o f As i a
J a p a n a n d Ch i n a , t o g e t h e r o r
s e p a r a t e l y , a r e v e r y d i f f e r e n t
Po w e r s f r o m w h a t t h e y w e r e i n 1 8 7 9, o r e v e n , r e l a t i v e l y
s p e a k i n g , i n 1 91 1 .
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Am e r i c a a n d t h e w h i t e r a c e s g e n e r a l l y s h o u l d f o r m a s e r i -
o u s j u d g m e n t u p o n t h e c o u r s e t h e y i n t e n d t o p u r s u e t o -
w a r d s Ch i n a a n d t h e Ch i n e s e
. E n g l a n d a n d Am e r i c a ,
e s p e c i a l l y , a r e a l l o w i n g m a t t e r s t o d r i f t a f t e r a f a s h i o n
t h a t c a n s c a r c e l y f a i l t o b e d a n g e r o u s .
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c r y i n g a l o u d f o r t h e "o p e n d o o r " a n d p r o c l a i m i n g t h e
n e c e s s i t y f o r Ch i n e s e i n d e p e n d e n c e , n e i t h e r t h e B r i t i s h
E m p i r e n o r t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s
i s t a k i n g a n y d e f i n i t e s t e p s
t o s e c u r e e i t h e r t h e o n e o r t h e o t h e r
. At t h e s a m e t i m e , t h e
B r i t i s h E m p i r e , b y t h e a c t i o n o f i t s Co l o n i e s i n Au s t r a l i a
a n d B r i t i s h Co l u m b i a , a n d t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s b y i t s s u r -
r e n d e r t o t h e a g i t a t i o n i n Ca l i f o r n i a , a r e p u t t i n g t h e m -
s e l v e s c o m p l e t e l y i n t h e w r o n g b y t h e i r p o l i c y o f e x c l u d i n g
t h e c i v i l i s e d M o n g o l i a n s f r o m t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e c o u n t r i e s
.
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d e m a n d i n g t h e f u l l e s t r i g h t s o f e n t r y a n d s e t t l e m e n t i n
Ch i n a i t s e l f a g a i n s t t h e w i s h e s o f t h e o v e r w h e l m i n g m a -
j o r i t y o f t h e Ch i n e s e p e o p l e .
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i m p o s s i b l e i n t h e n e a r f u t u r e t o k e e p t h e y e l l o w r a c e s
p e r m a n e n t l y o u t o f B r i t i s h a n d Am e r i c a n t e r r i t o r y , s h o u l d
t h e y c o n t i n u e t o w i s h t o i m m i g r a t e a n d s e t t l e t h e r e
. B u t
i t i s m o s t i m p o r t a n t t h a t , i f t h i s i s r e a l l y t h e c a s e , t h e t w o
n a t i o n s m o s t d i r e c t l y c o n c e r n e d i n t h e a t t e m p t e d s o l u t i o n
o f t h i s d i f f i c u l t p r o b l e m o f As i a t i c e m i g r a t i o n a n d i m m i -
g r a t i o n s h o u l d h o l d c l o s e c o n f e r e n c e o n t h e q u e s t i o n
. T o
d r i f t i s t o m o v e t o w a r d s w a r , a s w e h a v e s e e n r e c e n t l y
i n E u r o p e a n a f f a i r s
.
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i n v a s i o n o f I n d i a f r o m t h e We s t , i n m o d e r n t i m e s , b e -
g a n i n e a r n e s t b y w a y o f t r a d e a n d c o m m e r c e . T h e r e w a s
n o p r e c o n c e i v e d i n t e n t i o n o f c o n q u e r i n g t h a t v a s t t e r r i t o r y
b y a n y o f t h e E u r o p e a n s w h o f i r s t l a n d e d a n d m a d e s e t t l e -
m e n t s o n i t s s h o r e s , e x c e p t p e r h a p s f o r a s h o r t t i m e b y t h e
Po r t u g u e s e
. N o r , a s a l r e a d y s a i d i n p a s s i n g , h a s t h e r e e v e r
b e e n a s u c c e s s f u l p r o p a g a n d a o f Ch r i s t i a n i t y i n Hi n d u s t a n ,
s u c h a s m e n a c e d t h e w e l l - b e i n g o f Ch i n a a n d J a p a n
. At
t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e r i v a l r y o f t h e t w o p r i n c i p a l n a t i o n s o f
E u r o p e f o r i n f l u e n c e o v e r t h e I n d i a n Co u r t s a n d K i n g d o m s ,
t h e F r e n c h w e r e t h e s t a t e s m e n a n d a d m i n i s t r a t o r s , t h e E n g -
l i s h w e r e t h e m e r c h a n t s a n d t r a d e r s
. S u c h m e n a s D u p l e i x
a n d B u s s y t o o k a w i d e r v i e w o f I n d i a n a f f a i r s , a n d b e t t e r
u n d e r s t o o d w h a t w o u l d b e t o t h e a d v a n t a g e o f t h e I n d i a n s
t h e m s e l v e s , t h a n t h e E n g l i s h o f t h e s a m e p e r i o d . I n d i a n s ,
a l s o , w e r e f i r s t t r a i n e d t o w a r o n E u r o p e a n p r i n c i p l e s a n d
f o r m e d i n t o a r m i e s o f S e p o y s b y m e n o f t h e Pe r r o n , d e
B o i g n e a n d R a y m o n d t y p e . * Y e t E n g l a n d s u c c e e d e d i n e s -
t a b l i s h i n g h e r r u l e w h e r e F r a n c e f a i l e d ; b e c a u s e h e r a d -
v e n t u r e r s , a s t h e y g a i n e d p o w e r , w e r e s u p p o r t e d f r o m h o m e ,
w h i c h t h e F r e n c h w e r e n o t ; b e c a u s e t h e E n g l i s h f l e e t s
e v e n t u a l l y o b t a i n e d c o n t r o l o f t h e E a s t e r n a s w e l l a s t h e
We s t e r n s e a s ; a n d b e c a u s e , a t t h e c r i t i c a l m o m e n t , t h e
p r e s e n t m a s t e r s o f Hi n d u s t a n m a d e b e t t e r u s e o f t h e t r a i n e d
I n d i a n l e v i e s a n d p l a y e d u p o n t h e d i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n t h e
* Co l o n e l Hy n d m a n d i s a r m e d R a y m o n d ' s f o r c e a t t h e N i za m ' s Co u r t
i n 5 8 02 .
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1 94

T h e Aw a k e n i n g o f As i a
I n d i a n Co u r t s w i t h g r e a t e r a s t u t e n e s s t h a n t h e i r o p p o n e n t s
.
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t r o o p s , l e d b y E n g l i s h m e n , w a s a c h i e v e d , a s i t w e r e , b y a c -
c i d e n t . T h e r e w a s n o o r g a n i s e d e f f o r t w h a t e v e r . T h e c o n -
q u i s t a d o r e s o f S o u t h Am e r i c a a n d M e x i c o w e r e b o r n a g a i n
i n a n e w s h a p e , a n d e q u a l l y d e s t i t u t e o f s c r u p l e , t h r o u g h o u t
t h e s e t t l e m e n t s g r a n t e d a s t r a d i n g c e n t r e s b y t h e R a j a h s a n d
N a w a b s o f I n d i a . T h e E a s t I n d i a Co m p a n y w a s n o t i n t h e
l e a s t d e s i r o u s o f a n n e x i n g a n d g o v e r n i n g l a r g e a n d p o p u l o u s
d i s t r i c t s . O n t h e c o n t r a r y , t h e D i r e c t o r s w e r e n e v e r w e a r y
o f i m p r e s s i n g u p o n t h e i r r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s i n I n d i a t h e p e r -
m a n e n t n e c e s s i t y f o r k e e p i n g t h e i r d i r e c t p o s s e s s i o n s w i t h i n
t h e n a r r o w e s t p o s s i b l e l i m i t s
.
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w a r w i t h t h e i r n e i g h b o u r s . Ho s t i l i t i e s o f a n y k i n d w e r e
w h o l l y o u t s i d e t h e s c o p e o f m o n e y - g e t t i n g c o m m e r c i a l e n -
t e r p r i s e a n d i n j u r i o u s t o b u s i n e s s
.
T h e s o l e a i m a n d o b j e c t o f t h e s e a d v o c a t e s o f p r o f i t a b l e
p e a c e a n d l u c r a t i v e p e r s u a s i o n w a s t o s e c u r e t h e m e a n s f o r
d i s t r i b u t i n g e n o r m o u s d i v i d e n d s o n t h e s h a r e s o f t h e i r
c o m p a n y . Ag g r e s s i o n m u s t b e a v o i d e d , b u t a d e q u a t e p r o f i t s
a n d c o m m e r c i a l r e t u r n s m u s t b e m a d e
. B u t t h e a g e n t s o n
t h e s p o t t o o k t h e m o s t e f f e c t i v e m e a n s a t t h e i r d i s p o s a l t o
s a t i s f y t h e p e c u n i a r y d e m a n d s o f t h e i r c h i e f s i n Lo n d o n , a n d
p a i d l i t t l e a t t e n t i o n t o t h e i r p r o h i b i t i o n o f r e m u n e r a t i v e
r a p i n e . T h u s w a s s e e n t h e m a r v e l l o u s s p e c t a c l e o f c l e r k s
a n d s u p e r c a r g o e s d e v e l o p i n g i n t o g r e a t g e n e r a l s a n d a d -
m i n i s t r a t o r s o f t h e f i r s t r a n k a n d w i n n i n g a n E m p i r e a g a i n s t
f e a r f u l o d d s . T h i s u n e x a m p l e d f a s h i o n o f c o n d u c t i n g t h e
b u s i n e s s o f a m e r e t r a d i n g c o m p a n y , t a k i n g p o s s e s s i o n o f
a c i v i l i s e d E m p i r e a s a d e t a i l o f b u s i n e s s , a n d w a g i n g g r e a t
w a r s i n o r d e r t o p a y h u g e d i v i d e n d s t o s h a r e h o l d e r s t h o u -
s a n d s o f m i l e s a w a y , i s q u i t e e x c e p t i o n a l o n s u c h a s c a l e i n
a l l h u m a n h i s t o r y . N o t h i n g l i k e i t h a d e v e r b e f o r e b e e n
s e e n i n t h e E a s t : n o t h i n g l i k e i t w i l l p r o b a b l y e v e r o c c u r
a g a i n .
T h e B r i t i s h i n I n d i a
1 95
F r o m t h e f i r s t b e g a n t h a t s t e a d y w i t h d r a w a l o f w e a l t h
f r o m I n d i a t o E n g l a n d w h i c h , i n o n e f o r m o r a n o t h e r , h a s
g o n e o n e v e r s i n c e . T h r o u g h o u t t h e l a t t e r p a r t o f t h e
e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y , t h e w e a l t h y E n g l i s h N a b o b , d e n o u n c e d
b y Pi t t , ' w h o h a d r e t u r n e d t o h i s o w n c o u n t r y , a f t e r s h a k i n g
t h e p a g o d a - t r e e t o s o m e p u r p o s e i n h i s o w n i n t e r e s t , w a s t h e
f a m i l i a r t y p e o f t h e r i c h m a n o f y e s t e r d a y . T h e r e a r e t h e
r e c o r d s o f t h e E a s t I n d i a Co m p a n y t o b e a r w i t n e s s t o t h e
c o n d u c t o f t h e f o r t u n e - h u n t e r s o f t h a t h a l c y o n p e r i o d o f
p l u n d e r
. I n d i a w a s t h e E l D o r a d o o f t h e u n s c r u p u l o u s a n d
c r u e l c o m m e r c i a l a d v e n t u r e r . T h e l e g i t i m a t e p r o c e e d i n g s
o f t h e g r e a t c o m p a n y , c h a r t e r e d b y Q u e e n E l i za b e t h a n d
s u c c e s s f u l l y c a r r i e d o n u p t o o u r o w n t i m e , w e r e b a d e n o u g h .
T h e r e i s n o d o u b t a b o u t t h a t . I t w a s n o r o s e - w a t e r m a n -
a g e m e n t w h i c h p a i d s u c h s t u p e n d o u s d i v i d e n d s a n d d r o v e
t h e s t o c k o f t h e l u c k y s h a r e h o l d e r s t o s u c h a n e n o r m o u s p r e -
m i u m . B u t t h e i l l e g i t i m a t e b u s i n e s s o f t h e E a s t w a s i n -
f i n i t e l y w o r s e i n e v e r y r e s p e c t . E v e n t h e l o w e s t c o m m e r c i a l
m o r a l i t y c a n n o t j u s t i f y t h e r o b b e r y a n d r a s c a l i t y w h i c h
p e r v a d e d m a n y d e p a r t m e n t s o f E n g l i s h a d m i n i s t r a t i o n i n
I n d i a f r o m t h e t i m e o f Cl i v e ' s r i s e t o p o w e r u n t i l t h e f i r s t
Go v e r n o r - Ge n e r a l s h i p o f Lo r d Co r n w a l l i s
.
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m a n y o f t h e s u c c e s s f u l f r e e b o o t e r s h a v e b e e n c h a n t e d f o r
i 6 o y e a r s w i t h n a t i o n a l p r i d e a n d e x u l t a t i o n : t h e e f f e c t o f
t h e i r d e p r e d a t i o n s u p o n t h e l u c k l e s s I n d i a n s w h o s u f f e r e d
f r o m t h e i r e x t o r t i o n s , t h o u g h d e n o u n c e d a t t h e t i m e . b y
E n g l i s h m e n o f t h e h i g h e s t c h a r a c t e r a n d r e p u t a t i o n , h a s
s i n c e b e e n o v e r l o o k e d a n d i s n o w a l m o s t f o r g o t t e n
.
I t i s u n n e c e s s a r y i n a n y c a s e t o e n l a r g e u p o n t h e c r i m e s
o f t h e m e n w h o p l u n d e r e d i n t h i s w a y a g r e a t a n d a n c i e n t
c i v i l i s a t i o n . Wh e t h e r Wa r r e n Ha s t i n g s c o u l d o r c o u l d n o t
h a v e a v o i d e d t h e t r a n s a c t i o n s ' s t i g m a t i s e d b y B u r k e , b u t
d i s r e g a r d e d b y t h e I n d i a n s t h e m s e l v e s i n c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f
h i s o t h e r q u a l i t i e s ; w h e t h e r Cl i v e a n d s m a l l e r m e n w e r e
e n t i t l e d t o b e "a m a ze d a t t h e i r o w n m o d e r a t i o n " i n t h e l o o t
1 96

T h e Aw a k e n i n g o f As i a
w h i c h t h e y a p p r o p r i a t e d , a r e m a t t e r s o f c o m p a r a t i v e l y s m a l l
i m p o r t a n c e . T h e g u i l t o r i n n o c e n c e o f i n d i v i d u a l s c o u n t s
f o r l i t t l e i n s u c h a s y s t e m o f w h o l e s a l e r o b b e r y a s a f f l i c t e d
t h e p r o v i n c e s u n d e r i m m e d i a t e E n g l i s h c o n t r o l , a n d e s p e -
c i a l l y B e n g a l a n d O u d e , i n t h e g e n e r a t i o n b e t w e e n 1 7 5 7 ,
t h e d a t e o f t h e b a t t l e o f Pl a s s e y , a n d 1 7 8 6 , w h e n a t t e m p t s
a t r e f o r m b e g a n .
Wh a t t h e t o t a l a m o u n t o f w e a l t h m a y h a v e b e e n w h i c h
w a s a b s t r a c t e d f r o m I n d i a a n d t r a n s p o r t e d t o E n g l a n d ,
w i t h o u t a n y v a l u a b l e r e t u r n , a t t h e e n d o f t h e e i g h t e e n t h
c e n t u r y w i l l p r o b a b l y n e v e r b e k n o w n . I t m u s t h a v e b e e n
q u i t e e n o r m o u s , t r a n s c e n d i n g i n d e e d t h e d r a i n f r o m Am e r i c a
t o E u r o p e w h i c h f o l l o w e d u p o n t h e d i s c o v e r i e s o f Co l u m b u s
a n d h i s s u c c e s s o r s . T h e w e a l t h t h u s a b s t r a c t e d f r o m I n d i a
a n d u s e d i n t h e f o r m o f p r o d u c t i v e c a p i t a l i n E n g l i s h i n d u s -
t r i e s , e s p e c i a l l y t h e c o a l , i r o n a n d c o t t o n i n d u s t r i e s , e n a b l e d
Gr e a t B r i t a i n t o o b t a i n t h e l e a d i n m a n u f a c t u r e a n d c o m -
m e r c e w h i c h g a v e h e r t h e c o n t r o l o f m a r k e t s i n t h e c e n t u r y
w h i c h f o l l o w e d
.
An d t h e I n d i a n s t h e m s e l v e s , w h o p r o -
v i d e d t h e m e a n s f o r t h e a t t a i n m e n t o f t h i s c o m m e r c i a l s u -
p r e m a c y , s u f f e r e d a s e c o n d t i m e , a n d e v e n m o r e h o r r i b l y
t h a n t h e y d i d f r o m d i r e c t e x p r o p r i a t i o n , b y t h e e c o n o m i c
c o n s e q u e n c e s o f t h e i r o r i g i n a l l o s s e s .
I n t h e s e v e n t e e n t h a n d d u r i n g a g r e a t p a r t o f t h e
e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y t h e i m p o r t a t i o n o f I n d i a n c a l i c o e s i n t o
E n g l a n d w a s p r o h i b i t e d , o n t h e g r o u n d t h a t t h e i r c o m p e t i -
t i o n w o u l d h a v e c r u s h e d t h e r i s i n g h o m e i n d u s t r y i n s i m i l a r
g o o d s .
At t h e e n d o f t h e e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y , h o w e v e r ,
o w i n g t o t h e a c c u m u l a t i o n o f r i c h e s , c h i e f l y f r o m Hi n -
d u s t a n , E n g l a n d h a d b e c o m e p o s s e s s e d o f a v i r t u a l m o n o p o l y
o f n e w m a c h i n e r y , r u n b y s t e a m p o w e r , w h i c h e n a b l e d h e r
t o u n d e r s e l l t h e w h o l e w o r l d i n t e x t i l e g o o d s o f e v e r y d e -
s c r i p t i o n . E n g l i s h h a n d l o o m w e a v e r s a n d s p i n n e r s s u f -
f e r e d s e r i o u s l y f r o m t h e c o m p e t i t i o n o f t h e m a c h i n e - m a d e
p r o d u c t s a t t h e i r o w n d o o r ; b u t t h e i r m i s e r i e s w e r e c h i l d ' s -
T h e B r i t i s h i n I n d i a
1 97
p l a y i n c o m p a r i s o n w i t h t h e h o r r o r s i n f l i c t e d u p o n t h e
w e a v e r s o f I n d i a a t t h e s a m e t i m e . N o p r o t e c t i v e t a r i f f
w a s a l l o w e d t o s a f e g u a r d t h e m
. U n c h e c k e d c o m p e t i t i o n ,
f r e e t r a d e i n E n g l i s h g o o d s i n E n g l i s h t e r r i t o r y , w a s a
c o m m e r c i a l r e l i g i o n .
As a c o n s e q u e n c e , t h e s e u n l u c k y p r o d u c e r s o f I n d i a n
f a b r i c s s a w t h e i r m e a n s o f l i v e l i h o o d s w e p t a w a y f r o m t h e m ,
b y a p r o c e s s w h i c h t h e y c o u l d n e i t h e r u n d e r s t a n d n o r w i t h -
s t a n d . T e n s u p o n
t e n s o f t h o u s a n d s o f t h e m p e r i s h e d o f
s t a r v a t i o n ; f o r t h e r e w a s n o p l a c e f o r t h e m i n t h e I n d i a n
s o c i e t y o f t h a t d a y , a p a r t f r o m t h e o n e w h i c h t h e y o c c u -
p i e d
. T h e f o r e i g n g o v e r n m e n t m a d e n o t t h e s l i g h t e s t a t -
t e m p t t o r e g u l a t e t h i s f a t a l f r e e - t r a d e c o m p e t i t i o n , a n d t h e
e f f e c t s o f t h e E n g l i s h c o n n e c t i o n i n t h i s r e s p e c t h a v e b e e n
w h o l l y h a r m f u l t o t h e p e o p l e s o f • I
n d i a . T h e f a t a l r e s u l t s
o f e c o n o m i c c a u s e s a r e c a r e f u l l y d i s r e g a r d e d . S u c c e s s f u l
w a r s a n d c o n t i n e n t a l a n n e x a t i o n s q u i t e e c l i p s e i n i n t e r e s t
t h e s a d f a t e o f t h e m i s e r a b l e I n d i a n w e a v e r s w h o p e r i s h e d
s i l e n t l y o n t h e f i e l d o f c o m m e r c i a l w a r
.
La t e r o n , i t w a s g e n e r a l l y r e c o g n i s e d , b y t h o s e w h o
p r o b e d i n t o t h e m a t t e r , t h a t - t o u s e t h e s t a t e m e n t o f a n
e x c e e d i n g l y a b l e a n d v e h e m e n t c h a m p i o n o f B r i t i s h r u l e
- "T h e e a r l i e r m e m b e r s o f t h e I n d i a n S e r v i c e , c i v i l a n d
m i l i t a r y , m u s t b e p r o n o u n c e d t o b e t h e m o s t c o r r u p t b o d y o f
o f f i c i a l s t h a t e v e r b r o u g h t d i s g r a c e u p o n a c i v i l i s e d g o v e r n -
m e n t . " E f f e c t i v e s t e p s w e r e t a k e n t o c h e c k t h i s o b j e c t i o n -
a b l e f o r m o f t h e e x p l o i t a t i o n o f I n d i a b y E n g l a n d a n d t o
r e g u l a r i s e t h e m e t h o d s b y w h i c h t h e d o m i n a n t p o w e r i n
Hi n d u s t a n r e m u n e r a t e d i t s e l f f r o m I n d i a n r e s o u r c e s f o r t h e
s e r v i c e s r e n d e r e d t o t h e s u b j u g a t e d t e r r i t o r i e s .
T h e i m p r o v e d s y s t e m o f a d m i n i s t r a t i o n w a s s e t o n
f o o t i n 1 7 8 9 a n d , a f t e r h a v i n g i n c i d e n t a l l y c o n q u e r e d t h e
M a h r a t t a s - t h e N a t i v e S t a t e s w h i c h r o s e t o g r e a t p r o m i -
n e n c e o n t h e d e c a y o f t h e M o n g o l a u t h o r i t y - t h e Go v e r n o r -
Ge n e r a l , Lo r d Co r n w a l l i s , f i n a l l y e s t a b l i s h e d E n g l i s h a d m i n -
1 98

T h e Aw a k e n i n g o f As i a
i s t r a t i o n i n I n d i a i n m u c h t h e s a m e s h a p e t h a t i t e x i s t s i n t o -
d a y .
Ho n e s t y w a s f o s t e r e d , i f n o t a s s u r e d , b y p a y m e n t s
t o t h e E u r o p e a n s e m p l o y e d o f s u c h h i g h s a l a r i e s t h a t t h e
t e m p t a t i o n t o a c c e p t b r i b e s , o r t o i n d u l g e i n i l l e g a l a p p r o -
p r i a t i o n , b e c a m e l e s s a n d l e s s i n d u c i v e , i n p r o p o r t i o n t o t h e
r i s k o f r e m o v a l a n d p u n i s h m e n t
. Wh e t h e r t h e f o r m o f g o v -
e r n m e n t t h u s c r e a t e d w a s s u i t e d t o t h e c h a r a c t e r o f t h e
p e o p l e , w h e t h e r i t w a s n o t t o o e x p e n s i v e f o r
t h e w e l l -
b e i n g o f t h e i n h a b i t a n t s , w h e t h e r f o r e i g n e r s w e r e c a p a b l e
o f s u f f i c i e n t l y s y m p a t h i s i n g w i t h a n d u n d e r s t a n d i n g t h e
s o c i a l s y s t e m i n t o w h i c h t h e y h a d b u r g l a r i o u s l y f o r c e d a n
e n t r y , o r w h e t h e r t h e E u r o p e a n i d e a s , l a w s a n d e c o n o m i c
c o n c e p t i o n s i m p o s e d u p o n t h e p o p u l a t i o n w e r e n o t l i k e l y t o
p r o v e i n j u r i o u s - t h e s e w e r e p o i n t s w h i c h t h e n e w Go v e r n -
m e n t n e v e r s t o p p e d t o c o n s i d e r .
F o r 1 3 2 y e a r s , f r o m 1 7 8 6
t o 1 9r g , t h e o f f i c i a l c l a s s o f
f o r e i g n a d m i n i s t r a t o r s h a v e d o n e t h e i r u t m o s t , a l i k e i n
I n d i a a n d i n E n g l a n d , i n Pa r l i a m e n t , o n t h e p l a t f o r m a n d
i n t h e Pr e s s , t o c o n v i n c e t h e w o r l d t h a t B r i t i s h r u l e h a s c o n -
f e r r e d i m m e n s e b e n e f i t o n i t s s u b j e c t s , a n d t h a t t h e i n -
h a b i t a n t s o f Hi n d u s t a n a r e q u i t e i n c a p a b l e o f g o v e r n i n g
t h e m s e l v e s . T h i s h a s n e v e r b e e n t h e v i e w o f t h e m a s s
o f I n d i a n s t h e m s e l v e s , i g n o r a n t , p e a c e f u l a n d s u b m i s s i v e
a s t h e g r e a t m a j o r i t y o f t h e c u l t i v a t o r s m a y b e , w h o c o n -
s t i t u t e m o r e t h a n f o u r - f i f t h s o f t h e e n t i r e p o p u l a t i o n
. An d
t h e r e a r e t h e g r e a t "p r o t e c t e d " I n d i a n S t a t e s , w i t h n e a r l y
7 0, 000, 000 o f p e o p l e , t o p r o v e s t i l l t h a t I n d i a n a d m i n i s t r a -
t i o n o f I n d i a i s b y n o m e a n s t h e h o p e l e s s b u s i n e s s t h a t
E n g l i s h m e n a s a r u l e b e l i e v e i t t o b e .
D u r i n g t h e w h o l e o f t h e p e r i o d r e f e r r e d t o a b o v e
(
1
7 5 7 -
1 8 5 7 ) c o n q u e s t b y f o r c e o f a r m s a n d a n n e x a t i o n b y t h a t
m e a n s , o r b y c h i c a n e , p r e s s e d s t e a d i l y f o r w a r d
. S o m e o f
t h e m i l i t a r y o p e r a t i o n s , a l w a y s c a r r i e d o n i n t h e m a i n b y
I n d i a n t r o o p s , e x h i b i t e d g r e a t s k i l l a n d c o u r a g e o n
t h e
p a r t o f t h e E u r o p e a n l e a d e r s
; t h o u g h s u c h a d i s a s t e r a s
T h e B r i t i s h i n I n d i a

1 99
t h a t o f F e r o ze s h a h s h o w e d t h a t I n d i a n s o l d i e r s u n d e r I n d i a n
g e n e r a l s h a d n o t d e g e n e r a t e d f r o m t h e e a r l i e r d a y s . B u t
t h e m o s t r e m a r k a b l e f a c t , b r o u g h t o u t b y t h o s e o f t h e E n g -
l i s h a d m i n i s t r a t o r s w h o w e r e i n c l o s e s t t o u c h w i t h t h e i r s u b -
j e c t s , a n d h a d t a k e n ' t h e c l o s e s t p a i n s t o s t u d y a n d c o m p r e -
h e n d t h e i r a s p i r a t i o n s , w a s t h a t t h e w o r s t r u l e o f I n d i a n s
b y t h e i r o w n p e o p l e w a s p r e f e r r e d t o t h e b e s t m a n a g e m e n t
b y f o r e i g n e r s .
F o r e x a m p l e , t h e f a m o u s S i r Wi l l i a m S l e e m a n , o f t h e
o l d E a s t I n d i a Co m p a n y , w a s a m a n s o t h o r o u g h l y v e r s e d
i n I n d i a n l a n g u a g e s a n d c u s t o m s , a n d s o c o m p l e t e l y a t h o m e
i n I n d i a n d r e s s a n d m a n n e r s , t h a t h e s u c c e e d e d i n d o i n g t h a t
w h i c h e v e n t h e g r e a t Ak b a r , a t t h e h e i g h t o f h i s p o w e r ,
w a s u n a b l e t o a c h i e v e . He w a s a b l e , t h a t i s t o s a y , t o p u t
d o w n - t h a t e x t r a o r d i n a r y s e m i - r e l i g i o u s s e c t o f s t r a n g l e r s ,
t h e T h u g s , w h o s e m e m b e r s h a d b e e n t h e h o r r o r o f a l l I n d i a n
t r a v e l l e r s f o r h u n d r e d s o f y e a r s . T h e c a p a c i t y f o r d i s -
g u i s e , t h e a s t o u n d i n g c o o l n e s s a n d c o u r a g e d i s p l a y e d b y
S l e e m a n i n t h e c o u r s e o f t h i s t r i u m p h o f d e t e c t i v e e n t e r -
p r i s e a n d r e p r e s s i o n o f c r i m e h a v e n e v e r b e e n e x c e l l e d , i f
e v e r e q u a l l e d . I t w a s a t r u l y m a r v e l l o u s f e a t , p o s s i b l e o n l y
t o a m a n w h o h a d t h e m o s t t h o r o u g h k n o w l e d g e o f I n d i a n
d i a l e c t s a n d p r o v i n c i a l p e c u l i a r i t i e s , w i t h a k e e n i m a g i n a t i o n
a s w e l l , w h i c h g a v e h i m t h e p o w e r o f r e a d i n g i n t o t h e
m i n d s o f t h o s e w i t h w h o m h e w a s b r o u g h t i n t o c o n t a c t ,
u n d e r c i r c u m s t a n c e s t h a t m i g h t h a v e c o s t h i m h i s l i f e a t
a n y m o m e n t . B u t , i n a d d i t i o n t o t h i s a s t o u n d i n g p e r -
f o r m a n c e , S l e e m a n w a s o n e o f t h e a b l e s t a n d b e s t o f t h e
E a s t I n d i a Co m p a n y ' s Ci v i l S e r v a n t s a n d Ad m i n i s t r a t o r s .
N a t u r a l l y , t o o , h e w a s l o y a l t o h i s o w n c o u n t r y m e n .
Y e t w h a t d o e s h e t e l l u s o f a s p e c i f i c i n s t a n c e w i t h w h i c h
h e w a s f a m i l i a r l y a c q u a i n t e d ?
N a t i v e r u l e i n t h e g r e a t
p r o v i n c e o f O u d e w a s i n e v e r y w a y a b o m i n a b l e . I t i s
d o u b t f u l w h e t h e r i n t i m e o f p e a c e a n y w o r s e t y r a n n y w a s
e v e r s e e n i n a n y p a r t o f Hi n d u s t a n . R o b b e r y , t o r t u r e , t h e
2 00

T h e Aw a k e n i n g o f As i a
m o s t f i e n d i s h b a r b a r i t i e s o f e v e r y k i n d , w e r e i n f l i c t e d d a i l y
u p o n t h e w r e t c h e d i n h a b i t a n t s . I f e v e r i n t e r p o s i t i o n b y a
n e i g h b o u r i n g S t a t e , u n d e r p e a c e f u l a n d l a w - a b i d i n g f o r e i g n
c o n t r o l , c o u l d a p p e a r n o t o n l y j u s t i f i a b l e b u t i n e v i t a b l e ,
t h i s w a s s u c h a c a s e
. I n t e r p o s i t i o n a n d a n n e x a t i o n , t h e r e -
f o r e , a c t u a l l y t o o k p l a c e . Wh a t f o l l o w e d ? T h o u g h a l l t h i s
a n a r c h y a n d m i s g o v e r n m e n t w a s s u p p r e s s e d , a n d l i f e a n d
p r o p e r t y w e r e m a d e s e c u r e , u n d e r E n g l i s h l a w a n d j u s t i c e ,
t h e p e o p l e w e r e b i t t e r l y o p p o s e d t o t h e c h a n g e , w h i c h s e e m e d
t o f o r e i g n e y e s t o b e s o m u c h f o r t h e b e t t e r . Am i d a l l
t h e s e p r e v i o u s h o r r o r s , s o s h o c k i n g t 6 E u r o p e a n s o f t h e
n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y , I n d i a n h a b i t s , I n d i a n c u s t o m s a n d I n -
d i a n l a w s w e r e i n t h e m a i n u p h e l d
. T h e l a n d - t a x w a s
r o u g h l y a n d n o t u n r e a s o n a b l y a s s e s s e d a n d l e v i e d , t h e r a -
p a c i t y o f n a t i v e m o n e y - l e n d e r s w a s c h e c k e d , t h e e x i s t i n g
l e g a l m e t h o d s w e r e s i m p l e a n d g e n e r a l l y u n d e r s t o o d .
T o g i v e S i r Wi l l i a m S l e e m a n ' s o w n w o r d s : "T h e r e
w e r e n e i t h e r a c c u m u l a t i n g a r r e a r s o f l a n d r e v e n u e n o r
r u i n o u s b a c k d e b t s t o w e i g h d o w n t h e p r o p r i e t o r s
; t h e r e
w e r e n o u n s a t i s f i e d d e c r e e s o f Co u r t t o d r i v e d e b t o r s
t o h o p e l e s s d e s p a i r
; t h e y c a m e b a c k f r o m t h e i r c o u r t
o f b a n k r u p t c y , t h e j u n g l e f o r e s t , f r e e f r o m e n c u m b r a n c e ;
t h e b r e a d - t a x w a s f i x e d w i t h s o m e r e g a r d t o t h e c o m i n g
h a r v e s t ; a r r e a r s w e r e r e m i t t e d w h e n t h e i m p o s s i b i l i t y o f
p a y m e n t w i t h i n t h e y e a r w a s c l e a r l y d e m o n s t r a t e d
. . . . T h e r e
c o u l d b e n o b l a c k d e s p a i r i n t h o s e d a y s o f c h a n g e f u l m i s -
r u l e
. " N e v e r w a s t h e r e a m o r e c r u s h i n g e x p o s u r e o f t h e
i d e a t h a t h o n e s t y o f a d m i n i s t r a t i o n a n d p e a c e w i t h i n t h e
b o r d e r s o f a s u b j e c t c o u n t r y r e a l l y j u s t i f i e s f o r e i g n d o m i n a -
t i o n
. "T h e p e o p l e , " s o t h i s m a s t e r o f I n d i a n a f f a i r s o p e n l y
d e c l a r e d , "t h e p e o p l e g e n e r a l l y , o r a t l e a s t t h e g r e a t e r p a r t
o f t h e m , w o u l d p r e f e r t o r e s i d e i n O u d e
. . . t h a n i n o u r o w n
d i s t r i c t s , u n d e r t h e e v i l s t h e y a r e e x p o s e d t o f r o m t h e
u n c e r t a i n t y o f o u r l a w s , t h e m u l t i p l i c i t y a n d f o r m a l i t y o f
o u r c o u r t s , t h e p r i d e a n d n e g l i g e n c e o f t h o s e w h o p r e s i d e
T h e B r i t i s h i n I n d i a

2 01
o v e r t h e m , a n d t h e c o r r u p t i o n a n d i n s o l e n c e o f t h o s e w h o
m u s t b e e m p l o y e d t o p r o s e c u t e o r d e f e n d a c a u s e i n t h e m
a n d t o e n f o r c e t h e f u l f i l m e n t o f
a d e c r e e w h e n p a s s e d . . . .
I a m p e r s u a d e d t h a t i f i t w e r e p u t t o t h e v o t e a m o n g t h e
p e o p l e o f O u d e , n i n e t y - n i n e i n a h u n d r e d w o u l d r a t h e r r e -
m a i n a s t h e y a r e , w i t h o u t a n y f e e l i n g o f s e c u r i t y i n l i f e o r
p r o p e r t y , t h a n h a v e o u r s y s t e m i n t r o d u c e d i n i t s p r e s e n t
c o m p l i c a t e d s t a t e
. "
T h i s w a s i n 1 8 5 6 , t h e y e a r b e f o r e t h e g r e a t M u t i n y .
T w o g e n e r a t i o n s h a v e p a s s e d s i n c e t h e n , a n d t h e s y s t e m
i s m o r e c o m p l i c a t e d t h a n e v e r .
N o f e w e r t h e n t w e n t y - f i v e
t h o u s a n d n e w l a w s w e r e p u t o n t h e s t a t u t e - b o o k i n t h e
f i r s t t e n y e a r s o f t h i s t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y a l o n e !
An n e x a t i o n , t h e r e f o r e , t o t h e B r i t i s h E m p i r e i n I n d i a
h a s n e v e r
b e e n w e l c o m e d b y t h e p e o p l e a n n e x e d .
Y e t t h e
d i r e c t g o v e r n m e n t o f E n g l i s h m e n , w h o d i d n o t i n t e r f e r e
w i t h I n d i a n h a b i t s b u t d i d t h e i r b e s t t o e n s u r e h o n e s t a n d
p r o m p t j u d g m e n t i n c a s e o f d i f f e r e n c e , a n d u s e d t h e i r a u -
t h o r i t y t o r e s t r i c t e c o n o m i c h a r d s h i p a n d t o s e c u r e f a i r p l a y ,
h a s o f t e n b e e n i m m e n s e l y p o p u l a r . S u c h m e n a r e n e v e r
f o r g o t t e n b y t h e i n h a b i t a n t s o f t h e i r p r o v i n c e s o v e r w h i c h
t h e y h a v e o n c e e x e r c i s e d t h e i r b e n i g n s w a y .
Wh o l e d i s -
t r i c t s w o u l d t u r n o u t t o w e l c o m e t h e m ; m e n , w o m e n a n d
c h i l d r e n w o u l d c o v e r t h e m w i t h f l o w e r s a n d c h a n t t h e i r
p r a i s e s , w h e n t h e y r e t u r n e d a f t e r t h e l a p s e o f m a n y y e a r s .
T h i s s o r t o f o n e - m a n r u l e c a l l e d , o f c o u r s e , f o r t h o r o u g h
k n o w l e d g e o f t h e c o u n t r y a n d t h e l a n g u a g e , a s w e l l a s f o r
l o n g a n d c o n t i n u o u s r e s i d e n c e a m o n g t h e p e o p l e t h e m s e l v e s .
B u t s u c h i n s t a n c e s o f i n d i v i d u a l s u c c e s s b e f o r e n a r r o w -
m i n d e d b u r e a u c r a c y g a i n e d c o n t r o l w e r e n o t r a r e u n d e r t h e
"K u m p a n i B a h a d u r . " T h e s e r v a n t s o f t h e Go v e r n m e n t
w h o w e r e g i v e n a p p o i n t m e n t s w e n t t o I n d i a v e r y y o u n g ,
f o u n d t h e m s e l v e s a t t h e e a r l y a g e o f s e v e n t e e n o r e i g h t e e n
, t h r o w n a m o n g a s t r a n g e p o p u l a t i o n , a n d o f t e n e n t r u s t e d
w i t h p o w e r s w h i c h r e n d e r e d i t i m p e r a t i v e t h a t t h e y s h o u l d
2 02

T h e Aw a k e n i n g o f As i a
b e c o m e t h o r o u g h l y a c q u a i n t e d w i t h t h o s e o v e r w h o m t h e y
w e r e p l a c e d . I t i s c r e d i t a b l e t o o u r r a c e t h a t , a f t e r t h e
e a r l y d a y s o f r a p i n e a n d r a s c a l i t y , s o m a n y w e r e s u c c e s s -
f u l u n d e r s u c h t r y i n g c i r c u m s t a n c e s .
M o r e o v e r , t h e E a s t I n d i a Co m p a n y i t s e l f , t h o u g h i t
k e p t u p a E u r o p e a n a n d a p o w e r f u l I n d i a n Ar m y , w a s n o t
l a v i s h i n i t s e x p e n d i t u r e ; n o r , i n s p i t e o f a l l d r a w b a c k s , a n d
t h e g e n e r a l o b j e c t i o n t o t h e n e w m e t h o d s g r a d u a l l y g a i n -
i n g g r o u n d , w a s i t r e g a r d e d w i t h h a t r e d b y i t s s u b j e c t s .
T h e d r a i n o f p r o d u c e w i t h o u t r e t u r n f r o m I n d i a t o E n g -
l a n d w a s t r i f l i n g i n t h e Co m p a n y d a y s c o m p a r e d w i t h w h a t
i t a f t e r w a r d s b e c a m e
. S o m e o f t h e m o s t c a p a b l e o f t h o s e
w h o r o s e t o h i g h a p p o i n t m e n t s r e m e m b e r e d w h a t I n d i a h a d
b e e n a n d m i g h t b e a g a i n . A f e w s a w t h a t E u r o p e a n d o m i -
n a t i o n c o u l d o n l y b e t e m p o r a r y , a n d , s o f a r a s w a s p o s -
s i b l e , e n d e a v o u r e d t o p r e p a r e t h e i r c o u n t r y m e n f o r t h e
w i t h d r a w a l w h i c h t h e y k n e w , s o o n e r o r l a t e r , w a s i n e v i t a b l e
.
B u t t h e g e n e r a l o p i n i o n , b o t h i n I n d i a a n d i n E n g l a n d , w a s
t h a t t h e I n d i a n s , s p l i t u p i n t o m a n y r a c e s a n d p e o p l e s , w i t h
a t l e a s t f o u r a n t a g o n i s t i c r e l i g i o n s , p r o f e s s e d b y m i l l i o n s
o f p e o p l e , a n d w i t h t h e c a s t e s y s t e m w h i c h s h u t o u t w h o l e
s e c t i o n s o f t h e i n h a b i t a n t s f r o m c l o s e c o n t a c t w i t h o n e
a n o t h e r , w e r e q u i t e i n c a p a b l e o f c o m m o n a c t i o n a g a i n s t t h e
f o r e i g n e r s , h o w e v e r m u c h t h e y m i g h t d i s l i k e t h e i r r u l e .
T h e g r e a t p a s t o f Hi n d u s t a n w a s a l r e a d y b e i n g f o r g o t t e n
i n a n y e s t i m a t e o f t h e f u t u r e o f t h e E m p i r e . Al r e a d y i t
w a s t a k e n f o r g r a n t e d t h a t E u r o p e a n i s a t i o n w a s t h e o n e
t h i n g n e e d f u l t o m a k e o f I n d i a a g r e a t e r E m p i r e t h a n e v e r ,
a n d t h u s t o i n c r e a s e t h e p o w e r a n d w e a l t h o f E n g l a n d .
Y e t , m a n y h u n d r e d s o f y e a r s b e f o r e , t h e n a t i o n s o f
I n d i a h a d b e e n a c o l l e c t i o n o f w e a l t h y a n d h i g h l y c i v i l i s e d
p e o p l e s , p o s s e s s e d o f a g r e a t l a n g u a g e , w i t h a n e l a b o r a t e
c o d e o f l a w s a n d s o c i a l r e g u l a t i o n s , w i t h h e x q u i s i t e a r t i s t i c
t a s t e i n a r c h i t e c t u r e a n d d e c o r a t i o n , h a v i n g b e a u t i f u l m a n u -
f a c t u r e s o f a l l k i n d s , a n d e n d o w e d w i t h r e l i g i o u s i d e a s a n d
T h e B r i t i s h i n I n d i a

2 03
p h i l o s o p h i c a n d s c i e n t i f i c c o n c e p t i o n s w h i c h h a v e g r e a t l y
i n f l u e n c e d t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e m o s t p r o g r e s s i v e r a c e s o f
t h e We s t . O n e o f t h e . n o b l e s t i n d i v i d u a l m o r a l i s t s w h o e v e r
l i v e d , S a k y a Ho u n i , w a s a Hi n d u ; t h e Co d e o f M e n u , o f
t h e n i n t h c e n t u r y , b e f o r e t h e Ch r i s t i a n E r a , i s s t i l l a s e s s e n -
t i a l a s t u d y f o r t h e j u r i s t a s t h e La w s o f t h e T w e l v e T a b l e s
o r t h e I n s t i t u t e s o f J u s t i n i a n ; Ak b a r t h e M o h a m m e d a n
w a s t h e g r e a t e s t m o n a r c h w h o e v e r r u l e d t h e E a s t ; w h i l e ,
e v e n i n l a t e r t i m e s , n a t i o n s o v e r w h o m t h e E n g l i s h h e l d
s u p r e m a c y h a v e p r o v e d t h a t t h e r e a r e a m o n g t h e m n o u n -
w o r t h y d e s c e n d a n t s o f t h e a u t h o r s o f t h e V e d a s o f t h e
M a h a b a r a t a a n d R a m a y a n a , o f t h e a r c h i t e c t u r e o f t h e T a j
M a h a l a n d B e e j a p o r e , o f T o d e r M u l l a n d N a n a F t i r n a v a
o f B a b e r , Hy d e r Al i a n d R u n j e e t S i n g h . N e v e r t h e l e s s ,
n i n e - t e n t h s o f w h a t h a s b e e n w r i t t e n a b o u t I n d i a i n E n g -
l i s h i s s o e x p r e s s e d t h a t w e a r e l e d t o b e l i e v e t h a t s t a b l e
c i v i l i s e d g o v e r n m e n t o n l y b e g a n w i t h t h e E u r o p e a n R a j ,
a n d t h a t n o t h i n g s h o r t o f w h o l e s a l e E u r o p e a n i s a t i o n c a n
s a v e Hi n d u s t a n f r o m p e r m a n e n t a n a r c h y .
I t i s n o w r e c o g n i s e d t h a t t h e r e v o l t w h i c h g o e s b y t h e
n a m e o f t h e I n d i a n M u t i n y w a s i n r e a l i t y a n a t i o n a l r i s i n g
a g a i n s t t h e g r o w i n g e x t e n s i o n o f E u r o p e a n d o m i n a t i o n
.
T h e n a t i v e t r o o p s o f t h e E a s t I n d i a Co m p a n y w e r e r o u s e d
a g a i n s t t h e i r o f f i c e r s b y m i s r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s c a l c u l a t e d t o o u t -
r a g e t h e d e a r e s t f e e l i n g s , o r p r e j u d i c e s , o f s o l d i e r s o f a l l
c r e e d s a n d c a s t e s
. B u t t h e s c o p e o f t h e u p h e a v a l w e n t f a r
b e y o n d t h e a r m y i t s e l f . A c o n s i d e r a b l e p a r t o f I n d i a w a s
d i r e c t l y h o s t i l e t o E n g l i s h r u l e , s o f a r a s t h e m o r e i n t e l l i -
g e n t a n d w e l l - t o - d o c l a s s e s w e r e c o n c e r n e d . T h e p l a n s o f
t h e l e a d e r s w e r e w e l l l a i d
; t h e d i s c o n t e n t u p o n w h i c h t h e y
c o u l d r e c k o n w a s w i d e s p r e a d
; t h e r e c e n t r e f u s a l o f t h e
a n c i e n t r i g h t o f a d o p t i o n , b y t h e Go v e r n m e n t , a n d s e i zu r e
o f t h e t e r r i t o r i e s o f I n d i a n Ch i e f t a i n s o n t h a t g r o u n d h a d
a l a r m e d a l l t h e Pr i n c e s ; t h e d a t e o f t h e a t t a c k h a d b e e n w e l l
c h o s e n , b e i n g a h u n d r e d y e a r s a f t e r t h e m a n i f e s t s u p e r i o r i t y
2 04

T h e Aw a k e n i n g o f As i a
o f t h e w h i t e m a n i n a r m s h a d b e e n f i r s t a d m i t t e d
; a n d t h e
s e c r e t o f t h e c o n s p i r a c y w a s , o n t h e w h o l e , w e l l k e p t
. Y e t
t h e i n s u r r e c t i o n f a i l e d
.
T h i s a r o s e f r o m s e v e r a l c a u s e s . T h e o r i g i n a l M u t i n y
a t M e e r u t b e g a n b e f o r e i t w a s i n t e n d e d , a n d b e f o r e t h e
g e n e r a l o u t b r e a k w h i c h w a s t o f o l l o w , o r t o o c c u r s i m u l -
t a n e o u s l y , w a s r e a d y . T h e a g r i c u l t u r a l p o p u l a t i o n o v e r t h e
g r e a t e r p a r t o f I n d i a d i d n o t s y m p a t h i s e s u f f i c i e n t l y w i t h
t h e r e v o l t t o o p p o s e a c t i v e l y , o r e v e n p a s s i v e l y , t h e o p e r a -
t i o n s o f t h e Go v e r n m e n t t r o o p s
; t h e v a s t n u m b e r o f c a m p -
f o l l o w e r s r e q u i r e d t o e n a b l e a n a r m y t o m o v e u n d e r E u r o -
p e a n l e a d e r s h i p , n e v e r f e l l s h o r t f o r w a n t o f r e c r u i t s . T h e
i n s u r g e n t s d e v e l o p e d n o r e a l l y c a p a b l e l e a d e r , n o r a n y o n e
o f f i r s t - r a t e i n i t i a t i v e , w i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n o f T a n t i a T o p e e
a n d t h a t f a m o u s p r i n c e s s t h e R a n e e o f J h a n s i , w h o w e r e n o t
s u f f i c i e n t l y s u p p o r t e d . O n t h e o t h e r h a n d , t h e E n g l i s h s o l -
d i e r s a n d o f f i c e r s e x h i b i t e d w o n d e r f u l v i g o u r , c o u r a g e a n d
e n d u r a n c e ; w h i l e i n d i v i d u a l c i v i l i a n o f f i c i a l s o f t h e Go v e r n -
m e n t , w h o h a d b e e n l o n g i n t h e c o u n t r y a n d w e r e k n o w n
a n d t r u s t e d b y t h e I n d i a n s u n d e r t h e i r c o n t r o l , k e p t w h o l e
d i s t r i c t s q u i e t , w h i c h w o u l d o t h e r w i s e h a v e j o i n e d t h e i n -
s u r g e n t s .
B u t , a b o v e a l l , t h e E n g l i s h Go v e r n m e n t o w e d i t s s u c -
c e s s f u l s u p p r e s s i o n o f t h e o u t b r e a k t o t h e f a c t t h a t t h e
S i k h s , t h e g r e a t p e o p l e w h o h a d m o s t r e c e n t l y b e e n d e -
f e a t e d b y t h e f o r e i g n r u l e r s , t o o k s i d e s w i t h t h e i r c o n -
q u e r o r s a n d r e n d e r e d i n v a l u a b l e a s s i s t a n c e , w h i c h e n s u r e d
v i c t o r y t o t h e E u r o p e a n s . T h e r i s i n g w a s t h e r e f o r e p u t
d o w n , a n d a l l Hi n d u s t a n c a m e u n d e r t h e d i r e c t o r i n d i r e c t
c o n t r o l o f t h e B r i t i s h Cr o w n . T h e r e u p o n t h e p e r i o d i c a l
s u r v e y , w h i c h w a s n e c e s s a r y b e f o r e t h e E a s t I n d i a Co m -
p a n y c o u l d o b t a i n t h e r e n e w a l o f i t s Ch a r t e r , w a s d o n e
a w a y w i t h , a n d o n e m o r e r e a s o n a b l e s e c u r i t y f o r j u s t i c e
w a s a b r o g a t e d .
I n d i a , w i t h i t s 3 1 5 , 000, 000 o f i n h a b i t a n t s , h a s f o r j u s t
T h e B r i t i s h i n I n d i a

2 05
s i x t y y e a r s b e e n u n d e r t h e m a n a g e m e n t o f t h e m o s t e x -
t r a o r d i n a r y a n d f o r t u i t o u s s y s t e m o f f o r e i g n d o m i n a t i o n
k n o w n i n t h e h i s t o r y o f m a n . T h e r u l e r s c o m e i n s u c c e s -
s i o n f r o m w i t h o u t , e d u c a t e d , u n t i l t h e i r a p p o i n t m e n t a t
t h e a g e o f m o r e t h a n t w e n t y - o n e , i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h m e t h -
o d s a s r e m o t e f r o m , a n d a s i r r e c o n c i l a b l e w i t h , As i a t i c
i d e a s a s i t i s p o s s i b l e f o r t h e m t o b e
. Al i k e i n t h e i r w o r k
a n d i n t h e i r p l e a s u r e , t h e y k e e p a s f a r a l o o f f r o m t h e
p e o p l e t h e y g o v e r n a s p o s s i b l e . V e r y r a r e l y d o t h e y m a r r y
I n d i a n s : s t i l l m o r e r a r e l y d o t h e y s e t t l e p e r m a n e n t l y i n
t h e c o u n t r y . T h e h e a d o f t h e Go v e r n m e n t , w h o h i m s e l f i s
b r o u g h t o u t f r e s h f r o m E u r o p e , a n d i s e n t i r e l y i g n o r a n t
o f I n d i a , d o e s n o t r e m a i n i n o f f i c e f o r m o r e t h a n f i v e y e a r s
.
Hi s s u b o r d i n a t e s r e t u r n "h o m e " f r e q u e n t l y f o r t h e i r h o l i -
d a y s a n d g o b a c k t o E n g l a n d p e r m a n e n t l y , t o l i v e o n a
c o n s i d e r a b l e p e n s i o n , a f t e r t h e i r t e r m o f s e r v i c e i s c o m -
p l e t e d .
T h e l o n g e r t h i s r e i g n o f w e l l - m e a n i n g b u t u n s y m -
p a t h e t i c c a r p e t - b a g g e r s c o n t i n u e s t h e l e s s i n t i m a t e d o t h e i r
g e n e r a l r e l a t i o n s w i t h t h e I n d i a n p e o p l e b e c o m e . T h e c o l o u r
a n d r a c e p r e j u d i c e , w h i c h e x i s t e d n o t a t a l l , o r t o a v e r y
s m a l l e x t e n t , a t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f E n g l i s h d o m i n a n c e , n o w
b e c o m e s s t r o n g e r a n d s t r o n g e r e v e r y y e a r
. I n I n d i a i t s e l f
m e n o f a n c i e n t l i n e a g e , b e s i d e w h i c h t h e d e s c e n t o f t h e
o l d e s t E u r o p e a n a r i s t o c r a c y i s a m u s h r o o m g r o w t h , a r e
c o n s i d e r e d i n t h e Pr e s i d e n c y T o w n s , a s w e l l a s o n t h e r a i l -
w a y s , u n f i t t o a s s o c i a t e o n e q u a l t e r m s w i t h w h i t e y o u n g
b u r e a u c r a t s j u s t a r r i v e d i n t h e c o u n t r y
. An d t h e s e "c o m -
p e t i t i o n - w a l l a h s , " o w i n g t h e i r p o s i t i o n t o o o f t e n t o d e s k -
w o r k , t h o u g h c l e v e r e n o u g h i n t h e i r o w n w a y , l a c k n o w a -
d a y s t h a t i n d e s c r i b a b l e q u a l i t y o f t h e S a h i b o r "g e n t l e -
m a n " w h i c h i s n o w h e r e s o i n s t i n c t i v e l y r e c o g n i s e d a s i n
As i a .
T h e c o n s e q u e n c e s o f a l l t h i s w i l l a p p e a r l a t e r
. I n v i e w
o f t h e s e s i m p l e f a c t s i t i s a s t o u n d i n g t h a t t h e E n g l i s h a d -
2 o 6

T h e Aw a k e n i n g o f As i a
m i n i s t r a t i o n s h o u l d b e s o s u c c e s s f u l a s i t h a s b e e n a n d e v e n
n o w i s . B u t s t i l l m o r e w o n d e r f u l d o e s i t s e e m t h a t a n o t h e r
a n d m o r e f o r m i d a b l e u p h e a v a l s h o u l d n o t h a v e c o m e a l -
r e a d y . T h e c o m p l e t e d i s a r m a m e n t o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n a n d
t h e c a r e f u l e f f o r t s m a d e t o p e r p e t u a t e , a n d e v e n t o i n t e n s i f y ,
t h e o l d o b s t a c l e s t o c o m m o n a c t i o n b e t w e e n t h e v a r i o u s s e c -
t i o n s o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n h a v e , h o w e v e r , d o n e m u c h t o k e e p
t h i n g s a s t h e y a r e
.
I w i l l q u o t e a n E n g l i s h w r i t e r w h o k n e w I n d i a w e l l a n d
c a n n o t b e a c c u s e d o f b e i n g i n t h e l e a s t d e g r e e h o s t i l e t o h i s
o w n c o u n t r y m e n , w h o , o n t h e c o n t r a r y , t h r o u g h o u t h i s c a -
r e e r l o o k e d a t m o s t q u e s t i o n s f r o m a n E n g l i s h p o i n t o f
v i e w : "N o t o n l y i s , t h e r e n o w h i t e r a c e i n I n d i a , n o t o n l y
i s t h e r e n o w h i t e Co l o n y , b u t t h e r e i s n o w h i t e m a n w h o
p u r p o s e s t o r e m a i n . . . . N o r u l e r s t a y s t h e r e t o h e l p , t o c r i t i -
c i s e o r e d u c a t e h i s s u c c e s s o r . N o w h i t e s o l d i e r f o u n d s a
f a m i l y .
N o w h i t e m a n w h o m a k e s a f o r t u n e b u i l d s a
h o u s e o r b u y s a n e s t a t e f o r h i s d e s c e n d a n t s . T h e v e r y
p l a n t e r , t h e v e r y e n g i n e - d r i v e r , t h e v e r y f o r e m a n o f w o r k s ,
d e p a r t s b e f o r e h e i s s i x t y , l e a v i n g n o c h i l d , n o h o u s e , n o
t r a c e o f h i m s e l f b e h i n d
.
N o w h i t e m a n t a k e s r o o t i n I n d i a ,
a n d t h e n u m b e r e v e n o f s o j o u r n e r s i s a m o n g t h o s e m a s s e s
i m p e r c e p t i b l e
. "
An d o n w h a t i s t h i s a l i e n s u p r e m a c y b a s e d ? U p o n
f i f t e e n h u n d r e d f o r e i g n a d m i n i s t r a t o r s i s o l a t e d a m o n g t h e
h u n d r e d s o f m i l l i o n s o f I n d i a n s - r a . r i m a n t e s i n g u r g i t o
v a s t o - n o t o n e o f w h o m , w i t h t h e b e s t i n t e n t i o n s i n t h e
w o r l d , a n d e n j o y i n g a f a r c l o s e r i n t i m a c y w i t h h i s s u b -
j e c t s t h a n a m o d e r n Ci v i l S e r v a n t w o u l d c l a i m , c a n e x e r -
c i s e a n y l a s t i n g i n f l u e n c e o n t h e p e o p l e c o m m i t t e d t o h i s
c h a r g e . T h e s e a r e t h e d i s t r i c t o f f i c e r s , t h e r e a l r u l e r s
o f I n d i a , u p o n w h o m t h e t r u e r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s o f g o v e r n -
m e n t f a l l . E a c h o f t h e m i s i n h i s w a y a Go v e r n o r , a n d
t h e s e a r e s o m e o f h i s d u t i e s : He i s -
Co l l e c t o r o f t h e La n d R e v e n u e .
T h e B r i t i s h i n I n d i a

