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N 3 B S C T I R
1 9 1 7 r . N Q 6 - 7 .
Woman S uffr age Demonstr ation in Petr ogr ad, bear ing banner : " With out th e p ar tic ip ation of w omen, suffr age
is not ` univ er sal ' . " One of th e ear l y ac ts of th e Pr ov isional Gov er nment
ex tended ful l p ol itic al r igh ts to w omen .
T h e M ar c h R ev ol ution

2 4 5
F ir st- A n immediate gener al amnesty for al l p ol itic al and
r el igious offenses, inc l uding ter r or ist ac ts and mil itar y and
agr ar ian offenses .
S ec ond- L iber ty of sp eec h and of th e p r ess ; fr eedom for
al l ianc es, unions, and str ik es, w ith th e ex tension of th ese l iber -
ties to mil itar y offic ial s, w ith in th e l imits admitted by mil itar y
r eq uir ements .
T h ir d- A bol ition of al l soc ial , r el igious, and national r e-
str ic tions .
F our th - T o p r oc eed for th w ith to th e p r ep ar ation and c on-
v oc ation of a C onstituent A ssembl y, based on univ er sal suf-
fr age . T h is A ssembl y w il l establ ish a stabl e gov er nmental
r egime .
F ifth - T h e substitution of th e p ol ic e by a national mil itia,
w ith c h iefs to be el ec ted and r esp onsibl e to th e M unic ip al ities . .
S ix th - C ommunal el ec tions to be based on univ er sal , dir ec t,
eq ual and sec r et suffr age .
a
S ev enth - T h e tr oop s w h ic h p ar tic ip ated in th e R ev dl
A r
ion-
r y M ov ement w il l not be disar med, but w il l r emain in 1 tr o-
gr ad .
E igh th - Wh il e maintaining str ic t mil itar y disc ip l ine ' for
tr oop s in ac tiv e ser v ic e, it is desir abl e to abr ogate for sol dier s
al l r estr ic tions in th e enj oyment of c iv il r igh ts ac c or ded oth er
c itiz ens .
" T h e Pr ov isional Gov er nment desir es to add th at it h as no
intention of tak ing adv antage of w ar c onditions to del ay
th e r eal iz ation of th e measur es of r efor m abov e mentioned . "
T h e M inister of F or eign A ffair s, P . N . M il iuk ov , gav e
offic ial notic e of th e R ev ol ution to th e w or l d, on M ar c h 1 8 ,
r ec eiv ing th e dip l omatic r ep r esentativ es of th e A l l ies . His
addr ess, tr ansmitted by c abl e to al l R ussian dip l omats abr oad,
w as as fol l ow s
" T h e new s tr ansmitted by th e Petr ogr ad T el egr ap h ic
A genc y al r eady h as ac q uainted you w ith th e ev ents of th e l ast
few days and th e fal l of th e ol d p ol itic al r egime in R ussia,
w h ic h c ol l ap sed l amentabl y in th e fac e of p op ul ar indignation
p r ov ok ed by its c ar el essness, its abuses, and its c r iminal l ac k
2 4 6

T h e B ir th of th e R ussian Democ r ac y
of for esigh t
. T h e unanimity of r esentment w h ic h th e or der of
th ings now at an end h ad ar oused among al l h eal th y el ements
of th e nation, h as c onsider abl y fac il itated th e c r isis . A l l th ese
el ements h av ing r al l ied w ith enth usiasm to th e nobl e fl ag of
R ev ol ution, and th e A r my h av ing l ent th em its sp eedy and
effec tiv e sup p or t, th e N ational M ov ement obtained dec isiv e
v ic tor y w ith in eigh t days .
nI OM. M 2 XJ1 tas - KYM tO 3 A E M a C B O6 oA b
" I w il l sel l th e br ead and I w il l buy a L iber ty bond" - a r ev ol utionar y
p oster c al l ing up on th e c itiz ens of fr ee R ussia to
subsc r ibe to th e L iber ty L oan .
" T h is r ap idity of r eal iz ation for tunatel y made it p ossibl e to
r educ e th e number of v ic tims to a figur e unp r ec edentedl y smal l ,
in th e annal s of up h eav al s of suc h ex tent and imp or tanc e .
" B y an ac t dated fr om Psk ov , M ar c h 1 5 , E mp er or N ic h ol as
r enounc ed th e th r one for h imsel f and h is h eir , Gr and
Duk e A l ex is N ik ol aiev ic h , in
. fav or of Gr and Duk e M ic h ael
A l ex andr ov ic h . I n r ep l y to a notific ation w h ic h w as made to
h im of th is ac t, Gr and Duk e M ic h ael A l ex andr ov ic h , by an
ac t dated Petr ogr ad, M ar c h 1 6 , in h is tur n, r enounc ed assump -
tion of sup r eme p ow er until th e time w h en a C onstituent
T h e M ar c h R ev ol ution

2 4 7
A ssembl y, c r eated on th e basis of univ er sal suffr age, sh oul d
h av e establ ish ed a for m of gov er nment and new fundamental
l aw s for R ussia
. B y th is same ac t, M ic h ael A l ex andr ov ic h
inv ited th e c itiz ens of R ussia, p ending a definite manifestation
of th e national w il l , to submit to th e auth or ity of th e Pr o-
v isional Gov er nment
. T h e c omp osition of th e Pr ov isional
Gov er nment and its p ol itic al p r ogr am h av e been p ubl ish ed and
tr ansmitted to for eign c ountr ies .
" T h is Gov er nment, w h ic h assumes p ow er at th e moment
of th e gr eatest ex ter nal and inter nal c r isis w h ic h R ussia h as
k now n in th e c our se of h er h istor y, is ful l y c onsc ious of th e
immense r esp onsibil ity it inc ur s
. I t w il l ap p l y itsel f fir st to
r ep air ing th e ov er w h el ming er r or s beq ueath ed to it by th e
p ast, to insur ing or der and tr anq uil l ity in th e c ountr y, and,
final l y, to p r ep ar ing th e c onditions nec essar y in or der th at th e
sov er eign w il l of th e nation may be fr eel y p r onounc ed as to its
futur e fate .
" I n th e domain of for eign p ol ic y, th e C abinet, in w h ic h I
am c h ar ged w ith th e p or tfol io of th e M inistr y of F or eign A f-
fair s, w il l r emain mindful of th e inter national engagements
enter ed into by th e fal l en r egime, and w il l h onor R ussia' s
w or d . We sh al l c ar eful l y c ul tiv ate r el ations w h ic h unite us
w ith oth er fr iendl y and al l ied nations, and w e ar e c onfident th at
th ese r el ations w il l bec ome ev en mor e intimate, mor e sol id,
under th e new r egime establ ish ed in R ussia, w h ic h is r esol v ed
to be guided by th e democ r atic p r inc ip l es of r esp ec t due to
both smal l and gr eat nations, to th e fr eedom of th eir dev el op -
ment, and to good under standing among nations .
" B ut th e Gov er nment c annot for get for a singl e instant th e
gr av e ex ter nal c ir c umstanc es under w h ic h it assumes p ow er
.
R ussia did not w il l th e w ar w h ic h h as been dr enc h ing th e
w or l d w ith bl ood for near l y th r ee year s
. B ut, v ic tim of p r e-
meditated aggr ession p r ep ar ed l ong ago, sh e w il l c ontinue, as
in th e p ast, to str uggl e against th e sp ir it of c onq uest of a
p r edator y r ac e w h ic h h as aimed at establ ish ing an intol er abl e
h egemony ov er its neigh bor s and subj ec ting E ur op e of th e
tw entieth c entur y to th e sh ame of domination by Pr ussian
mil itar ism
. F aith ful to th e p ac t w h ic h unites h er indissol ubl y
2 4 8

T h e B ir th o
f
th e R ussian Democ r ac y
to
h er gl or ious A l l ies, R ussia is r esol v ed, l ik e th em, to assur e
th e w or l d, at al l c osts, an er a of p eac e among th e nations, on
th e basis of stabl e national or ganiz ation guar anteeing r esp ec t
for r igh t and j ustic e . S h e w il l figh t by th eir side against th e
c ommon enemy until th e end, w ith out c essation and w ith out
fal ter ing .
" T h e Gov er nment of w h ic h I for m a p ar t w il l dev ote al l its
ener gy to br ing th e w ar to a v ic tor ious c onc l usion and w il l
ap p l y itsel f to th e task of r ep air ing as q uic k l y as p ossibl e th e
er r or s of th e p ast, w h ic h h ith er to h av e p ar al yz ed th e asp ir a-
tions and th e sel f- sac r ific e of th e R ussian p eop l e . I am fir ml y
c onv inc ed th at th e mar v el ous enth usiasm, w h ic h to- day ani-
mates th e w h ol e nation, w il l mul tip l y its str ength in time and
h asten th e h our of th e final tr iump h of a r egener ated R ussia
and h er v al iant A l l ies . "
T w o days l ater , on M ar c h 2 0 , th e R ussian Pr ov isional Gov -
er nment issued th e fol l ow ing manifesto to th e nation
" C itiz ens : T h e gr eat w or k h as been ac c omp l ish ed . B y a
p ow er ful str ok e th e R ussian p eop l e h av e ov er th r ow n th e ol d
r egime . A new R ussia is bor n . T h is c oup d' etat is th e c ul -
mination of l ong year s of str uggl e .
" U nder p r essur e of aw ak ened national for c es, th e ac t of
Oc t
. 1 7 , 1 9 0 5 , p r omised R ussia c onstitutional l iber ties, w h ic h
w er e nev er gr anted
. T h e F ir st Duma, th e mouth p iec e of th e
national w il l , w as dissol v ed . T h e S ec ond Duma met th e
same fate, and th e Gov er nment, p ow er l ess to c r ush th e national
w il l , dec ided by th e ac t of June 3 , 1 9 0 7 , to dep r iv e th e p eop l e
of p ar t of th e l egisl ativ e r igh ts p r omised th em
.
" Dur ing th e ensuing ten year s th e Gov er nment suc c es-
siv el y w ith dr ew fr om th e p eop l e al l th e r igh ts th ey h ad w on
.
T h e c ountr y w as again th r ow n into th e abyss of absol ute r uin
and administr ativ e ar bitr ar iness
. A l l attemp ts to mak e th e
v oic e of r eason h ear d w er e v ain, and th e gr eat w or l d str uggl e
into w h ic h th e c ountr y w as p l unged found it fac e to fac e w ith
mor al dec adenc e and p ow er not united w ith th e p eop l e- p ow er
indiffer ent to th e c ountr y' s destinies and steep ed in v ic es and
infamy .
" T h e h er oic effor ts of th e A r my, c r ush ed under th e c r uel
T h e M ar c h R ev ol ution

2 4 9
w eigh t of inter nal disor ganiz ation, th e ap p eal s of th e national
r ep r esentativ es, w h o w er e united in v iew of th e national dan-
ger , w er e p ow er l ess to l ead th e E mp er or and h is Gov er nment
into th e p ath of union w ith th e p eop l e
. T h us w h en R ussia,
th r ough th e il l egal and sinister ac ts of h er r ul er s, w as c on-
fr onted w ith th e gr eatest disaster s, th e p eop l e h ad to tak e th e
p ow er into th eir ow n h ands .
" With unanimous r ev ol utionar y sp ir it, th e p eop l e, ful l y
r eal iz ing th e ser iousness of th e moment and th e fir m w il l of
th e Duma, establ ish ed a Pr ov isional Gov er nment, w h ic h c on-
sider s it its sac r ed duty to c ar r y out th e national w il l and
l ead th e c ountr y on to th e br igh t p ath of fr ee c iv ic or ganiz a-
tion . T h e Gov er nment bel iev es th at th e l ofty sp ir it of p atr i-
otism w h ic h th e p eop l e h av e sh ow n in th e str uggl e against
th e ol d r egime w il l al so animate our gal l ant sol dier s on th e
battl efiel ds .
" I n its tur n th e Gov er nment w il l do its utmost to p r ov ide
th e A r my w ith ev er yth ing nec essar y to br ing th e w ar to a v ic -
tor ious c onc l usion . T h e Gov er nment w il l faith ful l y obser v e
al l al l ianc es uniting us w ith oth er p ow er s and al l agr eements
made in th e p ast .
" Wh il e tak ing measur es indisp ensabl e for th e defense of
th e c ountr y against a for eign enemy, th e Gov er nment w il l
c onsider it its fir st duty to gr ant to th e p eop l e ev er y fac il ity to
ex p r ess th eir w il l c onc er ning th e p ol itic al administr ation, and
w il l c onv ok e as soon as p ossibl e th e C onstituent A ssembl y on
th e basis of univ er sal suffr age, at th e same time assur ing th e
gal l ant defender s of th e c ountr y th eir sh ar e in th e Par l ia-
mentar y el ec tions
.
" T h e C onstituent A ssembl y w il l issue fundamental l aw s,
guar anteeing th e c ountr y th e inal ienabl e r igh ts of eq ual ity and
l iber ty .
" C onsc ious of th e bur den of p ol itic al op p r ession w h ic h h as
been h inder ing th e fr ee c r eativ e for c es of th e p eop l e dur ing
year s of p ainful h ar dsh ip s, th e Pr ov isional Gov er nment deems
it nec essar y, befor e th e C onstituent A ssembl y, to announc e
to th e c ountr y its p r inc ip l es, assur ing p ol itic al l iber ty and
eq ual ity to al l c itiz ens, enabl ing th em to mak e fr ee use of th eir
A detac h ment of tr oop s at th e fr ont tak ing th e oath of l oyal ty to th e Pr ov isional Gov er nment .
T h e M ar c h R ev ol ution

2 5 1
sp ir itual for c es in c r eativ e w or k for th e benefit of th e c ountr y
.
T h e Gov er nment w il l al so tak e c ar e to el abor ate th e p r inc ip l es
assur ing al l c itiz ens p ar tic ip ation in c ommunal el ec tions, w h ic h
w il l be c ar r ied out on th e basis of univ er sal suffr age
.
" A t th e moment of national emanc ip ation, th e w h ol e c oun-
tr y r ec al l s w ith p ious gr atitude th ose w h o, in th e str uggl e for
th eir p ol itic al and r el igious ideas, fel l v ic tims to th e v engeanc e
of th e ol d p ow er , and th e Pr ov isional Gov er nment w il l j oy-
ful l y br ing bac k fr om ex il e and p r ison al l th ose w h o th us suf-
fer ed for th e good of th eir c ountr y .
" I n r eal iz ing th ese p r obl ems, th e Pr ov isional Gov er nment
bel iev es it is ex ec uting th e national w il l and th at th e w h ol e
p eop l e w il l sup p or t it in its effor ts to insur e th e h ap p iness of
R ussia . "
A mong th e many ac ts w h ic h fol l ow ed th ese dec l ar ations of
th e Pr ov isional Gov er nment, w e must mention esp ec ial l y th e
ac ts l iber ating th e h er etofor e op p r essed
national ities . On
M ar c h 2 1 , th e Pr ov isional Gov er nment issued a M anifesto
c omp l etel y r estor ing th e F innish C onstitution, and on A p r il
1 3 , A . F
. Ker ensk y, th en M inister of j ustic e, p er sonal l y ad-
dr essed th e F innish Diet, gr eeting th e fr ee F innish p eop l e in
th e name of th e Pr ov isional Gov er nment .
On M ar c h 2 9 th th e Pr ov isional Gov er nment ap p ointed a sp e-
c ial C ommittee, w ith th e p r ominent Pol ish l eader , A . R
. L ed-
nitsk y, at th e h ead, to p r ep ar e a memor andum for th e final
sol ution of th e Pol ish p r obl em .
A few w eek s l ater , th e Pr o-
v isional Gov er nment ex p r essed its v iew s on th is p r obl em in
th e fol l ow ing A p p eal to th e Pol es
" Pol es, th e ol d p ol itic al or der in R ussia, th e sour c e of your
bondage and our s, and th e c ause of disunion, h as been ov er -
th r ow n for ev er .
" L iber ated R ussia, p er sonified in its Pr ov isional Gov er n-
ment, v ested w ith th e ful l ness of p ow er , h astens to addr ess
to you its fr ater nal gr eetings and to c al l you to th e new l ife
of l iber ty .
" T h e ol d or der gav e you h yp oc r itic al p r omises w h ic h it
c oul d but w oul d not c ar r y out .
T h e C entr al Pow er s h av e
util iz ed its mistak es to oc c up y and dev astate your c ountr y,
2 5 2

T h e B ir th o f th e R ussian Democ r ac y
and, w ith th e obj ec t of figh ting against R ussia and h er A l l ies,
h av e giv en you il l usor y p ol itic al r igh ts, w h ic h ar e ex tended,
not to al l th e Pol ish p eop l e, but onl y to th e p ar t of Pol and
temp or ar il y oc c up ied by th e enemy
. T h is is th e p r ic e for
w h ic h th e C entr al Pow er s w ant to buy th e bl ood of a p eop l e
w h o h av e nev er fough t on th e side of desp otism . B ut now no
Pol ish A r my is going to figh t for th e sup p r ession of l iber ty
and th e dismember ment of its c ountr y under th e c ommand of
th e eter nal foe .
" B r oth er - Pol es, for you al so th e h our for th e gr eat de-
c ision h as str uc k . F r ee R ussia c al l s you into th e r ank s of th e
figh ter s for th e p eop l e' s l iber ty . T h e R ussian p eop l e, w h o
h av e w or n th e yok e, ac k now l edge th at th e fr ater nal Pol ish
p eop l e al so h av e th e ful l est r igh ts to deter mine fr eel y th eir
ow n fate .
" F aith ful to th e agr eement w ith th e A l l ies and to th e c om-
mon c ause against mil itant Ger manism, th e Pr ov isional Gov -
er nment c onsider s th at th e c r eation of an indep endent Pol ish
S tate, th e str ongh ol d of al l th e ter r itor ies, w h er e th e Pol ish
p eop l e c onstitute th e maj or ity of th e p op ul ation, w il l be a
c er tain guar anty of l asting p eac e in th e r enov ated E ur op e of
th e futur e .
" A ttac h ed to R ussia by a fr ee mil itar y union, th e Pol ish
S tate w il l be a sol id r amp ar t against th e p r essur e br ough t to
bear by th e C entr al Pow er s on th e S l av nations
. T h e Pol ish
p eop l e, fr eed and united, w il l of itsel f deter mine its system of
Gov er nment by ex p r essing its w il l th r ough a C onstituent A s-
sembl y c onv ok ed in th e anc ient C ap ital of Pol and
. T h r ough
p ol itic al unity th e Pol ish p eop l e w il l r ec eiv e a sol id guar anty
of its c iv il and national ex istenc e .
" T h e R ussian C onstituent A ssembl y w il l h av e to sanc tion
th e new fr ater nal union and giv e its c onsent to th e ter r itor ial
c h anges in th e R ussian S tate nec essar y for th e for mation of a
fr ee Pol and fr om al l th e th r ee p ar ts into w h ic h it w as c r uel l y
sep ar ated .
" B r oth er - Pol es, tak e th e fr ater nal h and w h ic h fr ee R ussia
h ol ds out to you
. F aith ful guar dians of gr eat tr aditions, mov e
T h e M ar c h R ev ol ution

2 5 3
for w ar d fr om now on to th e op ening of th e new and br il l iant
er a of your h istor y, th e er a of th e r esur r ec tion of Pol and
.
" L et th e union of our h ear ts and minds antic ip ate, th e futur e
union of our S tates and l et th e gl or ious ap p eal of anc ient days,
made by th e for er unner s of your l iber ation, r e- ec h o w ith r e-
new ed for c e .
" Onw ar d in th e str uggl e, side by side, h and in h and, for
our l iber ty and your s! "
S imul taneousl y w ith th e l iber ation of F inl and and Pol and,
th e Pr ov isional Gov er nment str etc h ed out a fr ater nal h and
to th e suffer ing Jew ish p eop l e in R ussia, and w ith one str ok e
of th e p en r ep eal ed al l th e anti- Jew ish l aw s . T h e tex t of th is
momentous dec r ee fol l ow s
" A l l ex isting l egal r estr ic tions up on th e r igh ts of R ussian
c itiz ens, based up on faith , r el igious teac h ing or national ity,
ar e r ev ok ed . I n ac c or danc e w ith th is, w e h er eby r ep eal al l
l aw s ex isting for R ussia as a w h ol e, as w el l as for sep ar ate
l oc al ities, embodying l imitations c onc er ning
:
1 . S el ec tion of p l ac e of r esidenc e and c h ange of r esidenc e .
2 . A c q uir ing r igh ts of ow ner sh ip and oth er mater ial r igh ts
in al l k inds of mov abl e p r op er ty and r eal - estate, and l ik ew ise
in th e p ossession of, th e use and th e managing of al l p r op er ty,
or r ec eiv ing suc h for sec ur ity .
3 . E ngaging in al l k inds of tr ades, c ommer c e and industr y,
not ex c ep ting mining ; al so eq ual p ar tic ip ation in th e bidding
for Gov er nment c ontr ac ts, del iv er ies and in p ubl ic auc tions .
4 . Par tic ip ation in j oint stoc k and oth er c ommer c ial or in-
dustr ial c omp anies and p ar tner sh ip s, and al so emp l oyment in
th ese c omp anies and p ar tner sh ip s in al l k inds of p ositions,
eith er by el ec tions or by emp l oyment
.
5
. E mp l oyment of ser v ants, sal esmen, for emen, l abor er s, and
tr ade ap p r entic es .
6 . E nter ing th e Gov er nment ser v ic e, c iv il as w el l as mil itar y,
and th e gr ade or c ondition of suc h ser v ic e
; p ar tic ip ation in th e
el ec tions for th e institutions of l oc al sel f- gov er nment, and al l
k inds of p ubl ic institutions
; ser v ing in al l k inds of p ositions of
Gov er nment and p ubl ic establ ish ments, as w el l as th e p r osec u-
tion of th e duties c onnec ted w ith suc h p ositions
.
2 5 4

T h e B ir th of th e R ussian Democ r ac y
7
. A dmission to al l k inds of educ ational institutions, w h eth er
p r iv ate, Gov er nment or p ubl ic , and th e p ur suing of th e c our ses
of instr uc tion of th ese institutions, and r ec eiv ing sc h ol ar sh ip s
.
A l so th e p ur suanc e of teac h ing and th e oth er educ ational p r o-
fessions .
8
. Per for ming th e duties of guar dians, tr ustees, or j ur or s
.
9
. T h e use of l anguages and dial ec ts, oth er th an R ussian,
in th e p r oc eedings of p r iv ate soc ieties, or in teac h ing in al l
k inds of p r iv ate educ ational institutions, and in c ommer c ial
book k eep ing . "
T h e U nited S tates w as th e fir st c ountr y to w el c ome R ussia
into th e famil y of fr ee nations
. On M ar c h 2 2 , th e A mer ic an
A mbassador , in Petr ogr ad, Dav id R
. F r anc is, ac c omp anied by
h is entir e S taff, w ent to th e M ar iinsk y Pal ac e to c onv ey th e
for mal r ec ognition by th e U nited S tates of th e new R ussian
Gov er nment . A ddr essing th e C ounc il of M inister s
. A mbassa-
dor F r anc is said
" I h av e th e h onor , as th e A mbassador and R ep r esentativ e
of th e Gov er nment of th e U nited S tates ac c r edited to R ussia,
to state, in ac c or danc e w ith instr uc tions, th at th e Gov er nment
of th e U nited S tates h as r ec ogniz ed th e new Gov er nment of
R ussia, and I , as A mbassador of th e U nited S tates, w il l be
p l eased to c ontinue inter c our se w ith R ussia th r ough th e
medium of th e new Gov er nment
.
" M ay th e c or dial r el ations ex isting betw een th e tw o c oun-
tr ies c ontinue to obtain
. M ay th ey p r ov e mutual l y satisfac tor y
and benefic ial . "
P . N
. M il iuk ov r ep l ied for th e Pr ov isional Gov er nment,
saying
" Per mit me, in th e name of th e Pr ov isional Gov er nment, to
answ er th e ac t of r ec ognition by th e U nited S tates . You
h av e been abl e to fol l ow for your sel f th e ev ents w h ic h h av e
establ ish ed th e new or der of affair s for fr ee R ussia . I h av e
been mor e th an onc e in your c ountr y and may bear w itness
th at th e ideal s w h ic h ar e r ep r esented by th e Pr ov isional Gov -
er nment ar e th e same as under l ie th e ex istenc e of your ow n
c ountr y . I h op e th at th is gr eat c h ange w h ic h h as c ome to
T h e M ar c h R ev ol ution

2 5 5
R ussia w il l do muc h to br ing us c l oser togeth er th an w e h av e
ev er been befor e .
" I must tel l your E x c el l enc y th at dur ing th e l ast few days
I h av e r ec eiv ed many c ongr atul ations fr om p r ominent men in
your c ountr y, assur ing me th at th e p ubl ic op inion of th e
U nited S tates is in symp ath y w ith us . Per mit me to th ank
you . We ar e p r oud to be r ec ogniz ed fir st by a c ountr y w h ose
ideal s w e c h er ish . "
On th e fol l ow ing day Gr eat B r itain, F r anc e and I tal y,
th r ough th eir A mbassador s in Petr ogr ad, al so ex tended for mal
r ec ognition to th e new R ussian Gov er nment .
C HA PT E R I I
T h e E c onomic Pr ogr am of th e
Pr ov isional Gov er nment
T
HE p r ev ious c h ap ter p r esents th e p ol itic al p r ogr am of
th e fir st Pr ov isional C abinet . I ts ec onomic p r ogr am
w as ful l y ex p r essed in th e addr ess of th e M inister of
T r ade and I ndustr y, A . I . Konov al ov , del iv er ed befor e th e
M osc ow S toc k E x c h ange on A p r il 1 4 , 1 9 1 7 .
T h is addr ess is' v al uabl e not onl y as an h istor ic al doc ument
p r esenting th e ec onomic p r ogr am of th e R ussian Pr ov isional
Gov er nment,- it is of mor e th an h istor ic al v al ue . Wh il e th e
futur e stabl e, democ r atic Gov er nment, w h ic h final l y w il l be
establ ish ed in R ussia, w il l p r obabl y differ somew h at, in its
c omp osition, fr om th e fir st Pr ov isional C abinet, and w h il e
some of th e detail s of Konov al ov ' s p r ogr am may be c h anged,
h is addr ess del iv er ed befor e th e M osc ow S toc k E x c h ange r e-
mains, in our op inion, th e inev itabl e p r ogr am for th e futur e
ec onomic dev el op ment of fr ee R ussia .
T h e B ol sh ev ik i, w ith th eir naiv e p ol itic al and ec onomic
ex p er iments, w il l disap p ear as soon as th e instinc t for sel f-
p r eser v ation r easser ts itsel f in R ussia, as soon as R ussia be-
gins to r ec ov er fr om h er gr av e w ounds. Young, ful l of l atent
p ow er , sh e is p assing th r ough a p er iod of utmost disor ganiz a-
tion k now n to ev er y c ountr y th at h as p assed fr om tyr anny to
fr ee democ r atic dev el op ment . T o- day is th e gr av est mo-
ment in R ussia' s national h istor y . A nyth ing th at h ap p ens to-
mor r ow c annot but be an imp r ov ement.
With v er y few ex c ep tions, R ussia is fur th er aw ay fr om
S oc ial ism th an p r obabl y any oth er c ountr y in th e w or l d . T h e
B ol sh ev ist demagogues may p r omise th e unfor tunate masses,
w or n out by c entur ies of op p r ession and bl ed by th e w ar ,
ev er yth ing th ey find on th e tip s of th eir tongues . A s w as to
be ex p ec ted, th e " S oc ial ism" w h ic h th e B ol sh ev ik i r eal iz ed in
R ussia h as r esul ted in th e utmost disor ganiz ation of industr y,
of tr ansp or tation, of financ e, and h as c r eated a situation in
w h ic h entir e Pr ov inc es ar e suffer ing fr om r eal , p h ysic al
h unger .
I f w e c onsul t about th e p ossibil ity for immediate S oc ial ism
T h e E c onomic Pr ogr am o f th e Pr ov isional Gov er nment
2 5 7
in R ussia, not th e B ol sh ev ist demagogues, but th e r eal R us-
sian S oc ial ist l eader s, men w h o h av e ser v ed th e inter ests of
th e l abor ing masses for gener ations, men to w h om th e tr agedy
of th e unfor tunate masses is as th eir ow n, men w h o, p r eac h ing
S oc ial ism as a sc ientific th eor y of ec onomic dev el op ment, feel
th e utmost r esp onsibil ity for ev er y statement th ey mak e to th e
masses,- w e w oul d r ec eiv e a v er y definite answ er . T h ey w oul d
say : " A l th ough w e bel iev e th at R ussia, j ust as ev er y oth er
S tate on th e gl obe, w il l ev entual l y c ome to S oc ial ism, th e
nex t inev itabl e stage in R ussia' s national l ife w il l be a p er iod
of c ap ital istic dev el op ment . " T h ey w oul d al so say
: " S oc ial -
ism bec ame a p ow er onl y sinc e Kar l M ar x ex p l ained th e in-
ev itabil ity of c ap ital istic dev el op ment for ev er y S tate, and th e
h istor ic al mission of c ap ital ism, w h ic h is th e dev el op ment,
th r ough p r iv ate c omp etition, of th e natur al r esour c es of ev er y
c ountr y, th e dev el op ment and c onc entr ation of p r oduc tion
.
Onl y w h en a S tate is h igh l y dev el op ed industr ial l y and th e
p r oduc tion is so c onc entr ated th at a smal l gr oup of p r iv ate
inter ests p r ac tic al l y c ontr ol s th e ec onomic l ife of th e nation,
onl y th en c an a democ r atic gov er nment step in and r ep l ac e
th is smal l gr oup of inter ests by its ow n c ontr ol
. T h is is
th e th eor y of sc ientific S oc ial ism
. T h at means th at a c ountr y
l ik e R ussia, w ith undev el op ed r esour c es, w ith th e masses un-
educ ated, w ith a p r ol etar iat amounting to not mor e th an four
p er c ent . of th e entir e p op ul ation, iss far , far aw ay fr om S oc ial -
ism and must inev itabl y p ass th r ough th e stage of c ap ital istic
dev el op ment, w h ic h al one is abl e to or ganiz e th e natur al r e-
sour c es of th e nation, to buil d up th e industr ies and br ing th em
to th e p r op er stage of effic ienc y
. T h e h our for a soc ial r ev ol u-
tion h as not yet str uc k , and R ussia is fur th er fr om th is h our
th an p r obabl y any oth er c ountr y in th e w or l d
. " *
T o r etur n to our th eme, th is l eav es Konov al ov ' s addr ess
befor e th e M osc ow S toc k E x c h ange, ev en fr om th e S oc ial ist
p oint of v iew , stil l a l iv ing p r ogr am for R ussia' s futur e
ec onomic dev el op ment . T h e B ol sh ev ik i w il l disap p ear , and
* T h is w oul d be th e answ er giv en us if w e w er e to inter v iew
. for in-
stanc e, th e gr eat R ussian S oc ial ist, Geor ge Pl ek h anov , an ec onomist,
soc iol ogist and p h il osop h er r ec ogniz ed th e w or l d ov er
. T h e abov e- giv en
l ines ar e onl y a p ar ap h r ase of Pl ek h anov ' s ar gumentation sinc e th e R ev o-
l ution of 1 9 0 5 up to th e p r esent .
2 5 8

T h e B ir th of th e R ussian Democ r ac y
th e c ol l ap se of th eir p ow er may be as sudden as its r ise
dur ing and after th e N ov ember r ev ol t . T r ansp or tation w il l
be r eestabl ish ed, th e bank s w il l be r eop ened, th e financ ial
system w il l r ec up er ate, th e management of industr ies w il l
be p l ac ed in th e sk il l ful h ands of th e industr ial c l ass, as soon
as th e nation, c oming out of its c r isis, w il l br ing into ex istenc e
a stabl e, democ r atic gov er nment c omp osed of th e best r ep r e-
sentativ es of R ussia' s mind and statesmansh ip . We c annot
p r op h esy w h eth er A
. I . Konov al ov , now imp r isoned by th e
B ol sh ev ik i in th e F or tr ess of S t
. Peter and Paul , w il l ap p ear
again as th e M inister of T r ade and I ndustr y,- w e w oul d l ik e
th at h e sh oul d,- but one th ing is al most c er tain
: h is suc c essor
w il l h av e to inc or p or ate in h is p r ogr am many p oints of Kono-
v al ov ' s addr ess befor e th e M osc ow S toc k E x c h ange on A p r il
4 , 1 9 1 7 .
Konov al ov ' s A ddr ess
" F r ee c itiz ens of fr ee R ussia, p er mit me to ex tend my gr eetings to
you .
T h e fondest asp ir ations of our p eop l e h av e been r eal iz ed : th e ol d
h ateful or der h as giv en w ay under th e migh ty p r essur e of th e c oun-
tr y' s w r ath , and on its r uins new l ife h as r ap idl y tak en r oot, and is
al r eady beginning to tak e for m . A l l of us, th e entir e R ussian p eop l e,
ar e c onfr onted w ith th e gr eat and sac r ed task of p r eser v ing and
guar ding th e tender fl ow er of l iber ty fr om al l stor ms and danger s
besetting it, fr om our midst as w el l as
fr om w ith out .
We need not be distur bed if th e fir st step s al ong th e r oad of
adap ting our sel v es to th e new c onditions of l ife ap p ear diffic ul t
and ar e ac c omp anied by fr ic tion, inev itabl e w ith N ew R ussia
sep ar ated fr om Ol d R ussia onl y by a month and a h al f
. A l l th e
op p r ession, al l th e abuses th at w er e th e v er y foundation of th e ol d
r egime ar e stil l fr esh in th e memor y of th e masses ; th e minds of th e
p eop l e ar e stil l in a state of fer ment
; mental eq uil ibr ium and a sober
v iew p oint of th e futur e of our c ountr y, so nec essar y for p l ac ing our
soc ial and p ol itic al l ife on a sound basis, ar e stil l l ac k ing
.
I n or der th at w e may p ass out of th is tr ansitor y stage as soon as
p ossibl e, it is nec essar y for us to c onc entr ate al l our th ough t, al l
our ener gy, for th e p ur p ose of deal ing th e final and dec isiv e bl ow
to th e for eign foe
. A t th e same time it is nec essar y to maintain
c iv il p eac e w ith in th e c ountr y, to c onc il iate th e differ ent c l asses,
and to subor dinate c l ass inter ests to th e gener al w el far e of th e
S tate . T h ese ar e th e tw o fundamental p r obl ems w h ic h new R ussia
is now fac ing, and it is for th e p ur p ose of sol v ing th em th at th e
T h e E c onomic Pr ogr am o f th e Pr ov isional Gov er nment
2 5 9
Pr ov isional Gov er nment c al l s
up on al l to c oop er ate w ith
th e A dministr ation
.
Gentl emen, new c onditions
nec essitate th e adop tion of
new v iew p oints . T h e tr e-
mendous up h eav al th at h as
sh ak en th e ec onomic l ife of
th e w or l d to its foundations
h as c aused an unp ar al l el ed
c h ange in th e ec onomic r el a-
tions in al l th e bel l iger ent
c ountr ies . Of th is E ngl and
offer s th e most str ik ing ex -
amp l e, E ngl and th e c ountr y
of age- ol d tr aditions, w h er e
c ustom and th e br oadest in-
div idual ism h as al w ays p r e-
v ail ed, th e c ountr y w h ic h h as
al w ays p r otec ted th e indi-
v idual fr om al l c l aims of th e
S tate and w h ose sl ogan h as
been ` th e S tate for th e c iti-
z ens, and not th e c itiz ens for
th e S tate . ' E ngl and h as, under
th e infl uenc e of th e w ar , ab-
r up tl y and r adic al l y c h anged
h er v iew s, v iew s w h ic h , it v - as gener al l y assumed, r ep r esented th e
most typ ic al tr aits of th e E ngl ish
. Pr ior to th e w ar ev er y E ngl ish -
man w oul d h av e p r otested most v igor ousl y against any attemp t on
th e p ar t of th e Gov er nment to inter fer e w ith th e p r iv ate inter ests of
indiv idual s ; now w e see th ose c l asses w h ic h c onsider ed any attemp t
at Gov er nment c ontr ol an abominabl e v iol ation of th eir r igh ts, c ome
out for Gov er nment c ontr ol . U nder th e infl uenc e of th e w or l d w ar ,
under th e p r essur e of ec onomic nec essity, th e p syc h ol ogy of entir e
nations c h ange.
T h e p eop l e ar e c omp el l ed to adap t th emsel v es to th e new , un-
p r ec edented c onditions of l ife
. I f suc h an effec t w as p r oduc ed on
E ngl and by th e w ar al one, w h at c an be ex p ec ted of R ussia l iv ing
th r ough th e th r oes of R ev ol ution togeth er w ith w ar ? Gentl emen,
c onsider c ar eful l y w h at is now tak ing p l ac e in our c ountr y
. I t w il l
not be an ex agger ation to say th at w e ar e not onl y w aging a gigantic
str uggl e w ith th e migh ty and obstinate for eign foe, for our p l ac e in
th e sun, but th at w e ar e going th r ough a r adic al r ec onstr uc tion of th e
entir e sytem under w h ic h w e h av e been l iv ing
.
A t th e fr ont, as w el l as in th e c ountr y, th e fatal q uestion c on-
A . I . KON OVA L OV
M inister of T r ade and I ndustr y in th e
Pr ov isional Gov er nment
.
2 6 0