2 07
R e g i s t r a r o f t h e l a n d e d p r o p e r t y i n t h e D i s t r i c t .
J u d g e b e t w e e n l a n d l o r d a n d t e n a n t .
M i n i s t e r i a l o f f i c e r o f t h e Co u r t s o f J u s t i c e
.
T r e a s u r e r a n d Ac c o u n t a n t o f t h e D i s t r i c t .
E x - o f f i c i o Pr e s i d e n t o f t h e l o c a l r a t e s Co m m i t t e e
.
R e f e r e e f o r a l l q u e s t i o n s o f c o m p e n s a t i o n f o r l a n d s
t a k e n u p f o r p u b l i c p u r p o s e s .
Ag e n t f o r t h e Go v e r n m e n t i n a l l l o c a l s u i t s t o w h i c h
i t i s a p a r t y .
R e f e r e e i n l o c a l Pu b l i c Wo r k s .
M a g i s t r a t e , Po l i c e M a g i s t r a t e a n d Cr i m i n a l J u d g e .
He a d o f t h e Po l i c e .
E x - o f f i c i o Pr e s i d e n t o f M u n i c i p a l i t i e s . *
I t i s u t t e r l y , i m p o s s i b l e t h a t a l l t h e s e m u l t i f a r i o u s d u -
t i e s , w i t h t h e e n d l e s s r e p o r t s t h a t h a v e t o b e w r i t t e n a n d t h e
q u e s t i o n s w i t h s u p e r i o r s w h i c h h a v e t o b e d i s c u s s e d , c a n
b e p e r f o r m e d s a t i s f a c t o r i l y .
M a n y o f t h e a b l e s t o f t h e
Ci v i l S e r v a n t s t h e m s e l v e s a d m i t t h a t t h i s i s s o . B u t t h e y
c a n s u g g e s t n o r e m e d y w h i c h w o u l d n o t i n v o l v e t h e r e -
m o v a l o f t h e e x i s t i n g E u r o p e a n d o m i n a t i o n . Co n s t a n t
t r a n s f e r s f r o m d i s t r i c t t o d i s t r i c t a n d f r e q u e n t f u r l o u g h s
t o E u r o p e m a k e t h i n g s w o r s e . He r e a g a i n i s a c r i t i c i s m
b y a n E n g l i s h o f f i c i a l i n I n d i a , w h e n t h e s i t u a t i o n w a s b y
n o m e a n s s o a c u t e a s i t i s t o - d a y . T h i s o f f i c i a l h i m s e l f
w a s b r o u g h t i n t o c o n t a c t w i t h I n d i a n s m u c h m o r e f a m i l i a r l y
t h a n m o s t o f h i s c o u n t r y m e n , h i s f a m i l y a l s o h a d b e e n c o n -
n e c t e d w i t h I n d i a f o r m o r e t h a n a c e n t u r y , a n d f u r n i s h e d
t w o o r t h r e e D i r e c t o r s t o t h e E a s t I n d i a Co m p a n y
"I t i s i n g e n e r a l s a d l y t r u e t h a t E n g l i s h m e n i n I n d i a
l i v e t o t a l l y e s t r a n g e d f r o m t h e p e o p l e a m o n g w h o m t h e y
a r e s o j o u r n i n g . T h i s e s t r a n g e m e n t i s p a r t l y u n a v o i d a b l e ,
b e i n g t h e r e s u l t o f n a t i o n a l c u s t o m s , l a n g u a g e , a n d c a s t e .
B u t , o n t h e w h o l e , t h e r e i s n o d o u b t , I t h i n k , t h a t i t m i g h t
i n g r e a t p a r t b e r e m o v e d i f E n g l i s h m e n w o u l d m a k e u p
* S i r Wi l l i a m Hu n t e r f i r s t g a v e t h i s l i s t .
2 08

T h e Aw a k e n i n g o f As i a
t h e i r m i n d s ( b u t h o w c a n t h e y b e o r d e r e d t o d o s o ? ) t o
a s s u m e a l e s s c o n t e m p t u o u s a t t i t u d e . S o m e n a t i v e s i n s o m e
r e s p e c t s a r e ( i t m u s t b e a d m i t t e d ) c o n t e m p t i b l e ; b u t n o t
a l l , o r n e a r l y a l l . We m a y s a y t h a t , w h i l e t h e r e i s f a u l t
o n b o t h s i d e s , t h e g r e a t e r f a u l t i s o n o u r s i d e , b e c a u s e w e
h a v e n o t p e r f o r m e d a d u t y - c l e a r l y l a i d u p o n u s b y t h e
n a t u r e o f o u r p o s i t i o n i n I n d i a - o f s t r i v i n g t o u n d e r s t a n d
t h e n a t i v e s . T h e E n g l i s h c o n t e m p t p r o c e e d s i n t h e m a i n
f r o m E n g l i s h i g n o r a n c e , a n d E n g l i s h i g n o r a n c e i s a c c o m -
p a n i e d , a s s o o f t e n h a p p e n s , b y E n g l i s h b l u s t e r . T h o s e w h o
h a v e k n o w n t h e n a t i v e s w e l l h a v e g e n e r a l l y l i k e d t h e m , e v e n
l o v e d t h e m , a n d t h e i r l o v e h a s b e e n r e t u r n e d w i t h a r e -
m a r k a b l e w e a l t h o f u n s e l f i s h a f f e c t i o n . T h a t n a t i v e s a r e
w o r t h t h e e f f o r t o f k n o w i n g , n o h u m a n e p e r s o n c a n d o u b t
;
b u t b e c a u s e w i t h t h e d i f f e r e n c e o f l a n g u a g e a n d h a b i t s i t
d o e s t a k e s o m e e f f o r t t o k n o w t h e m , m o s t E n g l i s h m e n k e e p
a l o o f
. T h i s t e n d e n c y t o a l o o f n e s s i s g r e a t e r t h a n i t u s e d
t o b e , a n d i s , I f e a r , i n c r e a s i n g . T h i s i s a g r e a t m i s f o r t u n e .
S o m e t h i n k t h a t t h e i n c r e a s e d t e n d e n c y c o m e s f r o m a n
i n c r e a s e o f E u r o p e a n s o f a l o w e r s o c i a l o r d e r t h a n t h o s e
w h o f o r m e r l y c a m e t o I n d i a
. I t m a y b e s o ; i f s o i t c a n
o n l y b e r e g a r d e d a n d d e p l o r e d a s a n e w ( b u t n e c e s s a r y )
o r d e r o f t h i n g s . Ce r t a i n i t i s t h e n a t i v e s c o n s i d e r t h e
S a h i b i s n o t w h a t h e u s e d t o b e - c e r t a i n , t o o , t h a t E n g l i s h
r u l e i s n o t p o p u l a r .
"T h i s i s t h e g r e a t s o c i a l c a l a m i t y a t t e n d i n g o u r R a j
i n I n d i a . F o r i t i s n o t e a s y t o d i c t a t e a r e m e d y . N o t h i n g
c a n b e e f f e c t e d b y p r e a c h i n g o r e x h o r t a t i o n . T h e e x a m p l e s
o f E n g l i s h m e n p l a c e d i n h i g h o f f i c e m a y d o , a n d h a v e d o n e ,
s o m e t h i n g t o f o s t e r g o o d w i l l b e t w e e n t h e d i f f e r e n t r a c e s ;
b u t t h e r e s p e c t d u e t o h i g h o f f i c e n e c e s s a r i l y i n v o l v e s s o m e
f o r m a l i t y , a n d f o r b i d s t h e e x p r e s s i o n o f c o r d i a l s e n t i m e n t s .
O n t h e w h o l e , n o t h i n g t a n g i b l e c a n b e a c h i e v e d t i l l t h e o r -
d i n a r y E n g l i s h m a n b e g i n s b y t r e a t i n g t h e o r d i n a r y n a t i v e
a s w o r t h y t o b e k n o w n , a n d t r e a t s h i m , w h e n f o u n d w o r t h y ,
T h e B r i t i s h i n I n d i a

2 09
a s a n e q u a l a n d a f r i e n d . B u t t h a t h a p p y d a y h a s n o t c o m e
y e t . T h e a r m y o f t h e ` d a m n e d n i g g e r ' Ph i l i s t i n e s i s
s t r o n g . "
T h e r e c a n b e n o d o u b t t h a t t h e w a r h a s t e n d e d t o i n -
c r e a s e t h e g e n e r a l d i s a f f e c t i o n i n I n d i a , n o r t h a t t h i s d i s -
a f f e c t i o n w i l l g r o w s t i l l f u r t h e r u n l e s s t h e B r i t i s h Go v e r n -
m e n t m a k e s u p i t s m i n d t o g r a n t I n d i a n s a l l t h a t t h e i r
l e a d e r s n o w d e m a n d , a n d p r e p a r e s t h e w a y f o r s t i l l g r e a t e r
c o n c e s s i o n s i n t h e n e a r f u t u r e . T h e p e o p l e o f E n g l a n d
d o n o t u n d e r s t a n d t h i s . T h e An g l o - I n d i a n a u t h o r i t i e s , a s
w e l l a s t h e Go v e r n m e n t a t h o m e , s t i l l t h i n k t h e y c a n s a f e l y
s i d e - t r a c k o r c a j o l e t h e w h o l e m o v e m e n t . T h a t i s w h a t t h e
I n d i a n s t h e m s e l v e s s a d l y a n t i c i p a t e , a n d t h e y k n o w i t m u s t
i n e v i t a b l y l e a d t o v e r y g r e a t t r o u b l e . T h i s E n g l i s h m e n ,
c a n n o t b e l i e v e , b e c a u s e t h e y p a y a t t e n t i o n o n l y t o t h e m u c h -
a d v e r t i s e d l o y a l t y o f t h e g r e a t I n d i a n Pr i n c e s a n d t h e q u i e t
m a i n t a i n e d b y t h e p e o p l e t h e m s e l v e s d u r i n g t h e p e r i o d o f
h o s t i l i t i e s . B u t t h e Pr i n c e s , a s m a t t e r s s t a n d , c o u l d n o t
d o o t h e r w i s e ; a n d t h e y e x p e c t , b e s i d e s , f u l l r e c o g n i t i o n
a n d r e w a r d f r o m t h e r u l e r s o f Hi n d u s t a n . T h e n a t i o n s
a n d p e o p l e s t h e m s e l v e s a r e a l l u n a r m e d a n d i n c a p a b l e o f
a n o r g a n i s e d r i s i n g , b u t t h e y t o o d e m a n d f a i r t r e a t m e n t
f r o m a c o u n t r y w h i c h h a s b e e n f i g h t i n g , s o i t d e c l a r e s , f o r
t h e f r e e d o m a n d r i g h t s o f n a t i o n a l i t i e s .
As t o t h e I n d i a n Pr i n c e s , t h e i m p o r t a n t Co n f e r e n c e h e l d
f o r f i v e d a y s b e t w e e n t h e s e m a g n a t e s a n d t h e E n g l i s h V i c e -
r o y a t D e l h i i n 1 91 6 m u s t o p e n t h e e y e s o f a l l e x c e p t t h o s e
w h o w i l l n o t s e e . Hi n d o o r u l e r s o f e v e r y g r a d e a n d s e c t
a t t e n d e d , s i d e b y s i d e w i t h M o h a m m e d a n c h i e f t a i n s . T h e s e
n o t a b l e s c h o s e a s t h e i r r e p r e s e n t a t i v e a n d s p o k e s m a n , w h e n
d e m a n d i n g d i f f e r e n t a n d b e t t e r c o n d i t i o n s , t h e Hi n d u Ga i k -
w a r o f B a r o d a . N o w , t h e Ga i k w a r o f B a r o d a i s n o t o n l y
t h e l e a d e r o f t h e a d v a n c e d p a r t y a m o n g t h e h i g h e r s e c t i o n
o f t h e Hi n d o o s , b u t , w h e n t h e K i n g - E m p e r o r Ge o r g e V
h i m s e l f h e l d h i s g r e a t I m p e r i a l D u r b a r a t D e l h i , i t w a s
2 1 0

T h e Aw a k e n i n g o f As i a
g e n e r a l l y c o n s i d e r e d t h r o u g h o u t I n d i a t h a t h e d e l i b e r a t e l y
f a i l e d i n c o u r t e s y t o t h e E u r o p e a n m o n a r c h . T h i s w a s
a p o l o g i s e d f o r a n d e x p l a i n e d a w a y a t t h e t i m e
. B u t t h e
i m p r e s s i o n r e m a i n s , a n d As i a t i c s a r e q u i t e s u b t l e e n o u g h t o
o v e r l o o k t h e a p o l o g y a n d r e j o i c e a t t h e o f f e n c e . An d i t w a s
t h e Ga i k w a r o f B a r o d a w h o w a s p u t f o r w a r d t o c h a m p i o n
t h e c a u s e o f h i s f e l l o w - Pr i n c e s a n d h i m s e l f t o Lo r d Ch e l m s -
f o r d
! T h i s o n e f a c t , a n d t h e s o l i d f r o n t m a i n t a i n e d b y t h e
n a t i v e r u l e r s , f a r m o r e t h a n o u t w e i g h s a l l t h e l o a n s a n d
o f f e r s o f s e r v i c e s m a d e b y t h e m f o r t h e w a r . Y e t t h e
I n d e p e n d e n t Pr i n c e s o f I n d i a a n d t h e i r 7 0, 000, 000 s u b -
j e c t s a r e t h e o n e s e c t i o n o f I n d i a w h o m a y b e r e g a r d e d a s
g a i n i n g a d v a n t a g e s f r o m B r i t i s h r u l e a n d B r i t i s h p e a c e .
As t o t h e p e o p l e , t h e w a r w i l l i n f l u e n c e t h e m t o o . T h e i r
m e n w e r e f i g h t i n g s i d e b y s i d e w i t h E u r o p e a n s i n E u r o p e ,
o n e q u a l t e r m s b u t f o r v e r y i n f e r i o r r a t e s o f p a y
. T h e y
u n d e r s t a n d t h a t , i f t h e y u n d e r s t a n d n o t h i n g e l s e . Wh e n
t h e y g e t b a c k t o I n d i a a n d r e t u r n t o t h e i r v i l l a g e s , t h e y
w i l l d o m u c h t o d e s t r o y t h e i l l u s i o n t h a t w h i t e t r o o p s m u s t
a l w a y s , a n d u n d e r a l l c i r c u m s t a n c e s , b e s u p e r i o r t o c o l -
o u r e d m e n
. M o r e o v e r , t h e s e n s e o f i n j u s t i c e a n d b a d f a i t h
u n d e r w h i c h t h e y s u f f e r w i l l b e c o m m u n i c a t e d t o a l l t h e i r
k i n s f o l k
. Ho w e v e r a n x i o u s t h e u p p e r a n d t r a d i n g c l a s s e s
o f Gr e a t B r i t a i n m a y b e t o k e e p p e a c e a n d c o n t e n t m e n t i n
Hi n d u s t a n , t h e y m u s t s u r e l y s e e t h a t u n f a i r t r e a t m e n t o f
t h i s s o r t i s l i k e l y t o s p r e a d d o w n r i g h t h o s t i l i t y t o B r i t i s h
r u l e a m o n g t h a t v e r y s e c t i o n o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n w i t h w h o m
t h e y o u g h t t o i n g r a t i a t e t h e m s e l v e s . O n m a t t e r s o f t h i s
p e r s o n a l n a t u r e Hi n d o o a n d M o s l e m , S i k h , Pa t h a n , Hy d e r a -
b a d i a n d M a h r a t t a w i l l a l l b e o f o n e m i n d , e v e n i f t h e i r
p a r t i c u l a r s e c t i o n h a s n o t b e e n s e r v i n g o n t h e f o r e i g n
b a t t l e f i e l d s
.
T h e n t h e w a r w a s e x t r e m e l y c o s t l y t o I n d i a . N o t
o n l y h a s s h e r e n d e r e d t h e d o m i n a n t f o r e i g n Po w e r h e l p i n
e v e r y o t h e r w a y , b u t , p o v e r t y - s t r i c k e n a s s h e i s , I n d i a h a s
T h e B r i t i s h i n I n d i a

2 1 1
b e e n c o m p e l l e d t o l e n d Gr e a t B r i t a i n a h u g e s u m . I n o r d e r
t o p a y i n t e r e s t u p o n t h i s a m o u n t , t h e Go v e r n m e n t o f I n d i a
h a s i m p o s e d i m p o r t d u t i e s u p o n m a n u f a c t u r e d c o t t o n g o o d s .
T h i s w a s a b s o l u t e l y n e c e s s a r y i f t h e i n t e r e s t w a s t o b e p a i d ,
a n d t h e "Ho m e Go v e r n m e n t " i n Lo n d o n s a n c t i o n e d t h e
d u t i e s . T h e r e u p o n t h e c o t t o n m a n u f a c t u r e r s o f La n c a s h i r e
r a i s e d a g r e a t a n d e x c e e d i n g b i t t e r c r y a n d b e g a n a s e r i o u s
a g i t a t i o n .
"La n c a s h i r e , " a s a n e m i n e n t I n d i a n , l o n g r e s i -
d e n t i n E n g l a n d , s a i d t o
. m e , "h a s a l w a y s b e e n a b i t t e r
e n e m y o f I n d i a . " N o d o u b t t h i s e n m i t y i s n o t i n t e n t i o n a l
i t i s a l l i n t h e w a y o f b u s i n e s s . B u t t h e e f f e c t u p o n I n d i a
o f t h e Co b d e n i t e l a i s s e z- f a i r e p o l i c y h a s b e e n a n d i s r u i n -
o u s . I t f i r s t p a r t l y a r r e s t e d I n d i a n c o t t o n m a n u f a c t u r e , b y
h e a v y p r o t e c t i v e d u t i e s a g a i n s t t h e m
:
t h e n , w h e n c a p i t a l
d r a i n e d f r o m I n d i a b y s h e e r r o b b e r y h a d b u i l t u p La n -
c a s h i r e c o t t o n f a c t o r i e s , t h e I n d i a n w e a v e r s w e r e r u i n e d b y
f r e e t r a d e . La s t l y , n o w , t h i s p o l i c y i s m a i n t a i n e d , i n s p i t e
o f i t s c r u e l t y t o r i s i n g n a t i v e i n d u s t r y a n d t o t h e o v e r - t a x e d
r y o t w h o i s t h r e a t e n e d w i t h a n i n c r e a s e o f t h e s a l t - t a x .
T r u e , t h e La n c a s h i r e d e m a n d h a s b e e n r e f u s e d f o r t h e
m o m e n t , b u t I n d i a i s i n a p e r i l o u s s t a t e . T h e o r i g i n a l
f o r c e d l o a n w a s s h a m e f u l a n d i s s o c o n s i d e r e d b y I n d i a n s .
T h e t a x e s t o p a y i n t e r e s t u p o n i t c o n s t i t u t e a n e x c e s s i v e
i m p o s t . B u t La n c a s h i r e w o u l d e n f o r c e t h e w o r s t f o r m o f
t a x o n t h e r y o t r a t h e r t h a n b e h u r t e v e n t o a s m a l l e x -
t e n t .
M e a n w h i l e , I n d i a i s s t i l l s h u t o u t f r o m t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f
r e c e i v i n g a n y e d u c a t i o n f o r t h e p e o p l e . We E n g l i s h m e n
d e p l o r e t h e i r i g n o r a n c e
. T h i s i s h o w w e e n l i g h t e n t h e m
O u t o f t h e t o t a l R e v e n u e r a i s e d i n B r i t i s h I n d i a - t h a t i s
t o s a y , I n d i a d i r e c t l y u n d e r B r i t i s h r u l e - w e s p e n d o n l y
o n e p e n n y p e r h e a d o n e d u c a t i o n a n d o n l y 1
. 9 p e r c e n t . o f
t h e p o p u l a t i o n g o t o s c h o o l . T h e i m p r o v e m e n t d u r i n g t h e
l a s t t e n y e a r s h a s b e e n a l m o s t n o m i n a l . Y e t e v e n i n R u s -
s i a , a v e r y p o o r a n d b a c k w a r d c o u n t r y , t h e e x p e n d i t u r e o n
2 1 2

T h e Aw a k e n i n g o f As i a
e d u c a t i o n i s 7 / d
. p e r h e a d , a n d t h e c h i l d r e n a t s c h o o l
n u m b e r b e t w e e n 4 p e r c e n t
. a n d 5 p e r c e n t . o f t h e w h o l e
p o p u l a t i o n . T h e s e f a c t s d o n o t c o m e h o m e t o t h e a g r i c u l -
t u r a l c l a s s e s o f I n d i a , w h i c h f o r m t h e o v e r w h e l m i n g m a -
j o r i t y o f t h e i n h a b i t a n t s d i r e c t l y
. B u t t h e y a r e l e a r n i n g n o w
f r o m o t h e r s h o w g r o s s l y t h e y a r e b e i n g d e f r a u d e d o f t h e
i n s t r u c t i o n t o w h i c h t h e y h a v e a r i g h t
. Wh a t m a k e s t h e
n e g l e c t o f B r i t i s h r u l e i n t h i s r e s p e c t t h e m o r e d i s g r a c e f u l
a r e t h e f a c t s t h a t i n t h e N a t i v e S t a t e o f B a r o d a , i n 1 g 1 o ,
m o r e t h a n 8 . 6 o f t h e t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n w a s a t s c h o o l a s
a g a i n s t 1
. 9 i n B r i t i s h T e r r i t o r y , w h i l e n o w i t i s s t a t e d t h a t
i o o p e r c e n t . o f t h e b o y s o f s c h o o l a g e i n B a r o d a a r e r e -
c e i v i n g i n s t r u c t i o n , a s a g a i n s t 2 1 . 5 p e r c e n t
. i
n B r i t i s h I n -
d i a , a n d 8 1 . 6 p e r c e n t . o f g i r l s a g a i n s t a b o u t 4 p e r c e n t
.
Y e t t h e An g l o - I n d i a n Go v e r n m e n t o f Hi n d u s t a n c l a i m s t o
b e a c i v i l i s e d a n d h i g h l y p r o g r e s s i v e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . T h e
I n d i a n s a r e f a s t l e a r n i n g t h a t i t i s r e a l l y v e r y r e a c t i o n a r y
i n d e e d , w h e n c o m p a r e d e v e n w i t h s o m e o f t h e r u l e r s o f t h e i r
o w n r a c e .
Wh e t h e r t h e g r e a t u p h e a v a l i n R u s s i a w i l l a f f e c t I n d i a
a s a w h o l e i t i s t o o s o o n y e t t o s a y . T h a t e d u c a t e d I n d i a n s
a r e g r e a t l y e n c o u r a g e d b y t h i s i m p o r t a n t c h a n g e , b y t h e m
s o l i t t l e e x p e c t e d , i s a l r e a d y c e r t a i n
; a n d t h e e s t a b l i s h -
m e n t o f t h e Ch i n e s e R e p u b l i c h a s l i k e w i s e i n s p i r e d t h e
a b l e r a m o n g t h e m t o a i m a t s i m i l a r d e v e l o p m e n t
.
O v e r a n d a b o v e t h e E u r o p e a n s i m m e d i a t e l y c o n c e r n e d
i n a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , t h e r e a r e m a n y m o r e o c c u p i e d d i r e c t l y
o r i n d i r e c t l y i n o t h e r b r a n c h e s o f Go v e r n m e n t a f f a i r s
. B u t
i n a l l I n d i a t h e r e a r e n o m o r e t h a n 2 00, 000 E u r o p e a n s a n d
E u r a s i a n s a l t o g e t h e r . T h e s e a r e , f o r t h e m o s t p a r t , e n t i r e l y
o u t s i d e t h e o f f i c i a l c l a s s .
T h e B r i t i s h E m p i r e i n I n d i a r e a l l y c o n s i s t s , t h e r e f o r e ,
o f t h e b u r e a u c r a t s s p o k e n o f a n d 7 5 , 000 E n g l i s h t r o o p s ,
o f w h o m 5 0, 000
a t t h e o u t s i d e c a n b e r e c k o n e d a s f i t f o r
a c t i v e s e r v i c e a t a n y g i v e n m o m e n t . T h e n a t i v e I n d i a n
T h e B r i t i s h i n I n d i a

2 1 3
a r m y , w h i c h i s s o m e t h r e e t i m e s a s n u m e r o u s , c o u l d s c a r c e
l y b e r e l i e d u p o n a s t r u s t w o r t h y a t a n y p e r i o d o f s e r i o u s
i n t e r n a l t r o u b l e . T h i s i s g e n e r a l l y a d m i t t e d , a n d I n d i a n s
a n d o t h e r n a t i o n a l i t i e s w i t h o u t t h e b o r d e r s o f Hi n d u s t a n
a r e w e l l a w a r e o f i t s t r u t h . M o r e o v e r , a p e a c e f u l u p s e t o f
t h e e n t i r e a r t i f i c i a l E n g l i s h s y s t e m i s q u i t e p o s s i b l e a t a n y
m o m e n t , s e e i n g t h a t , a s h a s b e e n t r u l y s a i d b y a n I m p e r i a l -
i s t E n g l i s h m a n , "I n d i a n s t h e m s e l v e s h a v e o n l y t o r e f u s e t o
w o r k f o r E u r o p e a n s , a n d t h e w h o l e w h i t e E m p i r e w o u l d b e
b r o u g h t t o a n e n d w i t h i n a m o n t h . " Ce r t a i n i t i s t h a t i f
t h e a g r i c u l t u r a l p o p u l a t i o n , h i t h e r t o s o q u i e s c e n t ( w i t h t h e
e x c e p t i o n o f a f e w l o c a l o u t b r e a k s a g a i n s t u s u r e r s a n d e x -
c e s s i v e w a t e r - t a x ) , w e r e t o b e c o m e e v e n p a s s i v e l y h o s t i l e ,
B r i t i s h r u l e w o u l d s o o n b e a t h i n g o f t h e p a s t .
CHAPT E R XV
T HE U N S O U N D N E S S O F B R I T I S H I N D I AN F I N AN CE
T HE a g r i c u l t u r a l p o p u l a t i o n o f I n d i a i s t h e m o s t p o v e r t y -
s t r i c k e n m a s s o f h u m a n b e i n g s i n t h e w h o l e w o r l d . I t
c o n s t i t u t e s f o u r - f i f t h s o f t h e w h o l e o f
t h e i n h a b i t a n t s
o f Hi n d u s t a n . N o w i t s o h a p p e n s t h a t f o r t y y e a r s a g o I
h a d a v e r y v i g o r o u s c o n t r o v e r s y a b o u t t h e c o n d i t i o n s o f
t h i s v a s t b o d y o f a g r i c u l t u r i s t s w h i c h , i n s p i t e o f m u c h -
l a u d e d "p r o g r e s s " i n o t h e r d i r e c t i o n s , h a s b e e n g e t t i n g
p o o r e r a n d p o o r e r e v e r s i n c e . I n t h e c o u r s e o f t h a t w i d e l y -
r e a d d i s c u s s i o n , o n e o f m y c h i e f o p p o n e n t s w a s a n I n d i a n
J u d g e o f t h e h i g h e s t s t a n d i n g , w h o h a d r e s i d e d f o r f a r t h e
g r e a t e r p a r t o f h i s a d u l t l i f e i n I n d i a
. He g e n e r a l l y d e -
v o t e d h i s v a c a t i o n s t o t r a v e l l i n g a l l o v e r t h e c o u n t r y , m o s t l y
a t a f o o t ' s p a c e , a n d h e g a v e t h e f o l l o w i n g a c c o u n t o f t h e s e
r y o t s o f I n d i a i n t h e c o u r s e o f a l o n g a n d v i g o r o u s a r t i c l e
d i r e c t e d a g a i n s t m y c o n t e n t i o n s a s t o t h e p o v e r t y o f B r i t i s h
I n d i a
"T h e d e n s e p o p u l a t i o n , a m o u n t i n g i n i t s m o r e f e r t i l e
p a r t s t o s i x a n d s e v e n h u n d r e d p e r s q u a r e m i l e , i s a l m o s t
e x c l u s i v e l y o c c u p i e d i n a g r i c u l t u r a l p u r s u i t s . B u t t h e l a n d
o f I n d i a h a s b e e n f a r m e d f r o m t i m e i m m e m o r i a l b y m e n
e n t i r e l y w i t h o u t c a p i t a l . A f a r m e r i n t h i s c o u n t r y h a s l i t t l e
c h a n c e o f s u c c e s s u n l e s s h e c a n s u p p l y a c a p i t a l o f £I O t o
£2 o
a n a c r e . I f E n g l i s h f a r m s w e r e c u l t i v a t e d b y m e n a s
d e f i c i e n t i n c a p i t a l a s t h e I n d i a n r y o t s , t h e y w o u l d a l l b e
t h r o w n u p o n t h e p a r i s h i n a y e a r o r t w o . T h e f o u n d e r o f
a Hi n d u v i l l a g e m a y , b y t h e a i d o f h i s b r e t h r e n a n d f r i e n d s ,
h a v e s t r e n g t h e n o u g h t o b r e a k u p t h e j u n g l e , d i g a w e l l
2 1 4
B r i t i s h I n d i a n F i n a n c e

2 1 5
a n d , w i t h a f e w r u p e e s i n h i s p o c k e t , h e m a y p u r c h a s e s e e d
f o r t h e f e w a c r e s h e c a n b r i n g u n d e r t h e p l o u g h . I f a
f a v o u r a b l e h a r v e s t e n s u e , h e h a s a l a r g e s u r p l u s , o u t o f
w h i c h h e p a y s t h e j a m m a o r r e n t t o Go v e r n m e n t . B u t ,
o n t h e f i r s t f a i l u r e o f t h e p e r i o d i c a l r a i n s , h i s w i t h e r e d c r o p s
d i s a p p e a r ; h e h a s n o c a p i t a l w h e r e w i t h t o m e e t t h e Go v -
e r n m e n t d e m a n d , t o o b t a i n f o o d f o r h i s f a m i l y a n d s t o c k ,
o r t o p u r c h a s e s e e d f o r t h e c o m i n g y e a r . T o m e e t a l l t h e s e
w a n t s h e m u s t h a v e r e c o u r s e t o t h e v i l l a g e m o n e y - l e n d e r
[ w h e n c e , b y t h e w a y , d i d h e g e t h i s c a p i t a l ? ] - w h o h a s a l -
w a y s f o r m e d a s i n d i s p e n s a b l e a m e m b e r o f a Hi n d u a g r i -
c u l t u r a l c o m m u n i t y a s t h e p l o u g h m a n h i m s e l f .
"E v e r y E n g l i s h m a n i n o f f i c e i n I n d i a h a s g r e a t p o w e r s ,
a n d e v e r y E n g l i s h m a n - a s t h e l a t e Lo r d Ly t t o n o n c e o b -
s e r v e d t o m e - i s i n h e a r t a r e f o r m e r . Hi s n a t i v e e n e r g y
w i l l n o t e n a b l e h i m t o . s i t s t i l l w i t h h i s h a n d s b e f o r e h i m .
He m u s t b e i m p r o v i n g s o m e t h i n g . T h e t e n d e n c y o f t h e
E n g l i s h o f f i c i a l i n I n d i a i s t o o v e r - r e f o r m , t o i n t r o d u c e w h a t
h e m a y d e e m i m p r o v e m e n t s , b u t w h i c h t u r n o u t e g r e g i o u s
f a i l u r e s , a n d t h i s , b e i t o b s e r v e d , a m o n g s t t h e m o s t c o n -
s e r v a t i v e p e o p l e o f t h e w o r l d . S o m e o f t h e m o s t c a r e f u l l y
d e v i s e d s c h e m e s f o r n a t i v e i m p r o v e m e n t h a v e c u l m i n a t e d i n
n a t i v e d e t e r i o r a t i o n . .
"E v e r y a r d e n t a d m i n i s t r a t o r d e s i r e s i m p r o v e m e n t s i n
h i s o w n d e p a r t m e n t ; r o a d s , r a i l w a y s , c a n a l s , i r r i g a t i o n , i m -
p r o v e d c o u r t s o f j u s t i c e , m o r e e f f i c i e n t p o l i c e , a l l f i n d e a r n e s t
a d v o c a t e s i n t h e h i g h e r p l a c e s o f g o v e r n m e n t .
B u t i m -
p r o v e d a d m i n i s t r a t i o n i s a l w a y s c o s t l y , a n d r e q u i r e s a d d i -
t i o n a l t a x a t i o n . I f e a r t h o s e i n a u t h o r i t y t o o o f t e n f o r g e t
t h a t t h e w i s e s t r u l e r s o f a d e s p o t i c Go v e r n m e n t h a v e a l -
w a y s a b s t a i n e d f r o m l a y i n g f r e s h b u r d e n s o n t h e p e o p l e .
I t i s , i n f a c t , t h e c h i e f m e r i t o f s u c h a Go v e r n m e n t t h a t t h e
t a x e s a r e o r d i n a r i l y l i g h t , a n d a r e s u c h a s a r e f a m i l i a r i s e d
b y o l d u s a g e . N e w t a x e s , i m p o s e d w i t h o u t t h e w i l l o r a n y
a p p e a l t o t h e j u d g m e n t o f t h e p e o p l e , c r e a t e t h e m o s t d a n -
2 1 6

T h e Aw a k e n i n g o f As i a
g e r o u s k i n d o f d i s a f f e c t i o n . B u t i f t h i s i s t r u e g e n e r a l l y ,
i t i s e s p e c i a l l y t r u e i n I n d i a , w h e r e t h e p o p u l a t i o n i s e x -
t r e m e l y p o o r , a n d w h e r e h i t h e r t o t h e f i n a n c i e r h a s n o t b e e n
e n a b l e d t o m a k e t h e r i c h c o n t r i b u t e t h e i r d u e q u o t a t o t h e
r e v e n u e o f t h e c o u n t r y . "
T h e s e a d m i s s i o n s b y a M e m b e r o f t h e Co u n c i l o f I n d i a
s e e m t o m e c o n c l u s i v e a l i k e a s t o t h e p o v e r t y o f t h e g r e a t
m a s s o f I n d i a n s a n d t h e c o m p l e t e u n s u i t a b i l i t y o f E u r o p e a n
a d m i n i s t r a t i o n t o c o p e w i t h i t .
T h e t r u e t e s t o f t h e p r o s p e r i t y a n d g o o d g o v e r n m e n t
o f a n y c o u n t r y i s n o t t h e a v e r a g e i n c o m e o f t h e w h o l e
p o p u l a t i o n , i n w h i c h t h e r e v e n u e s o f t h e m i l l i o n a i r e s , g r e a t
l a n d o w n e r s a n d h e a d s o f i n d u s t r i a l o r t r a n s p o r t c o m p a n i e s
b a l a n c e t h e w a g e s r e c e i v e d b y t h e a r t i s a n s , s m a l l c u l t i v a t o r s
o r a g r i c u l t u r a l l a b o u r e r s , b u t t h e r e a l w e l l - b e i n g o f t h e
w h o l e o f t h e p r o d u c i n g c l a s s
. N o w t h i s i n I n d i a i s s t e a d i l y
d e t e r i o r a t i n g d e c a d e b y d e c a d e a n d y e a r b y y e a r . M r .
Wi l l i a m D i g b y ' s b o o k w i t h t h e m i s l e a d i n g , i r o n i c a l t i t l e , ,
"Pr o s p e r o u s B r i t i s h I n d i a , " w h i c h I i m p l o r e d h i m n o t t o
u s e , w a s p u b l i s h e d i n 1 901 . I t c o n t a i n s t h e m o s t t e r r i f i c
i n d i c t m e n t o f B r i t i s h r u l e i n Hi n d u s t a n t h a t h a s e v e r b e e n
p e n n e d . T h e f a c t s a n d s t a t i s t i c s c o n t a i n e d i n i t s 6 5 0 p a g e s
a r e d r a w n a l m o s t e n t i r e l y f r o m o f f i c i a l r e p o r t s , d o c u m e n t s
a n d c a l c u l a t i o n s . T h e w h o l e c o n s t i t u t e s a s o c i a l , e c o n o m i c
a n d p o l i t i c a l i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f s u r p a s s i n g i n t e r e s t a n d v a l u e .
O n e c a t e g o r i c a l s t a t e m e n t a l o n e i s e n o u g h t o c o n d e m n t h e
e n t i r e
B r i t i s h - s y s t e m :
I n t h e y e a r 1 8 5 0, s e v e n y e a r s b e f o r e t h e M u t i n y , t h e
e s t i m a t e d i n c o m e o f B r i t i s h I n d i a w a s t w o p e n c e p e r h e a d
p e r d a y .
I n t h e y e a r 1 8 8 2 - a g e n e r a t i o n l a t e r - t h e o f f i c i a l l y -
e s t i m a t e d i n c o m e w a s t h r e e - h a l f p e n c e p e r h e a d p e r d a y .
I n t h e y e a r 1 900 a n a n a l y s i s o f a l l s o u r c e s o f i n c o m e
g i v e s l e s s t h a n t h r e e - f a r t h i n g s p e r h e a d p e r d a y .
Wh a t t h e r e a l i m p o v e r i s h m e n t o f t h e I n d i a n r y o t s o r
B r i t i s h I n d i a n F i n a n c e

2 1 7
a g r i c u l t u r i s t s o f B r i t i s h I n d i a a c t u a l l y m u s t b e , w h e n t h e
i n c o m e o f a l l t h e w e l l - t o - d o p o p u l a t i o n i n t h e c i t i e s a n d d i s -
t r i c t s o f An g l o - I n d i a i s d e d u c t e d , c a n s c a r c e l y b e i m a g i n e d
b y t h e i n h a b i t a n t s o f t h e p o o r e s t E u r o p e a n S t a t e .
Ca n w e w o n d e r t h a t a s e n s e o f d e a d l y d u l l n e s s , d e p r e s -
s i o n a n d r u i n w e i g h s o n t h a t p o r t i o n o f Hi n d u s t a n w h e r e
E u r o p e a n i s a t i o n i s s u p r e m e ? I t i s n o t p o v e r t y a l o n e
t h a t
o c c a s i o n s t h i s s a d s t a t e o f t h i n g s . E v e r y t h i n g t e n d s i n t h e
s a m e d i r e c t i o n . N a t i v e I n d i a n a r t s a r e d i s a p p e a r i n g , e d u -
c a t i o n i s n e g l e c t e d , t h e r e i s n o l i f e o r p l e a s u r e a v a i l a b l e , n o
o u t l e t f o r e n e r g y , n o h o p e o f c h a n g e , n o v a r i e t y o f o c c u p a -
t i o n
. An Am e r i c a n t r a v e l l e r , i n a r e c e n t b o o k f u l l o f u n -
m e a s u r e d g l o r i f i c a t i o n o f E u r o p e a n s a n d E u r o p e a n r u l e ,
h a s d e s c r i b e d t h e v i v a c i t y , c o l o u r a n d m a g n i f i c e n c e o f t h e
Co u r t o f U d a i p u r i n a l l i t s a n c i e n t s p l e n d o u r , s i d e b y s i d e
w i t h a n c i e n t i n d i f f e r e n c e , a n c i e n t a b h o r r e n c e o f w h a t i s
n e w , a n c i e n t l o v e o f a n c i e n t c u s t o m s a n d a n c i e n t d e v o t i o n
t o a s a c r o s a n c t r u l e r p o s s e s s e d o f a p e d i g r e e d i r e c t l y t r a c e -
a b l e f o r t h o u s a n d s o f y e a r s . An d t h e n h e c a n n o t r e s t r a i n
h i m s e l f f r o m c o m p a r i n g t h i s u n - E u r o p e a n i s e d r e l i c o f t h e
p a s t , s t i l l h o l y t o s c o r e s o f m i l l i o n s o f Hi n d o o s , w i t h t h e
s q u a l i d , m o n o t o n y a n d u n e n d i n g s a d n e s s w h i c h p e r v a d e
B r i t i s h I n d i a .
I t m a y b e t h a t , a s t h e m a j o r i t y o f E n g l i s h m e n a n d E u -
r o p e a n v i s i t o r s b e l i e v e , I n d i a c a n n e v e r e m a n c i p a t e h e r s e l f ,
w i t h o u t e x t e r n a l a i d , f r o m h e r p r e s e n t p o s i t i o n o f s u b -
j u g a t i o n . Wh e t h e r i t i s c o n s o n a n t w i t h t h e c l a i m s o f E n g -
l a n d t o b e t h e c h a m p i o n o f j u s t i c e a n d f r e e d o m i n o t h e r
d i r e c t i o n s t h a t s h e s h o u l d k e e p w h a t m i g h t b e a g r e a t a n d
g l o r i o u s E m p i r e u n d e r h e r p e r m a n e n t a n d r u i n o u s d o m i n a -
t i o n i s a m a t t e r w h i c h m u s t s o o n b e c o n s i d e r e d . I t w i l l b e
s e e n a l s o t h a t o f l a t e y e a r s a s c h o o l o f e x t r e m i s t s , a s w e l l
a s a s c h o o l o f m o d e r a t e s , h a s g r o w n u p , b o t h o f w h i c h d e -
m a n d s e l f - g o v e r n m e n t , a n d , i n t h e l o n g r u n , c o m p l e t e e m a n -
c i p a t i o n o f I n d i a .
2 1 8

T h e Aw a k e n i n g o f As i a
Wh e n , h o w e v e r , t h e s e c r i t i c i s m s o n E u r o p e a n r u l e a r e
m a d e a n d e v i d e n c e s o f c o n t i n u o u s a n d i n c r e a s i n g p o v e r t y
o f t h e r y o t s a r e a d d u c e d , t h e d e f e n d e r s o f t h e B r i t i s h Go v -
e r n m e n t b r i n g f o r w a r d a n u m b e r o f f a c t s a n d f i g u r e s w h i c h
a r e c o n c l u s i v e o f p r o s p e r i t y t o t h e o r d i n a r y We s t e r n m i n d
.
Ag a i n s t t h e c o n t e n t i o n t h a t , s o f a r , i 6 o y e a r s o f E u r o p e a n
m a n a g e m e n t a n d t e a c h i n g h a v e p r o d u c e d n o e n d u r i n g e f -
f e c t o n t h e I n d i a n m i n d a n d h a v e i n t r o d u c e d n o p e r m a -
n e n t i m p r o v e m e n t i n I n d i a n a f f a i r s , o n e g r e a t a r g u m e n t i s
a l w a y s u s e d .
"S e e , " s a y t h e o p p o r t u n i s t s , "h o w w e h a v e
i n t r o d u c e d e v e r y w h e r e t h e b l e s s i n g s o f p e a c e !
F r o m t h e
Hi m a l a y a s t o Ca p e Co m o r i n , a n d f r o m B u r m a t o B o m b a y ,
w a r s
h a v e c e a s e d , i n t e r n e c i n e s t r u g g l e s a r e u n k n o w n , r e -
l i g i o u s r i o t s a r e a t o n c e
. q u e l l e d , l i f e a n d p r o p e r t y a r e s e -
c u r e a s t h e y n e v e r w e r e b e f o r e i n t h e h i s t o r y o f Hi n d u s t a n
.
T h e Pa x B r i t a n n i c a
i s m o r e p r o f o u n d a n d a f f e c t s a l a r g e r
p o p u l a t i o n t h a n t h e Pa x R o m a n e v e r f l i d .
"He r e , u n d e r B r i t i s h r u l e , a l l t h e s e n u m e r o u s n a t i o n s
a n d p e o p l e s a n d r e l i g i o n s a n d c a s t e s d w e l l t o g e t h e r , i f n o t
i n
u n i t y , a t a n y r a t e , w i t h t r i f l i n g d i f f e r e n c e s . Hi n d u
a n d M o h a m m e d a n , S i k h , Pa t h a n a n d M a h r a t t a g o o n f r o m
y e a r ' s e n d t o y e a r ' s e n d w i t h n o m o r e t h a n l o c a l s q u a b b l e s
w h i c h a r e e a s i l y s u p p r e s s e d . R a i d s a n d o r g a n i s e d r o b b e r i e s
a r e a l m o s t e q u a l l y u n k n o w n
. J u s t i c e i s a d m i n i s t e r e d w i t h -
o u t t h e s u s p i c i o n o f b r i b e r y , o r t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f d a n g e r o u s
d i s p u t e s , o u t o f Co u r t , o n t h e
d e c i s i o n a r r i v e d a t . T h e
m i l i t a r y c a s t e n o l o n g e r e x e r c i s e s a n y i n f l u e n c e
. Pe a c e ,
t h e g r e a t e s t b o o n t h a t c a n b e v o u c h s a f e d t o t h e h u n d r e d s
o f m i l l i o n s u n d e r t h e s u ze r a i n t y o f t h e E m p e r o r - K i n g , i s
s e c u r e d s o l o n g a s t h e B r i t i s h r e m a i n m a s t e r s o f t h e c o u n -
t r y . B u t o n l y s o l o n g .
Le t t h a t . s u p e r i o r p o w e r b e o n c e
w i t h d r a w n , o r e v e n g r e a t l y s h a k e n , a n d a l l t h e a n a r c h y o f
t h e p a s t w i l l b e r e v i v e d , a l l t h e i n f i n i t e p a s s i o n s n o w k e p t
d o w n w i l l b e r e a w a k e n e d
. "
S u c h i s t h e t o n e , n o t o n l y o f E n g l i s h m e n b u t o f m o s t
B r i t i s h I n d i a n F i n a n c e 219
E u r o p e a n s a n d A m e r i c a n s w h o v i s i t t h e c o u n t r y , w h o r u s h
b y r a i l t h r o u g h t h e E u r o p e a n i s e d t o w n s a n d c i t i e s a n d g a r -
r i s o n s a n d h e a l t h r e s o r t s w h i c h c o n s t i t u t e t h e w h i t e m a n 's
I n d i a . T h a t t h e h o r r o r s o f p e a c e m a y i n m a n y w a y s b e
w o r s e t h a n t h e h o r r o r s o f w a r i s a c o n s i d e r a t i o n w h i c h
n e v e r e n t e r s t h e i r m i n d s , s t i l l l e s s a f f e c t s t h e i r j u d g m e n t .
A l l t h e t e s t s o f p r o s p e r i t y w h i c h t h e y a r e a c c u s t o m e d t o a p -
p l y a r e f u l f i l l e d . P o p u l a t i o n i s i n c r e a s i n g r a p i d l y : P o v e r t y
i s f a v o u r a b l e t o g e n e r a t i o n . E x p o r t s a r e r a p i d l y i n c r e a s -
i n g
: Wh a t i s t h e a m o u n t o f t h e r e t u r n ? Ra i l w a y s h a v e
b e e n b u i l t o v e r a l a r g e p o r t i o n o f t h e c o u n t r y : T r a n s p o r t
d o e s n o t n e c e s s a r i l y i n c r e a s e w e a l t h . V a s t i r r i g a t i o n w o r k s
h a v e b e e n b u i l t : O l d i r r i g a t i o n t a n k s h a v e b e e n a l l o w e d t o
d e c a y t h r o u g h o u t h u g e a r e a s . T h e c h a r g e s f o r t h e n e w
w a t e r a r e h e a v y - r e n d e r e d h e a v i e r b y t h e e n f o r c e d u s e o f
G o v e r n m e n t w a t e r t o t h e e x c l u s i o n a n d s h u t t i n g d o w n o f
I n d i a n w e l l s . T h e s e c o u n t e r b a l a n c i n g m o v e m e n t s a r e n e v e r
n o t e d . F o r e i g n - m a n u f a c t u r e d p e a c e i s a d o u b t f u l b e n e f i t
a t t h e b e s t .
A l l t h a t i s g r e a t a n d a d m i r a b l e i n I n d i a ' w a s c r e a t e d
d u r i n g t h e p e r i o d w h e n s h e w a s a n i n d e p e n d e n t E m p i r e ,
w i t h g r o u p s o f f i n e P r o v i n c e s , f i r s t u n d e r l o c a l r u l e r s a n d
t h e n u n d e r t h e c e n t r a l d o m i n a t i o n o f t h e M o n g o l s . Wi t h a l l
t h e i r d r a w b a c k s a n d h i d e o u s c r u e l t i e s , t h e s e c o n q u e r o r s
l i v e d i n t h e c o u n t r y . T h e y e m p l o y e d H i n d o o s o f a l l r a c e s
i n t h e v e r y h i g h e s t p o s t s , a s f i n a n c i e r s , a s a d m i n i s t r a t o r s ,
a s g e n e r a l s - = M o h a m m e d a n s t h o u g h t h e y t h e m s e l v e s w e r e .
A s i a t i c s r u l i n g A s i a t i c s , t h e y k n e w h o w f a r i t w a s s a f e t o
g o w i t h o u t b r i n g i n g r u i n u p o n t h e p e o p l e a n d o v e r t h r o w
u p o n t h e m s e l v e s . E v e n i n t h e i r p e r i o d o f d e c a y , w h e n
d e b a u c h e d i n c o m p e t e n t s s a t o n t h e t h r o n e o f A k b a r a n d
A u r u n g z i b , t h e r u l e w h i c h t h e y m a l a d m i n i s t e r e d w a s I n -
d i a n r u l e , a n d d u l l d e s p a i r u n d e r t h e u p r i g h t f o r e i g n d e s p o t
n e v e r s e t t l e d l i k e a m i a s m a o n t h e c o u n t r y .
T h e M a h r a t t a c h o u t l e v i e d b y t h e b o l d r e i v e r s o f t h e
220

T h e A w a k e n i n g o f A s i a
D e c c a n a n d t h e We s t w a s h a r d t o b e a r . B u t , i m p o v e r i s h -
i n g a s i t w a s , i n i t s d e g r e e a n d i n i t s t i m e , i t c o u n t e d a s
c h i l d 's - p l a y b e s i d e t h e p e r s i s t e n t t r a n s f e r o f w e a l t h t o a
f a r - a w a y c o u n t r y y e a r a f t e r y e a r , w h i c h w a s t h e i n e v i t a b l e
c o n s e q u e n c e o f c o s t l y f o r e i g n r u l e
. M o r e o v e r , a l l h o m e -
b r e d r u l e r s e n c o u r a g e d I n d i a n a r t a n d I n d i a n m a n u f a c t u r e ,
a n d t h e b e s t o f t h e m , s u c h a s t h e g r e a t B a h m u n y d y n a s t y
o f B e e j a p o o r , d e v e l o p e d l o c a l i r r i g a t i o n w o r k s t o s u c h a n
e x t e n t t h a t t h e m e n a c e o f f a m i n e , w h e r e t h i s w a s d o n e , b e -
c a m e m o r e a n d m o r e r e m o t e .
T h e r e w e r e t e r r i b l e f a m i n e s
i n d e e d i n s o m e d i s t r i c t s a n d p r o v i n c e s i n t h o s e d a y s , p r i o r
t o E u r o p e a n i n v a s i o n
. B u t t h e y c a m e a t l o n g i n t e r v a l s a n d
i n t h e p e r i o d s b e t w e e n t h e m t h e r e w a s n o s t e a d y , c o n t i n u -
o u s r e d u c t i o n o f t h e a m o u n t o f f o o d a v a i l a b l e f o r t h e
p e o p l e , w h o s e p e r s i s t e n t l a b o u r p r o v i d e d t h e w h o l e o f t h e
a g r i c u l t u r a l p r o d u c e .
P e a c e , i n f a c t , m a y b e p u r c h a s e d t o o d e a r , a n d l a w a n d
o r d e r , h o w e v e r a d m i r a b l e t h e o r e t i c a l l y , m a y b e c o m e a
g r i n d i n g e c o n o m i c a n d r a c i a l t y r a n n y , i f e n f o r c e d b y f o r -
e i g n e r s w h o f a i l t o c o m p r e h e n d a l i k e t h e n a t u r e o f t h e
m a n y d i v e r s e r a c e s b e n e a t h t h e m a n d t h e b e s t m e a n s o f
r a i s i n g t h e m t o a
h i g h e r l e v e l o f p r o s p e r i t y - f o r e i g n e r s
w h o n e v e r r e m a i n p e r m a n e n t l y i n t h e l a n d t h e y c o n t r o l .
L e t u s s u p p o s e t h a t a s u c c e s s i o n o f c a p a b l e C h i n e s e
M a n d a r i n s , s u p p o r t e d b y a C h i n e s e a r m y a n d a n I t a l i a n
a r m y u n d e r C h i n e s e o f f i c e r s , h a d r u l e d i n I t a l y , i m p o s i n g
p e a c e , p e r f e c t p e a c e , u p o n t h e C i t y Re p u b l i c s a f e w h u n -
d r e d y e a r s a g o
. T h e y w o u l d h a v e i m p o s e d a l s o C h i n e s e
i d e a s o f m o r a l i t y a n d j u s t i c e , i n d u s t r y a n d c u l t u r e - a n d
v e r y h i g h i d e a s t h e y w e r e a n d a r e - u p o n t h e c o u n t r y m e n
o f D a n t e a n d P e t r a r c h , B o r g i a , M a c h i a v e l l i a n d L e o n a r d o
d a V i n c i . B u t i s i t n o t c l e a r t h a t t h e w o r l d w o u l d h a v e
b e e n i n f i n i t e l y p o o r e r f o r t h e r e p r e s s i o n o f I t a l i a n i n i t i a t i v e
a n d b y t h e s o m b r e , d e a d l e v e l o f m o n o t o n y a n d d e p e n d e n c e
t h u s b r o u g h t a b o u t ? Wo u l d n o t I t a l i a n s h a v e b e e n j u s t i -
B r i t i s h
I n d i a n F i n a n c e

221
f l e d i n r e s o r t i n g t o a n y m e a n s i n o r d e r t o r e l i e v e t h e m s e l v e s
f r o m s u c h a r u l e , h o w e v e r h i g h - m i n d e d a n d w e l l - i n t e n -
t i o n e d i t s C h i n e s e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s i n I t a l y m i g h t h a v e b e e n ?
Wo u l d n o t t h i s h a v e a p p l i e d , i n l i k e m a n n e r , t o E n g l a n d
d u r i n g t h e Wa r s o f t h e Ro s e s , t o F r a n c e a t t h e t i m e o f
t h e a n a r c h i c a n d b l o o d y s t r u g g l e b e t w e e n C a t h o l i c s a n d
H u g u e n o t s , a n d e v e n t o G e r m a n y w h e n d e v a s t a t e d b y t h e
T h i r t y Ye a r s ' Wa r ? T h e r e c a n b e b u t o n e h o n e s t a n -
s w e r g i v e n t o t h e s e q u e s t i o n s .
Ye t I n d i a w a s n e v e r i n a m o r e p e r t u r b e d c o n d i t i o n ,
n e v e r s u f f e r e d m o r e f r o m i n t e r n a l m i s r u l e o r a t t a c k s f r o m
w i t h o u t , t h a n t h e d i f f e r e n t c o u n t r i e s n a m e d a t t h e p e r i o d s
r e f e r r e d t o . A n d t h e r i g i d i t y a n d m i s c o m p r e h e n s i o n o f
C h i n e s e d o m i n a t i o n i n E u r o p e c o u l d s c a r c e l y u n d e r a n y c i r -
c u m s t a n c e s h a v e b e e n g r e a t e r t h a n t h e r i g i d i t y a n d m i s c o m -
p r e h e n s i o n o f E u r o p e a n d e s p o t i s m i n H i n d u s t a n .
" P e a c e i s a n e x c e l l e n t t h i n g
. "
So w r o t e P h i l i p o f
M a c e d o n . P e a c e m a y b e a n a c c u r s e d t h i n g , i f a c c o m p a n i e d
b y f o r e i g n t y r a n n y a n d e c o n o m i c r u i n .
I t w a s t h e e c o n o m i c p r e s s u r e w h i c h p e r h a p s f i r s t r o u s e d
t h e m o r e i n t e l l i g e n t I n d i a n s t o a f u l l c o m p r e h e n s i o n o f t h e
p e r m a n e n t i n j u r y w h i c h p e r s i s t e n t E u r o p e a n i s a t i o n w a s i n -
f l i c t i n g u p o n I n d i a - a s a w h o l e . A n d t h i s w a s f i r s t a p p r e -
c i a t e d a n d f o r c i b l y e x p o u n d e d , n o t b y I n d i a n s t h e m s e l v e s ,
b u t b y E n g l i s h m e r c h a n t s a n d a d m i n i s t r a t o r s i n t h e d a y s
o f
t h e E a s t I n d i a C o m p a n y , l o n g b e f o r e t h e M u t i n y o r
N a t i o n a l Re v o l t o f 18 5 7 h a d o p e n l y m a n i f e s t e d t h e d i s -
c o n t e n t , o n o t h e r g r o u n d s , w h i c h e x i s t e d b e l o w . T h u s , e v e n
a t t h e t i m e w h e n t h e r e a l s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h e y e a r l y d r a i n o f
p r o d u c e t o E n g l a n d f r o m I n d i a w a s f a r l e s s , a l i k e i n a m o u n t
a n d e f f e c t , t h a n i t i s t o - d a y , a n E n g l i s h m a n , M r . M o n t -
g o m e r y M a r t i n , p o i n t e d o u t w h a t t h e w h o l e s a l e t r a n s f e r o f
I n d i a n w e a l t h t o E n g l a n d r e a l l y m e a n t .
t T h e a m o u n t p a i d t o t h e We s t i n o n e s h a p e o r a n o t h e r ,
u p t o 18 5 7 , a m o u n t e d t o m a n y h u n d r e d s o f m i l l i o n s o f
222