T h e B ir th o f th e R ussian Democ r ac y
fr onting us is ` to be or not to h e . ' A nd at th is dec isiv e h our of
our national l ife w h en th e destiny of R ussia, and w ith it our fate
as a nation, is being dec ided, l et us r ec ogniz e th e tr emendous
r esp onsibil ity w h ic h r ests up on us . L et us not stop at any sac r ific es,
l et us giv e our v er y l ife, if need be, for our gr eat c ountr y, for th e
sak e of h er h onor , h er w el l - being, h er v er y ex istenc e, and th e l ong-
sough t l iber ty . T h e new l y c r eated or der nec essitates a new p sy-
c h ol ogy
. We must fr ank l y ac k now l edge th at at th e p r esent moment,
th e fundamental p r inc ip l es, th e basic c onditions of our ec onomic
l ife ar e under going a most r adic al c h ange
. F r om out of th e deep
suffer ings of th e masses c ome for th th e p er sistent demands th at th e
Gov er nment, togeth er w ith th e w eal th y c l asses, tak e immediate step s
tow ar ds satisfying th e sp ir itual and th e mater ial needs of th e p eop l e,
w h ic h w as imp ossibl e under th e ol d r egime
. I n th is c onnec tion,
w e ar e infor med, fal se ap p r eh ensions and gr oundl ess doubts ar e
sp r inging up . L et us tr ust th at in th e c onstr uc tiv e p r oc ess w h ic h is
now being c ar r ied on by th e p eop l e, in th e p r oc ess of r eor ganiz ing
our S tate on th e new p r inc ip l es p r oc l aimed by th e R ev ol ution, an
adj ustment w il l be made p ossibl e w h er eby al l th e j ust demands w il l
be satisfied, and w h ic h w il l safeguar d th e c iv il p eac e, indisp ensabl e
for c omp l eting th e titanic task befor e R ussia
. L et us not for a
minute doubt but th at our statesmen w il l be abl e to find a w ay of
br inging about h ar mony among al l th ese c entr ifugal for c es
. T h e
inh er ent tac t and c ommon sense of our gr eat p eop l e, w h ic h h av e
many times been demonstr ated in th e c our se of our national h is-
tor y, of w h ic h th e p r esent R ev ol ution is th e most br il l iant il l ustr a-
tion, ar e a suffic ient assur anc e th at th e p eop l e w il l p r ov e eq ual to
th e gr eat task ah ead of th em
.
C onfidenc e and h ar mony in th e r el ations of th e c itiz ens, among
th emsel v es and tow ar ds th e Pr ov isional Gov er nment, is th e basis
up on w h ic h th e new str uc tur e of fr ee R ussia w il l h e er ec ted . B ut
th e ol d or der h as l eft us a h er itage of disc or d ; under its p er nic ious
infl uenc e al l th e sound el ements of th e c ountr y h av e sp l it up into
th e minutest fac tions, differ ing in th eir v iew s and tac tic s and c r eat-
ing an atmosp h er e of distr ust and susp ic ion . T h at is w h er ein th e
gr eat danger l ies, and it is th is danger th at w e must by al l means
figh t, l est th e h ideous gh ost of th e p ast r etur n and stifl e th e new l y
bor n l iber ty, by k indl ing th e dar k est p assions and fanning th e fl ames
of c iv il str ife
. T h er e is onl y one w ay to ov er c ome th is danger ,
namel y, for th e r ep r esentativ es of th e v ar ious gr oup s and c l asses to
ap p r oac h one anoth er w ith out distr ust, to op enl y and fr ank l y set
for th th eir v iew s, and after getting mutual l y ac q uainted, c ombine
th eir effor ts for th e c ommon c ause of al l R ussia
.
I f th is be so, th en th e c l ass of tr adesmen and manufac tur er s c annot
and must not r emain isol ated
. T h e ol d r egime h as seemingl y done
ev er yth ing to del iber atel y destr oy and demor al iz e th e tr ade- industr ial
T h e E c onomic Pr ogr am o f th e Pr ov isional Gov er nment
2 6 1
ap p ar atus it took year s to buil d up , as a r esul t of w h ic h th e usual
c our se of th e c ountr y' s ec onomic l ife w as stop p ed, and at th e same
time, th r ough th e p ec ul iar l y enfor c ed system of r egul ations, a w ide
fiel d for al l sor ts of abuses and sp ec ul ations w as op ened . VVe must
fr ank l y ac k now l edge th at fr om th ese abuses and sp ec ul ations a
system of op p r ession gr ew tip
w h ic h h as c al l ed for th ful l y mer ited
r ep r oac h , distr ust and h ostil e feel ings tow ar ds th e r ep r esentativ es
of th e tr ade- industr ial c l ass . I t is th e duty of th e tr ade- industr ial
c l ass, in th e inter ests of th e S tate and for th e w el far e of th e p op ul a-
tion, to op enl y figh t th e ex c ess p r ofits emanating fr om th e system
of sp ec ul ation and abuses
. Gentl emen, w e must r oot out th is p oison-
ous w eed of th e ol d r egime, no matter at w h at c ost .
A t th e same time th er e c an be no doubt but th at under p r esent
c ir c umstanc es, l ac k ing most of th e nec essar ies of ex istenc e, w ith th e
fac tor ies and mil l s for c ed to c ut dow n th eir p r oduc tion due to l ac k of
r aw mater ial and fuel , w ith th e demor al iz ation of th e tr ansp or tation
system, and being c omp el l ed, desp ite al l th ese obstac l es, to meet th e
numer ous r eq uir ements at th e fr ont,- th er e is no oth er w ay out but
Gov er nment c ontr ol of p r iv ate industr ial and mer c antil e enter -
p r ises, and th e c oop er ation of th e democ r atic masses of th e
p op ul ation in th e matter of r egul ating th e tr ade- industr ial l ife of
th e c ountr y . F or ex amp l e, th er e ar e al r eady in ex istenc e c ommit-
tees, in th e c otton, fl ax , j ute, w ool and l eath er industr ies, th e p ur p ose
of th ese c ommittees being to sup p l y th e fac tor ies and mil l s w ith al l
th e nec essar y r aw mater ial , th e p l ac ing of w ar or der s and, to a
c er tain ex tent, th e distr ibution of manufac tur ed ar tic l es at th e fr ont
and th r ough out th e c ountr y . I am of th e op inion th at in th is dir ec -
tion it is nec essar y for us to go fur th er
. I t is not onl y nec essar y to
r efor m th e ex isting c ommittees by mak ing th em mor e soc ial in th eir
natur e and w idening th e sc op e of th eir ac tiv ities, but al so, in ac c or d-
anc e w ith th e r eq uir ements of l ife and th e dic tates of ex p er ienc e,
to c r eate new c ommittees in a number of th e most imp or tant l ines
of business
. I n addition to fair distr ibution, it sh oul d be th e task
of al l th e c ommittees, w h ic h ar e to bec ome p ar ts of th e M inistr y,
to al so r egul ate th e p r ic es . I t is to be ex p ec ted th at th e r ep r esenta-
tiv es of th e v ar ious c l asses of soc iety, enter ing into simil ar or ganiz a-
tions, and th us assuming th eir sh ar e of r esp onsibil ity for th is or
some oth er sol ution of q uestions ar ising out of our ec onomic l ife,
th at th ey
w il l aid in c r eating a mor e intel l igent and fair attitude
tow ar ds th e tr ade- industr ial l ife and th ose c onditions under w h ic h
it is c ar r ied on .
C l osel y c onnec ted w ith th is q uestion th er e is anoth er one w h ic h I
p er sonal l y c onsider of tr emendous imp or tanc e
. I k now th at it h as
al r eady ar isen and h as al r eady met w ith a symp ath etic attitude on
your p ar t . I h av e in mind th e q uestion of l imiting th e p r ofits of al l
mer c antil e and industr ial establ ish ments . U ndoubtedl y, a p r op er l y
2 6 2

T h e B ir th of th e R ussian Democ r ac y
w or k ed- out sol ution of th is q uestion w oul d h av e th e tendenc y to
c h ec k th e unw ar r anted gr ow th of p r ic es th at w oul d ap p ease th e
masses . T h e mor al effec t of a dec r ee l imiting p r ofits is of tr emendous
imp or tanc e, not onl y in th at it w oul d soften th e feel ing of il l - w il l
tow ar ds th e tr ade- industr ial c l ass, but al so bec ause it w oul d affor d
th e Gov er nment a new c onv inc ing p r oof th at th e c ommer c ial and
industr ial c l ass is r eady to mak e al l p ossibl e sac r ific es for th e
c ommon good, a p r oof w h ic h w oul d p ar al yz e th e v oic ing of any new
demands on th e p ar t of th e masses .
N ow , gentl emen, th ese ar e th e main ideas, th e fundamental p oints
of v iew w h ic h th e tr ade- industr ial c l ass sh oul d c onsider as a star ting
p oint in its effor ts to w in th e c onfidenc e of th e p op ul ation, and to
safeguar d th at imp or tant p osition w h ic h th ey ough t to oc c up y in
th e l ife of th e c ountr y . B ut you no doubt under stand th at in or der
to ful fil l its h istor ic mission, your c l ass, as any oth er , must be w el l
or ganiz ed . Div ided, sp l it up into fac tions, not united in one str ong
h ar monious or ganiz ation, th e c ommer c ial and industr ial c l ass w il l
be p ow er l ess to do its ful l duty tow ar ds th e Gov er nment .
A t th is time of tr emendous up h eav al th r ough w h ic h w e ar e p ass-
ing, at th is time w h en al l th e foundations of our ec onomic l ife ar e
sh ak ing, th e Gov er nment w il l be abl e to h ol d its ow n against th e
enemy' s bl ow s and r ec onstr uc t our national l ife onl y if it w il l be
abl e to sec ur e th e sup p or t of al l our c itiz ens, r egar dl ess of c l asses
or gr oup s .
I n or der to ac c el er ate th e p r oc ess of p utting our national l ife into
its nor mal c our se, in or der to h asten ' th e r estor ation of our ec o-
nomic for c es, in or der to effec t a c l ose union of al l th e c omp onent
p ar ts of our p op ul ation, so essential for v ic tor y, in or der to star t
th e imp or tant w or k of sh ap ing th e gr eat futur e of R ussia, I c al l up on
th e tr ade- industr ial c l ass to or ganiz e as soon as p ossibl e .
T h e M inistr y of T r ade and I ndustr y, in its tur n, w il l giv e most
c ar eful c onsider ation to al l th e suggestions of th e tr ade- industr ial
sp h er es r egar ding th eir or ganiz ation into one sel f- gov er ning body,
bound by unity of aim, and in suc h a manner as to affor d th em a
p r op er l y or ganiz ed ex p r ession of th eir w il l . I h av e in mind th e
or ganiz ing . of C h amber s of T r ade and I ndustr y .
T h is or ganiz ation of th e c ommer c ial c l ass, w h ic h is so nec essar y
for th e p r esent, is stil l mor e imp or tant for th e futur e . T h e ec onomic
p r obl ems w h ic h ar e w aiting to be sol v ed ar e so tr emendousl y c om-
p l ic ated, so ex tr emel y diffic ul t, th at a p r op er sol ution c annot be at-
tained w ith out th e c oop er ation of th e or ganiz ed soc ial for c es w ith
th e Gov er nment .
T h e task befor e us c onsists in w or k ing out a p l an for th e ec o-
nomic str uc tur e of new R ussia, in l aying dow n th e fundamental p r in-
c ip l es of our national p r ogr am, c onc er ning our ec onomic l ife . We
must el abor ate a p l an for or ganiz ing our ec onomic l ife, asc er taining
T h e E c onomic Pr ogr am o f th e Pr ov isional Gov er nment
2 6 3
th e main needs of our industr ial and c ommer c ial l ife and deter mining
th e manner in w h ic h th ese needs sh al l be satisfied .
A s r egar ds th e mor e immediate p r obl ems of our ec onomic l ife,
c onfr onting us at h ome as w el l as in our r el ations w ith for eign
c ountr ies, th ey natur al l y w il l be deter mined by th e financ ial and
ec onomic h er itage w h ic h th e w ar w il l l eav e us
. Disor ganiz ation of
th e c ountr y' s industr ial l ife, an enor mous q uantity of p ap er money
and an enor mous inc r ease in th e c ountr y' s debts- th ese ar e th e fun-
damental fac tor s w h ic h w il l deter mine th e dir ec tion of our ec onomic
p ol ic y, r egar dl ess of our desir es or p r efer enc es
.
Our budget after th e w ar w il l amount to not l ess th an 8 - 9 bil l ion
r ubl es . I t is imp ossibl e to c ov er suc h a budget by means of inc r eased
tax ation
. T h e ex tent of tax ation is l imited by th e c ountr y' s p r oduc tiv ity
and its inc r ease is p ossibl e onl y in p r op or tion to th e inc r eased
v al ue of th e total p r oduc tion of th e c ountr y' s industr ies
. T h er efor e,
for th e p ur p ose of stimul ating domestic industr y, sp ec ial attention
sh oul d be p aid to th e p utting into p r ac tic e of a c ar eful l y w or k ed
out system of c ustoms tar iff, w h ic h , as th e ex amp l e of al l industr ial
c ountr ies so w el l sh ow s, h as al w ays ser v ed as a migh ty stimul ant
for th e dev el op ment of al l th e p r oduc tiv e for c es w h ic h oth er w ise
l ie dor mant in th e c ountr y, and h as al w ays aided tow ar ds a gr eater
dev el op ment of th e natur al r esour c es of th e c ountr y
. T h e p l an of a
new p r otec tiv e tar iff w as p r ep ar ed by th e ol d, r egime . B ut th e p r o-
p osed imp or t duties w er e based on a study of th e c onditions w h ic h
p r ev ail ed in our industr ies as w el l as in for eign industr ies, befor e
th e w ar . C onditions in industr ial l ife h av e c omp l etel y c h anged
dur ing th e w ar . T h e new er a up on w h ic h R ussia is now enter ing
h as ac c entuated th e c h anges w h ic h th e p r esent w ar c aused in our
ec onomic l ife
. Henc e it is nec essar y to r ev ise th e p r op osed tar iff
w ith out del ay, for th e p ur p ose of adap ting it to th e al ter ed c ondi-
tions of our industr ial l ife and to modify it in c onfor mity w ith th e
dep r ec iation of our money . I t goes w ith out saying th at th e M inistr y
of T r ade and I ndustr y w il l c onsider it its duty to sec ur e th e c o-
op er ation of th e r ep r esentativ es of al l gr oup s w h ose inter ests ar e in-
v ol v ed in th is p l an, namel y, th e tr ade- industr ial c l ass and th e w or k -
ing p eop l e, as w el l as th e r ep r esentativ es of th e sc ientific w or l d and
of th e p ubl ic at l ar ge .
I n th e domain of our for eign p ol ic y, w ith r egar d to our ec onomic
l ife, th e h er itage of th e w ar w il l , dur ing th e fir st year s, c onsist of a
mar k edl y negativ e tr ade bal anc e
. Our for eign debts, w h ic h h av e
gr eatl y inc r eased, c an onl y to a smal l ex tent be c ounter bal anc ed by
th e ex p or t of gr ain, w h ic h h as now c onsider abl y dec r eased, if not
c eased al togeth er .
T h e situation is bec oming al l th e mor e diffic ul t bec ause of th e
ev er inc r easing famine due to th e sh or tage of means of p r oduc tion,
as w el l as of al l th e nec essar ies of l ife
; th is famine w il l be fel t v er y
2 6 4

T h e B ir th of th e R ussian Democ r ac y
ac utel y not onl y on ac c ount of th e l ac k of th ese goods, but al so be-
c ause of th e ov er abundanc e of p ap er money
. U nc ontr ol l ed c ommer c e,
w ith a tendenc y for ac q uisition of p r op er ty abr oad, w h ic h is p r one
to dev el op under suc h c ir c umstanc es, if l eft to p r iv ate enter p r ise,
must l ead to th e fur th er dep r ec iation of th e r ubl e
. A s a r esul t,
our new l y r estor ed industr ies, our tr ansp or tation and agr ic ul tur e,
w h ic h r eq uir e a l ar ge imp or t of metal s, l ath es, mac h iner y, r ail s and
assembl ed p ar ts, and w h ic h at th e same time demand th e safeguar ds
of a c h eap r ate of ex c h ange, may be p l ac ed in a most embar r assing
p osition . Gov er nment c ontr ol ov er th ese matter s demands th at a
sp ec ified number of basic ar tic l es of imp or t be ex c l uded fr om th e
l ist of ar tic l es w h ic h p r iv ate fir ms w il l be al l ow ed to imp or t, suc h
r estr ic tions being deter mined by a study of th e r eq uir ements of th e
p ubl ic . Gov er nment c ontr ol w oul d al so imp l y th e c entr al iz ation of
al l p ur c h asing . Onl y under suc h c onditions w il l it be p ossibl e for
us to meet our obl igations, w h ic h do not fal l due until suc h time
w h en our h ome industr ies w il l c ome into th eir ow n and w h en a
nor mal bal anc e in our fav or w il l enabl e us to satisfy our need for
for eign gol d .
I n addition to th is, th e p r esent situation natur al l y demands ev er y
measur e tow ar ds r estor ing th e tr ade w h ic h c an be gained, stimul ating
th e gr ow th of ex p or t and c r eating c onditions c onduc iv e to th e in-
fl ux of for eign c ap ital .
T h e infl ux of for eign c ap ital p er for ms a tw o- fol d func tion
: besides
r estor ing th e bal anc e, it is absol utel y nec essar y for th e dev el op ment
of th e p r oduc tiv e for c es of th e c ountr y
. T h e M inistr y of T r ade
and I ndustr y ex p ec ts th e infl ux of c ap ital not onl y fr om E ngl and
and F r anc e, our ol d fr iends, but al so fr om th e U nited S tates, w h er e
an enor mous q uantity of gol d h as been amassed dur ing th e w ar and
w h er e a migh ty mov ement for an A mer ic an- R ussian r ap p r oc h ement
h as ar isen and bec ome esp ec ial l y mar k ed sinc e th e U nited S tates'
entr anc e into th e w ar
. T h e M inistr y, in its tur n, w il l l end ev er y
sup p or t to th e c l osest p ossibl e r ap p r oc h ement betw een th e tw o gr eat-
est democ r ac ies in th e w or l d .
T h e w idening of our r el ations nec essitates th e c onstr uc tion of a R us-
sian mer c h ant mar ine . E v en p r ior to th e w ar , about tw o- th ir ds of our
for eign tr ade w as ov er seas tr ade
. A fter th e w ar , th e inc r eased tr ade
w ith th e A l l ies w il l mak e th e ov er seas c ommer c e th e dominant p ar t
of our entir e tr ade
. T h e negl igibl e p ar t, onl y 1 0 p er c ent . , w h ic h th e
R ussian mer c h ant mar ine h as c ontr ol l ed, c an no l onger be tol er ated .
B esides th e ov er c h ar ges in fr eigh t w h ic h is p aid for in for eign
money, suc h a state of affair s dep r iv es R ussia of h er indep endenc e
in h er for eign tr ade p ol ic y
. T h at is w h y th e buil ding up of a p ow er -
ful mer c h ant mar ine is one of our immediate p r obl ems
. T h e M in-
istr y h as al r eady or ganiz ed a sp ec ial c ommittee on mar ine tr ans-
p or tation
. T h is h as been div ided up into sub- c ommittees, w h ic h ar e
T h e E c onomic Pr ogr am o f th e Pr ov isional Gov er nment

2 6 5
at p r esent busil y engaged p r ep ar ing bil l s w h ic h , if tak en togeth er ,
ar e to for m th e basis for th e immediate dev el op ment of our mer -
c h ant fl eet
. T h e fir st step to be tak en is th e c r eation of a ser ies of
gener al j ur idic al measur es w h ic h w oul d do aw ay w ith th e h andic ap s
and defec ts of th e ol d l egisl ation, suc h as th e r egul ations deal ing
w ith th e r egistr ation of sh ip s, th e l imited r esp onsibil ity of th e sh ip -
ow ner s, etc . T h en w il l fol l ow a ser ies of measur es tending to enc our -
age th e sh ip - buil ding industr y in R ussia and th e inc r ease of th e
mer c h ant fl eet, measur es w h ic h ar e al r eady h ur r iedl y being p r ep ar ed,
suc h as th e bil l s r egul ating th e w or k ing c onditions of th e mer c h ant
mar ine c r ew s .
S er ious w or k is al so r eq uir ed in c onnec tion w ith th e p or ts
. S ome
of it h as al r eady been under tak en by th e M inistr y
. T h e new c on-
ditions h av e nec essitated a number of tentativ e measur es, suc h as
( 1 ) T h e or ganiz ation of th e administr ation of th e p or ts
. ( 2 ) R egu-
l ation of w or k ing c onditions of p or t l abor er s
. T h e p or t admin-
istr ation h as been enl ar ged th r ough th e admission into its r ank s
of r ep r esentativ es of th e p ubl ic , th e manufac tur er s and th e w or k er s
.
C our ts of A r bitr ation h av e been establ ish ed and th e measur es
ar e ac c omp anied by a r ev ision of th e v er y foundations of th e p or ts'
administr ation, on th e basis of th e w idest autonomy and sel f- gov -
er nment
. A t th e same time th e q uestion of better eq uip ment of th e
p or ts th r ough th e w idest p ossibl e c oop er ation of p r iv ate initiativ e
is tak en up
. F inal l y, in our endeav or s to fac il itate for eign tr ade
and sec ur e our indep endenc e fr om th e w or l d' s distr ibuting c entr es,-
suc h as Hambur g, B r emen and oth er s,- th e q uestion of ` fr ee p or ts'
h as been r aised, a p r oj ec t w h ic h it is under stood is to be c ar r ied out
w ith th e gr eatest c ar e, in th e inter ests of our h ome industr ies
. M any
of th e measur es w h ic h h av e been suggested ar e al r eady being dr aw n
up and w e tr ust th at in th e v er y near futur e th ey w il l bec ome l aw s
.
T h e imp er ativ e demand for th e dev el op ment of our industr ies h as
c omp el l ed our M inistr y of T r ade and I ndustr y to star t sear c h ing for
new sour c es of w eal th in th e c ountr y, for th e p ur p ose of dev el op ing
th em at th e ear l iest p ossibl e moment
. I n th is c onnec tion, th e M in-
istr y h as in th e fir st p l ac e tur ned to th e undev el op ed r ic h es of th e
N or th
. Our M inistr y h as ap p ointed a sp ec ial c ommittee for th e p ur p ose
of studying th e natur al r esour c es of our N or th er n Pr ov inc es, in or der
to dev el op th eir ec onomic l ife in gener al , and abov e al l to inc r ease
our l umber ex p or t .
T h en, it is needl ess to p r ov e to you w h at p ar t el ec tr ic p ow er p l ays in
th e dev el op ment of p r oduc tion
. U ntil th e p r esent time, th e util iz a-
tion of el ec tr ic ity h as not r ec eiv ed due c onsider ation, and th is de-
sp ite th e fac t th at R ussia is so v er y r ic h in p eat, in migh ty sour c es
of w ater p ow er , and desp ite th e h igh p r ic e of fuel ,- al l th ese gr ounds
w h ic h sh oul d h av e p r omp ted us to obtain h eat and p ow er by util iz ing
th e natur al r esour c es of th e c ountr y
. T h is h as, h ow ev er , been p r e-
2 6 6

T h e B ir th of th e R ussian Democ r ac y
v ented by th e obsol ete l egisl ation and nar r ow - minded p ol ic ies of th e
ol d Gov er nment . T h e M inistr y of T r ade and I ndustr y r egar ds it as
one of its task s to ener getic al l y p ush th is matter for w ar d by foc us-
ing its attention on l egisl ation touc h ing up on th e dev el op ment
and th e ap p l ic ation of el ec tr ic ity to our industr ies . T h is w eek a
C onfer enc e dev oted to el ec tr ic p r obl ems w il l begin its w or k . T h is C on-
fer enc e w il l be c omp osed of r ep r esentativ es of v ar ious p ubl ic bodies,
of manufac tur er s and sc ientists . I t w il l w or k out a c onstitution for
th e Dep ar tment of E l ec tr ic ity, w h ic h is being c r eated, and it w il l
disc uss a ser ies of bil l s r egul ating th e p r oduc tion of el ec tr ic ity fr om
c oal , p eat and w ater fal l s, th e tr ansmission of th is ener gy and its
c onsump tion . T h e C onfer enc e w il l al so outl ine th e gener al p r inc ip l es
of management of al l matter s p er taining to el ec tr ic ity .
Pr obl ems of tr emendous imp or tanc e ar e al so c onfr onting us in th e
Dep ar tment of E duc ation . T ec h nic al and p r ofessional tr aining of
th e el ementar y and of th e h igh er typ e, c oup l ed w ith a fair gener al
educ ation of a l iv e, p r ac tic al natur e, w il l for m th e foundation of th e
futur e p r oduc tiv e ac tiv ities of our p eop l e
. I n th e v er y near futur e,
c onfer enc es and c ongr esses of p eop l e ac tiv e in th e educ ational w or l d
w il l be c al l ed, and th e gener al p r oj ec t of th e l egisl ation r egar ding
c ommer c ial , tec h nic al and p r ofessional tr aining w il l be submitted to
th em for c onsider ation . T h e number of p r ofessional sc h ool s of al l
typ es is al r eady bec oming c onsider abl y l ar ge . Our new fr eedom,
stimul ating th e p eop l e, in gener al , w il l c al l into being a new
str eam of initiativ e in th e domain of p edagogy . A s r egar ds th e
univ er sities and c ol l eges, th e M inistr y of T r ade and I ndustr y is,
abov e al l , w or r ied by th e abnor mal situation w h ic h finds ex p r ession
in th e p r ol onged year s of attendanc e and th e smal l number of
gr aduates.
T h e fundamental p r obl ems c onfr onting th e M inistr y
in th is c onnec tion ar e as fol l ow s
: to inc r ease th e number of
engineer s and p er sons w ith business tr aining, by sh or tening th e time
r eq uir ed for th eir tr aining, and so to offer to th e c ountr y a suffic ient
c ontingent of young, ener getic , not ov er w or k ed for c es . B esides
r egul ating th e c ur r ic ul um and th e meth ods of instr uc tion, th ese p r ob-
l ems, due to th e l ac k of means fr om w h ic h some of our students
suffer , ar e bound up w ith th e ar r anging for a sp ec ial ` students'
c r edit
. ' Of th e measur es al r eady p ut into p r ac tic e by th e M inistr y,
I w ish to p oint out th e ac c omp l ish ed dec entr al iz ation in matter s of
h igh sc h ool administr ation, th e er adic ation of a ser ies of c h r onic
abnor mal ities w ith w h ic h th e l ife of th e univ er sities w as affec ted,
th e r egul ation of th e mater ial situation of th e teac h ing p er sonnel ,
and al so th e p utting into p r ac tic e in sc h ool l ife of th e p r inc ip l es of
eq ual ity and l iber ty, th e p r inc ip l es w h ic h for m th e basis of th e
p r ogr am of th e Pr ov isional Gov er nment .
F or th e new r egime mor e p er fec t tr ade- industr ial l egisl ation is
r eq uir ed, not onl y based on th e moder n p r inc ip l es now effec tiv e in
T h e E c onomic Pr ogr am o f th e Pr ov isional Gov er nment
2 6 7
th e most adv anc ed c ountr ies, but al so of suc h a natur e as w oul d
br ing th e entir e ec onomic l ife of th e c ountr y to mor e fav or abl e
c onditions c onduc iv e to p r op er dev el op ment . Her e, abov e al l , th e
M inistr y of T r ade and I ndustr y c onsider s it absol utel y nec essar y,
on th e one h and, to fr ee tr ade- industr ial ac tiv ity fr om th e ec onomic
and p ol itic al fetter s of th e ol d r egime, and, on th e oth er h and, to
inj ec t new w h ol esome el ements into th e p r oduc tiv e l ife of th e c oun-
tr y
. A nd you, gentl emen, k now th at th e r efor m l egisl ation deal ing
w ith c or p or ations and j oint stoc k c omp anies is al r eady an ac c om-
p l ish ed fac t . One of th e fir st r ec ommendations w h ic h I , as h ead of
th e M inistr y of T r ade and I ndustr y, h av e submitted to th e Pr o-
v isional Gov er nment w as th at r egar ding th e abol ition of al l th ose
r estr ic tions up on j oint- stoc k c omp anies, by means of w h ic h th e ol d
r egime w as stifl ing al l indiv idual initiativ e, in its attemp t t o util iz e
th e l aw s w h ic h sh oul d h av e been used for th e dev el op ment of th e
c ountr y' s p r oduc tiv e for c es, as a tool for th e fanning of r el igious
and r ac ial h atr ed .
A t p r esent fur th er step s ar e being tak en to simp l ify and ac c el er ate
th e c r eation of j oint- stoc k c omp anies . F or th is p ur p ose, indep endent
of th e bil l r egul ating th e for mation of j oint- stoc k c omp anies and
c or p or ations, th er e ar e being p r ep ar ed a ser ies of model c onstitutions
for v ar ious typ es of c or p or ations and for enter ing into p ar tner sh ip .
A t th e same time, th e M inistr y, fol l ow ing th e p ol ic y of h ar moniz ing
th e inter ests of c ap ital and l abor , is tak ing up th e matter of al l ow ing
th e for mation of j oint- stoc k c omp anies in w h ic h th e l abor er s and
oth er emp l oyees w oul d be stoc k h ol der s
. I n th e inter ests of smal l
enter p r ises, th e M inistr y deems it its duty to c onsider th e matter of
l egal iz ing c omp anies w ith a c h angeabl e member sh ip and c ap ital , a
for m w h ic h w oul d ser v e for th e c onsol idation of smal l mer c h ants for
p ur c h asing op er ations
.
S tr iv ing
. to p l ac e domestic tr ade in mor e fav or abl e c onditions and
on th e sound basis w h ic h is ex c eedingl y imp or tant for sec ur ing our
c r edit, th e M inistr y w il l , in th e v er y near futur e, p ass l egisl ation, al -
r eady p r ep ar ed, deal ing w ith th e r egistr ation of business p eop l e and
fir ms ; w ith book k eep ing, and al so w ith th e administr ation of c ommer -
c ial and industr ial h ouses .
A mong oth er measur es aw aiting th eir tur n to be p ut into effec t
ar e
: th e r adic al r efor m of th e stoc k ex c h ange, l aw s r egul ating th e
c onsol idation of c ommer c ial and industr ial enter p r ises, th e enc our -
agement of c oop er ativ es, th e r ev ision of l egisl ation r egar ding ar ti-
sans, etc .
Wh il e outl ining br iefl y th e most imp or tant p r obl ems w ith w h ic h
th e M inistr y of T r ade and I ndustr y is c onfr onted, as
w el l as th e
w or k al r eady begun in c onnec tion w ith th ese p r obl ems, I must c al l
your attention to th e l abor p r obl em
. L abor is th e foundation of a
nation' s r ic h es, and it is th er efor e nec essar y to do ev er yth ing p os-
2 6 8

T h e B ir th of th e R ussian Democ r ac y
sibl e to p l ac e it in a p osition c onduc iv e to its nor mal dev el op ment
.
T h e Pr ov isional Gov er nment c onsider s th is q uestion as one of v ital
imp or tanc e. T h e ' Gov er nment th ink s it its duty to sec ur e th e c iv il
p eac e so nec essar y for th e c ountr y, by means of a w ide p r ogr am of
soc ial r efor ms . T h e Gov er nment fir ml y bel iev es th at its soc ial p ol ic y
w il l r ec eiv e th e staunc h sup p or t of al l c l asses of th e p op ul ation . I t is
being p r op osed to or ganiz e, in th e v er y near futur e, an indep endent
Dep ar tment of L abor , under th e guidanc e of a p er son enj oying th e
ful l est and unc onditional c onfidenc e of th e w or k ing c l ass . T h e p ar -
tic ip ation of a r ec ogniz ed l eader of th e l abor ing masses in th e w or k
of th e Pr ov isional Gov er nment w oul d be th e best guar anty of suc c ess
in th e c omp l ic ated and r esp onsibl e w or k of soc ial l egisl ation, now
befor e us .
U ntil suc h time as th e Dep ar tment of L abor is c r eated, al l imme-
diate l abor l egisl ation is being tak en c ar e of by a sp ec ial Dep ar t-
ment of th e M inistr y of T r ade and I ndustr y, w h ic h Dep ar tment I
or ganiz ed h ur r iedl y up on enter ing into offic e .
T ak ing into c onsider ation th e most v ital needs of th e p r esent
moment, th e Dep ar tment of L abor r egar ds th e q uic k est p ossibl e
or ganiz ation of th e w or k ing p eop l e as its c h ief p r obl em . With
th is p ur p ose in v iew , th e Dep ar tment of L abor h as al r eady w or k ed -
out a number of bil l s r egar ding l abor unions, and th ese w il l be
submitted to th e Pr ov isional Gov er nment in th e v er y near futur e .
A sp ec ial c ommittee is inv estigating th e q uestion r egar ding th e
l ength of th e w or k ing day, in c onnec tion w ith th e demand of th e
w or k ing c l ass for th e immediate p assage of an eigh t- h our l aw
. T h is
q uestion h as in th e p ast h el d th e ex c l usiv e attention of th e gener al
p ubl ic . A t p r esent, th e ac ute c h ar ac ter of th e q uestion h as to a
c er tain ex tent been l ost . On th e one h and, it h as bec ome ap p ar ent
th at th e l eading industr ies do not obj ec t to th e eigh t- h our day as a
matter of p r inc ip l e, and mer el y insist up on sol v ing th is q uestion in
ac c or danc e w ith th e c onditions of p r oduc tion and distr ibution in th e
for eign and in th e domestic mar k et . On th e oth er h and, th e w or k ing
p eop l e, r ec ogniz ing th e needs of th e Gov er nment, h av e r enounc ed th e
ac tual enfor c ement of th e eigh t- h our day in al l enter p r ises engaged
in munitions w or k , an enfor c ement w h ic h , if insisted up on, w oul d p r ov e
h igh l y detr imental to th e S tate . T h er e is no doubt but th at th e im-
mediate and c ar eful study of th is q uestion by th e Dep ar tment of
L abor , w ith th e w or k er s and th e manufac tur er s eq ual l y r ep r esented,
w il l enabl e th em to ar r iv e at a sol ution most satisfac tor y to both
sides . I n addition, th e Dep ar tment of L abor h as begun w or k on
l egisl ation for C our ts of A r bitr ation, h as finish ed th e p r oj ec t of a
bil l r egar ding th e or ganiz ation of r ep r esentativ e c ommittees in th e
mil l s and fac tor ies, and is at p r esent p r ep ar ing a bil l c r eating a system
of emp l oyment agenc ies . I n th is c onnec tion, th e Dep ar tment of L abor
is c al l ing a sp ec ial c onfer enc e in M ay, for th e p ur p ose of c oor dinating
T h e E c onomic Pr ogr am o f th e Pr ov isional Gov er nment , 2 6 9
th e w or k of th e v ar ious p ubl ic or ganiz ations in th is sp h er e
. T h e l aw s
r egul ating c ontr ac ts betw een emp l oyer and emp l oyee w il l be r ev ised
at th e ear l iest op p or tunity . T h e w or k w il l be star ted by str etc h ing
th e insur anc e l aw s to c ov er new c ategor ies of w or k er s, and th e
w or k ing out of a bil l for insur anc e against v oc ational diseases . B y
th e time th e C onstituent A ssembl y is c onv ok ed, th e Dep ar tment of
L abor p r op oses to h av e p r ep ar ed th e nec essar y mater ial for th e
p assage of an insur anc e bil l c ov er ing ol d age and ac c ident
.
T ogeth er w ith al l th is, r egul ations w il l be w or k ed out safeguar ding
th e inter ests of emp l oyees of c ommer c ial establ ish ments, and th e
ap p l ic ation of Gov er nment p r otec tion to ar tisans and c r aftsmen .
A l l th ese p r obl ems w il l be w or k ed out w ith th e c oop er ation of
r ep r esentativ es of th e gr oup s c onc er ned . T h ey w il l be c al l ed up on
to disc uss th e q uestions and to agr ee up on a c omp r omise, w h ic h ,
w h il e satisfying to a c er tain ex tent th e inter ests of both p ar ties,
w il l at th e same time meet th e r eq uir ements of l aw and j ustic e
w h ic h now for m th e basis for th e sol ution of al l our national p r ob-
l ems . T h ey w il l be c al l ed up on to find a sol ution th at w il l safeguar d
th e dev el op ment of th e p r oduc tiv e for c es of th e c ountr y, and at th e
same time aid th e c ountr y in sec ur ing h er p l ac e as an ec onomic
p ow er among oth er S tates .
Gentl emen, you c an c l ear l y see fr om th e br ief outl ine w h ic h I h av e
giv en you, h ow enor mous and h ow v ar ied ar e th e p r obl ems w h ic h
th e M inistr y of T r ade and I ndustr y is c al l ed up on to sol v e up on
star ting on th e new p ath of its ac tiv ities in beh al f of fr ee R ussia
.
We ar e c onfr onted w ith a tr emendous task
. A nd th is task , w h ic h
w oul d h av e been utter l y imp ossibl e under th e ol d r egime, must and
w il l now be ac c omp l ish ed
. T h e fier y enth usiasm w h ic h is sw eep ing
th e c ountr y, insp ir ed by th e new l y- w on l iber ty, is a guar anty th at
th is w il l be done
. A noth er guar anty is th e c onsc iousness th at th e
fate of our F ath er l and is in our h ands, th at w e ar e th e master s of
our ow n h ap p iness .
F or fear th at I may tir e you w ith my l ong sp eec h , I do not c on-
sider it p ossibl e, to disc uss th e fuel and metal situation
. I tr ust I
sh al l h av e an op p or tunity to do so in th e v er y near futur e . I sh al l
th er efor e p ass ov er to th e oth er p r obl ems w h ic h th e M inistr y must
sol v e .
T o p r oc eed, th e M inistr y c onsider s it most imp or tant to r egul ate
and dev el op our mining industr y . T h is dep ar tment of our national
l ife r eq uir es some r adic al r efor ms . T h e mining industr y must be
r aised to th e l ev el nec essitated by its ex c l usiv e imp or tanc e in th e
ec onomic l ife of th e c ountr y, and by its imp or tanc e in c onnec tion
w ith th e c ountr y' s defense
. T h e guiding p r inc ip l e in our p ol ic y
tow ar ds th e mining industr y w il l be th e desir e to dev el op it, not onl y
in or der to satisfy th e c ountr y' s demands, but al so to enabl e us to
ex p or t th ose p r oduc ts of w h ic h th er e is an abundanc e in our c ountr y .
2 7 0