T h e A w a k e n i n g o f A s i a
p o u n d s s t e r l i n g , w i t h o u t a n y c o m m e r c i a l r e t u r n
. I n d i a , t h a t
i s t o s a y , h a d b e e n d e p l e t e d o f h e r w e a l t h t o t h a t e x t e n t
f o r t h e b e n e f i t o f E n g l a n d , a s a c o n s e q u e n c e o f E u r o p e a n
c o n q u e s t a n d r u l e
. E v e n t h e a b o l i t i o n o f s u t t e e b y L o r d
Wi l l i a m B e n t i n c k , t h e c h e c k t o f e m a l e i n f a n t i c i d e , a n d t h e
s u p p r e s s i o n o f t h e T h u g s m a d e n o e c o n o m i c a m e n d s f o r
t h i s r u i n o u s i m p o v e r i s h m e n t o f a p o o r c o u n t r y , a l l o f w h o s e
t e r r i t o r y w a s a l r e a d y o c c u p i e d , s o m e o f i t t i l l e d t o t h e
p o i n t o f e x h a u s t i o n a n d s o m e v e r y d e n s e l y , p o p u l a t e d
. B u t
t h i s d r a i n o f p r o d u c e e n o r m o u s l y i n c r e a s e d a f t e r t h e a s -
s u m p t i o n o f d i r e c t g o v e r n m e n t b y t h e C r o w n a n d t h e g r e a t
e x t e n s i o n o f E u r o p e a n i s a t i o n i n e v e r y d i r e c t i o n
.
T h e h i g h e r m i n d s i n t h e G o v e r n m e n t s e r v i c e s t r o n g l y i n -
's i s t e d u p o n t h e g r e a t a n d i n c r e a s i n g d a n g e r o f t h i s e c o n o m i c
p o l i c y .
C i v i l Se r v a n t s a n d m i l i t a r y m e n a l i k e e n l a r g e d
u p o n t h e r u i n t h a t w a s b e i n g w r o u g h t
. M r . J a m e s G e d d e s
a n d M r . A . O
. H u m e , M a j o r E v a n s B e l l a n d C o l o n e l O s -
b o r n e , M r . Wi l l i a m D i g b y a n d M r
. K n i g h t , a l l i n t h e i r
v a r i o u s w a y s , d i d t h e i r b e s t t o r e p r e s e n t t o t h e G o v e r n m e n t
i n E n g l a n d a n d
i n I n d i a t h e i r r e t r i e v a b l e m i s c h i e f t h a t w a s
b e i n g d o n e . So d i d o t h e r s .
T h e f a m o u s P a r s e e , M r
.
D a d a b h a i N a o r o j i h i m s e l f , o n l y t o o f a s t a f r i e n d o f B r i t i s h
r u l e i n I n d i a , d e v o t e d h i m s e l f a l s o f o r m a n y y e a r s t o t h i s
q u e s t i o n . . A l l t o n o p u r p o s e
. A t o n e p o i n t , 18 7 8 - 7 9- 8 o ,
t h e E n g l i s h G o v e r n m e n t a t h o m e d i d a p p r e c i a t e w h a t w a s
g o i n g o n ,
a n d L o r d Sa l i s b u r y a n d L o r d I d d e s l e i g h , w i t h
t h e c o n c u r r e n c e o f L o r d C r a n b r o o k , L o r d B e a c o n s f i e l d ,
M r
. E d w a r d St a n h o p e a n d Si r L o u i s M a l l e t , m a d e t h e
f i r s t s t e p s t o w a r d t h e g r a d u a l r e s t o r a t i o n o f I n d i a n r u l e
- s t e p s w h i c h h a d b e e n m o s t s u c c e s s f u l l y t a k e n i n M y s o r e
i n 18 6 8 , t o t h e p e r m a n e n t a d v a n t a g e o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n
.
T h e r e t h e r e m o v a l o f t h e r i g i d s y s t e m o f t a x a t i o n a n d t h e
r e v i v a l o f t h e o l d I n d i a n s y s t e m o f c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f I n d i a n
n e e d s a t o n c e u p l i f t e d t h e w e l l - b e i n g o f t h e e n t i r e p o p u l a -
t i o n o f
t h a t t e r r i t o r y .
B r i t i s h I n d i a n F i n a n c e

223
B u t t h e i n f l u e n c e o f t h e h i d e b o u n d I n d i a n b u r e a u c r a c y
a n d t h e p e r s o n a l i n t e r e s t o f t h e m i d d l e - c l a s s a t h o m e w e r e
t o o s t r o n g t o b e r e s i s t e d . O n t h e r e t u r n o f M r . G l a d s t o n e 's
L i b e r a l A d m i n i s t r a t i o n t o p o w e r a l l t h e p r e l i m i n a r y r e -
f o r m s i n t r o d u c e d w e r e s w e p t a w a y ; a n d f r o m t h a t t i m e t o
t h i s E u r o p e a n i s a t i o n h a s b e c o m e m o r e a n d m o r e t h e p a n a c e a
f o r a l l e v i l s , t h e f o r e i g n g o v e r n m e n t h a s b e c o m e m o r e e x -
p e n s i v e s t i l l , a n d e x t r a v a g a n c e s s u c h a s t h e c r e a t i o n o f
n e w a n d w h o l l y u n n e c e s s a r y c a p i t a l c i t i e s a t D e l h i a n d
D a c c a , h a v e w a s t e d I n d i a 's r e s o u r c e s t o t h e e x t e n t o f m a n y
m i l l i o n s s t e r l i n g . N a t u r a l l y , t o k e e p p a c e w i t h t h i s f a t a l
s y s t e m , t h e l a n d - t a x i s m o r e c r u e l l y e x a c t e d t h a n e v e r , a n d
t h e a g r i c u l t u r i s t s
g e t
p o o r e r a l l t h e t i m e .
C o m p a r e t h i s w i t h t h e s t a t e m e n t o f M r . C h e s t e r M a c -
n a g h t e n u p o n t h e c o m p a r a t i v e r e s u l t s o f I n d i a n r u l e t o -
d a y : " T h e f a c t i s , t h a t u n d e r e x i s t i n g c i r c u m s t a n c e s , a
N a t i v e St a t e u n d e r B r i t i s h s u p e r i o r s i s a l m o s t a n i d e a l
o f p r o s p e r i t y . T h i s r e m a r k i s a g e n e r a l o n e a p p l y i n g t o
T r a v a n c o r e , M y s o r e , e t c . , a s w e l l a s t o B a r o d a . Wh i l e
t h e p e o p l e a r e g o v e r n e d i n t h e i r o w n s i m p l e w a y , t h e r e v -
e n u e i s n o t w a s t e d . T h e p e a c e a n d p r o s p e r i t y w h i c h c h a r -
a c t e r i s e t h e r u r a l p o p u l a t i o n o f I n d i a a r e m a i n t a i n e d , w h i l e
t h e c o r r u p t i o n a n d d i s h o n e s t y w h i c h c h a r a c t e r i s e N a t i v e
C o u r t s a r e c h e c k e d . T h e s y s t e m i s a n i n e x p e n s i v e o n e t o
t h e St a t e s w h i c h e n j o y i t a n d c o n t a i n s a l l t h a t i s b e s t
i n
B r i t i s h a n d N a t i v e m e t h o d s . I b e l i e v e i t i s o n l y t r u e t o
a s s e r t t h a t t h e r e i s n o t a s i n g l e N a t i v e , St a t e i n I n d i a w h i c h ,
i f s o a d m i n i s t e r e d , w i l l n o t s h o w a . s u r p l u s . " A n d t h e s e
I n d i a n St a t e s h a v e l i t t l e , i f a n y , d r a i n o f p a y m e n t s t o E u -
r o p e . E v e n s o , t h e r e i s i n s o m e o f t h e s e St a t e s t o o m u c h
m e d d l i n g b y t h e E u r o p e a n Re s i d e n t s [ t e c h n i c a l t e r m f o r
E u r o p e a n a d v i s e r s ] w i t h a t e n d e n c y t o e x a g g e r a t e i n p r a c -
t i c e t h e c u r r e n t b u r e a u c r a t i c b e l i e f i n E u r o p e a n i s a t i o n .
B u t t h e p h e n o m e n o n o f t h e e c o n o m i c d r a i n c a l l s f o r
c l o s e r i n v e s t i g a t i o n . T h i s i s s p e c i a l l y i n j u r i o u s , o f c o u r s e ,
224

T h e A w a k e n i n g o f A s i a
t o a p o o r c o u n t r y
. I t m a y a r i s e t o a l l a p p e a r a n c e a d -
v a n t a g e o u s l y a n d w i t h o u t t h e a d d i t i o n a l d r a w b a c k o f f o r -
e i g n r u l e , a n d y e t b e a v e r y s e r i o u s h i n d r a n c e t o t h e c o u n -
t r y w h i c h s u f f e r s f r o m i t . O n t h e o t h e r h a n d , i t m a y c o n -
s t i t u t e , c o m p a r a t i v e l y , s o s m a l l a p r o p o r t i o n o f t h e t o t a l
w e a l t h o f t h e c o u n t r y , i n c r e a s e d b y t h e i n v e s t m e n t
o f
l o a n e d c a p i t a l , o n w h i c h t h e e c o n o m i c d r a i n r e p r e s e n t s t h e
i n t e r e s t , t h a t t h e a d v a n c e s c a n b e r e d e e m e d w i t h e a s e a t
m a t u r i t y .
B o t h t h e U n i t e d St a t e s a n d Ru s s i a h a v e b e e n a n d a r e
s t i l l l a r g e b o r r o w e r s - t h e f o r m e r t o a s m a l l a m o u n t i n r e -
l a t i o n t o i t s w e a l t h
: t h e l a t t e r c o n s t a n t l y r e q u i r i n g l o a n s .
B u t t h e U n i t e d St a t e s i s s t i l l a n u n d e v e l o p e d c o u n t r y , r i c h
i n v i r g i n a g r i c u l t u r a l s o i l a n d v a s t m i n e r a l r e s o u r c e s , d e -
v e l o p e d b y t h e c o n s t a n t e x e r t i o n s o f a v i g o r o u s a n d , i n t h e
m a i n , n o t n e e d y p o p u l a t i o n f r o m E u r o p e . Ra i l w a y c o m m u -
n i c a t i o n a f f o r d s p r o f i t a b l e o u t l e t f o r a l l p r o d u c t s , a n d i f
t h e l i n e s w e r e o v e r l o a d e d w i t h i n d e b t e d n e s s t h e c o m p a n i e s
s i m p l y d i d n o t p a y . A s t h e w e a l t h o f t h e v a s t t e r r i t o r y g r e w
t h e l o a n s a n d b o n d s w e r e b o u g h t b a c k o r t h e c a p i t a l b o r -
r o w e d a g a i n a t a l o w e r r a t e o f i n t e r e s t f o r n e w e n t e r p r i s e s
.
I t i s t h e s a m e w i t h M u n i c i p a l b o r r o w i n g s a n d St a t e L o a n s
i s s u e d i n E u r o p e . *
Wi t h Ru s s i a , h o w e v e r , t h e c a s e w a s a n d i s d i f f e r e n t .
T h e c o u n t r y o u t s i d e o f Si b e r i a w a s a l r e a d y s e t t l e d , t h e
p e o p l e w e r e p o o r a n d i g n o r a n t , t h e d e v e l o p m e n t , e x c e p t
i n
t h e o i l r e g i o n s , d i d n o t k e e p p a c e w i t h t h e b o r r o w i n g , t h e
a g r i c u l t u r i s t s , m o s t l y e m a n c i p a t e d s e r f s , g o t n o r i c h e r .
T h e r e f o r e , t h e u n w i e l d y M u s c o v i t e E m p i r e , w i t h a l l i t s
w e a l t h a n d u n d e v e l o p e d r e s o u r c e s , c o u l d n o t s u s t a i n t h e
d r a i n o f p r o d u c e t o t h e We s t f o r t h e i n t e r e s t o n t h e m o n e y
t h a t w a s a d v a n c e d
. T h u s i t b e f e l l t h a t e v e r m o r e a n d m o r e
l o a n s w e r e n e e d e d t o k e e p u p p a y m e n t o f i n t e r e s t .
P r i o r
* T h e w a r h a s c o n s t i t u t e d A m e r i c a t h e c r e d i t o r i n s t e a d o f t h e d e b t o r
o f E u r o p e .
B r i t i s h I n d i a n F i n a n c e

225
t o t h e w a r o f 1914, Ru s s i a w a s f u l l y £ i 5 o , o o o , o o o b e h i n d -
h a n d i n t h e p a y m e n t s t o m e e t h e r l i a b i l i t i e s f o r i n t e r e s t a n d
p r o f i t s t o We s t e r n c r e d i t o r s , m o s t l y F r e n c h . H e r y e a r l y
d e b t o n t h i s a c c o u n t w a s n o t f a r s h o r t o f £ 5 3, 000, 000 s t e r -
l i n g. So , a s s h o w n i n h e r a c c o u n t o f e x p o r t s a n d i m p o r t s ,
s h e w a s n e a r l y t h r e e y e a r s o v e r d u e i n m e e t i n g h e r i n d e b t e d -
n e s s - a d e f i c i t w h i c h h a d b e e n c o v e r e d b y a l l s o r t s o f
s h i f t s
. Ru s s i a n a g r i c u l t u r e , t h e m a i n s t a y o f t h a t g r e a t
c o u n t r y , h a d l o s t i n s t e a d o f g a i n i n g s t r e n g t h , a s w a s c l e a r l y
s h o w n f i r s t b y P r o f e s s o r I s s a i e f f a n d t h e n b y P r o f e s s o r
M i l y u k o v
.
T h e d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n t h e U n i t e d St a t e s a n d Ru s s i a
i s o b v i o u s . I n t h e o n e c a s e t h e i m p o r t e d c a p i t a l h a d e n -
h a n c e d a n d q u i c k e n e d p r o d u c t i o n f a r b e y o n d t h e a m o u n t
n e e d e d t o p a y t h e y e a r l y i n t e r e s t
: i n t h e o t h e r , t h e i n t e r e s t
r e p r e s e n t e d f o r t h e m o s t p a r t a d e d u c t i o n f r o m p r o d u c -
t i o n , w h i c h h a d d i m i n i s h e d i n a g r i c u l t u r e , a n d n o t s u f f i -
c i e n t l y e x p a n d e d i n m a n u f a c t u r e a n d m i n i n g . H e n c e t h e
d r a i n o f Ru s s i a n p r o d u c e i s r u i n o u s a n d b a n k r u p t c y a n d
r e p u d i a t i o n h a v e b e c o m e i n e v i t a b l e , i f u t t e r r u i n i s t o b e
a v e r t e d .
B u t t h e r e a l e c o n o m i c c o n d i t i o n o f I n d i a i s f a r w o r s e
e v e n t h a n t h i s . P u t t i n g a s i d e t h e p r o f i t s o n , t e a - p l a n t i n g ,
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c o m m e r c i a l r e t u r n i s n o t l e s s t h a n £ 3o , o o o , o o o e v e r y y e a r .
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b u t n o t u n d e r d i r e c t B r i t i s h r u l e . T h e s e g r e a t P r o v i n c e s
n o t o n l y a r e r e l a t i v e l y w e a l t h y , i n c o m p a r i s o n w i t h t h e
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t h e e n t i r e i n h a b i t a n t s o f H i n d u s t a n . T h e d r a i n o f p r o d u c e ,
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h a s p r o c e e d e d n o w f o r j u s t i 6 o y e a r s . B u t w h e n t h e
a m o u n t t h u s c a l c u l a t e d i s e x t o r t e d f r o m t h e p o o r e s t p o p u -
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v a r y i n g f r o m 15 t o 6 o p e r c e n t . A n d t h e n o f f i c i a l a p o l o g i s t s
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e x a c t i o n s o f t h e u s u r i o u s m o n e y l e n d e r s , w h o a r e b r o u g h t
i n t o a m o r e p r o m i n e n t p o s i t i o n t h a n t h e y e v e r b e f o r e o c c u -
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a n d m o r e h o p e l e s s a l l r o u n d .
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t h i s s t a t e o f t h i n g s . N o t h i n g o f t h e s o r t . I r r i g a t i o n a p -
p l i e s t o a v e r y s m a l l a r e a a s c a r r i e d o u t u n d e r E u r o p e a n
e n g i n e e r s . So m e t i m e s t h e q u a l i t y o f t h e w a t e r s u p p l i e d
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f a c t i o n i s a n e g l i g i b l e q u a n t i t y , t h e r e c a n b e n o d o u b t i n t h e
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n o e a s y m a t t e r . B u t t h e r e a r e n o t w a n t i n g s i g n s o f d i s -
c o n t e n t i n t h e n a t i v e r e g i m e n t s , a n d i t i s a n o p e n s e c r e t
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s u c c e s s i s a s s u r e d . T h e G a i k w a r o f B a r o d a m a y g i v e e v i -
d e n c e o f t e m p o r a r y i n d e p e n d e n c e a t t h e D u r b a r o f t h e
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d i r e c t l y - r u l e d t e r r i t o r y , a n d m e e t t h e g r o w i n g d i f f i c u l t i e s
w i t h o u t f e a r a n d w i t h o u t p r e j u d i c e o r t y r a n n y . T h e h o p e -
l e s s n e s s o f o v e r t r e s i s t a n c e d r i v e s m e n t o a n a r c h y a n d
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a s s a s s i n a t i o n . U n d e r I n d i a n r u l e t h i s w a s c o m m o n l y p r a c -
t i s e d . A s L o r d M o r l e y , w h e n Se c r e t a r y f o r I n d i a , h i m s e l f
w r o t e : " E v e n t h e f i e r c e s t o f O r i e n t a l t y r a n t s r a n s o m e
r i s k o f h a v i n g h i s t h r o a t c u t , o r h i s c o f f e e p o i s o n e d , i f h e
p u s h e d
: t h i n g s t o o f a r . " T h e o p e n a t t e m p t t o b o m b L o r d
H a r d i n g e , t h e V i c e r o y , a n d o t h e r r e c e n t e v i d e n c e s o f g r o w -
i n g u n e a s i n e s s , m a y p o s s i b l e c o n v i n c e e v e n t h e E n g l i s h
a r i s t o c r a c y , c a p i t a l i s t s a n d t h e i r b u r e a u c r a c y t h a t t h i n g s a r e
b e i n g p u s h e d t o o f a r
.
T h e r e m a r k a b l e f a c t i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e U n r e s t i n I n d i a
i s t h a t i t h a s t a k e n m o s t f o r m i d a b l e s h a p e d u r i n g - t h e p a s t
f e w y e a r s i n p r e c i s e l y t h o s e t w o P r o v i n c e s w h i c h , f o r d i f -
f e r e n t r e a s o n s , h a v e a l w a y s b e e n r e g a r d e d , s i n c e t h e M u t i n y ,
a s m o s t s e c u r e f o r B r i t i s h r u l e . T h e s e t w o a r e B e n g a l a n d
t h e P u n j a b . B e n g a l , t a k e n a s a w h o l e , i s t h e m o s t p o p u l o u s
P r o v i n c e i n B r i t i s h I n d i a . I t s i n h a b i t a n t s e q u a l t h e n u m -
b e r s o f t h o s e i n a l l t h e i n d e p e n d e n t N a t i v e St a t e s . B u t
t h e y m e r e n o t o r i o u s l y t h e m o s t p a c i f i c f o l k o f a l l A s i a .
O f t e n i t w a s s a i d t h a t i f t h e B r i t i s h w e r e d r i v e n o u t o f t h e
r e s t o f H i n d u s t a n t h e y c o u l d s t i l l m a i n t a i n t h e i r h o l d o n
B e n g a l a n d t h e c a p i t a l c i t y o f C a l c u t t a . B e n g a l q u i e t i s m
h a d , i n f a c t , b e c o m e a b y w o r d , a n d E n g l i s h m e n u s e d t o
s n e e r h a b i t u a l l y a t t h e B e n g a l i s a s a s e r v i l e s e t ,
w h o
w o u l d
p u t u p w i t h a n y i n s u l t a n d c o n t u m e l y f r o m t h e E n g l i s h
t h e m s e l v e s , o r f r o m a n y
. o f t h e f i g h t i n g n a t i v e r a c e s , w i t h -
o u t t h e s l i g h t e s t a t t e m p t a t r e t o r t o r r e s i s t a n c e . Ye t , i n
t h i s e x t r e m e l y p e a c e - l o v i n g p r o v i n c e
o f B e n g a l , a n a r c h i s t
o u t r a g e s a n d o r g a n i s e d a s s a s s i n a t i o n h a v e b e e n u s e d a s
w e a p o n s o f p o l i t i c a l p r o t e s t a n d a l m o s t o f r e v o l t
.
A s o f t e n h a p p e n s i n t h e a f f a i r s o f h u m a n l i f e , n e i t h e r
d e s p o t i c r u l e n o r e c o n o m i c p r e s s u r e ' w a s t h e c a u s e o f t h i s
u n e x p e c t e d o u t b r e a k , b y n o m e a n s a s y e t c o m p l e t e l y s u p -
p r e s s e d . O w i n g t o t h e p e r m a n e n t s e t t l e m e n t o f t h e l a n d - t a x
B e n g a l d o e s n o t s u f f e r s o m u c h a s s o m e o t h e r d i s t r i c t s f r o m
t h e e c o n o m i c d r a i n
. T h e i m m e d i a t e o c c a s i o n w a s a p u r e l y
232

T h e A w a k e n i n g o f A s i a
s e n t i m e n t a l g r i e v a n c e
: t h e d i v i s i o n o f t h e a n c i e n t h i s t o r i c
P r o v i n c e o f B e n g a l i n t o t w o s e p a r a t e P r o v i n c e s , w i t h d u a l
c a p i t a l s
. T h i s s e e m s a t r i f l i n g m a t t e r a f t e r a l l t h a t h a d g o n e
b e f o r e .
B u t i t i s n o t a l w a y s t h e g r e a t e s t g r i e v a n c e s t h a t
b r i n g a b o u t t h e g r e a t e s t d e t e s t a t i o n .
P r o t e s t s a g a i n s t t h e
d i v i s i o n o f t h e a n c i e n t P r o v i n c e , t h o u g h t h e y w e r e m a d e
b y H i n d u Ra j a h s a n d M o h a m m e d a n N a w a b s , s p e a k i n g i n
h a r m o n y f r o m t h e s a m e p l a t f o r m , a n d j o i n i n g i n t h e s a m e
w r i t t e n r e m o n s t r a n c e s t o t h e G o v e r n m e n t , r e m a i n e d u n -
h e e d e d
. T h e P r e s s w a s r i g o r o u s l y i n t e r f e r e d w i t h . T h o s e
w h o p u s h e d t h e i r a n t a g o n i s m t o t h e m e a s u r e w i t h g r e a t
v i g o u r w e r e a r r e s t e d a n d c o n d e m n e d o n o n e c h a r g e o r a n -
o t h e r .
T h e n a s e r i o u s m o v e m e n t t o w a r d s a s s a s s i n a t i o n b e g a n .
N o t o n l y G o v e r n m e n t s p i e s a n d p o l i c e a g e n t s b u t E n g l i s h -
m e n w h o h a d m a d e t h e m s e l v e s a c t i v e a g a i n s t t h e p u b l i c
f e e l i n g w e r e a t t a c k e d a n d k i l l e d
. Wh a t h a d h a p p e n e d ?
T h e " c o w a r d l y " r a c e , a s t h e y w e r e h a b i t u a l l y c a l l e d , t h e s e
c r i n g i n g s y c o p h a n t s , w h o s e a p a t h y a w a k e n e d t h e c o n t e m p t
o f t h e i r c o n q u e r o r s , s u d d e n l y s h o o k o f f t h e i r p u s i l l a n i m i t y
a n d d e v e l o p e d n o t a n a c c i d e n t a l o n e o r t w o b u t a s u c c e s s i o n
o f c o o l , d e s p e r a t e , s e l f - s a c r i f i c i n g y o u n g a s s a s s i n s w h o
r e c k o n e d t h e i r o w n l i v e s a s n o t h i n g , w h o f l o u t e d t h e w h i t e
j u d g e s i n 'o p e n c o u r t , w h o m o c k e d a t t h e h o r r o r s o f a n
I n d i a n p r i s o n
. Wh e n t h e y w e r e c o n d e m n e d t o d e a t h b y
h a n g i n g f o r t h e p o l i t i c a l c r i m e s w h i c h t h e y h a d c o m m i t t e d ,
t h e y w e n t t r i u m p h a n t l y t o t h e s c a f f o l d , a n d w e r e r e g a r d e d
a s m a r t y r s b y t h e i r c o u n t r y m e n , a n d , w h a t i s f a r m o r e
r e m a r k a b l e , b y t h e i r c o u n t r y w o m e n
.
N o s u c h t r a n s f o r m a t i o n o f c h a r a c t e r a n d c o n d u c t h a s
e v e r b e e n s e e n .
T h e m a s s e s o f t h e p e o p l e w e r e s t i r r e d t o
t h e i r d e p t h s . T h e m a t t e r t o o k o n a r e l i g i o u s s h a p e
. T h e
m o s t r e v e r e d r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f r e l i g i o n i n t h e c o u n t r y p a r -
t i c i p a t e d i n t h e e n d e a v o u r t o d o h o n o u r t o t h e m e n w h o
h a d s u f f e r e d f o r t h e c o m m o n c a u s e
. A f t e r t h e e x e c u t i o n
T h e G r o w i n g U n r e s t
233
b y h a n g i n g o f o n e o f 't h e y o u n g f a n a t i c s , h i s b o d y w a s
o b t a i n e d f r o m t h e G o v e r n m e n t a n d w a s b u r n t o n a f u n e r a l
p y r e i n C a l c u t t a w i t h e l a b o r a t e r e l i g i o u s c e r e m o n i a l . T h i s
r e m a r k a b l e r e l i g i o u s d e m o n s t r a t i o n w a s a t t e n d e d b y u p -
w a r d s o f 5 o , o o o p e r s o n s , t h o u g h t h e s u m m o n s t o a t t e n d
w a s i s s u e d q u i t e s e c r e t l y. A m o n g t h o s e p r e s e n t , t o t h e
a s t o n i s h m e n t o f a l l t h e E u r o p e a n s , w e r e m a n y w e l l - t o - d o
w o m e n - o f h i g h c a s t e - a t h i n g q u i t e u n p r e c e d e n t e d o n s u c h
a n o c c a s i o n . A p u b l i c o u t b u r s t o f t h i s i m p o s i n g c h a r a c t e r ,
i n d e f i a n c e o f t h e G o v e r n m e n t , w o u l d h a v e b e e n q u i t e i m -
p o s s i b l e a f e w y e a r s b e f o r e .
T h e s y m p a t h y w i t h t h e f a n a t i c s w a s n o t c o n f i n e d t o t h e
t o w n s . I t s p r e a d t h r o u g h o u t t h e P r o v i n c e , w a s f e l t i n t h e
r e m o t e s t l o c a l i t i e s , a n d w a s m a n i f e s t e d e v e n b y t h e c h i l d r e n .
M r . B e g i n C h a n d r a P a l i s a m a n o f t h e m o s t p a c i f i c t u r n
o f t h o u g h t . H e h a s n o b e l i e f i n a s s a s s i n a t i o n a s a m e t h o d
o f p r o t e s t . B u t h e a b s o l u t e l y r e f u s e d t o g i v e e v i d e n c e i n
o n e o f t h e s e c a s e s o f a n a r c h i s t a t t a c k . F o r t h i s h e w a s
i m p r i s o n e d b y t h e B r i t i s h G o v e r n m e n t . O n h i s r e l e a s e ,
h e w a s g r e e t e d a s a h e r o , a n d H i n d o o s a n d M o h a m m e d a n s
c o m b i n e d t o d o h i m h o n o u r . N o t h i n g w a s l a c k i n g t o s h o w
t h e p u b l i c a p p r e c i a t i o n o f t h e s e r v i c e h e h a d r e n d e r e d t o
h i s f e l l o w m e n a n d w o m e n b y h i s c o u r a g e o u s a c t i o n . Re -
l i g i o u s d i f f e r e n c e s w e r e s u p p r e s s e d , o r f o r g o t t e n , i n t h e
m a n i f e s t a t i o n o f a c o m m o n r a c e f e e l i n g . T h e p o r t r a i t o f
M r . P a l w a s c a r r i e d t h r o u g h m o s t o f t h e v i l l a g e s o f B e n -
g a l , a n d w h e r e v e r i t w a s s e e n w a s c r o w n e d w i t h f l o w e r s .
I t i s q u i t e r i g h t t o d e n o u n c e a s s a s s i n a t i o n
:
a n a r c h y i s
n o r e m e d y f o r m i s g o v e r n m e n t
. B u t w h e n p u b l i c m e e t -
i n g s a r e n o t a l l o w e d ; w h e n f r e e d o m o f t h e P r e s s i s e n t i r e l y
a b r o g a t e d ; w h e n m e n a r e a r r e s t e d , i m p r i s o n e d a n d t r a n s -
p o r t e d t o a c r i m i n a l c o l o n y u n d e r a n o b s o l e t e b u t r e s u s c i -
t a t e d l a w a c e n t u r y o l d , w i t h o u t t r i a l a n d e v e n w i t h o u t
a c c u s a t i o n ; w h e n y o u n g s t u d e n t s a r e p u b l i c l y f l o g g e d b y
a n i n f a m o u s p e r s o n f o r
p u r e l y p o l i t i c a l o f f e n c e s - w h e n
a l l
234

T h e A w a k e n i n g o f A s i a
t h e s e t h i n g s a r e d o n e b y a f o r e i g n G o v e r n m e n t , w h i c h h a s
d i s a r m e d t h e w h o l e p e o p l e a n d a l l o w s t h e m n o d i r e c t r e p -
r e s e n t a t i o n w h a t e v e r - i t i s i m p o s s i b l e n o t t o r e c o g n i s e t h a t
t h e s e a n a r c h i s t o u t b r e a k s h a v e b e e n d e l i b e r a t e l y p r o v o k e d .
Su c h o u t b r e a k s a r e c o n t r a r y t o a l l l a w . T h a t i s g r a n t e d .
B u t w h e n w e r e a d o f t h e t y r a n n y p r a c t i s e d i n B e n g a l i n
1907 , w h i c h h a s b e e n g o i n g o n e v e r s i n c e , i t i s d i f f i c u l t n o t
t o s y m p a t h i s e t o s o m e e x t e n t w i t h t h e y o u n g B e n g a l i f a n a -
t i c s w h o h a v e c o m m i t t e d t h e s e c r i m e s . T h o s e i n E n g l a n d
a n d A m e r i c a w h o h a v e g l o r i f i e d So p h i a P e r o v s k i a i a a s a
h e r o i n e , a n d h a v e a p p l a u d e d St e p n i a k a s a j u s t i f i e d h o m i -
c i d e , c a n s c a r c e l y d e n o u n c e w i t h f u r i o u s i n d i g n a t i o n t h e
I n d i a n l a d s w h o , m a d d e n e d b y m i s g o v e r n m e n t w h i c h t h e y
a r e p o w e r l e s s t o o v e r t h r o w , p r o t e s t , h o w e v e r c r i m i n a l l y ,
a g a i n s t t h e c o n t i n u e d d o m i n a t i o n w h i c h t h u s o p p r e s s e s
t h e m . A l l m o d e r a t e I n d i a n r e f o r m e r s s a i d t h a t t h e b o m b
t h r o w n a t t h e V i c e r o y , L o r d H a r d i n g e , w h i c h w o u n d e d
h i m a n d k i l l e d o t h e r s , w a s f l u n g b y a m a d m a n , a n d t h e a c t ,
t h e y d e c l a r e d , w o u l d s t r e n g t h e n t h e r e a c t i o n a r y p a r t y . B u t ,
s i n c e t h e w a r , t h e e x t r e m i s t s i n B e n g a l h a v e s e e n w h o l l y
i n n o c e n t f o l k t r e a t e d w i t h t h e g r e a t e s t r i g o u r , a g a i n w i t h -
o u t t r i a l a n d w i t h o u t a c c u s a t i o n . T h i s h a s b e e n d o n e o n
t h e p r i v a t e d e l a t i o n o f n a t i v e o f f i c i a l i n f o r m e r s .
A s s a s s i n a -
t i o n h a s , t h e r e f o r e , g o n e o n , t o o .
T h u s , w h e t h e r E n g l i s h m e n l i k e t o r e c o g n i s e i t o r n o t ,
w h e t h e r t h e y e n d e a v o u r t o s u p p r e s s t h e g r o w i n g d i s a f f e c -
t i o n , o r w i s e l y m e e t i t b y i n t r o d u c i n g f r e e d o m a n d s e l f -
g o v e r n m e n t f o r I n d i a , t h e r e c a n b e n o d i s p u t e t h a t , i n B e n -
g a l , t h e a w a k e n i n g h a s b e g u n i n e a r n e s t . A n d B e n g a l - w a s ,
a s s a i d , t h e m o s t p e a c e f u l P r o v i n c e i n a l l A s i a , a s w e l l a s
i n a l l I n d i a .
Ye t w h a t h a s o c c u r r e d i n t h e P u n j a b i s e v e n m o r e s i g -
n i f i c a n t . T h e P u n j a b w a s t h e g a r d e n o f B r i t i s h I n d i a .
T h e r e , i f a n y w h e r e i n a l l A s i a , n a t i v e r u l e u n d e r l i g h t a n d
s y m p a t h e t i c E u r o p e a n g u i d a n c e , w i t h o u t h a r s h m i l i t a r i s m ,
T h e
G r o w i n g U n r e s t
235
o r d o c t r i n a i r e b u r e a u c r a c y , c o u l d h a v e b u i l t u p a g r e a t ,
p o w e r f u l a n d p r o s p e r o u s P r o v i n c e .
Su c h w o u l d h a v e b e e n
t h e p o l i c y o f t h a t t r u e s t a t e s m a n , Si r H e n r y L a w r e n c e
.
T h e b u l k o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n w e r e , a n d e v e n s t i l l a r e ,
w i d e l y a s i m p o v e r i s h m e n t h a s s p r e a d , a f i n e , u p s t a n d i n g ,
i n d e p e n d e n t f o l k
. M o s t o f t h e m a r e Si k h s : t h e d e s c e n d a n t s
o f t h e m a g n i f i c e n t s o l d i e r y w h o l a r g e l y c o n q u e r e d I n d i a
f o r t h e E n g l i s h s i x t y y e a r s a g o
. I f t h e r e w a s e v e r a c a s e
i n w h i c h c o n s i d e r a t i o n s h o u l d h a v e b e e n s h o w n a n d j u s t i c e
a n d e q u i t y u p h e l d , t h e c a s e o f t h e Si k h s o f t h e P u n j a b
w a s t h a t s p e c i a l i n s t a n c e .
T h e B r i t i s h G o v e r n m e n t s h o u l d n e v e r h a v e f o r g o t t e n
w h a t i t o w e d t o t h e s p l e n d i d f i g h t e r s w h o s t o o d b y t h e f o r -
e i g n r u l e r s w h e n , b e f o r e t h e f a l l o f D e l h i , t h e p o s s i b i l i t y
o f v i c t o r y f o r t h e I n d i a n i n s u r g e n t s w a s p r e s e n t t o a l l
m i n d s . B u t G o v e r n m e n t s h a v e s h o r t m e m o r i e s , p a r t i c u l a r -
l y w h e n t h e y b e g i n t o f e e l t h e n e e d f o r a d d i t i o n a l f u n d s ,
a n d a r e b e c o m i n g m o r e t h a n a l i t t l e d o u b t f u l a b o u t t h e
p e r m a n e n c e o f t h e i r o w n s y s t e m . So T s a r i s t m e t h o d s w e r e
t r i e d i n t h e P u n j a b , a n d , a s i n B e n g a l , t h e y a r e b e i n g a p -
p l i e d t o - d a y .
T h u s , e l e v e n y e a r s a g o , t h e e d i t o r o f o n e o f t h e I n d i a n
n e w s p a p e r s , T h e P u n j a b i o f L a h o r e , m a d e h i m s e l f t h e
m o u t h p i e c e o f t h e p e r s o n a l a n d e c o n o m i c w r o n g s o f t h e
p e o p l e
. H e e v e n w e n t s o f a r a s t o c r i t i c i s e v e r y u n f a v o u r -
a b l y t h e c o n d u c t o f o n e o f t h e o f f i c i a l s o f t h e B r i t i s h G o v -
e r n m e n t , w h o i s n o w a d m i t t e d t o h a v e b e h a v e d m o s t u n -
f a i r l y . T h i s I n d i a n e d i t o r a n d j o u r n a l i s t w a s a t o n c e
s e i z e d , h a n d c u f f e d , t r e a t e d i n t h e m o s t b r u t a l m a n n e r , a n d
c l a p p e d i n t o j a i l a s a c o m m o n c r i m i n a l . T h e Ru s s i a n s
a n d a l l o t h e r E u r o p e a n r u l e r s d i s c r i m i n a t e b e t w e e n p o l i t i c a l
o f f e n d e r s a n d o r d i n a r y h o m i c i d e s , b u r g l a r s o r p i c k p o c k e t s
w e E n g l i s h d o n o t , e i t h e r i n o u r o w n c o u n t r y o r a b r o a d .
So t h e e d i t o r o f T h e P u n j a b i f o u n d h i m s e l f i n p r i s o n s i d e
b y s i d e w i t h f e l o n s o f t h e w o r s t t y p e . T h e p o p u l a t i o n o f
236

T h e
A w a k e n i n g o f A s i a
L a h o r e o b j e c t e d t o t h i s t r e a t m e n t o f a f e l l o w - c i t i z e n , w h o s e
s o l e o f f e n c e w a s t h a t h e h a d c h a m p i o n e d t h e c a u s e o f h i s
c o u n t r y m e n , i n r e g a r d t o a m a t t e r w h i c h h a d o c c u r r e d e i g h t
y e a r s b e f o r e .
H e n c e t h e r e w a s " u n r e s t " i n L a h o r e a n d t h e P u n j a b
g e n e r a l l y . T h e r e w a s n o t a t i t t l e o f e v i d e n c e t h a t a n y
a t t a c k u p o n t h e G o v e r n m e n t w a s c o n t e m p l a t e d .
I t w a s
c l e a r l y p r o v e d a f t e r w a r d s t h a t i t w a s n o t
.
B u t c r i t i c i s m
c o u l d n o t b e p e r m i t t e d . Wh e n o n l y 200, 000 E u r o p e a n s
a n d E u r a s i a n s , a l l t o l d , o c c u p y a n d d o m i n a t e
a
c o u n t r y o f
315 , 000, 000 i n h a b i t a n t s , t h e y f i n d i t v e r y d i f f i c u l t t o a d m i t
t h a t a n y o f t h e m c a n d o a n y t h i n g w r o n g . I t i s d a n g e r o u s
n o t t o b e a l w a y s i n t h e r i g h t , w h e n t h e d i s p r o p o r t i o n o f
n u m b e r s i s s o s t u p e n d o u s . - T h e G o v e r n m e n t i s , a n d m u s t
b e , p e r f e c t . I f I n d i a n s o b j e c t t o i t s p e r f e c t i o n , s o m u c h t h e
w o r s e f o r t h e m . T h e P u n j a b i s o b j e c t e d
. T h e y o b j e c t e d
f o r g o o d r e a s o n s , a s w a s a f t e r w a r d s p r o v e d .
F o r , a l l t h e t i m e , t h e l a n d r e v e n u e i n t h e L a h o r e d i s -
t r i c t w a s b e i n g r a i s e d a n d r a i s e d t o s u c h a n e x t e n t t h a t i t
a c t u a l l y a m o u n t e d t o 6 5 p e r c e n t . o f t h e p r o f i t s o f t h e
h o l d i n g s ! T h e " u n r e s t " i n B e n g a l , t h o u g h n o d o u b t i n -
t e n s i f i e d b y g e n e r a l c a u s e s , b e c a m e o v e r t a n d s e r i o u s i n
m o r e w a y s t h a n o n e , a s t h e r e s u l t o f r u f f l e d s e n t i m e n t - t h e
d i s r u p t i o n o f t h e o l d n a t i v e P r o v i n c e o f B e n g a l w i t h i t s
7 0, 000, 000 i n h a b i t a n t s . I n t h e P u n j a b i t w a s t h e d i r e c t
e f f e c t o f t e r r i b l e e c o n o m i c i n j u s t i c e . So l e m n o f f i c i a l p r o m -
i s e s m a d e t o t h e c u l t i v a t o r s i n r e g a r d t o t a x a t i o n w e r e d e =
l i b e r a t e l y b r o k e n i n a m a n n e r a b s o l u t e l y r u i n o u s t o t h e
r y o t s .
E x c e s s i v e c h a r g e s w e r e m a d e f o r a l l i r r i g a t i o n w a t e r
s u p p l i e d b y t h e G o v e r n m e n t , i n o r d e r t h a t t h e c a p i t a l s u n k
i n t h e o f f i c i a l e n t e r p r i s e m i g h t s h o w a p r o f i t . T h e p o o r f o l k
w e r e p r o h i b i t e d f r o m u s i n g w a t e r f r o m t h e i r o w n w e l l s , s o
t h a t t h e y s h o u l d b e d r i v e n t o b u y G o v e r n m e n t w a t e r !
M a n y o t h e r m i n o r g r i e v a n c e s w e r e d e e p l y r e s e n t e d .
N o
T h e G r o w i n g
U n r e s t

237
a t t e n t i o n w h a t e v e r w a s p a i d t o t h e c o m p l a i n t s o f t h e r y o t s
o r o f t h e i r l e a d e r s . T h e s e l a t t e r w e r e m e n o f t h e v e r y
h i g h e s t c h a r a c t e r , w h o w e r e d e e p l y r e s p e c t e d t h r o u g h o u t
t h i s r e g i o n .
Wh a t f o l l o w e d ? T h e l e a d e r s w e r e a r r e s t e d
a n d h a r s h l y d e a l t w i t h
. T h e p r i n c i p a l a g i t a t o r , M r . L a j p a t
Ra i , w h o h a d s p e n t a c o n s i d e r a b l e f o r t u n e o n p u r e l y p h i l a n -
t h r o p i c w o r k , w a s , a f t e r t h e m a n n e r o f t h e B e n g a l " s u s -
p e c t s , , " a r r e s t e d a n d t r a n s p o r t e d w i t h o u t a n y a c c u s a t i o n
w h a t e v e r h a v i n g b e e n f o r m u l a t e d a g a i n s t h i m , a n d t h e r e -
f o r e , o f c o u r s e , w i t h o u t h a v i n g b e e n b r o u g h t t o t r i a l
.
L o r d M o r l e y , w h o w a s t h e n Se c r e t a r y o f St a t e f o r
I n d i a , a n d a m e m b e r o f t h e H o u s e o f C o m m o n s , a c t u a l l y
w e n t s o f a r a s t o s u g g e s t i n t h e H o u s e t h a t i f t h i s a c t o f
g r o s s i n j u s t i c e h a d n o t b e e n c o m m i t t e d , a l l t h e Si k h r e g i -
m e n t s - t h e s o n s o f t h e h e r o e s o f 18 5 7 o n t h e E n g l i s h s i d e
- w o u l d h a v e r i s e n i n t h e n i g h t a g a i n s t t h e E n g l i s h G o v e r n -
m e n t . T h e t r u t h
i s
t h a t t h e w h o l e o f f i c i a l c l a s s w a s
i n a
s t a t e o f - p a n i c . M o r e o v e r , i t s m e m b e r s k n e w v e r y w e l l t h a t
t h e r y o t s a n d t h e i r s p o k e s m e n w e r e i n t h e r i g h t , a n d L o r d
M o r l e y w a s a s f u l l y c o n v i n c e d u p o n t h a t p o i n t a s w e r e h i s
s u b o r d i n a t e s i n I n d i a .
So o s e r i o u s d i d t h e m a t t e r b e c o m e , i n c o n s e q u e n c e o f d i s -
c u s s i o n i n t h e H o u s e o f C o m m o n s a n d m y o w n a g i t a t i o n
t h r o u g h o u t G r e a t B r i t a i n , t h a t t h e C e n t r a l G o v e r n m e n t
i n
I n d i a w a s c o m p e l l e d b y p u b l i c o p i n i o n i n E n g l a n d a n d
I n d i a t o i n t e r v e n e . L o r d M o r l e y a n d t h e L i e u t e n a n t - G o v -
e r n o r o f t h e P u n j a b , w i t h h i s l o c a l C o u n c i l , w e r e t h r o w n
o v e r b o a r d , a n d - a f a i r t r i a l o f t h e i n c r i m i n a t e d p e r s o n s , w h o
h a d b e e n t r a n s p o r t e d w i t h o u t a c c u s a t i o n , w a s o r d e r e d . - I t
w a s t h e n p r o v e d , i n o p e n c o u r t , t h a t L a j p a t Ra i a n d h i s
f r i e n d s h a d b e e n m o s t u n j u s t l y h a n d l e d i n e v e r y w a y . T h e
l o c a l a u t h o r i t i e s w e r e o v e r r u l e d o n e v e r y s i n g l e p o i n t a t
i s s u e , M r . L a j p a t Ra i w a s a t o n c e , a n d 'n a t u r a l l y e n o u g h ,
r e g a r d e d a s a p o p u l a r h e r o . F o r , t h e f a c t s h a v i n g 'b e e n
s h o w n t o b e p r e c i s e l y w h a t h e a n d h i s f r i e n d s h a d s t a t e d ,
238

T h e A w a k e n i n g o f A s i a
t h e C e n t r a l G o v e r n m e n t c o u l d n o t , f o r v e r y s h a m e , a v o i d
c a r r y i n g o u t i t s o r i g i n a l a g r e e m e n t w i t h t h e r y o t s o f t h e
P u n j a b n o t t o r a i s e t h e i r t a x a t i o n , a n d t h e r u i n o f a n e n -
t i r e d i s t r i c t w a s t h u s a v e r t e d . O f t h e h a r m d o n e t o E n g -
l i s h r u l e a n d c r e d i t b y a l l t h i s u n s c r u p u l o u s o p p r e s s i o n , l e a d -
i n g u p t o i n e v i t a b l e s u r r e n d e r , i t i s n e e d l e s s t o s p e a k .
B u t t h i s d i d n o t e n d t h e m i s c h i e f b y a n y m e a n s
.
T h e
c u l t i v a t o r s a n d t h e i r l e a d e r s h a d b e e n g u i l t y o f t h e u n -
p a r d o n a b l e c r i m e o f s h o w i n g u p i n p u b l i c t h e i n j u s t i c e a n d
o p p r e s s i o n o f t h o s e w h o c o u l d d o n o w r o n g . M r . L a j p a t
Ra i i n
p a r t i c u l a r w a s a
m a n o f s u c h h i g h s t a n d i n g , a n d s o
m o d e r a t e i n h i s c l a i m s a n d a s p i r a t i o n s f o r h i s s u f f e r i n g
f e l l o w - c o u n t r y m e n , t h a t h e c o u l d n o t b e a l l o w e d t o e s c a p e
u n h a r a s s e d f o r t h e g o o d s e r v i c e h e h a d r e n d e r e d t o h i s
p e o p l e . T h a t i s t h e w o r s t o f a n y b u r e a u c r a c y . I t i s e s s e n -
t i a l l y r e v e n g e f u l , a n d t h e d u t y o f p a y i n g o u t a n y o n e w h o
h a s , o n a n y i s s u e , g o t t h e b e t t e r o f i t s o f f i c i a l s , i s h a n d e d o n
f r o m g e n e r a t i o n t o g e n e r a t i o n o f s u c c e s s i v e h o l d e r s o f
p o s t s i n t h e . G o v e r n m e n t s e r v i c e . T h i s i s t o b e o b s e r v e d i n
e v e r y c o u n t r y , e v e n w h e r e t h e r u l e r s a n d t h e r u l e d a r e o f
t h e s a m e r a c e . B u t t h e " s p i r i t o f t h e b u r e a u " i s m u c h m o r e
s t r i n g e n t l y u p h e l d i n a c o u n t r y w h e r e t h e b u r e a u c r a t s a r e
a l l f o r e i g n e r s , q u i t e u n a c c u s t o m e d t o h a v i n g t h e i r d e c i s i o n s
c h a l l e n g e d , s t i l l l e s s u p s e t . So M r . L a j p a t Ra i w a s r u i n e d
i n h i s p r o f e s s i o n , c o n t i n u a l l y i n t e r f e r e d w i t h p e r s o n a l l y
b y t h e p o l i c e , a n d a t l a s t h o u n d e d o u t o f t h e c o u n t r y .
H e
t o o k r e f u g e i n t h e U n i t e d St a t e s , w h e r e h e h a s b e e n a c -
c u s e d o f b e i n g a G e r m a n a g e n t - a c h a r g e w h i c h h e h a s
e m p h a t i c a l l y d e n i e d
.
U n f o r t u n a t e l y , f a r g r o s s e r t h i n g s h a v e b e e n a n d a r e
b e i n g d o n e . T h e n a t i v e p o l i c e u n d e r t h e B r i t i s h G o v e r n -
m e n t d e p e n d f o r t h e i r p r o m o t i o n a n d p a y m e n t u p o n t h e
n u m b e r o f c o n v i c t i o n s t h e y o b t a i n i n p r o p o r t i o n t o t h e
n u m b e r o f o f f e n c e s r e p o r t e d . I t h a s b e e n p r o v e d t h a t t h e y
d o n o t s t i c k a t t r i f l e s i n o r d e r t o s e c u r e s u f f i c i e n t e v i d e n c e
T h e G r o w i n g U n r e s t

239
t o c o n v i c t . T h a t t o r t u r e i s s y s t e m a t i c a l l y u s e d h a s b e e n
l o n g s u s p e c t e d . I t w a s p r o v e d , i n t h e G u l a b B a r u c a s e ,
j u d i c i a l l y a n d p u b l i c l y , t h a t t h e w o m a n h a d b e e n h o r r i b l y
t o r t u r e d . E x p o s u r e o f o t h e r f r i g h t f u l c a s e s w a s t h r e a t -
e n e d
. T h e D i s t r i c t M a g i s t r a t e t h e n s t o p p e d a l l f u r t h e r
c r i t i c i s m
B u t t h e t r u t h l e a k s o u t b y d e g r e e s , a n d t h e p e o p l e k n o w
q u i t e w e l l w h a t i s g o i n g o n
. T h e t r e a t m e n t o f p o l i t i c a l
p r i s o n e r s , o f t e n i m p r i s o n e d w i t h o u t a c c u s a t i o n , i s g e t t i n g
w o r s e r a t h e r t h a n b e t t e r
. N o t o n l y , a s a l r e a d y s a i d , a r e
t h e y h e r d e d w i t h t h e w o r s t c r i m i n a l s , b u t t h e i r f o o d , t h e i r
s a n i t a r y c o n d i t i o n s , t h e i r s o l i t a r y c o n f i n e m e n t , t h e i r c l o t h -
i n g , a r e a l l d e p l o r a b l y b a d . T h e s u f f e r i n g s o f p o l i t i c a l
p r i s o n e r s a n d p o l i t i c a l c o n v i c t s , i t i s a v e r r e d b y I n d i a n s w h o
a r e b y n o m e a n s i n t r a n s i g e n t o p p o n e n t s o f B r i t i s h r u l e , a r e
a c t i n g a s p o w e r f u l i n c e n t i v e s t o f u t u r e a c t i o n , a n d t h e r e i s
l i t t l e c h a n c e o f t h e m o v e m e n t d y i n g o u t f o r w a n t o f f r e s h
r e c r u i t s , o r f r o m f e a r
.
T h e m o s t r u t h l e s s r e p r e s s i o n i s f a i l i n g t o r e p r e s s . I n
t h e P u n j a b , b e t w e e n f i f t y a n d s i x t y y o u n g m e n w e r e s e n -
t e n c e d t o d e a t h w i t h i n s e v e n m o n t h s , a n d u p w a r d s o f o n e
h u n d r e d h a v e b e e n t r a n s p o r t e d f o r l i f e o r i m p r i s o n e d f o r
l o n g p e r i o d s . I n d i a n s f i r m l y b e l i e v e t h a t m a n y o f t h o s e
w h o h a d b e e n t r a n s p o r t e d , o r e x e c u t e d , w e r e q u i t e i n n o -
c e n t . I n a c a s e o f a l l e g e d p o l i t i c a l c o n s p i r a c y , a t L a h o r e ,
s e v e r a l o f t h o s e w h o w e r e h a n g e d h a d n e v e r b e e n p r o v e d
g u i l t y o f a n y m u r d e r o u s o f f e n c e
. T h e y w e r e e x e c u t e d o n
t h e s t r e n g t h o f w h a t i t w a s b e l i e v e d t h e y m i g h t h a v e c o n -
t e m p l a t e d d o i n g ! O n e o f t h e m o s t m o d e r a t e a n d w i d e l y -
c i r c u l a t e d o f t h e I n d i a n n e w s p a p e r s c o m m e n t e d b i t t e r l y o n
t h i s t r a v e s t y o f j u s t i c e , a n d c o m p a r e d i t m o s t u n f a v o u r a b l y
w i t h m a r t i a l l a w i n I r e l a n d , b a d a s t h i s l a t t e r m a y b e
. T h e
s i t u a t i o n i n t h e P u n j a b i s u n q u e s t i o n a b l y v e r y s e r i o u s
i n d e e d .
H e r e i s a p l a i n s t a t e m e n t b y a n e d u c a t e d I n d i a n , w h o i s
240

T h e A w a k e n i n g o f A s i a
n o e x t r e m i s t , o n t h e e x i s t i n g s t a t e o f t h i n g s
: " I n d i a h a s
e n t e r e d o n a n e w p h a s e
. H e r s o n s i n t h o u s a n d s h a v e b e -
g u n t o f e e l t h a t i t i s w o r t h w h i l e t o d i e i n t h e c a u s e o f
f r e e d o m . . . . I t i s e x t r e m e l y p a i n f u l t o s e e y o u n g m e n o f
g r e a t p r o m i s e , h i g h e d u c a t i o n , o f l o f t y m o t i v e s , o f n o b l e
m i e n , a n d s o m e o f t h e m o f t h e n o b l e s t f a m i l i e s i n t h e l a n d ,
t h r o w i n g a w a y t h e i r l i v e s f o r t h e m e r e s t c h a n c e o f a w a k e n -
i n g t h e c o u n t r y t o a s e n s e o f s h a m e . I t w o u l d b e a s l i g h t
t o t h e i r i n t e l l i g e n c e t o s u p p o s e t h a t t h e y e n t e r t a i n a n y h o p e
o f i m m e d i a t e s u c c e s s . Su c c e s s i s n o t w h a t t h e y a s p i r e
a f t e r . T h e y d i e i n o r d e r t o s h o w t h e i r c o u n t r y m e n t h e
p a t h t o l i b e r a t i o n . T h e y d i e b e c a u s e , i n t h e i r j u d g m e n t ,
t h e r e i s n o o t h e r w a y n o w , u n d e r t h e r e g i m e o f P r e s s a n d
Se d i t i o u s M e e t i n g s A c t s , t o p r e a c h p a t r i o t i s m a n d t o e x -
h o r t p e o p l e t o l o v e t h e i r c o u n t r y . O n c e a c o u n t r y e n t e r s
u p o n t h a t p h a s e , t h e t a s k o f a n a l i e n G o v e r n m e n t b e c o m e s
i m p o s s i b l e . I t m a y l i n g e r o n f o r a n u m b e r o f y e a r s , b u t
i t s f a t e i s s e a l e d . "
I n t h e P u n j a b , t h e r e f o r e , a s i n B e n g a l , r e s i s t a n c e h a s
b e g u n
. I t b e g a n y e a r s b e f o r e t h e G r e a t Wa r , w i t h i t s t e r -
r i b l e l e g a l c r i m e s u n d e r t h e D e f e n c e o f t h e Re a l m A c t : i t
g o e s o n a n d
. w i l l g o o n , n o w t h a t t h e w a r h a s c o m e t o a n
e n d .
A l l t h r o u g h B r i t i s h t e r r i t o r y , i n f a c t , d i s c o n t e n t i s g r o w -
i n g , a n d t h e m o d e r a t e I n d i a n s c h o o l w h o o r g a n i s e d a n d f o r
a l o n g t i m e d o m i n a t e d t h e I n d i a n N a t i o n a l C o n g r e s s , w h i c h
h a s d o n e g o o d w o r k f o r t h i r t y y e a r s , a r e r a p i d l y l o s i n g t h e
l e a d e r s h i p . T h i s i s d e p l o r a b l e f r o m t h e E n g l i s h p o i n t o f
v i e w
: i n e v i t a b l e f r o m t h e I n d i a n . Wh a t i s t r u e i n r e l a t i o n
t o t h e Si k h a n d t h e B e n g a l i l i k e w i s e a p p l i e s t o t h e M a h r a t t a
c o u n t r y ; t h o u g h u p t o t h e p r e s e n t t i m e t h e c h a n g e f r o m
a p a t h y t o d e s p e r a t i o n h a s n o t t a k e n o p e n s h a p e i n a c t s o f
i r r e s p o n s i b l e v i o l e n c e
. B u t o n e i n c i d e n t a l o n e s e r v e s t o
s h o w t h e i n c r e a s i n g d i s a f f e c t i o n a n d a n g e r w i t h E n g l i s h
h i g h - h a n d e d n e s s .
T h e G r o w i n g U n r e s t