T h e B ir th of th e R ussian Democ r ac y
T h e Dep ar tment of M ining I ndustr ies w as, under th e ol d r egime, ev en
mor e th an any oth er Dep ar tment, guil ty of th e sin of h av ing negl ec ted
th e gr eatest p r obl em of th e p r esent time- th e p r obl em of dev el op ing
th e c ountr y' s r esour c es .
A t p r esent new el ements h av e been c al l ed up on to p ar tic ip ate in
th e management of th e mining industr y, and a p l an of w or k for th e
immediate futur e is p r ep ar ed
. T h is p l an c ov er s al l th e fundamental
br anc h es of th e mining industr y, beginning w ith fuel , bl ac k , r ed and
w h ite metal s, gol d and p l atinum, and ending w ith c h emic al sub-
stanc es and miner al w ater s . T h e most imp or tant measur es for th e
dev el op ment of th e mining industr y w h ic h w il l be ap p l ied in th e im-
mediate futur e, w il l be th e enac tment of l egisl ation sep ar ating th e
r igh ts of ow ner sh ip of th e ear th ' s sur fac e fr om th e r igh t to th e de-
p osits under gr ound, th e national iz ation of th e under gr ound r ic h es,
an estimate of al l r esour c es on th e basis of data av ail abl e at th e
p r esent moment, al so th e v al uation of th ese r esour c es in th eir p r es-
ent c ondition, and a systematic geol ogic al and tec h nic al sur v ey of
th e c ountr y' s ter r itor y for th e p ur p ose of studying th e miner al
r esour c es .
A l l p r obl ems p er taining to th e mining industr y, it is p l anned to
c onc entr ate in one institution- th e M ain M ining Dep ar tment, on,
th e p r inc ip l e of p ossibl e dec entr al iz ation, w ith inc r eased p ow er s
gr anted to th e l oc al administr ation and w ith th e c oop er ation of th e
p ubl ic and th e- manufac tur er s .
I n c onc l usion, I w ish to c al l your attention to th e p r el iminar y
w or k of th e Dep ar tment, in c onnec tion w ith th e measur es nec essar y
for fac il itating th e r estor ation of our industr ies fr om th e w ar basis
to nor mal c onditions .
T h e main q uestion r el ating to th is p h ase of our ac tiv ities, w h ic h
c onstitutes one of th e most immediate p r obl ems now befor e th e M in-
istr y, is th e w or k ing out of a definite p l an by w h ic h or der s may be
p l ac ed by th e v ar ious Dep ar tments, for w ar es needed immediatel y
up on th e ter mination of th e w ar . I n v iew of th e ex tr eme diffic ul ty of
th e p r obl em and th e tr emendous infl uenc e w h ic h its, c or r ec t sol ution
w oul d h av e up on th e entir e c our se of our ec onomic l ife, th e M in-
istr y is for ming a sp ec ial c ommittee to be in c h ar ge of al l p r obl ems
c onnec ted w ith th e p l ac ing of or der s, th e c entr al iz ation of al l p ur -
c h asing of r aw mater ial s, manufac tur ed goods and mac h iner y fr om
abr oad for our industr ial needs . I n addition, sp ec ial attention w il l
h av e to be dev oted to th e q uestion of p r eser v ing, dur ing th e tr ansi-
tional p er iod immediatel y after th e w ar , th ose c enter s w h ic h h av e
been sup p l ying industr ial establ ish ments w ith fuel and r aw mater ial ,
as w el l as th ose in c h ar ge of th e or ganiz ed sal e of our domestic
r aw mater ial s and manufac tur es to th e for eign mar k ets
. F inal l y,
w e h av e th e p r obl em of th e demobil iz ation of l abor and th e r etur n
to th e fac tor ies and mil l s of th ose w h o w er e c al l ed to th e c ol or s and
T h e E c onomic Pr ogr am o f th e Pr ov isional Gov er nment
2 7 1
w h o did th eir duty for th e defense of th e F ath er l and on th e fiel d
of battl e .
S uc h ar e our ac tiv ities, suc h ar e our p l ans- th ese ar e th e funda-
mental p r inc ip l es gov er ning our c onduc t in r egar d to th e most im-
p or tant q uestions of th e moment .
Gentl emen, you k now th at th e Pr ov isional Gov er nment der iv es its
str ength fr om th e sup p or t of th e p ubl ic
. A s th e C h ief of th e
M inistr y of T r ade and I ndustr y, I ar dentl y ap p eal to you for c o-
op er ation in our diffic ul t and r esp onsibl e w or k . I h av e p ointed out
to you th e basic p r obl ems of our ec onomic l ife, and ask you to p ar -
tic ip ate in th e sol v ing of th ese, and fur th er mor e, I ask you to sec ur e
th e c oop er ation of th ose w h o th r ough th eir k now l edge and ex p er i-
enc e ar e in a p osition to fac il itate th e w or k , so th at th ey may enter
into th e c l osest p ossibl e c ontac t w ith th e M inistr y
. Onl y by l abor ing
togeth er w il l w e be enabl ed to sp eedil y and c or r ec tl y sol v e al l th e
most imp or tant p r obl ems of th e day, th ese p r obl ems up on w h ic h de-
p ends th e r estor ation of R ussia' s industr ial p ow er .
Point out any new p r obl ems w h ic h must be tak en up by us
. I nfor m
th e M inistr y of al l th e p etty p r obl ems of th e c ur r ent ec onomic l ife, th e
needs and w ants w h ic h you, men of ex p er ienc e and p r ac tic al l ife,
w ant satisfied
. S uc h c l ose c oop er ation w oul d insur e th e suc c ess of
th e M inistr y' s w or k
. Onl y under suc h c onditions do I c onsider it p os-
sibl e to sh oul der th e r esp onsibil ity w h ic h my offic e p l ac es up on me
.
I gr eet you, ac tiv e w or k er s in th e p r oc ess of r ec onstr uc ting
N ew R ussia, togeth er w ith th e oth er stabl e el ements of th e nation
c al l ed up on to c r eate h er migh t and gl or y . I bel iev e th at th e fier y
enth usiasm w h ic h insp ir es al l of you w il l ser v e as an inex h austibl e
sour c e of ener gy, so nec essar y for th e r esp onsibl e w or k now befor e us.
Gentl emen, our th ough t is fr ee, fr ee ar e our ac tions, and our l ov e
for our gr eat c ountr y is infinite
. Wh at sac r ific es w oul d w e not
mak e in th e name of th e p eop l e' s h ap p iness and th e c ountr y' s gl or y!
T o h er , to our fr ee and gl or ious c ountr y, to our gr eat p eop l e, w e
dev ote al l our str ength , al l our under standing, nay, our v er y l iv es .
L ong l iv e fr ee R ussia! "
C HA PT E R I I I
T h e F ir st C r isis- T h e R esignation of A
. I . Guc h k ov
and P . N . M il iuk ov
T
HE h oneymoon of th e R ussian R ev ol ution w as a br ief
one .
On M ay fir st, th e M inister of F or eign A ffair s,
P . N . M il iuk ov , instr uc ted th e R ussian dip l omats in th e
A l l ied c ountr ies to tr ansmit th e fol l ow ing c ommunic a-
tion, w h ic h br ough t about a br eac h betw een th e Pr ov isional
Gov er nment and th e Petr ogr ad C ounc il of Wor k men' s and
S ol dier s' Del egates, and final l y r esul ted in M il iuk ov ' s r e-
signation
" T h e Pr ov isional Gov er nment of R ussia, on A p r il 2 7
. p ub-
l ish ed a M anifesto to R ussian c itiz ens w h er ein it ex p l ained th e
v iew s of th e Gov er nment of R ussia as r egar ds th e obj ec ts to
be attained in th e w ar . T h e M inister of F or eign A ffair s in-
str uc ts me to c ommunic ate to you th e c ontents of th e doc u-
ment r efer r ed to and to add th e fol l ow ing c onsider ations
" Our enemies h av e str iv en l atel y to sow disc or d among our
A l l ies by p r op agating absur d r ep or ts r egar ding th e al l eged
intention of R ussia to c onc l ude a sep ar ate p eac e w ith th e
C entr al Pow er s . T h e tex t of th e doc ument annex ed w il l for m
th e best r efutation of suc h intentions . T h e gener al p r inc ip l es
th er ein enunc iated by th e Pr ov isional Gov er nment ar e in
entir e agr eement w ith th e ideas w h ic h h av e been ex p r essed
r ep eatedl y up to q u,* * e r ec entl y by eminent statesmen of th e
A l l ied c ountr ies .
" T h ese p r inc ip l es w er e ex p r essed l uc idl y al so in th e w or ds
of th e Pr esident of our A l l y, th e gr eat R ep ubl ic ov er seas
. T h e
R ussian Gov er nment, under th e ol d r egime, c er tainl y w as not
p r ep ar ed to ap p r ec iate and sh ar e th ese ideas as to th e l iber at-
ing c h ar ac ter of th e w ar , th e establ ish ment of a stabl e basis
for p ac ific c oop er ation of nations, th e fr eedom of op p r essed
p eop l es, etc
. , but emanc ip ated R ussia c an now use l anguage
w h ic h w il l be under stood by moder n democ r ac ies and h asten
to add h er v oic e to th at of h er A l l ies .
T h e F ir st C r isis

2 7 3
" T h e dec l ar ation of th e Pr ov isional Gov er nment, imbued
w ith th e new sp ir it of fr ee democ r ac y, natur al l y c annot affor d
th e l east p r etex t for assump tion th at th e demol ition of th e ol d
str uc tur e h as entail ed any sl ac k ening on th e p ar t of R ussia
in th e c ommon str uggl e of al l th e A l l ies . On th e c ontr ar y,
th e nation' s deter mination to br ing th e w or l d w ar to a de-
c isiv e" v ic tor y h as been ac c entuated, ow ing to th e sense of
r esp onsibil ity w h ic h is sh ar ed by al l in c ommon and eac h one
of us in p ar tic ul ar
.
" T h is sp ir it h as bec ome stil l mor e ac tiv e by th e fac t th at it is
c onc entr ated on th e immediate task , w h ic h touc h es ev er y-
body so c l osel y, of dr iv ing bac k th e enemy w h o inv aded our
ter r itor y . I t is under stood, and th e annex ed doc ument so
ex p r essl y states, th at th e Pr ov isional Gov er nment, in safe-
guar ding th e r igh t ac q uir ed for our c ountr y, w il l maintain a
str ic t r egar d for its agr eements w ith th e A l l ies of R ussia .
" F ir ml y c onv inc ed of th e v ic tor ious issue of th e p r esent
w ar , and in p er fec t agr eement w ith our A l l ies, th e Pr ov isional
Gov er nment is l ik ew ise c onfident th at th e p r obl ems w h ic h
w er e c r eated by th is w ar w il l be sol v ed by c onc l uding a l asting
p eac e, and th at, insp ir ed by identic al sentiments, th e A l l ied
Democ r ac ies w il l find means of establ ish ing th e guar anties
and p enal ties nec essar y to p r ev ent any r ec our se to sanguinar y
w ar in th e futur e . "
I mmediatel y after th e p ubl ic ation of th is doc ument, a num-
ber of demonstr ations, h ostil e to M il iuk ov , took p l ac e . On
M ay four th , h ow ev er , th e C ounc il of Wor k men' s and S ol dier s'
Del egates . p assed a v ote of c onfidenc e in th e Pr ov isional Gov -
er nment . T h e r esol ution of c onfidenc e w as adop ted by a
nar r ow mar gin of 3 5 in a total of about 2 ,5 0 0 v otes . I n mak ing
p ubl ic th is r esol ution, th e C ounc il dec l ar ed th at it h ad r e-
c eiv ed, fr om th e Gov er nment, th e fol l ow ing ex p l anation of
th e note to th e A l l ies
" T h e note w as subj ec ted to l ong and detail ed ex amination
by th e Pr ov isional Gov er nment, and w as unanimousl y ap -
p r ov ed . T h is note, in sp eak ing of a dec isiv e v ic tor y, h ad in
v iew a sol ution of th e p r obl ems mentioned in th e c ommunic a-
tion of A p r il 9 and w h ic h w as th us sp ec ified
2 7 4

T h e B ir th o f th e R ussian Democ r ac y
` T h e Gov er nment deems it to be its r igh t and duty to de-
c l ar e now th at fr ee R ussia does not aim at th e domination of
oth er nations or at dep r iv ing th em of th eir national p atr imony,
or at oc c up ying by for c e for eign ter r itor ies, but th at its obj ec t
is to establ ish a dur abl e p eac e on th e basis of th e r igh ts of
nations to dec ide th eir ow n destiny .
` T h e R ussian N ation does not l ust after th e str ength ening
of its p ow er abr oad at th e ex p ense of oth er nations
. I ts aim
is not to subj ugate or h umil iate any one
. I n th e name of th e
h igh er p r inc ip l es of eq uity, th e R ussian p eop l e h av e br ok en
th e c h ains w h ic h fetter ed th e Pol ish N ation, but it w il l not
suffer th at its ow n c ountr y sh al l emer ge fr om th e gr eat str ug-
gl e h umil iated or w eak ened in its v ital for c es
.
` I n r efer r ing to th e " p enal ties and guar anties" essential to
a dur abl e p eac e th e Pr ov isional Gov er nment h ad in v iew th e
r educ tion of ar maments, th e establ ish ment of inter national
tr ibunal s, etc
. '
" T h is ex p l anation w il l be c ommunic ated by th e M inister
of F or eign A ffair s to th e A mbassador s of th e A l l ied Pow er s
. "
T h is p atc h ed- up p eac e c er tainl y c oul d not l ast v er y l ong
.
T h e r esignation of M il iuk ov and Guc h k ov w as inev itabl e
w ith th e gr ow th of p ow er of th e C ounc il of Wor k men' s
and S ol dier s' Del egates, w h ic h , p ossessing an enor mous in-
fl uenc e ov er th e masses in Petr ogr ad, soon dev el op ed to a
p osition w h er e it c oul d r eal l y imp ose its w il l up on th e Pr o-
v isional Gov er nment
. F inal l y A . I
. Guc h k ov r esigned on
M ay 1 3 , and th is w as fol l ow ed by M il iuk ov ' s r esignation, on
M ay 1 6
. A t th is v er y time, imp or tant meetings of th e C ounc il
of Wor k men' s and S ol dier s' Del egates w er e being h el d, and
by r ev iew ing th e most imp or tant moments at th ese sessions
w e w il l best c omp r eh end th e natur e of th e p ol itic al p ow er
w h ic h br ough t about th e r esignation of th ese tw o M inister s
.
C HA PT E R I V
T h e Petr ogr ad C ounc il of Wor k men' s and S ol dier s'
Del egates and its R el ation to th e War
I
N op ening th e session of th e Petr ogr ad C ounc il of Wor k -
men' s and S ol dier s' Del egates, on M ay 1 4 th , th e Pr esident
of th e C ounc il , N . S
. T sc h eidz e, th e for mer l eader of th e
S oc ial Democ r atic fac tion in th e Duma, dec l ar ed
" T h e E x ec utiv e C ommittee of th e C ounc il h as dec ided onc e
mor e to send an ap p eal to th e nations of th e w or l d, ex p l aining
th e w ar aims of th e R ussian Democ r ac y
. T h is ap p eal h as for
its p ur p ose th e p itting of th e v oic e of democ r ac y against th e
v oic e of th ose w h o w ant to end th e w ar on th eir ow n basis
.
" F or th e p ur p ose of c onc l uding p eac e, th e C ounc il of Wor k -
men' s and S ol dier s' Del egates h as dec ided to c al l an inter -
national S oc ial ist c onfer enc e
. B ut as l ong as th e w ar c on-
tinues it is nec essar y to tak e al l measur es so th at our fr ont
sh oul d not yiel d and th e sol dier s w ith guns in th eir h ands
not fal ter .
" T h e C ounc il of Wor k men' s and S ol dier s' Del egates h as
dec ided to send an ap p eal to th e sol dier s at th e fr ont, and to
ex p l ain to th em th at in or der to br ing about univ er sal p eac e
it is nec essar y to defend th e R ev ol ution and R ussia by defend-
ing th e fr ont . "
M . I
. S k obel ev , a for mer member of th e Duma and l ater
S ec r etar y of L abor in th e Pr ov isional Gov er nment, sp eak ing
in th e name of th e E x ec utiv e C ommittee of th e C ounc il , said
:
" T h e R ussian R ev ol ution is not onl y of national signific anc e, but
al so of inter national imp or t, as you stated w h en you sent your ap p eal
to th e nations of th e w or l d
. T h e national signific anc e of th e R us-
sian R ev ol ution h as al r eady been manifested, but h er inter national
imp or tanc e h as not been establ ish ed as yet
. T h e ov er th r ow of th e
T z ar is not onl y of national , but al so of gr eat inter national c onse-
q uenc e, for w e h av e th r ow n off th e yok e of th e inter national gen-
dar me
. A t th e same time w e h av e star ted a c amp aign for S oc ial ism
.
We h av e not sol v ed th e sec ond p r obl em
. A l l th e op p r essed ar e
l ook ing up to us, w aiting to be fr eed fr om th e agony of w ar
. B ut
th is l iber ation is imp ossibl e w ith out r ev ol utionar y ar mies in th e
oth er c ountr ies .
T h er efor e, th e R ussian R ev ol ution c an r igh tful l y
2 7 6

T h e B ir th
of th e R ussian Democ r ac y
state to th e w h ol e w or l d th at th e sol ution of th e sec ond p r obl em is
beyond h er p ow er s and th at th e R ev ol ution itsel f is in danger of
being c r ush ed by I nter national I mp er ial ism
. A l so th at al l th ose w h o
p r esent c l aims to th e R ussian R ev ol ution must not for get th eir duties
tow ar ds h er .
T h e R ussian R ev ol ution, in setting out to sol v e inter national
p r obl ems, must dec l ar e th at sh e is c ap abl e not onl y of defending h er -
sel f, but al so of attac k ing . T h e R ussian R ev ol ution must state th at
th e ar my of Wil h el m c annot be used against R ussia' s fr eedom . I f w e
mak e sec ur e our p ow er at h ome, th en w e h av e a r igh t to sp eak to
our for eign c omr ades . We h av e dec l ar ed th at w e w ant p eac e, but
not beh ind th e bac k s of our E ngl ish and F r enc h c omr ades . We
must c ategor ic al l y dec l ar e our sel v es op p osed to a sep ar ate p eac e and
fr ater niz ation . We ar e for a p eac e ex p r essing th e unanimous w il l of
th e R ussian r ev ol utionar y p eop l e
. Democ r atic F r anc e is being
menac ed by Ger many
. T h e Ger man ar my, if it c r ush es th e F r enc h
and E ngl ish , w il l th r ow itsel f up on us
. I f r ev ol utionar y Ger man
r egiments sh oul d c ome to our fr ont, w e w oul d fr ater niz e w ith th em,
but until th en th e figh ting p ow er of th e R ussian A r my must bear
testimony to th e fac t th at w e ar e al w ays r eady to sh ed our bl ood in
defense of our c ountr y . We offer to immediatel y begin p eac e negotia-
tions, at an inter national S oc ial ist c onfer enc e, w ith our Ger man
fel l ow - w or k er s and th e S oc ial ists of th e oth er c ountr ies . "
I n c onc l usion, M . I . S k obel ev suggested th at th e r esol ution
of th e E x ec utiv e C ommittee, to c al l an inter national S oc ial ist
c onfer enc e, be adop ted, and al so th at ap p eal s h e addr essed to
S oc ial ists of al l c ountr ies . T h e ap p eal s fol l ow
T o th e S oc ial ists of A l l C ountr ies
" T h e R ussian R ev ol ution w as h or n in th e fl ame of th e w or l d
w ar . T h is w ar is a monstr ous c r ime on th e p ar t of th e imp er ial ists
of al l th e c ountr ies, w h o, by th eir l ust for annex ations, by th eir mad
r ac e of ar maments, h av e made inev itabl e and p r ec ip itated th e w or l d
c onfl agr ation .
Wh atev er th e v ic issitudes of mil itar y for tune ar e, th e imp er ial ists
of al l c ountr ies ar e eq ual l y th e v ic tor s in th is w ar ; th e w ar h as
yiel ded and is yiel ding th em fabul ous p r ofits, c onc entr ates in th eir
h ands c ol ossal c ap ital and endow s th em w ith unh ear d- of p ow er ov er
th e p er son, l abor and th e v er y l ife of th e toil er s .
A nd j ust bec ause of th is, th e toil er s of al l th e c ountr ies ar e
eq ual l y defeated in th is w ar . On th e al tar of imp er ial ism th ey sac r i-
fic e th eir l iv es, th eir h eal th , th eir l iber ty, th eir p r op er ty ; on th eir
sh oul der s fal l unh ear d- of bur dens .
T h e R ussian R ev ol ution, th e R ev ol ution of th e toil er s, w or k ing-
men and sol dier s, is not onl y a r ev ol t against T z ar dom, but al so
against th e h or r or s of th e , w or l d w ar
. I t is th e fir st outc r y of in-
T h e C ounc il o f w or k men' s and S ol dier s' Del egates

2 7 7
dignation of one of th e detac h ments of th e inter national ar my of
l abor against th e c r imes of inter national imp er ial ism . I t is not onl y
a national R ev ol ution,- it is th e fir st adv anc e of th e w or l d r ev ol u-
tion, w h ic h w il l end th e baseness of w ar and w il l br ing p eac e to
mank ind .
T h e R ussian R ev ol ution, fr om th e v er y moment of h er bir th ,
c l ear l y r eal iz ed th e inter national p r obl em th at c onfr onts h er . Her
p ow er ful or gan- T h e Petr ogr ad C ounc il of S ol dier s' and Wor k men' s
Del egates- in its ap p eal of th e 1 4 th of M ar c h , c al l ed up on th e p eop l es
of th e w h ol e w or l d to unite for th e str uggl e for p eac e . T h e R ussian
R ev ol utionar y Democ r ac y does not w ant a sep ar ate p eac e, w h ic h
w oul d fr ee th e h ands of th e A ustr o- Ger man A l l ianc e
.
T h e R ev ol utionar y Democ r ac y of R ussia k now s th at suc h a
p eac e w il l be a betr ayal of th e c ause of th e w or k er s' democ r ac y of
al l c ountr ies, w h ic h w il l find itsel f tied h and and foot, imp otent
befor e th e w or l d of tr iump h ant imp er ial ism . I t k now s th at suc h a
p eac e migh t l ead to th e mil itar y destr uc tion of oth er c ountr ies and
th us str ength en th e tr iump h of th e ideas of c h auv inism and r ev enge
in E ur op e ; l eav ing h er an ar med c amp , j ust as after th e F r anc o-
Pr ussian w ar of 1 8 7 0 , and th us inev itabl y p r ec ip itating a new bl oody
c onfl ic t in th e near futur e
.
T h e R ussian R ev ol utionar y Democ r ac y desir es a gener al p eac e
on a basis ac c ep tabl e to th e w or k er s of al l c ountr ies, w h o ar e against
any annex ations, w h o do not stand for r obber ies, w h o ar e eq ual l y
inter ested in th e fr ee ex p r ession of th e w il l of al l nations and
th e c r ush ing of th e p ow er of inter national imp er ial ism
. Peac e w ith -
out annex ations or indemnities on th e basis of th e sel f- definition
of al l national ities is th e for mul a c onc eiv ed, in good faith , by th e
p r ol etar iat . I t fur nish es a p l atfor m on w h ic h th e toil ing masses of
al l th e c ountr ies- bel l iger ent and neutr al - c oul d and sh oul d c ome to
an under standing, in or der to establ ish a l asting p eac e and w ith c on-
c er ted effor t h eal th e w ounds c aused by th e bl oody w ar
.
T h e Pr ov isional Gov er nment of R ev ol utionar y R ussia h as adop t-
ed th is p l atfor m . "
T o th e A l l ies .
" T h e R ussian R ev ol utionar y Democ r ac y ap p eal s fir st to you,
S oc ial ists of th e A l l ied c ountr ies
. You must not p er mit th e v oic e
of th e Pr ov isional Gov er nment of R ussia to r emain w ith out a r e-
sp onse fr om th e Pow er s of th e E ntente
.
You must for c e your Gov er nments to state definitel y and c l ear l y
th at th e p l atfor m - of p eac e w ith out annex ations or indemnities, on
th e basis of sel f- definition of national ities, is al so th eir p l atfor m
.
You w il l giv e our r ev ol utionar y A r my, th at h as insc r ibed on its
banner ' Peac e among nations,' th e assur anc e th at its bl ood- sac r ific es
w il l not be used for ev il p ur p oses
. You w il l enabl e it to c ar r y out,
w ith al l th e fer v or of r ev ol utionar y enth usiasm, th e w ar task s th at
2 7 8

T h e B ir th of th e R ussian Democ r ac y
ar e fal l ing to its l ot
. You w il l str ength en th e faith of th e A r my if
you enabl e it to r eal iz e th at w h il e defending th e c onq uests of th e
R ev ol ution and our fr eedom, it is at th e same time figh ting for th e
inter ests of I nter national Democ r ac y
. T h us you w il l h asten th e
c oming of th e desir ed p eac e .
You w il l p ut th e Gov er nments of th e enemy c ountr ies in suc h
a p osition th at th ey w il l be for c ed eith er to ir r ev oc abl y r ep udiate
th eir p ol ic y of annex ation, r obber y and v iol enc e, or el se op enl y c on-
fess th eir c r iminal p r oj ec ts, th us br inging up on th emsel v es th e ful l
and j ust indignation of th eir p eop l es
. "
T o A ustr o- Ger mans .
" T h e R ussian R ev ol utionar y Democ r ac y ap p eal s to you, S oc ial -
ists of th e A ustr o- Ger man A l l ianc e
: You w il l not al l ow th e A r mies
of your Gov er nments to bec ome th e ex ec utioner s of R ussian
l iber ty . You w il l not p er mit th e Gov er nments of your c ountr ies to
util iz e to th eir adv antage th e l ofty sp ir it of l iber ty and fr ater nity
w ith w h ic h th e R ussian R ev ol utionar y A r my is imbued . You w il l
not al l ow th em to use th is sp ir it to mov e th eir tr oop s to th e West,
in or der to c r ush F r anc e fir st and R ussia l ater . I f you do, you
your sel v es and th e I nter national Pr ol etar iat w il l be c r ush ed under th e
w eigh t of univ er sal I mp er ial ism . "
T o N eutr al s.
" T h e R ussian R ev ol utionar y Democ r ac y ap p eal s to th e S oc ial ists
of th e bel l iger ent and neutr al c ountr ies and ur ges th em to p r ev ent
th e tr iump h of I mp er ial ism
. L et th e mov ement for p eac e, star ted
by th e R ussian R ev ol ution, be br ough t to a c onc l usion by th e I nter -
national Pr ol etar iat .
I n or der to unite th e w or k er s of th e w or l d, th e Petr ogr ad C oun-
c il of Wor k men' s and S ol dier s' Del egates h as dec ided to issue a c al l
for an inter national c onfer enc e of al l th e S oc ial ist p ar ties and fac -
tions in ev er y c ountr y
. Wh atev er th e differ enc es of op inion w h ic h
h av e disr up ted S oc ial ism for a p er iod of th r ee year s of w ar may be,
not a singl e fac tion of th e Pr ol etar iat sh oul d r efuse to p ar tic ip ate
in a c ommon figh t for p eac e, ac c or ding to th e ter ms dic tated by
R ussia .
We bel iev e, c omr ades, th at al l S oc ial istic fac tions w il l be r ep r e-
sented at th is c onfer enc e . A unanimous dec ision by th e I nter national
Pr ol etar iat w il l be th e fir st v ic tor y of th e toil er s ov er th e inter -
national ism of th e I mp er ial ists .
" Wor k ingmen of th e w or l d, unite! "
T h e ap p eal s w er e unanimousl y adop ted, w ith th e B ol sh ev ik i
r efr aining fr om v oting . I . G . T ser etel l i, th e for mer l eader
of th e S oc ial - Democ r atic F ac tion in th e S ec ond Duma and
l ater M inister of Post and T el egr ap h and stil l l ater M inister
T h e C ounc il of Wor k men' s and S ol dier s' Del egates

2 7 9
of I nter ior in Ker ensk y' s C abinet, p r op osed an ap p eal to th e
A r my, w h ic h h e ex p l ained in th e fol l ow ing sp eec h
" C omr ades, th e q uestion of an ap p eal to th e A r my is c onnec ted
dir ec tl y w ith th e one al r eady ac c ep ted by us, and w h ic h is ad-
dr essed to th e nations of th e w or l d
. T h e ap p eal to th e A r my h as
al r eady been mentioned in th e debates . T h e str uggl e for p eac e c an
be c ar r ied on onl y by r ev ol utionar y p ow er
; th e p ow er of th e R ev ol u-
tion w il l be th e deter mining fac tor in th e str uggl e for p eac e
. I f at
th e p r esent moment our fr ont sh oul d be br ok en, it w oul d mean th e
c r ush ing of th e w h ol e R ussian R ev ol ution
. T h e p ossibil ity for c al l ing
an I nter national S oc ial ist C onfer enc e w oul d be destr oyed togeth er
w ith th e R ussian R ev ol ution
.
Do you under stand, c omr ades, w h at an imp r ession our ap p eal
w oul d mak e on th e nations, if our fr ont w er e br ok en? T h ey w oul d
say
: ` We see w h at an end R ussia' s ex amp l e h as br ough t . T o fol l ow
th e ex amp l e of th e R ussian R ev ol ution w il l r esul t in th e r uin of th e
means of defending our c ountr y
. ' T h us w e w oul d tur n al l nations
aw ay fr om th e r ev ol utionar y p ath
.
T h e entir e democ r ac y, w ith in th e c ountr y and at th e fr ont, must
be made to r eal iz e th at th e R ussian R ev ol ution is p ow er ful onl y
w h il e th e c ountr y' s p osition r emains p ow er ful
. T h e l ast del egations
fr om th e fr ont h av e infor med th e E x ec utiv e C ommittee th at th e sit-
uation at th e fr ont is c r itic al . I gnor anc e of th e situation in th e in-
ter ior of th e c ountr y is c r eating a sp ir it of unr est among th e sol -
dier s at th e fr ont . T h ey k now not for w h at r easons w e c al l up on
th em to figh t .
A l r eady, at th e A l l - R ussian C ounc il of Wor k men' s and S ol dier s'
Del egates, w e w er e tol d th at th e sol dier s under stand defense as
th e onl y p ossibl e str ategy, and do not l eav e th e tr enc h es, bel iev ing
th at adv anc e means th e sup p or t of imp er ial ism . B ut not by str ategy is
th e c h ar ac ter of th e w ar deter mined . T h e sol dier s do not under stand
th is and ar e endanger ing th emsel v es by r efusing to adv anc e
.
Our str uggl e for p eac e w as al so inc or r ec tl y inter p r eted . T h ey
th ink th at th e str uggl e for p eac e and th e c onc l usion of p eac e ar e not
th e same th ing . I t is not p ossibl e to mak e p eac e at th e fr ont
. F r a-
ter niz ation h as bec ome a c onstant p h enomenon
. A r ev ol utionar y
ar my c annot fr ater niz e w ith an ar my dominated by th e ir on fist of
imp er ial ism . S uc h fr ater niz ation must not tak e p l ac e
.
Ger many, w ith r ap id str ides, h as c onc entr ated al l h er str ength
on th e Wester n fr ont . We must p r ev ent th e futur e tr ansfer of tr oop s
and th e destr uc tion of th e F r enc h A r my
. T h is is our duty! We
c annot go for w ar d to a sep ar ate p eac e . I f th is is so, w e must not
giv e F r anc e and E ngl and th e imp r ession th at w e w il l c onc l ude a
sep ar ate p eac e
. We must tr ead th e p ath of th e r oad agr eed up on,
and c onduc ting th e figh t for p eac e, str ength en our fr ont .
2 8 0

T h e B ir th of th e R ussian Democ r ac y
Our ap p eal to th e A r my ex p l ains th e situation . We find th at l ac k
of under standing may p r ov e r uinous . I ssuing th e ap p eal is, of c our se,
not al l th at w e must do . Oth er measur es ar e al so nec essar y
. B ut
sinc e w e ar e not ev er yw h er e under stood, it is nec essar y to ex p l ain
ev er yth ing again in or der th at th er e may be no misunder standing . "
T ser etel l i th en r ead th e fol l ow ing A p p eal to th e A r my
" C omr ades- sol dier s at th e fr ont, in th e name of th e R ev ol u-
tionar y Democ r ac y w e mak e a fer v ent ap p eal to you
.
A h ar d task h as fal l en to your l ot . You h av e p aid a dear p r ic e,
you h av e p aid w ith your bl ood, a dear p r ic e indeed, for th e c r imes
of th e T z ar w h o sent you to figh t and l eft you w ith out ar ms, w ith out
ammunition, w ith out br ead!
Wh y, th e p r iv ation you now suffer is th e w or k of th e T z ar and
h is c oter ie of sel f- seek ing assoc iates w h o br ough t th e c ountr y to
r uin . A nd th e R ev ol ution w il l need th e effor ts of many to ov er c ome
th e disor ganiz ation l eft h er as a h er itage by th ose r obber s and ex e-
c utioner s .
T h e w or k ing c l ass did not need th e w ar . T h e w or k er s did not
begin it . I t w as star ted by th e T z ar s and c ap ital ists of al l c ountr ies .
E ac h day of w ar is for th e p eop l e onl y a day of unnec essar y suffer -
ing and misfor tune . Hav ing deth r oned th e T z ar , th e R ussian p eop l e
h av e sel ec ted for th eir fir st p r obl em th e ending of th e w ar in th e
q uic k est p ossibl e manner .
T h e C ounc il of Wor k men' s and S ol dier s' Del egates h as ap -
p eal ed to al l nations to end th e butc h er y . We h av e ap p eal ed to th e
F r enc h and th e E ngl ish , to th e Ger mans and th e A ustr ians
. R ussia
w ants an answ er to th is ap p eal .
R emember , h ow ev er , c omr ades and sol dier s, th at our ap p eal
w il l be of no v al ue if th e r egiments of Wil h el m ov er p ow er R ev ol u-
tionar y R ussia befor e our br oth er s, th e w or k er s and p easants of oth er
c ountr ies, w il l be abl e to r esp ond
. Our ap p eal w il l bec ome ' a sc r ap
of p ap er ' if th e w h ol e str ength of th e r ev ol utionar y p eop l e does not
stand beh ind it, if th e tr iump h of Wil h el m Hoh enz ol l er n w il l be
establ ish ed on th e r uins of R ussian fr eedom . T h e r uin of fr ee R ussia
w il l be a tr emendous, ir r ep ar abl e misfor tune, not onl y for us, but for
th e toil er s of th e w h ol e w or l d .
C omr ades, sol dier s, defend R ev ol utionar y R ussia w ith al l your
migh t!
T h e w or k er s and p easants of R ussia desir e p eac e w ith al l th eir
soul . B ut th is p eac e must be univ er sal , a p eac e for al l nations based
on th e agr eements of al l .
Wh at w oul d h ap p en if w e sh oul d agr ee to a sep ar ate p eac e- a
p eac e for our sel v es al one! Wh at w oul d h ap p en if th e R ussian sol -
dier s w er e to stic k th eir bayonets into th e gr ound to- day and say th at
T h e C ounc il of Wor k men' s and S ol dier s' Del egates

2 8 1
th ey do not c ar e to figh t any l onger , th at it mak es no differ enc e to
th em w h at h ap p ens to th e w h ol e w or l d!
Her e is w h at w oul d h ap p en . Hav ing destr oyed our A l l ies in
th e West, Ger man I mp er ial ism w oul d r ush in up on us w ith al l th e
for c e of its ar ms . Ger many' s imp er ial ists, h er l andow ner s and c ap i-
tal ists w oul d p ut an ir on h eel on our nec k s, w oul d oc c up y our c ities,
our v il l ages and our l and, and w oul d for c e us to p ay tr ibute to h er
.
Was it to bow dow n at th e feet of Wil h el m th at w e ov er th r ew
N ic h ol as?
C omr ades- sol dier s! T h e C ounc il of Wor k men' s and S ol dier s'
Del egates l eads you to p eac e by anoth er r oute . We l ead you to
p eac e by c al l ing up on th e w or k er s and p easants of S er bia and A us-
tr ia to r ise and r ev ol t ; w e l ead you to p eac e by for c ing our Gov er n-
ment to r ep udiate th e p ol ic y of annex ation and by demanding a simi-
l ar r ep udiation fr om th e A l l ied Pow er s
. We l ead you to p eac e by
c al l ing an I nter national c onfer enc e of S oc ial ists for a univ er sal and
deter mined r ev ol t against w ar . T h er e is a gr eat nec essity, c omr ades-
sol dier s, for th e p eop l es of th e w or l d to aw ak en . T ime is needed in
or der th at th ey sh oul d r ebel and w ith an ir on h and for c e th eir tz ar s
and c ap ital ists to p eac e . T ime is needed so th at th e toil er s of al l
l ands sh oul d j oin w ith us for a mer c il ess w ar up on v iol ator s and
r obber s .
B ut r emember , c omr ades- sol dier s, th is time w il l nev er c ome if
you do not stop th e adv anc e of th e enemy at th e fr ont, if your r ank s
ar e c r ush ed and under th e feet of Wil h el m fal l s th e br eath l ess c or p se
of th e R ussian R ev ol ution .
R emember , c omr ades, th at at th e fr ont, in th e tr enc h es, you
ar e now standing in defense of R ussia' s fr eedom
. You defend th e
R ev ol ution, you defend your br oth er s, th e w or k er s and p easants .
L et th is defense be w or th y of th e gr eat c ause and th e gr eat sac r ific es
al r eady made by you . I t is imp ossibl e to defend th e fr ont, if, as h as
been dec ided, th e sol dier s ar e not to l eav e th e tr enc h es under any
c ir c umstanc es . A t times onl y an attac k c an r ep ul se and p r ev ent th e
adv anc e of th e enemy . A t times aw aiting an attac k means p atientl y
w aiting for death . A gain, onl y th e c h ange to an adv anc e may sav e
you or your br oth er s, on oth er sec tions of th e fr ont, fr om destr uc tion .
R emember th is, c omr ades- sol dier s! Hav ing sw or n to defend
R ussian fr eedom, do not r efuse to star t th e offensiv e th e mil itar y sit-
uation may r eq uir e . T h e fr eedom and h ap p iness of R ussia ar e in
your h ands .
I n defending th is fr eedom be on th e l ook out for betr ayal and
tr ic k er y
. T h e fr ater niz ation w h ic h is dev el op ing on th e fr ont c an
easil y tur n into suc h a tr ap .
R ev ol utionar y ar mies may fr ater niz e
; but w ith w h om? With
an ar my al so r ev ol utionar y, w h ic h h as dec ided to die for p eac e and
-
fr eedom
. A t p r esent, h ow ev er , not o nl y . i n th e Ger man A r my, but
2 8 2