241
M r . B a l G u n g u n d e r T i l a k , t h e l e a d e r o f t h e M a h r a t t a
m o v e m e n t , i s a m a n o f h i g h s t a n d i n g , g r e a t a b i l i t y a n d
m u c h l i t e r a r y p o w e r . I n a n a r t i c l e o n g e n e r a l I n d i a n q u e s -
t i o n s h e d e a l t a t l e n g t h w i t h t h e h i s t o r y o f h i s c o u n t r y a n d
r a c e , a n d r e f e r r e d i n e u l o g i s t i c t e r m s t o t h e c a r e e r o f
Si v a j i , t h e f a m o u s l e a d e r w h o c a m e t o t h e f r o n t i n t h e
g r e a t M a h r a t t a r e b e l l i o n a g a i n s t t h e M o n g o l d y n a s t y . H e
s p o k e w i t h e n t h u s i a s m o f t h i s n a t i o n a l h e r o , a n d s a i d t h a t
p a t r i o t i s m c o u l d n e v e r d i e d o w n w h i l e s u c h e v e n t s i n I n d i a n
h i s t o r y w e r e r e m e m b e r e d
. T h e B o m b a y G o v e r n m e n t
t h o u g h t p r o p e r t o c o n s i d e r t h i s a r t i c l e a s a n i n c i t e m e n t t o
r e v o l t . M r . B a l G u n g u n d e r T i l a k w a s a r r e s t e d a n d t r i e d
f o r s e d i t i o n . T h e p r o c e e d i n g s w e r e c o n d u c t e d i n E n g l i s h .
T h e p r i s o n e r 's c o u n s e l c o n t e n d e d t h a t t h e a r t i c l e , a s s u b -
m i t t e d t o t h e C o u r t , w a s w r o n g l y t r a n s l a t e d , a n d b o r e n o
s u c h i n t e r p r e t a t i o n a s t h e G o v e r n m e n t p r o s e c u t o r p u t u p o n
i t . T h a t a r g u m e n t w a s o v e r r u l e d . M r
. T i l a k 's c o n d e m n a -
t i o n w a s , i n f a c t , a f o r e g o n e c o n c l u s i o n , a n d h e w a s c o n -
d e m n e d t o a l o n g t e r m o f i m p r i s o n m e n t
.
T h e r e u p o n , t h e M u n i c i p a l C o u n c i l o f B o m b a y , e n t i r e l y
c o m p o s e d o f w e a l t h y I n d i a n s , o f t h e c l a s s w h i c h m o s t
s y m p a t h i s e s w i t h t h e B r i t i s h G o v e r n m e n t , c l o s e d t h e p u b l i c
m a r k e t s a n d k e p t t h e m c l o s e d f o r e i g h t s u c c e s s i v e d a y s
.
T h i s w a s , i n i t s w a y , a s s i g n i f i c a n t
a p r o t e s t a g a i n s t E n g l i s h
" J u s t i c e a s t h e e x t r a o r d i n a r y d e m o n s t r a t i o n a t t h e c r e m a -
t i o n o f t h e a n a r c h i s t b o m b - t h r o w e r i n C a l c u t t a . I t s h o w e d
t h a t , i n t h e o n e c a p i t a l c i t y a s i n t h e o t h e r , t h e d i s c o n t e n t
w a s n o t b y
a n y m e a n s c o n f i n e d t o e x c i t e d y o u t h s o r n e e d y
s t r i p l i n g s , a s o f f i c i a l a p o l o g i s t s t r i e d t o m a k e o u t
. T h e
w h o l e o f B o m b a y h e l d b u t o n e o p i n i o n o n t h e c a s e . B a t
G u n g u n d e r T i l a k w a s , i n t h e m i n d o f t h e e n t i r e c i t y , a
v i c t i m o f E n g l i s h i n j u s t i c e .
A n a p p e a l w a s m a d e t o t h e j u d i c i a l C o m m i t t e e o f t h e
P r i v y C o u n c i l . M r . K h a p a r d e , t h e b a r r i s t e r w h o c o n d u c t e d
M r . T i l a k 's c a s e , w a s t r a c k e d i n E n g l a n d a s i f h e h i m s e l f
w e r e a s u s p e c t e d c r i m i n a l e n g a g e d i n t r e a s o n a b l e p r a c t i c e s .
Wh e n h e c a l l e d t o s e e m e - i n L o n d o n t h e r e w a s o n e d e t e c -
t i v e a t t h e d o o r o f m y h o u s e a n d a n o t h e r t r a m p i n g u p a n d
d o w n o n t h e o t h e r s i d e o f t h e s t r e e t . T h e r e w a s n o h o p e ,
f r o m t h e f i r s t , o f t h e a p p e a l s u c c e e d i n g . P o l i c y o u t w e i g h e d
l a w a n d j u s t i c e . So M r . T i l a k s e r v e d h i s t e r m o f i m -
p r i s o n m e n t , t o t h e s t i l l f u r t h e r e x a s p e r a t i o n o f t h e e n t i r e
B o m b a y P r e s i d e n c y a n d a l l t h e M a h r a t t a s . B u t h i s r e l e a s e
g a v e m e a n o p p o r t u n i t y f o r j u d g i n g h o w m u c h r e l i a n c e i s
t o b e p l a c e d u p o n t h e l o y a l t y a n d l i p - s e r v i c e o f I n d i a n s w h o
v i s i t E n g l a n d i n o r d e r t o q u a l i f y t h e m s e l v e s f o r s e r v i c e o r
p r a c t i s e i n I n d i a , a n d a r e t o a l a r g e e x t e n t d e p e n d e n t u p o n
t h e G o v e r n m e n t f o r s u c c e s s o r f a i l u r e i n t h e i r v o c a t i o n s
.
V e r y s i g n i f i c a n t w a s t h e b e h a v i o u r o f t h e c r o w d e d a u d i -
e n c e o f I n d i a n s a t t h e l a r g e C a x t o n H a l l o n t h e o c c a s i o n
o f t h e l a s t o f t h r e e i m p o r t a n t a d d r e s s e s d e l i v e r e d t h e r e
b y M r . B e p i n C h a n d r a P a l . I n d i a n s o f a l l s e c t i o n s w e r e
p r e s e n t . M r . P a l d e a l t w i t h I n d i a f r o m t h e r e l i g i o u s s t a n d -
p o i n t
:
h e h a d s p o k e n o n t h e e c o n o m i c a n d p o l i t i c a l a s p e c t s
o f t h e p r o b l e m b e f o r e . T h i s w h o l e l e c t u r e w a s a n a p p e a l
t o t h e p a t r i o t i c s e n t i m e n t s o f I n d i a n s o n r e l i g i o u s g r o u n d s
I n d i a t h e i r m o t h e r c o u n t r y , I n d i a t h e i r h o m e , I n d i a t h e
l a n d s a c r e d t o t h e i r f o r b e a r s i n t h e p a s t , t o - t h e m s e l v e s i n
t h e p r e s e n t , t o t h e i r c h i l d r e n 's c h i l d r e n i n t h e f u t u r e . T h e
M o h a m m e d a n s w h o w e r e i n t h e H a l l j o i n e d i n t h e e x -
t r a o r d i n a r y d e m o n s t r a t i o n w h i c h w o u n d u p t h e a d d r e s s .
Wh y n o t ? T h e y a r e o f t h e s a m e r a c e a s t h e H i n d o o s , a n d
t h e i d e a l o f I n d i a o n c e m o r e m i s t r e s s o f h e r s e l f a p p e a l e d
t o t h e m a s w e l l a s t o t h e o t h e r s . I w a s i n t h e c h a i r m y s e l f ,
a n d I c o u l d s e e c l e a r l y w h a t t o o k p l a c e . I u n d e r s t o o d t h e n
m o r e t h a n e v e r b e f o r e h o w f o r s o m e t i m e p a s t n e a r l y e v e r y
H i n d o o s h r i n e a n d m a n y a M o h a m m e d a n m o s q u e h a v e b e -
c o m e v i r t u a l l y c e n t r e s o f a n t i - B r i t i s h p r o p a g a n d a
.
T h e e c o n o m i c t e a c h i n g o f t h e l a t e M r . D a d a b h a i
N a o r o j i a n d h i s f r i e n d s g r e a t l y i n f l u e n c e s t h e e d u c a t e d
T h e G r o w i n g U n r e s t

243
c l a s s e s w h o a r e n o t d i r e c t l y i n t e r e s t e d i n m a i n t a i n i n g B r i t -
i s h r u l e . T h e p o l i t i c a l a g i t a t i o n f o s t e r e d b y t h e N a t i o n a l
I n d i a n C o n g r e s s a n d b y . t h o s e w h o d e m a n d a s h a r e i n t h e
b u r e a u c r a c y u n d e r B r i t i s h c o n t r o l a f f e c t s t h e E u r o p e a n i s e d
I n d i a n s a n d t h o s e ' w h o b e l i e v e i t p o s s i b l e t o a c h i e v e f r e e -
d o m u n d e r a c o m i n g a n d g o i n g f o r e i g n r u l e . B u t a r e -
l i g i o u s p r o p a g a n d a t o u c h e s a l l c l a s s e s a n d c o v e r s a f a r
w i d e r g r o u n d
. T h e E n g l i s h s y s t e m d e v e l o p s a g e n t s e v e r y -
w h e r e f o r t h i s m o s t d a n g e r o u s f o r m o f p a t r i o t i c a g i t a t i o n
.
I t c a n n o t b e t r a c e d a n d i t c a n n o t b e s u p p r e s s e d .
T h e i d e a o f t h e G o v e r n m e n t a p p e a r s t o b e t h a t t h e p r a c -
t i c a l l y u n i v e r s a l u n r e s t , t h e g e n e r a l f e r m e n t i n I n d i a w h i c h
E n g l i s h a d m i n i s t r a t o r s t h e m s e l v e s n o w a d m i t t o e x i s t , i s
d u e , i n g r e a t d e g r e e , t o G e r m a n a c t i o n a n d t h e e x p e n d i t u r e
o f G e r m a n m o n e y . T h e r e i s n o o n e m o r e b i t t e r l y o p p o s e d
t o G e r m a n a m b i t i o n s a n d m e t h o d s t h a n t h e p r e s e n t w r i t e r
.
N o o n e d i d m o r e , f o r o v e r t w e n t y y e a r s b e f o r e t h e w a r , t o
w a r n E n g l i s h m e n o f t h e g r e a t d a n g e r s w h i c h T e u t o n i c a m -
b i t i o n s , s u p p o r t e d b y c e a s e l e s s p e r s i s t e n c e a n d w o n d e r f u l
e f f i c i e n c y , m u s t i n v o l v e . I h a v e b e e n m o s t a c t i v e i n o p p o s i n g
G e r m a n y t h r o u g h o u t t h e w a r . G e r m a n y 's p r e p a r a t i o n s f o r
w a r d u r i n g t h e l o n g p e r i o d o f p e a c e w e r e a s t h o r o u g h a s
h e r o r g a n i s a t i o n o f i n d u s t r i a l c o m p e t i t i o n s u p p o r t e d b y
t h e St a t e . A n d t h i s i n d u s t r i a l c o m p e t i t i o n i t s e l f w a s a
f o r m o f w a r . M o r e o v e r , t h e G e r m a n s w e r e a s u n s c r u p u l o u s
a s t h e y w e r e c a p a b l e . T h e i r s y s t e m o f s p y i n g a n d b r i b e r y
c o u l d s c a r c e l y b e i m p r o v e d . Wh e r e v e r s p i e s a n d a g e n t s i n
h i g h p l a c e s w e r e u s e f u l , t h e r e t h e y w e r e t o b e f o u n d : i n
E n g l a n d , i n F r a n c e , i n Ru s s i a , i n A m e r i c a , i n I t a l y , i n
J a p a n , i n C h i n a , i n E n g l i s h C o l o n i e s a n d D e p e n d e n c i e s - - -
a l l o v e r t h e w o r l d , i n s h o r t . Wh e r e v e r b r i b e r y c o u l d p r o -
d u c e s a t i s f a c t o r y r e s u l t s , t h e r e b r i b e r y w a s r e s o r t e d t o , o n
a s c a l e q u i t e u n p r e c e d e n t e d i n h i s t o r y . M i l l i o n s s t e r l i n g
w e r e s p e n t w h e r e f o r m e r l y t h e r i c h e s t c o u n t r i e s p a i d a w a y
o n l y t h o u s a n d s . T h e r e c a n b e n o d o u b t a b o u t t h i s .
244

T h e A w a k e n i n g o f A s i a
B u t G e r m a n i n f l u e n c e i n H i n d u s t a n w a s n e v e r i n t h e
l e a s t f o r m i d a b l e
. N o , t h e u n r e s t i s n o t d u e t o G e r m a n
m o n e y b u t t o B r i t i s h m i s r u l e .
U n f o r t u n a t e l y , h o w e v e r , a d v a n t a g e h a s b e e n t a k e n o f
t h e n a t u r a l f e e l i n g a g a i n s t G e r m a n y t o w o r k t h e D e f e n c e
o f t h e Re a l m A c t i n s u c h w i s e t h a t i n B e n g a l a n d t h e P u n -
j a b n o m a n 's l i b e r t y o r e v e n l i f e i s s a f e f r o m t h e s u b o r n e d
m a c h i n a t i o n s o f p o l i c e p e r j u r e r s
.
T h e r e i s , i n f a c t , a n
u n d e r g r o u n d p a n i c a l l t h r o u g h E n g l i s h o f f i c i a l d o m i n I n d i a ,
a n d i f t h e f e w w h o a r e k e e p i n g t h e i r h e a d s v e n t u r e t o
r e m o n s t r a t e , o r e v e n t o d e c l a r e t h a t t h e s e m e t h o d s o f T s a r i s t
t e r r o r i s m
a n d
J e d b u r g h j u s t i c e a r e n o t o n l y i m m o r a l b u t
d a n g e r o u s , t h e y a r e t a u n t e d w i t h b e i n g i n f a v o u r o f G e r -
m a n y a n d G e r m a n p o l i c y . T o s u c h a p o l i c y t h e r e c a n
b e
b u t o n e e n d .
Wh e n a l l t h i s i s p u t p l a i n l y a n d f e a r l e s s l y , i n t h e i n t e r e s t -
n o t o n l y o f t h e I n d i a n s b u t o f t h e E n g l i s h p e o p l e a t h o m e
a n d t h e E n g l i s h o f f i c i a l s i n I n d i a , t h e e n t i r e c a p i t a l i s t
P r e s s a n d n e a r l y t h e w h o l e o f t h e H o u s e o f C o m m o n s a n d
t h e H o u s e o f L o r d s , p o i n t t o t h e w o n d e r f u l p u b l i c w o r k s
w h i c h t h e E n g l i s h h a v e b u i l t i n I n d i a a n d t o t h e B r i t i s h
p e a c e ( a l r e a d y d e a l t w i t h ) w h i c h t h e y h a v e m a i n t a i n e d . I t
w o u l d b e e a s y t o s h o w t h a t t h e r a i l w a y s w h i c h h a v e b e e n
b u i l t o u t o f a p o r t i o n o f t h e w e a l t h d r a i n e d b y E n g l a n d o u t
o f I n d i a , a n d l e n t b a c k t o t h e A n g l o - I n d i a n G o v e r n m e n t a t
i n t e r e s t , a r e c o n s t r u c t e d m a i n l y f o r s t r a t e g i c a l r e a s o n s ,
a n d r a t h e r s e r v e t o s w e l l t h e d r a i n o f p r o d u c e t h a n t o i n -
c r e a s e a g r i c u l t u r a l w e a l t h
. E v e n t h e a m e l i o r a t i o n o f a c t u a l
f a m i n e w h i c h i s c l a i m e d f o r t h e m i s o n l y s e c u r e d b y r e -
d u c i n g t h e g e n e r a l a v e r a g e s t a n d a r d o f n o u r i s h m e n t
t h r o u g h o u t t h e c o u n t r y . I r r i g a t i o n w o r k s , p r o p e r l y e n -
g i n e e r e d a n d u s e d n o t m e r e l y t o g a i n e x t r a r e v e n u e f o r
t h e G o v e r n m e n t b u t t o b e n e f i t t h e c u l t i v a t o r s , a r e m o r e
d i r e c t l y b e n e f i c i a l . B u t e v e n t h e n m a t t e r s h a v e b e e n a l -
l o w e d t o g o s o f a r w i t h t h e e c o n o m i c d e p r e s s i o n o f t h e
T h e G r o w i n g U n r e s t

245
c u l t i v a t o r s t h e m s e l v e s t h a t i t i s m o r e
t h a n
d o u b t f u l w h e t h e r
t h e c l a s s a b o v e t h e m
w i l l n o t b e c h i e f l y
t h e g a i n e r s ,
e v e n
w h e r e t h e i r r i g a t i o n
i s s u c c e s s f u l
. T h e r e i s n o e v i d e n c e t o
c o n t r a d i c t t h e u n h a p p y t r u t h t h a t t h e m a s s o f t h e I n d i a n
p e o p l e a r e g e t t i n g p o o r e r a n d p o o r e r u n d e r E n g l i s h r u l e
.
M e a n w h i l e , f r o m o n e e n d o f I n d i a t o a n o t h e r t h e c r y
f o r s e l f - g o v e r n m e n t i s b e i n g r a i s e d b y t h e m o s t m o d e r a t e
o f t h e I n d i a n s .
C o n g r e s s C o m m i t t e e s f o r m u l a t e s c h e m e
a f t e r s c h e m e , a n d t h e s e p r o g r a m m e s h a v e a f u n d a m e n t a l
s i m i l a r i t y :
o n e a n d a l l d e m a n d t h a t t h e I n d i a n p e o p l e s h a l l
c o n t r o l I n d i a n a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , w h e t h e r u n d e r E n g l i s h h e g -
e m o n y
o r o t h e r w i s e , a n d s h a l l c o n t r o l i t
n o t o n E n g l i s h b u t
o n I n d i a n l i n e s .
T h e f o l l o w i n g s u m m a r y o f t h e s i t u a t i o n
a s p u t o n r e c o r d b y a t h o r o u g h l y t r u s t w o r t h y I n d i a n i s
w o r t h c a r e f u l s t u d y , f o r i t s h o w s c l e a r l y t h e s t a g e w h i c h
t h e d e v e l o p m e n t h a s n o w r e a c h e d
. I t i s f a r b e t t e r t h a t t h e
.
t r u t h s h o u l d b e k n o w n t h a n t h a t a l l t h e r e a l f a c t s s h o u l d
b e s u p p r e s s e d u n t i l t h e c a t a s t r o p h e c o m e s
.
" T h e I n d i a n p o l i t i c i a n s m a y r o u g h l y b e d i v i d e d i n t o
t h r e e c l a s s e s :
" ( a )
T h e e x t r e m i s t s , w h o b a s e t h e i r p r o p a g a n d a o n
f u n d a m e n t a l g r o u n d s
. T h e y d o n o t b e l i e v e t h a t t h e B r i t -
i s h c a n o r e v e r w i l l g r a n t t h e m f r e e d o m o f a n y a p p r e c i a t i v e
k i n d o r a n y s e l f - g o v e r n m e n t
w o r t h t h e n a m e , v o l u n t a r i l y .
T h e y a r e t h e r e f o r e o p p o s e d t o m a k i n g p e t i t i o n s a n d s e n d -
i n g m e m o r i a l s .
So m e o f t h e m w a n t a b s o l u t e 'Sw a r a j '
;
s o m e q u a l i f i e d ` Sw a r a j ' o n C o l o n i a l l i n e s , b u t e v e r y o n e o f
t h e m b e l i e v e s t h a t n e i t h e r i s p o s s i b l e e x c e p t b y a c t i v e r e v o l t
o r
s u c c e s s f u l p a s s i v e r e s i s t a n c e . T h e y f e e l t h a t t h e y a r e
n o t i n a p o s i t i o n t o o r g a n i s e e i t h e r , f o r s o m e t i m e t o c o m e ,
b u t t h a t i n t h e m e a n t i m e i t i s t h e i r d u t y t o
d o a s m u c h
a s t h e y c a n t o e m b a r r a s s t h e G o v e r n m e n t b y f o l l o w i n g
t h e t a c t i c s o f g u e r r i l l a w a r f a r e a n d b y c o n d u c t i n g a t e r -
r o r i s t c a m p a i g n
. T h e y s a y t h e y m u s t k e e p t h e f l a g f l y i n g ,
n o m a t t e r h o w h e a v y t h e i r l o s s e s . I n t h e i r o p i n i o n i t i s
246

T h e A w a k e n i n g o f A s i a
t h e o n l y w a y
' t o c a r r y o n t h e i r p r o p a g a n d a a n d m a k e i t
e f f e c t i v e f o r i m p r e s s i n g t h e c o u n t r y a n d g a i n i n g f r e s h r e -
c r u i t s t o t h e i r c a u s e . H o w f a r t h e y a r e w i s e i n t h e i r p l a n s
i s a n o t h e r q u e s t i o n .
" ( b )
T h e M o d e r a t e s o f t h e I n d i a n N a t i o n a l C o n g r e s s
w h o w a n t t o c o n d u c t t h e i r a g i t a t i o n o n c o n s t i t u t i o n a l l i n e s .
w i t h i n t h e l i m i t s o f l a w a r e n o t i n f a v o u r o f e m b a r r a s s i n g
t h e G o v e r n m e n t . T h e m e n i n p o w e r i n t h e i r p a r t y c a n
h a r d l y b e d i s t i n g u i s h e d f r o m t h e t h i r d p a r t y , w h o a r e
l o y a l i s t s o u t a n d o u t , a n d a r e o p p o s e d t o a l l a g i t a t i o n , l e a v -
i n g e v e r y t h i n g t o t h e g o o d s e n s e o f t h e G o v e r n m e n t .
" ( c ) T h e t h i r d c l a s s c o n s i s t s o f t h o s e w h o a r e o u t a n d
o u t l o y a l i s t s a n d w h o m t h e p r e s e n t a r r a n g e m e n t p l a c e s i n
a p o s i t i o n o f a d v a n t a g e . T h e i r n u m b e r i s b y n o m e a n s
v e r y l a r g e , a n d w i t h t h e i n c r e a s e o f p o l i t i c a l c r i m e i n t h e
c o u n t r y t h e i r d e m a n d s f o r c o m p e n s a t i o n a n d r e w a r d s f o r
l o y a l t y a n d s e r v i c e s a r e b o u n d t o i n c r e a s e , w h i c h e v e n a
d e s p o t i c G o v e r n m e n t w i l l f i n d i t i m p o s s i b l e t o g r a n t . So
t h e r e i s e v e r y p o s s i b i l i t y o f l a r g e n u m b e r s o f t h e m t h r o w i n g
i n t h e i r l o t w i t h t h e o t h e r s . I t m a y t h u s b e f a i r l y s a i d
t h a t i n t h e d e m a n d f o r s u b s t a n t i a l s e l f - g o v e r n m e n t t h e
c o u n t r y i s p r a c t i c a l l y u n i t e d , a n d a n y h e s i t a t i o n o r r e f u s a l
t o c o n c e d e i s b o u n d t o t e l l v e r y a d v e r s e l y o n t h e i r l o y a l t y . "
A s a r e s u l t o f t h e g r o w i n g d i s c o n t e n t , t h e r e a l i t y o f
w h i c h c a n n o l o n g e r b e d i s g u i s e d , t h e g r e a t s e r v i c e s r e n -
d e r e d b y I n d i a n t r o o p s i n t h e w a r , a n d t h e e x t r e m e d i f f i -
c u l t y f o r G r e a t B r i t a i n t o p o s e a s t h e c h a m p i o n o f d e m o c -
r a c y a n d f r e e d o m w h i l e , a s a n a t i o n , w e w e r e k e e p i n g i n
s u b j e c t i o n a v a s t E m p i r e o f 315 , 000, 000 i n h a b i t a n t s - a s
a r e s u l t o f t h e s e i n d i s p u t a b l e f a c t s t h e B r i t i s h G o v e r n m e n t
t h o u g h t i t n e c e s s a r y t o s h o w s o m e e v i d e n c e t o t h e w o r l d
o f a d i s p o s i t i o n t o m i t i g a t e t h e o p p r e s s i o n o f i t s r u l e i n
A s i a . H e n c e a p r o j e c t o f s o - c a l l e d C o n s t i t u t i o n a l Re f o r m
w h i c h M r . M o n t a g u w e n t o u t t o I n d i a i n o r d e r t o p u t i n
s h a p e , w i t h t h e a s s i s t a n c e a n d a p p r o v a l o f t h e V i c e r o y ,
T h e G r o w i n g U n r e s t 247
L o r d C h e l m s f o r d , w h o k n o w s a s l i t t l e a b o u t I n d i a a s M r .
M o n t a g u , t h e Se c r e t a r y o f St a t e f o r b y f a r o u r g r e a t e s t
D e p e n d e n c y , d o e s h i m s e l f .
T h e o u t c o m e o f t h i s m i s s i o n h a s b e e n a c l o s e l y - p r i n t e d
O f f i c i a l Re p o r t o f s o m e
.
300
p a g e s o n t h e w h o l e s u b j e c t
.
T h i s Re p o r t c o m p r i s e s a s u r v e y o f B r i t i s h A d m i n i s t r a t i o n
a n d
a
s e r i e s o f p r o p o s a l s f o r i m p r o v e m e n t . T w o p o i n t s
a r e m a d e v e r y c l e a r i n
t h e o p e n i n g p a r a g r a p h s
. A f t e r
c l a i m i n g t h a t L o r d M i n t o a n d L o r d H a r d i n g e h a d a d v o -
c a t e d a n d i n t r o d u c e d m i n o r C o n s t i t u t i o n a l c h a n g e s w h i c h
h a d n o e f f e c t " b e c a u s e t h e e n d o f t h e p o l i c y h a d n e v e r
b e e n c l e a r l y a n d a u t h o r i t a t i v e l y s e t f o r t h " - - a v e r y f r a n k
a d m i s s i o n - t h e Re p o r t p r o c e e d s " A l l t h i s t i m e I n d i a n
p o l i t i c i a n s w e r e e x e r t i n g c o n t i n u o u s p r e s s u r e t o i n c r e a s e
t h e r a t e o f , p r o g r e s s . T h e v o i c e o f c r i t i c i s m w a s n e v e r
s i l e n t , b u t i t s t o n e s h o w e d a g r a d u a l c h a n g e w i t h t h e p a s s -
i n g y e a r s ; t h e p u r e l y n e g a t i v e a t t i t u d e o f o p p o s i t i o n g r a d -
u a l l y p a s s e d i n t o a m o r e c o n s t r u c t i v e p o l i c y . C r i t i c i s m
c a m e t o b e c o m b i n e d w i t h a d v o c a c y o f p r o g r e s s , a n d w i t h
d e m a n d s t h a t b e c a m e s t e a d i l y m o r e i n s i s t e n t f o r a f o r m o f
g o v e r n m e n t w h i c h w o u l d l e a v e I n d i a n s f r e e t o r u l e I n d i a
i n a m e a s u r e c o n s i s t e n t w i t h I n d i a n i d e a s . T h e s p i r i t o f
l i b e r t y w a s a b r o a d a n d a c t i v e . " - C o u l d a n y t h i n g b e m o r e
p e r n i c i o u s ? " We c a n d i s t i n g u i s h c l e a r l y t h e d i r e c t i o n s i n
w h i c h p o l i t i c a l a c t i v i t i e s w e r e m a i n l y b e n t
. " T h a t i s s o :
w e c a n . P o l i t i c a l a c t i v i t i e s b e y o n d a l l q u e s t i o n w e r e a n d
a r e d i r e c t e d t o w a r d s o b t a i n i n g f o r I n d i a n s t h e r i g h t t o
g o v e r n t h e i r o w n c o u n t r y i n t h e i r o w n w a y .
A s a n i n c i d e n t i n t h i s p o l i t i c a l m o v e m e n t , t h e p e o p l e
o f I n d i a , r e p r e s e n t e d b y t h e i r l e a d e r s o f a l l s h a d e s o f
o p i n i o n , o b j e c t e d t o t h e s t r i n g e n t l a w s o f r e p r e s s i o n w h i c h
t h e B r i t i s h G o v e r n m e n t c o n s i d e r e d e s s e n t i a l i n o r d e r t o
p r e s e r v e f o r H i n d u s t a n t h e u n t o l d b l e s s i n g s o f f o r e i g n
d o m i n a t i o n . " T h e r e w a s c o n s t a n t o p p o s i t i o n t o G o v e r n -
m e n t m e a s u r e s w h i c h w e r e r e g a r d e d a s r e p r e s s i o n . . .
248
T h e A w a k e n i n g o f A s i a
I n 1910 t h e P r e s s A c t w a s p a s s e d
. . .
t h e a c t , t h o u g h b y
n o m e a n s t h e o b s t a c l e t o l i b e r t y o f d i s c u s s i o n t h a t i t i s
o f t e n r e p r e s e n t e d , h a d s i n c e b e c o m e i n c r e a s i n g l y u n p o p u -
l a r . T h e Se d i t i o u s M e e t i n g s A c t o f 1911" - p r a c t i c a l l y
s u p p r e s s i n g t h e r i g h t o f p u b l i c m e e t i n g w h e r e a n y o p p o -
s i t i o n t o t h e G o v e r n m e n t w a s a n t i c i p a t e d - " r e p r o d u c e d i n
a m i l d e r f o r m a l a w w h i c h h a d b e e n i n f o r c e s i n c e t h e
d i s t u r b e d y e a r 1907 ; b u t t h e n e w A c t w a s a p e r m a n e n t
o n e , w h i l e i t s p r e d e c e s s o r w a s a t e m p o r a r y m e a s u r e , a n d
t h i s p o i n t f o r m e d t h e c h i e f g r o u n d o f a t t a c k .
" T h e C r i m i n a l L a w A m e n d m e n t A c t , 1913, f o l l o w e d
o n t h e a t t e m p t t o a s s a s s i n a t e L o r d H a r d i n g e i n D e c e m b e r ,
1912. I t a m e n d e d t h e I n d i a n L a w o f C o n s p i r a c y b y m a k i n g
i t p e n a l t o c o n s p i r e t o c o m m i t a n o f f e n c e , e v e n t h o u g h t h e
c o n s p i r a c y w a s a c c o m p a n i e d b y n o o v e r t a c t i n p u r s u a n c e
o f i t s o b j e c t " - o p e n i n g w i d e t h e d o o r t o s p i e s , a g e n t s o f
p r o v o c a t i o n a n d I n d i a n J o n a t h a n Wi l d s o f e v e r y t y p e .
" C r i t i c i s m o f a l l s u c h
m e a s u r e s h a s g e n e r a l l y t a k e n t h e
f o r m o f a n a p p e a l t o t h e a b s t r a c t ( ! ) p r i n c i p l e s o f l i b e r t y
a n d t h e i n a l i e n a b l e r i g h t s o f B r i t i s h c i t i z e n s ; o b j e c t i o n i s
g e n e r a l l y t a k e n t o t h e u s e o f e x e c u t i v e r a t h e r t h a n o f
j u d i c i a l s a n c t i o n
. "
T h i s m e a n s t h a t I n d i a n s r e s e n t e d a n d d e n o u n c e d t h e
c l a u s e s o f t h e A c t w h i c h p l a c e d t h e m a t t h e m e r c y o f
p o l i c e i n d i c t m e n t a n d e n a b l e d t h e G o v e r n m e n t t o i m p r i s o n
a n d d e p o r t t h e m w i t h o u t t r i a l a n d e v e n w i t h o u t a n y f o r m a l
a c c u s a t i o n
. . .
" T h e G o v e r n m e n t 's e s t i m a t e o f t h e s i t u a -
t i o n i s a t t a c k e d a s u n d u l y p e s s i m i s t i c ; t h e n e c e s s i t y f o r
t h e m e a s u r e i s d e n i e d
; o r i t i s u r g e d t h a t t h e p o l i t i c a l s i t u a -
t i o n w i l l c e r t a i n l y i m p r o v e , a n d t h e r e f o r e t h e m e a s u r e
s h o u l d b e o n l y t e m p o r a r y . I n p a r t i c u l a r , n o t w i t h s t a n d i n g
t h e s e r v i c e s w h i c h t h e C r i m i n a l I n v e s t i g a t i o n D e p a r t m e n t
( t h e B r i t i s h " T h i r d Se c t i o n " ) h a s r e n d e r e d t o t h e c a u s e
o f p e a c e a n d t r a n q u i l l i t y , a n d s o t o t h e I n d i a n p e o p l e , b y
e x p o s i n g a n d c o m b a t i n g t h e g r o w t h o f r e v o l u t i o n a r y c o n -
T h e G r o w i n g
U n r e s t
249,
s p i r a c i e s , t h e r e h a s
b e e n m u c h c r i t i c i s m o f ' i t s a c t i v i t i e s
a s b e i n g t o o w i d e s p r e a d . " T h e c r i t i c i s m , i n s p i t e o f t h e
d e s p e r a t e r i s k s , r u n b y t h e c r i t i c s , h a s
b e e n v e r y m u c h m o r e
p l a i n - s p o k e n t h a n t h a t .
I n d i a n s o f t h e h i g h e s t c h a r a c t e r ,
n o t t h e m s e l v e s v e h e m e n t l y a n t a g o n i s t i c t o a B r i t i s h l e a d e r -
s h i p o f I n d i a , h a v e d e c l a r e d o p e n l y t h a t t h e C r i m i n a l I n -
v e s t i g a t i o n D e p a r t m e n t o f I n d i a i s o n e o f t h e w o r s t f o r m s
o f u n r e s t r i c t e d d e l a t i o n a n d p e r s e c u t i o n t h a t h a s
e v e r
b e e n
k n o w n
.
B u t t h e p a s s a g e s I h a v e q u o t e d s h o w c l e a r l y , b y t h e
o f f i c i a l a c k n o w l e d g m e n t o f t h e B r i t i s h G o v e r n m e n t - o f
I n d i a : F i r s t , t h a t t h e r e i s a g r e a t , i n c r e a s i n g a n d d e t e r -
m i n e d d e m a n d f r o m I n d i a t h a t t h e i n h a b i t a n t s o f H i n d u -
s t a n s h a l l i n f u t u r e c o n t r o l t h e i r o w n d e s t i n i e s , a n d _ t h a t
t h i s d e m a n d i s a c c o m p a n i e d b y t h e f o r m u l a t i o n o f
a c o n -
s t r u c t i v e ' p o l i c y e s s e n t i a l t o t h e a t t a i n m e n t o f t h a t e n d .
Se c o n d l y , t h a t a t t h e s a m e t i m e I n d i a , m e a n i n g t h e r e b y
t h e p u b l i c o p i n i o n o f t h e p e o p l e a s r e c o g n i s e d b y t h e B r i t -
i s h G o v e r n m e n t , w a s a n d i s b i t t e r l y o p p o s e d , b o t h b e f o r e
t h e w a r a n d d u r i n g t h e w a r , t o t h e v e r y s t r i n g e n t m e a s u r e s
e n a c t e d a g a i n s t a l l p u b l i c a g i t a t i o n , i n t h e P r e s s o r o n t h e
p l a t f o r m , a g a i n s t a n y c o m b i n a t i o n h a v i n g f o r i t s o b j e c t t h e
r e m o v a l o f B r i t i s h d o m i n a t i o n , a n d a g a i n s t t h e s u p p r e s -
s i o n o f t h e r i g h t o f p e r s o n a l f r e e d o m a n d r i g h t o f p u b l i c
t r i a l b e f o r e c o n d e m n a t i o n .
E v e n t s a r e h e l p i n g
:
" T h e s p e c t a c l e o f I n d i a n t r o o p s
g o i n g
f o r t h g l a d l y t o f i g h t f o r j u s t i c e a n d r i g h t , s i d e b y
s i d e
w i t h t h e B r i t i s h a r m y , a p p e a l e d i n t e n s e l y t o I n d i a 's
i m a g i n a t i o n . I t w a s a s o u r c e o f l e g i t i m a t e p r i d e a n d d e -
l i g h t t o h e r p e o p l e t h a t I n d i a n r e g i m e n t s s h o u l d
b e d e e m e d
f i t t o f a c e " - - I a m s t i l l q u o t i n g f r o m t h e o f f i c i a l r e p o r t -
" t h e m o s t h i g h l y t r a i n e d e n e m y i n t h e w o r l d . T h e I n d i a n
P r i n c e s a n d t h e g r e a t l a n d e d p r o p r i e t o r s r e s p o n d e d s p l e n -
d i d l y f r o m t h e v e r y b e g i n n i n g o f t h e w a r t o t h e c a l l s m a d e
u p o n t h e m . T h i s a t t i t u d e h a s c o n t i n u e d t h r o u g h o u t t h e
25 0

T h e A w a k e n i n g o f A s i a
w a r .
B u t c r i t i c i s m s o f t h e d e f e c t s o f B r i t i s h r u l e h a v e i n -
c r e a s e d i n n u m b e r a n d a c e r b i t y . T h e d e m a n d s a l r e a d y
s p o k e n o f a r e p r e s s e d m o r e v i g o r o u s l y u p o n t h e G o v e r n -
m e n t .
A n d t h i s i s n o t s u r p r i s i n g ; f o r t h e w a r i t s e l f h a s
g i v e n I n d i a a n e w s e n s e o f s e l f - e s t e e m a n d h a s a l s o c r e a t e d
a g e n e r a l i n t e r e s t i n p u b l i c a f f a i r s f a r i n a d v a n c e o f w h a t
e x i s t e d b e f o r e
. Wh a t i s s t i l l m o r e i m p o r t a n t , t h e w a r i s
r e g a r d e d a s a s t r u g g l e b e t w e e n l i b e r t y a n d d e s p o t i s m , f o r
t h e f r e e d o m o f t h e n a t i o n s a n d f o r t h e r i g h t o f a l l p e o p l e s
t o r u l e t h e i r o w n d e s t i n i e s .
" A t t e n t i o n , " s o t h e G o v e r n -
m e n t d e c l a r e s , " i s r e p e a t e d l y c a l l e d t o t h e f a c t t h a t i n E u -
r o p e B r i t a i n i s f i g h t i n g o n t h e s i d e o f l i b e r t y , a n d i t i s
u r g e d t h a t B r i t a i n c a n n o t d e n y t o t h e p e o p l e o f I n d i a t h a t '
f o r w h i c h s h e i s h e r s e l f f i g h t i n g i n E u r o p e a n d i n t h e f i g h t
f o r w h i c h s h e h a s b e e n h e l p e d b y I n d i a 's b l o o d a n d t r e a s -
u r e . "
F r o m a l l t h i s a l s o a r i s e s n o t o n l y a d e f i n i t e d e m a n d
f o r l i b e r t y a n d r e o r g a n i s a t i o n o n I n d i a n l i n e s f r o m I n d i a
h e r s e l f , b u t t h e B r i t i s h G o v e r n m e n t i t s e l f a d m i t s t h a t s o m e -
t h i n g s e r i o u s m u s t b e d o n e , a n d t h i s s o m e t h i n g s e r i o u s i s
r e p r e s e n t e d b y M r . M o n t a g u 's Re p o r t , f r o m w h i c h t h e
a b o v e q u o t a t i o n s a r e m a d e . N o w , i t i s c e r t a i n t h a t t h e
p r o p o s a l s m a d e b y t h e G o v e r n m e n t a r e e i n e v e r y r e s p e c t
s o i n s u f f i c i e n t a n d s o d i s a p p o i n t i n g t h a t t h e y c a n n o t f a i l t o
p r o d u c e a v e r y b a d i m p r e s s i o n - a r e i n f a c t a t t h i s m o m e n t
p r o d u c i n g a b a d i m p r e s s i o n t h r o u g h o u t I n d i a . T h e r e i s
n o a t t e m p t w h a t e v e r m a d e t o p u t I n d i a n s f r a n k l y a n d
d e f i n i t e l y i n e v e n p a r t i a l c o n t r o l o f B r i t i s h I n d i a . T h e C e n -
t r a l G o v e r n m e n t i s t o b e a s a u t o c r a t i c a s e v e r
. A l l t h a t i s
s u g g e s t e d i s t o a s s o c i a t e m o r e I n d i a n s w i t h E n g l i s h m e n i n
t h e w o r k o f a d m i n i s t r a t i o n a n d t o g i v e t h e m s l i g h t a d v a n -
t a g e s i n o t h e r d i r e c t i o n s . T h i s i s w o r s e t h a n u s e l e s s . I t
w o u l d t a k e t w o h u n d r e d y e a r s , a t a n y r a t e , t o g i v e I n d i a
a n y g e n u i n e s e l f - g o v e r n m e n t u n d e r B r i t i s h l e a d e r s h i p .
Ye t e v e n t h e s e p e t t y t r i f l i n g s w i t h t h e g r a v e s i t u a t i o n
T h e G r o w i n g U n r e s t

25 1
b e f o r e u s a r e s t i g m a t i s e d
a s
u n p a t r i o t i c a n d r e v o l u t i o n a r y
by t h e r e a c t i o n a r y
P r e s s h e r e a t h o m e . T h a t P r e s s , a n d
A n g l o - I n d i a n s g e n e r a l l y , , w r i t e a s i f I n d i a i s n o t , a n d c a n
n e v e r b e , f i t
t o c o n t r o l h e r o w n d e s t i n i e s . N o w , i f t h e i 6 o
y e a r s o f B r i t i s h r u l e h a d g r e a t l y i n c r e a s e d t h e w e l l - b e i n g
o f t h e p e o p l e o f H i n d u s t a n ; i f t h e 240, 000; 000 u n d e r o u r
d i r e c t g o v e r n a n c e h a d b e e n e d u c a t e d ; i f I n d i a n a r t s
a n d
I n d i a n c u l t u r e h a d b e e n e n c o u r a g e d a n d d e v e l o p e d - e v e n
t h e n i t w o u l d b e m o n s t r o u s t o a s s e r t , a t a t i m e w h e n w e
a r e d e c l a r i n g f o r t h e r i g h t o f s e l f - d e t e r m i n a t i o n f o r t h e
p e o p l e s a n d f r e e d o m f o r a l l n a t i o n s , t h a t t h e
45 , 000, 000
p e r s o n s i n s m a l l i s l a n d s , t h o u s a n d s o f
m i l e s d i s t a n t , h a v e
j u s t i c e o n t h e i r s i d e w h e n t h e y m a i n t a i n d e s p o t i c
' a u t h o r -
i t y o v e r o n e - f i f t h o f t h e e n t i r e h u m a n r a c e
. B u t , a s w e
h a v e d o n e n o n e o f t h e s e t h i n g s , t h e c o n t e n t i o n s o f t h e o b -
s t r u c t i o n i s t s b e c o m e u t t e r l y m o n s t r o u s
.
F o r ,
a s a l r e a d y s h o w n , t h e r e i s n o s u c h h o p e l e s s
p o v -
e r t y o n e a r t h a s t h a t w h i c h e x i s t s a n d c o n t i n u e s u n d e r B r i t -
i s h r u l e i n I n d i a
. So f r i g h t f u l i s t h e i m p o v e r i s h m e n t t h a t
t h e G o v e r n m e n t d a r e n o t p u b l i s h o f f i c i a l s t a t i s t i c s o n t h e
s u b j e c t . Su c h r e l i a b l e f i g u r e s a s t h e r e a r e
h a v e b e e n w o r k e d
o u t b y M r
. D a d a b h a i N a o r o j i , M r . Wi l l i a m D i g b y , m y s e l f ,
a n d o t h e r s
. E v e n i n t h i s Re p o r t , t h e r e a l t r o u b l e , n a m e l y ,
t h a t o n e - h a l f o f t h e i n h a b i t a n t s i n B r i t i s h t e r r i t o r y
l i v e
f r o m b i r t h t o d e a t h o n i n s u f f i c i e n t n o u r i s h m e n t , i s v i r t u a l l y
c o n c e a l e d , t h o u g h t h e t r u t h i s p a r t i a l l y t o l d
. T h u s " T h e
r e v e n u e a n d r e n t r e t u r n s s h o w h o w s m a l l t h e a v e r a g e a g r i -
c u l t u r a l h o l d i n g i s . A c c o r d i n g t o o n e e s t i m a t e , t h e
n u m b e r
o f l a n d l o r d s " - m e a n i n g p e a s a n t o w n e r s - " w h o s e i n c o m e
d e r i v e d f r o m t h e i r p r o p r i e t a r y h o l d i n g s e x c e e d s
120 a
y e a r i n t h e U n i t e d P r o v i n c e s , i s a b o u t 126 , 000
o u t o f a
p o p u l a t i o n o f 48 , 000, 000. J u s t r e f l e c t q u i e t l y u p o n
w h a t
i t m e a n s t o d e c l a r e i n s e r i o u s o f f i c i a l s t a t i s t i c s t h a t l e s s t h a n
3 p e r i , o o o h o l d e r s o f l a n d o b t a i n f r o m t h e i r h o l d i n g s
m o r e t h a n 8 s . a w e e k f o r t h e m s e l v e s a n d t h e i r f a m i l i e s !
25 2

T h e A w a k e n i n g o f A s i a
M r
. Wi l l i a m D i g b y 's c a l c u l a t i o n o f i t s . 6 d .
p e r y e a r p e r
h e a d f o r a g r i c u l t u r i s t s , a s t h e a v e r a g e i n c o m e o f I n d i a n
r y o t s , h a s n e v e r y e t b e e n r e f u t e d . A n d , w h a t e v e r t h e
B r i t i s h G o v e r n m e n t i n I n d i a o r t h e I n d i a n O f f i c e i n L o n -
d o n m a y a v e r , t h i n g s a r e g e t t i n g w o r s e r a t h e r t h a n b e t t e r .
. T h e a g r i c u l t u r i s t s w h o c o n s t i t u t e m o r e t h a n 7 0 p e r c e n t .
o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n - a s t i l l h i g h e r p e r c e n t a g e i f s m a l l i n -
d u s t r i e s d i r e c t l y c o n n e c t e d w i t h a g r i c u l t u r e a r e t a k e n i n t o
a c c o u n t a r e b e c o m i n g s t e a d i l y p o o r e r a n d p o o r e r
.
We a r e n o t e n r i c h i n g b u t d e p l e t i n g I n d i a , t h e r e f o r e ,
b y o u r r u l e
.
O f o u r d i s g r a c e f u l n e g l e c t o f e d u c a t i o n I h a v e a l r e a d y
s p o k e n
.
N o s e r i o u s e f f o r t i s b e i n g m a d e t o i m p r o v e t h e
p o s i t i o n , e v e n b y r e s t o r i n g o l d H i n d u a n d M o s l e m i n s t i t u -
t i o n s .
A n c i e n t I n d i a n a r t s a n d c u l t u r e , s o f a r f r o m b e i n g
f o s t e r e d , a r e f a l l i n g s t e a d i l y i n t o d e c a y , a s Si r G e o r g e
B i r d w o o d p o i n t e d o u t r e g r e t f u l l y f o r t y y e a r s a g o . T h e
d e t e r i o r a t i o n i s g o i n g o n s t i l l , a n d n o t h i n g o f v a l u e i s
a r i s i n g t o r e p l a c e t h i s l o s s .
A n d a l l t h e w h i l e E u r o p e a n i s a t i o n p r o c e e d s o n l y t o o
p e r s i s t e n t l y , a n d E u r o p e a n i s a t i o n o f a c h a r a c t e r w h i c h
d i v o r c e s t h e c o n q u e r i n g r a c e f r o m t h e c o n q u e r e d m o r e
a n d m o r e c o m p l e t e l y e v e r y y e a r , e v e r y m o n t h , e v e r y w e e k ,
e v e r y d a y .
T o t h i s m u s t b e a d d e d t h e h i d e o u s e c o n o m i c d r a i n w h i c h
e x t r a c t s f r o m I n d i a y e a r a f t e r y e a r c e r t a i n l y n o t l e s s t h a n
£ 30, 000, 000 s t e r l i n g , w i t h o u t a n y c o m m e r c i a l r e t u r n , a s
t h e t r a d e f i g u r e s c o n c l u s i v e l y p r o v e .
T h e p o s i t i o n o f t h e r y o t s , o r s m a l l i n d i g e n t p e a s a n t r y ,
i n a l l t h e P r o v i n c e s i s m a d e w o r s e b y o u r E u r o p e a n s y s -
t e m o f l a w s , i n n u m e r a b l e a n d u n s u i t e d t o t h e c o u n t r y . O n
t h i s t h e Re p o r t s a y s i n r e g a r d t o t h e r y o t
: " A s i m p l e ,
c h e a p a n d c e r t a i n s y s t e m o f l a w i s o n e o f h i s g r e a t e s t
n e e d s .
H e g r e a t l y r e q u i r e s t o b e p r o t e c t e d a g a i n s t t h e
T h e G r o w i n g U n r e s t

25 3
i n t r i c a c i e s o f c o u r t s " - o u r o w n c o u r t s ! - " a n d t h e s u b t l e -
t i e s o f l a w , a n d e n a b l e d t o d e f e n d ( h i m s e l f a g a i n s t ) " t h e
a d v a n t a g e s e n j o y e d b y l o n g - p u r s e d o p p o n e n t s
. . . O n e -
o f h i s c o n s t a n t n e e d s i s p r o t e c t i o n a g a i n s t t h e e x a c t i o n s o f
p e t t y o f f i c i a l o p p r e s s o r s . " T h e s e a r e o u r o w n o f f i c i a l s .
" Wh a t m a t t e r s m o s t o f a l l t o t h e r y o t a r e h i s r e l a t i o n s
w i t h h i s l a n d l o r d . " H i s " l a n d l o r d " - t h e w o r d i t s e l f i s
E u r o p e a n , a s , i s t h e t h o u g h t b e h i n d i t - t h a t i s , t h e B r i t i s h
G o v e r n m e n t w h i c h t a x e s h i m a n d f r o m w h o s e s a l a r i e d
o f f i c i a l s t h e Re p o r t i t s e l f d e c l a r e s h e n e e d s p r o t e c t i o n .
I n s h o r t , t h e o f f i c i a l a d m i s s i o n s i n t h i s Re p o r t i t s e l f
j u s t i f y a l l t h a t I h a v e s a i d a n d w r i t t e n f o r m o r e t h a n f o r t y
y e a r s a b o u t t h e t e r r i b l e i n j u r y d o n e t o t h e v a s t p o p u l a t i o n
o f I n d i a b y o u r d o m i n a t i o n .
I n d i a n s a r e a t o n e w i t h e n l i g h t e n e d E u r o p e a n s i n b e -
l i e v i n g t h a t m a t t e r s c a n n o t b e p u t r i g h t b y w e l l - i n t e n t i o n e d
E u r o p e a n r e f o r m s s u c h a s t h o s e c o n t a i n e d i n t h e M o n t a g u -
C h e l m s f o r d p r o p o s a l s . I t i s m u c h t o o l a t e f o r
s u c h s u p e r -
f i c i a l t r e a t m e n t .
T h e I n d i a o f , 1919 i s a v e r y d i f f e r e n t
I n d i a , n o t o n l y f r o m t h e I n d i a o f 18 7 4, w h e n I f i r s t b e g a n
t o w r i t e u p o n t h e s u b j e c t , b u t f r o m t h e I n d i a o f 1913
. A
n e w , d e t e r m i n e d , c a p a b l e s p i r i t o f c o n s t r u c t i o n i s a b r o a d
a m o n g t h e p e o p l e a n d t h e i r r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . H i n d u s a n d
M o h a m m e d a n s a r e a c t i n g s o l i d l y t o g e t h e r . T h e y a r e
u n i t e d a s n e v e r b e f o r e i n h i s t o r y , s i n c e M o h a m m e d a n i s m
f i r s t i n v a d e d H i n d u s t a n
. A l l r a c e s a n d a l l c r e e d s h a v e
a w a k e n e d t o t h e n e c e s s i t y f o r j o i n t a c t i o n i n a c o m m o n
e n d e a v o u r t o o b t a i n s e l f - g o v e r n m e n t a n d I n d i a n a d m i n -
i s t r a t i o n f o r I n d i a - u n d e r B r i t i s h g u i d a n c e ; b u t n o t u n d e r .
B r i t i s h d o m i n a t i o n .
T h e Re s o l u t i o n s b e l o w , r e f e r r i n g t o t h e M o n t a g u -
C h e l m s f o r d Re p o r t , w e r e p a s s e d a t t h e Sp e c i a l , C o n g r e s s
s u m m o n e d a t B o m b a y f r o m A u g u s t 29t h t o Se p t e m b e r i s t ,
1918 , w i t h t h e f u l l c o n c u r r e n c e o f t h e A l l - I n d i a M o s l e m
L e a g u e , w h i c h m e t i n t h e s a m e c i t y a t t h e s a m e t i m e . T h e y
25 4

T h e A w a k e n i n g o f A s i a
c o n s t i t u t e a n h i s t o r i c d e m a n d f r o m t h e p e o p l e o f
a g r e a t
E m p i r e t h a t t h e y s h o u l d b e p e a c e f u l l y g r a n t e d t h e r i g h t
i n t h e m a i n
t o
m a n a g e t h e i r o w n a f f a i r s
. T h i s d e m a n d i s
t h e M a g n a C h a r t a o f o n e - f i f t h o f t h e h u m a n r a c e .
RE SO L U T I O N I
. - - T h a t t h i s C o n g r e s s t e n d e r s i t s m o s t l o y a l
h o m a g e t o H i s G r a c i o u s M a j e s t y t h e K i n g - E m p e r o r , a n d h a s
l e a r n e d w i t h g r e a t s a t i s f a c t i o n o f t h e r e c e n t s u c c e s s e s o f t h e
A l l i e s i n t h e Wa r n o w r a g i n g , a n d s i n c e r e l y p r a y s f o r t h e i r
e a r l y a n d d e c i s i v e v i c t o r y a n d t h e f i n a l v i n d i c a t i o n o f t h e
p r i n c i p l e s o f F r e e d o m , J u s t i c e a n d Se l f - d e t e r m i n a t i o n
.
RE SO L U T I O N I I . - T h a t t h i s C o n g r e s s r e - a f f i r m s t h e p r i n -
c i p l e s o f r e f o r m c o n t a i n e d i n t h e Re s o l u t i o n s r e l a t i n g t o Se l f -
G o v e r n m e n t a d o p t e d i n t h e I n d i a n N a t i o n a l C o n g r e s s a n d
t h e A l l - I n d i a M o s l e m L e a g u e h e l d a t L u c k n o w i n D e c e m b e r ,
1916 , a n d a t C a l c u t t a i n D e c e m b e r , 1917 , a n d d e c l a r e s t h a t
n o t h i n g l e s s t h a n Se l f - G o v e r n m e n t w i t h i n t h e E m p i r e c a n
s a t i s f y t h e I n d i a n p e o p l e a n d , b y e n a b l i n g i t t o t a k e i t s r i g h t -
f u l p l a c e a s a f r e e a n d Se l f - G o v e r n i n g N a t i o n i n t h e B r i t i s h
C o m m o n w e a l t h , s t r e n g t h e n t h e c o n n e x i o n b e t w e e n G r e a t B r i t -
a i n
a n d
I n d i a .
RE SO L U T I O N I I I
. - T h a t t h i s C o n g r e s s d e c l a r e s t h a t t h e
p e o p l e o f I n d i a a r e f i t f o r r e s p o n s i b l e G o v e r n m e n t , a n d r e -
p u d i a t e s t h e a s s u m p t i o n t o t h e c o n t r a r y c o n t a i n e d i n t h e Re -
p o r t o n I n d i a n C o n s t i t u t i o n a l r e f o r m s
.
RE SO L U T I O N I V
. - T h e G o v e r n m e n t o f I n d i a s h a l l h a v e u n ,
d i v i d e d a d m i n i s t r a t i v e a u t h o r i t y o n m a t t e r s d i r e c t l y c o n c e r n -
i n g p e a c e , t r a n q u i l l i t y a n d d e f e n c e o f t h e c o u n t r y , s u b j e c t t o
t h e f o l l o w i n g : -
T h a t t h e St a t u t e t o b e p a s s e d b y P a r l i a m e n t s h o u l d i n c l u d e
t h e D e c l a r a t i o n o f t h e Ri g h t s o f t h e P e o p l e o f I n d i a a s B r i t -
i s h C i t i z e n s
( a ) T h a t a l l I n d i a n s u b j e c t s o f H i s ' M a j e s t y a n d a l l t h e
s u b j e c t s n a t u r a l i s e d o r r e s i d e n t i n I n d i a a r e e q u a l b e f o r e t h e
l a w , a n d t h e r e s h a l l b e n o p e n a l o r a d m i n i s t r a t i v e l a w
i n f o r c e
i n
t h i s c o u n t r y , w h e t h e r s u b s t a n t i v e o r p r o c e d u r a l , o f a d i s -
c r i m i n a t i v e n a t u r e ;
T h e G r o w i n g U n r e s t

25 5
( b ) t h a t n o I n d i a n s u b j e c t o f H i s M a j e s t y s h a l l b e l i a b l e
t o s u f f e r i n l i b e r t y , l i f e , p r o p e r t y , o r i n r e s p e c t o f f r e e s p e e c h
o r w r i t i n g , o r o f t h e r i g h t o f a s s o c i a t i o n , e x c e p t u n d e r s e n t e n c e
b y a n o r d i n a r y C o u r t o f j u s t i c e , a n d a s a
r e s u l t o f l a w f u l a n d
o p e n t r i a l
( c )
t h a t e v e r y I n d i a n s u b j e c t s h a l l b e e n t i t l e d t o b e a r a r m s ,
s u b j e c t t o t h e p u r c h a s e o f
a l i c e n c e , a s i n G r e a t B r i t a i n , a n d ,
t h a t r i g h t s h a l l n o t b e t a k e n a w a y s a v e b y a s e n t e n c e o f a n
o r d i n a r y C o u r t o f j u s t i c e ;
( d ) t h a t t h e P r e s s s h a l l b e f r e e , a n d
t h a t n o l i c e n c e o r
s e c u r i t y s h a l l b e d e m a n d e d o n t h e r e g i s t r a t i o n o f a
p r e s s o r a
n e w s p a p e r ;
( e )
t h a t c o r p o r a l p u n i s h m e n t s h a l l n o t b e
i n f l i c t e d o n a n y
I n d i a n s u b j e c t o f H i s M a j e s t y s a v e u n d e r c o n d i t i o n s a p p l y i n g
e q u a l l y t o
a l l o t h e r B r i t i s h s u b j e c t s .
M O D I F I C A T I O N S I N RE F O RM SC H E M E
RE s o L u T t o i x V
. - T h a t t h i s C o n g r e s s a p p r e c i a t e s t h e e a r -
n e s t a t t e m p t o n t h e p a r t o f t h e Ri g h t H o n
. T h e Se c r e t a r y o f
St a t e a n d H i s E x c e l l e n c y
t h e V i c e r o y t o i n a u g u r a t e a s y s t e m
o f Re s p o n s i b l e G o v e r n m e n t i n I n d i a , b u t w h i l e i t r e c o g n i s e s
t h a t s o m e o f t h e p r o p o s a l s c o n s t i t u t e
a n a d v a n c e o n t h e p r e s -
e n t c o n d i t i o n s
i n s o m e d i r e c t i o n s , i t i s o f
o p i n i o n t h a t t h e p r o -
p o s a l s a s a
w h o l e a r e d i s a p p o i n t i n g a n d
u n s a t i s f a c t o r y , a n d
s u g g e s t s t h e f o l l o w i n g m o d i f i c a t i o n s a s a b s o l u t e l y n e c e s s a r y
t o c o n s t i t u t e a s u b s t a n t i a l s t e p t o w a r d s Re s p o n s i b l e G o v e r n -
m e n t
T h a t t h i s C o n g r e s s e n t i r e l y d i s a g r e e s w i t h t h e f o r m u l a c o n -
t a i n e d
i n t h e s a i d Re p o r t t h a t t h e P r o v i n c e s a r e t h e , d o m a i n i n
w h i c h t h e e a r l i e r s t e p s s h o u l d b e t a k e n t o w a r d s t h e p r o g r e s s i v e
r e a l i s a t i o n o f Re s p o n s i b l e G o v e r n m e n t ,
a n d t h a t t h e a u t h o r i t y
o f t h e G o v e r n m e n t o f I n d i a m e s s e n t i a l m a t t e r s m u s t r e m a i n
i n d i s p u t a b l e p e n d i n g e x p e r i e n c e o f t h e e f f e c t o f t h e c h a n g e s
p r o p o s e d t o b e i n t r o d u c e d i n t h e P r o v i n c e s
; a n d t h i s C o n g r e s s
i s o f o p i n i o n t h a t s i m u l t a n e o u s a d v a n c e i s i n d i s p e n s a b l e b o t h
i n t h e P r o v i n c e s a n d t h e G o v e r n m e n t o f I n d i a
.
25 6