T h e B ir th o f th e R ussian Democ r ac y
ev en in th e A ustr o- Hungar ian A r my, in sp ite of th e number of in-
div idual s p ol itic al l y c onsc ious and h onest, th er e is no r ev ol ution .
I n th ose c ountr ies th e ar mies ar e stil l bl indl y fol l ow ing Wil h el m and
C h ar l es, th e l andow ner s and c ap ital ists, and agr ee to annex ation of
for eign soil , to r obber ies and v iol enc e . T h er e th e Gener al S taff w il l
mak e use not onl y of your c r edul ity, but al so of th e bl ind obedienc e
of th eir sol dier s .
You go out to fr ater niz e w ith op en h ear ts . A nd to meet you
an offic er of th e Gener al S taff l eav es th e enemies' tr enc h es, dis-
guised as a c ommon sol dier . You sp eak w ith th e enemy w ith out any
tr ic k er y. A t th at v er y time h e p h otogr ap h s th e sur r ounding ter r i-
tor y . You stop th e sh ooting to fr ater niz e, but beh ind th e enemies'
tr enc h es, ar til l er y is being mov ed, new p ositions buil t and tr oop s
tr ansfer r ed .
C omr ades- sol dier s, not by fr ater niz ation w il l you get p eac e, not
by sep ar ate agr eements made at th e fr ont by singl e c omp anies, bat-
tal ions or r egiments
. N ot in sep ar ate p eac e or in a sep ar ate tr uc e
l ies th e sal v ation of th e R ussian R ev ol ution, th e tr iump h of p eac e
for th e w h ol e w or l d .
T h e p eop l e w h o assur e you th at fr ater niz ation is th e r oad to
p eac e l ead you to destr uc tion . Do not bel iev e th em . T h e r oad to
p eac e is a differ ent one . I t h as been p ointed out to you al r eady by
th e C ounc il of Wor k men' s and S ol dier s' Del egates ; tr ead it . S w eep
aside ev er yth ing th at w eak ens your figh ting p ow er , th at br ings into
th e A r my disor ganiz ation and l oss of sp ir it .
Your figh ting p ow er ser v es th e c ause of p eac e . T h e C ounc il of
Wor k men' s and S ol dier s' Del egates is abl e to c ontinue its r ev ol u-
tionar y w or k w ith al l its migh t, to dev el op its str uggl e for p eac e,
onl y by dep ending up on you, k now ing th at you w il l not al l ow th e
mil itar y destr uc tion of R ussia .
C omr ades- sol dier s, th e w or k er s and p easants, not onl y of
R ussia, but of th e w h ol e w or l d l ook to you w ith c onfidenc e and h op e .
S ol dier s of th e R ev ol ution, you w il l p r ov e w or th y of th is faith ,
for you k now th at your mil itar y task s ser v e th e c ause of p eac e .
I n th e name of th e h ap p iness and fr eedom of R ev ol utionar y
R ussia, in th e name of th e c oming br oth er h ood of nations, you w il l
ful fil your mil itar y duties w ith unc onq uer abl e str ength
. "
T h is ap p eal w as al so adop ted unanimousl y, w ith th e B ol sh e-
v ik i r efr aining fr om v oting .
C HA PT E R V
T h e C onv ention of Del egates fr om th e F r ont
T
HE p r ev ious c h ap ter p r esents th e ideol ogy of th e
Petr ogr ad C ounc il of Wor k men' s and S ol dier s' Del e-
gates in its r el ation to th e p r obl ems of w ar and p eac e
.
I t must be stated th at at th at time th e B ol sh ev ik i r ep r esented
onl y a smal l minor ity of th e C ounc il , th e maj or ity being l ed by
suc h anti- B ol sh ev ik i S oc ial ist l eader s as T sc h eidz e, S k obel ev
and T ser etel l i
. U nder th eir l eader sh ip , th e C ounc il at th at
time r eal l y ex p r essed th e th ough ts and feel ings of th e Petr o-
gr ad p r ol etar iat and w ith it of th e w or k ingmen al l ov er
R ussia .
T h er e w as anoth er p ol itic al fac tor c oming to th e for e at th at
time, a fac tor w h ic h soon began to p l ay al most a dec isiv e r ol e
in R ussia' s fate . T h is w as th e A r my, w h ic h , under th e ol d
r egime, h ad been dep r iv ed of ev er y p ol itic al r igh t and now ,
w ith th e l iber ation of R ussia, w as c al l ed to p ar tic ip ate in th e
c ountr y' s p ol itic al l ife . F r om th is p oint of v iew th e fir st
C onv ention of th e Del egates fr om th e F r ont, w h ic h op ened
in Petr ogr ad on th e 1 0 th of M ay, is of sp ec ial inter est .
Of th e many sp eec h es made at th is C onv ention, th e tw o
sp eec h es of A
. I . Guc h k ov ,- th e sec ond del iv er ed after h is
r esignation,- and th e sp eec h es by A . F . Ker ensk y, I . G . T ser e-
tel l i, G
. V
. Pl ek h anov and by th e r ep r esentativ e of th e B l ac k
S ea F l eet, S ail or B a' tk in, w er e of sp ec ial imp or tanc e . A . I
.
Guc h k ov addr essed th e C onv ention, on M ay 1 2 , as th e M in-
ister of War in th e Pr ov isional Gov er nment, in th e fol l ow ing
w or ds
Guc h k ov ' s S p eec h
" Gentl emen : I f th e R ev ol ution, w h ic h c r eated c onditions under
w h ic h new R ussia w il l now ex ist, h as p assed ov er p ainl essl y, it is
due to th e r eal iz ation on th e p ar t of al l c l asses of th e p op ul ation th at
th e ol d auth or ity w as l eading us to destr uc tion . T h is w as c l ear l y
r ec ogniz ed by th ose w h o str uggl ed in th e tr enc h es ; th is w as under -
stood by th e p eop l e in th e r ear as w el l
. Wh omev er I h av e met, r ep r e-
sentativ es of v ar ious c l asses and soc ial stations, al l of th em bel iev ed
th at suc c ess w as imp ossibl e as l ong as th e ol d r egime c ontinued .
A fter th e R ev ol ution, new c onstr uc tiv e w or k w as star ted
. T h e
mer e sw eep ing dow n of p ow er w as insuffic ient
: it w as nec essar y to
2 8 4

T h e B ir th o f th e R ussian Democ r ac y
star t th e c onstr uc tion
of
th e
entir e or ganiz ation
of our ar med
for c es
. A nd I may say th at w e h av e ex er ted al l our str ength to p er -
for m th e w or k
. I f you onl y k new in w h at a p itiful , disor ganiz ed,
c h aotic state w er e th e ec onomic affair s in th e A r my w h en w e took
it ov er fr om th e new r egime! N ev er th el ess, w e h av e suc c eeded,
to a c er tain ex tent, in th e matter of p l ac ing th e A r my sup p l y on
a sound basis
. T h e situation is better now th an it h as been tw o
month s ago
. Do not for get th at th e imp r ov ement w as br ough t about
under c onditions of disor ganiz ation in th e c ountr y' s ec onomic and
industr ial l ife .
A uth or ity w as sw ep t dow n ev er yw h er e
. M ec h anic s and engineer s
w er e r emov ed fr om th e fac tor ies and th e w or k , p r oc eeded in an unsat-
isfac tor y manner
. Gr eat sac r ific es h ad to be made in or der to sys-
tematiz e th e sup p l y of ammunitions
. We h av e ac h iev ed c er tain r e-
sul ts, and if th ings c ontinue in th e same w ay as th ey ar e going at
p r esent, th er e ar e h op es th at ev er yth ing w il l be adj usted
.
T h e ener getic and l oyal sup p or t of our A l l ies, ol d and new ,- th e
A mer ic ans ar e aiding us to sol v e th e p r obl ems of obtaining sup p l ies
fr om abr oad,- fac il itates matter s for us
. I f a final agr eement w il l be
r eac h ed w ith A mer ic a, w h o h as under tak en to imp r ov e and sys-
tematiz e our tr ansp or tation, a fav or abl e sol ution of th e most p r essing
p r obl ems w il l be assur ed in a few w eek s .
T h e sup p l y of foodstuffs is in a w or se c ondition
. B ut w e must al l
k now th e tr uth
. U p on th is c ondition onl y c an w e ex p ec t th e r esul ts
of our c ommon l abor to be fav or abl e .
I w il l say fr ank l y th at as r egar ds th e q uestion of p r ov iding food
for men, and esp ec ial l y fodder for h or ses, th e c onditions ar e ex -
tr emel y unfav or abl e
. A nd th is is th e r eason : under th e ol d r egime,
notw ith standing th e ac ute disr up tion, th er e w as a p ow er w h ic h w as
obeyed and th er e w as an el ement of for c e, w ith out w h ic h w e c annot
get al ong .
T ak e th is as an il l ustr ation
: as r egar ds th e q uestion of food sup -
p l y, th e l oc al administr ations do not al w ays c omp l y w ith th e demands
of th e c entr al auth or ities
. T h is is easy to under stand fr om a p sy-
c h ol ogic al p oint of v iew . T h er e is ap p r eh ension th at th e l oc al p op u-
l ation migh t be sh or t of p r ov isions sh oul d th e demands of th e c entr al
auth or ities be c omp l ied w ith . T h e p eop l e in th e v ar ious l oc al ities
feel ac utel y th e inter ests of th eir distr ic ts and p r efer to r etain th e
p r ov isions at h ome
. Yet I al w ays th ough t
: ` S ur el y, w e c an sac r ific e
our w ants for th e needs of th e fr ont, j ust as w el l as th e sol dier s ar e
sac r ific ing th emsel v es for us and for th e c ountr y
. ' I t is r egr ettabl e
th at not al l ar e imbued w ith th is idea . Henc e, w e c annot get al ong
w ith out a str ong p ow er to w h ic h th e l oc al or ganiz ations w oul d
submit .
Yet th e matter of p r ov isions is c omp ar ativ el y satisfac tor y . A s to
th e fodder , I w il l say fr ank l y, th e situation is c r itic al . You w oul d be
T h e C onv ention of Del egates fr om th e F r ont

2 8 5
ter r ified if you k new th e number of h or ses dying at th e fr ont
. T h e
stoc k of h or ses is mel ting aw ay befor e our v er y eyes
. T h e for age
q uestion is tak ing on disastr ous p r op or tions . I c oul d p r ov e th is to
you by figur es and doc uments, but I th ink th at al l w h o w er e at th e
fr ont w il l v ouc h for it .
Just to- day I r ec eiv ed a tel egr am fr om th e fr ont infor ming me of
th e non- del iv er y of 8 0 % of th e for age r eq uir ed .
N ot l ong ago th e sh or tage of fodder w as ex p l ained by demor al iz ed
tr ansp or tation . N ow w e h av e adj usted tr ansp or tation and th e non-
del iv er y is due to del iber ate or inv ol untar y r efusal of th e c ountr y to
giv e th e A r my w h at it needs .
I n th is r esp ec t th e v oic e of th e p eop l e, and esp ec ial l y your v oic e,
w oul d be of gr eat v al ue, sh oul d you say to th e c ountr y
: ` Hel p to get
ev er yth ing nec essar y
. ' I n th e c our se of a month and a h al f w e must
inc r ease th e del iv er y of p r ov isions for th e A r my and th e situation
w il l th en imp r ov e . How ev er , w e must not onl y bear th e bur den r e-
signedl y, but al so find w ays to r emov e th e c onditions w h ic h mak e
th e sh or tage of p r ov isions and for age p ossibl e .
I am c oming to anoth er mor e imp or tant q uestion, th at of eq uip p ing
th e A r my . T h is matter w as al w ays badl y managed . T h e ev il infl uenc e
of th e ac c ur sed for c es of ol d R ussia h as affec ted our mil itar y affair s
mor e th an anyth ing el se . F av or itism w as r amp ant th er e . F r om th is
v er y tr ibune I h av e l ong ago p ointed out and h av e c onstantl y c on-
tinued to p oint out th at w e w il l ac h iev e no suc c ess unl ess p r otec tion-
ism- th e p est of our A r my- w il l be total l y r emov ed . I w as w aiting
for th e h igh er c ommand to be r ep l ac ed by new men, but th e ol d
r egime, in th e p er son of th e S ec r etar y of War . R ediger , an absol utel y
h onest man, dec l ar ed th at it w as p ow er l ess to do anyth ing, th ough it
r ec ogniz ed th e ev il .
T h e A r my h ad to w or k under diffic ul ties w h en th e w ar c ommenc ed
.
I and many oth er s w er e gr eatl y al ar med . We antic ip ated a c atastr o-
p h e unl ess th e w h ol e C ommanding S taff w as r ep l ac ed and th e system
of sup p l ying th e A r my c h anged . A nd w h en th e c atastr op h e oc c ur r ed,
w e demanded a new S taff and h er oic measur es, but w e got noth ing .
I nstead, as I h av e been infor med by th e S ec r etar y of Justic e, I w as
c onsider ed under susp ic ion and th e minute r ec or ds of my ac tiv ities
gr ew into v ol umes .
We r eal iz ed th at unl ess th e ol d r egime w as ov er th r ow n w e w er e
l ost . We r eal iz ed th at th e ol d r oad h ad l ead us to q uic k sands w h ic h
h ad begun to dr aw us in . I fel t th at w e w er e al r eady in up to our
nec k s .
A nd w e enter ed up on new r oads . We fel t . h ow ev er , th at
th er e w as al so danger l ur k ing beh ind us sh oul d w e fail to under stand
th at th is w ar must be th e l ast w ar , in our l ifetime at l east, so th at our
c h il dr en and gr andc h il dr en sh al l w age no new w ar s .
T h us one of th e fundamental p r obl ems befor e me and th e Pr o-
2 8 6

T h e B ir th of th e R ussian Democ r ac y
v isional
Gov er nment w as th e p r obl em of r ep l ac ing th e ol d A r my
offic ial s w ith adh er ents of th e new r egime
. I k new our C ommanding
S taff and I k new th at th er e w er e many men of adv anc ed age, h onest
men, ex c el l ent sol dier s, but men w h o did not k now th e meth ods of
moder n w ar far e, w h o w er e inc ap abl e of adap ting th emsel v es to th e
new c onditions
. I ndeed, you migh t p l ac e N ap ol eon th e F ir st at th e
h ead of our p r esent A r my and h e may p r ov e a fail ur e
. C oming dow n
to th e sol ution of th is p r obl em, I r eal iz ed th at c l emenc y to indiv idual s
is out of p l ac e
; for c l emenc y to indiv idual p er sons means inj ustic e
to th e A r my, to th e c ountr y .
Yes, I migh t h av e . er r ed as ev er y one may er r , but I h av e c onsul ted
w ith p eop l e w h o k now and I h av e ac c ep ted th eir op inion onl y w h en
I fel t th at it c oinc ided w ith th at of th e p eop l e .
A s a r esul t, ev er yone th at w as gifted and tal ented in th e A r my
w as br ough t to l igh t . A nd h ier ar c h y w as h er e disr egar ded
.
T h er e ar e men w h o w er e c ommander s of r egiments w h en th e w ar
began, and w h o ar e now A r my c ommander s . T h er e ar e c ol onel s
w h om I h av e adv anc ed to th e r ank of c h iefs of div isions, al l ow ing
th em to sk ip al l inter mediate r ank s . I n th is manner w e ac h iev ed not
onl y th e imp r ov ement of th e c ommanding for c es, but al so anoth er
th ing of no l esser imp or tanc e
. T h e duty to th e c ountr y, gentl emen,
is a str ong feel ing
; h ow ev er , l abor ing under c onditions l ik e th ose
under w h ic h w e h av e p r ev iousl y w or k ed, p eop l e w er e p er for ming th eir
duty h onestl y, but w ith out insp ir ation
. A nd w h at w e p r oc l aimed as a
sl ogan
: ` Op p or tunity to th e gifted- ev er ybody moul ds h is ow n for -
tune- ' ev er y
p r iv ate,' as th e F r enc h say, ` c ar r ies in h is k nap sac k th e
M ar sh al ' s sc ep tr e,' - fir ed th e soul s of ev er yone w ith a j oyous feel ing
and made p eop l e w or k w ith enth usiasm .
Gentl emen, I h av e p r omised to enl igh ten you on a number of q ues-
tions you ar e inter ested in . Per mit me to dw el l for a w h il e on th ose
p er sp ec tiv es w h ic h aw ait us and th ose p ath s up on w h ic h w e h av e to
tr av el . We h av e to c onstr uc t h astil y a new l ife
. ?M uc h h as been
done, mor e h as to be done yet
. A nd on th is r oad th er e ar e c er tain
l imits w h er e a sc r up ul ous and h onest l abor er h as to stop
. I t is im-
p or tant to be on th e al er t and dec ide sober l y w h er e is th at fatal l ine
of demar k ation w h er e c onstr uc tiv e w or k ends and w h er e c h aos begins
.
I am v er y muc h in fav or of democ r atiz ing our A r my
. T h e A r my
is a p ec ul iar or ganiz ation
. I f w e ov er th r ow , on th is r oad, al l auth or ity
w h atsoev er , w e defeat our ow n obj ec t .
T h e most p r ec ious th ing about ev er y man is th e sense of p er sonal
r esp onsibil ity
. E v er y man must k now th at h e is r esp onsibl e for
h is ev er y w or d and ac tion . A nd sh oul d w e entangl e suc h a man
in a netw or k of c onfer enc es, w ith w h om w oul d th e r esp onsibil ity r est
th en? I ndeed, if I , th e c h ief of a div ision, c ontemp l ate to under tak e
th is or th at mov e, if I am unsc r up ul ous and h av e no l ov e for my
c ountr y, if I am a c ow ar d w h o r eadil y h ides beh ind th e bac k s of
T h e E c onomic Pr ogr am o f th e Pr ov isional Gov er nment
2 8 7
oth er s, th en th e easiest th ing for me to do is to c al l a c onfer enc e
of fifty p eop l e and for c e th em to ac c ep t th is or th at dec ision, for th en
I am no mor e r esp onsibl e for th e r esul ts
.
I f w e bl unt and sup p r ess th is sense of r esp onsibil ity, w e sh al l
r ev er t to th e ol d r egime, w h en p eop l e w er e not r esp onsibl e for th eir
ac tions
. T h e sup p r ession of th e sense of p er sonal r esp onsibil ity is a
v er y danger ous matter .
B el iev e me, gentl emen, th er e is noth ing mor e imp or tant th an th e
r ec onstr uc tion of our A r my on new p r inc ip l es, in or der th at our
A r my, h av ing made th e R ev ol ution, sh al l not giv e up its main and
nobl e task of defending and p r otec ting th e c ountr y
.
Gentl emen, I am not attemp ting to fr igh ten anyone, I am onl y tel l ing
h ow I suffer ed for th r ee year s and w h at I h av e l iv ed th r ough dur ing
th ese tw o month s
. Gentl emen, if th e c ountr y w il l r ise, if th e A r my w il l
not l ay dow n its ar ms and al l w il l be c al l ed up on to c oop er ate, th en
w e w il l not onl y l ead R ussia to v ic tor y, but w e w il l mak e our c ountr y
gr eat and gl or ious . "
A . I
. Guc h k ov ' s sp eec h w as ap p l auded by th e entir e assem-
bl age
. Wh il e h e w as sp eak ing, A . F
. Ker ensk y, th en M inister
of j ustic e, ar r iv ed and w as r ec eiv ed w ith a th under ing ov ation
.
A . F
. Ker ensk y addr essed th e C onv ention in th e fol l ow ing
w or ds
Ker ensk y' s S p eec h
" T w o month s h av e el ap sed sinc e th e bir th of R ussian fr eedom
.
I did not c ome h er e in or der to gr eet you
. Our gr eetings h av e been
disp atc h ed to your tr enc h es l ong sinc e
. Your p ains and your suffer -
ings w er e one of th e motiv es p r omp ting th e R ev ol ution
. We c oul d
no l onger endur e th e imbec il e l av ish ness w ith w h ic h th e ol d or der
sp il l ed your bl ood
. I h av e bel iev ed th r ough out th e tw o month s th at
th e onl y p ow er w h ic h c an sav e our c ountr y and l ead h er to th e r igh t
p ath is th e c onsc iousness of r esp onsibil ity for ev er y w or d and ev er y
ac t of our s- a r esp onsibil ity r esting on ev er y one of us . T h is bel ief
I stil l h ol d .
M y h ear t and soul ar e uneasy . I am gr eatl y w or r ied and I must
say so op enl y, no matter w h at ac c usations I may h av e to fac e or
w h at th e c onseq uenc es w il l be . T h e p r oc ess of r esur r ec ting th e
c ountr y' s c r eativ e for c es for th e p ur p ose of establ ish ing th e new
r egime, r ests on th e basis of l iber ty and p er sonal r esp onsibil ity . A s
th ings ar e being c onduc ted at p r esent, th ey c annot c ontinue . A gr eat
p or tion of th e bl ame may be p l ac ed on th e ol d r egime
. A c entur y of
sl av er y h as not onl y demor al iz ed th e Gov er nment and tr ansfor med
th e ol d offic ial s into a band of tr aitor s, but it h as al so destr oyed in
th e p eop l e th emsel v es th e c onsc iousness of th eir r esp onsibil ity for
th eir fate, th eir c ountr y' s destiny
. A nd at p r esent w h en R ussia
str aigh tfor w ar dl y and unh esitatingl y ap p r oac h es a state of affair s
2 8 8

T h e B ir th of th e R ussian Democ r ac y
w h er e th e c onv oc ation of th e C onstituent A ssembl y w il l be p ossibl e,
w h en sh e h as tak en h er p l ac e at th e h ead of th e democ r atic c oun-
tr ies, w h en ev er y one of us is giv en th e op p or tunity to fr eel y and
op enl y h ol d any v iew s,- th e entir e r esp onsibil ity for th e fate of th e
c ountr y r ests up on eac h indiv idual . A t p r esent th er e is no man, and
th er e c an be no one, w h o w oul d say : ` I sp eak , but am not r esp onsibl e
for my w or ds . '
C omr ades, sol dier s and offic er s, I do not k now v er y w el l w h at your
feel ings ar e th er e in th e tr enc h es, but I k now w h at is going on h er e .
Possibl y th e time is near w h en w e sh al l h av e to say to you, ` We
c annot giv e you al l th e br ead w h ic h you h av e ~ t r igh t to ex p ec t of
us and al l th e ammunition on w h ic h you h av e a r igh t to dep end,'
and th is w il l not c ome about th r ough th e faul t of th ose w h o tw o
month s ago assumed befor e th e tr ibunal of h istor y and th e w h ol e
w or l d th e for mal and offic ial r esp onsibil ity for th e h onor and gl or y
of our c ountr y .
T h e situation of R ussia at p r esent is c omp l ex and diffic ul t . T h e
p r oc ess of tr ansfor mation fr om sl av er y to l iber ty does not r esembl e
a p ar ade, eith er in sp ir it or dur ation
. I t is diffic ul t and p ainful w or k ,
r ender ed p ar tic ul ar l y so th r ough misc onc ep tions, mutual misunder -
standings, r esul ting in h al f- h ear tedness and mutual distr ust degr ading
to our fr ee c itiz ensh ip .
T h e time h as p assed w h en a c ountr y c oul d ex ist in c omp l ete
isol ation . T h e w or l d h as l ong sinc e bec ome one famil y, w h ic h ,
th ough fr eq uentl y tor n asunder by inter nal str uggl es, is nev er th el ess
bound togeth er by str ong ties- ec onomic , c ul tur al , and oth er s .
B y establ ish ing a democ r atic c ountr y in E ur op e at p r esent, w e
may p l ay a p ar t of tr emendous imp or tanc e in th e h istor y of th e
w or l d, if w e sh al l be c ap abl e of induc ing oth er nations to fol l ow our
p ath , if w e mak e our fr iends and foes r esp ec t our l iber ty
. B ut for
th is it is nec essar y th at th ey see th e imp r ac tic abil ity of figh ting th e
ideas of th e R ussian democ r ac y
. On th is p ath w e c an h ol d out onl y
as an or ganiz ed, p ow er ful , united S tate, abl e to c omp el r esp ec t .
S h oul d w e, as c ontemp tibl e sl av es, fail to or ganiz e into a str ong
nation, th en a dar k , sanguinar y p er iod of inter nal str ife w il l sur el y
c ome, and our ideal s w il l be c ast under th e h eel s of th at desp otic r ul e
w h ic h h ol ds th at migh t is r igh t and not th at r igh t is migh t . E v er y
one of us, fr om th e sol dier to th e minister , c an do w h atev er h e
p l eases, but h e must do it w ith eyes w ide op en, p l ac ing h is dev otion
to th e c ommon ideal abov e al l el se
.
C omr ades, for ten year s w e h av e suffer ed in sil enc e and h av e
been for c eed to ful fil duties imp osed up on us by th e ol d h ateful
p ow er
. You fir ed on th e p eop l e w h en th e Gov er nment demanded
.
B ut now , w h en it c omes to obeying your ow n r ev ol utionar y Gov er n-
ment, you c an no l onger endur e fur th er sac r ific e
. Does th is mean
T h e C onv ention of Del egates fr om th e F r ont

2 8 9
th at fr ee R ussia is a nation of r ebel l ious sl av es? ( S igns of uneasiness
al l ov er th e h al l . )
C omr ades, I do not w ish to dec eiv e th e p eop l e ; I must th en tel l th e
tr uth . I c ame to you bec ause my str ength w as giv ing w ay, bec ause I no
l onger p ossess my for mer c our age
. I h av en' t th e p r ev ious c onv ic -
tion th at w e ar e not fac ing r ebel l ious sl av es, but c onsc ious c itiz ens
engaged in th e c r eation of a N ew R ussia and going about th eir w or k
w ith an enth usiasm w or th y of th e R ussian p eop l e .
T h ey tel l us th at our p r esenc e at th e fr ont is no l onger needed
;
fr ater niz ing is going on th er e . Do th ey fr ater niz e on th e F r enc h
fr ont? N o, c omr ades . I f th is fr ater niz ing is sinc er e, w h y don' t
th e enemy tr oop s fr ater niz e on al l fr onts? Has not our enemy
sh ifted h is for c es to th e A ngl o- F r enc h fr ont? A nd h as not th e
A ngl o- F r enc h offensiv e been h al ted al r eady? A s far as w e ar e
c onc er ned, th er e is no suc h th ing as a R ussian fr ont
; th er e is one
fr ont, and th at is an A l l ied fr ont .
We ar e mar c h ing tow ar d p eac e, and I w oul d not r emain a mem-
ber of th e Pr ov isional Gov er nment w er e it to disr egar d th e w il l of
th e p eop l e as far as ending th e w ar goes ; but th er e ar e r oads w ide
op en and th er e ar e nar r ow , dar k al l eys, a str ol l th r ough w h ic h
migh t c ause one to l ose both h is l ife and h onor
.
We w ant to h asten th e end of th is fr atr ic idal w ar
; but to th is end
w e must mar c h ac r oss th e op en, str aigh t r oad
.
We ar e not an assembl y of tir ed p eop l e ; w e ar e a nation . T h er e
ar e p ath s w h ic h ar e l ong and c omp l ex . We need p er sev er anc e and
c al m, to an enor mous ex tent . I f w e p r op ose new w ar aims, th en it
beh oov es us to c onduc t our sel v es so as to c ommand th e r esp ec t of
both fr iend and foe . N o one r esp ec ts a w eak l ing .
I r egr et th at I did not die tw o month s ago . I w oul d h av e died
h ap p y w ith th e dr eam th at th e fl ame of a new l ife h as been k indl ed
in R ussia, h op eful of a time w h en w e c oul d r esp ec t eac h oth er ' s r igh t
w ith out r esor ting to th e k nout, h op eful th at w e c oul d r ul e our v ast
c ountr y not as it w as r ul ed by th e ol d desp otic p ow er .
T h is is al l , c omr ades, th at I c ar e to say . I t is, of c our se, p ossibl e
th at I am mistak en . T h e diagnosis th at I h av e made may tur n out
to be inc or r ec t, but I th ink I am not so muc h in er r or as some
may th ink .
M y diagnosis is : I f w e do not immediatel y r eal iz e
th e tr agedy and h op el essness of th e situation, if w e fail to r eal iz e th at
th e immediate r esp onsibil ity r ests on al l , if our p ol itic al or ganism
w il l not w or k as smooth l y as a w el l - oil ed mec h anism, th en al l th at
w e dr eamed of, al l to w h ic h w e ar e str iv ing, w il l be r etar ded for
sev er al year s and p ossibl y dr ow ned in bl ood . I w ant to bel iev e
th at w e w il l find th e sol ution for our p r obl ems, and th at w e w il l
mar c h for w ar d al ong th e op en and br igh t r oad of Democ r ac y .
T h e moment h as c ome w h en ev er y one must sear c h th e dep th s
2 9 0

T h e
B ir th of th e R ussian Democ r ac y
of h is c onsc ienc e in or der to r eal iz e w h ith er h e h imsel f is going and
w h ith er h e is l eading th ose w h o, th r ough th e faul t of th e ol d Gov -
er nment, w h ic h h el d th e p eop l e in dar k ness, r egar d ev er y p r inted
w or d as l aw
. I t is not diffic ul t to p l ay w ith th is el ement, but th e
game is ap t to be c ar r ied too far .
I c ame h er e bec ause I bel iev e in my r igh t to tel l th e tr uth as I
under stand it
. Peop l e w h o ev en under th e ol d r egime w ent about
th eir w or k op enl y and w ith out fear of death , th ose p eop l e, I say,
w il l not be ter r or iz ed
. T h e fate of our c ountr y is in our h ands and
th e c ountr y is in gr eat danger
. We h av e sip p ed of th e c up of l iber ty
and w e ar e somew h at intox ic ated
; w e ar e in need of th e gr eatest
p ossibl e sobr iety and disc ip l ine
. We must go dow n in h istor y mer it-
ing th e ep itap h on our tombstones : ` T h ey died,
but sl av es th ey nev er
w er e . ' "
A . F
. Ker ensk y w as fol l ow ed by I . G . T ser etel l i, th e for mer
l eader of th e S oc ial - Democ r atic F ac tion in th e Duma
. T ser e-
tel l i h ad r etur ned to Petr ogr ad after ten year s' imp r isonment
at h ar d l abor , in S iber ia, and h is sp eec h at th e C onv ention
of th e Del egates fr om th e F r ont w as one of h is fir st sp eec h es
after th at l ong enfor c ed sil enc e .
T h e S iber ian p r ison h as str eak ed h is h air w ith gr ay, h is
l ungs w ith c onsump tion, but h is soul h as r emained unc h anged,
- nobl e
. dev oted to th e gr eat c ause of R ussia' s fr eedom .
T ser etel l i' s sp eec h w as time and again inter r up ted by en-
th usiastic ap p l ause .
T ser etel l i' s S p eec h
" C omr ades, I am c al l ing up on you to do identic al l y th e same th ing
th at you ar e c al l ed up on to do by th e Petr ogr ad C ounc il of Wor k men' s
and S ol dier s' Del egates, w h ic h ex ec utes th e united w il l of th e r ev ol u-
tionar y w or k men, sol dier s and p easants .
T h e fundamental q uestion of th e p r esent moment is our attitude
tow ar ds th e w ar
. T h e Petr ogr ad C ounc il of Wor k men' s and S ol -
dier s' Del egates h as c l ear l y and definitel y v oic ed its op inion on th e
q uestion . We must p oint out th at th ose ideas and th ose sl ogans
w h ic h ar e p r ev al ent among th e r ev ol utionar y democ r ac y of R ussia
ar e al togeth er too w eak in our A l l ied c ountr ies, w h il e th e p r ol etar iat
of Ger many and of A ustr ia- Hungar y h av e not emer ged as yet fr om
th e intox ic ation c aused by th e c h auv inistic fumes w h ic h B eth man-
Hol w eg, togeth er w ith th e imp er ial istic bour geoisie of Ger many,
used for th e p ur p ose of stup efying th e p r ol etar iat . A nd now ,
w h en th e Ger man p r ol etar iat mar c h es h and in h and w ith Wil h el m
and th e Ger man bour geoisie, our p osition is c l ear . We say th at
sh oul d w e now ex tend our br oth er l y h and to th e p eop l e of C entr al
T h e C onv ention o f Del egates fr om th e F r ont

2 9 1
E ur op e, i . e . , sh oul d w e mak e a sep ar ate p eac e w ith th em, w e w oul d
r uin our c ountr y
. T h is w oul d p l ac e an indel ibl e stain on our h onor
and it w oul d l ead to R ussia' s destr uc tion and dev astation . Henc e it
is c l ear , th at for th e defense of our fr eedom, w e must, w h il e w ait-
ing for th e aw ak ening of th e Ger man p r ol etar iat, p r eser v e th e ful l
str ength and fir mness of our figh ting fr ont and giv e it th e most
ac tiv e sup p or t by al l means av ail abl e in th e r ear .
I t is not our intention now to br eak up our union w ith our A l l ies .
On th e c ontr ar y, w e ar e using al l our effor ts in or der th at th e al l i-
anc e made by th e bour geoisie sh al l be w el ded mor e c l osel y by th e
c ement of unity and br oth er h ood of th e Democ r ac ies of th e E ntente
c ountr ies . We h av e tak en many step s al r eady in th at dir ec tion and
w e ar e gl ad to find th at a simil ar mov ement is gr ow ing in th ose
c ountr ies . A nd I am c onfident th at soon th e moment w il l ar r iv e
w h en th e Democ r ac y of th e A l l ied c ountr ies, united by th e same
sl ogans, w il l for m an ir on r ing sur r ounding Ger many and A ustr ia-
Hungar y, and w il l demand of th ese p eop l es th at th ey ac c ep t th ose
sac r ed p r inc ip l es in w h ic h % v e bel iev e, and th en, if th e w ar w il l c on-
tinue, it w il l be th e faul t of Ger many al one
. A nd until th at moment,
th e disr up tion of th e fr ont w il l be a c r ime
. S ome al r eady tal k about
br eak ing up th e fr ont . but I do not bel iev e it ; I c annot for a minute
assume th at a son of fr ee R ussia w oul d h el p , by h is c onduc t, to deal
th e death bl ow to R ussia' s l iber ties, to th e c ause of fr eedom th e
w or l d ov er .
T h e sec ond q uestion c onc er ns our r el ations w ith th e Pr ov isional
Gov er nment . We w el l r eal iz e th e nec essity of h av ing a str ong
p ow er in R ussia, h ow ev er , th e str ength of th is p ow er must r el y
on its p r ogr essiv e and r ev ol utionar y p ol ic y . Our Gov er nment
must adop t th e r ev ol utionar y sl ogans of Democ r ac y . I t must gr ant
th e demands of th e r ev ol utionar y p eop l e . I t must tur n ov er al l
th e l and to th e l abor ing p easantr y . I t must safeguar d th e inter ests
of th e w or k ing c l ass, enac ting imp r ov ed soc ial l egisl ation for th e
p r otec tion of l abor . I t must l ead R ussia to a sp eedy and l asting
p eac e w or th y of a gr eat p eop l e .
Our Pr ov isional Gov er nment is on th e r igh t r oad
. T h e C ounc il of
Wor k men' s and S ol dier s' Dep uties, and togeth er w ith it, al l th e r e-
sp onsibl e and or ganiz ed el ements of th e Democ r ac y, sup p or t th e
Gov er nment w ith al l th e p ow er and auth or ity at th eir disp osal
. Our
c ontr ol is th e foundation of th e p ow er of th e Pr ov isional Gov er nment
.
B y sup er v ising th e Gov er nment, w e l end it ex tr aor dinar y str ength and
fir mness
. A nd w h en al l R ussia w il l be c omp l etel y united by one
w il l , by one desir e to safeguar d fear l essl y and w ith out h esitation, al l
th e l iber ties and r igh ts of th e p eop l e, th en al l diffic ul ties w il l be
ov er c ome . "
2 9 2

T h e B ir th of th e R ussian Democ r ac y
T
HE most outstanding moment of th e C onv ention w as
th e sec ond sp eec h of A . I
. Guc h k ov , w h en h e addr essed
th e Del egates fr om th e F r ont as a p r iv ate c itiz en, after
h is r esignation as M inister of War
Guc h k ov ' s S ec ond S p eec h
" A l l ow me to sp eak to you," said A . I . Guc h k ov , " not as th e M in-
ister of War . I sh al l sp eak to you as a R ussian c itiz en . Yester day
I infor med th e Pr ov isional Gov er nment th at I c annot r emain M inister
of War and N av y any l onger . T o- day I sent Pr inc e G . E . L v ov a
w r itten statement r eq uesting h im to r el iev e me of th ese duties .
" How ev er , one mor e ser ious duty r ests up on me, and th at is to
ex p l ain to you and th r ough you to your c omr ades and al l th e R ussian
p eop l e, w h y I w as obl iged to dec ide up on th is step .
Gentl emen, I h av e nev er fear ed r esp onsibil ity
. I n gener al th er e ar e
v er y few th ings th at I am afr aid of
. I fear fir st of al l and most of al l
th e v oic e of my ow n c onsc ienc e and th is v oic e of my c onsc ienc e h as
for c ed me to c ome to th is dec ision .
Gentl emen, tw el v e year s ago, w h en R ussia, as it ap p ear ed th en, w as
enter ing up on th e r oad of r efor ms, I w as al so c al l ed to gov er nmental
p ow er . I did not fear th e r esp onsibil ity but I stated my ter ms- I
agr ee to c oop er ate w ith onl y suc h p eop l e w h o w or k for th e w el far e of
th e c ountr y and ac c or ding to a definite p r ogr am, but I c annot w or k
w ith th ose w h om I distr ust and w h ose p ol itic al v iew s I do not sh ar e,
for th at w oul d be dec eiv ing both th e c ountr y and th e p ubl ic .
M y p osition w as easier now . I did not disagr ee on anyth ing w ith
th e p eop l e w ith w h om I h ad to w or k . A better staff I c oul d not w ish
for , and ev en if th er e w er e sl igh t differ enc es betw een us, our aims
w er e th e same . B ut ev en w or k ing w ith c omr ades c l ose to me sp ir it-
ual l y, I c oul d not r emain in offic e any l onger , for th e entir e Gov er n-
ment and th e M inister of War in p ar tic ul ar , ar e p l ac ed in suc h c on-
ditions th at th ey c annot ful fil th eir duty .
Gentl emen, I h av e nev er l ied . I did not l ie ev en to th e ol d r egime .
A nd w h en I w as c h osen Pr esident of th e I mp er ial Duma and enter ed
into dir ec t r el ations w ith th e h ead of th e ol d r egime- th e E mp er or , I
said
: ` Your E x c el l enc y, I sh al l sp eak th e tr uth onl y, h ar d and bitter
as it may be
. You ar e sur r ounded by fl atter er s, w h o tel l you onl y
p l easant th ings
. Gr ant me th e sol e r igh t of tel l ing you th e tr uth . '
A nd l ik ew ise now , th r ough you I am sp eak ing to th e democ r ac y
and to th e w h ol e R ussian p eop l e a w or d of tr uth . T h e democ r ac y,
gentl emen, as w el l as ev er y oth er master , h as its fl atter er s w h o w ant
to tur n its h ead
. ( S h outs : " R igh t! " )
Gentl emen, I am a c iv il ian by dr ess, but a mil itar y man, h ear t and
soul . I h av e al w ays l ov ed w ar and th e ar my, not bec ause I p ossess
U nder w ood & U nder w ood
A . I . GU C HKOV
S ec r etar y of War in th e F ir st Pr ov isional Gov er nment
.
2 9 4

T h e B ir th o f th e R ussian Democ r ac y
bl ood- th ir sty instinc ts, but bec ause I w as c onv inc ed th at a p eop l e w h o
w oul d c r eate a str ong ar my befor e w h ic h th e enemies w il l tr embl e
c oul d not fail to attain th e gr eatest suc c ess on th e r oad of p eac e
. "
A . I
. Guc h k ov c ited th e fl our ish ing state of Ger many after
th e v ic tor ious w ar w ith F r anc e in 1 8 7 0 , and c ontinued
" I h av e l iv ed th r ough four w ar s, gentl emen
. T h e w ar th at br ough t
me to a c onsc ious r eac tion tow ar ds th ings and made me j udge th ings
sanel y w as th e R usso- Jap anese War
. B efor e my eyes a gr av e c r ime
against th e A r my and th e c ountr y w as being c ommitted
. I fel t th at
th is A r my migh t bec ome ex h austed, migh t be bl ed to death , and no
matter h ow v al iant and br av e it migh t be, it w as doomed to defeat
.
I n th e fiel ds of M anc h ur ia, sitting w ith th e sol dier s at th e c amp -
fir e and th ink ing ov er th e c auses of our fail ur es, I r eal iz ed th at r uin
aw aited us, and I took an oath , Hannibal ' s oath , to dev ote my l ife to
th e r eh abil itation and c onsol idation of th e mil itar y p ow er of th e
R ussian A r my
. A nd, as you k now , th e nex t few year s, it seems,
gav e me th at op p or tunity . T h e mov ement for l iber ation p l ac ed befor e
us th e fundamental p r obl em- th e c r eation of a str ong mil itar y p ow er in
R ussia
. F ate fav or ed me onc e mor e and I w as el ec ted C h air man of
th e C ommittee on Defense, in th e Duma .
I n l ook ing ov er th e stenogr ap h ic r ep or ts of my sp eec h es fr om th is
tr ibune . I r ec al l ed a gr eat many th ings
. I f you w il l h av e l eisur e time
and you w il l famil iar iz e your sel v es w ith w h at th e I mp er ial Duma w as,
doing in th e sp h er e of defense, you w il l see th at th er e w as not a
singl e q uestion th at it did not touc h up on
.
I n one of my sp eec h es I p ointed out th at th e p ar tic ip ation of ir r e-
sp onsibl e p er sons, suc h as our Gr and Duk es, in th e management of
th e A r my w as r uining it . I said th at not at a time w h en ev er y-
body, as is th e c ase now , c oul d fr eel y c ast sl ur s up on th ese gentl emen,
but in 1 9 0 8 , and on ac c ount of th is th ey named me ` young T ur k ' and
th at name h as r emained w ith me ev er sinc e
. "
A . I . Guc h k ov q uoted a p assage fr om h is famous sp eec h
about th e ir r esp onsibl e Gr and Duk es and r emar k ed
" A n inter esting detail , gentl emen, w h en I w as sp eak ing about th e
ir r esp onsibil ity of th e Gr and Duk es, someone ex c l aimed fr om th ese
seats on th e r igh t
: ` T h ank s to th e L or d,' w h ic h meant ` T h ank s to th e
L or d th at th ese p eop l e ar e ir r esp onsibl e
. " '
R ec al l ing th e r esol ution Qf th e T h ir d Duma, w h ic h dec l ar ed
th at th e situation in th e A r til l er y Dep ar tment indic ated th at a
a c atastr op h e w as imminent, A
. I . Guc h k ov c ontinued
" A t th e h ead of th e A r til l er y Dep ar tment at th at time w er e p eop l e
v er y muc h unl ik e th ose in p ow er now , p eop l e w h ose p l ac e sh oul d
h av e been beh ind p r ison bar s, and th is r esol ution r emained a v oic e
in th e w il der ness, for th e p ost of M inister of War w as th en oc c up ied
T h e C onv ention o f Del egates fr om th e F r ont

2 9 5
by an offender against th e S tate, S uk h oml inov . He w as sur r ounded
by susp ic ious c h ar ac ter s, a band of sp ies, w h o did ev er yth ing p ossibl e
for th e destr uc tion of th e A r my and th e r uin of R ussia
. Wh en I
l ear ned of it, I op enl y h ur l ed th is ac c usation at S uk h oml inov at a
meeting of th e C ommittee on Defense and al so named M yasoyedov and
A l tsh il l er . You r emember th e r esul ts
: S uk h oml inov r emained at h is
p ost, and M yasoyedov w as instigated against me and h er e on th ese
isl ands w e fough t a duel
. He missed, and I fir ed a sh ot in th e air to
sh ow th at I did not w ant to soil my h ands
.
Wh en I r etur ned h ome, w h er e I w as fev er ish l y aw aited, for my
r etur n w as no mor e a matter of c er tainty, I w as ask ed w h y I did not
k il l M yasoyedov .
I sh oot w el l and sel dom miss . . . I r ep l ied
th at I did not w ant to sav e th is sc oundr el fr om th e gal l ow s, w h ic h
aw aited h im . A nd you k now th at h e got it
.
I k new th e c onditions of th e A r my, w h en our tr oop s w er e l eav ing
for th e fr ont, fol l ow ed by w omen and c h il dr en, w h o p av ed th eir
w ay w ith fl ow er s
. T h ose w er e h ap p y and br igh t days . I w ent to
th e mil itar y auth or ities, w ith w h om I h ad r efused to h av e anyth ing
to do p r ior to th is and tol d th em th at defeat fac ed us if th e sup p l y
of munitions w er e not or ganiz ed, and if th e Gener al S taff of th e
A r my w er e not c h anged, th at our A r my w oul d bl eed to death and
p er ish and w ith it th e c ountr y itsel f.
Wh en in A ugust, 1 9 1 4 , I saw th e unfor tunate r emnants of th e A r my
defeated at S ol dau p ass befor e me, it w as c l ear to me th at th er e w as
no esc ap e fr om defeat
.
I w r ote and sp ok e, but I w as not h eeded and w as l ook ed up on
as a p essimist .
I c ame bac k as a p l ain p etitioner , w ent to al l th e auth or ities,
begged and imp l or ed th em, but th ey w er e as deaf as a w al l . I t
seemed as if I w er e tr ying to br eak th r ough a w al l w ith bar e h ands .
T h e h eav y l osses suffer ed in th e C ar p ath ians in M ar c h and A p r il ,
1 9 1 5 , for c ed al l to r eal iz e th e situation . I t op ened th eir eyes
. T h e
auth or ities bec ame fr igh tened, th e c ountr y bec ame fr igh tened and
ev er ybody under stood w h ith er w e w er e h eaded
. F ev er ish w or k
began
; M unic ip al and Z emstv o U nions and War - I ndustr ial C om-
mittees c ame into ex istenc e and al l h ar nessed th emsel v es to th e
c ommon w agon and tr ied to p ul l th e A r my out fr om th e mir e in
w h ic h th e Gov er nment h ad p ut it . S ometh ing w as ac h iev ed, but not
ev er yth ing, by far .
We w er e fal l ing l ow er and l ow er until w e h ad giv en up entir e
p r ov inc es, til l w e h ad l ost th ousands of v al uabl e R ussian l iv es, befor e
w e r eal iz ed th at it w as imp ossibl e to w or k w ith th e ol d r egime any
l onger and th at th e onl y th ing l eft us w as th e ov er th r ow of th e
ol d or der .
Wh atev er th e futur e of R ussia may be, I w il l say th at th is ac t of
ov er th r ow ing th e ol d r egime w as a benefic ial ac t w h ic h c r eated c on-
2 9 6

T h e B ir th of th e R ussian Democ r ac y
ditions under w h ic h R ussia c an find th e r oad to sal v ation . T h at' s
w h y I , far fr om th e r ev ol utionar y atmosp h er e, bec ame a r ev ol utionist
.
I saw c l ear l y th at th e ol d p ow er w as l eading us to defeat w ith al l
its c onseq uenc es and th at onl y its ov er th r ow c oul d sav e R ussia .
T h e fir st w eek after th e R ev ol ution, I h ad th e j oyous feel ing and en-
th usiasm c ommon to al l of us
. E v er yone fel t, it seemed, th at h e w as
now th e c r eator of th e h ap p iness of R ussia and th at a gr eat and
ser ious r esp onsibil ity r ested up on h im, and w e began to el iminate th e
many sh or tc omings . T h e w or k w as fac il itated by th e gener al en-
th usiasm .
R ec entl y I r ec eiv ed v er y inter esting mater ial fr om th e fr ont-
r ep or ts desc r ibing th e mor al e of th e A r my dur ing th e fir st days and
w eek s after th e R ev ol ution
. I r ead th ese and th ough t, ` How w el l th e
A r my h as under stood w h at h as h ap p ened and w h at a migh ty l ev er
th e R ev ol ution h as been for th e up l ift of its mor al e! '
U nfor tunatel y th at r efer s to th e 1 7 th and 1 8 th of M ar c h onl y .
S inc e th en th at enth usiasm h as died aw ay and a c r isis h as ar isen .
We h av e begun to go bac k w ar ds .
I r eal iz e th e fear ful str aits in w h ic h our A r my finds itsel f-
an inc r edibl e p h ysic al and mor al w ear iness, th e r esul t of th is h ar d,
unusual w ar and gl oomy l ife w ith out suc c ess, w ith out v ic tor . R ec ent-
l y Wil h el m boasted of enter ing four c ap ital s
. We h av e c ap tur ed no
c ap ital s and so th e gr ay v eil befor e our eyes h as been w eigh ing
h eav il y up on our soul s . M eanw h il e fr om th e r ear th e deter ior ating
infl uenc e of dec ay h as been mak ing itsel f fel t, th e effec t of th e mir e
up on th e h eal th y mor al e of th e A r my h as begun to manifest itsel f,
and th e p r oc ess of dec omp osition h as set in
.
We r eal iz ed th at it w as imp ossibl e to or ganiz e, manage and c ommand
th e new A r my of fr ee R ussia, ac c or ding to th e meth ods of th e ol d
r egime
. A ser ies of r efor ms w as star ted. B ut th er e is a l imit beyond
w h ic h , desp ite al l good intentions, th e op p osite bec omes tr ue, and th er e
w e h av e th e beginning of th e destr uc tion of th e l iv ing, migh ty and
p ec ul iar or ganism of th e ar my . I t l ook s to me th at w e h av e p assed
th e l ine of demar k ation, w e h av e p assed th e l imit .
Gentl emen, not a singl e c ountr y in th e w or l d is gov er ned and
l iv es al ong l ines on w h ic h at th e p r esent time R ussia l iv es and is
gov er ned, and not a singl e ar my in th e w or l d is for med and man-
aged on th e basis on w h ic h our ar my is buil t and managed . I t is
imp ossibl e th at th e p er sonal r esp onsibil ity of th e l eader s of th e ar my
sh oul d be el iminated and ev er y mov e of th eir s be dep endent up on
sessions, meetings and or ganiz ations . On a system of el ec tions
l iv ing S tates ar e buil t, but on th e ac c idental basis of indiv idual demands
and dec isions of meetings, neith er th e w el far e of th e c ountr y nor th e
w el far e of th e ar my c an be effec ted .
A nd h er e is th e danger th at th r eatened us and in th e midst of
w h ic h ar e now standing
. We h av e c r ossed th at boundar y ; beyond
T h e C onv ention of Del egates fr om th e F r ont

2 9 7
begins someth ing w h ic h th r eatens our r efor ms, th e v er y ex istenc e of
our A r my and th e v er y fr eedom of R ussia .
I t seems to me th at w e ar e imp er c ep tibl y r etur ning to th e ol d or der
and to th e fatal featur e of th e ol d r egime, w h en th er e w as p ow er
w ith out r esp onsibil ity and r esp onsibil ity w ith out p ow er .
T h er e is onl y one r oad for nations inc ap abl e of buil ding a gov -
er nment on new bases, and th at r oad l eads th r ough anar c h y bur den-
some and bl oody to desp otism .
A t times it seems to me th at onl y a mir ac l e w il l sav e R ussia
. I
bel iev e in mir ac l es . I bel iev e th at th e l igh t of r eal iz ation w il l enter
our minds, and th e gifted R ussian nation th at w as abl e in th e p ast,
under th e most tr ying c onditions, to sav e h er sel f, w il l be abl e to sav e
h er sel f onc e mor e . I bel iev e th at th e R ussian p eop l e, enl igh tened by
a mir ac l e, w il l l ead us to th e br igh t r oad and w il l sav e th e c ountr y .
I , your for mer M inister of War , ap p eal to you and imp l or e you,
as a R ussian, as a member of th at bel ov ed mil itar y famil y to w h ic h
w e al l bel ong, I ap p eal to you and imp l or e you : Hel p to h asten th e
c oming of th is c l ear r eal iz ation of th e R ussian p eop l e, and onl y th en,
onl y under suc h c ir c umstanc es, w il l w e sav e both th e R ussian p eop l e
and R ussia fr om r uin
. "
T h e sp eec h of A . I . Guc h k ov made a gr eat imp r ession .
A fter a br ief p ause, th under ous ap p l ause bur st for th
. A
. I .
Guc h k ov h imsel f, seemingl y agitated, l eft th e C onv ention .
A
N OT HE R outstanding sp eec h at th is C onv ention of
Del egates fr om th e F r ont w as th at of G . V. Pl e-
k h anov , th e founder of th e R ussian S oc ial - Democ r ac y,
w h o addr essed th e C onv ention on M ay 1 6 . T h e C onv ention
h al l r esounded w ith ap p l ause w h en th e C h air man announc ed
" T h e fl oor bel ongs to th e v eter an of th e R ussian R ev ol ution,
C omr ade Pl ek h anov
. "
Pl ek h anov ' s S p eec h
" N ot l ong ago," began G . V. Pl ek h anov , " w e w er e offic ial l y c on-
sider ed l oyal subj ec ts of th e R ussian T z ar . R igh t now th er e is no
T z ar ; w e ar e not subj ec ts, w e ar e fr ee c itiz ens
. T h e r ank of c itiz en,
w h ic h w e obtained as th e r esul t of a l ong and tenac ious figh t, at th e
p r ic e of innumer abl e sac r ific es, h as giv en us ex tensiv e r igh ts, but it
al so p l ac es up on us gr eat duties . Our fir st duty is to safeguar d our
l iber ty, to safeguar d th e R ev ol ution
. Our sec ond duty is th at tow ar ds
our A l l ies .
T h e insc r ip tion on our banner is not op p r ession of p eop l es, not
ensl av ement of anyone, but fr ee, sel f- deter mination of nations
. T h is
2 9 8

T h e B ir th of th e R ussian Democ r ac y
is our banner , th e new banner r aised by th e R ussian R ev ol ution . Our
task at th e fr ont is to sup p or t, by al l means, th e sp ir it of th e A r my,
its figh ting p ow er . U nder suc h c onditions c an th er e be any q uestion
of fr ater niz ing of any k ind? A nd w h at is th is fr ater niz ing to w h ic h
some p eop l e ar e inv iting you? T h e Ger man p ik e c omes to th e R us-
sian c ar p and, under th e p r etex t of fr ater niz ing, detec ts your mil itar y
sec r ets and obser v es your p ositions, in or der to seiz e th em mor e
easil y
.
I am ask ed : ` Wh at sh oul d a democ r atic Gov er nment be?' M y
answ er is
: ' I t sh oul d be a Gov er nment enj oying th e p eop l e' s ful l
c onfidenc e and suffic ientl y str ong to p r ev ent any p ossibil ity of an-
ar c h y . ' U nder w h at c onditions, th en, c an suc h a str ong, democ r atic
Gov er nment be establ ish ed? I n my op inion it is nec essar y, for th is
p ur p ose, th at th e Gov er nment be c omp osed of r ep r esentativ es of al l
th ose p ar ts of th e p op ul ation th at ar e not inter ested in th e r estor a-
tion of th e ol d or der . Wh at is c al l ed a c oal ition M inistr y is nec es-
sar y . Our c omr ades, th e S oc ial ists, ac k now l edging th e nec essity of
enter ing th e Gov er nment, c an and sh oul d set for th definite c ondi-
tions, definite demands
. B ut th er e sh oul d be no demands th at w oul d
be unac c ep tabl e to th e r ep r esentativ es of oth er c l asses, to th e sp ok es-
men of th e inter ests of oth er p ar ts of th e p op ul ation . S uc h a de-
mand is th at for th e p ubl ic ation of tr eaties c onc l uded w ith our A l l ies .
T h e q uestion of p ubl ic ation of tr eaties is one not of p r inc ip l e, but of
ex p edienc y . A nd at th e p r esent moment c omp l ianc e w ith th is de-
mand is l iabl e to star t you off on th e w r ong r oad, on th e r oad tow ar ds
a sep ar ate p eac e, th is idea w h ic h h as no adh er ents in our midst .
( T ur bul ent ap p l ause . )
\Ve h av e tr eaties w ith democ r atic F r anc e . ( C r ies fr om th e
fl oor : " A bour geois F r anc e! " ) Yes, c omr ades, a bour geois F r anc e,
but r emember th at S c h edr in h as said th at ev er y R ussian th at l ov es
h is c ountr y h as tw o F ath er l ands, R ussia and F r anc e . Onl y a sh or t
time ago you stop p ed singing ` God, sav e th e T z ar ,' and w h at is your
substitute for it? T h e F r enc h M ar seil l aise . Yes, F r anc e is a bour -
geois c ountr y to th e h igh est degr ee, but M ar x and E ngel s h av e
al r eady sh ow n us th e r ev ol utionar y p ar t p l ayed by th e bour geoisie
in h istor y, and by th e F r enc h bour geoisie p ar tic ul ar l y . Just th ink
w h at a br eak w ith th e A l l ies, at th e p r esent moment, signifies- p er -
h ap s, w ar w ith th em in th e near futur e, in a sh ameful al l ianc e w ith
Wil h el m
.
T h e ol d Gov er nment w as unabl e and unw il l ing to c ar r y on th is
w ar . T o attemp t to p r ov e it to you w oul d be to r ep eat fac ts k now n
to al l . A t p r esent a fr ee p eop l e must p r otec t itsel f
. "
G . V
. Pl ek h anov ex p l ained th e meaning of th e p r inc ip l e
" fr ee sel f- deter mination of nations" and of th e for mul a " p eac e
w ith out annex ations or indemnities . " He ar gued th at th e
r estor ation of th e status q uo ante bel l um w oul d h e not p eac e
.
T h e C onv ention of Del egates fr om th e F r ont

2 9 9
but a tr uc e, for suc h a p eac e w oul d r esul t onl y in th e fur th er
dev el op ment of mil itar ism .
T o th e q uestion as to w h eth er R ussia sh oul d figh t, in th is
w ar , for th e c ol onial inter ests of E ngl and, G
. V. Pl ek h anov
r ep l ied : " T h e answ er is c l ear to ev er yone w h o ac c ep ts th e
p r inc ip l e of fr ee sel f- deter mination of nations
. T h e c ol onies
ar e not deser ts, but p op ul ated l oc al ities, and th eir p op ul a-
tion sh oul d al so be giv en th e r igh t to deter mine fr eel y th eir
ow n destinies
. I t is c l ear th at R ussia c annot figh t for th e
sak e of anyone' s p r edator y asp ir ations
. B ut 1 am sur p r ised
th at th e q uestion of annex ations is r aised in R ussia, w h ose
six teen p r ov inc es ar e under th e Ger man h eel ! I do not under -
stand th is ex c l usiv e sol ic itude for Ger many' s inter ests
. "
Pl ek h anov disc ussed in detail th e inter nal situation in Ger -
many and ex p l ained w h y th e Ger man democ r ats w er e p ow er -
l ess to p r ev ent th e w ar :
" I n th e fal l of 1 9 0 6 ," said G . V. Pl ek h anov , " w h en Wil h el m w as
p l anning to mov e h is tr oop s on th e th en r ev ol utionar y R ussia, I ask ed
my c omr ades, th e Ger man S oc ial - Democ r ats
: ` Wh at w il l you do in
c ase \Vel h el m dec l ar es w ar on R ussia?' A t th e p ar ty c onv ention in
" M annh eim, B ebel gav e me an answ er to th is q uestion
. B ebel intr o-
duc ed a r esol ution in fav or of a gener al str ik e in th e ev ent of w ar
being dec l ar ed on R ussia . B ut th is r esol ution w as not adop ted
;
member s of th e tr ade unions v oted against it
. T h is is a fac t w h ic h
you sh oul d not for get . B ebel h ad to beat a r etr eat, and intr oduc ed
anoth er r esol ution
. Kautsk y and R osa L ux embur g w er e dissatisfied
w ith B ebel ' s c onduc t
. I ask ed Kautsk y w h eth er th er e is a w ay of
br inging about a gener al str ik e against th e w or k er s' w il l
. A s th er e
is no suc h w ay, th er e w as noth ing el se B ebel c oul d do
. A nd if Wil -
h el m h ad sent h is h or des to R ussia in 1 9 0 6 , th e Ger man w or k er s
w oul d not h av e done an ear th l y th ing to p r ev ent th e butc h er y
. I n
S ep tember
. 1 9 1 4 , th e situation w as stil l w or se .
I t is gr eatl y to be r egr etted th at ev en up to th e p r esent time th e
maj or ity of th e Ger man tr ade unions fol l ow th e S c h eidemanns, th e
Dav ids and oth er s- th er e is no p l ac e for th em in th e I nter national
. "
I n r ep l y to a q uestion about th e A r my, w h eth er it w as not
tir ed and p h ysic al l y unabl e to c ontinue th e w ar , G
. V. Pl ek h -
anov answ er ed :
" You ough t to be mor e famil iar w ith th e situation th an I
. I f
th e A r my' s demor al iz ation h as r eac h ed suc h a degr ee th at it c an
offer no r esistanc e, say so fr ank l y and p ut th e nec k of th e r ev ol u-
tionar y R ussian p eop l e under th e yok e of Ger man mil itar ism
. B ut
if th er e stil l is any p ow der l eft, figh t
; you ar e r esp onsibl e for R ussia' s
3 0 0

T h e B ir th of th e R ussian Democ r ac y
destiny
; you h av e no r igh t to r aise th e w h ite banner in fr ont of th e
Ger man E mp er or .
( T ur bul ent ap p l ause . ) Our . A r my is not yet
beaten . I t is stil l suffic ientl y str ong ; it is onl y nec essar y to r aise its
sp ir it, and th is must be done by you
. You c ame h er e for th is p ur p ose
onl y, you sh oul d h av e no oth er th ough ts
. ( T ur bul ent ap p l ause . )
T h e w ar h as c ost us dear l y, but p eac e w ith out v ic tor y w il l be dear er
stil l
. C omp l ete stagnation is th r eatening us, w e ar e th r eatened w ith
C h ina' s fate, in E ur op e. "
Pl ek h anov w as ask ed w h eth er by str ong Gov er nment h e
under stood a Gov er nment w h ic h w oul d send tr oop s for th e
p ac ific ation of p easants .
" I h av e ex p r essed no th ough ts," r ep l ied Pl ek h anov , " w h ic h
w oul d giv e you gr ound to th ink th at I desir e a Gov er nment
of th is k ind . ( A p p l ause . ) F or tunatel y, th er e ar e among you
no p er sons w h o w oul d ac c ep t th e r ol e of p ac ific ator s or h ang-
men . ( A p p l ause . ) I onl y say th at no anar c h y sh oul d be al -
l ow ed ; th er e sh oul d be no ar bitr ar y sol ution of p r obl ems to be
tak en up by th e C onstituent A ssembl y . S tr ong and r esol ute
mor al p er suasion w ith r egar d to th ose sow ing th e seeds of
distur banc e is suffic ient for our p ur p oses . "
T o a q uestion as to c ontr ol ov er th e Pr ov isional Gov er nment,
Pl ek h anov r ep l ied : " A c oal ition Gov er nment sh oul d be under
th e c ontr ol of al l democ r atic R ussia and not under th at of
sep ar ate p ar ties . A c oal ition Gov er nment must h av e th e c on-
fidenc e of th e w h ol e nation ; it sh oul d not be h amp er ed in its
w or k , but assisted most r eadil y . "
A
M ON G th e many sp eec h es made at th is C onv ention, w e
must mention esp ec ial l y th e sp eec h of th e r ep r esenta-
tiv e of th e B l ac k S ea F l eet, S ail or B atk in
. T h e A r my
and N av y w er e stil l al iv e, and th e B ol sh ev ik i r ep r esented onl y
a negl igibl e minor ity at th e C onv ention . B atk in' s sp eec h
may th er efor e be l ook ed up on as th e ex p r ession of th e sp ir it
of th e entir e C onv ention .
B atk in' s S p eec h
" We gr eet al l th ose," said B atk in, " w h o fough t for th e young,
dear l y bough t fr eedom, th ose in w h om w e tr ust imp l ic itl y, ap p r e-
c iating th eir l ov e of th e fr ee F ath er l and and of p eac e th e w or l d
ov er
; w e gr eet th ose w h o w er e sol d out and betr ayed by th e r ep r c
T h e C onv ention of Del egates fr om th e F r ont

3 0 1
sentativ es of th e ol d Gov er nment, by w h om th ey w er e sent to fac e
w ith bar e h ands th e Ger man 4 2 c entimeter guns
.
We gr eet th ose w h o, w h il e betr ayed by th e ol d Gov er nment, stil l
did not l ose th e w ar . We gr eet al l th ose w h o neith er now nor ev er
w il l giv e up our dear R ussia or our fr eedom .
Yester day, beh ind our bac k , w e w er e c al l ed imp oster s
. L et th em
v er ify our c r edential s . We ar e h onest figh ter s and w e ar e c oming to
you, c omr ades, to del iv er our message . I n c ase of nec essity w e
w il l al l go into th e tr enc h es to p r otec t th e c ountr y fr om th e enemy
th r eatening our fr eedom .
On th e basis of mutual c onfidenc e, mutual under standing and l ov e,
w e h av e establ ish ed an ir on disc ip l ine, th e bul w ar k of ev er y c iv il and
mil itar y or ganiz ation
. F or th is r eason th e B l ac k S ea F l eet c an at
any moment star t an offensiv e and say l oudl y to th e w h ol e w or l d :
' We do not fear th e enemy . '
A l th ough th e w ar w as for c ed on us in th e inter ests of th e bour -
geoisie, fr ee p eop l es ar e inv ol v ed in it, and th er efor e w e h av e no r igh t
to r efuse our h el p to th ose w h o h av e bec ome r el ated to us by th eir
bl oodsh ed on battl efiel ds . T h e F r enc h and th e E ngl ish ar e sh edding
th eir bl ood, as w e do, for th e emanc ip ation of al l p eop l es . T h e Ger -
man S oc ial ists w er e saying th at th ey w er e br inging fr eedom to us
.
We h av e obtained th is fr eedom our sel v es .
We sh oul d not l eav e th e fr iendl y p eop l es of F r anc e and E ngl and
to sh ed, th eir bl ood al one in th eir figh t w ith th e enemy . T h e B l ac k
S ea F l eet w il l nev er sign a sep ar ate p eac e . ( T ur bul ent ap p l ause . )
I f w e ar e against a sep ar ate p eac e, w e w il l al so p r oh ibit fr ater -
niz ing
. T h e Ger mans ar e onl y l ook ing for a c onv enient moment to
defeat us .
I f th er e sh oul d be no sep ar ate p eac e, th en th e v er y moment th e
Ger mans l eav e on our fr ont a smal l number of sol dier s, h av ing tr ans-
fer r ed th e r emainder to th e F r enc h fr ont, w e must immediatel y star t
an offensiv e in or der to p r otec t our br eth r en on th e F r enc h and
E ngl ish fr onts .
F r ater niz ing is tr eac h er y . T h e B l ac k S ea F l eet does not bel iev e
th at th er e ar e tr aitor s in th e young r ev ol utionar y R ussian A r my .
F r ater niz ing is a bl ow in th e bac k s of our A l l ies and tr eac h er y to th e
c ause of fr eedom . A n ar my w h er e eac h one th ink s onl y of h imsel f
is not an ar my, but a disor ganiz ed mob . A mong us in th e B l ac k S ea
F l eet th e offic er s ar e l ik e br oth er s . Our disc ip l ine is based not on
for c e but on mutual c onfidenc e and l ov e of R ussia . Onl y an ar my
so or ganiz ed c an safeguar d th e fr eedom of R ussia .
C omr ades, one must be p ol itic al l y sh or t- sigh ted to sp eak for a
sep ar ate p eac e and to demand th e p ubl ic ation of th e sec r et tr eaties
.
We too ar e in fav or of th e p ubl ic ation of sec r et tr eaties, but onl y if
it w il l not r esul t in a br eak w ith th e A l l ies .
I f w e h av e a gov er nment enj oying th e c onfidenc e of al l , l et th is
3 0 2

T h e B ir th
o f th e R ussian Democ r ac y
gov er nment k now th ese tr eaties, bec ause it is v er y diffic ul t for th e
masses to under stand th e c omp l ic ated inter national p r obl ems
. S uc h
a gov er nment w il l not betr ay R ussia .
We must say : ` We w ant noth ing bel onging to anybody el se, but
w e sh al l nev er giv e up th at w h ic h bel ongs to us . '
We ar e defending our l iber ty, but under th e p r esent c onditions
suc h defense means an offensiv e . We ar e figh ting not for c onq uests
.
We onl y w ant to p ar al yz e th at p ow er w h ic h seek s to tak e p ossession
of our l ands .
I t is nec essar y th at th e w eal th y p eop l e giv e money, th e p easants-
c h eap br ead, and th e w or k er s- th eir w or k at th e l ooms . I t is nec es-
sar y th at th e A r my stand sh oul der to sh oul der , side by side w ith th e
c ountr y' s Democ r ac y for th e defense of our F ath er l and .
T h e A r my sh oul d say : ` Hey, you, w h o h av e r emained too l ong in th e
r ear ; tak e, off your nic e l ook ing c iv il c l oth es and go into th e tr enc h es .
Hey, you, for get your disc or ds and do not r uin R ussia b- th ese dis-
sensions . You, al l in th e r ear , unite and h el p th e A r my, w h ic h w il l
defend our fr eedom . S tr ength en th is fr eedom, you w il l th en r ec eiv e
th e l and, w h ic h w il l be giv en up to nobody el se . '
A nd w e, of th e B l ac k S ea F l eet, p l edge our oath to you . "
A nsw er ing sev er al sp eec h es of th e B ol sh ev ik i . B atk in said
" I sh al l not h av e th e c our age to tel l th e B l ac k S ea F l eet w h at I h ear d
h er e . I th ink and h op e th at th is w as said by r ep r esentativ es not of
th e maj or ity of th e A r my, but of its smal l minor ity . ( A p p l ause . ) T h e
B l ac k S ea F l eet th ink s it is nec essar y to end th is w ar soon ; but h ow
sh al l th is be done : We must not w aste time on or ator y, but tal k
business! T h e B ol sh ev ik i w h o h av e sp ok en h er e ar e unabl e to answ er
th e q uestion as to h ow th e w ar sh al l be ended . I am h or r or - str ic k en
w h en I h ear men of th e A r my sp eak of a sep ar ate p eac e . I f th ese
w or ds do not ex p r ess a sinc er e under standing of th e q uestion, or ar e
not due to misc onc ep tion, th en th ey ar e p r omp ted mer el y by th e
instinc t for p er sonal sel f- p r eser v ation . "
T h e fol l ow ing r esol ution w as final l y adop ted by th e C on-
v ention
" T h e F ir st C onv ention of th e Del egates fr om th e F r ont, h av ing
h ear d r ep or ts on c ur r ent p r obl ems fr om th e r ep r esentativ es of th e
Pr ov isional Gov er nment, member s of th e E x ec utiv e C ommittee of
th e C ounc il of Wor k men' s and S ol dier s' Del egates, and fr om r ep r e-
sentativ es of th e S oc ial ist p ar ties and h av ing c onsider ed th e situation,
h er eby r esol v es :
( 1 ) T h at th e disor ganiz ation of th e food sup p l y system and th e
w eak ening of th e A r my' s figh ting c ap ac ity, due to distr ust of a ma-
j or ity of th e mil itar y auth or ities, to l ac k of inner or ganiz ation and
to oth er temp or ar y c auses, h av e r eac h ed suc h a degr ee th at th e
fr eedom w on by th e R ev ol ution is ser iousl y endanger ed .
T h e C onv ention o f Del egates fr om th e F r ont

3 0 3
( 2 ) T h at th e sol e sal v ation l ies in establ ish ing a gov er nment
enj oying th e ful l c onfidenc e of th e toil ing masses, in th e aw ak ening
of a c r eativ e r ev ol utionar y enth usiasm and in c onc er ted sel f- sac r i-
fic ing w or k on th e p ar t of al l th e el ements of th e p op ul ation
.
T h e C onv ention ex tends to th e C ounc il of Wor k men' s and S ol dier s'
Del egates its w ar mest ap p r ec iation of th e l atter ' s sel f- sac r ific ing and
h onest w or k for th e str ength ening of th e new or der in R ussia, in th e
inter ests of th e R ussian Democ r ac y, and at th e same time ex p r esses
its w ish to see, in th e near est p ossibl e futur e, th e abov e C ounc il
tr ansfor med into an A l l - R ussian C ounc il of Wor k men' s, S ol dier s' and
Peasants' Del egates .
T h e C onv ention is of th e op inion th at th e w ar is at p r esent c on-
duc ted for p ur p oses of c onq uest and against th e inter ests of th e
masses, and it, th er efor e, ur ges th e C ounc il of Wor k men' s and
S ol dier s' Del egates to tak e th e most ener getic and effec tiv e measur es
for th e p ur p ose of ending th is butc h er y, on th e basis of fr ee sel f-
deter mination of nations and of r enunc iation by al l bel l iger ent c oun-
tr ies of annex ations and indemnities . N ot a dr op of R ussian bl ood
sh al l be giv en for aims for eign to us .
C onsider ing th at th e ear l iest p ossibl e ac h iev ement of th is p ur p ose
is c ontingent onl y up on a str ong r ev ol utionar y A r my, w h ic h w oul d
defend fr eedom and gov er nment, and be ful l y sup p or ted by th e or gan-
iz ed r ev ol utionar y Democ r ac y, th at is, by th e C ounc il of Wor k men' s
and S ol dier s' Del egates r esp onsibl e for its ac ts to th e w h ol e c ountr y,
th e C onv ention w el c omes th e r esp onsibl e dec ision of th e C ounc il of
Wor k men' s and S ol dier s' Del egates to tak e p ar t in th e new Pr o-
v isional Gov er nment .
T h e C onv ention demands th at th e r ep r esentativ es of th e C h ur c h
giv e up for th e c ountr y' s benefit th e tr easur es and funds now in th e
p ossession of c h ur c h es and monaster ies . T h e C onv ention mak es an
ur gent ap p eal to al l p ar ts of th e p op ul ation .
1 . T o th e c omr ade- sol dier s in th e r ear : C omr ades! C ome to fil l
up our th inning r ank s ir i ne " tr enc h es and r ise sh oul der to sh oul der
w ith us for th e c ountr y' s defense!
2 . C omr ade- Wor k er s! Wor k ener getic al l y and unite your effor ts,
and in th is w ay h el p us in our l ast figh t for a univ er sal p eac e for
nations! B y str ength ening th e fr ont you w il l str ength en fr eedom!
3 . F el l ow - C itiz ens of th e c ap ital c l ass! F ol l ow th e h istor ic ex -
amp l e of M inin! E v en as h e, op en your tr easur ies and q uic k l y br ing
your money to th e aid of fr eed R ussia!
4 . T o th e Peasants : F ath er s and br oth er s! B r ing your l ast mite
to h el p th e w eak ening fr ont! Giv e us br ead, and oats and h ay to our
h or ses . R emember th at th e futur e R ussia w il l be your s!
C HA PT E R VI
T h e F ir st A l l - R ussian C ongr ess of Peasants' Del egates
T
HE imp or tanc e of th is C ongr ess may be ex p l ained by
th e mer e mentioning of th e fac t th at th e R ussian
p easantr y c onstitutes about 8 5 p er c ent
. of R ussia' s
entir e p op ul ation . T h e fir st A l l - R ussian C ongr ess of Peasants'
Del egates op ened in Petr ogr ad on M ay 1 7 , th at is tw o month s
after th e R ev ol ution . Dur ing th is time th e or ganiz ation of
th e p easantr y w ent so far th at ov er one th ousand Del egates
ar r iv ed in Petr ogr ad, fr om al l p ar ts of R ussia and fr om th e
F r ont
.
T h e fir st A l l - R ussian C ongr ess of Peasants' Del egates
op ened on M ay 1 7 , at tw o o' c l oc k in th e after noon, in th e
main auditor ium of th e Petr ogr ad N ar odny Dom ( Peop l e' s
House) . T h e p l atfor m w as oc c up ied by th e member s of th e
Or ganiz ing C ommittee, of th e E x ec utiv e C ommittee of th e
C ounc il of Wor k men' s and S ol dier s' Del egates and by l eader s
of th e R ussian S oc ial ist Par ties
. T h e C ongr ess w as op ened
by S . S . M asl ov , l ater S ec r etar y of A gr ic ul tur e in Ker ensk y' s
C abinet, w h o addr essed th e assembl y in th e name of th e
Or ganiz ing C ommittee, in th e fol l ow ing w or ds
M asl ov ' s S p eec h
" I t is th e fir st time in th e h istor y of R ussia, in th e h istor y of th e
R ussian p easantr y, th at w e h av e, in you, a c entr al or gan of al l th e
R ussian p easant c l ass, so c omp l etel y r ep r esentativ e and el ec ted on a
democ r atic basis
.
Wh at ar e th e task s c onfr onting th is or gan? T h ey ar e h istor ic al
task s,- task s c onc er ning al l R ussia .
We ar e l iv ing now at a time w h en ev er yth ing is ful l of mov ement,
ful l of c r eativ e meaning and h op e
. We h av e r ec eiv ed an h istor ic al in-
h er itanc e ; it is enor mous and bur densome, but w e c annot fr ee our -
sel v es fr om it soon . You, r ep r esentativ es of th e toil ing p easantr y,
w il l h av e to r ec k on w ith th is inh er itanc e
.
I n my op inion, th e p ast h ad th e th r ee fol l ow ing c h ar ac ter istic s :
( 1 ) T h e str angl ing of al l r igh ts of th e l ar ge toil ing masses of our
p eop l e : ( 2 ) l ac k of dev el op ment of c iv il sel f- c onsc iousness on th e
p ar t of th ese masses ; and ( 3 ) th e mec h anic al natur e of al l soc ial
r el ations .
3 0 6