T h e A w a k e n i n g o f A s i a
T h e p r o p o r t i o n o f M o h a m m e d a n s i n t h e L e g i s l a t u r e s a s
l a i d d o w n i n t h e C o n g r e s s - L e a g u e Sc h e m e m u s t b e m a i n t a i n e d
.
I
. P A RL I A M E N T A N D T H E I N D I A O F F I C E
i
. T h e c o n t r o l o f P a r l i a m e n t a n d t h e Se c r e t a r y o f St a t e
m u s t o n l y b e m o d i f i e d a s t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f t h e I n d i a n a n d
P r o v i n c i a l G o v e r n m e n t s t o t h e e l e c t o r a t e s i s i n c r e a s e d
. N o
f i n a n c i a l o r a d m i n i s t r a t i v e p o w e r s i n r e g a r d t o r e s e r v e d s u b -
j e c t s s h a l l b e t r a n s f e r r e d t o t h e P r o v i n c i a l G o v e r n m e n t s u n t i l
s u c h t i m e a s t h e y a r e m a d e r e s p o n s i b l e r e g a r d i n g t h e m t o
e l e c t o r a t e s , a n d u n t i l t h e n t h e c o n t r o l o f P a r l i a m e n t a n d t h e
Se c r e t a r y o f St a t e s h a l l c o n t i n u e .
2. T h e C o u n c i l o f I n d i a s h a l l b e a b o l i s h e d , a n d t h e r e s h a l l
b e t w o p e r m a n e n t U n d e r Se c r e t a r i e s t o a s s i s t t h e Se c r e t a r y
o f St a t e f o r I n d i a , o n e o f w h o m s h a l l b e a n I n d i a n .
3
. A l l c h a r g e s i n r e s p e c t t o t h e I n d i a O f f i c e e s t a b l i s h -
m e n t s h a l l b e p l a c e d o n t h e B r i t i s h E s t i m a t e s
.
4
. T h e C o m m i t t e e t o b e a p p o i n t e d t o e x a m i n e a n d r e p o r t
o n t h e p r e s e n t c o n s t i t u t i o n o f t h e C o u n c i l o f I n d i a s h a l l c o n -
t a i n a n a d e q u a t e I n d i a n e l e m e n t
.
I I
. T H E G O V E RN M E N T O F I N D I A
i . P RI V Y C O U N C I L
T h e r e s h a l l b e n o P r i v y C o u n c i l .
i i . E XE C U T I V E
A t l e a s t h a l f t h e n u m b e r o f E x e c u t i v e C o u n c i l l o r s ( i f t h e r e
b e m o r e t h a n o n e ) i n
c h a r g e o f r e s e r v e d s u b j e c t s s h a l l b e
I n d i a n s .
i i i . L E G I SL A T U RE
i . T h e n u m b e r o f m e m b e r s o f t h e L e g i s l a t i v e A s s e m b l y
s h a l l b e r a i s e d t o
15 o ,
a n d t h e p r o p o r t i o n o f t h e e l e c t e d m e m -
b e r s s h a l l b e f o u r - f i f t h s .
T h e G r o w i n g U n r e s t

25 7
2. T h e P r e s i d e n t a n d t h e V i c e - P r e s i d e n t o f t h e L e g i s l a t i v e
A s s e m b l y s h a l l b e e l e c t e d b y t h e A s s e m b l y .
3. ( a ) T h e r e s h a l l b e n o C o u n c i l o f St a t e
; b u t , i f t h e
C o u n c i l o f St a t e i s t o b e c o n s t i t u t e d , a s y s t e m o f r e s e r v e d a n d
t r a n s f e r r e d s u b j e c t s , s i m i l a r t o t h a t p r o p o s e d f o r t h e P r o v -
i n c e s , s h a l l b e a d o p t e d f o r t h e C e n t r a l G o v e r n m e n t . A t l e a s t
h a l f o f i t s _ t o t a l s t r e n g t h s h a l l c o n s i s t o f e l e c t e d m e m b e r s , a n d
p r o c e d u r e b y c e r t i f i c a t i o n s h a l l b e c o n f i n e d t o t h e r e s e r v e d s u b -
j e c t s .
( b ) '
A l l l e g i s l a t i o n s h a l l b e b y B i l l s i n t r o d u c e d i n t o t h e
L e g i s l a t i v e A s s e m b l y , p r o v i d e d t h a t i f , i n t h e c a s e o f r e s e r v e d
s u b j e c t s , t h e L e g i s l a t i v e A s s e m b l y d o e s n o t p a s s s u c h m e a s u r e s
a s t h e G o v e r n m e n t m a y d e e m n e c e s s a r y , t h e G o v e r n o r - G e n e r a l
i n C o u n c i l m a y p r o v i d e f o r t h e s a m e b y r e g u l a t i o n s , s u c h
r e g u l a t i o n s t o b e i n f o r c e f o r o n e y e a r , b u t n o t t o b e r e n e w e d
u n l e s s 40 p e r c e n t
. o f t h e m e m b e r s o f t h e A s s e m b l y p r e s e n t a n d
v o t i n g a r e i n f a v o u r o f t h e m .
4
.
( a )
T h e r e s e r v e d s u b j e c t s s h a l l b e F o r e i g n A f f a i r s ( e x -
c e p t i n g r e l a t i o n s w i t h t h e C o l o n i e s a n d
t h e D o m i n i o n s ) , A r m y ,
N a v y ,
a n d r e l a t i o n s z e n i t h I n d i a n Ru l i n g P r i n c e s ; a n d , s u b j e c t
t o t h e d e c l a r a t i o n s c o n t a i n e d i n Re s o l u t i o n I V , s m a t t e r s d i r e c t l y
a f f e c t i n g
P u b l i c P e a c e , T r a n q u i l l i t y a n d t h e D e f e n c e o f t h e
c o u n t r y
.
A l l o t h e r s u b j e c t s , i n c l u d i n g C u s t o m s , T a r i f f a n d
E x c i s e D u t i e s , s h a l l b e t r a n s f e r r e d .
( b )
T h e a l l o t m e n t s r e q u i r e d f o r t h e r e s e r v e d s u b j e c t s s h a l l
b e t h e f i r s t c h a r g e o n t h e r e v e n u e .
5
. ( a ) Wh e n e v e r t h e L e g i s l a t i v e A s s e m b l y , o r t h e C o u n c i l
o f St a t e , o r t h e L e g i s l a t i v e C o u n c i l , i s d i s s o l v e d i t s h a l l b e
o b l i g a t o r y o n t h e G o v e r n o r - G e n e r a l , o r t h e G o v e r n o r , a s t h e
c a s e m a y b e , t o o r d e r t h e n e c e s s a r y e l e c t i o n s , a n d t o r e - s u m -
m o n t h e b o d y d i s s o l v e d w i t h i n a p e r i o d o f t h r e e m o n t h s f r o m
t h e d a t e o f d i s s o l u t i o n .
( b ) N o d i s s o l u t i o n o f t h e L e g i s l a t u r e s s h a l l t a k e p l a c e e x -
c e p t b y w a y o f a n a p p e a l t o t h e e l e c t o r a t e , a n d t h e r e a s o n s h a l l
b e s t a t e d i n w r i t i n g c o u n t e r s i g n e d b y t h e M i n i s t e r s .
( c ) T h e r e s h a l l b e a n o b l i g a t i o n t o c o n v e n e m e e t i n g s o f
t h e C o u n c i l a n d A s s e m b l y a t s t a t e d i n t e r v a l s , o r o n t h e r e q u i s i -
t i o n o f a c e r t a i n p r o p o r t i o n o f m e m b e r s .
25 8

T h e A w a k e n i n g o f A s i a
6. T h e p r o c e d u r e f o r t h e a d o p t i o n o f t h e B u d g e t s h a l l b e
o n t h e l i n e s l a i d d o w n f o r t h e P r o v i n c e s
.
7
. T h e L e g i s l a t i v e A s s e m b l y s h a l l h a v e p o w e r t o m a k e , o r
m o d i f y , i t s o w n r u l e s o f b u s i n e s s a n d t h e y s h a l l n o t r e q u i r e
t h e s a n c t i o n o f t h e G o v e r n o r - G e n e r a l .
8 .
A s t a t u t o r y g u a r a n t e e s h a l l b e g i v e n t h a t f u l l r e s p o n s i -
b l e G o v e r n m e n t s h a l l b e e s t a b l i s h e d i n t h e w h o l e o
f B r i t i s h
I n d i a w i t h i n a p e r i o d n o t e x c e e d i n g r 5 y e a r s .
I I I
. T H E P RO V I N C E S
i . E XE C U T I V E
i .
( a ) T h e r e s h a l l b e n o a d d i t i o n a l m e m b e r s o f t h e E x -
e c u t i v e G o v e r n m e n t w i t h o u t p o r t f o l i o s .
( '~ )
F r o m t h e c o m m e n c e m e n t o f t h e r e f o r m e d C o u n c i l s ,
t h e r e l a t i o n o f t h e G o v e r n o r t o t h e M i n i s t e r s i n r e g a r d t o t h e
t r a n s f e r r e d s u b j e c t s s h a l l b e t h e s a m e a s t h a t o b t a i n i n g i n t h e
Se l f - G o v e r n i n g D o m i n i o n s
.
2.
T h e s t a t u s a n d s a l a r y o f t h e M i n i s t e r s s h a l l b e t h e s a m e
a s t h a t o f t h e m e m b e r s o f t h e E x e c u t i v e C o u n c i l .
3. A t l e a s t h a l f t h e n u m b e r o f E x e c u t i v e C o u n c i l l o r s i n
c h a r g e o f r e s e r v e d s u b j e c t s ( i f t h e r e b e m o r e t h a n o n e ) s h a l l
b e I n d i a n s .
i i . L E G I SL A T U RE
I .
Wh i l e h o l d i n g t h a t t h e p e o p l e a r e r i p e f o r t h e i n t r o d u c -
t i o n o f f u l l P r o v i n c i a l A u t o n o m y , t h e C o n g r e s s i s y e t p r e p a r e d ,
w i t h a
v i e w t o f a c i l i t a t i n g t h e p a s s a g e o f t h e Re f o r m s , t o l e a v e
t h e d e p a r t m e n t s o f L a w , P o l i c e a n d j u s t i c e ( p r i s o n s e x c e p t e d )
i n t h e h a n d s o f t h e E x e c u t i v e G o v e r n m e n t i n a l l P r o v i n c e s f o r
a p e r i o d o f s i x y e a r s
. E x e c u t i v e a n d J u d i c i a l D e p a r t m e n t s
m u s t b e s e p a r a t e d a t o n c e .
2. T h e p r o p o r t i o n o f e l e c t e d m e m b e r s i n t h e L e g i s l a t i v e
C o u n c i l s h a l l b e f o u r - f i f t h s .
3
. T h e P r e s i d e n t a n d t h e V i c e - P r e s i d e n t s h a l l b e e l e c t e d
b y . t h e C o u n c i l .
4.
( a ) T h a t t h i s C o n g r e s s i s s t r o n g l y o f o p i n i o n t h a t i t i s
T h e G r o w i n g U n r e s t

25 9
e s s e n t i a l f o r t h e w e l f a r e o f t h e I n d i a n p e o p l e t h a t t h e I n d i a n
L e g i s l a t u r e s h a l l h a v e t h e s a m e m e a s u r e o f f i s c a l a u t o n o m y
w h i c h t h e Se l f G o v e r n i n g D o m i n i o n s o f t h e E m p i r e p o s s e s s .
( b ) T h e B u d g e t s h a l l b e u n d e r t h e c o n t r o l o f t h e
L e g i s l a -
t u r e , s u b j e c t t o t h e c o n t r i b u t i o n t o t h e G o v e r n m e n t o f I n d i a ,
a n d t o t h e a l l o c a t i o n o f a f i x e d s u m f o r t h e r e s e r v e d s u b j e c t s ;
a n d s h o u l d f r e s h t a x a t i o n b e n e c e s s a r y i t s h o u l d b e i m p o s e d
b y t h e P r o v i n c i a l G o v e r n m e n t a s a w h o l e f o r b o t h t r a n s f e r r e d
a n d r e s e r v e d s u b j e c t s .
5 . T h i s C o n g r e s s i s e m p h a t i c a l l y o f o p i n i o n t h a t t h e s t a t u s
o f
A j n i e r e - M e r w a r a a n d D e l h i s h o u l d b e t h a t o f r e g u l a t e d
P r o v i n c e s , a n d t h a t p o p u l a r g o v e r n m e n t a n d e f f e c t i v e c o n t r o l
i n t h e a f f a i r s o f t h e L o c a l G o v e r n m e n t s h o u l d b e g r a n t e d t o
t h e i r p e o p l e .
6 . T h e p r o p o s a l t o i n s t i t u t e a G r a n d C o m m i t t e e s h a l l b e
d r o p p e d
. T h e P r o v i n c i a l L e g i s l a t i v e C o u n c i l , . s h a l l l e g i s l a t e
i n r e s p e c t o f a l l m a t t e r s w i t h i n t h e j u r i s d i c t i o n o f P r o v i n c i a l
G o v e r n m e n t , i n c l u d i n g L a w , J u s t i c e a n d P o l i c e , b u t w h e r e t h e
G o v e r n m e n t i s n o t s a t i s f i e d w i t h t h e d e c i s i o n o f t h e L e g i s l a -
t i v e C o u n c i l i n r e s p e c t o f m a t t e r s r e l a t i n g
t o
L a w , J u s t i c e a n d
P o l i c e , i t s h a l l b e o p e n t o t h e G o v e r n m e n t t o r e f e r t h e m a t t e r
t o t h e G o v e r n m e n t o f I n d i a . T h e G o v e r n m e n t o f I n d i a
m a y
r e f e r
t h e m a t t e r
t o t h e I n d i a n L e g i s l a t u r e , a n d t h e o r d i n a r y
p r o c e d u r e s h a l l f o l l o w . B u t i f G r a n d C o m m i t t e e s a r e i n s t i -
t u t e d , t u t e d , t h i s C o n g r e s s i s o f o p i n i o n t h a t n o t l e s s t h a n o n e - h a l f
o f t h e s t r e n g t h - s h o u l d b e e l e c t e d b y t h e L e g i s l a t i v e C o u n c i l .
7
. T h e L e g i s l a t i v e C o u n c i l s h a l l h a v e p o w e r t o m a k e o r
m o d i f y i t s o w n r u l e s o f b u s i n e s s , a n d t h e y s h a l l ' n o t r e q u i r e t h e
s a n c t i o n
o f
t h e G o v e r n o r - G e n e r a l .
8 . , T h e r e s h a l l b e a n o b l i g a t i o n t o c o n v e n e m e e t i n g s o f t h e
C o u n c i l a t s t a t e d i n t e r v a l s , o r o n t h e r e q u i s i t i o n o f a c e r t a i n
p r o p o r t i o n o f m e m b e r s .
9. ,
Wo m e n , p o s s e s s i n g t h e s a m e q u a l i f i c a t i o n s a s a r e l a i d
d o w n f o r m e n i n a n y p a r t o f t h e Sc h e m e , s h a l l n o t
b e d i s -
q u a l i f i e d o n a c c o u n t o f s e x .
26 o

T h e A w a k e n i n g o f A s i a
M I SC E L L A N E O U S
RE SO L U T I O N V I
:
T h i s C o n g r e s s p l a c e s o n r e c o r d i t s d e e p
d i s a p p o i n t m e n t a t t h e a l t o g e t h e r i n a d e q u a t e r e s p o n s e m a d e b y
t h e G o v e r n m e n t t o t h e d e m a n d f o r t h e g r a n t o f C o m m i s s i o n s
t o I n d i a n s i n t h e A r m y , a n d i s o f o p i n i o n t h a t s t e p s s h o u l d b e
i m m e d i a t e l y t a k e n s o a s
. t o e n a b l e t h e g r a n t t o I n d i a n s a t a n
e a r l y d a t e o f a t l e a s t 25 p e r c e n t
. o f t h e C o m m i s s i o n s i n t h e
A r m y , t h e p r o p o r t i o n t o b e g r a d u a l l y i n c r e a s e d
.
I t i s c l e a r , t h e r e f o r e , f r o m t h i s i m p o r t a n t p r o n o u n c e -
m e n t t h a t t h e m i n o r a l t e r a t i o n s i n o u r b u r e a u c r a t i c s y s -
t e m , p r o p o s e d b y M r . M o n t a g u a n d L o r d C h e l m s f o r d ,
l e a v i n g t h e C e n t r a l A u t o c r a c y w h o l l y u n t o u c h e d , w i l l n o t
s a t i s f y e v e n a s m a l l m i n o r i t y o f t h e I n d i a n p e o p l e . A n d
t h e r e i s e v e n s t r o n g e r e v i d e n c e t o t h a t e f f e c t . N o t c o n -
t e n t w i t h u n a n i m o u s l y e l e c t i n g B a l G u n g u n d e r T i l a k t o
b e P r e s i d e n t o f t h e I n d i a n N a t i o n a l C o n g r e s s , - a p o s i -
t i o n h e w a s u n a b l e t o a c c e p t o w i n g t o h i s v i s i t t o E u r o p e
- t h e d e l e g a t e s h a v e c a l l e d u p o n t h e B r i t i s h G o v e r n m e n t
t o s e c u r e f o r I n d i a r e p r e s e n t a t i o n a t t h e P e a c e C o n f e r e n c e ,
a n d h a v e c h o s e n t h e s a m e M r . T i l a k a s t h e i r r e p r e s e n t a t i v e .
C a n a n y t h i n g b e m o r e s i g n i f i c a n t ?
M r
. T i l a k i s i m p r i s o n e d
f o r a t e r m o f y e a r s o n a c c o u n t o f h i s p a t r i o t i s m . A l l
I n d i a p r o t e s t s .
M r . T i l a k i s r e l e a s e d a n d i s w e l c o m e d o n
h i s d i s c h a r g e a s a p o p u l a r h e r o
. M r
. T i l a k v o y a g e s t o
L o n d o n a n d i s s e l e c t e d a s t h e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f I n d i a a t
t h e c l o s e o f t h i s g r e a t w a r .
Su r e l y , a l l E n g l i s h m e n a n d E n g l i s h w o m e n m u s t a d m i t
t h a t a c t i o n o f t h i s k i n d , f o l l o w i n g c l o s e u p o n t h e p r o m u l g a -
t i o n o f t h e Re s o l u t i o n s g i v e n a b o v e , c a n n o t b e d e a l t w i t h
a s i f t h e v i e w s o f t h e v a s t p o p u l a t i o n u n d e r o u r c o n t r o l i n
I n d i a w e r e n o t w o r t h y o f , s e r i o u s c o n s i d e r a t i o n .
I n d i a a s k s f o r g e n e r a l N a t i o n a l F r e e d o m . G r e a t B r i t -
a i n h a s w a g e d t h e g r e a t e s t w a r o f a l l t i m e i n o r d e r t o s e -
T h e G r o w i n g U n r e s t 26 1
c u r e t h e s e a d v a n t a g e s f o r p e o p l e - e n t i r e l y o u t s i d e h e r i n -
f l u e n c e . C a n
s h e d e n y s i m i l a r r i g h t s t o H i n d u s t a n ?
I n d i a d e m a n d s t h a t a l l B r i t i s h c i t i z e n s s h o u l d h a v e e q u a l
r i g h t s .
I n d i a c a l l s f o r f i s c a l c o n t r o l , i n o r d e r t o h a v e t h e p o w e r
t o s t a n c h t h e r u i n o u s d r a i n o f e c o n o m i c t r i b u t e t o G r e a t
B r i t a i n .
I n d i a p r o t e s t s a g a i n s t t h e p e r m a n e n t d i s a r m a m e n t o f
h e r p e o p l e .
I n d i a d e c l a r e s t h a t c o n d e m n a t i o n o f a r r e s t e d p e r s o n s
w i t h o u t t r i a l i s t y r a n n y w h i c h o u g h t a t o n c e t o b e a b o l -
i s h e d .
I n d i a , i n s h o r t , c l a i m s t o
b e
t r e a t e d a s a g r e a t a n d c i v i l -
i s e d p o w e r , a n d n o t a s m e r e l y a f i e l d f o r s e l f i s h e x p e r i m e n t
a n d e x p l o i t a t i o n b y E u r o p e a n s .
I n d i a i s a n x i o u s t h a t t h e n e w d e v e l o p m e n t a n d e m a n c i -
p a t i o n s h o u l d b e c a r r i e d o n u n d e r B r i t i s h g u i d a n c e a n d
p e a c e f u l l y .
I h a v e b e e n a s t u d e n t o f a n d w r i t e r u p o n I n d i a n a n d
E a s t e r n a f f a i r s f o r t h e p a s t f o r t y - f i v e y e a r s . So l o n g a g o
a s 18 7 9- 8 o , a f t e r t h e p u b l i c a t i o n o f m y a r t i c l e s i n t h e
N i n e t e e n t h C e n t u r y o n I n d i a , I n d i a n A d m i n i s t r a t i o n a n d
F i n a n c e , t h e C o n s e r v a t i v e G o v e r n m e n t o f t h a t d a y d e t e r -
m i n e d t o i n t r o d u c e f a r - r e a c h i n g r e f o r m s i n t h e d i r e c t i o n
o f H o m e Ru l e f o r I n d i a a n d t h e e x t e n s i o n o f t h e p o l i c y
i n t r o d u c e d b y L o r d Sa l i s b u r y
a n d
L o r d I d d e s l e i g h i n
M y s o r e i n 18 6 8 , t h e r e s t o r a t i o n , t h a t i s , o f I n d i a t o I n d i a n
r u l e . T h e m a t t e r w e n t s o f a r t h a t i n 18 7 9 m y f r i e n d M r .
E d w a r d St a n h o p e , , t h e n U n d e r - Se c r e t a r y o f St a t e f o r I n d i a ,
b r o u g h t p r e l i m i n a r y m e a s u r e s i n t o t h e H o u s e o f C o m m o n s
i n t r o d u c t o r y t o a m u c h l a r g e r s c h e m e , f o r t y y e a r s a g o .
T h e G o v e r n m e n t w a s c h a n g e d , a n d t h e w h o l e s c h e m e w a s
d r o p p e d . T h e A n g l o - I n d i a n b u r e a u c r a c y , o n a c t i v e s e r v i c e
a n d r e t i r e d , w a s t o o s t r o n g
.
T h e i m p o r t a n t m i d d l e - c l a s s
w a s i n f a v o u r o f " I m p e r i a l i s m , " w i t h o u t c o n s i d e r i n g o r
26 2

T h e A w a k e n i n g , o f A s i a
u n d e r s t a n d i n g t h e m i s c h i e f b e i n g w r o u g h t . Su c h r e f o r m s
a s h a v e b e e n a t t e m p t e d s i n c e t h a t t i m e h a v e , u n f o r t u n a t e l y ,
v e r y s l i g h t l y , i f a t a l l , m i t i g a t e d t h e h a r m d o n e b y o u r u n -
. s y m p a t h e t i c s u p r e m a c y . U n t i l l a t e l y a n y s u c h g e n u i n e
c h a n g e o f f r o n t a s I n d i a n s c r y f o r s e e m e d h o p e l e s s w i t h -
o u t a d e s p e r a t e s t r u g g l e i n I n d i a i t s e l f .
N o w , h o w e v e r , t h a t t h e m a s s o f t h e B r i t i s h w a g e - e a r n -
i n g p o p u l a t i o n i s g a i n i n g i t s r i g h t f u l i n f l u e n c e o n p u b l i c
a f f a i r s , a n d t h a t t h e r e a l t r u t h a b o u t I n d i a i s b e g i n n i n g t o
b e a p p r e c i a t e d , i n s p i t e o f
a l l i n t e r e s t e d m i s r e p r e s e n t a t i o n ,
t h e r e i s s o m e p r o s p e c t o f a r a d i c a l t r a n s f o r m a t i o n b e i n g
b r o u g h t a b o u t . T h e r e i s n o g r e a t e r s e r v i c e t h a n t h i s w h i c h
t h e B r i t i s h p e o p l e c a n r e n d e r t o h u m a n i t y . I n d i a n r e f o r m -
e r s , f r o m M r . B a l G u n g u n d e r T i l a k , t h r o u g h a l l t h e g r a d e s
o f H i n d u a n d M o s l e m p o l i t i c a l t h o u g h t , d o w n t o t h e p o o r
r y o t , a r e i m b u e d w i t h t h e c o n v i c t i o n t h a t n o w t h e i r o p p o r -
t u n i t y h a s c o m e t o o b t a i n b e t t e r c o n d i t i o n s f o r t h e m s e l v e s .
P e r s o n a l i n t e r e s t c o m b i n e s w i t h p a t r i o t i c a n d r e l i g i o u s
i d e a l i s m t o c r e a t e a g r e a t c o m b i n e d f o r c e o f t h e I n d i a n
p e o p l e s .
B y m a i n t a i n i n g o u r e x i s t i n g E u r o p e a n G o v e r n m e n t ,
r e g a r d l e s s o f t h e f e e l i n g s a n d o p i n i o n s o f t h e I n d i a n s , w e
s e t t h e m o r a l s e n t i m e n t o f t h e w h o l e c i v i l i s e d w o r l d , a g a i n s t
u s . A l l o v e r t h e U n i t e d St a t e s , f o r e x a m p l e , t h e s o b e r a n d
c o n s t i t u t i o n a l w r i t i n g s , o f s u c h m e n a s P r o f e s s o r Su b i n d r a
B o s e a n d L a j p a t Ra i a r e b e i n g w i d e l y r e a d a n d t h e i r v i e w s
a c c e p t e d . T h e s a m e i s t r u e o f E u r o p e a n c o u n t r i e s a n d
J a p a n
. T h e G e r m a n s , w h o h a v e l e a r n t t o t h e i r r u i n w h a t
i t c o s t s t o o u t r a g e t h e c o n s e n s u s o f c i v i l i s e d o p i n i o n , h a v e
t a k e n c a r e t o p u b l i s h f a r a n d w i d e I n d i a n a n d B r i t i s h c r i t i -
c i s m s o n t h e p r e s e n t s t a t e o f a f f a i r s i n I n d i a . M o r e o v e r ,
i f t h e E n t e n t e P o w e r s r e m o n s t r a t e s e r i o u s l y w i t h J a p a n ,
i n r e f e r e n c e t o h e r p e r s i s t e n t e n d e a v o u r s t o a b s o r b a l a r g e
p o r t i o n o f C h i n a , t h e a n s w e r t o s u c h p r o t e s t s i s o n l y t o o
c o m p l e t e :
" Wh a t i s G r e a t B r i t a i n d o i n g w i t h r e g a r d t o
T h e G r o w i n g U n r e s t

26 3
t h e
h u n d r e d s o f m i l l i o n s o f i n h a b i t a n t s u n d e r h e r y o k e i n
I n d i a ? Wh y h a s s h e a s k e d u s t o p l e d g e o u r s e l v e s t o m a i n -
t a i n b y f o r c e h e r d o m i n a t i o n i n t h a t g r e a t E m p i r e ? Wh e n
t h o s e q u e s t i o n s a r e h o n e s t l y d e a l t w i t h i t w i l l b e t i m e f o r
u s , p e r h a p s ; t o d i s c u s s f u r t h e r '
. o u r p o l i c y o f p e a c e f u l p e n e -
t r a t i o n i n t h e P r o v i n c e s o f C h i n a
. " T h u s , e v e n i n t h e d o -
m a i n o f f o r e i g n a f f a i r s , o u r p r e s e n t a t t i t u d e p u t s u s w h o l l y
i n t h e w r o n g .
F o r t h e s e r e a s o n s I
s t i l l h o p e t h a t s t e p s w i l l b e t a k e n
i m m e d i a t e l y t o a c c e p t t h e c o n s t i t u t i o n a l p r o g r a m m e o f
e m a n c i p a t i o n f o r I n d i a s e t f o r t h b y t h e a c k n o w l e d g e d r e p -
s
r e s e n t a t i v e s o f t h e I n d i a n p e o p l e s .
T h o s e v i e w s a n d a n t i c i p a t i o n m a y n o t
: b e r e a l i s e d .
Wh e n
g r e a t m o v e m e n t s c o m m e n c e t h e y r a r e l y f u l f i l t h e
p r e d i c t i o n s o f t h o s e w h o h a v e f o r e s e e n t h e m a s i n e v i t a b l e
.
B u t B r i t i s h p o l i t i c i a n s a r e b e g i n n i n g t o b e c o n v i n c e d o f
t h e w e a k n e s s o f t h e E n g l i s h h o l d u p o n . I n d i a , a n d t h e y
r e a l i s e t h a t a s e r i o u s u p h e a v a l i s n o t
u n l i k e l y . T h i s i s c o n -
c l u s i v e l y p r o v e d b y t h e t e r m s o f t h e t h r e e i m p o r t a n t
T r e a t i e s w i t h J a p a n , s p o k e n o f a b o v e , f i r s t e n t e r e d u p o n
b y
t h e C o n v e n t i o n o f s p o t u n d e r a T o r y G o v e r n m e n t
i n
E n g l a n d , a n d a f t e r w a r d s c o n f i r m e d b y t h e t w o T r e a t i e s o f
z g o 5 a n d 1911.
B y t h e s e i n s t r u m e n t s G r e a t B r i t a i n g u a r -
a n t e e s t o
t h e w h o l e o f t h e J a p a n e s e E m p i r e h e r a s s i s t a n c e
i n
s a f e g u a r d i n g J a p a n e s e p o s s e s s i o n s
. J a p a n o n h e r s i d e
g u a r a n t e e s t o s a f e g u a r d o n l y t h e E n g l i s h p o s s e s s i o n o f
H i n d u s t a n .
C o u l d a m o r e c o m p r o m i s i n g a n d e v e n d a n g e r o u s a r -
r a n g e m e n t h a v e b e e n a r r i v e d a t ? I t h i n k n o t
. E n g l a n d
v i r t u a l l y a d m i t s t h a t h e r A s i a t i c E m p i r e m a y
b e i m p e r i l l e d ,
a n d r e l i e s u p o n t h e r i s i n g
A s i a t i c P o w e r , J a p a n , t o r e t a i n
i t f o r h e r
. Ye t t h i s p u s i l l a n i m o u s a d m i s s i o n o f t h e i n s u f f i -
c i e n c y o f t h e E m p i r e t o k e e p I n d i a p e r m a n e n t l y u n d e r c o n -
t r o l w a s r e c e i v e d w i t h l o u d c h e e r s b y t h e H o u s e o f L o r d s
w h e n i t s t e r m s w e r e f i r s t c o m m u n i c a t e d t o t h e c o u n t r y i n
26 4

T h e A w a k e n i n g o f A s i a
I 9o 2. Wh a t t h e r e a l v i e w o f t h e m a t t e r i s i n I n d i a i t s e l f ,
a s w e l l a s i n J a p a n a n d C h i n a , t h e w o r l d w i l l
l e a r n s o o n
e n o u g h . T h e c r y o f " A s i a f o r t h e A s i a t i c s " n e v e r r e c e i v e d
a c l e a r e r e x p o s i t i o n o f i t s n e c e s s i t y t h a n w h e n t h e s e t r e a t i e s
w e r e r a t i f i e d w i t h t h e a s s e n t o f a l l E n g l i s h p a r t i e s . Wa k -
i n g I n d i a i s t o b e l u l l e d t o s l e e p b y t h e s o o t h i n g i n f l u e n c e
o f E n g l a n d 's A s i a t i c A l l y , J a p a n - w h o s e c o n f e s s e d a m b i -
t i o n i t i s t o l e a d t h e F a r E a s t a g a i n s t t h a t E u r o p e a n i n -
f l u e n c e w h i c h s h e c o n s i d e r s f a t a l t o A s i a ! Wh e n s h e i s
c a l l e d u p o n t o h e l p w h i t e m e n a g a i n s t h e r A s i a t i c b r e t h r e n ,
w h a t i s J a p a n l i k e l y t o d o ?
T h e s o o n e r t h e t r u e s i t u a t i o n i s u n d e r s t o o d a n d i t s
d i f f i c u l t i e s f a c e d , t h e b e t t e r f o r c i v i l i s a t i o n . I t i s t o o l a t e
t o t e m p o r i s e : i t i s r u i n o u s t o d r i f t . I n d i a a n d J a p a n , i n
d i f f e r e n t m a n n e r s , a n d t o a v e r y d i f f e r e n t d e g r e e , a r e b o t h
b e g i n n i n g t o r e a c t c o n s c i o u s l y a g a i n s t t h e d o m i n a t i o n o f
t h e We s t - o v e r t h e E a s t . H i n d u s t a n , w i t h i t s
315 , 000, 000
o f i n h a b i t a n t s , i s a w a k e , a n d t h e f a t a l p o l i c y o f G r e a t
B r i t a i n h e r s e l f m a y e a s i l y d r i v e t h e s e A r y a n s i n t o t h e
a r m s o f t h e i r h i s t o r i c e n e m i e s , t h e M o n g o l r a c e .
C O N C L U SI O N
T H E
- s u r v e y w h i c h I h a v e a t t e m p t e d i n t h e f o r e g o i n g ' p a g e s
h a s b e e n m a d e , p r i m a r i l y , w i t h t h e h o p e a n d i n t e n t i o n t h a t
i t m a y i n d u c e t h e g r o w i n g d e m o c r a c i e s o f t h e E n g l i s h -
s p e a k i n g p e o p l e s t o l o o k
m o r e c l o s e l y t h a n h i t h e r t o i n t o
t h e i r r e l a t i o n s w i t h t h e A s i a t i c r a c e s . D u r i n g t h e g r e a t e r
p a r t o f t h e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y t h e p e o p l e s
o f E u r o p e a n
r a c e c l a i m e d t o h a v e a m a n i f e s t s u p e r i o r i t y o v e r A s i a t i c s .
B u t h i s t o r y d e m o n s t r a t e s c o n c l u s i v e l y t h a t s u c h s u p e r i o r i t y
d o e s n o t e x i s t . N o r w a s t h i s t h e a t t i t u d e o f
E u r o p e a n
t r a v e l l e r s a n d a d v e n t u r e r s i n t h e E a s t i n t h e f i r s t i n s t a n c e
.
M o s t o f t h e s e m e n , p e r s o n s o f a b i l i t y , k n o w l e d g e a n d r e -
p u t e i n t h e i r o w n c o u n t r i e s , w e r e a m a z e d a t t h e c i v i l i s a -
t i o n , w e a l t h a n d m a g n i f i c e n c e '
o f t h e C o u r t s t h e y v i s i t e d
a n d t h e g e n e r a l w e l l - b e i n g o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n s u n d e r - n a t i v e -
r u l e , w h i c h , a l s o , t h e y a d m i r e d . F o r m a n y a l o n g
d a y
d e f e r e n c e
r a t h e r t h a n a r r o g a n c e w a s t h e t o n e o f t h e w h i t e
m e n t o w a r d s
t h e E m p e r o r s
a n d K i n g s , M a h a r a j a h s a n d
N a w a b s , V i c e r o y s a n d M a n d a r i n s w h o m t h e y e n c o u n t e r e d .
T h e h i g h q u a l i t i e s a n d
g r e a t a t t a i n m e n t s o f t h e s e p o t e n -
t a t e s a n d t h e i r m i n i s t e r s t h e n o b t a i n e d d u e c o n s i d e r a t i o n ,
T h e a r t s a n d s c i e n c e s , p h i l o s o p h y a n d j u r i s p r u d e n c e o f
t h e s e r e m o t e s o c i e t i e s w e r e a p p r e c i a t e d a n d r e s p e c t e d
. T h e
i n f i n i t e o b l i g a t i o n s o f t h e We s t t o t h e E a s t w e r e s t i l l r e c o g -
n i s e d
: t h e c a p a c i t y o f A s i a , i n w a r a s i n p e a c e ,
w a s n o t f o r -
g o t t e n
.
T h e n t h e E a s t e r n w o r l d l a y d o r m a n t f o r , a t i m e
. E u -
r o p e a d v a n c e d r a p i d l y
i n m a t e r i a l d e v e l o p m e n t a n d s c i e n -
t i f i c k n o w l e d g e
a n d a c q u i r e m e n t , w h i l e A s i a c e a s e d t o
d i s c o v e r , o r i n v e n t , o r e v e n
t o a d o p t a n d a b s o r b . I m p r o v e d
26 5
26 6

T h e A w a k e n i n g o f A s i a
w e a p o n s
; a n d t h e n e w g r e a t m a c h i n e i n d u s t r y g a v e E u r o -
p e a n s t h e t e m p o r a r y a d v a n t a g e i n w a r a n d i n t r a d e
. B u t
h o w
l o n g w i l l t h i s l a s t ? Wh a t s e c u r i t y h a v e w e o f t h e
p e r m a n e n c e o f t h i s s u p e r f i c i a l p r e d o m i n a n c e ?
I t i s w e l l t o r e c a l l t h a t , w i t h i n c o m p a r a t i v e l y r e c e n t
t i m e s , w a v e a f t e r w a v e o f c o n q u e r i n g A s i a t i c a r m i e s b r o k e
i n u p o n E u r o p e
; a n d b a r b a r i a n a s m o s t o f t h e s e w a r l i k e
h o r d e s w e r e , g r e a t g e n e r a l s , g r e a t o r g a n i s e r s , g r e a t a d -
m i n i s t r a t o r s r o s e u p f r o m a m o n g t h e m , b o t h i n We s t a n d
E a s t , w h o s e '
e q u a l s c o u l d n o t b e f o u n d i n t h e E u r o p e o f
t h e i r d a y . T h e A r a b s o f Sp a i n ,
t h e v a r i o u s M o s l e m r u l e r s
o f B a g h d a d , E g y p t a n d A d r i a n o p l e l e f t , d i r e c t l y o r i n d i -
r e c t l y , t h e i r m a r k o n t h e c i v i l i s a t i o n o f t h e We s t . T h e M o n -
g o l s o f D e l h i , t h e B a h m a n y d y n a s t y o f t h e D e c c a n , K u b l a i
K h a n i n C h i n a , a n d t h e r u l e r s o f t h e K h a n a t e s o f C e n t r a l
A s i a s h o w e d s p l e n d i d c a p a c i t y , i n a r t s a s i n a r m s
. T h e s e
m e n a n d o t h e r s b u i l t u p E m p i r e s w h i c h t h e
w h i t e r a c e s
s a w a n d h e a r d o f d i m l y f r o m a f a r . B u t w h e t h e r a s d i s -
t a n t r u l e r s o r a s t e r r i b l y n e a r i n v a d e r s , t h e s e A s i a n s , w e r e
v e r y f o r m i d a b l e f o e s , a n d i n t h e c h a n g i n g c o u r s e o f t i m e
w e m a y y e t h a v e g o o d c a u s e t o f e a r A s i a n s a g a i n .
We n o w k n o w t o o u r c o s t w h a t a w a r t o t h e d e a t h b e -
.
t w e e n n a t i o n s a n d r a c e s , p r o v i d e d w i t h e q u a l m e a n s o f
d e s t r u c t i o n , r e a l l y i s .
I n t h e l o n g r u n , s h o u l d n o e x c e p -
t i o n a l m i l i t a r y g e n i u s m a n i f e s t h i m s e l f , n o r a n y i n c a l c u l a -
b l e s p i r i t
a n i m a t e o n e o f t h e c o m b a t a n t s , t h e n u m b e r o f
t h e t r a i n e d s o l d i e r s o n e i t h e r s i d e d e t e r m i n e s w h o s h a l l b e
t h e v i c t o r
. I n n u m b e r s t h e E a s t h a s a n e n o r m o u s a d v a n -
t a g e o v e r t h e We s t
. A n d t h e r e i s n o r e a s o n w h y a r e a l l y
g r e a t a d m i r a l , o r g e n e r a l , s h o u l d n o t a p p e a r i n t h e c o u n -
t r i e s w h i c h b o r d e r u p o n t h e P a c i f i c O c e a n , a s w e l l a s i n
t h o s e w h o s e o u t l e t i s t h e A t l a n t i c .
Wh i l e a l l t h e P o w e r s o f E u r o p e w e r e e n g a g e d
i n
a
d e s p e r a t e w a r o f r e s i s t a n c e t o T e u t o n i c a g g r e s s i o n , a n d
w e w e r e l o o k i n g o n , p r a c t i c a l l y h e l p l e s s , a t t h e i n t e r n e c i n e
C o n c l u s i o n 26 7
b u t c h e r y o f t h e w h i t e r a c e , t h e r e h a s - b e e n a s t e a d y r e v i v a l
a m o n g t h e v a s t p o p u l a t i o n s w h i c h i n h a b i t t h e t e r r i t o r i e s
e x t e n d i n g f r o m t h e P e r s i a n G u l f
t o
t h e So o l o o Se a , a n d
f r o m t h e A m o o r Ri v e r t o t h e St r a i t s o f Si n g a p o r e . N e v e r -
t h e l e s s , w e s t i l l t a l k w i t h c o n f i d e n c e o f c a p t u r i n g m o r e o f
A s i a t i c t r a d e a n d i n f l u e n c i n g f o r a l l t i m e A s i a t i c d e v e l o p -
m e n t .
N o t l o n g a g o , E u r o p e a n n a t i o n s w e r e c a l m l y d i s c u s s i n g ,
a n d d e c i d i n g a m o n g t h e m s e l v e s h o w m u c h m o r e o f s l e e p y
A s i a t h e y s h o u l d a p p r o p r i a t e , f o r t h e b e n e f i t , n o d o u b t ,
o f t h e p e o p l e s b r o u g h t u n d e r t h i s f o r e i g n r u l e . B u t n o w
o u r s e n s e o f c o n s c i o u s s u p e r i o r i t y i s b e i n g s h a k e n , a n d
w h e n w e f i n d t h e i n s c r u t a b l e A s i a t i c l e a r n i n g t o m e e t u s
s u c c e s s f u l l y w i t h o u r o w n w e a p o n s , w e d r a w b a c k - a l i t t l e .
We
e v e n b e g i n t o s e e t h a t h e m a y h a v e g o o d g r o u n d s f o r
r e g a r d i n g h i s w h i t e r i v a l s a s t h e u n c u l t u r e d a n d d i s c o u r -
t e o u s
b a r b a r i a n s t h a t , i n m a n y r e s p e c t s , w e r e a l l y a r e .
C o m p a r e d w i t h t h e m a d n e s s o f E u r o p e , a l s o , t h e c o m -
p a r a t i v e q u i e t u d e o f A s i a h a s b e e n s a n i t y i t s e l f . Ye t t h i s
m a y n o t e n d u r e . Wi t h a l l t h e f a c t s b e f o r e u s , a n d w i t h
p r e j u d i c e t h r o w n a s i d e , w e a r e s t i l l u n a b l e t o l a y b a r e t h e
c a u s e s o f t h e g i g a n t i c A s i a n m o v e m e n t s o f t h e p a s t . T h e y
w e r e c e r t a i n l y n o t a l l e c o n o m i c i n t h e i r o r i g i n , u n l e s s w e
s t r e t c h t h e b o u n d a r i e s o f t h e o r y s o f a r a s t o i n c l u d e t h e
m a s s a c r e o f w h o l e p o p u l a t i o n s a n d t h e d e s t r u c t i o n o f t h e i r
w e a l t h w i t h i n t h e l i m i t s o f t h e i n v a d e r 's d e s i r e f o r m a t e r i a l
g a i n . A n d ; w h e t h e r t h e s e m o v e m e n t s a r o s e f r o m m a t e r i a l
o r e m o t i o n a l c a u s e s , t h e y h a v e b e e n b e f o r e , a n d t h e y m a y
o c c u r a g a i n . F o r e c a s t h e r e i s i m p o s s i b l e . A n e w M o -
h a m m e d i s q u i t e a s l i k e l y t o m a k e h i s a p p e a r a n c e a s a n e w
B u d d h a , a r e b o r n C o n f u c i u s , o r a m o d e r n C h r i s t
.
A s i a o w e s t o E u r o p e l i t t l e o r n o t h i n g . A t m o s t , w h i t e
m e n a r e t e a c h i n g h e r i m p r o v e d m e t h o d s o f s l a u g h t e r , a n d
p r o v i d i n g h e r w i t h m o r e p e r f e c t a p p l i a n c e s f o r c r e a t i n g
a n d d i s t r i b u t i n g i n c r e a s e d w e a l t h f o r t h e f e w . A s a g a i n s t
26 8

T h e A w a k e n i n g o f A s i a
t h e s e v e r y d o u b t f u l s e r v i c e s , t h e r e c o r d o f t h e w h i t e m a n 's
a t r o c i t i e s i s u g l y i n d e e d . T r a d e h a s b e e n o p e n e d u p w i t h
u n w i l l i n g p e o p l e s , i n a l m o s t e v e r y i n s t a n c e , b y b l o o d s h e d
o r t h r e a t o f b l o o d s h e d . T h e n c e f o r w a r d , i t w a s s p r e a d b y
a l l
. t h e h o r r o r s o f w a r a n d t h e p e r m a n e n t e v i l s o f u n j u s t
a n n e x a t i o n .
T h e t r a f f i c i t s e l f w a s o f t e n b y n o m e a n s a d -
v a n t a g e o u s t o t h e c o u n t r y u p o n w h i c h i t w a s t h r u s t
. Wh e r e
t h e p o i s o n i n g o f m i l l i o n s o f i n d u s t r i o u s
. a n d s i m p l e C h i n e s e
f o l k w a s p r o f i t a b l e t o t h e f o r e i g n t r a d e r s a n d m e r c h a n t s ,
t h e r e p o i s o n w a s f o r c e d u p o n t h e s e p e a c e f u l p e o p l e a t t h e
c a n n o n 's m o u t h
. I n c a s e s w h e r e e m i g r a t i o n f o r t h e c o o l i e s
m e a n t c e r t a i n d e a t h w i t h i n a s h o r t p e r i o d f o r t h e u n f o r t u -
n a t e s w h o w e r e k i d n a p p e d a n d s h i p p e d o f f , a l l t h e r e m o n -
s t r a n c e s o f t h e G o v e r n m e n t o f C h i n a , w h o s e s u b j e c t s w e r e
t h u s o u t r a g e d , f a i l e d t o o b t a i n r e d r e s s .
J a p a n h e r s e l f , w h o s e l e a d e r s h i p o f A s i a , a f i e l d a n d
a f l o a t , m a y y e t , u n l e s s w e a r e v e r y c a r e f u l , t e a c h w h i t e
m e n a l e s s o n a l l o v e r t h e w o r l d , w a s d r i v e n i n t o c l o s e
c o n t a c t w i t h E u r o p e a n d A m e r i c a a g a i n s t h e r w i l l , f i r s t ,
b y C o m m o d o r e P e r r y 's d e x t e r o u s d i p l o m a c y , s u p p o r t e d b y
t h e p o w e r o f t h e U n i t e d St a t e s , a n d t h e n b y t h e m u c h l e s s
j u s t i f i a b l e m e a s u r e s o f o t h e r w h i t e n a t i o n s
. J a p a n w a s ,
i n f a c t , c o m p e l l e d t o e n t e r u p o n f o r e i g n c o m m e r c e w i t h
E u r o p e a n s b y t h e f a m i l i a r p r o c e s s o f b o m b a r d m e n t a n d
b u t c h e r y , w h i c h t h e i r i m m e n s e l y s u p e r i o r w e a p o n s o f o f -
f e n c e r e n d e r e d m e r e l y a p a s s i n g a m u s e m e n t f o r t h e c i v i l -
i s e d a g g r e s s o r s . T h a t w a s b u t y e s t e r d a y , I t w o u l d b e a
d e s p e r a t e l y d a n g e r o u s e x p e r i m e n t t o r e p e a t t o - d a y . We l l
f o r u s i f i t i s f o r g o t t e n t o - m o r r o w . A s i a r a i d e d a n d
s c o u r g e d E u r o p e f o r m o r e t h a n a t h o u s a n d y e a r s . '
N o w
f o r f i v e h u n d r e d y e a r s t h e c o u n t e r - a t t a c k o f E u r o p e u p o n
A s i a h a s b e e n g o i n g s t e a d i l y o n , a n d i t m a y b e t h a t t h e
l a n d o f l o n g m e m o r i e s w i l l c h e r i s h s o m e d e s i r e t o a v e n g e
t h i s p e r i o d o f w r o n g a n d r a p i n e i n t u r n .
T h e s e e d o f h a t r e d
h a s a l r e a d y b e e n b u t t o o
w e l l
s o w n .
C o n c l u s i o n

26 9
T h e c o n t i n e n t w h i c h h a s l o n g r e g a r d e d i t s e l f '
a s t h e
h o m e o f t h e p r o g r e s s i v e p e o p l e s a n d t h e h o p e o f t h e e n t i r e
p l a n e t i s b e g i n n i n g t o f o r f e i t i t s a s s u m e d s u p r e m a c y
. T h e
w a r l i k e a n d i n d u s t r i a l p o t e n t i a l i t i e s o f t h e n e a r f u t u r e a r e
p a s s i n g s l o w l y b u t s u r e l y t o t h e F a r E a s t
.
H o w e v e r t h e
r e c e n t s t u p e n d o u s w a r m a y f i n a l l y e n d , t h e w h o l e o f e d u
c a t e d A s i a c a n r e a d i t s m e a n i n g w r i t t e n a c r o s s t h e m a p o f
t h e w o r l d .
I f a l l t h o s e p o r t i o n s o f t h e g l o b e w h i c h a r e
i n h a b i t e d o r d o m i n a t e d b y t h e w h i t e r a c e s a r e s e r i o u s l y
t a k i n g a c c o u n t a t t h e p r e s e n t m o m e n t o f t h e i r s t r e n g t h ,
t h e i r p o p u l a t i o n , a n d t h e i r p o s s i b i l i t i e s f o r t h e i n c r e a s e o f
t h e i r w e a l t h o n a l a r g e r s c a l e t h a n e v e r b e f o r e , w e m a y
b e s u r e t h e a b l e s t m e n i n A s i a a r e n o t b l i n d t o w h a t c a n b e
a c h i e v e d i n t h e i r o w n c o u n t r i e s
- i n p e a c e a n d i n w a r .
I t
i s t r u e t h a t t h e d i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n t h e A s i a t i c p e o p l e s a r e
a s a c u t e a s a n y w h i c h e x i s t
i n E u r o p e . B u t a g a i n s t t h e
w h i t e m a n t h e y a r e a p r a c t i c a l l y a l l a t o n e .
Ye t t h e w h i t e m a n s t i l l h o l d s c o n t r o l o v e r n e a r l y h a l f
o f A s i a a n d i t s v a s t p o p u l a t i o n
. A s i a c o m p r i s e s , i n c l u d i n g
i t s i s l a n d s , l i t t l e l e s s t h a n i , o o o , o o o , o o o o f t h e h u m a n r a c e .
E n g l a n d , F r a n c e , Ru s s i a , H o l l a n d a n d t h e U n i t e d St a t e s
a r e
a l l d e e p l y c o n c e r n e d i n t h e f u t u r e o f t h i s m a s s o f
p e o -
p l e ,
i n v i e w o f t h e s c o p e o f t e r r i t o r y a n d p o p u l a t i o n t h e y
c o n t r o l . A l l w i l l b e g r e a t l y a f f e c t e d b y t h e g e n e r a l p o l i t i c a l ,
e c o n o m i c a n d s o c i a l m o v e m e n t o f J a p a n , C h i n a a n d I n d i a
.
I n a w o r d , t h e p o s i t i o n o f G r e a t B r i t a i n f o r e m o s t , a n d o f
t h e o t h e r P o w e r s
i n t h e i r d e g r e e , i s n o w b e i n g s t e a d i l y
u n d e r m i n e d .
T h e d e t e r m i n e d e f f o r t t o s e c u r e A s i a f o r
t h e A s i a t i c s , o n c e b e g u n a s e a r n e s t l y i n a c t i o n a s i t i s n o w
b e i n g s e r i o u s l y c o n s i d e r e d i n t h o u g h t , m i g h t s p r e a d w i t h
a r a p i d i t y w h i c h w o u l d p a r a l y s e a l l a t t e m p t s a t r e c o n q u e s t ,
i f , i n d e e d , s u c h a t t e m p t s c o u l d e v e r b e e f f e c t i v e l y m a d e . T h e
We s t d e p r i v e d o f B r i t i s h I n d i a , t h e A s i a t i c P r o v i n c e s o f
Ru s s i a , F r e n c h T o n q u i n a n d C o c h i n C h i n a , D u t c h J a v a ,
Su m a t r a a n d t h e C e l e b e s , t h e P h i l i p p i n e s u n d e r t h e U n i t e d
27 0

T h e A w a k e n i n g o f A s i a
St a t e s , w o u l d b e a v e r y d i f f e r e n t E u r o p e f r o m t h a t t o w h i c h
w e h a v e b e e n a c c u s t o m e d .
T h a t i s a p o s s i b i l i t y o f w h i c h t h e We s t , w i t h f o r c e s
n o w w e a k e n e d a n d d e p l e t e d t o a w h o l l y u n p r e c e d e n t e d e x -
t e n t , m u s t s o o n t a k e a c c o u n t . U n c o n s c i o u s l y , b u t n o n e t h e
l e s s c e r t a i n l y , i t i s m a k i n g w a y . Wh e r e f i f t y , o r e v e n
t w e n t y y e a r s a g o , t h e c o n t i n u o u s e x p a n s i o n o f We s t e r n
d o m i n a t i o n o v e r t h e E a s t w a s t a k e n f o r g r a n t e d , n o w a n
u n e a s y b u t n o t y e t o p e n l y a d m i t t e d f e e l i n g i s g r o w i n g t h a t
t h e t i d e h a s t u r n e d , a n d t h a t e r e l o n g t h e a r e a o f E u r o p e a n
i n f l u e n c e i n t h e E a s t w i l l b e c o n s i d e r a b l y r e d u c e d . T h e
p a r t i t i o n o f C h i n a a m o n g t h e " G r e a t P o w e r s " i s n o t t o - d a y
w i t h i n t h e s p h e r e o f p r a c t i c a l p o l i t i c s , a n d J a p a n p u r s u e s
h e r p o l i c y i n r e s p e c t t o t h a t m a g n i f i c e n t E m p i r e w i t h l i t t l e
r e g a r d t o t h e s u s c e p t i b i l i t i e s o f t h e w h i t e m a n a n d h i s
b u r d e n
. Wh e t h e r t h e a p p e a l o f C h i n a h e r s e l f t o t h e Wh i t e
P o w e r s , t h a t t h e y s h o u l d a i d h e r t o r e s i s t t h e u n w a r r a n t e d
d e m a n d s o f J a p a n , w i l l o b t a i n a f a v o u r a b l e r e c e p t i o n r e -
m a i n s t o b e s e e n . B u t w h i l e " T h e L e a g u e o f N a t i o n s i s
b e i n g g e n e r a l l y d i s c u s s e d i t i s c e r t a i n t h a t , i n t h e o p i n i o n
o f t h e C h i n e s e , t h e n a t i o n a l i n d e p e n d e n c e o f C h i n a i s s e r i -
o u s l y m e n a c e d i f t h e m u c h - c h e r i s h e d " O p e n D o o r " i s b e i n g
c a r e f u l l y , t h o u g h s i l e n t l y , c l o s e d .
A l l t h i s i s m o r e r e m a r k a b l e s i n c e t h e O t t o m a n T u r k s ,
f o r c e n t u r i e s t h e a d v a n c e g u a r d o f A s i a i n E u r o p e , a r e a t
l a s t b e i n g d r i v e n f r o m t h e i r h e r e d i t a r y c a m p i n g - g r o u n d
.
E v e n t h e i r m a s t e r y o v e r A s i a M i n o r , i r r e s p e c t i v e o f t h e
b a f f l e d G e r m a n p r o g r a m m e o f a p p r o p r i a t i o n , i s o b v i o u s l y
t h r e a t e n e d b y G r e a t B r i t a i n a n d F r a n c e .
Wh a t , u n d e r
o t h e r c i r c u m s t a n c e s , w o u l d u n d o u b t e d l y b e c o n s i d e r e d a d d i -
t i o n a l e v i d e n c e o f t h e g r o w i n g p r e d o m i n a n c e o f E u r o p e ,
s e e m s t o - d a y s c a r c e l y a m a k e w e i g h t a g a i n s t t h e p r o b a b l e
i n s e c u r i t y o f t h e w h i t e r a c e i n t h e F a r E a s t . T h e p r a c t i c a l
o c c u p a t i o n o f P e r s i a n o w p r o c e e d i n g a t t r a c t s l i t t l e a t t e n -
t i o n w h e n t h e p e r m a n e n c e o f B r i t i s h r u l e i n I n d i a i s q u e s -
C o n c l u s i o n

27 1
t i o n e d , n o t s o m u c h f r o m w i t h o u t a s f r o m w i t h i n . Ru s s i a
i s i n c a p a b l e o f a n y w a r l i k e p o l i c y a n d w i l l p r o b a b l y b e s o
f o r a l o n g t i m e t o c o m e . T h e F r e n c h , t o o , w i l l n o t l o n g b e
a b l e t o r e t a i n u n d i s p u t e d p o s s e s s i o n o f t h e t e r r i t o r i e s t h e y ,
h a v e s e i z e d f r o m C h i n a . T h e d i f f i c u l t i e s t o b e f a c e d a t
h o m e , w i t h
a d e c r e a s i n g p o p u l a t i o n , i n c r e a s i n g f i n a n c i a l
b u r d e n s a n d t h e
p r o b a b l e i n a b i l i t y o f Ru s s i a
t o
p a y i n t e r e s t
o n h e r e n o r m o u s d e b t , s o
l a r g e l y
i n F r e n c h h a n d s , w i l l b e
s u c h t h a t w i t h d r a w a l f r o m h e r F a r E a s t e r n p o s s e s s i o n s c a n
s c a r c e l y f a i l t o b e a m a t t e r o f i m p e r a t i v e n e c e s s i t y . T h e
r e t e n t i o n
o f t h e D u t c h A r c h i p e l a g o , w e r e H o l l a n d 's o w n e r -
s h i p e v e r d i r e c t l y c h a l l e n g e d , w o u l d b e i m p o s s i b l e .
C e r -
t a i n l y , w i t h o u t
a
p o w e r f u l E u r o p e a n a l l y , o r a c t i v e s u p p o r t
f r o m u n r e a d y - C h i n a , A m e r i c a w o u l d h a v e t o s t r a i n a l l h e r
g r e a t w e a l t h , e x t r a o r d i n a r y e n e r g y
a n d e n o r m o u s i n d u s t r i a l
r e s o u r c e s , i n o r d e r t o c o n t i n u e t o h o l d w h a t i s r e a l l y n o
u s e t o h e r i n
t h e P h i l i p p i n e s .
A s i a , i n s h o r t , i s a l r e a d y f a r f r o m b e i n g t h e A s i a w h i c h
w a s f a i r g a m e f o r a d v e n t u r o u s E u r o p e a n e x p e r i m e n t s .
N e w c o n d i t i o n s m u s t b e d e a l t w i t h b y a
n e w p o l i c y .
A n d w h o
s h a l l s a y t h a t t h e f r a n k a b a n d o n m e n t o f t h e
f a l l a c i o u s p o l i t y o f I m p e r i a l i s m w i l l n o t g r e a t l y b e n e f i t t h e
c o u n t r i e s w h i c h b o l d l y
e n t e r u p o n t h i s h o n o u r a b l e c o u r s e ?
T h e p o s s e s s i o n o f I n d i a
h a s b e e n a c u r s e t o E n g l a n d , a l i k e
i n h e r d o m e s t i c a n d f o r e i g n a f f a i r s . D e m o c r a c y a t h o m e
h a s g r e a t l y s u f f e r e d b y t h e m a i n t e n a n c e o f d e s p o t i s m
a b r o a d
. T h e t w o c a n n e v e r b e h a r m o n i s e d , n o r k e p t s i m u l -
t a n e o u s l y i n b e i n g , w i t h o u t d a n g e r t o t h e p o p u l a r c a u s e
.
T h e f e a r o f w h a t m i g h t h a p p e n t o t h e E n g l i s h i n I n d i a
h a s f r e q u e n t l y p e r v e r t e d t h e a c t i o n o f B r i t i s h p o l i c y
. I n
e c o n o m i c s a l s o t h e t r i b u t e f r o m H i n d u s t a n , w h i c h m u s t b e
p a i d , n o m a t t e r a t
w h a t p r i c e , i n s a l e a b l e c o m m o d i t i e s , h a s
d o n e m i s c h i e f t o t h e p r o d u c e r s o f
G r e a t B r i t a i n a s t o t h e
r y o t s
o f I n d i a .
So w i t h F r a n c e a n d h e r A s i a t i c p o s s e s s i o n s
. Wh a t
27 2