T h e B ir th
o f th e R ussian Democ r ac y
C omr ades, th e p ast is c h ar ac ter iz ed by th e c r ush ing of th e r igh ts
of th e masses
; at p r esent w e must inev itabl y suffer th e c onseq uenc es
of th is for mer tyr anny
. T h is is al w ays th e c ase, w h enev er str ong
op p r ession is ex er c ised, and if th e op p r essed p eop l e p ossess l ife and
v igor , a r eac tion inev itabl y sets in in th e p eop l e' s mind
. T h is
demand for r igh ts, th e p r esent r eac tion against th e p ast dep r iv ation
of r igh ts, is w or k ing too str ongl y, and I am c onv inc ed, and I state
w ith r egr et th at at p r esent, as ev idenc ed among many p ar ts of th e
p op ul ation, th e c onsc iousness of th eir r igh ts seems to p r edominate
ov er th at of th e duties c onfr onting th em
. ( A p p l ause . ) T ak e th e w ar ,
for instanc e ; th is fac t of tr emendous signific anc e, a fac t w h ic h ev er y-
one is c omp el l ed to c onsider and w h ic h for c es ev er ybody' s attention,
ir r esp ec tiv e of one' s ideas and r el ations,- in th is r esp ec t, our fir st
task is th e ear l iest p ossibl e ter mination of th is w ar , on c onditions
w h ic h w oul d safeguar d th e inter ests of th e c ountr y and of th e p eas-
ants, and th e inter ests of th e Democ r ac y of th e w h ol e w or l d .
I k now th at w e ar e p r esent at a gr eat festiv al of al l th e R ussian
p easantr y
; p l ease ex c use me, th er efor e, for th e note of sadness, th e
note of w ar ning ap p eal , sounding in my sp eec h , but, c omr ades, our
p r esent situation c auses mor e anx iety and p ain th an j oy . "
A fter h is sp eec h , S . S . M asl ov dec l ar ed th e A l l - R ussian
C ongr ess of Peasants' Del egates op en
. U p on h is motion, E
.
C . B r esh k o- B r esh k ov sk aya w as unanimousl y el ec ted Honor ar y
C h air man of th e C ongr ess
.
T h e ap p ear anc e of B r esh k o- B r esh k ov sk aya br ough t for th a
stor m of ap p l ause . T h e entir e assembl y r ose, as one man,
and gr eeted th e " Gr andmoth er of th e R ussian R ev ol ution
. "
S p eec h of E . C . B r esh k o- B r esh k ov sk aya
" C itiz ens! Dur ing fifty year s of my r easoning l ife, I w as onl y
th ink ing of th at day, I w as onl y p ic tur ing th e day w h en th e R ussian
p easantr y w oul d final l y bec ome th e r ul er of th e destinies of th e
R ussian p eop l e . M y ex p ec tations h av e been r eal iz ed
. C itiz ens, I do
not k now of any one h ap p ier th an mysel f, esp ec ial l y sinc e so many
ex c el l ent, c our ageous, nobl e c omr ades p er ish ed many year s ago,
w ith out seeing th is day, w h il e I h av e been l uc k y enough to l iv e to see
it
. I h av e l iv ed to see you togeth er , to see you in fr iendsh ip , to see
you tak ing p ow er in your h ands .
We ar e w itnessing now a gr eat tr iump h , a gr eat festiv al , a
gr eat j oy
; but al l th is p l ac es up on us a stil l gr eater r esp onsibil ity .
Hav ing l iv ed to th is ev ent, after fifty year s of r ev ol utionar y ac -
tiv ity, it seems no one c oul d be mor e h ap p y and mor e tr iump h ant
th an I am
; stil l , w h en I r ec eiv ed th e tel egr am announc ing th at
th e Gr eat R ev ol ution h ad tak en p l ac e and th e p eop l e h ad bec ome
master s of th eir destiny, I began to feel an enor mous r esp onsi-
T h e F ir st A l l - R ussian C ongr ess o f Peasants' Del egates

3 0 7
bil ity . I th ough t instantl y
: ` A r e w e r eady, ar e w e abl e not onl y
to ac c ep t th e R ev ol ution in its p r esent ex tent, but al so to br ing it to
a h ap p y end, to th e c omp l ete tr iump h deser v ed by th e R ussian p eop l e?'
You may tak e al l th e h ap p iness for your sel v es, your c h il dr en and
your gr andc h il dr en . .
You may tak e al l th e fr eedom, al l th e l and, al l
th e educ ation you need, w ith out sh edding a dr op of bl ood
. You
h av e sh ed enough of it dur ing th ese th r ee year s, you h av e suffer ed
enough to be r el iev ed fr om additional sac r ific es
. B ut, c itiz ens, an-
oth er sac r ific e w il l now be demanded of you,- th at of gr eat c onc en-
tr ation of your str ength and your attention to your c ountr y' s needs
.
How ev er , I h av e nev er doubted, and h av e no doubt at p r esent, but
th at as soon as th e p easantr y w il l enter th e p ol itic al ar ena, it w il l
sh ow its w il l , its w isdom, its p atienc e
. T h e v ic tor y w il l be dec isiv e . I
k now R ussia and my p eop l e, and eac h time w h en I r etur ned fr om
ex il e, I found th e p eop l e mor e and mor e dev el op ed, c onstantl y seek ing
imp r ov ement, seek ing an under standing of th eir ow n destiny and of
th e c ountr y' s futur e
. A nd at p r esent th e w or k of h al f a c entur y c on-
v inc es me mor e and mor e th at I am r igh t, and esp ec ial l y r igh t now
th er e is no p l ac e for doubt
. Going th r ough our Pr ov inc es I saw th at
th e p easants ar e in a nobl e state of mind
; th ey ar e c onsc ious of th eir
p ow er , but at th e same time th ey do not w ish to use th is p ow er for
ev il , w h eth er tow ar ds anybody el se or tow ar ds th emsel v es
. T h ey
ar e c ar eful , ec onomic al as al w ays
; th ey under stand th at it w oul d not
h e to anybody' s adv antage to r uin R ussia
; on th e c ontr ar y, th ey
k now it is nec essar y to tak e c ar e of al l h er r ic h es, al l h er p r op er ties,
in or der to imp r ov e th em al l and to p ass th em to th eir p oster ity in
imp r ov ed c ondition .
I am at ease to- day bec ause I see th at th e p easantr y h as tak en
a most enth usiastic and most ser ious p ar t in th e affair s of th e
w h ol e c ountr y .
A nd p l ease r emember , p easants, th at up on your
r etur n h ome you must not for get th ese national affair s
; th ey must
be in your memor y and in th e fiel d of your v ision, bec ause th e tow n-
sh ip ( v ol ost) is a dr op , and th e distr ic t a dr op , and th e Pr ov inc e is
a p ar t of a w h ol e
; th e w h ol e is a p ow er , w h ic h c an be destr oyed
or distur bed by no one fr om th e outside, as l ong as you w il l not
p er mit it . "
E . C . B r esh k o- B r esh k ov sk aya th en sp ok e on th e w ar
" N o sc h ool s ar e being buil t
; th e l and is not being til l ed as it sh oul d
h e ; al l affair s ar e negl ec ted
. Wh y? B ec ause w e h av e w ar on our
h ands
; and, th er efor e, tel l me, is th er e any adv antage to us in k eep ing
our fr ont on a w ar footing and in al l ow ing th e p eop l e to sit in
tr enc h es w ith th eir h ands fol ded and to die fr om fev er , sc ur v y and al l
sor ts of c ontagious diseases? I f our A r my h ad a r eal desir e to h el p
th e A l l ies, th e w ar w oul d be finish ed in one or tw o month s, but w e
ar e p r ol onging it by sitting w ith our h ands fol ded
.
3 0 8

T h e B ir th o f th e R ussian Democ r ac y
A nd w h at' s th e r esul t? We do not mov e ; th e w ar is being p r o-
tr ac ted in sp ite of us ; and th e Ger mans someh ow or oth er do not
ac c ep t th e p r offer ed h and, but p r ep ar e to figh t . M or eov er , our A l l ies
ar e figh ting, and w e c annot deser t th em
.
Hav e you th ough t in w h at situation R ussia w oul d find h er sel f
if sh e w er e for sak en by th e A l l ies, w h o ar e al l E ur op e, and if sh e
r emained w ith Wil h el m and C h ar l es? T h is is not to our adv antage ;
it is mor e adv antageous for us to be w ith th e F r enc h R ep ubl ic , w ith
th e A mer ic an R ep ubl ic , w ith th e fr eedom- l ov ing E ngl and, and c om-
p ar ativ el y better ev en w ith C h ina, w h ic h is al so a R ep ubl ic . F or th is
r eason ev en I , w h o c annot see our il l or w ounded sol dier s w ith out
fr igh t and h or r or , I stil l say, l et us r ath er str ain al l our for c es and
finish th is w ar , th an p r ol ong it endl essl y, and in th is w ay br ing
distr ess to R ussia, l ose th e fr iendsh ip of our A l l ies, and p ut th e w h ol e
w or l d in a ter r ibl e situation, bec ause th e neutr al c ountr ies ar e suf-
fer ing and ar e c l amor ing for th e w ar to end
.
N ow , I w ish to ask if any among th ose p r esent k now of a w ay of
ending th e w ar w ith out figh ting, and if any one tel l s me th at eith er
th r ough magic or th r ough some suc c essful maneuv er th e w ar c an be
ended w ith out figh ting, I sh al l bow to th e gr ound befor e h im . B ut
al l th e sol dier s, offic er s, w or k ingmen and p easants w h om I h av e
q uestioned h av e fail ed to disc l ose suc h a w ay ; on th e c ontr ar y, ev er y-
one under stands th at th is w ar c an end eith er in defeat or in v ic tor y
for us . Oh , it w oul d be a gr eat j oy, if th e enemy w er e w il l ing
to ex tend h is h and to us ; but th is is not th e c ase so far ; w e k now
onl y one th ing, namel y, . th at Wil h el m ex er ts th e most enor mous in-
fl uenc e in Ger many and C h ar l es in A ustr ia, and as l ong as th is is th e
c ase w e h av e no h op e for p eac e, and w e must figh t .
I adv ise you to tak e th e situation in your ow n h ands and to demand
th at w h ic h is nec essar y for th e p eop l e' s w el far e, and not th at w h ic h
is ur ged by indiv idual s p r omp ted by th eir p er sonal c onsider ations .
T h ink w h at is nec essar y for th e h ap p iness of R ussia, w h at is needed
for mak ing h er fr ee in or der th at al l th e p eop l e may w or k ex c l usiv el y
for th e c ountr y' s benefit .
Yes, ar e not 1 7 0 ,0 0 0 ,0 0 0 p eop l e w or th y of c onsider ation? T h ey
c annot al l be giv en up to p l ease Wil h el m and C h ar l es . I bow befor e
you and beg you al l assembl ed h er e, to tel l to al l R ussia th at it is
time at l ast to fr ee our h ands for w or k useful to th e w h ol e c ountr y
and not to h ang any mor e in susp ense, as w e h av e been for th e l ast
th r ee year s . " ( L oud ap p l ause, w h ic h tur ned into an ov ation
. )
A fter B r esh k o- B r esh k ov sk aya' s sp eec h , S
. S
. M asl ov , sp eak -
ing for th e Or ganiz ing C ommittee, p r op osed V.
M
. C h er nov ,
th e l eader of th e Par ty of S oc ial ists- R ev ol utionists, as S ec ond
T h e F ir st A l l - R ussian C ongr ess of Peasants' Del egates

3 0 9
Honor ar y C h air man of th e C ongr ess . C h er nov w as gr eeted
w ith an ov ation .
C h er nov ' s S p eec h
" C omr ades, th e p r esent moment is fr augh t w ith ex tr eme diffic ul ties,
for ol d R ussia, th e ol d r egime, h as l eft us an ex c eedingl y bur densome
h er itage : disr up tion in th e c ountr y' s ec onomic l ife, an emp ty tr eas-
ur y and a bur den of debts ; demor al iz ed sup p l y and tr ansp or tation
ser v ic e, w ith c h aos r eigning sup r eme, in al l for ms imaginabl e
. A l l
th is h as been l eft us w h il e w e w er e engaged in th e most tr ying w ar
of unp ar al l el ed magnitude .
M or eov er , c omr ades, w h en th e ol d or der fel l , it l eft th e entir e
c ountr y in a c omp l etel y disor ganiz ed state . T h e v ital for c es of th e
c ountr y, w h ic h w er e sup p osed to r ep l ac e th e ol d or der , w er e l eft en-
tir el y unor ganiz ed, for th e entir e p ol ic y of th e ol d or der c onsisted in
sp l itting up th ose for c es and c r ush ing th em . I ts onl y means of sal -
v ation w as not to al l ow th e c ountr y to unite, to k eep al l th e p eop l e
utter l y div ided in or der to for c ibl y fetter th em and h ol d th e entir e
c ountr y in subj ec tion .
Wh en th e ol d or der w as ov er th r ow n, w h en al l th at w as c on-
sider ed as h uman dust r ose in a w h ir l w ind of indignation and w r ath ,
and w h en th at v oid, w ith w h ic h th e ol d r egime w as tr ying to sur -
r ound itsel f by r ep el l ing al l th at w as sound, h ad c av ed in up on us,
th e fol l ow ing situation w as c r eated .
T h er e w as th e R ussia of th e bour geoisie, th e R ussia of th e Duma,
w h ic h w as c omp ar ativ el y w el l or ganiz ed, and th e R ussia of th e toil er s,
th e R ussia of th e dow ntr odden masses, w h o w er e entir el y disor gan-
iz ed, but w h o w er e figh ting in th e str eets, sh edding th eir bl ood, and
w h o final l y ov er th r ew th e ol d r egime . U nder suc h c onditions, th e
disor ganiz ed l abor er s of R ussia w er e unabl e to assume th e r esp on-
sibil ity for r eor ganiz ing R ussia, for th e for mation of a new gov er n-
ment . T h ey h ad to busy th emsel v es, fir st of al l , w ith anoth er stil l
mor e ur gent and fundamental p r obl em, th at of or ganiz ing th eir ow n
for c es
. T h is or ganiz ation h ad to be effec ted h ur r iedl y and r ap idl y,
and for th is task th er e w er e not enough ex p er ienc ed p eop l e among
th e l abor ing masses of R ussia .
I t w as, th er efor e, natur al th at th e toil er s of R ussia sh oul d, th r ough
th e r ev ol utionar y A r my, th r ough th e r ev ol utionar y p r ol etar iat of
Petr ogr ad, al l ow th e R ussian bour geoisie to c r eate a gov er nment of
its ow n and to establ ish th eir p ow er . T h ey al l ow ed th e bour geoisie
to do it, of c our se, not bec ause th ey r ec ogniz ed th is bour geoisie as a
new autoc r atic p ow er . T h e bour geoisie w as al l ow ed to assume
p ow er on c er tain ter ms w h ic h , in th e op inion of th e l abor er s, migh t
safeguar d th e c ause of th e l abor ing Democ r ac y until suc h time as th e
Democ r ac y w oul d or ganiz e itsel f and asser t its w il l in th e C onstituent
A ssembl y .
3 1 0

T h e B ir th of th e R ussian Democ r ac y
T h e or iginal intention of th e democ r atic l abor el ements w as to
w ait as l ong as p ossibl e for th e C onstituent A ssembl y, p r ep ar ing for
.
: t,
or ganiz ing th e p eop l e in or der th at th ey migh t ex p r ess th eir w il l
in th e C onstituent A ssembl y and dec ide w h o is to r ec onstr uc t R ussia,
w h o is tak e th e p ow er , and h ow th is p ow er is to be used
. B ut, c om-
r ades, th e R ussian bour geoisie h as fr om th e v er y beginning fel t th at
sh e is h ar dl y suffic ientl y str ong, and h ar dl y p ossesses enough p r estige
th r ough out R ussia to br ing h er Gov er nment enough sup p or t to
c op e w ith al l th e diffic ul ties c r eated and l eft by th e ol d r egime
.
F or , in or der to ov er c ome th ese diffic ul ties, it w oul d not be suffic ient
to r ep l ac e th e l ess c ap abl e M inister s by mor e c omp etent indiv idual s .
T h e sol ution of th ese p r obl ems r eq uir es th e c onc er ted effor t of th e
entir e p eop l e, th e c oop er ation of th e w h ol e nation
.
I t stands to r eason th at th e Gov er nment must h ead th e for w ar d
dr iv e, th e p r ogr essiv e mov ement of th e w h ol e c ountr y . T h e Gov er n-
ment must be not at th e footboar d of th e c h ar iot of N ew R ussia,
w h o h as p av ed for h er sel f a new p ath and w h o goes ev er onw ar d as
th e p eop l e p r ogr ess in th eir w or k of or ganiz ing . T h e Gov er nment
must not stand in th e r ear of th at c h ar iot, but r ath er in th e v er y fr ont,
and it is to th is task th at th e Gov er nment of th e bour geois c l asses
h as p r ov en itsel f uneq ual .
T h e R ussian bour geosie h as fel t th at sh e is not suffic ientl y str ong
to get al ong w ith out th e R ussian Democ r ac y . I n th e v er y beginning
sh e sol v ed th is q uestion by dec iding to for m at l east one l ink th at
w oul d unite th e R ussian bour geoisie w ith th e R ussian toil ing masses .
Our c omr ade, th e fir st S oc ial ist M inister , Ker ensk y, h as ac c omp l ish ed
th e tr ul y sup er h uman task of ser v ing as suc h a l ink , ac ting as th e
mouth p iec e, ex p r essing th e sp ir it of Democ r ac y, th e sp ir it of th e
w or k er s, th e sp ir it of th e p eop l e, th e sp ir it of th e r ev ol utionar y A r my .
T h e r est of th e M ember s of th e Gov er nment w er e r ep r esentativ es of
th e R ussian bour geoisie
.
A s ev ents dev el op ed, th e mor e ap p ar ent did it bec ome th at th e
gr ow th of th e p ow er of th e toil ing c l asses of R ussia, th e p r ogr ess of
or ganiz ation adv anc ed at a r ate w h ic h sur p assed th e ex p ec tations of
th e bour geoisie, as r ep r esented in th e ol d R ussian Duma
. A nd in
p r op or tion as th is gr ow th c ontinued, th e gul f betw een w h at th e c oun-
tr y w ish ed done and w h at th e Gov er nment found it p osibl e to do,
inc r eased, th e needs of th e situation gr ow ing mor e c omp l ic ated and
disp r op or tionate to th e p ossibil ities offer ed by bour geois R ussia
.
T h e Pr ov isional Gov er nment, tak ing notic e of th is, and desir ing to
p ossess ful l p ow er w h ic h w oul d enabl e it to sh oul der th e r esp onsibil ity,
is beginning to ap p l y to th e C ounc il of Wor k men' s and S ol dier s' Del e-
gates
. offer ing indiv idual member s M inister ial p or tfol ios, inv iting in-
div idual S oc ial ists to enter th e M inistr y, and to bec ome M ember s of
th e Gov er nment .
How did th e democ r atic l abor el ements r esp ond to th is? A s l ong
T h e F ir st A l l - R ussian C ongr ess o f Peasants' Del egates

3 1 1
as it w as p ossibl e, th ey answ er ed in th e negativ e, saying
: ` T h er e is
at p r esent so muc h w or k in c onnec tion w ith th e task of or ganiz ing
th e w or k ing masses and so l ittl e c ap ac ity as c omp ar ed w ith th e im-
mense r eq uir ements of th at w or k , th at w e do not w ish to giv e aw ay
ev en a p or tion of th is str ength befor e th e time c omes
. A s l ong as
it is p ossibl e, w e sh al l sup p or t you in so far as you ar e c ar r ying out
th e p r ogr am on w h ic h w e ar e agr eed, but w e c annot ac c ep t th ese
p ositions our sel v es . How ev er , w h en w e ar e p r op er l y or ganiz ed,
w h en w e feel suffic ientl y th e migh t of th e R ussian w or k ing c l ass, th e
r ev ol utionar y A r my and th e p easantr y, th en w e sh al l ac t oth er w ise.
T h en w e sh al l h av e someth ing to bac k us up , th en w e sh al l tak e p ar t
in th e Gov er nment, and assuming th e r esp onsibil ity, w il l at th e same
time p ut for w ar d suc h p ow er ful masses, summoning th em to our
aid in th e c ause of r ec onstr uc ting R ussia as a w h ol e, th at no diffic ul -
ties w il l fr igh ten us .
N ow , h ow ev er , th e q uestion th at w e ar e fac ing is not th at of
or ganiz ing th e l abor ing c l asses, but of r eor ganiz ing R ussia as a w h ol e,
R ussia w h ic h w as l eft in a p itiful c ondition, p r ac tic al l y in a state of
disr up tion and c h aos .
T h is w or k of r ec onstr uc tion c annot w ait, for it is a q uestion of
sav ing th e c ountr y, and th at is w h y I ask you, c omr ades, w h eth er
S oc ial ists ar e to assume th e p ow er and w h eth er th eir r ep r esentativ es
ar e to enter th e gov er nmental c ounc il s
.
T h is q uestion does not mean th at indiv idual s enj oying your c on-
fidenc e ar e to ac c ep t minister ial p or tfol ios
. T h at is a smal l matter
.
T h e q uestion goes fur th er , deep er and br oader
. I t means : ar e
you for th is dec ision to immediatel y tak e into your str ong h ands
th e matter of or ganiz ing R ussia' s l oc al affair s? A r e you r eady for
th is? Do you r eal iz e th e imp er ativ e need, th e ur gent nec essity
for buil ding up R ussia to suc h an ex tent th at ev en th ough you
w er e not suffic ientl y or ganiz ed, you w oul d say : ` Yes, w e ar e r eady
to stak e al l th e p ow er w e h av e, w e ar e w il l ing to p l ac e al l our for c es
at th e ser v ic e of th is c ause, th e c ause of or ganiz ing th e l oc al l ife
of our fr ee c ountr y on a national sc al e, of or ganiz ing th at inh er itanc e,
th at r uined estate w h ic h w as l eft by T z ar ism, th e h er itage w h ic h
w as th e famil y estate of th e R omanov s, and w h ic h is now our dear
bel ov ed c ountr y?' ( Outbur st of ap p l ause
. )
C omr ades! We must begin th is task , th is tr emendous under tak -
ing, w ith th e r eal iz ation of th ese duties w h ic h natur al l y dev ol v e up on
us . T h is gr eat task must not be p er for med in an easy- going manner ,
p er func tor il y, for th en it w oul d not be a gr eat task . We must bec ome
ful l y c onsc ious of th e fac t th at h er e our th ough ts and our sentiments
ar e going to be bl ended into one c ol l ec tiv e w il l to r ec onstr uc t R ussia,
th at w e must l eav e for our l oc al p osts, th er e to w or k for th e enl igh t-
enment of th ose for c es w h ic h w er e h er etofor e k ep t in dar k ness .
T h e c onsol idation of al l for c es is nec essar y . E v er y p easant, ev er y
3 1 2

T h e B ir th of th e R ussian Democ r ac y
v il l age, ev er y c ounty, must r emember th at th ey must p l ac e abov e
ev er yth ing el se, not th eir ow n inter ests, ev en th ough th eir inter ests
h av e l ong been negl ec ted, not th e inter ests of th e v il l age, c ounty,
distr ic t or p r ov inc e, but th e inter ests of th e entir e l abor ing c l ass ' of
R ussia, of th e entir e p easantr y, and final l y, of R ussia as a w h ol e, for
th e p easant p op ul ation and th e fac tor y w or k er s, th ese tw o el ements
for m th e ov er w h el ming maj or ity in th e c ountr y .
B esides th e agr ic ul tur al l abor er s and th e c ity l abor er s, th er e is
onl y th e non- l abor ing el ement, w h om th e l abor ing masses must as-
simil ate, tak e into th eir midst and tr ansfor m into br oth er l abor er s .
T h is c annot be done at onc e, but w e must star t immediatel y . T h at
is w h y, c omr ades, th is task must be th e c onc er n of al l of us . T h e c om-
mon inter ests must be p l ac ed abov e al l p r iv ate, al l l oc al inter ests .
We must now for ge and sh ap e th at c ommon w il l among th e toil ing
masses of R ussia . I f w e suc c eed in sh ap ing it, R ussia is sav ed, ev en
if w e w er e c onfr onted w ith diffic ul ties tw o or th r ee times gr eater
th an th ose w e ar e at p r esent fac ing
. I f our intentions ar e not suffi-
c ientl y fir m, to dev ote al l our str ength , our v er y soul and l ife to th is
c ause, to c onsec r ate al l , to' sac r ific e al l , if w e l ac k th is deter mination,
l et us r ath er not tal k at al l , but adj our n and set aside al l disc ussion
eith er of p ow er or r esp onsibil ity, as w el l as th e q uestion of th e r e-
c onstr uc tion of our l abor ing R ussia . ( A p p l ause . )
C omr ades! I n th us v iew ing th e p r obl em, w e h av e c onsider ed it
as th e most imp or tant task to c r eate suc h a gov er nment w h er e th e
r ep r esentativ es of th e democ r atic l abor el ements migh t be abl e to
suggest measur es on th eir ow n initiativ e, and intr oduc e th eir ow n
r esol uteness and dar ing, w h er e th ese q ual ities ar e nec essar y, and
fir mness w h er e it is imp er ativ e to be adamant to th e l ast . We c on-
sider ed th is an ur gent task . T h e most imp or tant q uestion befor e us
w as, of c our se, not th e q uestion of minister ial p or tfol ios- T h er e may
be a few mor e or l ess of th em, but th at is immater ial . I f w e, as . a
smal l gr oup , w il l r el y ev er mor e and mor e up on th e c ontinual l y gr ow -
ing l abor masses, th en th ose few p eop l e c omp osing th e gr oup w il l
gain c ol ossal p ow er , not bec ause of our p er sonal str ength ( for w h at
is our p er sonal str ength ! ) , th ey w il l be p ow er ful th r ough your and
our c ol l ec tiv e p ow er , th r ough th e or ganiz ed migh t of th e w or k ing
c l ass . ( A p p l ause . )
I n our estimation, th e most imp or tant, th e most ur gent, ar e
th e fol l ow ing th r ee fundamental task s of v ital signific anc e, stand-
ing for th in moder n R ussia : th e bur ning and p r essing inter ests of
l abor in th e c ities, a q uestion w h ic h c omes w ith in th e p r ov inc e of th e
M inistr y of L abor ; th e inter ests of th e agr ic ul tur al l abor er s, a q ues-
tion w ith w h ic h th e M inistr y of A gr ic ul tur e is c onfr onted ; and, fin-
al l y, th e c ommon inter ests of l abor , th e q uestion of sup p l ying R ussia
w ith al l th e nec essar ies of l ife . T h e q uestion of inc r easing th e manu-
fac tur e of ar tic l es p r oduc ed in R ussia at th e p r esent time, and seeing
T h e F ir st A l l - R ussian C ongr ess of Peasants' Del egates

3 1 3
to it th at th ey r eac h th e p l ac es w h er e th ey ar e needed, th at th ey be
distr ibuted th r ough out R ussia as fair l y as p ossibl e, is al so of w eigh t
.
N ow it is th ese th r ee task s, th e sol ution of th e agr ic ul tur al p r obl em,
th e p r obl em of th e c ity l abor er s, and th at of sup p l ying R ussia w ith
al l th e nec essar ies of l ife, w h ic h stand out as th e most imp or tant p r ob-
l ems
. T h ese ar e suc h diffic ul t p osts, inv ol v ing suc h r esp onsibil ity
and l abor , th at if th e democ r atic l abor el ements sh oul d r efuse to
sh oul der th is task , th ey w il l h av e fail ed to do th eir duty
.
T h e four th q uestion is th at of our A r my, w h ic h is bec oming better
or ganiz ed at th e bottom, w h ic h is founded on th e basis of democ r atic ,
r ev ol utionar y l abor p r inc ip l es
. T h e mov ement h av ing begun and
gained muc h h eadw ay in Petr ogr ad, w h ic h h as c ar r ied on its sh oul der s
th e entir e bur den of th e fir st dec isiv e enc ounter , h as gr ow n, sp r ead-
ing fr om sep ar ate p oints to th e entir e A r my at th e fr ont
.
B ut th is A r my of th e l abor er s, th is A l l - R ussian A r my of p easants
and w or k ingmen, th is A r my of R ussian sol dier s, h as, th r ough th e en-
deav or s of th e ol d r egime, for c entur ies been dr iv en al ong nar r ow
p ath s, not of fr ee democ r atic disc ip l ine, but th e disc ip l ine imp osed' by
th ose in c ommand
. I n th is r esp ec t th e ol d Gov er nment did ev er y-
th ing p ossibl e to estr ange th e offic er s fr om th e sol dier s and mak e th e
for mer str anger s to th e A r my
. T h e sol dier s, in tur n, bec ame an un-
k now n q uantity to th e offic er s
. T h e ol d Gov er nment asp ir ed, in suc h
manner , to manage th e A r my th r ough th e offic er s
. T h e autoc r ac y h as
l eft us, as an inh er itanc e, th is tw o- stor ied str uc tur e, of w h ic h th e l ow er
and th e up p er stor ies c an be c ombined onl y th r ough th e effor ts of
th e democ r atic l abor el ements, th r ough th eir r ep r esentativ es
. T h ey
al one c an destr oy th is p ar tition, and tr ansfor m th e A r my into a
w h ol e, moul ded into sh ap e by th e united w il l of R ussia
. A t th e
p r esent time th e c ountr y needs an A r my w ith one united ,v il l ; th is
c onc er ted w il l must be, in th e p r esent c r isis, th e r ev ol utionar y w il l
of th e l abor ing masses
.
I t is onl y w ith th e aid of suc h an A r my th at it is p ossibl e to
c ar r y on th at gr eat w or k in w h ic h w e ar e at p r esent engaged . T h is
is a tw o- fol d task . I t c onsists in standing fir ml y, as an ar med for c e,
in guar ding and defending th e c ause of th e R ev ol ution w h ic h suc -
c essful l y tr ansp ir ed in R ussia, in defending th e ac h iev ements of th e
R ussian R ev ol ution, and in standing fir m at our p osts, p r ep ar ed to
ac c ep t and to deal effec tiv e bl ow s w h enev er nec essar y .
T h at is w h y, fr om my p oint of v iew , th e fir st and main task , th at
of r eor ganiz ing th e A r my, th e system of l abor in th e c ities and
in th e r ur al distr ic ts, th e matter of sup p l ying R ussia w ith th e nec es-
sar ies of l ife- al l th ese fundamental but, w ith al , v er y diffic ul t r esp onsi-
bil ities must be assumed by us
. Wh en I say, by us, I do not mean
us indiv idual l y, but I h av e in mind al l industr ial l abor , th e p easants
and th e p r ol etar iat . ( A p p l ause . )
C omr ades, w e say th at th e test of our str ength in th e Pr ov isional
3 1 4

T h e B ir th of th e R ussian Democ r ac y
Gov er nment is noth ing el se but th e test of our str ength in th e c oun-
tr y
. T h e gr eater th e gr ow th of our str ength in th e c ountr y, th e gr eater
w il l be th e str ength of our r ep r esentativ es in th e Pr ov isional Gov er n-
ment . T h e mor e your w or k of or ganiz ing th e c ountr y dev el op s, th e
mor e w il l th e effor ts of th e S oc ial ist p or tion of th e Pr ov isional Gov -
er nment meet w ith suc c ess .
C omr ades, if you w il l now dec ide th at th e moment h as c ome to
star t th e w or k ,- for you in th e Pr ov inc es, for us in th e C ap ital s,-
if you dec ide th is, if you send us th er e, w e w il l r emain as l ong
as you stay at your p osts, and as l ong as you l et us r emain in
our p l ac es- if you dec ide al l th is, th en it w il l r emain for us to
r eal iz e th e imp er ativ e need, th e one h igh er dic tate of our c onsc ienc e,
to immediatel y c ommenc e w or k , and p ut al l th at th er e is best in our
soul s, in our minds, al l our v ital for c es into th is gr eat and sac r ed
c ause in w h ic h w e must eith er w in or p er ish w ith h onor
. " ( T h under -
ing ap p l ause . )
A t th e end of M . V. C h er nov ' s sp eec h , S . S . M asl ov mov ed
th at - er a N . F igner be el ec ted Honor ar y C h air man of th e
C ongr ess . T h e motion w as met w ith p r ol onged ap p l ause .
N . D . A v k sentiev , one of th e l eader s of th e Par ty of S oc ial ists-
R ev ol utionists and l ater M inister of I nter ior in Ker ensk y' s
C abinet, w as el ec ted C h air man of th e C ongr ess .
I n h is intr oduc tor y sp eec h , N
. D . A v k sentiev dec l ar ed th at
" th e ex tensiv e r igh ts r ec eiv ed by th e R ussian p eop l e p l ac e
up on th em h eav y r esp onsibil ities . I t is in th e inter est of fr ee-
dom th at th ese r esp onsibil ities be met as ful l y as p ossibl e
.
T h e p r inc ip al task of th e moment is th e str ength ening of fr ee-
dom and th e c onstr uc tiv e w or k in th e Gov er nment "
N . D . A v k sentiev announc ed th e p r esenc e in th e auditor ium
of th e F r enc h M inister , A l ber t T h omas, and of th e M inister
of A gr ic ul tur e, A . I . S h ingar iev . B oth of th em gr eeted th e
C ongr ess .
T
HE nex t day, M ay 1 8 , V . M . C h er nov addr essed th e
C ongr ess as th e new M inister of A gr ic ul tur e in th e
Pr ov isional Gov er nment .
C h er nov ' s S ec ond S p eec h
" I n th e v er y beginning," said V
. M . C h er nov , " R ussia doubted
w h eth er th e for m of gov er nment sel ec ted by it w oul d be suited to
ov er c ome al l th e diffic ul ties l eft by th e ol d r egime
.
N ow it is a q uestion of muster ing al l our for c es for ser v ic e, of
T h e F ir st A l l - R ussian C ongr ess of Peasants' Del egates

3 1 5
br inging or der into ev er y l oc al ity th r ough out th e c ountr y, th is r uined
estate, th e h er itage of th e T z ar ' s r egime, th e estate w h ic h w as th e
R omanov p atr imony and w h ic h is now our bel ov ed, dear F ath er l and
.
( T h under ing ap p l ause . )
I t is an enor mous p iec e of w or k and sh oul d be under tak en w ith
a k now l edge of al l our obl igations . Wh en ev er y p easant, ev er y
v il l age, ev er y v ol ost ( distr ic t) w il l r emember th at th ey sh oul d p l ac e
fir st not th eir ow n inter ests and not ev en th ose of th eir v il l age, v ol ost
( distr ic t) or c ounty, but th e inter ests of th e w h ol e p easantr y, th e
w h ol e w or k ing c l ass, and, final l y, th e inter ests of th e w h ol e of R ussia-
th en w e sh al l be ful l y suc c essful , and R ussia w il l be sav ed . "
V. M . C h er nov sp ok e fur th er on th e situation in th e A r my
" R ussia needs, at p r esent, an ar my w ith a united ir on w il l , and
th is w il l c an and sh oul d be onl y th at of th e r ev ol utionar y toil ing
c l asses . Onl y w ith an ar my of th is k ind c an an enor mous under tak ing
l ik e our s be c ar r ied on . T h is is a doubl e under tak ing : th at of defend-
ing and p r otec ting th e R ev ol ution, and of standing fir m, r eady to
r etur n to th e enemy bl ow for bl ow . We must not for get th at
R ussia is defending not onl y h er sel f, but al so al l of h umanity ; sh e
is defending th e idea of a dur abl e p eac e, and in th is sh e sh oul d h av e
th e c oop er ation of th e w or k er s of al l c ountr ies, ev en of th ose now
at w ar w ith us . " ( A p p l ause . )
T h e nex t sp eak er w as th e M inister of S up p l y . V. A . Pe-
sh ek h onov . Dur ing h is sp eec h , A . F . Ker ensk y ap p ear ed in
th e auditor ium
. T h e entir e assembl y r ose to gr eet h im . V. A .
Pesh ek h onov c ut sh or t h is sp eec h and gav e th e fl oor to
Ker ensk y . I nstantl y th er e w as absol ute sil enc e in th e audi-
tor itim .
Ker ensk y' s S p eec h
" C omr ades- p easants," began A . F
. Ker ensk y, " I h av e c ome h er e
to- day, at th e most beautiful but at th e same time most diffic ul t
moment of R ussia' s h istor y . I h av e c ome h er e as your M inister of
th e A r my and N av y . ( E nth usiastic ap p l ause . )
Our p ur p ose, th e p ur p ose of th e Pr ov isional Gov er nment
. is, in
c onfor mity w ith th e w il l of th e R ussian p eop l e and in c oop er ation
w ith th e R ussian p eop l e, to sav e ev er yth ing giv en us by th e R ev ol u-
tion- th e l and and fr eedom . ( T h under ing and p r ol onged ap p l ause
. )
Dur ing th e p er iod of th is gr eat R ev ol ution w e must r emember
th at w e ar e not al one, for w e h av e w ith us our ol d teac h er s
. Her e
th ey ar e
. ( Ker ensk y p ointed in th e dir ec tion of th e Pr esident and
th e offic er s . )
C omr ades, sol dier s, sail or s, offic er s! I c al l you to th e l ast
h er oic deed
. I am your most h umbl e ser v ant . S h ow th at th e R ussian
A r my is not a c r umbl ing str uc tur e, not a c ongl omer ation of p eop l e un-
3 1 6