T h e A w a k e n i n g o f A s i a
h a v e t h e F r e n c h p e a s a n t s a n d b o u r g e o i s i e t o g a i n , f r o m
a n y p o i n t o f v i e w , b y r e t a i n i n g p r o v i n c e s t h a t m u s t b e
d e f e n d e d a t t h e c o s t o f t h e i r b l o o d a n d t r e a s u r e , a n d m u s t
i n t r o d u c e a d a n g e r o u s m i l i t a r y s e n t i m e n t i n t o t h e m a n -
a g e m e n t o f t h e i r a f f a i r s ?
H a p p i l y t h e s a m e v i e w s - a s t o t h e m a d n e s s o f m o d e r n
w a r f a r e w h i c h a r e n o w b e i n g f o r c e d u p o n t h e r e s t o f
t h e w o r l d a r e a l s o m a k i n g w a y w i t h A s i a t i c s t a t e s m e n .
T h e y t o o s e e t h a t f r i e n d l y c o - o p e r a t i o n f o r c o m m o n a d -
v a n t a g e m i g h t b e f a r m o r e a d v a n t a g e o u s t o a l l t h a n r i v a l r y
f o r p o w e r o r c o m p e t i t i o n f o r g a i n . F r e e d o m o f n a t i o n a l i -
t i e s , e q u a l i t y o f r i g h t s , r e s p e c t f o r t r e a t i e s a n d c o n v e n t i o n s ,
i n t e r n a t i o n a l a r r a n g e m e n t s f o r s e c u r i n g p e r m a n e n t p e a c e
a r e a s i m p o r t a n t f o r A s i a a s f o r a n y o t h e r c o n t i n e n t . B u t
t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r a d o p t i n g t h e m , s h o u l d t h e J a p a n e s e
d e m o c r a t i c p a r t y p r e v a i l , a n d I n d i a a n d C h i n a p r e s s t h e i r
d e m a n d s w i t h o u t v i o l e n c e , r e s t s e n t i r e l y w i t h E u r o p e . T h e
A s i a t i c n a t i o n s a r e s o f a r t h r e a t e n i n g n o l e g i t i m a t e E u r o -
p e a n i n t e r e s t : t h e y a s k , o n l y t h a t t h e p r i n c i p l e s f o r w h i c h
t h e A l l i e s j u s t l y c l a i m t h e y f o u g h t G e r m a n y s h o u l d b e a p -
p l i e d i n t h e m o s t p o p u l o u s r e g i o n s o f t h e w o r l d .
B u t i t i s u s e l e s s t o d i s g u i s e f r o m o u r s e l v e s t h a t t h i s
c o n c e s s i o n w o u l d i n v o l v e o f i t s e l f a c o m p l e t e r e v o l u t i o n i n
t h e E a s t
. F o r s u c h p o l i c y h o n e s t l y a p p l i e d w o u l d m e a n
i
. T h e e m a n c i p a t i o n o f I n d i a f r o m f o r e i g n r u l e b y
p e a c e f u l a g r e e m e n t s w i t h i t s n u m e r o u s p e o p l e s .
2. T h e c e s s a t i o n o f a t t e m p t s t o f o r c e f o r e i g n c a p i t a l i s m
a n d f o r e i g n t r a d e u p o n A s i a t i c c o u n t r i e s .
3. T h e r e c o g n i t i o n t h a t J a p a n e s e a n d C h i n e s e a r e e n -
t i t l e d , i n c o u n t r i e s a n d c o l o n i e s i n h a b i t e d o r c o n t r o l l e d b y
E u r o p e a n s , t o r i g h t s e q u a l w i t h t h o s e o f E u r o p e a n s i n
C h i n a a n d J a p a n .
4
. T h e g r a n t i n g o f s i m i l a r r i g h t s t o I n d i a n s o n t h e s a m e
b a s i s .
C o n c l u s i o n

27 3
5
. T h e g e n e r a l a c c e p t a n c e b y E u r o p e a n s o f t h e p r i n -
c i p l e o f " A s i a f o r t h e A s i a t i c s " a s a
r i g h t f u l c l a i m .
B u t n o s t u d e n t a n d n o s t a t e s m a n w o u l d c o n t e n d t h a t
s u c h a w i d e
p o l i c y o f j u s t i c e c a n b e s u d d e n l y r e a l i s e d . Ye t ,
i f , i n t h e n e a r f u t u r e , p u b l i c o p i n i o n i n E u r o p e a n d A m e r i c a
w e r e t o e n d o r s e s u c h a p r o g r a m m e , a n d t h e n a t i o n s i n t e r -
e s t e d w o u l d t a k e t h e f i r s t s t e p s t o w a r d s i t s r e a l i s a t i o n , m u c h
o f t h e a n t a g o n i s m w h i c h i s a l r e a d y m a n i f e s t i n g i t s e l f i n
A s i a m i g h t b e r e m o v e d . P a s t i n j u r i e s c a n n o t n o w b e r e m -
e d i e d . T h e m o s t t o h o p e f o r i s t h a t , i n t h e A s i a t i c m i n d ,
t h e y m a y b e h e l d t o b a l a n c e t h o s e E a s t e r n a t t a c k s u p o n t h e
We s t w h i c h b e l o n g t o a p a s t m o r e r e m o t e .
We a r e t u r n i n g o v e r a n e w p a g e i n t h e h i s t o r y o f t h e
h u m a n r a c e . Wh a t w i l l b e w r i t t e n u p o n i t d e p e n d s o n t h e
m e n a n d w o m e n o f t h e r i s i n g g e n e r a t i o n . I f , i n i n t e r n a -
t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s , t h e o l d r a c e a n d c o l o u r p r e j u d i c e s a r e
m a i n t a i n e d , i f t r a d e a n d c o m m e r c e , i n t e r e s t a n d p r o f i t
c o n t i n u e t o b e t h e p r i n c i p a l o b j e c t s o f o u r s t a t e s m a n s h i p ,
t h e n t r o u b l e s m a y e a s i l y e n s u e b e s i d e w h i c h e v e n t h e
Wo r l d Wa r m a y t a k e s e c o n d p l a c e . O n t h e o t h e r h a n d ,
s h o u l d w i d e r v i e w s a n d n o b l e r a s p i r a t i o n s a n i m a t e b o t h
b r a n c h e s o f c i v i l i s e d m a n k i n d , t h e n i n d e e d a m a g n i f i c e n t
v i s t a o f c o m m o n a c h i e v e m e n t w i l l o p e n o u t b e f o r e o u r i m -
m e d i a t e d e s c e n d a n t s . T h e g e n i u s o f t h e E a s t a n d t h e g e n i u s
o f t h e We s t , c o m b i n e d i n o n e n o b l e e f f o r t , m a y s o l v e p e a c e -
f u l l y
a n d
b e n e f i c e n t l y , f o r i n n u m e r a b l e c e n t u r i e s , t h e c o m -
p l i c a t e d e c o n o m i c a n d s o c i a l p r o b l e m s w h i c h n o w f a c e u s ,
t o t h e p e r m a n e n t a d v a n t a g e a n d e n j o y m e n t o f a l l .
I N D E X
A B D 00RA a M A N , E m R, d e f e a t o f , i i B A L K A N P RO V I N C E S, A s i a t i c i n v a -
A b e , P r o f e s s o r , 16 9- 17 1
A g a d i r c r i s i s , t h e , 145
A g r i c u l t u r e i n J a p a n , 16 1, 16 2
A k b a r , E m p e r o r ,
203
A l b u q u e r q u e t h e G r e a t , i 9
A l e x a n d e r o f M a c e d o n , 3
A l e x a n d e r V I . , P o p e , i g
A l g i e r s , T u r k i s h p i r a t e s a t , 15
A l m e i d a s e i z e s G o a , 1g
A m e r i c a , a n d e d u c a t i o n o f J a p a n -
e s e c h i l d r e n , 18 3
a n d J a p a n , 147
o n i s m a g a i n s t J a p a n e s e i n ,
i e t s e q
. , 18 3
C o n s u l a t e i n J a p a n ,
121
i n t e r v e n e s i n Ru s s o - J a p a n e s e
w a r , 140
s e n d s e n v o y t o J a p a n , 119i 120
t h e " y e l l o w p e r i l " i n , 17 5
A m s t e r d a m , I n t e r n a t i o n a l So c i a l -
i s t C o n g r e s s a t : a d r a m a t i c
i n c i d e n t , 18 4
A n c e s t o r w o r s h i p , 32, 37 , 118
A n g l o - J a p a n e s e A l l i a n c e : T r e a -
t i e s , 115 ,
139, 143, 15 3, 26 4
A o k i , C o u n t , 130
A r a b i n v a s i o n o f E u r o p e , % i o , 11
A r r o w s e i z e d b y C h i n e s e ,
s i A r y a n H i n d o o s , -
l e g i s l a t i o n
a g a i n s t , , 191
A s i a , b o r d e r - l i n e o f ,
,l
E u r o p e a n i n v a s i o n s o f , 3
e t s e q
.
m i l i t a r y i n f l u e n c e o f , o n E u r o p e ,
2
o p i u m t r a f f i c i n , 43
o f s e q .
A s i a M i n o r , c o n q u e s t o f , i x
A s i a t i c e m i g r a t i o n , 17 4 e t s e q .
o r i g i n o f E u r o p e a n r a c e s , I
A t t i l a a n d t h e H u n i n v a s i o n , A .
A u s t r a l i a , t h e 'y e l l o w p e r i l " . i n ,
17 5 , 18 0
A u s t r i a , r e v o l u t i o n i n , 6 7
27 5
s i o n o f , 12
B a r o d a , G a i k w a r o f , 209, 230
B a t u , g e n e r a l s h i p o f , 13
B e a c o n s f i e l d , L o r d , 222
B e l l , M a j o r E v a n s , 222
B e n g a l , t r o u b l e s i n , 231, 232 e t s e q .
B e n t i n c k , L o r d Wi l l i a m , a b o l i s h e s
s u t t e e , 222
B i r d w o o d , Si r G e o r g e , 25 2
- B l a d o v e s t c h e n k , b a r b a r i t i e s a t , 7 6
B o t e l h o , 21
B o w r i n g , Si r J o h n , 5 1
B o x e r Ri s i n g o f i 8 99- i g o o , 5 8 e t
s e q .
c a u s e s a n d c o n s e q u e n c e s o f , 7 0,
7 2 e t s e q . , g o
i n d e m n i t i e s e x a c t e d , 7 1, 7 2
B r i t i s h i n I n d i a , t h e , 193
B r i t i s h I n d i a n f i n a n c e , u n s o u n d -
n e s s o f , 214
" B r o t h e r h o o d o f t h e F o u r Se a s , "
23
B r o w n , M i s s , o n t h e J a p a n e s e , I
B u l g a r s , a n c e s t o r s o f , 8
C A I RD , Si r J a m e s , 229
C a l i c o e s , i m p o r t , o f , = p r o h i t i x t e d ,
196
b e f o r e a n d a f t e r a r r i v a l
o f P o r t u g u e s e , i: 8
C a l i f o r n i a , J a p a n e s e i n , 18 2, i 8 g
C a p i t a l i s m v e r s u s So c i a l i s m , 16 8
C a r o l i n e I s l a n d , o c c u p a t i o n o f , 146
C a t h o l i c i s m i n C h i n a a n d J a p a n ,
31
C h a m b e r l a i n , J o s e p h ,
141
C h a n C h i h T u n g , q 9
C h a r l e s M a r t e l d e f e a t s t h e A r a b s ,
11
C h e l m s f o r d , L o r d , 210, 247
C h i l d r e n , s a l e o f , i n C h i n a , 35
27 6
C h i n a , a m a z i n g d e m a n d s f r o m
J a p a n , 94, 95
e t s e q . , 15 0
a t w a r w i t h J a p a n , 132, 135
C h r i s t i a n i t y e s t a b l i s h e d i n , 30
c o n t r a s t e d w i t h J a p a n , 36
d e a t h s e n t e n c e s i n , 34
d i s a p p e a r a n c e o f t h e q u e u e i n ,
8 6
e d u c a t i o n i n , 33, 7 6
e m a n c i p a t i o n o f w o m a n i n , 8 6
e n t e r s t h e G r e a t Wa r , 113
f u e l s h o r t a g e i n , I I I
g o v e r n m e n t o f , 24, 34, 8 0
i n t h e p a s t , 23 e t s e q .
i n d u s t r i a l a n d t r a d i n g c o m p e -
t i t i o n i n , 5 4, 15 2, i 8 o
i n f l u e n c e o f D o w a g e r E m p r e s s ,
5 9,
6 8 ,
6 9, 8 0
n e w v i e w o f m i l i t a r y t r a i n i n g
i n , 8 5
o b s t a c l e s t o r e f o r m i n , 7 9
o p i u m t r a f f i c i n , 28 , 43 e t s e q .
o v e r t h r o w o f t h e M a n c h u s , 26 ,
8 2, 8 3
p o p u l a t i o n o f , 23, 36 , 104
q u e s t i o n o f h e r s e l f - d e f e n c e , 8 1
r a i l w a y s y s t e m o f , 108
r e v o l u t i o n i n , 145
Ru s s i a a n d , 7 7
t h e E m p e r o r a n d t h e B o x e r s , 6 4
w h y G r e a t Wa l l w a s b u i l t , 25
C h i n a T o w n ( Sa n F r a n c i s c o ) ,
17 7 ,
, 7 9
C h i n e s e c o o l i e s , k i d n a p p i n g o f , 17 4
d i s l i k e a n d d i s t r u s t o f J a p a n e s e ,
102, i o 6 , I 16 , 15 1, 16 5
C h i n e s e G o v e r n m e n t " l e g a l i s e s "
o p i u m t r a d e , 5 1
l a b o u r , e t s e q
. 17 4
M i n g , d y n a s t y , f o u n d a t i o n o f ,
26
Re p u b l i c , e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f , 8 2
s e c e s s i o n o f p r o v i n c e s f r o m Re -
p u b l i c , 93
t e r r i t o r y a n n e x e d , 23
t r a n s p o r t s u n k b y J a p a n e s e , 135
C h i n e s e , t h e , a J e s u i t t r i b u t e t o ,
33
a u t h o r 's r e m i n i s c e n c e s o f , 17 7
c o u r t e s y o f , 8 8
t h e i r a b h o r r e n c e o f w a r , 25 , 5 8
C h i r o l , Si r V a l e n t i n e , 91
I n d e x
C h r i s t i a n i t y i n t h e F a r E a s t , 2, 30
i n t r o d u c e d i n t o J a p a n , 37
u n s u i t e d t o C h i n a , 91
C h u n , P r i n c e , 7 9
C h u r c h , C o l o n e l , a f o r e c a s t b y ,
120, 121
C l i v e , L o r d , 195
C o a l s u p p l y o f C h i n a , I I I
C o m p e t i t i o n , p o s t - w a r , 114, 115
C o n f u c i a n i s m i n C h i n a , 28 , 31, 34,
5 8
C o n s t a n t i n o p l e , T u r k i s h c a p t u r e
o f , 15
C o r d o b a a s a m o d e l c i t y , I I
C o r n w a l l i s , L o r d , 195 , 197
C o t t o n t r a d e , C h i n a a s c o m p e t i t o r
i n , 114
C r a n b r o o k , L o r d , 222
C r i m e a n Wa r , 16
C r i m i n a l I n v e s t i g a t i o n D e p a r t -
m e n t o f I n d i a , 248 - 9
C u r z o n , L o r d , 227
D E B O I G N E , 193
D e l h i , a c o n f e r e n c e a t , 209
D i a z , B a r t h o l o m e w , r o u n d s C a p e
o f G o o d H o p e , 17
D i g b y , Wi l l i a m , 222, 227 , 25 1
i n d i c t s B r i t i s h r u l e , 216
D u p l e i x , 193
D u t c h c o m p e t i t i o n i n I n d i a , 21
E A ST I N D I A C O M P A N Y, t h e , 194
a n d t h e o p i u m t r a d e , 45
E c u a d o r ,
J a p a n e s e a g r e e m e n t s
w i t h , 147
E l g i n , L o r d , a n d o p i u m t r a d e , 5 1
E l l i o t , C a p t a i n , a n d o p i u m t r a f f i c ,
47
E m i g r a t i o n , A s i a t i c , I 6 2, 17 4 e t
s e q .
E n g i n e e r i n g , i t s d e b t t o C h i n a , 27
E n g l a n d a n d t h e o p i u m t r a d e , 43
i n a l l i a n c e w i t h T u r k e y , 16
t e x t i l e i n d u s t r y o f , 196
E n g l i s h , t h e , i n I n d i a , 193
E u r o p e a n d t h e p a r t i t i o n o f C h i n a ,
8 1
A s i a t i c i n v a s i o n s o f , 2, 3, 7 e t
s e q .
b o r d e r - l i n e o f , r
r a c e s o f , A s i a t i c d e s c e n t o f , I
E u r o p e a n s , m a s s a c r e o f , 122
E x m o u t h , L o r d , i 6
F A C T O RY Sy s t e m i n J a p a n , 16 6 - 7
F a r E a s t , t h e , C h r i s t i a n i t y i n , 2, 30
F e m a l e i n f a n t i c i d e , s u p p r e s s i o n o f ,
222
F e r o z e s h a h , b a t t l e o f , i 9g
F i n l a n d , e d u c a t i o n i n , 6 6
So c i a l i s m i n , 16 8
F i n n s s e t t l e
i n E u r o p e ,
8
F o r m o s a , c e s s i o n o f , 145
J a p a n a n d , 23, 107
F r a n c e , a J a p a n e s e l o a n i s s u e d i n ,
143
a c q u i r e s C h i n e s e t e r r i t o r y , 23
i n a l l i a n c e w i t h T u r k e y , 16
l o a n s t o Ru s s i a ,
224
So c i a l i s m i n , 16 8
t h e " Wh i t e T e r r o r " i n , 6 7
F r a n c o - J a p a n e s e A g r e e m e n t , 142
F r e n c h , t h e , i n I n d i a , 193
G A L A P A G O S I SL A N D S, J a p a n e s e a m -
b i t i o n s i n , 147
G a m a , V a s c o d a , a t r o c i t i e s o f , 19
G e d d e s , J a m e s , 222
G e o r g e V . , K i n g , h o l d s D u r b a r a t
D e l h i , 2o 9
G e r m a n i n t r i g u e s i n C h i n a , 143
So c i a l D e m o c r a t s , 18 4
w a r s h i p s s u n k , 146
G e r m a n y a n d A m e r i c a n T r e a t y
w i t h J a p a n , 143
a n d B o x e r Ri s i n g , 7 2
a n d n e u t r a l i t y o f C h i n a ,
112
A s i a t i c i n v a s i o n o f , 12
e s p i o n a g e s y s t e m o f ,
243
p o s t - w a r c o m p e t i t i o n o f , 114
G o a , P o r t u g u e s e a t , 42
G r e a t B r i t a i n , t r e a t i e s w i t h J a p a n ,
I 38 , 143, 15 3, 26 3
G r e a t P o w e r s , t h e , a w a r n i n g t o ,
102, 147 , 26 9, 27 0
G r e a t Wa r , t h e , C h i n e s e l a b o u r i n ,
I g o
i t s i n f l u e n c e o n C h i n a , i o 7 , 112
J a p a n a n d , 94, 145
p e a c e t e r m s
; a h o p e f u l s i g n ,
113
G r e e c e , A s i a t i c i n v a s i o n
o f , 12
G u n p o w d e r ,
. h i n e s e a n d , 2, 27
t
I n d e x
27 7
H A Rn I N G E , L O RD ,
a t t e m p t e d a s s a s -
s i n a t i o n o f ,
231, 234, 248
H a r t e , B r e t , 17 9
H a s t i n g s , Wa r r e n , 195
H a y a s h i , C o u n t , 138
H e a r n , L a f c a d i o , 41, 15 8
H e r a c l i u s , E m p e r o r , r o u t s P e r -
s i a n s , i o
H o n g K o n g , c e s s i o n o f ,
49
H o u n i , Sa k y a ,
203
H u a n g - H s u , E m p e r o r , d e a t h o f ,
15 0
r e f o r m s o f , 6 2
e t s e q
. , 7 6
H u m e , A
. 0. ,
222
H u n g a r y , A s i a t i c i n v a s i o n o f ,
12
H u n s i n v a d e E u r o p e , 7
H u n t e r , Si r Wi l l i a m ,
207 ( n o t e )
H w a n g H s i u , 93
H y n d m a n , C o l o n e l , 193
( n o t e )
I D D E SL E I G H , L A RD ,
222, 26 1
I n a g a k i , Sh i m o s u , 16 9
I n d i a , a l l e g e d G e r m a n p r o p a g a n d a
i n 243
a w a k e n i n g o f ,
230,
c o n q u e s t o f , 194
e c o n o m i c c o n d i t i o n o f , 225
e d u c a t i o n - p r o b l e m i n ,
211
e f f e c t o f l a i s s e z - f a i r e p o l i c y o n ,
197 , 211
E u r o p e a n i s a t i o n o f , 195 , 214, 25 2
f a i l u r e o f C h r i s t i a n p r o p a g a n d a
i n , 42
i m p o r t s a n d e x p o r t s , 226 , 227
p o p u l a t i o n o f , 204, 226
p o v e r t y o f , 214, 25 1
s e l f - g o v e r n m e n t d e m a n d e d b y ,
245 , 25 4, 26 0
t h e B r i t i s h i n , 193
e t s e q . , 207
t r e a t m e n t o f p o l i t i c a l o f f e n d e r s
i n ,
239
u n r e s t i n , 230
e t s e q .
I n d i a n M u t i n y , t h e , 203
I n d i a n s i n G r e a t
Wa r , 21®
I n o u y e , C o u n t ,
130, 137 , 141
I r e l a n d , A s i a t i c a t t a c k o n ,
12
I r r i g a t i o n i n I n d i a , 228 , 236 , 244
I s h i i , C o u n t , M r . L a n s i n g 's N o t e
t o , 15 6 . ( n o t e )
I s s a i e f f , P r o f e s s o r , 225
I t a l y , A s i a t i c i n v a s i o n o f , 12
So c i a l i s m i n , 16 8
27 8
I t o , P r i n c e , 125
I y e y a s u , v i c t o r y o f , 40
J A P A N
a c q u i r e s G e r m a n p r e - w a r
r i g h t s , 99
a m b i t i o n s r e g a r d i n g C h i n a , 94,
15 7
a n n e x e s K o r e a , 23, 144
a s l e a d e r o f A s i a , 140, 141, 147 ,
26 9
b o m b a r d m e n t o f , 123
c o m p a r a t i v e p o v e r t y o f , 15 9
c o n t r a s t w i t h C h i n a , 36
d e m a n d s s u r r e n d e r o f K i a u -
C h a u , 146
e d u c a t i o n i n , 16 4
e n t e r s G r e a t Wa r , 145
e x c l u d e s E u r o p e a n s , 41
f e u d a l s y s t e m a b r o g a t e d i n , 127

f i r s t c o m m e r c i a l t r e a t i e s o f , 121
f o r b i d s C h r i s t i a n p r o p a g a n d a i n ,
40
g r o w t h o f ,
117 e t s e q .
h e r d e m a n d s u p o n C h i n a , 95 ,
96 e t s e q . , 15 0
i m p o r t s a n d e x p o r t s o f , 16 4
i n d u s t r i a l a n d s o c i a l t r a n s f o r m a -
t i o n o f , 16 o
e t s e q .
" p e a c e f u l p e n e t r a t i o n "
p o l i c y o f ,
100, 114, 116
p o l i c y i n t h e P a c i f i c , 146 e t s e q .
p o p u l a t i o n o f , 15 9
. 16 4, 16 5
p r e s e n t - d a y a r m y a n d n a v y , 15 9
r e l i g i o n o f , 36 , 37
r e p r e s e n t a t i v e
g o v e r n m e n t e s -
t a b l i s h e d i n , 127
s e c r e t t r e a t y w i t h Ru s s i a , 146
So c i a l i s m i n , 16 8 e t s e q .
t h e " Re s t o r a t i o n " i n ,
124
t h r o n e o f , 117
t r e a t i e s w i t h G r e a t B r i t a i n , 139,
143, 15 3, 26 3
u n i v e r s a l m i l i t a r y s e r v i c e i n , 128
w a r w i t h C h i n a , 132, 135 , 136
w a r w i t h Ru s s i a , 7 8 , 139
w i d e n a t i o n a l p o l i c y o f , 129
J a p a n e s e a t t a c k e d i n C a l i f o r n i a ,
18 2- 3
e m i g r a t i o n , 18 2
l o w s t a n d a r d o f c o m m e r c i a l m o -
r a l i t y o f , 15 2
I n d e x
J e r u s a l e m , A s i a t i c c u s t o d y o f , 6
J e s u i t p r o p a g a n d a i n C h i n a a n d
J a p a n , 33
e t s e q .
K A G O SH I M A ,
b o m b a r d m e n t o f , 123
K a n g Yu We i , 6 2
K a r l o v i t z , P e a c e o f , 16
K a t a y a m a , Se n , 16 9, 17 0
c o r r e s p o n d e n c e f r o m , 18 4
i n c i d e n t a t a So c i a l i s t C o n g r e s s ,
18 4
p e r s e c u t i o n a n d f l i g h t o f , 18 4
K a t o , B a r o n , 15 4
K e t t e l e r , B a r o n v o n , m u r d e r o f , 7 0
K h a p a r d e , M r . , 241
K i a u - C h a u , G e r m a n b r u t a l i t y a t ,
7 6
J a p a n a n d , 146
s e i z e d b y G e r m a n y , 7 2
K i a u - C h a u B a y , a s a C o m m e r c i a l
P o r t , 99
K n i g h t , M r . , 222
K o r e a a n n e x e d b y J a p a n , 23, 143
J a p a n 's p r e p o n d e r a n c e i n , 23, 7 2
r e s u l t s o f J a p a n e s e r u l e i n , 107
s t r u g g l e f o r s u p r e m a c y i n , 134
K u a n g - H i , E m p e r o r , J e s u i t s a n d ,
31. 36
K u b l a i K h a n a t t e m p t s i n v a s i o n o f
J a p a n , 26 , 5 8
L A B O U R
c o n d i t i o n s i n J a p a n , 16 6 ,
16 7
L a n s d o w n e , L o r d , 139, 141
L a n s i n g , M r . , 15 6 ( n o t e )
L e a , G e n e r a l H o m e r , 149
L e p a n t o , b a t t l e o f , 16
L i a o t u n g P e n i n s u l a , J a p a n a n d , 23,
144
L i H u n g C h a n g , 6 3
L i n , C o m m i s s i o n e r , a p p e a l s t o
Q u e e n V i c t o r i a , 48
L o F e n g L u , 7 4
L o n d o n , T r e a t y o f , 146
L y t t o n , L o r d , 215
M A C N A G H T E N , C H E ST E R, 223
M a g y a r s o f H u n g a r y , d e s c e n t o f ,
7
M a l l e t , Si r L o u i s , 222
M a n c h u r i a , Ru s s i a a n d , 23, 7 2, 138
M a n c h u s a n d o p i u m t r a f f i c , 43, 46 ,
5 1
e j e c t i o n o f , 26 , 8 2, 8 3
M a r c o P o l o ( s e e P o l o )
M a r i n e r 's c o m p a s s , t h e , 2, 27
M a r s h a l l I s l a n d s , o c c u p a t i o n o f ,
146 , 147
M a r t i n , M o n t g o m e r y
221
M a t s u y a m a , M r
. ,
I 5 5
M e e r u t , m u t i n y a t , 203
M e g a t a , B a r o n , 15 6
M e n u , C o d e o f , 203
M i l l i s , P r o f e s s o r , 18 8
M i l y u k o v , P r o f e s s o r , 225
M i n t o , L o r d , 247
M i s s i o n a r i e s a n d o p i u m - s m o k i n g ,
5 3
M i s s i o n a r y p r o p a g a n d a i n C h i n a , '
30 e t s e q . , 9o
M i u r a , G e n e r a l , r 37
M i y a k e , 16 9
M o h a m m e d , h i s i n f l u e n c e a n d
d e a t h , 9, 10
M o n g o l i a , Ru s s i a a n d ,
23
M o n g o l s i n v a d e E a s t e r n E u r o p e ,
14
M o n t a g u , M r . , m i s s i o n t o I n d i a ,
246
M o n t a g u - C h e l m s f o r d Re p o r t , 247
r e s o l u t i o n s f r o m a n I n d i a n C o n -
g r e s s o n , 25 4
M o o r s ( s e e A r a b )
M o r l e y , L o r d , 231,
237
M u k d e n , b a t t l e o f , 7 8 , 140
M u t s u h i t o , E m p e r o r , r 25
N A N K I N , T r e a t y o f , 49
N a o r o j i , D a d a b h a i , 222, 242, 25 1
N e s t o r i a n C h r i s t i a n s , 30
O H U M A , C O U N T , 130, 15 0,
15 3
" O p e n D o o r " i n C h i n a , 141, 144,
146
O p i u m , C h i n a a n d , 28 , 43 e t s e q . ,
s u p p r e s s i o n o f t r a d e i n ,
5 5
t r a f f i c " l e g a l i z e d , " 5 1
O p i u m Wa r s ,
44,
48 ,
5 1
O s b o r n e , C o l o n e l , 222
O u d e , a n n e x a t i o n o f , 199
27 9
P A L , B a p I N C n A N D RA , 24 242
P a l m e r s t o n , L o r d , o n o p i u m t r a f -
f i c , 47 , 5 9
P a n a m a ' C a n a l , J a p a n a n d , 147
P a r k e s , Si r h e n r y , 125
P e a c e C o n f e r e n c e , t h e , a n d J a p a n -
e s e d e m a n d s o n C h i n a , ,
115
I n d i a d e m a n d s r e p r e s e n t a t i o n
a t , 26 0, 26 1
P e k i n g , L e g a t i o n s a t t a c k e d a t , 6 8
l o o t i n g ' a n d b u r n i n g o f , 7 0, 7 6
P e r r y , C o m m o d o r e , I 1g , 120, 26 8
P h i l i p p i n e I s l a n d s , J a p a n a n d , 147
P l a s s e y , b a t t l e o f , 196
P l e c h a n o f f a n d D r . K a t a y a m a : a
d r a m a t i c i n c i d e n t , 18 4
P o l e s d e f e a t T u r k s , r 6
P o l o , M a r c o , 3r
P o r c e l a i n , C h i n a a n d , 2, 27
P o r t s m o u t h , T r e a t y o f , 7 9, 140,
142
P o r t u g u e s e a r r i v e a t C a l i c u t , 18
m i s s i o n a r i e s i n J a p a n , 37
P r i n t i n g , C h i n e s e a n d , 27
P u n j a b , t h e , u n r e s t i n , 234
RA C E c o m p e t i t i o n a n d i n d u s t r y ,
r g r
Ra c e p r e j u d i c e i n A m e r i c a , 18 3
Ra i , L a j p a t , a r r e s t a n d t r i a l o f ,
Ra n j i t s i n h g i i n A u s t r a l i a : h i s
l a n d i n l e g a l i s e d ,
18 1
Re l i g i o n ,

t e r n o r i g i n o f , 2
Ri c e r i o t s i n J a p a n , I 7 3
Ro m a n ' i n v a s i o n o f A s i a , 4
Ro o t - T a k a l i y u A g r e e m e n t , t h e ,
I
Ro w n t e e , Sa m u e l , 46
Ro y a l C o m m i s s i o n o n O p i u m , 5 3
Ru s s i a a n n e x e s C h i n e s e t e r r i t o r y ,
23
A s i a t i c i n v a s i o n o f , i i
e d u c a t i o n i n , 211, 212
F r e n c h l o a n s t o , 225
l e a s e s L i a o t u n g P e n i n s u l a , 137
p o l i c y i n C h i n a , 7 7
,
t r e a t y w i t h C h i n a , 7 8
Ru s s o - J a p a n e s e t r e a t y , 142, r 46
Ru s s o - J a p a n e s e w a r , 7 8 139
i n t e r v e n t i o n o f U . S . A . , 140
28 0
SA G H A L I E N ,
Ru s s i a a n d , 122
Sa k u m a , 16 9
Sa l i s b u r y , L o r d , 223, 227 , 26 1
Sa n d w i c h I s l a n d s , C h i n e s e l a b o u r
i n , 17 4
J a p a n e s e i n , 147 ,
18 2
Sa r a c e n s ; t h e , i i
Sc a n d i n a v i a , e d u c a t i o n i n , 6 6
Se o u l , J a p a n e s e b a r b a r i t y i n , 144
J a p a n e s e L e g a t i o n a t t a c k e d , 134
Sh a n s i , c o a l s u p p l y o f ,
I I I
Sh a n t u n g a n d B o x e r Ri s i n g , 7 5
m i s s i o n a r i e s m u r d e r e d i n , 6 g
Sh e n s i , G o v e r n o r o f , 7 5
Sh i b u s a w a , B a r o n , 15 5
Sh i m o d a , U . S
. C o n s u l a t e a t , ' 121
Sh i m o n o s e k i , b o m b a r d m e n t o f ,
123
T r e a t y o f , 7 7 , 136
Sh i n t o i s m , 37
Si b e r i a , J a p a n e s e i n , 102
Si c i l y , A s i a t i c i n v a s i o n o f , 12
Sl e e m a n , Si r Wi l l i a m , I g g , 200
Sm e a t o n , D o n a l d , 229
So b i e s k i , J o h n , d e f e a t s T u r k s , 16
So c i a l i s m i n J a p a n , 18 4
p r o g r e s s o f , 16 8 e t s e q .
Sp a i n , c o n q u e s t o f , 1I
St a n h o p e , E d w a r d , 222
a n d H o m e Ru l e f o r I n d i a , 26 1
Su n Ya t Se n a d v o c a t e s a Re p u b l i -
c a n f o r m o f G o v e r n m e n t , 8 1
f l i g h t o f , 93
m e s s a g e t o U . S . A . , 113
p r o g r e s s i v e i d e a l s o f , 7 6
r e t u r n s t o Sh a n g h a i , 15 0
Su t t e e a b o l i s h e d i n I n d i a , 222
Sw i t z e r l a n d , e d u c a t i o n i n , 6 6
T A H I T I , C h i n e s e l a b o u r i n , 17 4
T a k a h a s h i , B a r o n , 15 5
T a n t i a T o p e e , 204
T a r i u , T o k i c h i , 16 9
T e r a u c h i , C o u n t , 15 0, 15 4
T h o r b u r n , M r . , 229
I n d e x
T h u g s , s u p p r e s s i o n o f , i g g , z z z
T i e n t s i n , T r e a t y o f , 135
T i l a k , B a l G u n g u n d e r , a r r e s t a n d
i m p r i s o n m e n t o f , 241
r e l e a s e o f , 26 0
T i m o u r t h e T a r t a r , 14
T o u r s , b a t t l e o f , 11
T r a d e u n i o n i s m i n J a p a n , 16 0
T r a j a n , E m p e r o r , 39
T s i n g - T a u , c a p t u r e o f , 95 , 146
G e r m a n y a n d , 7 2
T u a n F a n g p r o t e c t s f o r e i g n e r s , 7 5
T u r k e y , a l l i a n c e w i t h E n g l a n d a n d
F r a n c e , 16
T u r k s , E u r o p e a n c a m p a i g n s o f , 15
U x n a n K I N G D O M ,
f o r e i g n t r a d e
w i t h C h i n a , 114
U n i t e d St a t e s a n d B o x e r Ri s i n g
i n d e m n i t i e s , 7 2
a n d J a p a n 's d e m a n d s , I o o
C h i n e s e e x c l u d e d f r o m , 17 5
U n i t e d St a t e s j o i n s t h e A l l i e s , 148
U s h i d a , C o u n t , 115
V A SC O D A G A M A ( s e e G a m a )
V i e n n a , s i e g e o f , 16
WE I - H A I - WE I s e i z e d b y E n g l a n d ,
7 2
Wi l l i a m I I . , K a i s e r , 143
Wo m a n , e m a n c i p a t i o n
o f , i n
C h i n a , 8 6
XA V I E R, St . F r a n c i s , 20
" YE L L O W P i o 8 * L , " t h e , 17 5
e t s e q .
Yu a n - Sh i - K a i , 6 3, 7 9
a t t e m p t s t o a s c e n d t h r o n e , 93,
b e c o m e s P r e s i d e n t , 8 3,
92
p o l i c y i n B o x e r Ri s i n g , 7 5
Yu n g C h a n g , E m p e r o r , e d i c t
a g a i n s t o p i u m , 43

TO MY WIFE' ROSALIND TRAVERS

Tsss book has been held up by the Censor for more than two years. From my own standpoint, this has turned out to be an advantage, so far as its prospect of usefulness goes . Now, more than ever before, Europeans and Amen . cans are prepared to consider the relations of the white races to Asiatics as demanding very careful study . That Japan,' should be fully represented at the Peace Conference, as one of the Great Powers of the world, and that China and India, with their joint population of some 700,0oo,oo0 people, should claim the right to make themselves heard at the same gathering, of the nations, are events which cannot be overlooked. Asia, indeed, seems destined to play a still greater put in the future than she has played in the past. It is important, therefore, for the English-speaking peoples, to whom I primarily address myself, that they should recognise this at once. Self-determination and justice for all races cannot, be confined to Europe or America . When first I began my serious studies of the influence of the white man on the Far East, I was of the opinion that this influence had been almost wholly beneficial. The fact that close relations of my own had been connected with Eastern affairs for several generations naturally strength-, ened me in this view. It was only by degrees' that I was forced to the conviction that European interference,-Euro pean trade interests, European religious propaganda, European administration and European domination had been almost wholly harmful . Such reforms, that is to say, as we had introduced in the early' days of our intercourse with the great civilised ; peoples of Asia counted for little or

z3. in days gone by. 1919 . HYNDMAN . W . H. February. M . Hampstead.Preface nothing in comparison with the mischief we have wrought. Europe has learnt so much . Well Walk. 3. . N . London. This is still a most unpopular idea of what the white man has achieved in the vast continent from which.

13 . 230 265 2 75 . THE BRITISH IN INDIA I$. CHINA IN THE PAST 4. 6. I2.' THE PORTUGUESE PIONEERS 3 . THE UNSOUNDNESS OF BRITISH INDIAN FINANCE 16 . CHRISTIANITY IN THE FAR EAST S .. THE GROWTH OF JAPAN . I 17 23 3 43 57 72 Io6 117 133 153 11 59 174 1 93 214 . JAPAN TRIES HER STRENGTH II . THE GROWING UNREST CONCLUSION INDEX . THE BOXER RISING AND ITS CONSEQUENCES 8. g. . OPIUM IN CHINA . ASIA AND EUROPE IN THE PAST 2 . CONTENTS CBAPPER PAGE I . 10 . THE DEVELOPMENT OF CHINA FOR THE CHINESE . THE BOXER RISING AND THE REFORMING EMPEROR 7 . THE MISTRESS OF ASIA . ASIATIC EMIGRATION 14.INDUSTRIAL JAPAN .

.

however. for example. for far more than our racial' descent to our Eastern progenitors of the remote past . the two continents. which. which is supposed to separate the continent of Europe from the continent of Asia. Europe. either in the matter of geography or of race. in the course of thousands of years. We are indebted. is a great conterminous Colony of Asia. has set up for itself. by some inconceivable process of unnatural selection. There is. Similarly with the numerous' and widely-differing inhabitants. The vast land areas distinguished by the names of Europe and Asia blend imperceptibly into one another : it is practically impossible to say where the one ends and the other begins. The dominant races of Europe are nearly all of Asiatic descent. the greater part of Western civilisation would disappear . of course. This is but one instance of remote Asiatic origin. The Aryans of Great Britain and the Aryans of India. much as they differ to-day. deriving their blood from more or less recent waves of invasion and colonisation from the East.THE AWAKENING OF ASIA CHAPTER I ASIA AND EUROPE IN THE PAST THE purely arbitrary border-line. in fact. If Europe were deprived of all her peoples of ancient Asiatic origin. I . came originally from the same stock . no recognised'division between . at times leads to the misapprehension that there is really such a break in territorial continuity .

Cotton. geometry and 0tronomy. The great efforts made from Europe to persuade Asiatics to embrace the creed accepted and adopted by the West have generally proved abortive. draw from them the basic discoveries and inventions which we owe to Asia. The successive waves of invasion and counter-invasion from Eu- . came first into our daily lives from that continent . For in spite of the lack of definite frontier. 2 The Awakening of Asia Leave their descendants where they are to-day. and the entire fabric of our existing social arrangements would collapse . Yet the influence of the East upon the West and the far less powerful influence of the West upon the East have been going on for many. Our most ardent and self-sacrificing missionaries of Christianity are often so little versed in the history of their own faith that they altogether fail to accommodate its tenets to the conceptions of the Asiatic peoples whom they strive to convert . silk. custom and social arrangements has so ordered matters that Asia has perhaps never been deeply affected by Europe in thought. many centuries. Every one of the great religions of the world. or clear racial distinctions. to say nothing of its philosophy. is overlaid with so much of Greek metaphysic and Pagan ceremonial that the unlearned are apt to think of it as a purely European creed . algebra. as well as much of our architecture and agriculture. with many of our fruits and flowers. but with . porcelain. Our own Asiatic religion. was vouchsafed to humanity from east of the Mediterranean Sea. Christianity. We are inclined nowadays to take more account of the European invasion of Asia than of the Asian invasion of Europe. because the methods used to propagate this religion are entirely unsuited to the social conditions of the people among whom it has been preached . custom or religion for any considerable length of time. it is certain that the long severance of the two continents in thought. the mariner's compass. gunpowder.

As a military feat the whole expedition was a marvellous success. either in arms or in arts. while tens of thousands of Asiatic Turks were fighting on the side of Germany. and dealing with them only. r . while large forces from India have been engaged with the enemy in the West. Japan threw in her lot with the Allies and has been fighting on their side against Germans in the East. the fact remains that Alexander's exploits and those of his lieutenants produced no permanent effect whatever upon the important countries over which they and their immediate' descendants ruled . in order of date. continuity and effect to the pressure exerted for a far longer period by Asiatics upon Europe . great as were his victories in the field and far-reaching his projects for founding an Eastern Empire. But. there is nothing in the European attempts upon Asia.of the Asiatic attacks upon Europe were no better than mere temporary raids giving no permanent results. The first was the wonderful campaign of Alexander of Macedon and his Greek armies. His forces marched unbeaten to the Indus and defeated Porus on the borders of Hindustan . land the same may be said of the greater portion of the European advances upon Asia. that the Asiatics. adopted Greek methods or absorbed Greek . who were compelled to submit for the time being. But. and the direct military influence of Asia upon Europe has been much more recent and more powerful than we generally recognise.Asia and Europe in the Past rope to Asia and from Asia to Europe are not easy : to record accurately and intelligibly. At some periodsboth attacks were going on simultaneously. Some. in philosophy or in religion. until the period from the sixteenth to the nineteenth century. in any survey of the mutual aggressions from the one side or other. which can be compared for vigour. There is nothing to show. there have been within historic times four great European invasions of Asia . Taking the European advances into Asia first. Even in the Great War.

. . upon the mass of the subject population. Then plunged in thought again . The wave of invasion receded and matters went on below the surface much as they did before. This was so. conduced to great material prosperity. water-conduits and other public works. They remained essentially Asiatic. 2. .ideas. The Pax Romana passed away and the Asiatics of centuries before became Asiatics again for centuries after . or even upon the educated classes as a whole. It was conquest without colonisation : victory without continuous influence. to' the period when the Byzantine Emperors were vainly struggling against the Arabs and the Turks . from the days when the Parthians on the frontier routed Crassus and his army. in all important respects. She heard the legions thunder past. Yet this second great European invasion lasted for many centuries. Those long. laws and jurisprudence which Rome bequeathed to Europe proved of little virtue or permanence in Asia. The great legacy of administration. The East bowed low before the blast In patient deep disdain . But the whole elaborate system left the psychology. and when her magnificent system of civil and military organisation was slowly tottering to its fall . as the wealth and luxury of the principal cities testified.of which the ruins still bear witness to the genius and foresight of her Emperors and engineers. alike when Rome was at the height of her power. Even -the Roman mastery of a large portion of Asia scarcely influenced Eastern thought or Eastern customs at all. long years of peaceful and successful ful rule failed to impress European conceptions. or European methods. below the sur face. harbours. first and foremost and all through. and was maintained. The splendid roads.

an inscrutable difference between the whole conception of life and thought. ligions long survived Greek and Latin teaching and Greek and Latin cults. its network from Palestine over the European provinces. Whatever may have been the hopes and intentions of the more capable statesmen and warriors of Europe we can now see that they were doomed to disappointment. that other disorderly and spasmodic efforts from the West would prevail . Asiatic tribal and family' relations. it is doubtful whether the inhabitants of the two continents have ever understood one another . it was little likely. Where the powerful organisation land efficiency of the Roman Empire had failed after hundreds of years of successful domination to produce a permanent effect. 3. Asiatic'v re . Asia. as in some others. even if the attacks upon "the infidel" had been far better organised >and disciplined than in fact they were. . In Rome itself and in other great cities of the Western Empire.is rooted in Europe . The motley hosts who went forth under the banners of the' Crusaders formed' the third important invasion of Asia by Europe. Nay. even under Roman supremacy.Asia and Furope in the Past habits and beliefs of the people untouched. in spite of the continuity of territory and ancient community of race already referred to. customs and ideals which pervade Asia and that which'. Asiatic philosophy and Asiatic superstitions made way long before the Asiatic religion of Christianity spread . gifted with the highest powers of sympathy . At Con stantinople imitations of Asiatic forms and ceremonies pervaded the whole Imperial Court.and imagination. had a continuous and peaceful influence upon her conquerors. Asiatic customs. indeed. At .' at a period when all hope of shaking off the Roman yoke had been practically abandoned . in all these departments of human activity. Except in rare instances of remarkable men. The Asiatic mind remained impervious to European thought . There seems.

and unquestionably racial antagonism developed as a result of the long series of encounters with the Moslem armies . the permanent influence of Asiatic attacks upon and settlements in Europe may still be easily discerned. Even in` Vienna. were as . chiefly at the expense of the decadent Christian Empire of the East. remained for centuries afterwards and continued till yesterday in the custody of those rival monotheists. the Crusades were nothing more than spasmodic religious raids. more continuous and far more formidable assault than any of its predeees . however. But the Crusades. the followers of Mohammed . Here and there the leaders carved out shortlived kingdoms for themselves and their followers. 4. taken together. Jerusalem. were no more than a fierce religious and warlike offensive against Mahound. 6 The Awakening of Asia first. On the other hand. The fourth European invasion of Asia has taken place in modern times . in the long-drawn defensive struggle against the steadily-advancing flood of Asiatic aggression ." The Western limit of certain flora of the Asiatic steppes -is drawn at a little hill on the outskirts of the Austrian capital. These freebooters of Christianity and marauders of feudalism. little animated by any great scheme of polity as were their opponents. whose outposts in Asia Minor and Palestine they went forth to defend . at any rate." The Holy City of Christianity. bred of hysteria and inspired by fanaticism . Thus the third assault of Europe upon Asia produced even less effect than its two predecessors . economic motive . people say to-day: "Cross the Wien and you find yourself in Asia . or unconscious. which for many a century was the bulwark of the West against Asiatic incursions. with the hope of happiness hereafter and loot here. Later they may have had some conscious. It is a much wider. They made no lasting impression whatever upon "the East .

and by no means as yet .of barbarous hordes from Central Asia. religious propaganda. first. have carried on for three centuries a steady pressure of. carved out of Roman Europe in its process of disintegration. Asia first penetrated in organised force into Central and Southern Europe. There were no armies then available capable' of resisting their advance . showed a disposition to settle in the territories they conquered . By the great inroads of the Huns in the fourth and fifth centuries.Asia and Europe in the Past sors.later on to estimate the real significance and possible consequences of this the last great counter stroke against the Asiatics . of the same great stock as the 7 we are . with its adjacent islands. Successive waves of Avars. in a position to judge of its final effect .day owe their descent for the most part to the savage tribes who terrorised the decadent Roman Empire from Con stantinople to Rome. following upon the early religious and commercial efforts of the Portuguese and Dutch. French. From the first. I shall try . This great movement is still in progress. then mercantile persuasion. These Asiatic Colonies. these barbarians. and the Magyars of Hungary to. Let us now turn back to the successive Asiatic invasions of Europe. The result is that Europeans have now seized and dominate More than half of the area and little less than half of the population of the great Eastern Continent. tempted other Finno-Tatar tribes to follow their example . to-day holds sway over the territories whence these tribes swept in succession to the West on their missions of massacre. English and Russians. and lastly armed conquest at the expense of the inhabitants. is a strange instance of historic revenge for the horrors of the past. so far as they are known too history. in spite of their love for destruction and rapine. which suffered most in old times from the inroads . The fact that the country we speak of as Russia in Europe. Attila himself established permanent camps in more than one country.

At the end of the seventh century the ancestors of the present l!3ulgars. when the invaders from Persia . About the same time Finn Ugrian tribes overran North-Western Russia and settled in Finland. the Huns and . The success of the warlike creed of the great Arabian prophet led to another . Thus. whose numbers appeared incalculable. but ethnologically valuable. though at one period they dominated.The Awakening of Asia . coming into contact with the armies of Charlemagne on their frontier. under their own name. three Mongolian races. absorbed into the armies of their conquerors . numerically unimportant. settled in the region now occupied by their descendants. But by far the most dangerous and continuous Asian assault upon European countries and their independence came with the rise of Mohammedanism . . by the beginning of the ninth century. After three hundred years of almost perpetual suffering at the hands ' of uncivilised tribes.. disappeared as a separate horde and were probably . now fair booty for courageous invaders . From the fourth to the end of the seventh century Asiatic invasions went on almost without cessation. perhaps dispossessing a Caucasian race . and it is matter of wonder that the Byzantine Empire. This was not to be . the whole great district from the Don to the middle Danube. They left no permanent mark. on the map of Europe. who formed part of one of the raids. was able to survive these attacks .. had taken firm root in. But the Avars. who had been not engaged in appropriating their share of the Empire. Europe. the Byzantine Empire might have anticipated-an ebb in the tide of Asiatic aggression. were driven back. came over in the sixth century and grew formidable only to the Romans but to the Goths. and fitful military prowess under great-generals. the Finns. the Bulgars. with all. its dexterity. after their complete defeat by another combination of Asiatic tribes.

Time after me Christian chivalry of the.. this very human prophet of God made . His confidence in himself. As it was. the European populations . 3e. which more than once threatened to subdue. Mohammed died as he had lived. it is no easy matter to comprehend the character. neither when a poverty-stricken and hunted fugitive. remarkable personal influence over all with whom he was brought into contact that. .Asia and Europe in the Past series of conquests and colonisations. did he ever have to complain of treach Cry from those who had once embraced his faith . his first converts in his own family. were routed by monotheistic sons of the desert. Yet Europe was now settling down to the establishment of a new system.Mohammed in the early part of the seventh century . was even greater when he was suffering under disappointment and defeat than when he was able to dictate his own terms to his conquered enemies . had there been any community of aim among . the entire West . after almost hopeless failure. who brought' into the field a still fiercer fanaticism than that of the Catholics. or depopulate. and in his inspiration from on high. surrounded by his early followers. finest quality. or ruthless savages from the great steppes. and the organised armies which it developed were formidable enough to have made head against Moslem attack. Never claiming divine powers at any period of his mission. and had such._ who have studied the whole extraordinary story of the noble Arabian. supported by men of courage and vigour fihting for their `homes.'was able. to obtain control in his own aristocratic gees. friends and otaries : his death as devoid of mystery as his life -of dis. the danger of overwhelming Asiatic success became very great . nor at the height of his prosperity. with all the details of his early life and subsequent career laid bare by men of our own race. Even to-day. without a single e miracle to his name. or to account for the marvellous success of .

the Prophet of Allah. Even now it is very difficult to explain how the Arabs achieved their remarkable conquests . Whatever may have been the actual causes of the Arab success. in spite of all internecine differences. At the time of Mohammed's rise to fame and power they numbered. the Mongols and Turks. within a century of the Hegira in A. If economic causes and desire for material domination had beeit their main incentives to war and conquest there was as much reason for their outbreak. Yet they rose so far above their historic record in border warfare that they were able to defeat in fair fight the armies of Constantinople. who butchered their defeated enemies wholesale. as well as of the inhabitants of the fruitful oases. including women and children.000 families . Unlike their successors. and apparently many better chances of their success. The Caliphs who succeeded Mohammed were so well served by their generals and their troops. For centuries before the coming of Mohammed. barely 3. Europe was successfully attacked by the Arabs . that. proud. in the first instance.D. the early followers of Mohammed spared the lives of all who accepted the new faith-a much more reasonable policy . the Arabs had been the: poor. cruel. under the command of the Emperor Heraclius himself.000. 622.000. before than after the advent of Mohammed. all told. had utterly routed the Persians . The population of the countries they invaded was not only far greater than this. and taking account of the entire population of the trading cities and seaports on the coast. hard-living and hard-fighting men of the desert and its oases that they are to-day.000 persons. Thus they comprised no more than 15. the results were amazing. which a few years before. Io The Awakening of Asia What followed upon his decease was in a sense as miraculous as the original triumph of his creed among his own kith and kin. but. much better organised for resistance than the Arabs were for attack.

by introducing arts. and mastered them so completely that they used them as a base to attack Spain . Nevertheless. Cordoba.miration of the West to-day. It was indeed a marvellous procession of victory.D. ' Even as it was. and their capital. who had inflicted an irreparable loss upon humanity by burning what remained of the great library of Alexandria. may be . Asia and Europe in the Past ii from the West as well as from the East . It was another deliberate attempt to conquer and dominate beyond the Pyrenees . the date of A . ignorant soldiers. it is more than possible that the battle of Tours might have failed to head back the advance of the Asiatic armies. and Spain was not only conquered but colonised even more thoroughly than their other territories . science and medicine. But for a local rising of-the subdued tribes in Africa. were so changed in character that as the Moors of Spain they became celebrated alike for their civilisation and their learning . The ruins of their splendid architecture. indeed. Beginning with the conquest of Asia Minor and proceeding almost without a check to. the victorious Arabs swept along the African shores of the Mediterranean. Egypt. The immediate descendants of the very same rough. Which had fallen into disuse and even into contempt in Western Europe. the centenary of the flight of Mohammed from Mecca. best governed and most tolerant city in Europe. the Saracens proved that they had learned much from their defeated enemies. The advance of the Saracens into France also was no chance raid. the victory of Charles Martel over the Emir Abdorrahman seemed by no means conclusive at the time . was long the most enlightened. decoration and irrigation works are the ad. which the Mohammedans have held and controlled till the present' century. They were superior in every respect to the Europeans around them. 722. In southern Spain. since the Saracen armies pushed still farther forward into France in the following year.

the Asiatic invaders remained for generations a capable and cultured folk.D. nominally Mohammedans. their constant victories seem the more surprising. rapine and desolation out of sheer love of bloodshed and horror. and even countries far remote from their ravages felt unsafe from their attacks. Tartars. Greece. the Balkan Provinces. As the wounded of their armies had little chance of recovery. owing to lack of medical aid. Sicily. . . Germany.were occupied and colonised : more were again and again subjected to murder. Mongols. Russia. and were really inspired by no-creed more elevated than that of the North-American Indians. even the south of Ireland. who preserved for Europe in their writings not a little Greek knowledge and culture. With short intervals of repose. Italy. Robbery and greed of gain seem to have been secondary impulses . within their own borders in Spain. these invasions constitute one long record of rapine and slaughter . The successive inroads were carried out by savage hordes. In the majority of cases even religious fervour played little part . who treated the great Empires of India and China with the same ferocious barbarity that they inflicted upon Eastern Europe. Turks spread death and desolation all round them for century after century . Some of the devastated areas . From A . The terror of them spread from the Mediterranean to the Baltic. But. Hungary. So revolting is the whole long story of such human beasts of prey that we are apt to overlook the as- . 722 onwards for a thousand years Asia was steadily pressing upon Europe. The total numbers of these victorious assailants seem to have been small in comparison with the campaigns they undertook and the populations they crushed. all suffered from their incursions by land and by sea. 12 The Awakening of Asia taken as the time when the Arab conquerors had exhausted the full vigour of their attack on that side.

and won victories on such a vast scale against opponents who might claim superior training. Wholesale butchery befell them both . He swept right away from Central Asia to the. Yet a careful survey of events may show that in Batu (A. very heart of Germany. alike in the scope of his enterprises. the difficulties he surmounted and the success he achieved . Marlborough or Napoleon. than he did of the Teutonic Knights who came to their rescue . was certainly insufficient to account for the victories he won over a succession of brave enemies. gunpowder.' Who knew that defeat meant for them torture and death. 7equipped with all the appliances of modern science. and paid no attention either to climate or seasons of the year . it is indisputable that he and his forces were so uniformly successful. There were no winter quarters for them . . he was sent out to conquer every . Whether that was so or not. which. and that he had highly-skilled Chinese -engineers in his train. though large. during this series of campaigns . . both before and since. thing within the reach of his arms by that stupendous marauder's immediate successor .. 1235) the Mongols produced a general who was quite equal to Alexander. Hannibal. Natural obstacles. with an army which. And he did it in the course of a few' short years. . He made no more account of the descendants of the Scourge of God. education and discipline. .long career of destruction. He and his men made light of distance.Asia and Europe in the Past tonishing prowess they displayed in their. were speedily overcome by this extraordinary commander. for those days. Nothing arrested his conquering career. who had long settled in Hungary. have arrested the operations of great armies.D. Tradition recounts that Batu used cannon and. that the Tartars seemed more formidable foes of the growing European civilisation than were the Arabs five hundred years before. The son of one of Genghis Khan's captains.

defeated one of the great military Empires of the West . -And. Kiev and other towns were given over to fire and sword. in Eastern Europe during the thirteenth century is worth consideration in this twentieth century.part in Western European affairs . another Asiatic power. This is probably because he was an Asiatic barbarian. of much the same race and of very recent growth. . while every sort of cruelty and horror was inflicted upon their ruined inhabitants. or the Turks of Adrianople and Constantinople . and bequeathed no organised empire to his descendants . the Tartar tribes who succeeded them carried on the like depredations . should have carried all before him . if not for centuries . Batu indeed was not nearly so successful in this respect as the Saracens of Spain.or the Turks at the same time and two and three hundred years later. For many generations after Batu and his Mongols were gathered to their fathers and fellow-butchers. Unlike his remote kinsmen. Kublai Khan in China and Baber in India. in fact. not possessed of overwhelming numbers. The invaders still seemed to have no idea of using the subjugated population to produce wealth for themselves. In 1389 another rush forward occurred under the great Timour the Tartar. only one important incident in that long succession of ferocious Tartar assaults which threw back the development of Eastern Europe for generations. Batu and his invincible Mongols constituted. Batu's wonderful strategy and tactics have not received as much attention from historians or students of military affairs as might have been expected . within twenty years. and played no obvious. he did not combine statesmanship with military powers of the first order. In 1382 the cities of the Ukraine and Northern Russia were sacked and burned by them one after the other . when. Massacre and torture for the sake of massacre and torture seemed sufficient incentive for them. Yet that an Asiatic commander. In 1558 again.-Moscow.

say Eastern Europeans. which suffered only from the Tartar terror at a distance. and remained. Even so late as 165o. this is not so in Eastern Europe. was far more enduring in its results than that of their cousins the Tartars and Mongols in the North . which the descendants of the unfortunate Serbs were of late sadly recalling. Though their first serious European campaign only began in 1341. though much slower. a great Tartar irrup tion laid waste Eastern Europe. will reduce the richest country to ruin. while their country was subject to Turkish colonisation . which went far. was fought in 1389 . We English may talk of the high qualities which the Turks as soldiers unquestionably possess. where the constant presence of the Turks to the South has served to remind the inhabitants of what' their forefathers underwent at the hands of still more ferocious enemies than these . but we have never undergone their rule . smaller leaders readily filled their place. Turks and goats together. to destroy an entire civilisation among the Ruthenians and Little Russians. and the hordes themselves made up by their persistence and daring for their lack of ability. With the Turk in Sicily and a conquering . However this may be. their domination of Asia Minor. If the marauders lacked great captains in the.for centuries under Turkish rule. After the capture of Constantinople in 1453 Asiatics in Europe became for centuries a dreaded factor in European politics . has faded in the West.these oncoming tidal waves of human conquest and desolation had all the appearance of irresistible natural phenomena . Syria. The success of the Turks. Palestine and Egypt helped to divert the route of European commerce. If the remembrance of such events. as their conquest of the African littoral threatened to give them permanent control of the Mediterranean . and "the crowning mercy` of Kossovo for the Moslem. they were soon firmly settled at Adrianople. Then the Slavs were remorselessly crushed. later raids. .

Though the battle of Lepanto in 1571 is generally spoken of as marking the decay of the Turkish power. in 1700. England and France. coming to rescue the Austrian armies. I wish to remind those who may consider the renewal of such assaults impossible. the liberties of the West seemed once. what a very serious part Asia played for many centuries in European affairs . while Greece was" completely overwhelmed and Austria and Hungary sn cessfully invaded. under John Sobieski. more imperilled by Asiatic greed and ferocity. however. under modern conditions. barely eight generations ago. These latter events are. it was more than a century later when the Poles. defeated the Turks in their second siege of Vienna. Not until 1830 was the den of Turkish pirates at. . 16 The Awakening of Asia . thus bringing the Turks to the European Council table . both of whom had previously entered into very close relations with the Ottoman Porte were in direct alliance with her against Christian Russia. marks the end of the Turkish offensive in Europe. Twenty-four years later still. The peace of Karlovitz. Yet even the near approach of danger and ruin failed to convince European States of the necessity for combination against their common enemy . army within a few days' march of Rome.Algiers destroyed by Lord Exmouth . and put -a limit to their career of conquest on land . only incidents itt wars which Europe originated and carried on . In giving a summary of the attacks on Europe by purely Asiatic forces. This was in 1681.

the European nations themselves were beginning to force their commerce and their religion on the peoples of the Ear East. Christian fanaticism and commercial greed for pin went hand in hand on their Eastern expeditions . As the very same period when Tartars and Turks were thus achieving the conquest. Their early methods of dealing with 17 . which consequently fell into the hands of the Mohammedan invaders. partly furnished the means whereby their armies were financed` in their.by Arabs and other Mohammedan peoples is undoubted. who rejoiced at. the terror of whose arms was quite a recent memory . from the Persian Gulf to the Mediterranean Sea. These Portuguese adventurers were the pioneers of European trade and settlement in India. of the great commercial advantages they had I previously enjoyed. That the interchange of goods between East and West. This was at once recognised by the Portuguese dis c overers themselves. It has been ingeniously suggested that' the monopoly of such commerce. and domination of a large part of Europe. attacks upon Europe. The discovery by Bartholomew Diaz of the i new route round the Cape of Good Hope threatened from the first to deprive the Moslem communities. was very largely conducted for centuries . in Portugal as well as in Spain . the double blow they might thus strike at the Moors. Since the success of the later waves of Mczagolian invasion in Asia Minor the old trade routes to India and China had been blocked to European merchants.. .

district.or keeping watch over the goods . or wheresoever it may be bound. . The European says : "There is no place in all India where contentment is more universal than at Calicut. and was shown no courtesy by its chief. who was ruler of the whole . . Security and justice are so firmly established in this city that the most wealthy merchants bring thither from maritime countries considerable cargoes. without thinking in the meantime of checking the accounts . i8 The Awakening of Asia peoples more civilised and more moral than themsely formed a pattern upon which their successors in the sarA~e field too often modelled their conduct . One of their fi st points of attack was the city of Calicut. . both on account of the fertility and beauty of the country and . on the Ma Coast of India. if they are not sold they make no charge on them whatsoever . The following accounts of this place. who have built two mosques and meet every Friday to offer up prayer . whatever place it may come from. which they unload and unhesitatingly send to the markets and bazaars. before and after the arrival of the Portuguese. the other by a Catholic European "The town is inhabited by infidels [Hindoos] and situated on a hostile shore. when it puts into this port is treated like other vessels. In Calicut every ship." Yet this. . the Samuri. . The officers of the custom-house take upon themselves the charge of looking after the merchandise. It contains a number of Mohammedans who are constant residents. traveller was not favourable to Calicut. and has no trouble of any kind to put up with. The first description is by a Shiah Mohammedan. give some idea of the Asiatic society which these bigoted barbarians of Europe regarded simply as a fine opportunity for proselytism and plunder . over which they keep watch night and day . . When a sale is effected they make on them a charge of one-fortieth part.

Almeida and Albuquerque. Vasco da Gama in par ticular resorted to tortures. for the King permits the . In 1502. to all gratuitously. butcheries and atrocities on r peaceful noncombatants worthy of the Germans in the late war. religion. They were guilty from the outset of the most hideous and wanton cruelty. who had published a Bull according the East and West Indies to Spain and Portugal. Arabia and Persia. But they and their suc- . And they carried out their programme with the utmost religious and commercial zeal . confirmed the claim of King Emanuel to the title of "Lord of the conquest.' . habits and customs of the people with whom they came to trade. So that the admir able administration of this portion of the country was continuous. Justice is well adexercise of every kind of religion ministered and awarded. By their activity and predatory genius.: accorded to them there ." It was under this Christian rescript that the Portuguese acted . by reason of the liberty and security. and made a fine capital of Goa . seized. . who were quite ignorant of the Ianguage. navigation and commerce of India. (Borgia). The Portuguese. It is the busiest and most full of all traffic and commerce in the wholeof India . Ethiopia. the Mohammedan having been there sixty-three years before. because the Samuri refused to turn all Mohammedans out of his territory . it has merchants from all parts of the world and of all nations and religions. Special outrages were committed at the same port of Calicut. the two ablest governors or viceroys of the Portuguese King. the infamous Pope Alexander VI.The Portuguese Pioneers of intercourse with men of all religions who live there in the free exercise of their owh religion. burst in upon the civilised folk inhabiting the Malabar Coast like a set of Barbary pirates or Tartar marauders." An Italian 'traveller bears similar testimony to the condition of the place in 1505.

the whole atmosphere of the Portuguese settlements was such that they would be exposed to the most terrible moral dangers : "There is a power here.. Piracy became the rule on the sea. andis hardly counted a fault . Writing to a Jesuit friend in 1545. where besides the seductions of gain and the easy opportunities of plunder. religious persecution the law of the colony. and there will be a whole torrent of low examples and evil customs to overwhelm them and sweep them away. Religion only added theological ferocity to the fury of the mercantile instinct . Robbery is so public and so common that it hurts no one's character. However honest and trustworthy they might be. such were the charms of civilisation which Europe transmitted to Asia by Albuquerque the Great and other Portuguese leaders . St. to thrust men headlong into the abyss. hoarding and . harmless fishermen hanged wholesale. it is rapine. Things went from 'bad to worse . Francis Xavier landed in India on his great mission to the heathen of the Eastern world in 1542 . Hindus and Mohammedans alike found no respect for their souls nor any mercy for their bodies. which I may call irresistible. their appetites for greed will be sharpened by having tasted it. if they ran counter to the ideas of the bigoted priests who only desired for them eternal salvation . robbery and bribery the recognised concomitants of adKnimaionn all round. He was on friendly terms with some of the Portuguese leaders and closely connected with them . people scarcely hesitate to think that what is done with impunity it cannot be bad to " -Everywhere. Eyes torn out. 20 The Awakening of Asia cessors were worthy followers of da Gama in cold-blooded cruelty and rapine. women's noses cut off. and at all times. Albuquerque was a poisoner of the Samuri : the priests were the poisoners of prisoners . he strongly adjured him on no account to allow any of his friends to be sent to India to look after the finances and affairs of the king.

On the contrary. with this reorganisation. and returned to die in poverty. When the Dutch and English competition began in earnest they were unable to meet it successfully. became Governor. as an able man. Here and there an upright as well. have been added in this lingo of avarice to the conjugation of that illomened verb `to rob . of Asia. and the Portuguese in India failed to extend their power inland."' As it was.. so it went on.21 robbery. No one thinks of making restitution of what he has once taken. such as Botelho. he was thwarted in every possible way by the king and his Court. rather than go further afield to spread his own creed among Asiatics whose morality and general conduct were infinitely higher than theirs. like Albuquerque in his great enterprises. and did what he could to remedy an almost unendurable state of things. It is possible that had Portugal remained independent of Spain a better system might have been introduced. But. no such reform was made. who can count? I never cease wondering at the number of new inflections which. somepermanence secured for the scattered Portuguese "Empire. and the whole piratical adventure faded into insignificance. The devices by which men plunder. in addition to all the usual forms. From all which it might appear that Xavier himself would have done better to direct his missionary enterprise to the conversion of Europeans. not supported from home in his endeavours to establish common honesty and decent behaviour among Portuguese officials and merchants. leaving only the ruins of Goa to recall opportunities missed and ill-gotten wealth accuniulated in the early days of Europe's modern invasion. the various pretexts under which it is done. ' Boteiho was. and. As the Portuguese Empire began.One characteristic of theseearlier inroads of Christian Europe upon the Far East is worth remembering' at the .

seventeenth and the early part of the eighteenth. convince themselves thatour goods. our administration. These monarchs. Far from it. In the sixteenth. wealth.present time . China and Japan was deferential. our teachers were so immeasurably superior to those of the benighted heathen whom it was part of the white man's burden to bring into the fold of Western civilisation. power and magnificence. our methods. All the travellers and adventurers of the early days of commerce and piracy enlarge upon the splendour of the countries they were making ready to exploit . Not until the latter half of the nineteenth century did Europeans. The behaviour of European merchants and missionaries to the great and even to the smaller rulers of India. and in many cases even servile. century there was none of that arrogant confidence in the superiority of the white race over all races of a different colour. and more particularly the English. our philosophy. alike in culture. as the most important European envoys were ready to admit . . which later became so marked a feature in the attitude of Europe towards the Eastern peoples. our religion. viceroys and chieftains compared favourably with their own royal personages.

The Chinese. even after taking account of the annexations of Chinese territory by France in Cochin China and Tonquin. there will be as little difference between the districts ' of ' Northern and Southern. the Liaotung Peninsula' and Formosa. as members of. Their "Brotherhood of the Four Seas" is a very ancient formula of their 23 . the written language is the same all over the Empire .000 people in the Chinese Empire as now delimited. As the communications between the most populous districts are being rapidly improved and general education is spreading. the generally accepted estimate is that there'are'fully 350.000. within fifty years from the present date.that. Such an enormous population has never before been gathered together under one rule in the history of the. world. though devoted to their local autonomy. this or that province. and by Japan in Korea. or Eastern and Western China as there is between the talk of ordinary Yorkshiremen.CHAPTER III CHINA IN THE PAST ALTHOUGH no accurate census has ever been taken of China. This appears to be correct. Though the inhabitants of many of the Provinces cannot understand one another's speech. have a clear conception of the unity of their race . They have fully recognised for centuries. and its numbers are believed to be steadily increasing. and even for thousands of years. that they all belong to the same great Empire .and that of the agricultural labourers of Devonshire and Sorrier setshire . it is quite probable. by Russia in Manchuria and Mongolia.

may quite conceivably be realised. How is it that this huge Empire. Nothing like this has been seen in all human history. Even the ablest of Tartar Emperors could do-no snore than continue the methods of civil organisation which were there when his dynasty began and remained when his dynasty ended. Even the last Manchu rulers felt compelled to accept Chinese for at least three-fourths of the most important administrative posts throughout the Empire. They. as the history of China and the Chinese is briefly surveyed and brought down to our own day . This ideal. write and cast accounts-how is it that so important. The Chinese have remained under the same domestic rule for thousands of years. The conquerors were conquerors and remained the rulers at the top. were themselves captured by Chinese civilisation and found themselves powerless in the face of passive civil resistance . That so stubborn and well-organised a people. but the administrators remained administrators century after century beneath them. either by pressure from without or by the manifest need of reorganisation on a large scale within. Through all the wars and anarchical revolts their system of government has gone on practically as it is to-day. There are two questions which necessarily arise. a country should have fallen so often a victim to the barbarous hordes from the North and West? China has never decayed as an' administrative unit in the same way that the Roman Empire or other great Empires have declined. and common nationality is aroused. therefore. like their predecessors. as the patriotism of common race. Though no more than ideal to-day. capable . intelligent and educated men-for practically all Chinamen can read. with its multitudes of vigorous. 24 The Awakening of Asia national aspirations. as if no change had been made. it is still cherished almost unconsciously in the hearts and minds of the people. civilised.

by tribes whose sole vocation was plunder and slaughter. should have failed. they acted up to their tenets for generations. Chinese. The. The records of China thus' convey one long warning against national disarms. This was their ordinary rule of life . during the greater part of their history.ment and contempt.by the teachings of Confucius and his predecessors that th abhorred war-even in self-defence. unready and . so long as there exist within striking distance of the highly-moralised pear worshipping country other peoples ' who have not yet attained to this elevated standard of human conduct . as a nation. grades of society were all superior to the soldier. not only accepted religions. The various. were they . they had no conception.even against the most unprovoked attacks. essentially industrious and industrial community. therefore. China in the Past 25. were Pacifists of Pacifists. easy-going. also. Save on very rare occasions. but. time after time.< and. Their own latent = power they little understood and rarely used. So completely moralised. under vigorous leadership of amazing efforts. for its defence rarely came in touch with the mass of the population . They were easily overcome and mastered. unfortunately for themselves. for military training. Thus the soldier held no place in this calm. The Chinese.' Everything else was secondary to this . the foundation of whose creed was peace and fraternity. in short. The Great Wall was built too shut out for ever all possible assaults. that is to say. Lack . among all mankind. unwilling to make the preparations necessary to defend themselves. of the need of a public force for public defence . time after time to make head against their enemies was due to the fact that they were too civilised for their epoch in every sense. they regarded peaceful production and distribution for themselves and the community at large as the chief object in life. and the troops required. The man who made the trade of arms his profession was regarded by them as a Pariah .

It has been calculated that China has suffered from no fewer than twenty-three of these inroads and conquests by barbarians from the North and North-West.D . The last successful national upheaval of this kind (before the expulsion of the Manchus and establishment of the Chinese Republic) was the revolt against the Tartar Imperial domination. however. At intervals. though it appears to have begun in a noticeable shape towards the close of the Ming dynasty . raised and drilled a powerful army of native Chinese. from 1368 to 1643 . this compact of pacifism has been broken through. 1368 . It lasted only from A. At the latter date.D. swept aside the successor of the great Kublai.' then. when nations and Empires reach a certain stage of growth they lose their initiative. the Manchu Tartars came down upon the fold and held the throne of China from 1643 to 191 i . and subordinating his fanatic ecstasies and anchorite abnegation to his patriotism. It is difficult to assign any precise date to the commencement of this period of intellectual apathy. and founded the celebrated Chinese Ming dynasty. This Mongol dynasty was short-lived. abandoning the pacifism of his creed. founded by Kublai Khan. owing to her persistent refusal to organise her people for armed resistance . 26 The Awakening of Asia of military training. they have risen against and overthrown a specially obnoxious barbarian Emperor . Then. is no explanation of such a long period of arrested development as that to be observed in China . a famous Buddhist monk. under the leadership of exceptionally capable men of their own race. . merely invites attack . . when. the conqueror who endeavoured to follow up his victories on the mainland by his ill-fated expedition for the subjugation of Japan . which lasted for nearly three hundred years. decay and fall into the rear of more vigorous peoples. the kingdom of peace having once more been instituted. 1280 to A . The general theory that.

which had enabled the Chinese to surpass their neighbours in civilisation. brilliant race. the. the faculty. Such widespread supremacy was based upon knowledge and adventurous energy more than upon force. and could be detected long before opium had become a curse to the' country. which is essentially individual. and was content to remain within the limits of intellectual accomplishment and scientific and industrial achievement it had already reached in the preceding epoch. Yet individually the Chinese give no sign either of physical deterioration or of mental decay. as well as many improvements in engineering. and enabled them. which had set the pace for mankind in almost all directions. to civilise and educate Japan. No step forward is apparent for centuries. In North and South alike they apparently retain the fine qualities which secured for them their marked pre-eminence. the mariner's compass. as is believed. to establish a flourishing Colony in distant_ Africa. among these people who gave Europe. China in the Past 27 Possibly the competitive system. gunpowder. besides the ceramic and other arts . and greatly to influence even Eastern Bengal . which became more and more a mere barren memorising of the Chinese classics. many hundreds of years ago.of initiative. was not due to the earlier or later Tartar invasions. Having no stereotyped caste system to split . discovery. This lapse from the general vigour and continuous advance in intelligence. The great. Conceivably. masterful. stunted the minds of the learned section of the community . However that may be-and such guesswork leads no whither invention. adoption of ideas and improvements from other countries all seemed gradually to stop from the period indicated onwards . ceased to move forward. to dominate Nepal and Burmah. may have been blighted by some unknown physiologic or psychologic cause. the art of printing. to pervade the whole of the Eastern seas with their commerce.

or to encourage the study of science. so much of the old organisation and old knowledge remained. Confucianism. which dominates daily action. The Chinese ethic is quite sound as an exposition of the best side of their entire social system. Only the impetus was lacking . straightforward. nor any hereditary nobility to check democratic initiative or cripple popular administration. persistent. yet. Nowhere is the influence of the family greater or more beneficial . who have close knowledge of them and continuous dealings with them as the Chinese. The extreme complexity of their language. and separate it into almost impermeable stratifications. is a noble ethical creed. The machinery for progress was all to hand . cheerful. the purely literary form of their competitive examinations may be little calculated to secure the best men for administrative posts. though there was then no perceptible advance. Industrious. that. clear that they were not cramped by worn-out institutions which prevented them from following the bent of their natural capacity. no set-back in Chinese morals. was no greater in the period of intellectual immobility than it had been for centuries before. as hinted above. there was at least no retrograde movement. or than it is to-day . a possible hindrance. There is no people throughout the East so much respected and admired by those. honourable and courteous-these are the terms commonly used by men of our own race who . loyal. it is . geometry and practical engineering. the most widespread of Chinese religions. Marked ability was still displayed in astronomy. even in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. There has been. also. speaking generally.up their social life. even in regions where other religious forms are popular and are accepted by the masses . whether Asiatics or Europeans. Though also. apart from the dreadful opium-smoking disease forced upon the country by Europeans .

The conservatism of this country of small properties and ancient usages has been shaken to its foundations.China in the Past have lived-among them and have taken pains tostudy their character. The China of the past is rapidly fading. But the movement has begun. That the Chinese are quite capable of holding their own with Europeans in almost any sort of employment is one of the difficulties of the near future. part in the future of humanity. .of our trade unions. . Chinese merchants and bankers have little to learn from European experts in the same line of business. All this being true. and the Chinese of the present are taking up the line of their own historic achievements and will play a great. The great industrial Hooeys require no teaching even from the most efficient. the marvel is still unexplained how this gifted people' should have remained at the same stage of development for centuries. The latent capacities still exist. possibly the greatest. until they are now being forced forward by external pressure.

therefore. But it is further stated that the Christian creed made so much progress that it was regarded as dangerous. it is strange. that Gibbon and his commentators. 781 . in the partial success of a Nestorian mission to the Far East . the genuineness of the monument is not necessarily doubtful .CHAPTER IV CHRISTIANITY IN THE FAR EAST THE claim of the Nestorian Christians to have "estab- lished" Christianity in China in the seventh century is based upon the discovery of a monument at Singau-Fu purporting to record their work from A . there should be no trace of this in the Chinese annals of the period . strange and seemingly immutable Empire of China was for many centuries practically unknown to the 30 . 636 to A . however.D. who accept the authenticity of the record. and was crushed out so completely that nothing of it was left but this monument . if the new creed made any great impression in the capital.D. or in the provinces. and appears to have eluded the famous travellers in China who came later on the scene. Though direct evidence of this missionary effort is hard to discover. nor does there seem to be any special reason why the Jesuits of the seventeenth century should have forged such a statement in stone . Assuming. are correct. This vast. There is nothing impossible. or even improbable. if true. Their propaganda is stated by Gibbon to have gone on as late as the thirteenth century . The story. is only another strong piece of evidence against the value of the zealous and self-sacrificing attempts of European missionaries to convert the Chinese .

and their knowledge of astronomy and mathematics. if not guide. The history of Jesuit propaganda in China and Japan in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries shows the influence of Europe upon Asia in a much more important light than does the commercial progress which was being made at the same time. that the European missionaries found their way to China and gained a footing there. The Jesuits. were careful not to run counter to the feelings of the people .Christianity in the Far East 31 West . and cured the people of obstinate ailments without shocking their prejudices. whose ethical . they kept the Christianity which they taught to a great extent on the plane of the ancient' Chinese religions . but in many of the provinces' The Chinese were not then bitter against foreigners-they went so far as to appoint the father of Marco Polo a viceroy-nor opposed to the Christian religion . Occasional travellers found their way there and. They used their skill in medicine. At one moment it even appeared as if the Jesuits would soon control. by papal decree. rather than to hinder. like Marco Polo. By adopting the Chinese dress and making themselves proficient as far as possible in speaking and writing the Chinese language they did their utmost to remove any objections to themselves as mere "foreign barbarians. brought back astonishing accounts of Chinese civilisation to their own people . They took good care not to attack the teachings of Confucius. to aid the literary class in extending their sphere of attainment. More important still.was their influence not only over the Emperor Kuang-Hi himself at Peking. the Chinese Empire. They made their first converts in 1584 ." deficient alike in culture and manners . the propaganda of the new creed . with their statesmanlike astuteness. but it was not until after the known world had been divided :between the two great Catholic powers. so great. and the Chinese authorities under instruction of the Court were disposed to help.

as they did not prevent them from embracing Christianity itself. and a systematic persecution began. had been done . and entirely eschew the religious sentiments which. although this mistake was remedied by his successor. Thus the great success achieved by early missionaries in the seventeenth century was completely obliterated in the eighteenth. The Jesuit fathers. Franciscans and Dominicans. the Chinese all became suspicious. the more far-seeing Jesuits permitted their flock to retain. This change of atti- . The Chinese converts must accept the whole of the somewhat complicated doctrines of the Church of Rome. Probably they would have continued to be so. Above all. were flouted. Moreover. Thereupon. 32 The Awakening of Asia religion was accepted by countless millions not wholly emancipated from less material or more superstitious creeds . from the Catholic point of view. constitute the basis of Chinese social and religious life. and took no heed to disguise their personal and sectarian differences from the Chinese officials and public . which. the new-comers. and the propaganda' has never recovered from the antagonism thus aroused . not content with this ill judged and untimely intolerance. allowed it to appear that religious control might easily extend to civil dominance. came into the field and denounced all such attempts to inculcate Christianity "along the line of least resistance" as a criminal compromise with the Evil One . in various forms. they never interfered with the close family relations and ancient rites of ancestor-worship. Owing to this prudence. the many Christians they had converted were maltreated. but for the appearance on the scene of more bigoted and far less tolerant professors of their faith . the mischief. The Pope unwisely supported the stricter sect of propagandists and. who had obtained all but supreme influence in China. circumspection and regard for the feelings of the people they were surprisingly successful.

and minutiae of ceremonial. and the . the Catholic missionaries were aiming at the overthrow of ancier Chinese civil as well as religious institutions . children of a famous father must distinguish themselves or fall into obscurity. generally speaking. though of course priests of a rival' creed took advantage of popular ill-feeling against the foreigners who undermined and weakened. in maintaining order. And this was true. which we ourselves appreciate because it is almost innate in . It arose from the conviction that. It is greatly to the credit of the Jesuits that they were still able to recognise and to record the high character of the great nation with whom they had so unfortunately come into conflict . but nevertheless necessary. or at least useful. in Japan. about the same time. The following. AA man can only rise by study and work . respect for the aged. As. based on filial piety. possibly trifling in themselves. in one way or another. will be seen. No modern friend of China has given a more appreciative account of this fine people "The Chinese. have very charming manners.their own cult . the same causes produced even more serious effects. sketch of the Chinese character and conduct by French Jesuit fathers in China was written after the tide of prosecution had begun to flow furiously against their coreligionists . Christianity in the Far East 33 tude on the part of the Chinese was not due to religious rancour . peace and confidence . "Education is excellent in China : it is. If their character lacks the attractive vivacity . . there are schools in all the towns where the young are taught at the expense of the Government. and undergo stiff examinations before being promoted to the three grades of literature which give the right to official employment and honours . it is likewise far removed from the sudden anger and violence with which many Europeans may be taxed . "There is no hereditary nobility.

the peoples are so accustomed to it. as a Mandarin is the father of the town he governs. but they are perhaps more uncommon. "All the tribunals are so subordinated that it is almost impossible that prejudice. so mild in China."Jurisprudence. and the doctrine of Confucius. some sad exceptions. not of a tyrant. "Nothing contributes more to the tranquillity which this vast Empire enjoys than the police to bb seen in the towns . and no judge can put a citizen to death except in case of sedition and revolt . severe. under penalty of losing their position. It is precise. precaution and paternal care. as every civil or criminal case is submitted to the decision of one or several superior Courts . they are not tolerated. vigilant. "This constitution of government is so natural. or corruption influence the judgments. There are. The Emperor is the father and mother of the Empire . Errors and even crimes are committed . nevertheless. The fiat of the Emperor himself is needed for the humblest of the people as for the greatest lord. and the Mandarins are responsible. "When it is a question of condemning a man to death. A Viceroy is the father of the province where he rules. the celebrated philosopher who lived about 500 years before Christ. and kings and peoples have sometimes experienced that it is very difficult never to abuse absolute power . the Chinese people are like other people everywhere . that they cannot imagine a better . is the basis of all studies . "They obey out of respect. they order with consideration. position. "In spite of so much wisdom. and when firmness is needed it is that of a father. ethics. Chinese characters are the sciences chiefly taught in the Chinese schools. "The political administration of China rests solely upon the mutual duties of fathers and children . for the least disorder which takes place in their department . no precaution seems excessive to the Chinese . and vice does .

nor from criticising vigorously other objectionable features of Chinese social : life. especially in the interior of the Empire. "This nation also must not be judged by what strangers tell us. trade flourishes there. as in convents." But these favourable views of the Chinese did not prevent the Jesuits from denouncing the sale and maltreatment of children. get up in the night to worship their idols. and astronomy as well as geometry are assiduously cultivated . They are bound to have knowledge of these principles in order to excavate and complete the immense canals which traverse the various provinces and serve to protect them against inundations as well as to facilitate the communications which are necessary in such a vast Empire. and sing many songs in a manner which closely resembles our psalmody. Though Christianity. The priests of Satan have long robes which fall to their feet. boldly. They live together in their pagodas. The following passage shows also that the worthy fathers-for in China they were worthy.was never numerically strong. who have only. Nowhere in the world has the Devil better imitated the holy ceremonies with which the Lord is worshipped in the true Church . in . go forth to beg in the streets. which was then too common. seen it superficially and who only know its outside . for on the coasts and in the frontier towns commerce with strangers -has changed the character of the Chinese and the purity of their morals . with very large sleeves that precisely resemble those of some European clergy." It would be interesting to read the comments of a learned Buddhist on this amusing passage . Thus : "Bonzes are here in very great numbers .Christianity in the Far East 35 not thus flaunt itself. as well as self-sacrificing and wonderfully courageous-were not devoid of very bitter prejudices in favour of their own faith. "Agriculture is held in great honour in China .

in order to avenge upon their own persons the death of a great chief. was organised by war for war. These Shoguns themselves. however. supreme in the various tribes. Weakened by injudicious intolerance. in accordance with ancestral custom. China at the date of the arrival and subsequent success of the Jesuits was a vast Empire organised by peace for peace . of these religious zealots . The fighting retainers of these provincial magnates were probably as brave and devoted a set of warriors as ever took the field. Japan. But the results of their efforts have been very trifling . Catholic and Protestant missionaries have carried on their propaganda unceasingly. Christianity was then crushed by cruel persecution . China even then had probably more than 300. and might have taken root permanently as one of the recognised creeds of the Empire . with a tenth of this population. the Catholic religion exercised great and beneficial influence. They have indeed so far only helped to bring about those organised and unorganised risings against foreigners which are tending to combine all China in a demand for the final exclusion. or the real or imaginary wrongs from which they themselves had suffered . or committed suicide.36 ' The Awakening of Asia China it is beyond question that at one time. the Daimyos. owing to the extraordinary partiality for its votaries shown by the Emperor Kuang-Hi. Japan at the same time was controlled by a caste which. who were supreme in their several provinces. in the face of great difficulties and dangers. The contrast between the two countries was very marked. was nominally ruled by the Mikado but really by a succession of Mayors of the Palace with the name of Shogun. were then no more than the heads of the great feudal nobles.000 inhabitants and was governed by a set of literati who owed their civil positions to their success in purely academic examinations.000. It has never recovered . . enjoyed the luxury of individual combat.

The first Jesuit missionaries. foreign nations except the Chinese who then carried on commerce with the Japanese were the Dutch and Portuguese. The ancient religion of the country. a highly developed form of ancestorworship. far more remote than . who began their work in 1550. favoured Christianity. on account of its interference in political affairs . As they gained strength in certain provinces. and. The picturesque charm and pleasing manners of the inhabitants delighted all visitors in those_ days from which modern Japan is now so distant. that is to say. two hundred churches in Japan. Their Samurai followed their lead and appeared with. By the year 1581. the reigning Shoguns. There were. imported from China. under the leadership of the Jesuits.. a banner bearing the Cross as their emblem. This religious invasion from Europe was much more successful in Japan than was the simultaneous movement in China . Christianity had grown popular and was spreading throughout the islands. The only. who were forced by competition beyond their usual politic action . The introduction of Christianity into Japan by the Portuguese missionaries was in fact the very greatest danger which has ever threatened that country. All the worst features of religious 37 many . the Christians became furiously intolerant . regarded with distrust and dislike by the ablest of the Shoguns. Owing their civilisation entirely to the Chinese. like the' Emperor of China. then . partly in this case as an antidote to dominant Buddhism. Shintoism. had been overlaid to a great extent by Buddhism. they developed a domestic life and art of their own which in _some respects surpassed the teaching of their instructors. Many of the great Daimyos were converted. despite its widespread influence. At first. and in z585 a Japanese religious embassy was sent to Rome.Christianity in the Far East The people of old Japan have been described by writers . were Portuguese . the actual four hundred years . within a generation.

The Awakening of Asia
rancour were manifested . Thousands of Buddhist temples were burnt down, Buddhist priests were slaughtered wholesale, and ancient works of art were destroyed to an enormous extent . The Jesuits as well as the Franciscans and Dominicans praised these outbreaks as evidence of the highest religious zeal . Thereupon followed the natural reaction against the new faith . This reaction began, as Christianity had spread, locally in the provinces . The central authority, not then so powerful as it became later, acted at first with extreme leniency in regard to the teachers of Christianity and their votaries . From that point of view the Jesuits and even the Dominicans had little to complain of . They were given full liberty to propagate their religious doctrines, so long as those doctrines, when accepted by the nobles and the people, carried with them no menace to the existing society . Even the earlier outrages by the Christians were condoned. They were warned to keep within limits in their action, but their preaching was unfettered . Japanese tolerance was, in fact, at this period remarkable. The success which accompanied the Jesuit missions is surprising. For Christianity was "essentially opposed to all the beliefs and traditions upon which Japanese society was founded." Owing to the caution and policy of the originators of the mission, this was not observed at the beginning of their work . Those who accepted the doctrines did not show hostility to the old creed and old observances, which were essentially collective in their essence. Christianity, on the other hand, is a religion of the individual, with what appears to all who regard human society' as an organised whole, something of an Anarchist taint . Sooner or later, therefore, the spread of the Christian religion meant hot only the weakening of other religions but the sapping of State authority itself . Ancient Rome was tolerant of all creeds and gave the most various deities from

Christianity in the Far East

39

all parts of the world, welcome in the Imperial City. It was only when the Christians showed, as individuals, a disposition to revolt against the Roman State that Trajan, the most tolerant and magnanimous of Emperors, permitted them to be persecuted . It was not their worship but their theories of civil life he objected to . Those theories and their accompanying actions struck at the roots of human society, as Trajan and his friends understood it . So in. Japan . ,From the point of view of highly enlightened and capable Japanese rulers and statesmen, Christianity struck not only at Buddhism and Shintoism, but at all ancient customs and all ancient laws . To the Japanese State it was a cruel and subversive creed which would wreck the old ideas of devotion to ancestors, loyalty to the district, tribe and superior, filial piety and family duty. For this was substituted sheer anarchy under the foreign leadership and foreign domination of the Pope and his agents. Yet, had it not been for the rashness of the Dominicans and the destructive intolerance of the converts, egged on by these religious zealots, the Catholic propaganda might easily have got so far as to render any attempt at suppression futile. But the furious zeal of the newly arrived monks and the outrages which ; they planned and fomented rendered their position wholly untenable . Christianity by itself was acceptable to a growing minority : Christianity wedded to fanatical revolt could hope for no mercy from the people at large. Civil and religious liberty in every sense is the end and aim of every progressive community. But that stage had not then been reached in Japan. Persecution is immoral and reactionary, whether used against Catholics or Socialists . Yet the adherents of any faith who set to _work to burn and slay and destroy, in the name of their supernatural or material deity, can scarcely complain if the same weapons are turned against themselves . The Japanese at length felt that the Christians con-

40

The Awakening of Asia

stituted a desperate danger to the whole State, of which the reorganisation and partial centralisation under the Shoguns had only just begun . Clemency and consideration produced no effect. The Jesuits and their brother priests paid little or no attention to remonstrance, or mild measures of repression . At last the foreigners and their followers joined battle in earnest with the Japanese authority as represented by the Shogun. In i6o6 an Edict was promulgated forbidding all further' Christian propaganda and declaring that all converts must abandon Christianity . It was a strong measure and one inevitably bound to be followed up by vigorous action, unless Japan was to undergo a Christian revolution, for which the country, as a whole, was quite unprepared. Unfortunately, the monastic orders who were in control paid no attention to this enactment . They thought they were already strong enough to resist successfully the central power. The fathers deceived themselves . But their preparations and the support they had received from the Christian Daimyos and their warlike followers showed clearly that the Shogun and his Council had by no means underrated the peril they had to face. The renewed propaganda of the Catholics brought into Japan not peace but a sword with a vengeance . From religious antagonism the struggle developed into ferocious civil war, in which bigotry and patriotism strove furiously for mastery. As the rebellion spread and the real issues at stake became plain, the more powerful of the Daimyos withdrew their support from the Christian armies. But the struggle went desperately on . By degrees, from 1617 onwards, the fighting became more and more barbarous, the most horrible tortures being inflicted upon the foreign priests and their converts. The great Shogun Iyeyasu and his son and successor were finally victorious, after twenty years of continuous fighting. The war ended in the siege and capture of

Christianity in ' the Far East

41

the great sea-fortress Hara, where tens of thousands of the insurgents--who had appealed for'foreign help from without-were put to the sword by a powerful Government army. This occurred in 1638. It was regarded as a terrible lesson by victors- and vanquished alike . Thenceforward Christianity has had no hold on Japan. So serious,' however, had been the effort of the Chris, tians, to obtain civil and religious control, and so costly to the country was their suppression, that Japan then cut itself off definitely from European intercourse . Only the Dutch< were allowed even to trade under very stringent conditions . All European ships, except the Dutch, entering Japanese ports were destroyed, and Japanese who left Japan could not return. Thus, within a hundred years, Europeans and their religion, after amazing success, were completely crushed and excluded from the country. For more than two centuries this policy of exclusion was maintained . Lafcadio Hearn explains the early success of Christianity on these grounds First, because at the beginning of their propaganda the Jesuits did not attack ancestor worship. Secondly, because the Catholic ceremonial was so like the Buddhist rites in every way-as we have already seen by the admission of the Jesuits themselves in China . Thirdly, the pressure brought to bear on the Christianised Daimyos, who were anxious to obtain European arms by commerce- with the Portuguese. Whether this was so or not, and much as Christians naturally regret the manner in which Japan relieved herself from the menace to her institutions that the spread of this religion inevitably involved, we cannot deny that the proceedings of the Catholic missionaries in China and Japan were, at first unintentionally,' but afterwards in both cases intentionally, directed towards establishing foreign influence and foreign control over the two most civilised nations of the Far East . It was a systematic invasion of great and ancient countries of a most

42

The

Awakening of

Asia

subtle character, which, but for the lack of discretion shown by some of . the fathers, might have led to disruption and national ruin . Asia is the land of long memories . These attempts to obtain civil domination through religious propaganda have never been forgotten either in China or in Japan . Though the Portuguese established a powerful Empire, with its capital at Goa, under the religious control of the Catholic Church, Christianity has never at any period achieved anything in India approaching to the success which it temporarily attained farther East . From the days of Francis Xavier until now, Christianity has made no way in Hindustan although for more than a hundred and fifty years a Christian ,nation has been the most powerful, and for nearly a hundred years the dominant, influence in that great country . We need not here consider why the Christian religion has so completely failed to make head against Brahminism and Mohammedanism .Thestrangcombition of trade, piracy, intrigue and conquest which gained for England her Indian Empire is a most important factor in the successful pressure upon the Far East and will, be dealt with fully later on .

it is fair to recall that. so far as is known. This increase was almost entirely due . chests a year had been used ih China. monopoly of the Mogul Government for more than a century.influence as beneficial to Asia. and espe cially' to English. trade. How far it has been so up to the present time the most enthusiastic believer in "The White : 43 . although opium had been a. in 1729 Up to that date. from the beginning of the eighteenth century onwards. They obtained domination over a people far superior to themselves through causes already-men tioned . and. I It is still the fashion to speak of European. from the first . The earliest Edict against the opium habit was promulgated in China nearly two hundred years ago. And in view of the end less denunciation which they now receive from their lately emancipated critics. But. the trade steadily increased. suppress it altogether.CHAPTER V OPIUM IN CHINA THERE is not much to praise in the rule of the Manchu . issued Imperial Edict after Imperial Edict to. and the best that can be said of them as administrators is that they did not do so much harm to their conquered subjects as might have been expected. they set their faces against the pernicious habit of opium-smoking. in spite of the opposition of the Peking Government and of the Chinese themselves . to European. Tartars in China. . tried their utmost to stop it. and all through. This was by the Emperor Yung Chang. until within' the past generation at any rate. only two hundred.

Certainly. the vigorous agitation of English philanthropists. where the people were devoted to opium-smoking. In whole districts. even the statements of leading English officials on the spot were pooh-poohed . solely in the interest of the vendors of this pernicious drug . English politicians or English statesmen . England forced more than one war upon the unfortunate and wholly unprepared Chinese. That made no difference to English merchants. the universal testimony of doctors and other independent witnesses as to the crime which was being committed against the physical and mental well-being of the Chinese was thrust aside . England seized Chinese territory in order to afford harbour .The Awakening of Asia Man's Burden" would find it exceedingly difficult to show . the adult male population slowly became incapable of any active exertion and gradually descended from crapulous debauchery into blank despair . nothing whatever has been done in China which can be regarded as the slightest makeweight against the hideous mischief brought upon the people of that great Empire by the opium traffic. There is no portion of English commercial history more shameful to our country or more degrading to the character of its traders . So opium was "good business. And no attention whatever was paid to the unceasing protests of the Chinese Government . Huge profits could be realised by comparatively small outlay . The vice destroyed by degrees both body and mind. was disregarded ." The lucky adventurers who had made millions out of the degradation of the Chinese exercised great political influence on their return home . and statesmen than the plain unvarnished record of the Opium Trade with China. in which the Quakers played a leading part. Poverty-stricken Indian finance could be helped by an opium monopoly . It was well known to its purveyors that opium-smoking was a curse to China in every possible way . The sole object of this nefarious trade was to make money . English capitalists.

Yet the trade went on steadily increasing. are not likely to forget in our day the conduct of the English Government in this important affair .' in order to obtain some control over this illegal traffic. In V73 the East India Company themselves took up and encouraged the opium trade which had previously been carried on by private merchants and individual adventurers. who have a good memory in such matters. with corresponding profits to the Company and their agents . when habitually used for smoking. this miserable opium trade is now being suppressed. They even went so far as to put the Company's servants under stringent regulations. Chinese Government to permit the growing of opium in China itself. The restrictions which the directors piously imposed a . Their published documents and correspondence denounced the use of the drug-whose baneful qualities. while claiming high morality. were well understood-except for medicinal purposes . The directors also. never allows any consideration of human wellbeing to interfere with its greed for gain. Happily. no longer by hundreds but by many thousands of chests year. England by her inhuman policy literally forced the . which forbade them to partake in the traffic. who landed increasing cargoes of opium in China in defiance of the Chinese Government . carried on in defiance of the enactments of the Chinese Government.Opium in China to her smugglers. But England bargained hard for its maintenance to the last. nothing could have been more straightforward and honourable than their conduct . declared their opposition to any illicit commerce. except by licence. I believe no Englishman can read a plain account of what was done without understanding why foreigners denounce his country as a nation which. under pain of instant dismissal . On the surface. The Company pursued much the same course' with the opium traffic that they did in regard to extension of their territory in India. And Asiatics.

"which poisons the Empire. They even extended the cultivation of opium in India more widely. goes to show that the trade was so nefariously conducted that its thoroughly piratical and infamous character was universally recognised . as well as to home cultivation of the poppy . from the trifling amount of 200 chests in 1729. So fatal was the traffic to China. in fact. These bandits gained in boldness by impunity. so outrageous the . So matters went on for more than half a century . quoted from official reports by Mr. to the great injury of the native farmers. The whole trade was. and again and again passed Edict after Edict against the smuggling of opium. whose managers resorted to every conceivable infamy in order to expand the shameful business . and their confidence that after 1835 they had the British Government at their back encouraged them still more . vessels used were furnished with large guns as well as other offensive weapons of all kinds. Samuel Rowntree and others. All the evidence. That is the simple truth . the successive Emperors were bitterly hostile to the importation. Although the Imperial Government of China never ceased to denounce this importation as ruinous to China. And this although. and direct smuggling from them was conducted by fast boats manned by sailors who themselves were armed to the teeth. The sales of opium had risen to 17. throughout." the local Chinese authorities and the combination of Chinese merchants known as the Hong were always ready to assist in a business which brought to the former a steady income in bribes and gave the latter enormous profits . The.out of "compassion for mankind" were continually relaxed out of regard for their own dividends . in order to meet the rapidly growing demand from China . conducted as a piratical smuggling war.000 chests in 1835. Fighting and slaughter were common whenever honest Chinese officials attempted to resist the smugglers .

The latter even asked that. therefore. in view of the abominable nature of the entire commerce. . I have to state that his Majesty's Government cannot interfere for the purpose of enabling British subjects to violate the laws of the country in which they trade. that the principal English officer on the spot went . This was the more neces sary since the Chinese Government. and the increasingly desperate character of the men engaged in the smuggling. must be borne by the parties who have brought that loss on themselves by their own acts . "With respect to the plan proposed by you in your despatch of 18th November for sending a special. commission to Chusan to endeavour to effect some 'arrange went. Lord Palmerston on the 1 5th of June. Opium in China 47 infringement. Any loss.. Nor could it be disputed that the Court of Peking was quite within its rights intaking the strongest steps to suppress a shameful trade. This was not done. in the face of such treatment. which forms the subject of your despatches of 18th November and 19th November and 7th December. who was at this time constantly appealing for support from home : "With respect to the smuggling trade in opium. means should be provided for exercising' control over British subjects who were responsible for all this illegality. the brutal and ruthless manner in which it was carried on. wrote as follows to Captain Elliot.1837. which such persons may suffer in consequence of the more effectual execution of the Chinese law on this subject.with the Chinese Government about the opium trade. of that Empire's rights. 1838. the validity and propriety of which were admitted by the representatives of the foreigners themselves. . as far as he could in-his despatches to persuade his Government to come to some definite decision on the subject. which had been declared illegal by a succession of Imperial Edicts. had naturally become incensed and threatened reprisals. the British Agent on the spot.

bombardments. after admitting that the traffic was shameful. sacks. Government do not see their way to justify them in adopting it at the present moment. This was in 1839 . They were spoken of freely by Englishmen of high position as "wanton atrocities. the terrible effect of the opium traffic on the Chinese. No wonder the Chinese Government resorted at last to strong measures . The cause of conflict was bad enough : the vengeance wrought on the unoffending Chinese population remains a permanent stigma on our English character . The appeal was useless. 48 The Awakening of Asia H. Such outrages by foreigners would have forced any European State to declare war long before . in dignified lane guage. and appealed to England. however. In spite of this plain speaking. and even agreeing that a vast amount of opium should be surrendered and the trade put an end to. the supposed interests of Indian Finance and the profits of English merchants drove matters steadily from bad to worse . incidental troubles arose which were used by Great Britain to justify warlike measures. In 1840 began a series of attacks. who was specially empowered to put an end to the trade." There was no excuse whatever for what was done . on the grounds of common humanity. commencing at Chusan and spreading to other ports. to combine with the Chinese Government in stopping the whole trade.M ." This despatch was delivered to CaptainElliot two years too late. Against . Once more the Chinese Minister pointed out. and was then never published in China ! It shows clearly the view taken of the traffic by Lord Palmerston at that time. of cities and massacres of the Chinese. Again. Commissioner Lin. sent a fine address on behalf of his countrymen to be forwarded to Queen Victoria. which have never been surpassed in infamous ferocity by any race of savages in the world .

They fought for . It was not a war. The illegality of the traffic was acknowledged on the English side after this war of butchery. to save his countrymen from being poisoned for the profit of unscrupulous foreigners . the right to poison the Chinese people. armed with weapons which the Chinese were powerlesss to resist . by their acceptance of heavy bribes from the smugglers. The island of Hong Kong was ceded to Great Britain . the fact remains that war was forced upon China in support of a commerce which is now universally admitted by English Governments. It is also unfortunately truethat some of the Chinese officials themselves.the hands of the foreigners= against the welfare of their own countrymen . indeed..demands of a set of piratical adven-. Commissioner Lin was sacrificed to the aggressors. But. Opium in China 49 the conduct of the "Western barbarians" the behaviour of Commissioner Lin stands out as that of a true patriot and man of the highest honour. as it had been . and he passed beyond the limits of mere prudence in resisting the wholly illegal. in which British sailors and soldiers ran little risk and covered themselves with infamy . The Chinese paid heavy indemnities and defrayed all debts and expenses . when every allowance is made and all possible pleas are urged on behalf of English policy. The result of the war was a foregone conclusion . to have been an accursed trade from every point of view . but a succession of butcheries and massacres. and afterwards by the cultivation of opium in the Provinces with the countenance of the local Mandarins. all solely in the interests of the opium-smuggling profiteers . He was undoubtedly very zealous in his effort-. in defiance of the prohibition of the importation by the Chinese Government . turers. Thus and thus only the Treaty of Nan kin of 1842 was . played directly into . secured . as well as by all individual Englishmen.

Not content also with maintaining the right of smuggling under arms for British adventurers and their own vessels. to lorchas. the opium trade steadily grew . while thus outraging all decency and humanity. found protection under the British flag. and pirates and desperadoes of every description. to all intents and purposes of the kind which used to be waged by the Dey of Algiers along the coasts of the Mediterranean . where English and Chinese smugglers. The hypocrisy of preaching a high RChristian morality to the Chinese. is obvious. The "foreign devils" necessarily became more and more hated ." It was and remains a noble reply . Every effort W as at once made / to "legalise" the importation . Nevertheless. Hong Kong became a fortified place of protection for smugglers under the British flag. From 1842 onwards the traffic went on even more completely in defiance of right and justice than it did before. 5o The Awakening of Asia before . Even where no lives were lost terrible reprisals were resorted to by the English authorities . Hong Kong was organised openly as an enemy stronghold. Continuous warfare ensued. Lord Palmerston. by way of trade in poison. whose previous despatch is partly given above. and place a heavy duty on the import of opium. said at this time in a public manifesto : "I cannot prevent the introduction of the poison : gain-seeking and corrupt men will for profit and sensuality defeat my wishes . They were attacked by the mob in some instances . but nothing will induce me to derive revenue from the vice and misery of my people . actually instructed British agents to "endeavour to make some arrangements with the Chinese Government for the admission of opium into China as an article of lawful commerce" ! The Chinese Emperor. still under the British flag. deserved the animosity felt for them . in reply to the suggestion that he should accede to this. very smart coasting I . They. the local officials at Hong Kong actually went so far as to grant licenses.

were thenceforth deliberately. "Even then the special British Envoy. bombardment and butchery shortly after . Once more justice must be done to the Manchu Emperors. The Arrow. the opium trade was "legalised. was only one of numerous similar cases. again under the British flag . knowing well that she was manned by pirates who . but now legally. Lord Elgin. of course. and the Chinese. in the defeat of the Chinese . in 1858. seized the boat and arrested the crew. The talk was of philanthropy the practice was plunder . apologies were demanded by Sir John Bowring. But when the Chinese. his house having been thoroughly shelled by the British. recognised the iniquity of the whole thing. Such action was dead against all international law. that escaped notice. `in fact.indulged in plundering and murder as well as in smuggling. by importations from India and the cultivation of the poppy at home.not. began. which ended. armed and manned by Chinese pirates. The case of the lorcha Arrow. on this one subject they never really changed their opinion : compelled though they were by . With all their faults. made no pretence that the opium-smuggling was other than ruinous to the people of China who indulged in the drug. whether sailing under unexpired British licence or. when peace was proclaimed to the advantage of Great Britain. But the old policy still prevailed. who defied their own Government.Opium in China craft used for smuggling opium. was undoubtedly a piratical vessel engaged in smuggling and piratical warfare . and the Chinese Commissioner . When these were not forthcoming. on the spot. the Chinese Government put a duty on the drug. which led to the Second Opium War. called upon the people to "exterminate the barbarians!" Who can blame him? But the war of 1856-7 followed. poisoned . and manifestly a direct infringement of Chinese Imperial rights within Chinese waters. And finally.

For nearly fifty years. no attention was paid to the behests of the Imperial Assembly. decade after decade. being committed in the Far East in their name. on this point all the best men in China agreed with the Edicts of their Emperors prohibiting the importation and use of opium for smoking. or the injection of morphia. Much as they disliked their Tartar rulers. In this respect it is even more dangerous than the disease of alcoholism. just before the Chinese Government finally resolved to put it down throughout China. To such an extent did the opium-smoking plague spread that. and under their flag. It is almost impossible for anyone to begin to indulge in the habit and then to break it off. opposed to legitimate commerce and conspiring to wreck the finances of India. at all hazards. this horrible trade went on without cessation . Opium-smoking.The Awakening of Asia the English campaigns to acquiesce in the poisoning of their subjects. When a number of decent Englishmen. as already said. The Chinese themselves. is universally recognised as ruinous to the intellect and morals of those who become addicted to it . these wholly unprejudiced people were officially sneered at and denounced as sour fanatics. as has been seen. from 1858 to 19o6. it was declared on official authority that . If a majority against it were obtained in the House of Commons and the Indian Government was called upon by Parliamentary Resolution to restrict the cultivation and gradually to suppress the sale of the drug. . have no doubt whatever about the fatal effects of opium-smoking upon the welfare of the Empire . not fewer than onefourth of the people of the Empire were poisoning themselves with this drug. kept up a vigorous agitation. in order to convince their countrymen of the crimes that were. horrified at the effects produced by this pernicious trade.

Yet the Royal Commission was so prejudiced in favour of this shameful trade that its members combined to burke all unfavourable testimony and blamed the Chinese for any mischief which had been caused ! Royal Commissions. and in xisings against foreigners. or. to postpone indefinitely any action which might be opposed to the interests of the upper classes . from the pecuniary point of view. it is impossible to obtain any evidence in its favour. Whenever Englishmen of character and position have presumed sumed to place Englandon a higherlevel of conduct and morality than China. and especially in China. I myself well remember . whose opinion was taken by the Royal Commission appointed. Outside of those who were directly or indirectly interested in the traffic. There is not a single Chinese book or pamphlet to be found in its defence . lastly. It is needless to pursue the exposure of English malpractices in this matter further. But the missionaries of all Christian creeds in China.and Parliamentary Committees are generally appointed either in order to support the Government of the day on some foregone conclusion. Doctors who have watched on the spot the growth of the disease (it is no less) are strongly of the same opinion. strongly condemned the use of opium for smoking. the denunciation of the Opium traffic supported by the "Foreign Devils" has nearly always made its appearance . her action in forcing opium upon the Chinese for pecuniary gain has been brought up as conclusive-evidence against them. by an overwhelming majority.There are good' reasons for mistrust of Christian missionary efforts in Asia. or to whitewash prominent politicians who have been accused on evidence of a serious offence. But never was a Royal Commission so disgracefully prostituted to perpetuate infamy as this Royal' Commission on Opium . whether due to religious animosity towards missionaries or to suspected political interference.

as conclusive proof of the immense superiority of their own countrymen to foreigners . 54 The Awakening of Asia highly-educated Chinamen I have met out of China. owing to the attitude of English merchants on the opium question. and the great ignorance and brutality of many Englishmen they had encountered. as well as : the scathing criticism directed against it in Parliament. consequently. Moreover. It was clear. For once. money-getting and morals were not wholly at variance. was emboldened to push its views more vigorously than ever . by degrees. What was going on in China rendered strenuous action inevitable . it was brought home even to the English Government. Simultaneously. The health of a large portion of the people was being rotted out of them and ruin stared this great country in the face . might seriously pre judice ' the whole commerce with China-of which we had one-half . we discovered that the feeling of the Chinese people against the English. also that England could not in the twentieth century cary her detestable policy of force in favour of profitable poisonselling to a successful issue. Happily. when competition for the general trade of China became keener. citing this same policy. that the opium trade was not only an outrage upon China and upon civilisation generally. Germany. the long. costly and high-minded propaganda of the Society for the Suppression of the Opium Traffic. had its effect upon the public mind and stirred up sudden indignation against it . China might easily have found both an Asiatic and a Euro- . and through them to the Indian Government. but that the growth of the poppy in India was not beneficial to Indian finance in the long run. The Chinese Government. as she did in 1842 and. owing to the appearance on the Chinese market of the United States. therefore. 1856-8. Japan and other Powers.

an Edict was promulgated decreeing the final suppression of opium cultivation and opium-smoking throughout the Chinese Empire within ten years. but. In i9o7 the British Government offered a reduction of the cultiva- . it is clear. 3 . the practice within six months. they were enforced even more rigidly than the law demanded. and all officials under sixty were required to abandon opium-smoking within six months or to withdraw from the service of the State. in practice. All persons using opium were to be registered .pean Ally to enable her to make head against a continuance of the nefarious proceedings of Great Britain. The restrictions were drastic in themselves. On September 20. that the entire population was in favour of the adoption of the policy for which Chinese Emperors and statesmen had so long and so vainly striven against English opposition. 2. after nearly one hundred years of strenuous endeavour to prevent the development and to check the spread of the opium plague. Anti-Opium Societies were to be officially encouraged and medicines were to be distributed to cure the opium- smoking habit . the Government of China was at last able to secure supremacy in this matter within the boundaries of the Empire . 4. The cultivation of the poppy in. The Edict declared that i . 19o6. onwards. . Thus. Although the Manchu Dynasty was even then tottering to its fall. All officials were requested to set an example to the people.British arms and influence. 5 . by the wholesale. and all places where opium was smoked were to discontinue . Surrender on the question was practically inevitable . as observed by English travellers.abandonment of the cultivation of the poppy. All shops selling opium were to be gradually closed . introduced and maintained by . China must be restricted annually by one-tenth of the existing area . from 1729.

that this odious traffic is now finally suppressed . . therefore. 56 The Awakening of Asia tion of opium in British India by one-tenth of the area devoted to poppy-growing in each year. It may be taken for granted.

who were doing that which they were fully entitled to do by treaty. of the Peasant War in Germany. or. or race. of the sack of Rome by the Constable de Bourbon. Nor does it relieve the Chinese from the odium they incur to point out that in Europe itself the horrors of St . when antagonisms of religion.CHAPTER ~VIt THE BOXER RISING AND THE REFORMING EMPEROR IN Western Europe the general impression is that the great Chinese revolts. were unjustifiably directed against harmless foreigners. if not worse than. Bartholomew. are involved . of the German armies in Belgium. France and Serbia. of the Russian pogroms on the Jews. There is no excuse. It is very difficult to record the long succession o f attacks upon apparently well-meaning folk who were causing no injury. we lightly say. And the Chinese are naturally peaceful and conciliatory to a much greater extent than even civilised Europeans . anything which has occurred in China . culminating in the Boxer Rising of I899Igoo. in such wise as to be intelligible to Europeans. But such examples do show that in the matter of ferocity the West is not much in advance of the East. class. from the point of view of common humanity. for these abominable actions . The Catholic missionaries have borne their testimony as to what the Chi 57 . are quite as bad as. of the Massacre of the Albigenses. and were teaching doctrines and spreading knowledge which could only benefit the Chinese themselves. mostly missionaries. quite recently. without feeling exasperation at these apparently brutal and ruthless crimes ..

and its crystalline precepts have been the rich inheritance of every successive present from every successive past. intellectually and psychologically appropriated by the Chinese as on a par with a law of nature. It is impossible to escape from it. Here is the evidence of an American Protestant missionary at the time of the great Boxer Rising. The certainty that this is the best system of human thought as regards the relations of man to man is as much a part of the thinking of every educated Chinese as his vertebrae are part of his skeleton . has ever produced. and the same may be said of the uneducated Chinese. . . And this moral teaching of Confucius. ." As already pointed out. but their feeling is in the same direction. they contemn military action and regard soldiers as men of a low grade of humanity .which is thus accepted as the last word in ethics enters into every family and underlies every creed . nor has any effort been made to .Emperor. unaided by divine revelation. . and though the powerful Mongol . vainly attempted the invasion of Japan. The scholar feels because he thinks. The Copernican system of astronomy . . that venture has never been renewed. 1899 -1900 "They have the loftiest moral code which the human mind. the peasant feels without thinking . No great Chinese general has ever dreamed of a vast campaign of conquest. "Do unto others as you would they should do unto you" was the basis of Chinese morality many centuries before Christianity was heard of.The Awakening of Asia nese were over the whole of the interior of that great Empire two centuries ago . The Chinese have "an instinctive and hereditary aversion from war . when the word feeling is substituted for thinking . and not infrequently of a like intensity when the roots of their natures are reached . Kublai Khan. is not more firmly accepted in Western lands than are the tenets of Confucianism as a whole and in details.