T h e B ir th of th e R ussian Democ r ac y
w il l ing to do anyth ing, but an enor mous, th r eatening for c e w h ic h
w il l k now h ow to gain r esp ec t for itsel f and h ow to defend th e fr ee
R ussian Democ r atic R ep ubl ic
. S h ow th at R ussia is not a c ountr y of
autoc r atic adv entur er s, but a fr iendl y famil y of fr ee p eop l e w h o w il l
be abl e to defend th eir fr eedom and th eir r igh ts .
I w as nev er c onnec ted w ith th e mil itar y c ir c l es . I t w il l p er h ap s
seem str ange to many th at I , unfamil iar w ith mil itar y affair s, h av e
tak en up on mysel f th ese sp ec ial mil itar y p r obl ems, but I h av e under -
tak en th em and I h op e to c ar r y th em to a sol ution
.
I intend to establ ish an ir on disc ip l ine in th e A r my
; I am c er tain
I sh al l suc c eed in my under tak ing, bec ause it w il l be a disc ip l ine
based on duty tow ar ds th e c ountr y, th e duty of h onor
. I ts aim w il l
be to safeguar d th e r igh t of th e R ussian p eop l e to indep endenc e and
l iber ty at h ome .
B y al l means, w e must see th at th e c ountr y bec omes fr ee and
str ong enough to el ec t th e C onstituent A ssembl y, th e A ssembl y w h ic h ,
th r ough its sov er eign, absol ute p ow er , w il l giv e to th e R ussian toil ing
p easants th at for w h ic h th ey h av e been year ning for c entur ies, th e
l and .
I am c er tain th at th e C ounc il of th e R ussian l and- th e r ep r e-
sentativ es of th e toil ing p easantr y- w il l asser t th eir w il l and dec l ar e
th at th ey w ant no r ep etition of th e sad ev ents of 1 9 0 5 - 1 9 0 6 , w h en
th e entir e c ountr y seemed al r eady in our h ands, but sl ip p ed out
bec ause it bec ame inv ol v ed in anar c h y
. T h e r esul t of disc or d in our
c ountr y w as th at th e r ul ing c l asses gav e th emsel v es up to P . A .
S tol yp in, th e fur ious enemy of Democ r ac y
. Do not r ep eat th is bl un-
der
. B e c ar eful and do not tr ust to c h eap and ir r esp onsibl e sl ogans,
for th ey ar e l ik el y to dr ag you into an abyss
. T r ust th ose w h o h av e
al w ays been w ith you and in th e dar k year s of autoc r ac y w er e not
afr aid to tel l th e tr uth to th eir enemies
. I f th ose p eop l e ar e now
tel l ing you to w ait, th at means th at th ey w ant to giv e you al l , not to
l eav e you w ith a br ok en tr ough .
We ar e afr aid of no demagogues, w h eth er th ey c ome fr om th e
r igh t or fr om th e l eft . ( A p p l ause . ) Quietl y and fir ml y w e sh al l attend
to our business, w h ic h is th e business of th e w h ol e of fr ee R ussia
.
I intend to go to th e fr ont sh or tl y
. A l l ow me to tel l th ose w h o
ar e now in th e tr enc h es th at th e R ussian p easants w ant l and and
fr eedom and w il l giv e th em up to no one . L et me al so say th at
ev er yone must r emain th er e and p er for m h is duty to th e end. "
T h e c l ose of A . F . Ker ensk y' s sp eec h w as l ost in l oud, en-
th usiastic ap p l ause, w h ic h tur ned into a gr and ov ation .
T h e member s of th e C ongr ess l eft th eir seats and sur r ound-
ed th e p l atfor m . One of th e Del egates, a k nigh t of th e Or der
of S t . Geor ge, p ut an ar mc h air on th e p l atfor m and ask ed
T h e F ir st A l l - R ussian C ongr ess of Peasants' Del egates

3 1 7
A . F
. Ker ensk y to al l ow h imsel f to be r aised on th eir h ands .
T h is r eq uest th e sol dier fol l ow ed up w ith
: " You ar e our
l eader and w e sw ear to go w h er ev er you l ead us . "
One of th e outstanding moments in th e, session of th e
C ongr ess, on M ay 2 0 , w as th e r ep or t by Dr
. S mir nov , a
p h ysic ian, w h o h ad j ust r etur ned fr om th e Ger man p r ison
c amp
. Dr . S mir nov ' s r ep or t made a deep imp r ession up on
th e Peasants' Del egates .
Dr . S mir nov ' s S p eec h
" I c al l you now dear br oth er s," said Dr . S mir nov , " but for th ir ty
month s w h ic h I sp ent in suffer ing in th e Ger man w ar p r ison c amp s I
c oul d not say th at
. You al one c an defend us, you h av e th e str ength
and th e op p or tunity to imp r ov e th e situation of our unfor tunate w ar
p r isoner s . T h e suffer ings of our c omr ades ar e ter r ibl e
. A bout tw o
mil l ion of our p easants and w or k er s ar e in Ger man c ap tiv ity
; about
5 0 0 ,0 0 0 l ie in th e gr ound al r eady
; and if w e do not h el p th ose th at ar e
al iv e, w e p h ysic ians th ink th at onl y one- h al f of th ese tw o mil l ion w il l
r etur n to R ussia
. T h ey ar e ex h austed by ov er w or k and by h unger
;
th ey do not get enough br ead
.
T h ey ar e ex h austed by ov er w or k bec ause th ey ar e c omp el l ed to
w or k w ith out food, tw el v e, fifteen, tw enty- fiv e and th ir ty- six h our s
w ith out stop p ing, bec ause th eir str ength is dr aw n out of th em to th e
p oint of inex p r essibl e suffer ing
. I w or k ed in th e l abor battal ions
sh ifted fr om th e h ear t of Ger many to th e fr ont, w h er e th er e is
no c ontr ol ov er th e Ger man tr eatment of w ar p r isoner s, and I c an
say th at th e suffer ings of our sol dier s ar e gr eat
; th ey ar e being
beaten w ith stic k s and bayonets
; th ey ar e h ung on tr ees and c r uc ified
.
I f a p r isoner fal l s, ex h austed, h e is p l unged for sev er al h our s in c ol d
w ater in or der to r ev iv e h is str ength
; th en h e gets up and under
stic k s p ul l s togeth er th e r emnants of h is str ength and w or k s, bec ause
our av er age R ussian is used to gr eat ex er tion
. A nd w h en h e
again bec omes ex h austed and fal l s, th ey r esor t to oth er meth ods
.
T h ey r aise h im, p oint bayonets under h is nose and mak e h im stand
in th is w ay
. ( Voic es
: " S h ame! Kul tur beasts! " ) T h ey ar e c omp el l ed
to w or k for Ger many' s defense against R ussia and against our A l l ies
.
Wh en th e R ussian p r isoner bec omes c omp l etel y ex h austed h e is
br ough t to th e h osp ital , unabl e to say a w or d, al most dead
; after tw o
days th e p r isoner is dead .
Wh en w e w er e l eav ing, th e w ar p r isoner s said
: ` T el l th e p eop l e
in R ussia to giv e us br ead . ' T h ey al so said
: ` L et th em gath er a
for c e w h ic h w oul d defend and p r otec t us so th at
. w e c oul d r etur n
h ome in good h eal th
. ' T h is desir e bec ame p ar tic ul ar l y k een w h en w e
h ear d th at you w er e fr ee and th at a new or der h ad been establ ish ed
.
3 1 8

T h e B ir th of th e R ussian Democ r ac y
A fter a th ir ty month s' stay in th ose c el l ar s, w e h ear th at you ar e
at ease and in good h eal th , and to our r egr et you k now noth ing about
w h at is going on ov er th er e, among th e w ar p r isoner s
. I w ant you
to under stand th at ev er y time th er e w as a h eav y bl ow str uc k by our
sol dier s at th e fr ont, w e, w ar p r isoner s, fel t a c er tain r el ief, bec ause
th e Ger man c onsider s for c e onl y . ( E nth usiastic ap p l ause
. ) T h e
Ger man tak es into ac c ount th e bl ow onl y
. ( E nth usiastic ap p l ause . )
I w anted to see th e Ger man S oc ial ists, my br oth er s and c omr ades,
for I am a S oc ial ist mysel f, but l et me tel l you th at I made a mistak e
.
I tel l you, do not bel iev e, th er e is no fr ater nity ov er th er e yet
.
B r oth er s ar e th ose w h o w er e k ep t beh ind bar bed w ir e, th ose w h o
w er e in p r ison and l ik e L iebk nec h t, ar e stil l th er e . T h er e is no fr a-
ter nity so far in Ger many . ( Veh ement ap p l ause
. )
T h is is th e message and th e sor r ow ful r eq uest of your c omr ades
and th e gr eetings to you, fr ee p eop l e, fr om our sol dier s tor mented
in c ap tiv ity . " ( A p p l ause . )
A t th e session of M ay
2 3 , I . I . B unak ov , one
of th e l eader s
of th e Par ty of
S oc ial ists- R ev ol utionists, made a sp eec h , in
th e name
of th e p r esiding offic er s
of th e C ongr ess, w ith r egar d
to th e w ar . His
sp eec h , ex p r essing undoubtedl y th e sp ir it
of
th e entir e assembl y, w as enth usiastic al l y ap p l auded
. T h e
C ongr ess dec ided to p r int h is sp eec h in mil l ions of c op ies for
distr ibution in th e A r my .
A simil ar dec ision w as ar r iv ed at
in r egar d to Ker ensk y' s sp eec h .
B unak ov ' s S p eec h
" T h e w ar is h anging ov er us l ik e a c l oud," began I
. I . B unak ov .
" Op en any book of h istor y, and, if you tur n al l its l eav es, you w il l
find no dar k er p ages th an th ose of th e h istor y of our th r ee- year w ar
.
I n tw o year s about four and one- h al f mil l ion men w er e l ost, el ev en
mil l ion w ounded
; of th ese, th r ee and one- h al f mil l ion bec ame c r ip p l es
and inv al ids
; and al l , th e fl ow er of h umanity, its young, l ife- giv ing
for c es! A l l th e E ur op ean w ar s c ombined th at w er e fough t be-
tw een 1 7 9 0 and 1 9 1 4 did not tak e suc h a number of h uman v ic tims as
th is c ur sed w ar . L ook at th e map
; it is al l c ov er ed w ith bl ood ; ev en
th e few c ountr ies w h ic h h av e not been dr aw n into th e w h ir l p ool of
th e w ar ar e al so submer ged in bl ood . I dr aw th ese p ic tur es not for
th e p ur p ose of fr igh tening you . N o w ar is adv antageous to th e
w or k er s, and w e must ex er t al l our effor ts to stop it . I f th e toil ing
masses do not w ant to dr ow n in a sea of bl ood, th ey must stop th e
w ar . ( L oud ap p l ause . )
Our p r esent M inister of Post and T el egr ap h , T ser etel l i, under
th e ol d or der , w as a c onv ic t, sentenc ed to h ar d l abor and dep r iv ed
of al l c iv il and p ol itic al r igh ts ; th e p r esent M inister of A gr ic ul tur e,
T h e F ir st A l l - R ussian C ongr ess o f Peasants' Del egates

3 1 9
C h er nov , sp ent ten year s in ex il e
. N ot l ong ago v iol enc e and l aw -
l essness r eigned in R ussia ; national disc or d, sc affol ds and ex ec u-
tions w er e ex c eedingl y c ommon . N o oth er c ountr y in th e w or l d
mar c h es under th e banner of S oc ial ism, but R ussia, th e most
bac k w ar d of th em, w av es th e r ed banner befor e th e w h ol e w or l d . C an
th is mar c h tak e p l ac e simul taneousl y w ith th e w ar ? T h e figh t be-
tw een th e fir e of th e R ussian R ev ol ution and th e ic y str eam of th e
w ar is p r ec isel y our Democ r ac y' s figh t
. T h e w h ol e R ussian R ev ol u-
tion is ex p l ained by th e v ar ious stages of th e figh t for p eac e, figh t
against w ar . A t p r esent th er e ar e S oc ial ists in th e R ussian Gov er n-
ment, th ey ar e in a minor ity, but th ey ar e bac k ed by our sup p or t
and infl uenc e and by th at of th e A l l - R ussian C ounc il of Wor k men' s
and S ol dier s' Del egates . R igh t now your dec isiv e w or d is being
aw aited
. I c an say befor eh and th at th e R ussian p easantr y w il l not
r emain beh ind th e p r ol etar iat, but, h av ing c ombined w ith it, w il l figh t
for p eac e and w il l fol l ow th e c our se tak en by th e C ounc il of Wor k -
men' s and S ol dier s' Del egates
.
I suggest th at th e A l l - R ussian C ongr ess of Peasants' Del egates
issue an ap p eal to th e p easantr y th e w or l d ov er , and state th at th e
p easants go h and in h and w ith th e w or k er s and sol dier s, th at th ey
ar e figh ting for th e l and and th at th ey summon to th is figh t th e
toil ing p easants th e w or l d ov er . We must al so state th at w e w ant
p eac e
. not p eac e at any p r ic e, but a j ust and dur abl e p eac e . We w ant
a p eac e w ith out annex ations or indemnities
. "
I n ex p l aining th e meaning of th ese w or ds, I
. I . B unak ov
p ointed out th e need of insisting up on th e r estor ation of
S er bia and B el gium .
" We must al so demand," c ontinued B unak ov , " th at r uined Pol and
be united, ac c or ding to h er p eop l e' s w ish
; th at th e p eop l e of A l sac e-
L or r aine be p er mitted to fr eel y state w h eth er th ey w ish to r emain
w ith Ger many or to j oin F r anc e, and th at indep endenc e be giv en to
A r menia
. B ut h ow sh al l w e obtain a j ust p eac e? I must admit th at
th er e is one w ay of obtaining an ear l y p eac e, and th at is- a sep ar ate
p eac e . ( Voic es :
" N o! " )
B ut suc h a p eac e is unac c ep tabl e to p easants . A sep ar ate p eac e w oul d
k il l not onl y our R ev ol ution, but th e c ause of th e soc ial r ev ol ution th e
w or l d ov er
. A sep ar ate p eac e is dish onor for R ussia and tr eason to-
w ar ds th e A l l ies
. T h er efor e, sinc e w e c annot c onc l ude a sep ar ate
p eac e
. onl y one th ing is l eft, and th at is- to c ontinue th e w ar
. We
must star t an offensiv e
. T o r emain in th e tr enc h es w ith out mov ing is a
sep ar ate tr uc e, mor e sh ameful ev en th an a sep ar ate p eac e
. A sep -
ar ate tr uc e demor al iz es th e A r my and r uins th e p eop l e
. T h is sp r ing,
ac c or ding to our agr eement w ith th e A l l ies, w e sh oul d h av e begun a
gener al offensiv e, but instead of th at w e c onc l uded a sep ar ate tr uc e
.
T h e A l l ies sav ed th e R ussian R ev ol ution, but th ey ar e bec oming ex -
3 2 0

T h e B ir th of th e R ussian Democ r ac y
h austed ; th e Ger mans, h ow ev er , ar e tr ansfer r ing th eir tr oop s fr om
th e E aster n to th e Wester n fr ont . T h is state of a sep ar ate tr uc e,
in w h ic h our A r my is at p r esent r esting, c annot c ontinue . T h is w il l
r uin th e R ev ol ution ; some N ap ol eon w il l ap p ear and establ ish a dic -
tator sh ip .
C omr ades! We ar e on th e th r esh ol d of a democ r atic r ep ubl ic .
We ar e near th e p ossession of our l and . B ut, if w e al l ow Ger many
to ov er c ome th e A l l ies, sh e w il l th r ow h er sel f on us, after sh e is
th r ough w ith th e A l l ies and w il l c r ush our fr eedom . L et th e A r my
and th e p easants be at ease about th e l and, bec ause at th e h ead
of th e M inistr y of A gr ic ul tur e is a S oc ial ist, C h er nov , w h o w il l giv e
to no one el se th e l and bel onging to th e toil ing p eop l e, w h o w il l
not p er mit anybody to ap p r op r iate th e l and befor e th e w ar is ov er .
T h er efor e, w h en our M inister of War , Ker ensk y, sp eak s of star ting
an offensiv e, th e R ussian A r my must sup p or t h im w ith al l its str ength ,
w ith al l th e means av ail abl e . A l l our insp ir ation, al l our w il l w e must
p ut into an ap p eal for an offensiv e
. F r om h er e w e sh oul d send our
del egates to th e fr ont, and ur ge our A r my to w age an offensiv e .
L et th e A r my k now th at it must figh t and die for R ussia' s fr eedom,
for th e p eac e of th e w h ol e w or l d and for th e c oming S oc ial ist c om-
monw eal th .
A
T th e session of M ay 2 5 , th e A ssistant M inister of War ,
C ol onel Jak ubov ic h , made th e fol l ow ing sp eec h , ex -
p l aining th e situation in th e R ussian A r my and th e
p oint of v iew of th e Pr ov isional Gov er nment r egar ding th e
mil itar y op er ations .
C ol . Jak ubov ic h ' s S p eec h
" I c ame h er e," said C ol . Jak ubov ic h , " to ex p l ain w h at th e Pr o-
v isional Gov er nment under stands by th e w or d ` offensiv e
. ' I t r e-
nounc es al l seiz ur es and indemnities
. T o do so, but at th e same
time not star t an offensiv e, means to r uin th e R ussian R ev ol ution and
to inj ur e th e c ause of fr eedom th e w or l d ov er .
Our op p onents h av e a v er y p oor op inion of th e R ussian A r my
and th ey ar e c er tain th at th e A r my is disor ganiz ed and inc ap abl e of
an offensiv e . T h e M inister of War is w el l p osted on w h at tr ansp ir es
in th e enemy' s c amp
. T h ey tr ansfer r ed not onl y men, but ev en
c annons . Wh at w il l be th e r esul t of th is? We must under stand th at
if th e A l l ies w il l be c r ush ed, Ger many w il l not fail to tak e adv antage
of us al so . T h er efor e, th e onl y w ay of h el p ing th e A l l ies is an
offensiv e .
A noth er q uestion is h ow - to star t th e offensiv e . We c an star t it
onl y w h en th e A r my w il l be w el l eq uip p ed and mov ed by a str ong,
w h ol esome w ar sp ir it .
T h e F ir st A l l - R ussian C ongr ess of Peasants' Del egates

3 2 1
A s r egar ds ammunition, th e R ussian A r my is w el l sup p l ied
. I n
th e th r ee year s of th e w ar th e R ussian A r my nev er h ad as muc h
ammunition as it h as now . We h av e an amp l e sup p l y for th e nex t
six month s, if not l onger
; w e h av e so muc h of it th at th e M inistr y
of War h as dec ided to stop th e manufac tur e of munitions in many
fac tor ies in or der to al l ow th e p r ep ar ation of agr ic ul tur al mac h ines
to meet th e demand of th e far mer s . We h av e enough c annons, l ar ge
q uantities of mac h ine- guns, and mor e th an enough sh el l s and oth er
ar tic l es nec essar y for th e w ar .
E sp ec ial l y gr eat is th e suffer ing at th e fr ont, due to l ac k of
food sup p l ies
. N umer ous c ases of sc ur v y h av e oc c ur r ed bec ause of
under feeding . T h er e is no fodder . I t is enough to say th at in many
p l ac es th e h or ses r ec eiv e one . p ound of oats a day . Onl y th e gr ass
on th e gr ound w il l p er h ap s p ar tl y sav e th e h or ses . How sh al l w e
av er t h unger in th e futur e? T h e onl y w ay is to br ing sup p l ies fr om
th e r ear . T h e Gov er nment of fr ee R ussia c annot r esor t to th e
measur es of th e ol d r egime, and th er efor e th e Gov er nment c onsider s
it its duty to demand your h el p . A l one it is h el p l ess, and fr om you,
c itiz ens, it demands th at you p er suade th e p easants to sup p l y th e
R ussian A r my w ith br ead and fodder .
T h e c ondition of th e tr ansp or tation system is stil l w or se
. Our
sol dier - c omr ades ar e using th e r ail r oads in a mer c il ess w ay . You
k now w h at disor der s ar e now tak ing p l ac e on th e r ail r oad stations
.
With r ifl e, in th eir h ands th e sol dier s c omp el th e station master s
to giv e th em fast tr ains . T h er e w as a c ase on one r ail r oad w h er e
sol dier s th emsel v es disp atc h ed a tr ain on tr ac k s on w h ic h anoth er
tr ain w as ap p r oac h ing
. Painful as it is, I must say th at w e r ec eiv e
dail y h undr eds of tel egr ams c omp l aining of sh oc k ing inc idents . On
sev er al oc c asions tr ain master s and r ail r oad emp l oyees w er e th r ow n
out of c ar w indow s w h il e th e tr ain w as in motion . Onl y yester day
th e Pr ov isional Gov er nment dec ided to establ ish sp ec ial c our ts on
r ail r oads and to p ut at th eir disp osal ar med mil itar y detac h ments
.
Per h ap s in th is w ay w e sh al l be abl e to p ut an end to th ese out-
r ages
. B ut h er e again your sup p or t and your auth or itativ e v oic e
ar e nec essar y .
F inal l y, for an offensiv e, figh ter s ar e needed, for th e A r my h as
bec ome smal l er in siz e, its r ank s h av e th inned ; and no offensiv e c an
be under tak en w ith a r educ ed ar my .
I must state th at at th e fr ont in some c omp anies th at for mer l y
c ontained 2 5 0 men, th er e ar e now sev enty and in some onl y for ty l eft .
With suc h c omp anies, as you your sel v es under stand, no offensiv e
c an be under tak en .
A t th e same time th er e is an abundanc e of man- p ow er in R us-
sia
. You k now h ow fr eq uentl y deser tions oc c ur in th e A r my ; but
th e Pr ov isional Gov er nment is h el p l ess against th em
. E ner getic
measur es ar e nec essar y bec ause ap p eal s al one c an ac c omp l ish noth ing
.
3 2 2

T h e B ir th of th e R ussian Democ r ac y
A nd th e Pr ov isional
Gov er nment demands your assistanc e
in its
str uggl e w ith deser tion
. You must find measur es w h ic h w il l touc h
th e deser ter s in th eir most sensitiv e sp ots . T el l us h ow to p ut an
end to th is dr eadful ev il and in our tur n w e sh al l h el p you in w h at-
ev er w ay p ossibl e .
Deser tion is an oc c ur r enc e w h ic h w e c annot h el p notic ing . I c an
giv e you no ex ac t figur es r igh t now , but th e number of deser ter s
amounts to sev er al mil l ions . A side fr om th e op en deser ter s among
offic er s and sol dier s, th er e ar e al so about a mil l ion unr ec ogniz ed
deser ter s .
T h ey h ide th emsel v es under v ar ious p r etex ts . ( S h outs :
" Disgr ac e! Disgr ac e! " )
T h is outr age c annot be br ough t to an end
. T h er e ar e in th e
r ear both sol dier s and offic er s w h o h av e intr enc h ed th emsel v es
. I
must tel l you th at yester day I demanded a l ist of al l offic er s in th e
r ear ; and al l th ose absent fr om th e fr ont w il l be sent bac k in th e
nex t few days . I n gener al , th e War M inistr y w il l be abl e to h andl e
th e situation suc c essful l y .
Wh at sh oul d be done w ith th e sol dier s intr enc h ed in th e r ear ?
T h ey ar e beh ind a doubl e l ine of tr enc h es and th e War M inistr y
c annot get h ol d of th em w ith out your sup p or t and aid .
I must c al l your attention al so to anoth er abnor mal c ir c umstanc e .
A t p r esent al l defend th emsel v es by gener al ities, th eir fav or ite ar gu-
ment being th at of p er sonal l iber ty . A s a r esul t of th is w e h av e
sol dier s w h o, al th ough c al l ed in 1 9 1 4 , w er e nev er in th e tr enc h es .
T h ey sp eak w el l : for th is r eason th ey suc c eeded in being el ec ted to
ex ec utiv e c ommittees and to c ommissions of v ar ious mil itar y and
soc ial or ganiz ations
. A nd th er e, under th e c l oak of fr eedom, th ey
h av e ar r anged th eir affair s to th eir satisfac tion . I s it imp ossibl e to
send to th ose c ommittees eq ual l y c ap abl e sol dier s w h o w er e al r eady
in th e tr enc h es and h ad a taste of p ow der ?
F r om ev er yw h er e w e r ec eiv e tel egr ams th at men ar e missing.
Del egates c ome dail y to th e M inistr y of War and demand th at sol -
dier s be sent . B ut w h at is th e r esul t? Out of a th ousand men sent
to th e Wester n fr ont onl y 1 5 0 to 2 5 0 get th er e . A nd I ask w h at c an
th e Gov er nment do w ith out you to p ut an end to th is outr age? Oth er
disgr ac eful inc idents tak e p l ac e
. A c omp any sent to th e fr ont made
a demand l ik e th is, at one of th e r ail r oad stations
: ` T ak e us th e w ay
w e w ant to go, and not w h er e you ar e sending us
. ' T h eir w ay w as
th r ough M insk , but th ey demanded to be sent th r ough Kiev
.
You see w h at is going on in th e A r my
. I am not p r esc r ibing any
r emedy for th is inc r edibl e ev il . Your w isdom w il l tel l you w h at
must be done ; and th e M inistr y of War aw aits th e v oic e of th e r ep r e-
sentativ es of th e fr ee l and, th e v oic e of th e p easantr y
. "
T h e F ir st A l l - R ussian C ongr ess of Peasants' Del egates
3 2 3
T
HE main
r esol ution adop ted by th e C ongr ess deal t
w ith th e agr ar ian p r obl em .
Ov er one th ousand Del e-
gates p ar tic ip ated in th e v oting .
T w o Del egates v oted
against it . T h e r esol ution fol l ow s
" T h e A l l - R ussian C ongr ess of Peasants' Del egates announc es to
th e entir e R ussian p easantr y th at h enc efor th not onl y th e final sol u-
tion of th e agr ar ian p r obl em in th e C onstituent A ssembl y, but al so
al l th e p r ep ar ator y w or k to be done by th e l oc al and c entr al L and
C ommissions p asses into th e h ands of th e w or k ing p eop l e th em-
sel v es . F or th is r eason th e fir st, most imp or tant and most r esp on-
sibl e task of th e mor e p r ogr essiv e p ar t of th e p easantr y is th e or gan-
iz ation of el ec tions to th e v ol ost and distr ic t Z emstv os and th e estab-
l ish ment of L and C ommissions in c onnec tion w ith th ese Z emstv os
.
T h e w or k . of th ese C ommissions in th e p r ep ar ation of l and r efor ms is
to be based on th e fol l ow ing p r inc ip l es
: th e tr ansfer of al l l ands
now bel onging to th e S tate, monaster ies, c h ur c h es and p r iv ate p er sons
into th e p ossession of th e nation, for eq uitabl e and fr ee use by agr i-
c ul tur al w or k er s .
F ir ml y bel iev ing in th e gr ow ing str ength , or ganiz ation and in-
tel l igenc e of th e toil ing p easantr y, th e A l l - R ussian C ongr ess of
Peasants' Del egates is deep l y c onv inc ed th at p r iv ate ow ner sh ip of
l and w ith its for ests, w ater p ow er and miner al r esour c es w il l be
abol ish ed by th e C onstituent A ssembl y, w h ic h w il l establ ish a funda-
mental l aw as r egar ds th e l and, th e c onditions of its tr ansfer to th e
w or k er s and its distr ibution for use .
T h e A l l - R ussian C ongr ess of Peasants' Del egates is al so c on-
v inc ed th at in al l L and C ommissions fr om th at of th e v ol ost to th e
c entr al or N ational C ommission, th e w or k ing p easantr y, tak ing adv an-
tage of th e el ec tiv e system, w il l see to it th at al l th e p r ep ar ator y
w or k for th e agr ar ian r efor m be c ar r ied out w ith th e obj ec t of
emanc ip ating th e l and fr om th e bonds of p r iv ate p r op er ty, w ith out
any c omp ensation to th e for mer ow ner s .
T h e A l l - R ussian C ongr ess of Peasants' Del egates ex p ec ts th e
Pr ov isional Gov er nment to assist, as far as p ossibl e, in th e fr ee ex -
p r ession of th e w or k ing p eop l e' s op inion on th e imp or tant p r obl em
of r eor ganiz ation now c onfr onting R ussia, and to p r ev ent al l at-
temp ts at inter fer enc e w ith th is w or k by p er sons w h o p ut th eir p er -
sonal and p ar ty inter ests abov e th ose of th e c ountr y .
T h e A l l - R ussian C ongr ess of Peasants' Del egates ur ges th e Pr o-
v isional Gov er nment to issue an absol utel y c l ear and uneq uiv oc al
statement w h ic h w oul d sh ow th at on th is q uestion th e Pr ov isional
Gov er nment w il l al l ow nobody to op p ose th e p eop l e' s w il l .
T h e A l l - R ussian C ongr ess of Peasants' Del egates h as dec ided :
( 1 ) T h e nec essity of settl ing th e food sup p l y c r isis and of a
suc c essful str uggl e w ith th e ec onomic disor der th r ough out th e c oun-
3 2 4

T h e B ir th of th e R ussian Democ r ac y
tr y, in th is h our of an op p r essiv e and ex h austing w or l d w ar , imp er a-
tiv el y demand th at al l p r iv ate and p ar ty inter ests yiel d to th e h igh er
inter ests of th e w h ol e p eop l e and th e S tate
.
( 2 )
I n v iew of th is, al l l and, w ith out ex c ep tion, must be giv en
ov er to th e c ontr ol of th e L and C ommissions
; and th ey sh oul d w or k
out r egul ations for c ul tiv ation, sow ing, h ar v esting, h ay gath er ing, etc
.
( 3 )
B ec ause of th e dr afting for w ar ser v ic e of an enor mous num-
ber of w or k er s and th eir ex tr eme sc ar c ity in th e h ar v est season, it is
nec essar y th at al l abl e- bodied w or k er s be p ut at th e disp osal of th e
abov e L and C ommittees and be distr ibuted not to th e adv antage of
indiv idual s, but in th e inter ests of al l th e toil ing p op ul ation
.
( 4 )
I n v iew , p ar tl y of th e l ac k and p ar tl y of th e w or n- out c on-
dition of th e agr ic ul tur al mac h iner y, th e most ener getic measur es ar e
nec essar y for th e r eq uisitioning and p utting to use, on a c oop er ativ e
basis, of al l agr ic ul tur al mac h ines av ail abl e in R ussia and for th e
c al l ing of men famil iar w ith th eir use . A l so in v iew of th e number
of p easants' h or ses r eq uisitioned and th e ex tr eme sc ar c ity of l iv e
far m stoc k , it is nec essar y to util iz e th e l iv e stoc k to be found out-
side of far ms .
( 5 ) Hay gath er ing, h ar v esting, stor ing of gr ain, fish ing, h ' r ep ar a-
tion of timber , fir e- w ood and oth er mater ial s der iv ed fr om for ests
must be p ut under th e c ontr ol of th e L and C ommissions or oth er
gov er nmental or ganiz ations, in or der to p r ev ent indiv idual h oar ding
of th e gr eatl y needed sup p l ies or p l under ing th e natur al r esour c es
of th e l and .
( 6 ) T h e fix ing of ter ms for l easing l and, and of th e meth od
of p aying th er eunder , al so th e fix ing of w ages for agr ic ul tur al
w or k er s and simil ar q uestions must be giv en ov er entir el y to th e
l oc al L and C ommissions
. I n disp uted c ases, th e r ent is to be k ep t
in th e l oc al S tate tr easur y .
( 7 )
U ntil th e intr oduc tion of national r efor ms, th e l oc al L and
C ommissions sh al l be al l ow ed c omp l ete fr eedom of initiativ e and
ac tiv ity ; for th is p ur p ose al l r estr aining c ontr ol on th e p ar t of p r o-
v inc ial and distr ic t c ommissar ies must be el iminated, p ar tic ul ar l y one-
sided sel ec tion of th eir staffs fr om among th e l and- ow ning c l ass
.
( 8 ) F or th e p ur p ose of c onser v ing intac t th e l and, and al l p r op -
er ties bel onging th er eto, a str ic t, inc ontr ov er tibl e or der is nec essar y,
p r oh ibiting, until th e c onv oc ation of th e C onstituent A ssembl y, al l
buying, sel l ing, mor tgaging and inh er iting of l and ; th is or der to be
enfor c ed by th e L and C ommissions .
T h e A l l - R ussian C ongr ess of Peasants' Del egates c onsider s th at
onl y under suc h c onditions is th e c r eation of a new agr ar ian or der
p ossibl e, an or der w h ic h w oul d be w or th y of fr ee R ussia, and
w h ic h w oul d unite into one fr ater nal famil y, under one national r oof,
al l toil er s of th e l and, w ith out distinc tion of national ity, r el igion or
c l ass- th e inh abitant of gr eat R ussia and th e inh abitant of th e
T h e F ir st A l l - R ussian C ongr ess of Peasants' Del egates 3 2 5
U k r aine, th e C h r istian and th e M oh ammedan, th e p easant and th e
C ossac k , th e nativ e R ussian and th e member of a for eign tr ibe ; eac h
of th em w il l feel th e benefic ial c onseq uenc es of th e gr eat r efor m and
w il l bl ess it .
R ec ogniz ing th is, th e A l l - R ussian C ongr ess of Peasants' Dep uties
inv ites th e w h ol e p easantr y to c al m, but deter mined and steadfast
w or k for th e r eal iz ation, in a l egal manner , of th ose fond h op es of th e
toil ing far mer w h ic h l ong sinc e h av e been ex p r essed in th e sl ogan
dear to eac h p easant, ' L and and F r eedom . " '
T h e C ongr ess dec ided in fav or of th e fol l ow ing sp ec ial
ap p eal to th e p op ul ation
" T h e A l l - R ussian C ongr ess of Peasants' Del egates ap p eal s to th e
p easants and th e w h ol e w age- ear ning p op ul ation of R ussia to v ote, at
th e el ec tions to th e C onstituent A ssembl y, onl y for th ose c andidates
w h o p l edge th emsel v es to adv oc ate th e national iz ation of th e l and
w ith out r eimbur sement and on p r inc ip l es of eq ual ity . "
A t th e end of its sittings th e C ongr ess el ec ted an E x ec utiv e
C ommittee . T h e fol l ow ing w er e el ec ted
V. M
. C h er nov , by 8 1 0 v otes
; E k ater ina C onstantinov na
B r esh k o- B r esh k ov sk aya, 8 0 9 ; A . F . Ker ensk y, 8 0 4 ; N . D .
A v k sentiev , 7 9 9
; I . I . B unak ov , 7 9 0
; I
. A
. R ubanov sk y, 7 7 8 ;
V. N . F igner , 7 7 6 ; P . V. Vik h l iaev , 7 7 0 ; N . N . S ok ol ov , 7 6 9 ;
N . A
. B ik h ov sk y, 7 6 9 ; N . D . Kondr atiev , 7 5 8
; S . S . M asl ov ,
7 4 5 ; M . V . Vish niak , 7 3 6 ; S . L . M asl ov , 7 3 0 ; V. A . Kil c h ev sk i,
7 2 9 ; V. K . Vol sk i, 7 2 6 ; G . Pok r ov sk y, 7 1 8 ; V. A . Gur ev ic h ,
7 1 0 ; N
. V. T c h ayk ov sk y, 7 0 8 ; G . A . M ar tiush in, 7 0 6 ; A
. P .
Gotz , 6 9 3 ; I . E
. Piyanik h , 6 8 8 ; M
. E . B er ez in, 6 8 2 ; N . P .
Oganov sk y, 6 7 6 ; V. I . Dz iubinsk i, 6 7 5 ; V. A . M iak stin, 6 5 0 ;
V. M . N ik itin, 6 2 2 ; P . A . S or ok in, 5 2 7 ; A . E . T esl ia, 4 9 7 , and
I . P . Pasek h ny, 4 2 3 .
A mong th e c andidates defeated in th e el ec tion w er e
:
A
. V.
Pesh ek h onov , 2 1 ; L enine, 2 0 ; S k obel ev , 1 5
; G
. V
. Pl ek h anov ,
1 4 ; M ar ia S p ir idonov a, 7 ; T ser etel l i, 6 ; M . Gor k y, 8 ; P . V.
I v anov - R asumnik , 2 0 ; P . A . Kr op otk in, 3 0 5 , and oth er s .
A c c or ding to p ar ty affil iation, th e Del egates w er e distr ib-
uted as fol l ow s : S oc ial ists- R ev ol utionists, 5 3 7
; S oc ial - Demo-
c r ats, 1 0 3 ; N on- Par tisan, 1 3 6 ; Peop l e' s S oc ial ists, 4
; L abor
Gr oup , 6 .
3 2 6

T h e B ir th o f th e R ussian Democ r ac y
N . D . A v k sentiev w as unanimousl y el ec ted C h air man of th e
E x ec utiv e C ommittee of th e A l l - R ussian C ongr ess of Pea-
sants' Del egates, and G . A . M ar tiush in, and I
. I
. B unak ov
( F undaminsk i) - Vic e- C h air men
.
C HA PT E R VI I
T h e M iddl e C l ass in its R el ation to th e War and to th e
R ec onstr uc tion of R ussia
T
HI L E th e w or k ingmen, th e sol dier s and th e p easants
V
\` did not l ose time in or ganiz ing th eir for c es and ex -
p r essing th eir v iew s, th e middl e c l ass h ad or ganiz ed
its ow n c onv entions, and th e same fundamental p r obl ems in
R ussia' s l ife w er e being disc ussed th er e, fr om anoth er angl e
.
T h e body w h ic h best ex p r essed th e sentiments of th e R ussian
middl e c l ass, at th at moment of th e R ussian R ev ol ution, w as
th e Duma, w h ic h fr om time to time h el d its p r iv ate sessions,
under th e l eader sh ip of M
. V. R odz iank o . T h e sentiments of
th e r ep r esentativ es of th e middl e c l ass in th e A r my w er e ex -
p r essed at th e A l l - R ussian C onv ention of Offic er s' Del egates
. *
Of th e Duma sessions w e must mention esp ec ial l y th e one
h el d on M ay 1 7 , immediatel y after th e r esignation of P . N .
M il iuk ov and A . I . Guc h k ov .
T h e sp eec h es made by th e
r esigned M inister s, th e sp eec h th at fol l ow ed, by V . A
. M ak l a-
k ov , l ater A mbassador to F r anc e, and th e c onc l uding state-
ment by M . V
. R odz iank o, w e w il l q uote, in th eir most im-
p or tant p ar ts .
Guc h k ov ' s S p eec h
" I am gl ad to h av e th e op p or tunity of r ender ing my ac c ount to
you, for th e E x ec utiv e C ommittee of th e Duma is one of th ose p ubl ic
auth or ities w h ic h v ested our gr oup of soc ial l eader s w ith th e gov er n-
mental p ow er so nec essar y for th e br inging out of our c ountr y fr om
th e state of anar c h y in w h ic h ' it found itsel f, after th e ov er th r ow of
th e for mer Gov er nment .
I h av e been r ep r oac h ed for h av ing tak en th is step on my ow n r e-
sp onsibil ity, w ith out w ar ning my fel l ow - member s of th e - Gov er nment,
and for h av ing destr oyed, in a w ay, th e sol idar ity among th e mem-
ber s . T h is w as not th e c ase
. A w eek or ten days befor e my r esigna-
tion, I definitel y said to Pr inc e G
. E . L v ov and to my c ol l eagues,
th at under th e c onditions affec ting th e gov er nmental p ow er , in gener al ,
and th e p ow er of th e M inister of th e A r my and N av y, in p ar tic ul ar ,
* Dur ing th e tw o and a h al f year s of w ar befor e th e R ev ol ution, al most
al l th e tr ained offic er s of th e ol d sc h ool , esp ec ial l y in th e middl e and l ow er
r ank s, h ad been k il l ed or disabl ed
. T h e new offic er s c ame fr om th e r ank s
of th e " intel l igentsia" and fr om th e middl e c l ass .
3 2 8