He had lived continuously in China for twenty years. At the time of the Boxer outbreak I conversed on this subject with a well-known Frenchman. of course. Once there. forcing their opinions and methods upon the Chinese. if wholesale calamities were to be averted . which was supported. signifies the break-up of the ancient civilisation. that the good they could do was practically nothing . during the past fifty years---a hatred culminating in the Boxer up heaval. and that no Eastern State. if any considerable success is attained by such means . He had personally the highest regard for the Chinese as a people. the very presence of foreigners. He expressed the opin . if it considered the well-being of its people. And to this rule there could be no exception . One of the shrewdest English observers who ever passed many years in . The Boxers and the Emperor 59 use the huge Chinese population to dominate the rest of Asia on land. hatred of foreigners. How then has it come about that these peaceful. bound up with the development and trade of China . that the evil they wrought was incalculable . would allow of the settlement of white men in its midst . Sooner or later the white man must be crushed. I asked him what he thought of the position . by the reactionary Empress Dowager and her officials? The truth is that the adoption of foreign ideas. not once or twice but repeatedly. and was intimately acquainted with Chinese public and domestic life. then President of the Banque Russo-Chinoise in Paris . write and speak Chinese well. and his interests were.. it was impossible to deal with them effectively otherwise than by complete destruction. highminded moral folk have shown such a furious . could read. No half-measures of resistance are of any avail. if not actually started. had visited all parts of the Empire with the consent and help of the Government. nay.the Far East gave it as his sober judgment that white men were fatal to Asiatics .

suited to the country. apart altogether from the aversion which we consider mere prejudice against missionaries. there are other than religious grounds for Chinese resistance to the growth of foreign trade . and were therefore compelled to exterminate . so far as they are concerned . . This applies to white men of every nationality and every creed . then. the entire dislocation of the ancient society and the temporary ruin. by spinning yarn and weaving cotton cloth . 6o The Awakening of Asia ion that the Boxer movement could not be successful at that time. With far less reason a somewhat similar feeling manifested itself against industrial immigrants from Asia into America and Australia. but added that he doubted whether in twenty years any Europeans would remain in China . Large districts also grew cotton for this purpose . quite a large proportion of the Chinese workers gained their livelihood. of whole sections of the working-people . although in their case no religious or political propaganda was attempted . Nor should it be forgotten that. or quite possibly the complete starvation. no very good one at the best. so remunerative to Manchester. The mere spread of commercial civilisation means. said he . which act like a great nat . as a consequence of foreigner-enforced Free Trade . The missionaries by their constant presence and persistent propaganda brought home to the Chinese and Japanese and forced daily upon their attention the fact that there was a foreign body that had inserted itself into their social life which they could neither absorb nor expel. They are not . poor folk find their scanty means of subsistence swept away from them by the appearance on the market of cheap foreign goods. oral agent of destruction. Suddenly. in many cases. Thus the immense and profitable importations of cotton cloth. As matters stood. threaten China with the same fate that befell the unfortunate spinners and weavers of India.

Their only idea has been to push the business through as rapidly as possible. but the economic gains to other sections are by-no means so apparent . on more than one railroad built by foreign capital. Moreover. The discontent may be the discontent of ignorance. But when we consider the meaning of such an upheaval as that of 1899-i9oo and denounce it as a revolt of barbarians against the beneficent civilisation of the West. In fact. with the railways . these improvements must come sooner or later. which the local people were opposed to from the first . and the wellbeing or the feelings of Chinese navvies were the last things considered . Still the blighting influence of the foreigner! Obviously. but that does not improve matters for the discontented. very imperfectly acquainted with the language. The foreigner once more! Then. it is well to bear in mind. has been abominably bad . it is quite within . The Boxers and the Emperor 61 The foreigner who is denouncing and sapping their religion is also by some malefic influence depriving them of their chance to work . The foreigner. and the drain of produce brought about for export purposes. To oppose to them a stolid resistance must be futile . the advantages to certain classes of the population may be considerable. or adapt themselves to. and do so to the detriment of the people who can least afford. . and this may have its advantages for a certain class . when the railways are built and running. All is put down to the foreigner. the bounds of possibility that. But. always the foreigner ! So. under foreign control. that many causes have combined to bring about the ugly result. greatly interfere with all the old arrangements. Here labour is demanded for construction. as they can least understand. in another direction. such wholesale transformations . the management of the Chinese coolies by foreign overseers. the displacements occasioned. at the same time. who has introduced this new system of transport.

seems worthy of more consideration and respect than he has yet received. That would have been the natural result of such a victory as Japan had won . and because. because the Japanese had adopted European methods. The Emperor Huang-Hsu. a wide-minded man of the best intentions. an official who had made a special study of the changes in Japan. he forgot that what is permissible to an agitator. The country which first recognised this truth had taken the lead in Asia. 62 The Awakening of Asia unless great care is taken to accommodate the new methods to that steady conservatism which has distinguished the fine Chinese race for hundreds and even thousands of years. becomes dangerous in a potentate who issues orders that must be obeyed . and would keep it. It is this possibility which makes the story of the Boxer rising worth careful study . Convinced of the truth of this. unless China awakened. The ancient usages therefore were worn out. the Republic itself may yet have to face a tremendous wave of reaction . The Chinese Emperor saw that his forces had been completely defeated on land and sea in 1894-5 by an island power with little more than one-tenth of _the population of his own vast Empire. He . to the hard facts of the time . and might either have established a dynasty of its own. therefore. being satisfied of the soundness of his ideas of reconstruction. or assumed a protectorate over all China . in like manner. the Emperor took counsel with Kang Yu Wei. Japan would have displaced him from the throne. who failed because he took little or no account of the forces over against him. who is eager to ensure the success of his principles. The movement was due to the concentration of all the feelings of irritation touched upon above.also knew that but for the intervention of the European nations. proceeded at once to put . -and. with the rashness of a convinced enthusiast. -as.

. and failed to take account of the fact that Japan. But these Imperial Edicts were promulgated too soon. was to avoid -foreign conquest or domestic disintegration . and so did Yuan-Shi-Kai and others . in imitation of the policy adopted by Japan. followed too rapidly one after another. nor are the literati. The reforming Emperor. was. from the Western point of view. the ablest Chinese leaders that a reform of the Empire on somewhat similar lines. by familiar Asiatic methods . in a totally different stage of her development . the Boxers and Russia been non-existent. would have produced forcible resistance. yet most undiplomatically. His succession of Edicts were admirable in themselves.the leading Council of the Empire. . and tended to bring Chinese education and Chinese organisation abreast of the most advanced European nations. even if he had made sure of the position behind h im. Yet the Edicts prior to the' Boxer troubles were undoubtedly calculated to revolutionise China completely and still more rapidly than Japan had been transformed . at the time of her great transformation. even had the Empress Dowager. i f China . regardless of the opposition of the Tsung li Yamen. if put into effect in the manner he ably and courageously. saw that. though she owed. and of several of China's leading statesmen. even if all were favourable to = the Emperor's projects. civil and military. But the Emperor's plans of reform. was inevitable. went ahead much too fast. The defeat of the Chinese forces by the despised Islanders in 1894-5 had convinced. whose capacity and character were much overrated in the . Even Li Hung Chang. either so powerful or so patriotic as the Samurai of Japan . Huang-Hsu. intended they should be.The Boxers and the Emperor them into practical form. The Emperor of China has no such universally-accepted God-like authority as the Mikado. her civilisation to China.West.

saw all their ideals on the high road to realisation . who were everywhere regarded by the people with suspicion and hatred . all on Western lines. 64 The Awakening of Asia Every department of the Empire was to be reorganised immediately. Not only have Parliament and the people to be convinced. the impulse from above simultaneously firing with enthusiasm the young men who. and with the advice and assistance of the detested foreigners in person and on the spot. and the denominational bugbear has not been overcome even yet . the constant reminders to Viceroys and others from the Emperor himself that the changes upon which he had set his heart were not being pushed ahead with sufficient zeal and loyalty . educated in Europe. has to be overcome . but the greatest obstacle of all. and were very careless about old graveyards . In China the change of the entire educational system. touched every portion of the learning of which the literati were so proud . Prac- . We know how difficult it is to introduce thoroughgoing reforms. such as the Emperor proposed and tried to force upon the people. The removal of old officials in order to make sure that the programme of the Emperor should be effectively put into practice by sympathetic newcomers . England has been tinkering with National Education for eightand-forty years. the vigorous constructionn of railways with no concern for the prejudices or interests of the mass of the people-all these coming atonce were enough to stir a much less conservative race than the Chinese to furious resistance. America and Japan. the bureaucratic spirit of official opposition. the jubilation of the various sects of missionaries who felt so sure that the "new learning" must give them exceptional opportunities for the preaching of their creeds that they actually used old Chinese temples for Christian churches. into the government of any democratic European State. even when they have been recognised as beneficial.

Thus Revolution is worked up to gradually by the • cessity of accommodating the political. realised. success might have been a hieved. at the present time . direction. But it is none the less amazing that any man. and in great part to replace. had the Emperor and his advisers been more judicious. and all. had they kept the army and commanders in close touch with the Court. New Schools of Agriculture. The Boxers and the Emperor 65 tical teaching. The chorus of praise which arose from the foreigners. in every. according as the dominant class is capable and . and taken pains to rally to their side • ganised forces of the people . but progress is going on al the time and in nearly every direction . New Postal Services. as a rule. the endless study of the Chinese classics . New Armies. It may be sl wer or-faster. only made opposition more certain and more bitter. enforced from with• t.Inthescoi wasumeprogr ss in every country as a matter of course . It was a magnificent conception : its effects are being felt. science was to follow. largely by foreigners. legal and social f rms to the stage of economic development which has en reached . and had ey brought the new proposals gradually before the goving class and the people. as well as from the Chinese who had learnt from them. at once. they are not. and so on. and `gradually put in practice. In such a matter it is impossible to reason from Europe • America to Asia . of positive knowledge and. could imagine that all the ideas and methods of age-old China could thus be swept into the rubbish-heap in a few months-for the Edicts or decrees came hot-foot one on the top of the other without creating serious internal disturbance . New Laws. Many who know China well believe that. here or there. New Universities. Such a revolution may be peaceable or f rcible. Changes come f om within. or any set of men. It was all a question of time and opportunity. This came by sudden enactment which all must obey.

But no definite rule can be laid down. nor can the precise period of transformation be foreseen and predicted . forcible revolution may arise from the natural desire of the people to hurry forward the transformation in their own interest . also. the French Republican institutions are two or three generations ahead of the material position in France . as in Scandinavia. in any period. and Switzerland. . If the material conditions are behind the mental conceptions of the actual position. or even hasten on the change towards the desired social end. Should the material conditions. in the interest of the next class to be emancipated. depends upon two essentials in civilised and progressive countries. 66 The Awakening of Asia farsighted. unless the dominant minority exhibit exceptional sagacity.others the political forms actually anticipate the economic development. or cowardly and apathetic. In some cases the economic growth precedes the transformation of the general constitution of society in . whose emancipation is attaining the period of realisation. the general ideas of the working population are so far advanced that they can in some degree anticipate. the possibility of a revolution. which means the productive and distributive. in the main. on the other hand. be considerably in advance of the intelligent appreciation of the masses. while in Great Britain the political changes lag far behind the economic status . comprehends as a whole what is going on around it. secondly. the economic. or selfish and tyrannical-according as the subject class is courageous and mentally active. that the class itself. First that. 'supervise and guide the movement up to the next stage of industrial growth. Where education is exceptionally good. then an anarchical upheaval is scarcely to be avoided. development has reached the point where the change is not only desirable but practically inevitable . For example. Finland. Hence.

and made at once. bring about a terrible. unprejudiced students of events may recognise that the famous Edicts and Proclamations of ang Hsu. and declared that ancient institutions afforded n solution of the difficulties with which the Empire was surrounded on every side. it may considerably help reaction . the Boxer rising. reactionary set-back . even in Europe. but. but it was not statesmanship. indulge in unmeasured abuse of the Manchu Emperor and Court. however. if left to herself. has now entered . none the less spread important truths throughout the Chinese Empire and prepared the way for the era of progress upon which China. may. and in a less form dable shape in Austria under the well-meaning but doctr naive progressist. though they failed to achieve the objects he d in view. When. It was magnificent. for whose acceptance they. Changes must be made.. Mere force alone cannot greatly accelerate the ad ance . the Republicans. Moreover.on. nevertheless. wrecked his own career and had their share inI producing. It sh rply criticised the shortcomings of China in every di. we may hope. after the Revolution had lost its first fervour. Huang's . Joseph II . The Boxers and the Emperor 67 Whether the revolution itself in any country is violent or pacific:which makes very little difference in the long a als of human progress-its real object is to give legal and popular sanction to results already partially or wholly ac ieved . arty attempt to impose upon a population a beneficial systen. a remarkable document .are unprepared. used against the people with persistence and ru lessness. This we may discern in "the White Terror" in France. And the Emperor risked his crown and his life upon the success of his new policy . who have again obtained control of the Empire after the revolution and Yuan-Shi-Kai's attempted rpation. The Chinese Emperor's Proclamation in favour of pr ess was.

Europeans had a town to themselves . and the attack upon them. who could be divided up among the great Powers (not excluding. In Peking itself. took the Ambassadors themselves by surprise . for the Legations at. neither took any measures to mitigate the growing ferment by exercising her preponderating influence in Peking. and in fact created an imperium in imperio. they regarded the Chinese. even when a great part of China was in ferment. It scarcely admits of question also that Tsarist Russia. As a body. after their defeat by Japan. being well aware of what was going on. in defiance of the wishes of the . in addition to other matters' of irritation and grievance. nor advised the other European Powers of the dangers of a general reactionary upheaval . There is now no doubt whatever that the Boxer Rising of 1899-19oo was fostered and helped by the Dowager Empress from the Imperial Palace. now. did not allow any of their people who might commit offences to be dealt with under Chinese law. but they resented even being overlooked by the native population. Japan) at any time advisable . And all this time. 68 The Awakening of Asia services should be remembered when his mistakes have long been forgotten . as in the Treaty Ports. with the support of the other reactionary members of the Imperial Family and important Ministers. Peking were left almost wholly unprotected. They not only claimed the right to dwell in the capital. as an inferior people. It is clear that the remarkable success achieved by the organisation of the Clenched Fist-a title which may have suggested the Kaiser Wilhelm's threat' of his Mailed Fist!-was not foreseen by Europeans generally . the opium traffic was still being forced upon the people. as independent of Chinese authority as if the territory upon which they had encamped were entirely their own.

was a national policy. The Boxer leaders and the Government which the Empress Dowager set on foot. and the outrageous demands made in consequence by the Germans for territorial and other concessions. as it found expression in the Boxer movem nt. organised. If the ideas of men like Yuan-Shi-Kai . j Let us imagine similar proceedings going on in any European country or colony. when the mob-meaning the majority of the population-escaped from the control of the local authorities. naturally took advantage of any such 'ti-Christian outbreak to push ahead their own policy . Is it not certain that the whole population would take the first opportunity of rising as one man in order to eject the intruders? Is it not also beyond dispute that. after the suppression of the unfortunate Huang-Hsu and his advisers. were the sparks which . terrible outrages would be committed upon the defenceless foreigners in the interior. Down with the foreigners! China for the Chinese! Those were the universal cries of the well-organised groups which_ showed almost from the first that they had one common object. or believed that many of those officials sympathised with tha rioters? Too much importance has been attached to the assaults upon missionaries. by those same foreigners who made theme lves so detestable in religious and other ways .The Boxers and the Emperor s 69 Government. the murder of the Catholic missionaries in Shantung. B t that policy. but as a national effort ati final emancipation from foreign influence and foreign c trol. secular as well as religious . under such circumstances. No doubt. like most Chinese revolts. or in the United States of America.fired the conflagration in that particular region . not as a provincial o tbreak. as if the religious propaganda carriod on by these missionaries of Christianity and forer ners of foreign trade were almost the sole ground for th great revolt .

revolt was suppressed and the whole agitation died down . or for the looting of the Imperial Palace . then the reformist designs of the Emperor and the antiforeign views of the Boxers might possibly have harmonised. with those who had taken shelter in the rapidly-improvised defences . 70 The Awakening of Asia with regard to the formation of an effective army had been rapidly carried out and the Boxer chiefs had been induced to make common cause with such an army when created. in defiance of external influence. as well as their treatment of women. was contrary to all international law and opposed to the common rules of humanity. sacking. the Empress Dowager was too reactionary. But as matters stood this was impossible . fully justified all the charges brought against the whites as barbarians. were saved from destruction by an international combination of armies. the. But this was no reason for the maltreatment of the agricultural population. Their ravaging. All . Nothing done by the Germans in their attacks upon Belgium and France was worse than the savagery of the Allied forces in their campaign against the Boxers in China . plundering. Undoubtedly the behaviour of the Boxers had been abominable and their cruelty and treachery were inexcusable . for either of them to achieve permanent success.the European and American and Japanese interests were assailed at the same time . It was a . It must be admitted that the conduct of the Allies during their advance and the looting which they permitted in Peking and its neighbourhood were wholly unworthy of the troops of civilised nations . So after the Legations at Peking. By playing then upon the mutual jealousies of the Foreign Powers a gradual reconstruction of China. The cold-blooded murder of the German Envoy. burning. which none know better than the Chinese. might have resulted . The Emperor was too revolutionary. Even Russia was compelled to make common cause with the rest . Baron von Ketteler.

by returning its share of the indemnity for lives sacrificed and property destroyed. and did much to shake the confidence in English and American justice which had slowly grown up. Only the United States. showed something of the higher spirit of civilisation and humanity . Japan and even Germany. The Boxers and the Emperor 7I recrudescence of the brutality and ruffianism displayed by the English in their opium wars. Russia. made matters still worse . The demand for heavy indemnities and the seizure of important blocks of territory by England. .

that desperate hatred of foreign interference. were little likely to produce a favourable effect upon China . especially in the provinces so outrageously ravaged by the Allied armies. In fact. Russia laid hands upon Manchuria as her sphere of influence. which was at the bottom of the entire Boxer troubles. not to be behindhand in the race of dishonour. Germany seized upon Tsing-Tau and the province of Kiau Chau. Such proceedings. apart from the exaction of a huge indemnity . without a title of justification . England.CHAPTER VII THE BOXER RISING AND ITS CONSEQUENCES THE behaviour of the Allies after the suppression of the Boxers was not of a kind to render European relations with the Chinese people any more friendly than they were before . which has not been and never will be of any use to her . Far from it . Nor was the prospect of the overthrow of the Manchu dynasty. the policy of revenge adopted by the European Powers went far to strengthen. China during the advance upon Peking and in the settlement arrived at was treated as a conquered country and her territory was appropriated right and left. taken as a whole. The United States alone acted with unexpected moderation and refused to have part or lot either in the indemnity or in the annexation of territory . Yet all the while the new ideas set forth in the revolutionary 72 . Japan demanded preponderance in ' Korea and sowed the seeds of trouble in other directions . any brighter than it had been before . grabbed the port of WeiHai-Wei. judged from the European point of view.

who suffered personally. should have done more to hasten the downfall of his own Imperial family than had any of his reactionary predecessors. China was therefore rather an Imperial Federation of Provinces than a militarist Empire. Though the Manchu Emperors at Peking. they were re- . It is also generally true thatso long as foreigners refrained from interfering with Chinese habits and customs. reward or behead Viceroys and Mandarins at their pleasure. religions and methods of administration steadily held their ground .. based upon the unit of the family.The Boxer Rising 73 Edicts of the Emperor Huang-Hsu were making way with a rapidity destined to surprise even those who were best acquainted with China and the Chinese. The same unprogressive but by no means' unintelligent conservatism. It is strange that the most enlightened and progressive of modern Manchus. There was no complete centralisation under the Government of Peking . peasant proprietorship with small cultivation. Even under the most despotic of the Manchus. The provinces were also strongly attached to their independence. in at least one of the Southern Provinces the traditions of the ancient Ming dynasty survived . and an organisation directed towards the removal of the Manchus and the destruction of their entire rule had been maintained with Chinese persistenee. nevertheless the administration of the provinces was in the main local and was not much interfered with from above . could appoint. in spite of several futile attempts at insurrection. Below the Manchu sovereignty the old Chinese customs. and held military domination over the provinces ruled by these Imperial subordinates.. Moreover. remove. for 250 years. the religious devotion to ancestry and social duty to the community prevailed everywhere . for his own foresight and capacity. the universal Confucian ethic. to whom were accorded divine attributes.

and one of the ablest of Chinese statesmen. or ran counter to local prejudice. that this cataclysm in the affairs of his country would lead to great improvements : "I hope that financial. It is indeed not too much to say that though the people held anti-foreign views the really intelligent Chinese leaders were against the whole agitation . roused by foreign settlers who." Thus spoke Lo Feng Lu . the truth is that only the Northern Provinces. both Chinese and Manchu. educational and judicial reforms will be introduced after this crisis is over. There is abundant testimony to this. and one which would have cost him very dear had the reactionary party been permanently successful . Travellers who were mere passers-by were more likely to suffer from childish but not ill-natured curiosity than from hostile demonstrations. where the Boxers had achieved temporary success. where the Manchu influence was paramount. as a representative of my country as well as of my Government. and I would even say. Even in the powturbed Northern Provinces. unless they designedly or inadvertently offended native usages. with the best of motives. were far-sighted enough to declare against the insurrectionists. certain of the Viceroys. expressed his hope. although the Boxer uprising is spoken of as if all China participated in this great anti-foreign and reactionary attack. A very remarkable utterance from a Chinaman holding such an important official position. then Ambassador to Great Britain. Throughout the great Southern and Western Provinces. that I hope the Powers will insist upon reforms. gave the impression that they wished to dominate Chinese opinion . Besides. to protect . whence the reconstruction came. took an active part in the movement. in a public interview. before animosity grew up. the more capable Chinese were coming slowly to the conclusion that crucial changes were inevitable . 74 The Awakening of Asia ceived with kindness and courtesy throughout the Empire by the Chinese themselves .

trained according to European methods. as they knew. the Manchu. and it is strong evidence that public spirit and patriotic resistance to popular clamour were by no means unknown qualities among the Mandarins who have been so indiscriminately abused in the West. haj that the Chinese authorities frequently displayed characteristics far superior to both sets of barbarians under most trying circumstances . his success in keeping his province in order would have been more than doubtful . although the whole power of the Empress Dowager and the Palace was.The Boxer Rising foreigners from attack. Their conduct. and that of others who ran similar risks in order to defend foreigners with whom they could have no racial or religious sympathy. civil and military. and the Allied troops did not molest that province . who was then temporary Governor of Shensi. Thus Yuan-Shi-Kai risked everything by pursuing this policy in Shantung. it seems that the Boxers and the Allies stood on much the same low plane in the matter of humanity and civilisation . and to give the Allies no excuse for extending their campaign of revenge against the people. Similarly. Tuan Fang. intervened directly to protect the foreigners and sent them. when their lives seemed likely to be endangered. under strong escort to places of safety . friendly to the Society which had organised these outbreaks . Had he not had at his disposal large bodies of troops. contrasts very favourably with the conduct of the Allied officials. no foreigner was killed in Shantung. As it was. This he and YuanShi-Kai did. On an impartial survey of the insurrection and its suppression. who actually ordered fine old temples to be burnt to the ground merely because the revolutionists had used them as storehouses and barracks . The devastation of whole districts by the armies of the 75 . though his Chinese subordinates of the same race as himself were many of them bitterly opposed to him. upon whomm he could rely.

The time indeed had come for China either to learn in the new school. had gone on rapidly. they steadily prepared the conservative mind of the people to accept the necessary transformation. the work of education and organisation throughout the Southern Provinces. perhaps even to domination by the hated and despised Japanese. 76 The Awakening of Asia Allies. Barely ten years had passed ere the ideas which the genius of the Emperor Huang-Hsu had failed to impress upon his people were commonly accepted . They also took advantage of the increasing numbers of Chinese students who had gone to Europe. the looting. Not until the great war between Japan and Russia in 1904-5 did China as a whole begin to understand that the day for rejecting the practical effects of European knowledge and education was past . to imbue them with aspirations of returning to their country as helpers in the revolution and reorganisation. the frightful barbarity of the Russians in the butcheries of Bladovestchenk. with which the name of the much-persecuted Sun Yat Sen is most closely associated in Europe. burning of Peking. Sun Yat Sen and his followers had recognised for many years that thoroughgoing changes were essential to save China from dissolution or foreign conquest . raping. Circumstances greatly helped reformers and revolu- . Inspired by a high conception of what China might do. and the brutality and greed of the Getmans at Kiau-Chau will ever remain as another black mark against European civilisation in the Far East . America and Japan in order to acquire Western learning. in spite of all the efforts of the Court of Peking and its emissaries to suppress the propaganda and destroy its chief. when the state of affairs justified a vigorous attack upon the Manchus and the establishment of a new government. or to submit to partition by European Powers. plundering. In the meantime.

and was then much the strongest nation in the Far East . had taken. Russia had never favoured Christian proselytism within Chinese boundaries. Chinese statesmen felt.The Boxer Rising tionists of every school . her conquests in Asia had been continuous and apt parently carried out on a systematic plan . that great nation could be relied upon to withstand the progress 77. But they understood Asiatics and Asiatic ways. from inconsiderate and bootless religious zeal. Russia. and the one which best understood how to make her influence felt . with all its ardour for conversion. the lead in preventing Japan from exacting from their country the full terms to which sli considered herself entitled after the Treaty of Shimonoseki. 'Russia had been invariably successful. Cruel and ferocious the Muscovites had often shown themselves to be . that. had met with no check in her great advance across Asia. . The Greek Church. had herself proposed a close understanding with China and had concluded a preliminary agreement with her. therefore. therefore. too. had been held back by Russian statesmen from any dangerous ventures in favour of spreading that form of Christianity in the Flowery Land. There was no friction with them. however dangerous Russia might be to them in the future and by reason of her recent annexations in the present. Russia had for many a long year appeared to the Chinese as the most formidable of all the European Powers. until a great railway partly running through Chinese territory had been constructed from the Russian Empire in Europe to the Russian Empire on the Pacific Ocean . nor had the Russians taken any part in the nefarious opium traffic which bad procured for the English such an infamous name.with Japan. So far as the Chinese could see. She was always at hand. at the close of the Chinese war . many of the Russian officials being Asiatics themselves . By degrees she had pressed forward from the west and north.

The result. attacked. like the absent. are always in the wrong . What followed appeared little short of a miracle to Chinese Ministers. Asia defeated Europe . as all the world knows. defended. but. of the two conflicting nations. unmilitary China could only look on powerless while her own provinces were ravaged by the contending armies. and the sacred tombs of the Manchu Emperors were violated by the presence and misbehaviour of Russian and Japanese troops. was quite the contrary . The first shock to Chinese complacency was given when in 1904 the two belligerents. harmless. they thought Russia was sure to win . while her cities were occupied. calmly did so in their own way and at their own convenience . made common cause in paying not the slightest attention to the integrity of Chinese territory . This was bad enough. The defenceless. regardless of her protests. besieged. thought that they now understood how powerless the East was in comparison with the West . The victory of neither combatant could benefit China . awakening from their torpor and foolish over-confidence of the previous decade. She took no part whatever in the struggle . Japan beat Russia. who. China was a neutral in the conflict . by adopting European methods of warfare and organisation. Poor. 78 The Awakening of Asia of Japan on the mainland and the final appropriation of Korea by these impudent but too successful Japanese islanders. Japan and Russia. The Battle of Mukden and the Treaty of Peace signed at . Then at once it was borne in upon the Chinese more forcibly than ever that Japan. Moreover. had assumed the leadership of the Far East . Yet Russia and Japan. as they seemed from the. Chinese point of. finding it convenient to fight their fight out on Chinese ground.view. But nothing could be done . the Chinese were naturally more favourable to the Russians than to their late conquerors . This humiliation was bitterly resented.

An Eastern race adopting Western methods of warfare can even defeat Europeans at their own game. entirely changed the whole face of world-policy for East and West alike. it positively rained Edicts in favour of European ideas and . were of inferior capacity. and the startling victory of the Japanese over the Russians on Chinese territory right in front of them. Prince Chun. The revolution which provoked reaction was followed by reforms which engendered revolution . the far greater conservatism of the inhabitants. What had been far-seeing but unrealisable statesmanship on the part of a monarch ahead of his time became now political necessity. the antagonism between the Chi . It was inevitablee that Chinese Emperors and Chinese statesmen should at last yield to the unerring logic of facts . The Boxer Rising 79 Portsmouth. progress was almost as rapid. even for men of moderate ability . the. from 1905 to 19o8. This is not to say that the chief advisers of the Manchu Emperor. This last was the great moral for China of the Russo-Japanese War . Yuan-Shi-Kai. Thenceforward. two facts were thrust upon China which not even the most stupid could overlook . Therefore. A new spirit arose among the people as well as among the Chinese literati and men of business . the new learning of the West . were much more formidable obstacles to speedy change than the insurrection of some . nese and their Manchu rulers. as that which had taken place earlier in Japan . But with the lesson of the Boxer rising and the shameful looting of Peking behind them. An Eastern race adopting European methods of warfare must inevitably defeat another Eastern race which persisted in following the old ways . They had also completely transformed Chinese policy . New Hampshire. though not so systematically organised. The immense difference in area and population. Chan Chih Tung and others were far above the average of intelligence . lack of any military caste to direct the reorganisation of the army.

In 1905 a Commission was set on foot to examine into the administrative systems of foreign countries . On August 27. an Advisory Council was established . where Electoral Assemblies had been already established in 1gog. also. This meant the opening of a new era for the political and social life of the most populous and ancient Empire in the world . On September 1. A year later. also. In 19o7. Representative government. decreeing the establishment of a Parliamentary form of government at a date not fixed . in less than six years. still under Manchu domination. 1909. and the National Assembly held its first meeting. died . it was decided that a single Imperial Assembly. In November of the same year an Edict went forth to reorganise the offices of the central administration . 19o6. was required . This had been foreseen and prepared for in "the purely Chinese movement in each of the great provinces. saw classes settled for the formation of a Senate or Imperial Council. But what was done was nevertheless most surprising and encouraging for the future . Happily. who had so resolutely and ruthlessly fought the elaborate scheme of progress in reform. 8o The Awakening of Asia of the old feudal ' chiefs against the revived rule of the Mikado. In this year the Dowager Empress. a revolution in itself. 'Further progress was in fact decreed by events. the Chinese statesmen and . not a double chamber of House of Lords and House of Commons. and on December 3rd the Edict was confirmed . 19o7. November. October. One year more. Thus. 1908. an Edict was issued with the Manchu Emperor's sanction. an Edict announced the convocation of a Parliament nine years later. With her death and the consequent cessation of her influence events moved faster still . the whole basis of Chinese rule had been changed and any return to the old state of things had been rendered impossible . was to be carefully investigated.

who organised this rapid transformation. became now the rallying cry of progressive China all over the Empire . and continuous development of her internal resources. "China for the Chinese. The shameful policy of the partition of China which had found favour in Europe for years before and was thinly disguised by the declaration of "spheres of influence" for this or that commercial brigand from the West. The Boxer Rising 81 generals and agitators. But. were wise enough to recognise that popular demands for revolution must in such stirring times be backed up by disciplined forces which could be relied upon to support the new government . met with a check which it is to be hoped will develop into permanent and effective resistance. the Republic must finally abandon her policy of unpreparedness and non-resistance to attack . A consolidated China of the Chinese." the cry which had been raised by the Boxers. Once more -for the twenty-second time. and with an amount of bloodshed far inferior to that which has attended infinitely less important developments in European countries. So in 1911 the Tartar dynasty. to ensure safety from the predatory nations by which she is encompassed. By selfdefence alone can this magnificent country. it is said-the Tartar invaders had been deposed and their supporters were being sent back to colonise the uncultivated lands of the north. All this was done with the sympathy and good will of the Western Powers and Japan . The Manchus had no chance of success against the Chinese levies trained on the European plan. with its splen- . would speedily exercise a proportionate influence on the politics of the Pacific . was got rid of much more easily than could have been expected. with a sufficient army. an adequate navy. which had been masters of China for nearly three hundred years. aided by the still more formidable brigand close at hand. the aspiration which found voice on the death of the Empress Dowager.

appeared almost inconceivable to old residents at the Treaty Ports or at Peking . the view was so strongly held that only an Emperor ruling from Peking could hold the newly-emancipated China together that it was some time before the idea of a Chinese Republic. were entirely different from popular nomination or election . steadfastly advocated from the first by Sun Yat Sen and his associates. When first the possibility of the ejection of the Manchus and the establishment of a self-governing China developed into a practical policy. Nevertheless. if the direct descendants of that Chinese Imperial family could be found. Those descendants were known. is unknown in the East. even where they were conducted without any suspicion of bribery or favouritism. be secured against attempts at domination from without-attempts more dangerous to her independence than any by which she has been previously threatened. but none of them was at all qualified for the position of Emperor. That China therefore should adopt Republican institutions. many European sympathisers thought that a revival of the Ming dynasty of the South might be desirable. of which there was at the time only one established example in Europe on a large scale. or dominant influence or substitution. found general favour . Nevertheless the influence of Sun Yat Sen and his school prevailed. Competitive examinations for official positions. and democracy. A Republic of a democratic kind presupposes a democracy. 82 The Awakening of Asia did resources in men and material. in the Western sense. Republics had not been so generally successful elsewhere that they could be regarded as a form of government suited to a highly conservative Eastern nation which had lived under successive Imperial dynasties for thousands of years . and Sun Yat Sen might himself have . The entire absence of hereditary nobility had never involved as its consequence democratic control in any shape.

his conception of his position as President differed little from that which a reactionary Manchu would have held under similar circumstances. tyrannical and self-indulgent. and a protector of foreigners. For Yuan-ShiKai. are all infinitely more difficult to bring about than alterations in political forms or the removal of an obnoxious dynasty . a reformer. though strongly indoctrinated with the new military ideas. uprooting of old-world ceremonies. In these matters. however. application to educational purposes of religious buildings long devoted to various kinds of worship. The Boxer Rising 83 been the first President . the able and fearless Viceroy of Shantung in the Boxer days. abandonment of ancient customs. an Edict was promulgated which did away with the old method of examinations from 19o6 onwards. were entirely relaxed from one end of China to the other . as he gained increased power. was still of the old school of Mandarins. even less suited to modern ideas than the antiquated devotion to Greek and Roman literature which still prevails in English public schools and universities. 19o5. In September. was imposed from above and readily accepted below . who had armed and trained an efficient Chinese force . But he gave way to Yuan-ShiKai. But meanwhile-before as well as immediately after the actual revolution and overthrow of the Manchus-the whole Chinese system had been modified in the most surprising way. while a genuine Chinaman. progressed with even greater celerity than Japan a generation before. The new system established was essentially mod- . when once she began to move. Change of social habits. and. China. while not giving up the inculcation of the noble truths of Confucian morality. Thus the unpractical old rules in regard to education. The pressing necessity for acquiring Western knowledge. The unfortunate results of this appointment to the Republic and Yuan himself were seen later . He was arbitrary.

. This same Confucian law of implicit obedience to paternal injunctions from above rendered the adoption of the system recommended from on high far easier than would have been possible with a people less subservient to family rule and official domination . which had hindered the advance of knowledge and fostered a prejudiced conservatism for ages before. who would formerly have resented such use as an outrage. have too often despised . while the people. A highly intelligent race was all at once relieved from the intellectual bondage of centuries and entered again upon that upward anti onward career towards the knowledge and control over nature which had once enabled China to lead the civilised world. the whites of to-day. the great difficulty was to find enough Chinese teachers to meet the demand for the thorough inculcation of the new ideas . made little or no objection . whose descendants we. When the crystallised moulds of educational instruction were even partially broken anything became possible in the China of the present and near future.84 The Awakening of Asia ern in every way . Thousands of temples were now used as schoolrooms. the Malayans and others did but follow in the footsteps of the great Chinese discoverers and inventors. and may not impossibly do so again. Europe itself owes much of its knowledge to the patient work of the Chinese of long ago. For the Chinese of old were above all originators and men of initiative . The Japanese. In spite of the large numbers of Chinese who had gone for instruction to Europe and America and the many thousands who had resorted to Japan for the same purpose. The extreme Chinese deference to authority. told strongly in the other direction now that the rulers of the country were convinced that it was unsafe to stand upon the old ways and issued mandates for a complete change to the new . who had boldly and vigorously blazed the trail for them through the vast forests and dense undergrowth of human ignorance . the Koreans.

barracks filled with soldiers are making their appearance in many of the great cities . Imitating in this respect the worst and most unhealthy methods of the West. But the possibilities of the future under her own development. not in extraordinary haste but with thoroughness. but at every capital . cannot be contemplated without serious reflection. The superstitious grotesquerie of Manchu warfare which had its full share even in the war against Japan and constituted a noticeable weapon in the arsenal of the Boxers has disappeared for ever . . If universities for peaceful study are being formed all over the Empire. or at two. formerly contemned as a non-worker in spite of his skill in arms. military academies with the latest curriculum for scientific slaughter have likewise been established in hot haste. like his rival in those countries where peace was not counted the essential thing. . or even apprehension . has become all at once an important person." These observations of an unprejudiced American traveller may be somewhat exaggerated . or under Japanese leadership. the hideous masks and bows and arrows of the recent past have given place to systematic European drill. accompanied by a new view of military training. China cannot pretend at present to stand as a military power on the same plane as Japan or England or America . The Boxer Rising 85 The fresh start was. "Arsenals are to be seen at every great centre . as already said. How long have Europeans laughed at the idiotic complacency with which Chinese women crippled themselves for life by compressing their feet : into a formless mass. while overlooking the foolish and harmful fashion once . and the men are armed with the best of European weapons . .The soldier. The grimaces and yells. The whole empire seems to be arming. cannon and all the munitions of war are being made within the empire : This is not the case at one town merely. with doggedness and with resources with which no European nation can compare. .

In their sexual arrangements some liberty is . wished. They regarded as barbarians those of their own sex in Western China itself who refused thus to disqualify themselves for some of the most important duties of life . Bound feet were becoming the exception . that is to say. The women themselves were devoted to their own customary lameness . As hard. had they. Never would they unbind their own feet or permit their female children to stalk along like men in the open street . The elaborate painting of the face which was the rule is also fading out. They are beginning to read and even to think for themselves . therefore. The Awakening of Asia 86 adopted by elegant Western women in constricting their own waists? But it had become a fashion consecrated by the use of centuries and rendered more difficult to overcome by the habitual confinement of Chinese women of good station . Similarly with the queue. Yet between 1905 and 1911. to cut off this long ap- . The repression was much greater : the freedom gained is relatively more complete. even before the revolution. That was a symbol of Manchu supremacy enforced by the Tartar conquerors and Emperors. But." Even in distant colonies under the British flag. the subjugated Chinamen had become accustomed to and proud of this method of wearing their "back hair . apparently. in the course of generations. The unbinding of the feet is symptomatic of release in other directions . to uproot within a few years as to induce the Jews to part with their holy rite of circumcision . The emancipation of woman is in many districts more than -keeping pace with the emancipation of the men . in province after province this ancient practice of binding' the feet came to an end . being secured. where they were perfectly free. Girls who never went out now troop to school in some districts . if necessary . so that girls may refuse husbands chosen for them.

all admit that they will never welcome Europeans who settle among them . as inferior people to-day . also. as will be seen. Like the Japanese. and something which belittled them in the eyes of the new commercial foreigners who were pressing in upon her from the sea. Education. though. economic advance. they are adopting Western material improvements and methods of development on a scale and over an extent of country which amazes the most sanguine. military organisation. Yet. however much Europeans may be in advance of the Chinese in material growth. in this case. now a bishop. Thus Europeans and Americans have in every direction to deal with a new and an awakened China . and treat them. filled with that consummate assurance which so endears the Anglo-Saxon to cultivated Celestials. They on their side continue to regard the Chinese as an inferior people. revolt prevailed over custom and fashion . so dear to our own sailors of old. in other respects the Western Barbarians of the Opium Wars and the Peking plunderings are Western Barbarians still . went to China. Recognised as due to Manchu usurpation. Yet. social customs. it was discarded as an evidence of the victory of China herself over the Tartar invaders. They see very clearly that. whose ancestors were a great and civilised people while his forbears . the wearing of pigtails gradually became less general and has now been given up almost everywhere. the Chinese immigrants never dispensed with their queues . Their presence was as familiar to them and as little irksome as their use of chopsticks . With the disappearance of the Manchus and the inauguration of the Republic. but only upon their own terms . The Boxer Rising 87 pendage. racial isolation are all in process of fundamental transformation . wherever they can or dare. they will make use of foreign knowledge as far as may be convenient. An aristocratic English clergyman.

and railways and motor-cars preferable to palanquins. but the Chinese literati. Imagine a Chinese bonze getting the Viceroy of India. the charm of their manner. He knows not a word of Chinese himself. and here is his account of his treatment by his entertainers : "The courtesy of the Chinese officials.88 The Awakening of Asia were prowling amid the forests of Northern Europe halfclad . that Christianity has been taught in China for more than three hundred years to very little purpose. I do not think anyone who has known them can be but greatly attracted by their courtesy and kindness. Yet this is what befell the reverend gentleman in infidel China. scientific acquirements -and capacity for administration once nearly obtained control of the entire Empire. had adapted themselves to the usages of the people. by men who had made themselves masters of the language. and has little experience in the country. interrupted only by an admirable luncheon provided by the Archbishop of Canterbury's exquisite cook ! What sort of reception would the Chinese devotee really encounter? It is not pleasant to think of . All Chinese are courteous. . yet by his persistence he forces some of the most important of the official class to "argue" with him on abstruse points of his own difficult and elaborate creed . observe. does not in the least dash our self-constituted apostle's sublime self-confidence . and by their tact. He went-think of it-in order to convince the inhabitants of that country not only that cannon and rifles are more effective weapons than bows and arrows. but that he himself could teach them a far higher Asiatic religion than any they had yet embraced . the mixture of dignity and good-nature which is such a characteristic of their behaviour makes controversy with them delightful. The simple fact. the Viceroy of Ireland and the ablest "literati" from the British Universities to devote hours on end to the discussion of Confucianism and Laotseism.

and he thus invites his readers to look with him : "Contrast the forts. Yet in other direr tions he is able to discern and comment upon the disagreeable qualities of his own countrymen with some perspicacity and judgment . never occurs to this amiable traveller . who not only claim to dwell in the Manchu city. so entirely are foreigners masters of the municipality that there is not a single Chinese representative on the City Council . the hostages given to foreigners. Who are those . lest the foreign settlement be overlooked ! Imagine a section of Washington taken possession of by Moroccans and Tripolitans. by the way-foreigners have so completely obtained control of the public gardens that a notice is put : up on their behalf : "No Chinese shall be admitted except servants in attendance on foreigners . greatly excel their fellow-countrymen in this charming characteristic . free-born Americans bidden keep away lest the European susceptibilities be hurt ! Would America tolerate that long. foreign forts. but oblige part of the wall to be prohibited to Chinese. Rising 89 perhaps naturally. China for the Chinese indeed ! The incongruity of this sort of conduct seems to have struck an American observer even more forcibly . after her new army was in working order? Look down yonder . on the wall. The Boxer . are all excluded ! Moreover. as well as highly educated Chinese merchants and scholars. superimposed on a vehement argument in favour of establishing an English Christian University in China. with Turks and Arabs and Persians settling alongside. Oriental soldiers garrisoning it. At the foot of the wall is a squad of cadets from the naval academy practising bugle calls . He is looking on at another great Chinese city with its European settlement." The kindly arrogance of all this. Thus he is really a little shocked when he discovers that in Shanghai-a great Chinese city." Cultivated Chinese officials of the type with whom the English ecclesiastic had held his controversy.

which declared that Catholic bishops should receive the same honours and be accorded the same ceremonies as Chinese officials of the highest rank ." That is the sort of vision. have been. for example. which must arouse serious reflection in the most superficial mind . the cause of much of the trouble which has arisen against the white settlers outside the Treaty Ports. who is accepted as an authority on all Eastern questions. Yet the tone of the English writer cited above. And who are these in naval uniform? Police of a new type . Missionaries. So one would imagine. issued at the same time with other important but premature decrees. For this reason. they are to be permanently dictated to in their own country by the foreigners on the spot . it must be due to some injurious influence which the Chinese exert over those who come habitually in contact with them ! There again is still the note of Chinese inferiority . is scarcely less objectionable than the French demand for exceptional recognition of the ecclesiastical envoys of the Pope . following upon all that has gone before. whose views on India are vehemently reactionary. Nothing could be more calculated to arouse bad feeling . however undesirable their presence there may be considered . wrote as if China must always be talked down to by Europeans . directly or indirectly. Yet only a few years have passed since a highly intelligent Englishman. It is quite possible indeed that one of the most potent causes of the Boxer rising was the incredibly foolish Edict. This was due to continuous and threatening pressure exerted by the French authorities at Peking and their clerical friends at home . 90 The Awakening of Asia yellow faces in Western dress? Soldiers with modern weapons. It seemed to him that if Europeans grew favourable to China after continual residence in the country." That . no matter what view the Chinese themselves may take. "The missionaries have a right to go to China and to China they will continue to go. at least .

to rouse exactly those misunderstandings and stir up those animosities which it is most desirable to avoid. the supremacy of the family and unshakable duty to the community as the essentials of civilised existence . that is to say. and his relations to his ancestors have long since been obliterated or merged in a general respect for the past . The Chinese have no such ideas as these. having rights and duties apart from his family. Here. that. she will extend welcome and ensure protection to . once more. He stands out as something by himself. and every missionary establishment is a centre from which civilising influences radiate over the whole area of its operations . it is unsuited to China under existing conditions and is liable. The only success achieved by Christianity in China has been gained by throwing overboard some of the most cherished tenets of the faith which is now dominant in Europe. and by recognising ancestor worship. since China is becoming aware of her own strength and is rising out of the stagnation of ages. are especially strong on the dignity and freedom of the individual as an individual. but particularly the English and Americans. They understand. however fine a creed Christianity may be in itself. is it probable that. "Missionary work in China is not only a proselytising but also a humanising agency. and wish to have nothing to do with them as guiding their conduct through life or in death . precisely what "civilising influences"-white man's "kultur"-mean in the East . Europeans as a whole. Missionaries are the pioneers of commerce and foreign influence . by the zeal of its apostles. and independent even of the community. they regard them as improper and immoral." But that is just what patriotic and farseeing Chinamen understand perfectly well from their own point of view. And he goes farther. His future salvation after death depends upon himself.The Boxer Rising 91 is the opinion of Sir Valentine Chirol .

prepared the way for further progress . sincere as they may be. Trading upon the ignorance of resident Europeans of the great changes which were taking place all round them . Yuan-Shi-Kai constituted himself a dictator of the type of Porfirio Diaz in Mexico or Enver . introduce all the elements o f internal conflict? The removal of the Manchu dynasty and the establishment of the Chinese Republic in 1911 was a revolution which only gave sanction to results already achieved and. but it was too far from the centre of the country and had lost much of its political and national importance owing to the wholesale annexations and leasings of territory by Russia and Japan during the past twenty years. held control of the land forces . however desirable. surrounding himself as soon as he could with some of the most despicable Chinese agents of the old regime and holding control of his army by strong martial law. It soon appeared that this masterful personage was almost the worst republican who could have been chosen for the post . who at first received the support of all the Europea# Powers and was not opposed by Japan. could not then be made . Not only was Peking the Tartar capital. Yuan-Shi-Kai. This policy was favoured by the Republicans for many reasons . nevertheless. It was found. whence the Chinese themselves had been ruled by foreign barbarians for many generations. His appointment as President of the Republic practically settled the question that Peking should remain the capital and centre of administrative authority so long as he held the office of President. in spite of the protest of the Republican Assembly . that the change. securing the financial help of the Great Powers to the extent of many millions sterling. by constituting a free Federation of the Provinces. 92 The Awakening of Asia ecclesiastical agitators who. The leaders of this almost peaceful transformation were in favour of moving the capital from Peking to the South.

torture and execution. for the benefit of the Chinese themselves. He wished to establish a new dynasty at Peking. The foreigners in China still backed Yuan alike locally and in the Press at home. A reign of terror began. while Yuan pursued his course for a time unchecked . yearned for its shadow as well . loans. Opposition sprang up from every quarter . mining concessions and so on .The Boxer :Rising Pasha in Turkey. they averred. both real patriots. Yuan. and the leaders of the republican party. That was too much for the new spirit of the Chinese . Despotic rule was necessary. Happily for the Republic and for the future of China. of which he and his son should become the first and second Emperors . All the old machinery of delation. which had been set in motion by the Dowager Empress. Hwang Hsiu and Sun Yat Sen. Li Hung Chang. Though Yuan drew back from his attempt to ascend the 93 . Hwang and Sun Yat Sen took refuge in Japan. province after province seceded from Yuan's Presidency. It was a sad personal deterioration. by foreign financiers. wanted money and power and the means of extravagance and debauchery . like them. These he could obtain by the aid of his foreign patrons. the one a soldier and the other a statesman and a philosopher. This resistance was an even more remarkable evidence of the growth of sound public opinion among these hundreds of millions of people than the expulsion of the Manchus . His opponents were forced to flee the country to save their lives . Revolt followed upon revolt. not contented with the substance of despotic power. And he was favoured. was furbished up afresh and put to full use by Yuan . made a great mistake when they gave way to Yuan at the beginning of his mischievous Presidential career. like his first patron. Yuan-Shi-Kai. They wanted railways. He was more corrupt and more brutal even than these wretches.

Sun Yat Sen. entirely misplaced . with sufficient military and moral backing to ensure freedom from external interference. first by the development of China herself. Japan is the Germany of the East. and China is only the first nation to experience how much she has learnt from her European prototype in statecraft and strategy . next by the weakening of the Western Powers engaged in the Great War. This will be seen more clearly when I treat of the general policy of Japan before and during the war . are confident that this form of political organisation is best suited to the character and disposition of their countrymen and will succeed . if the Republic can be maintained. and Chinese statesmen must already be only too well aware of this. Unquestionably. gives great hope for the future . The World War has strengthened Japan's position as regards all other Powers to an extent that is not as yet fully comprehended in Europe . The ambitions of this last formidable nation are the worst danger that threatens China's independence. Imperial throne. Notwithstanding the outbreaks in various localities and the disposition of some of the provinces to maintain an independence scarcely compatible with the federative policy of the Republic. the founders of the new Govern= ment. That Sun Yat Sen and many of his friends know Europe and America well and that leading military and naval commanders share their opinions as to the policy to be adopted. and then by the certainty that any attempt at interference by force or threat of force would at once bring in Japan on the side of China . in my opinion. and in particular its chief guiding spirit. his failure was complete and his death probably came at a fortunate time for himself . The danger of the success of further European designs of partition is reduced. Those European 94 The Awakening of Asia . this will be best for China herself and for those who have the closest relations with her . Confidence in Japan's loyalty and pacific intentions is.

and thus weakened the Republic's capacity to resist pressure from without. are largely responsible for the following demands categorically made by Japan upon China after the capture of Tsing-tau and the occupation of Kiau-Chau. Germany was very soon and very easily disposed of in the Far East. "The Japanese Government and the Chinese Government. interests and concessions which Germany. she made the following amazing demands upon China Jan . by virtue of treaties or otherwise. whatever promises the latter might have previously made. "Article 2. The Chinese Government engages to give full assent to all matters upon which the Japanese Government may hereafter agree with the German Government relating to all rights. 95 . no territory or I. being desirous of maintaining the general peace in Eastern Asia and further strengthening the friendly relations and good neighbourhood existing between the two nations. 191 5. But no sooner was Japan in possession than China found that the important port and district which had been "leased" to the Empire at a distance was now exclusively at the disposal of the still more dangerous Empire close by. agree to the following articles :"Article I .The Boxer Rising statesmen and publicists. The Chinese Government engages that within the Province of Shantung and along its coast. who were foolish enough to aid and abet Yuan-Shi-Kai in his nefarious plottings against the Chinese Republic. and a small English brigade from India took part in the assault upon the German fortress. and the moment she found that the United States neither would nor could check her. therefore. Directly Japan knew that the European nations were involved in so huge and lasting a war that it gave her a free hand in the East. i8. possesses in relation to the Province of Shantung.

The two Contracting Powers mutually agree that the term of the lease of Port Arthur and Dalny and the term of the lease of the South Manchuria Railway and the Antung Mukden Railway shall be extended to cover a period of gy years . 96 The Awakening of Asia island will be ceded or leased to a third Power under any pretext . The Chinese Government agrees to grant to Japanese subjects the right of opening mines in South Manchuria and Eastern Inner Mongolia . Japanese subjects in South Manchuria and Eastern Inner Mongolia shall have the right to lease or own land required either for erecting suitable buildings for trade and manufacture or for farming. "The Japanese Government and the Chinese Government. Japanese subjects shall be free to reside and travel in South Manchuria and Eastern Inner Mongolia and to engage in business and manufacture of any kind whatsoever. "Article 3 . agree to the following articles :"Article i . As regards what mines are to be opened. "Article 5 . II . they shall be decided upon jointly. "Article 4 . in the interest of trade and for the residence of foreigners. since the Chinese Government has always acknowledged the special position enjoyed by Japan in South Manchuria and Eastern Inner Mongolia. The Chinese Government consents to Japan's building a railway from Chefoo or Lungkow to join the Kaiochou-Tsinanfu Railway . The Chinese Government agrees that in respect of the (two) cases mentioned herein below the Japanese Government's consent shall be first obtained before action is taken :- . "Article 4. "Article 3. to open by herself as soon as possible certain important cities and ports in the Province of Shantung as Commercial Ports . What places shall be opened are to be jointly decided upon in a separate agreement . The Chinese Government engages. "Article 2.

"Article 6. China shall not by her own act dispose of the rights and property of whatsoever nature of the said Company nor cause the said Company to dispose freely of the same . The two contracting parties mutually agree that when the opportune moment arrives the Hanyehping Company shall be made a joint concern of the two nations. (b) Whenever a loan is to be made with a third Power pledging the local taxes of South Manchuria or Eastern Inner Mongolia . the Japanese Government shall be first consulted . and they further agree that. financial or military advisers in South Manchuria or Eastern Inner Mongolia. The Chinese Government agrees that if the Chinese Government employs political. 97 "The Japanese and Chinese Governments seeing that Japanese financiers and the Hanyehping Company have close relations with each other at present. the consent of the said Company shall first be obtained . without the previous consent of Japan. . and further agrees that if it is desired to carry out any undertaking which it is apprehended may directly or indirectly affect the interests of the said Company. and desiring that the common interests of the two nations shall be advanced. The Chinese Government agrees that all mines in the neighbourhood of those owned by the Hanyehping Company shall not be permitted. without the consent of the said Company. The Chinese' Government agrees that the control and management of the Kisiu-Changchun Railway shall be handed over to the Japanese Government for a term of 99 years dating from the signing of this agreement .The Boxer Rising (a) Whenever permission is granted to the subject of a third Power to build a railway or to make a loan with a third Power for the purpose of building a railway in South Manchuria or Eastern Inner Mongolia . "Article 2. "Article 7. to be worked by other persons outside of the said Company . agree to the following articles"Article i .

agree to the following special article :"The Chinese Government engages not to cede or lease to a third Power any harbour or . "Article i . "Article 3 . bay or island along the coast of China . Japanese experts are to be employed and Japanese material to be purchased. Inasmuch as the Japanese Government and the Chinese Government have had many cases of dispute between Japanese and Chinese police which caused no little misunderstanding. another line between Nanchang and Hangchow. financial and military affairs . it is for this reason necessary that the police departments of important places (in China) shall be jointly administered by Japanese and Chinese or that the police departments of these places shall employ numerous Japanese so that they may at the same time help to plan for the improvement of the Chinese police service .The Awakening of Asia IV. The Chinese . Central Government shall employ influential Japanese as advisers in political. . or more of what is needed by the Chinese Government) or that there shall be established in China a jointly-worked Sino-Japanese arsenal. Japanese hospitals. "Article 2. build railways and construct harbour works (including dockyards) in the Province of Fukien Japan shall be first consulted . and another between Nanchang and Chao-Chow . churches and schools in the interior of China shall be granted the right of owning land . China shall purchase from Japan a fixed amount of munitions of war (say 5o per cent. If China needs foreign capital to work mines. V. China agrees to grant to Japan the right of constructing a railway connecting Wuchang with Kiukiang and Nanchang. "Article 6. with the object of effectively preserving the territorial integrity of China. "Article 4 . "Article 5 . "The Japanese Government and the Chinese Government.

. between China and Japan. China agrees that Japanese subjects shall have the right of missionary propaganda in China . it was a method of declaring that Japan's interests in the new Republic were greater than those of all the rest of the nations put together . but as a notice to the world at large that "Asia for the Asiatics" had developed into something more than a cry . The matter. In regard to South Manchuria and Eastern Inner Mongolia. and was carefully kept out of sight by the Government of Japan's chief Ally in the West-England .. but Japan has acted for the last three years almost as if they had been ratified. as will be seen later.The Boxer Rising "Article 7 . Further." The whole of Kiau-Chau Bay is to be opened as a Commercial Port." 99 These terms carry their own meaning on the face of them. the latter Power obtained all the advantages the Germans formerly possessed in the Province of Shantung . as well as Port Arthur and Dalny and the mining areas. their railways. etc . and Japan has the right to a concession under her exclusive jurisdiction . passed almost unnoticed in Europe. twenty years later . Some who know the Far East well hinted at the time that this extraordinary move was made. Japan gained practically all she asked for. by the Treaties of May. Also. That possible domination which the European Powers had foreseen and prevented in 1895 would have been quietly accomplished in 1915. These terms have never been formally accepted by China. If accepted in full they involved the subjugation of China to Japan in every respect . jurisdiction. 1915. not with the expectation that it would be successful at the moment. and no territory or island within this Province "will be leased or ceded to any foreign Power under any pretext . China thereafter could move neither hand nor foot within her own borders or in relation to foreign nations without Japan's consent .</