T h e B ir th of th e R ussian Democ r ac y
I found it imp ossibl e to r emain, and th at my fur th er r emaining in th e
C abinet, w h ic h al most meant a p r ol ongation of th e c r isis, w as in my
op inion w or k ing c onsider abl e h ar m
.
On th e ev ening befor e my r esignation, at a meeting at Pr inc e
G . E
. L v ov ' s h ouse, I r ep eated th at I w as going to r esign, and in r ep l y
to th e q uestion as to w h en, I stated th at I w oul d do so th at ev ening .
T h er e is a l imit to sol idar ity among c ol l eagues
. T h is l imit is r eac h ed
w h en th e indiv idual c onsc ienc e begins to sp eak . A nd in th at c ase
th e v oic e of th e c onsc ienc e sh oul d be l istened to .
We, r ep r esentativ es of th e Gov er nment, may be c omp ar ed w ith
th ose p il ots, w h o, tied h and and foot and p ul l ed and p ush ed c on-
tinuousl y, ar e c omp el l ed to steer a v essel al ong its r egul ar c our se
.
I t is obv ious th at under suc h c ir c umstanc es th e v essel w il l go to th e
bottom . U nder suc h c onditions th e p il ot h as a r igh t to say : ` T h ose
w h ose h ands ar e fr ee sh oul d th emsel v es tak e th e r udder and steer . '
I w as c omp el l ed to r esign bec ause I w as absol utel y unabl e to ful fil
my duty under th e attendant c ir c umstanc es and I did not w ish to
c r eate a danger ous il l usion of th e ex istenc e of someth ing non- ex ist-
ent . I sur r ender ed my auth or ity simp l y bec ause I h ad none .
T h e anar c h y w h ic h h as enter ed th e system and bec ome a meth od
of administr ation, th is anar c h y h as infl uenc ed p ainful l y and de-
str uc tiv el y th e l ar ge and c omp l ex body of th e A r my and N av y
.
I n th e w ay of r efor ms, th e new Gov er nment h as gone v er y far .
N ot ev en in th e most democ r atic c ountr y h av e th e p r inc ip l es of
sel f- gov er nment, fr eedom and eq ual ity been so ex tensiv el y ap p l ied in
mil itar y l ife . We h av e gone somew h at far th er th an th e danger ous
l imit, and th e imp etuous c ur r ent dr iv es us far th er stil l . A nd beyond
th at begins not th e c onstr uc tion of th e A r my on new p r inc ip l es, but
th e inev itabl e p r oc ess of destr uc tion
.
I c oul d not c onsent to th is destr uc tiv e w or k , I c oul d not sign
my name to or der s and l aw s, w h ic h in my op inion w oul d l ead tow ar ds
a r ap id deter ior ation of our mil itar y for c es
. A c ountr y, and esp e-
c ial l y an ar my, c annot be administer ed on th e p r inc ip l es of meetings
and c onfer enc es .
Wh eth er th e new Gov er nment w il l be abl e to master th e situa-
tion, I do not k now . L et us h op e it w il l , and, in any c ase, l et us
assist it . B ut I must ex p r ess my fear s w h eth er th e fatal destr uc tiv e
p r oc ess h as not gone too far , and w h eth er w e w il l be abl e to stop it
.
S h al l w e be abl e to c r eate and str ength en h eal th y c ur r ents, sh al l w e
be abl e to get r id of th ese effl uv ia w h ic h h ang ov er th e p r esent situa-
tion as ov er a p utr id sw amp ' I n any c ase, w e sh oul d not l ose faith
in our c ountr y, as l ong as th er e is l ife .
B ut w e must admit th at th e situation is danger ous to th e h igh est
degr ee, and th e danger is not onl y in our ter r ibl e mil itar y situation,
but al so in th e fac t th at th e p oison of anar c h ism, h av ing p ol l uted our
gov er nmental p ow er and h av ing under mined th e v ital for c es of our
T h e M iddl e C l ass and its R el ation to th e War

3 2 9
A r my, h as p enetr ated into al l th e p or es of our soc ial and ec onomic
l ife and h as imp air ed or disor ganiz ed al l th e func tions of th e national
body .
Gentl emen, I p r op h esy th at if w e ar e not abl e to c ontr ol th is
destr uc tiv e p r oc ess in th e most imp or tant domain, in th at of th e
ec onomic and soc ial r el ations, R ussia w il l r ap idl y w eak en and p er ish .
T o- day' s p r obl em is th e c r eation of a fir m and c onstr uc tiv e gov er n-
mental p ow er .
One may r egar d as one p l eases th e gov er nmental c ombination
now being for med, one may symp ath iz e w ith it or one may r egar d it
w ith a c er tain mel anc h ol ic sc ep tic ism . B ut, in any c ase, th is c om-
bination is a natur al , and I w oul d say, inev itabl e stage in th at sal u-
tor y ev ol ution of str ong p ow er w ith out w h ic h a c ol l ap se of th e S tate
is inev itabl e .
B ut, gentl emen, w h atev er our attitude to th is new c ombination,
one th ing is c er tain : w e al l must sup p or t, w ith al l our p ow er , th e
Gov er nment w h ic h h as been for med again after suc h a l ong and
p ainful p r oc ess . Our duty to th e c ountr y demands th at al l sup p or t
th is Gov er nment, bec ause our sup p or t w il l mak e it str ong, and onl y
a str ong Gov er nment c an sav e th e c ountr y fr om th e anar c h y w h ic h ,
if it sp r eads fur th er , w il l br ing our c ountr y to r uin . " ( Pr ol onged ap -
p l ause . )
A . I . Guc h k ov w as fol l ow ed by Pr of . Paul N . M il iuk ov , w h o
w as r ec eiv ed w ith an ov ation .
M il iuk ov ' s S p eec h
" M y ex p l anations as to th e immediate c auses of my r esignation,"
said P . N . M il iuk ov , " w il l be mor e sp ec ific th an th ose made by A . I .
Guc h k ov
. A s r egar ds our duty to th e Pr ov isional Gov er nment, my
p ol itic al fr iends and I c onsider ed th at w e c oul d not l eav e it our -
sel v es, th at onl y by for c e c oul d w e be c omp el l ed to do so, th at our
ow n r esignation w oul d be w r ong . You k now th at after my w ith -
dr aw al , th er e ar e fel l ow p ar ty' member s stil l l eft in th e Pr ov isional
Gov er nment . T h e q uestion w h ic h w as p ut befor e me in suc h a
dec isiv e manner as to c omp el me to go, c ame fr om anoth er sour c e .
I said p ubl ic l y al so th at I w oul d r esign onl y if c omp el l ed by
for c e, and I c oul d not for esee th at ev ent . I h ad to r esign, yiel ding
not to for c e, but to th e w ish of a c onsider abl e maj or ity of my c ol -
l eagues . With a c l ear c onsc ienc e I c an say th at I did not l eav e on
my ow n ac c ount, but w as c omp el l ed to l eav e . M y c onsc ienc e is c l ear ,
I r emained at my p ost until my c ol l eagues said : ` L eav e th e p ost ; it
is needed now for oth er p ur p oses . '
You c oul d see for your sel v es th at my ac tiv ity in for eign p ol itic s
w as in ac c or d w ith your ideas . ( C r ies : " C or r ec t! " and l oud ap p l ause . )
T h is ac tiv ity w as c ar r ied on in a manner c onsider ed by you al l as
nec essar y for th e v ital inter ests of R ussia, in th e p r esent w or l d str ug-
3 3 0

T h e B ir th of th e R ussian Democ r ac y
gl e
. ( Voic es
: " C or r ec t! " ) M y op p onents k ep t saying th at togeth er
w ith th e R ev ol ution, th is sh ar p tur n- about in our domestic l ife, a
simil ar R ev ol ution or abr up t c h ange sh oul d tak e p l ac e in our for eign
r el ations
; th ey al so said th at our for mer dip l omac y w as c h ar ac ter istic
of th e T z ar ' s r egime and th at a new dip l omac y sh oul d tak e its p l ac e
no- v . I tr ied to ex p l ain th at in th e sp h er e of for eign r el ations th e
situation differ s fr om th at in th e domestic affair s . M y basis w as th at
w e h ad no dip l omac y of th e T z ar or dip l omac y of th e Pr ov isional
Gov er nment, but a dip l omac y tow ar ds our A l l ies, a dip l omac y w h ic h
guides us togeth er w ith th e A l l ies .
I n our agr eement w ith th e A l l ies w e defined j ust w h at adv an-
tages sh oul d be th e c omp ensation for our c ommon effor ts and w h at
c onseq uenc es ar e nec essar y for th e v ital inter ests of eac h of us and
for th e c ommon good
.
T h us, th er e w as no dip l omac y of th e T z ar , but a dip l omac y of
th e A l l ies, and w e ar e bound w ith our A l l ies, w h eth er for sor r ow or
for j oy, and w e ar e mor al l y obl iged to stay w ith th em to th e end .
We th ough t th at th is union of our s w as seal ed w ith th e mil l ions
of men l ost by al l th e A l l ied c ountr ies, and th at it c oul d not be r e-
nounc ed by th e one- sided dec ision of any of us . T h is w as th e r eason
I th ough t th at th e c h anges th at h av e tak en p l ac e in our domestic l ife
onl y meant th at at p r esent w e c an say, w ith a c l ear c onsc ienc e, op enl y
and fr eel y, th ose th ings w h ic h for mer l y w er e sp ok en, not by al l , but
by th e r ep r esentativ es in th e Duma .
T h is w as th e w ay I under stood my task and al so th e w ay our
A l l ies under stood th e attitude of th e new R ussian Gov er nment to-
w ar ds th em . With th e ap p ear anc e of your obedient ser v ant in th e
M inistr y of F or eign A ffair s, th ey k new th at R ussia w oul d not fail to
ful fil l h er obl igations and to ac h iev e th e aims w h ic h sh e h as p ut
befor e h er sel f .
We w er e c onstantl y saying th at th e for mer Gov er nment w as un-
abl e to or ganiz e th e c ountr y for v ic tor y. T h is, p r ec isel y, w as th e
immediate aim of our p ar tic ip ation in th e R ev ol ution, and natur al l y
w e th ough t th at th ose r esul ts w oul d fol l ow for w h ic h , to a gr eat
ex tent, th is R ev ol ution w as made . T h is w as th e w ay I under stood
my task in for eign p ol itic s .
F or a c onsider abl e l ength of time I th ough t th at my for eign
p ol ic y w as c omp l etel y ap p r ov ed by my fel l ow - member s of th e Pr o-
v isional Gov er nment .
B ut after some time it bec ame ev ident th at anoth er th eor y h ad
been br ough t in fr om th e outside, a th eor y based on th e op inion of
an insignific ant minor ity of for eign soc ial ists, w h o, befor e th e out-
br eak of th e w ar , h ad dec ided to p r ev ent it, and after th e w ar began
h ad sough t to stop it . A c c or ding to th ese p eop l e, th e w ar w as
star ted by c ap ital ists, its aims w er e imp er ial istic , th e task s of th e
p r ol etar iat w er e, th er efor e, to for c e th eir r esp ec tiv e gov er nments to
U nder w ood & U nder w ood
PR OF . P . N . M I L I U KOV
M inister of F or eign A ffair s in th e F ir st Pr ov isional Gov er nment
3 3 2

T h e B ir th of th e R ussian Democ r ac y
stop th e w ar . T h is p r ogr am w as r ath er diffic ul t, bec ause it w as
adop ted abr oad by onl y a smal l minor ity of S oc ial - Democ r ats . T h e
maj or ity of th e S oc ial ists in al l th e A l l ied c ountr ies p r ov ed mater ial -
istic and not inter national , th at is, th ey adh er ed to th e idea of th e
c ountr y' s defense and of w ar against th e Ger man mil itar ism w h ic h
al one p r ev ented a l asting p eac e . T h e bour geois p ar ties adh er ed to th is
national istic p oint of v iew ev en mor e
. A nd it seemed th at noth ing
w oul d h ap p en in R ussia to c h ange th is gener al situation .
B ut th e ideas of Z immer w al d and Kinth al * sh ar ed abr oad by
a v er y smal l gr oup , h av e dev el noed into a p ow er ful c ur r ent in our
c ountr y, w h er e th ey ar e r esp onsibl e for th e made- in- Ger many
for mul a br ough t to us th r ough th e S w iss S oc ial ists and our ow n
ex il es, w h o, up on th eir r etur n to R ussia, began an ener getic agitation
in fav or of th e Z immer w al d ideas
.
A s a r esul t of th is a r ath er w ide c ir c l e of th e p ubl ic , l ittl e
famil iar w ith th e situation abr oad, ac c ep ted th e r adic al for mul a of th e,
inter national minor ity of th e S oc ial ists of th e West,- ` N o annex a-
tions, no indemnities,' - th e for mul a th e ac c ep tanc e of w h ic h w as al so
ur ged by th e same p er sons w h o th ough t th at th e C ongr ess of Wor k -
men' s and S ol dier s' Del egates sh oul d h av e an infl uenc e ov er th e Gov -
er nment in matter s of for eign p ol itic s .
Know ing fr om w h er e th is for mul a c omes and w h er e it l eads, I
obj ec ted to it v er y ener getic al l y . Onl y a few of my c ol l eagues sup -
p or ted me, and I h ad to c onsent to th e p ubl ic ation of th e statement
of M ar c h 2 7 th , w h ic h r ep r esents a c omp r omise betw een my op inion
and th at of th e maj or ity .
T h e l abor p r ess in th e meantime w as singing h ymns of p r aise
to th e for mul a, ' N o annex ations, no indemnities . ' I did not agr ee
;
but I c oul d not star t disp utes w h en tol d th at it w as my p er sonal
op inion onl y, w h er eas th is op inion w as r eal l y in ac c or d w ith th e
tendenc ies of R ussian p ol itic s
. A noth er time c ame, a time w h en
p eop l e began to insist th at th e statement w h ic h I p ur p osel y issued in
th e for m of an ap p eal to my fel l ow - c itiz ens, be c h anged into a dip l o-
matic ac t and th at our A l l ies immediatel y enter into negotiations
w ith us for th e p ur p ose of r ev ising our tr eaties in ac c or danc e w ith
th e p op ul ar inter p r etation of th e for mul a, th at is, ` no annex ations, no
indemnities . '
I r efused c ategor ic al l y, and after additional negotiations, w h ic h
r esul ted in a new c omp r omise, I agr eed to send not a dip l omatic
note, but th e statement itsel f, attac h ed to a p ap er w h ic h guar anteed
against misuse, by our M inistr y of F or eign A ffair s, of suc h inc or r ec t
under standing of th e for mer c omp r omise
. T h at is to say, in my note I
p ointed out v er y definitel y th at w e do not w ish a sep ar ate p eac e, th at
our A r my must be r einfor c ed, etc .
A l l th ese statements p r ov ed to our A l l ies our l oyal ty, so to
sp eak . T h is note, as you k now , p r ov ok ed th e most intense ex asp er a-
Z immer w al d and Kinth al ar e th e p l ac es in S w itz er l and w h er e tw o
c onfer enc es of th e S oc ial ists- I nter national ists w er e h el d dur ing th is w ar .
T h ese " I nter national ists" do not entir el y sh ar e th e p oint of
v iew of
th e
l 3 ol sh ev ik i, but h av e v er y muc h in c ommon w ith th em .
T h e M iddl e C l ass and its R el atioh to th e War

3 3 3
tion against my p er son . T h is note w as r egar ded as a step bac k w ar d ;
a demonstr ation took p l ac e on th e str eets, w h ic h , h ow ev er , befor e
th e c l ose of th e day tur ned into an ov ation to th e Pr ov isional Gov er n-
ment and mysel f
. B ut th is w as onl y a temp or ar y v ic tor y .
T h e p er sons w h o demanded th at I go far th er in th is dir ec tion
and th at I r ev eal th e natur e of th e c omp r omise made al ong th e l ine
of th e for mul a, ` no annex ations, no indemnities,' c ontinued th eir figh t,
and th ey final l y dec ided th at th ey th emsel v es w oul d w or k in th e
dir ec tion in w h ic h I r efused to w or k .
T h is suggestion w as made in th e c onfer enc es of a c oal ition
C abinet, and th e S oc ial ist p ar ties, dur ing th e p r iv ate negotiations as to
th e c omp osition of th e C abinet, made it th eir fir st c ondition th at th e
M inister of F or eign A ffair s l eav e h is p ost
. S ev en member s of th e
C abinet agr eed to th at, but as a c onc ession th ey stip ul ated th at I
r emain in th e M inistr y, w ith anoth er p or tfol io . T h is offer w as made
to me, but I c oul d not ac c ep t it ; you w il l under stand th e r eason .
( A p p l ause . ) T o- mor r ow , p r obabl y, th e dec l ar ation of th e Gov er n-
ment w il l be p ubl ish ed, and th er e th e for eign p ol ic ies w il l be defined
in a w ay in w h ic h I did not w ant to define th em
; but, ev en if not I ,
but anoth er p er son dir ec ts th is for eign p ol ic y, I c annot ac c ep t th e r e-
sp onsibil ity for suc h a definition . T h is definition is h ar mful and dan-
ger ous to R ussia, danger ous bec ause it does not r eac h th e p r op osed
aim and bec ause it distur bs c onsider abl y our r el ations w ith th e A l l ies .
I t w as ev ident to me th at to ex c h ange th e p or tfol io of th e M inister
of F or eign A ffair s for th at of th e M inister of Publ ic I nstr uc tion stil l
did not fr ee me fr om th e r esp onsibil ity for my for eign p ol ic y dur ing
th e w ar , w h ic h is k now n to th e w h ol e w or l d
. I c annot bear th is r e-
sp onsibil ity . T h is is th e r eason w h y I r esigned .
I n my ex p l anation I sh al l not deal w ith my attitude tow ar ds a
c oal ition M inistr y
. S ome of my c ol l eagues, as you k now , th ough t it
nec essar y to enter th e c oal ition M inistr y and see w h eth er th ey c oul d
not c ar r y th e bur den of gov er nment any l onger and w h eth er th ey
c oul d, w h il e r emaining in th e C abinet, stil l c ontinue th eir p r ev ious
w or k
. Per sonal l y I th ink th at th e for mation of th is C abinet is a v er y
desp er ate effor t, w h ic h may ev en p r ov e h az ar dous
. B ut undoubtedl y
tw o v er y definite aims h av e been ac h iev ed . T h e or ganiz ation of a
c oal ition M inistr y inc r eases th e p ow er of th e Gov er nment and mak es
p ossibl e th e for mation of a united Pr ov isional Gov er nment
.
L et th e C ounc il of Wor k men' s and S ol dier s' Del egates h av e
th eir r ep r esentativ es in th e Gov er nment, l et th em bec ome r esp onsibl e
for th e c onduc t of affair s, but l et th is Gov er nment bec ome united
.
T h is is th e fir st aim
.
Wil l it be r eac h ed? I do not k now , for th er e is disc or d in th e
C ounc il of Wor k men' s
and- S ol dier s'
Del egates itsel f
. You k now
th at not al l agr eed up on enter ing th e c oal ition Gov er nment
. A nd it
is ev ident th at th ose w h o did not enter th e Gov er nment w il l c on-
3 3 4

T h e B ir th of th e R ussian Democ r ac y
tinue to c r itic ise th ose w h o h av e enter ed, and it is p ossibl e th at' th e
S oc ial ists w h o enter ed th e C abinet w il l find th emsel v es c onfr onted
w ith th e same stor m of c r itic ism as did th e Gov er nment p r ior to th e
entr y of th e S oc ial ists
. B ut, in any c ase, r igh t now w e sh al l un-
doubtedl y h av e a str onger Gov er nment .
Per h ap s stil l mor e imp or tant is anoth er aim, th at is, to c h ange
th e sp ir it of th e A r my, w h ic h inter p r eted al l th ese p ac ifist tenden-
c ies and ap p eal s as being eq uiv al ent to an ac tual tr uc e, mak ing it,
th er efor e, unnec essar y to figh t . T h e A r my ap p ar entl y dec ided
th at sinc e w e r enounc ed ter r itor ial ac q uisitions, th er e is no r eason to
figh t
. I t w as imp ossibl e to c h ange th is attitude dur ing th e fir st Gov -
er nment, in w h ic h th e sol dier s did not h av e suffic ient c onfidenc e . On
th e c ontr ar y, th e C ounc il of Wor k men' s and S ol dier s' Del egates enj oys
th e ful l c onfidenc e of th e r ank and fil e of th e sol dier s, and w h en w e
w er e ask ed to suggest a w ay of mak ing th e sol dier s under stand th at
ev en th e task of defense is not l imited to defense in a nar r ow sense,
but al so inc l udes offensiv e ac tion, w e r ep l ied
: ` A sk th e C ounc il of
Wor k men' s and S ol dier s' Del egates to issue an ap p eal to th at effec t
and th e sol dier s w il l ac c ep t it w ith c onfidenc e . ' N atur al l y, a M inistr y
c omp r ising r ep r esentativ es of p ar ties sup p or ted by th e C ounc il of
Wor k men' s and S ol dier s' Del egates c an ac h iev e th is aim .
I n sp ite of th e c autious attitude tow ar ds w ar maintained by th e
C ounc il of Wor k men' s and S ol dier s' Del egates, to- mor r ow ' s dec l ar a-
tion w il l state th at offensiv e ac tion may be r esumed, th at R ussia' s
defeat w oul d be danger ous for th e R ev ol ution itsel f, th at th e w ar
must h e c ontinued, ev en if its aims ar e as nar r ow and l imited as th ose
for mul ated by th e suc c essful mov ement
. F or th e p r esent moment
th is is th e most imp or tant th ing to be ac h iev ed .
N o matter w h at beautiful p r onounc ements of fr iendsh ip w e ad-
dr ess to our A l l ies, if our A r my r emains inac tiv e, w e sh al l be c onsid-
er ed as tr aitor s ; on th e oth er h and, no matter w h at ter r ibl e statements
w e mak e, betr aying our l ac k of l oyal ty, if our A r my is r eal l y figh ting,
w e ar e in fac t ful fil l ing our obl igations to our A l l ies
. T h is j ustifies
th e c r eation of a c oal ition C abinet .
I n th is w ay I c onsider , in gener al , th at th e for mation of a
c oal ition C abinet is a p ositiv e ac t, th at in any c ase it w il l al l ow us
to h op e for th e ac h iev ement of th e tw o most imp or tant aims of th e
p r esent time, namel y, th e str ength ening of th e Gov er nment and th e
r aising of th e A r my' s sp ir it . A nd, in so far as th ese aims w il l be
ac h iev ed, w e must sup p or t th e new l y- for med Pr ov isional Gov er n-
ment . "
M il iuk ov ' s sp eec h w as fol l ow ed by p r ol onged ap p l ause . T h e
fol l ow ing sp eec h , by V. A . M ak l ak ov , l ater A mbassador to
F r anc e, w as l istened to, th r ough out, w ith undiv ided attention .
T h e M iddl e C l ass and its R el ation to th e War

3 3 5
M ak l ak ov ' s S p eec h
" I t seems to me th at our situation is so c l ear , th e diagnosis
made is so inc ontestabl e and ev en th e meth ods of tr eatment offer ed'
us ar e so c er tain, th at th er e is al most noth ing l eft for us to disc uss
.
T h e situation is, of c our se, v er y tr agic . B ut, gentl emen, in w h at-
ev er for m w e p ut th e basic th ough t, w h eth er w e r ep eat Ker ensk y' s'
w or ds ; p ar ap h r asing th e ol d w or ds of I . A k sak ov , w h o onc e ex c l aimed
in sor r ow :
` You ar e not c h il dr en of fr eedom, you ar e sl av es in
r ebel l ion! ' w h eth er w e use th e dip l omatic l anguage of th e Pr o-
v isional Gov er nment, w h ic h said th at ex isting soc ial r el ations ar e
destr oyed mor e r ap idl y th an new ones ar e establ ish ed,- no matter '
w h at l anguage w e use, one p r inc ip al th ough t under l ies al l our w or ds . ,
and th at is, th at R ussia h as sh ow n h er sel f unw or th y of th e fr eedom,
sh e h as gained! ( Voic es : " R igh t! " )
T h is w il l be said about us if th e th r eatened p r ov es tr ue ; bec ause,
th ough w e may anal yz e singl e mistak es made by v ar ious c l asses,' ,
p ar ties, indiv idual s, th ough w e may say th at th e Pr ov isional Gov er n-
ment
h as sh ow n too l ittl e p ow er and th e C ounc il of Wor k men' s and
S ol dier s' Del egates too muc h of it, th ough w e may bitter l y l ament . '
as I do, th e Pr ov isional Gov er nment' s fail ur e to under stand, at th e ,
p r op er time, th e v al uabl e sup p or t it c oul d h av e h ad fr om th e Duma,
th ough w e may say th at th e Pr ov isional Gov er nment did not under -
stand stand th e signific anc e of th e dissol ution of th e Duma and of th e
substitution for it of th e C ounc il of Wor k men' s and S ol dier s' Del e-
gates, th ough w e r ebuk e some of th ose w h o h av e sp ok en, and stil l
mor e many of th ose w h o r emained sil ent, w e sh al l not get al ong in
R ussia eith er w ith out th e bour geoisie, or w ith out th e p r ol etar iat . ,
E v er yth ing w il l be tak en into c onsider ation, and th e final v er dic t may,
be th is
: On th e day of th e R ev ol ution R ussia r ec eiv ed mor e fr eedom
th an sh e c oul d stand, and R ussia w as r uined by th e R ev ol ution
.
T h is is w h at p eop l e may say, and w h en th ey w il l c ur se th e R ev ol ution
th ey w il l al so c ur se th ose w h o br ough t it about
. A nd it is up to us
to p r ev ent our being c ur sed th at w ay, bec ause after al l , th e member s
of th e N ational Duma ar e c onnec ted w ith th e R ev ol ution
.
T h e th ough t th at R ussia may p r ov e unw or th y of th e fr eedom
sh e obtained made Ker ensk y r egr et th at h e h ad not died ear l ier
;
for oth er s, h ow ev er , th is th ough t w il l not be a disap p ointment, but a
c onfir mation of th eir ear l ier bitter ap p r eh ensions
.
Gentl emen, I w ant to tel l th e w h ol e tr uth
. We, of th e N ational
Duma, w er e mor e th an onc e ac c used fr om th e benc h es of th e l eft of
not w anting any R ev ol ution
. Yes, th is w as tr ue . We w anted no
R ev ol ution dur ing th e w ar
. We fear ed th at th is task of c h anging
th e gov er nmental and soc ial c onditions, and of simul taneousl y br ing-
ing th e w ar to a suc c essful c onc l usion w as beyond th e p ow er s of
any p eop l e
. B ut a time c ame w h en al l r eal iz ed th e imp ossibil ity of
3 3 6

T h e B ir th of th e R ussian Democ r ac y
br inging th e w ar to a v ic tor ious end under th e ol d or der , and th ose
w h o bel iev ed th at R ev ol ution w oul d be a disaster , dec ided th at it
w as th eir duty and th eir p ur p ose to sav e R ussia fr om a R ev ol ution
fr om bel ow by br inging about an ov er th r ow al fr om abov e . T h is task
w as c onfr onting us, but w e fail ed to p er for m it, and if p oster ity w il l
c ur se th e R ev ol ution, it w il l al so c ur se th ose w h o fail ed to under stand
th e means by w h ic h it c oul d h av e been p r ev ented .
B ut th e R ev ol ution c ame fr om bel ow
; th e p eop l e r ec eiv ed a ful l
measur e of al l k inds of l iber ties . T h er e w as nev er a c ountr y w h er e
th is w as not ac c omp anied by ex c esses, th er e w as nev er a time w h en
R ev ol ution w as bor n p ainl essl y . I t is too l ate now to l ament
; w e
must l ook for means of getting r id of th e ex c esses and of p r ev enting
th eir fur th er oc c ur r enc e
. We see a mass of bad instinc ts c ome to
l igh t
; w e see r el uc tanc e to w or k , unw il l ingness to r ec ogniz e one' s
duty to th e c ountr y
; w e see th at dur ing th is atr oc ious w ar our c oun-
tr y is engaging in festiv ities ; meetings and disc ussions, th at th e c ountr y
is r enounc ing th e Gov er nment and unw il l ing to obey it
. I sp eak of
R ussia as a w h ol e, of al l its c omp onent p ar ts
. Wh at is th er e to be
done? Wh at w il l h ap p en if th ese for c es p r ov e str onger th an a w h ol e-
some Gov er nment? I t is c l ear th at no Gov er nment w il l th en w ith -
stand th em . T h e Gov er nment w h ic h w il l not sh ow too muc h indul -
genc e to th eir instinc ts w il l be ov er th r ow n by th ese h uge for c es
: th e
Gov er nment w il l go mor e and mor e to th e l eft, w h il e th e c ountr y
w il l tur n to th e r igh t
. T h e c ountr y w il l be fac ed by th e sp ec tr e and
h or r or of anar c h y, th e h or r or of national disgr ac e, and th ose l eader s
w h o w il l fail to under stand th is w il l r egar d it as a c ounter - r ev ol ution
and th ey w il l c ombat it as c r uel l y and mer c il essl y as th e ol d p ow er
for mer l y fough t us .
T h e Gov er nment tur ns mor e and mor e to th e l eft, w h il e th e
c ountr y goes to th e r igh t, and th e Gov er nment w il l be l eft w ith out
th e c ountr y' s sup p or t and it w il l c ol l ap se l ik e th e ol d r egime on th e
day w h en th e h istor ic N emesis c omes . T h is w il l h ap p en, if th e p eo-
p l e, th at R ussian p eop l e w h ic h h as dev el op ed th e R ussian S tate, w il l
fail to for esee w h er e it is being dr agged, w il l fail to see th e p r ec ip ic e
w h ic h it is ap p r oac h ing, w il l be unabl e to p r efer th e h ar sh tr uth to
fl atter y and ser v il ity, w il l be unabl e, desp ite th e instinc t of sel f-
p r eser v ation, to stop ev en th ough at th e v er ge of th e p r ec ip ic e . I f
R ussia stop s th er e, sh e is a gr eat R ussia w or th y of fr eedom ; if sh e
tumbl es ov er , th e p eop l e w il l get th eir desser ts .
How ev er , th e attitudes of v ar ious p eop l e tow ar ds th is ex p er iment
differ
.
S ome l ook w ith h or r or at th e c our se R ussia is about to
tak e, and in sil enc e stand aside w aiting for ev er yth ing to be ov er ;
oth er s, p er h ap s, ar e r ej oic ing at th e c ountr y' s misfor tune . E v en
among th e member s of th e p ar ties of th e r igh t th er e ar e now some
T h e M iddl e C l ass and its R el ation to th e w ar

3 3 7
w h o fav or defeat, saying th at R ussia' s defeat w oul d be h er sal v ation
.
B ut w e, of th e N ational Duma, c annot tak e a p osition l ik e th at . We
ar e tol d fr om th e l eft : ` T h e R ev ol ution w as br ough t about not by
th e bour geoisie, but by th e sol dier s and th e p r ol etar iat . ' Gentl emen,
in an instant of j oy and p r ide th ey c an deny us th e h onor of br inging'
about th e R ev ol ution, but th ey c annot dep r iv e us of th e r esp onsibil ity' ,
w e feel for it . I f on F ebr uar y 2 7 th e N ational Duma h ad not r isen
against th e Gov er nment, th e R ev ol ution w oul d not h av e l iv ed until
ev ening. T h e Duma under stood on th at day th at h er p ar tic ip ation
in th e mov ement w as a q uestion of h onor . ' T h e Duma k new th at sh e
w as tak ing th e c our se l eading tow ar ds R ev ol ution, and, in th e name
of p atr iotism and th e sal v ation of R ussia, sh e ov er th r ew th e ol d :
p ow er
. S h e k new th at it w as w ith c onfidenc e in h er th at th e sol dier s
c ame to th e T aur ida Pal ac e, sh e h ad to under stand th at if an attac k ' ,,
on th e sol dier s h ad fol l ow ed, th e guil t w oul d h av e fal l en on our
h eads .
We h ad to v entur e th is l ast stak e
; w e under stood th at if th e' ,
R ev ol ution fail ed, w e w oul d p er ish togeth er w ith th e sol dier s, and if,
it suc c eeded, it w oul d be our c ommon ac h iev ement
. T h is is w h y th e
N ational Duma c annot r enounc e h er offsp r ing, and h er aim is to'
r emain w ith it until th e l ast p ossibl e moment, to r emain w ith th e,
new or der until th e new or der tur ns against h er . I t may tur n against)
us, it may c r ush us, but w e w il l r emain w ith it as l ong- as w e c an
bel iev e th at it ser v es R ussia . We h av e seen h er e th at some of our
fel l ow - M inister s c onsider ed it th eir duty to w ith dr aw fr om th e Gov - ,
er nment . I say th at th ey w er e r igh t, and I sh al l say noth ing mor e
about it . B ut th er e is anoth er q uestion befor e us, and th at is, c an,n
w e deser t th is Gov er nment? C an w e tur n our bac k s to it and main-
tain a p osition of neutr al ity : " '
" Of c our se, not," r emar k ed th e C h air man, M . V. R odz iank o
.
" I am gl ad th at th e r etir ing M inister s h av e th emsel v es c al l ed u$
to assist th e Gov er nment, I am gl ad th er e is no differ enc e of op inion
on th at and th at w e al l c an say to th is Gov er nment : ` You h av e tak en
up a h eav y bur den ; w h eth er you w il l be suc c essful or not, w e do not
k now , but w e w il l r emain w ith you as l ong as you c ar r y th is bur den . ) ,
A mong th e p r obl ems c onfr onting th e Gov er nment and aw aiting
sol ution, th er e ar e tw o of eq ual imp or tanc e . I n th e fir st p l ac e, th e
Gov er nment sh oul d fr ee us fr om th e disgr ac e of our fail ur e to c on .
tinue th e w ar w h il e stil l in al l ianc e w ith th e oth er c ountr ies, and of
our al most tr eac h er ous for sak ing of th ose w h o h el p ed us in diffic ul t
times
; w e must c ar r y on th e w ar and not disc uss c onditions of p eac ej .
A nd at p r esent our onl y duty, ev asion of w h ic h w il l mak e us ash ame
to fac e th e p eop l e abr oad, our duty is to figh t, and w h en al l th e for c e,
h av e been tr ansfer r ed to th e Wester n F r ont, our duty is to star t an
offensiv e . ( E nth usiastic ap p l ause . ) T h at is w h at w e sh oul d do
3 3 8

T h e B ir th of th e R ussian Democ r ac y
A nd I
am
gl ad to say
th at th e Gov er nment under stands th is
ful l y ; it h as for its obj ec t to p r ep ar e th e A r my for an offensiv e, and
c onsider s it its duty to mov e th e A r my for w ar d
. A nd as l ong as
th e Gov er nment h as not giv en up th is th ough t, I sh al l not ar gue
w ith it about ter ms of p eac e . I sh al l not emp h asiz e th e differ enc es
of op inion w h ic h may ar ise in our definition of w ar aims . I sh al l say
to our p eop l e and to th e A l l ies : ` We h av e gone for w ar d
; w e ar e not
sl ac k er s, not deser ter s ; w e figh t by your side . ' A Gov er nment doing
so is ful fil l ing its most imp or tant duty .
T h e sec ond p r obl em, gentl emen, is th is : I n or der to enabl e th e
A r my to figh t and to star t an offensiv e, th e c ountr y must h av e or der .
A s l ong as th er e is no Gov er nment and no or der , onl y disintegr ation
c an r esul t .
T h er e h as been no auth or ity until now ; I sh al l not disc uss th e
c auses of it, but it is a fac t th at th er e h as not been any, for th er e
is no auth or ity as l ong as ac ts of l aw l essness ar e c ommitted, ac ts
w h ic h w er e not dr eamed of under th e for mer r egime, and as l ong as
w h ol esal e r obber ies and p l under p ass under th e p r otec tion of an-
ar c h ism . B ut th e new Gov er nment h as p r omised us to establ ish
auth or ity .
T h e sal v ation of th e inter national h onor of R ussia and th e sal v a-
tion of R ussia as a S tate c omp r ise th e w h ol e p r ogr am of th e p r esent ;
in th is c onsists th e duty of th e Gov er nment, and th is al so is our
demand.
A nd, th er efor e, gentl emen, I say th at th e diagnosis is ev ident,
and so ar e th e meth ods of tr eatment . I t is c l ear th at th e Gov er n-
ment c annot p ut befor e itsel f any oth er p r ogr am ; it is al so c l ear th at
w e c an h av e no oth er p ol ic y, ex c ep t al l p ossibl e assistanc e to th e
Gov er nment, both as indiv idual s and as member s of th e Duma as a
w h ol e . I t is al so c er tain th at if R ussia' s sal v ation is p ossibl e,
th is w il l be our l ast stak e . B ut, if in sp ite of th e sup p or t r ec eiv ed
fr om al l sides, th is r ec onstr u" ted Gov er nment, r ep r esenting th e w h ol e
p eop l e, w il l stil l fail to sav e R ussia, if ev en th en Wil h el m c r ush es us,
and th e sol dier s, in obedienc e to L enine, fal l bac k , if ev en th en
anar c h y w il l c ontinue to destr oy ev er yth ing,- th en, gentl emen, no
matter w h at l anguage w e use, no matter w h er e w e tr y to p l ac e th e
guil t, no matter h ow eac h one of us tr ies to ex oner ate h imsel f, p os-
ter ity w il l c ur se our time, our R ev ol ution and al l th ose assoc iated
w ith it . ( L oud ap p l ause . )
We k now , and so does ev er ybody el se, th e p r ic e of th e final
stak e on R ussia . T h is is k now n to ev er ybody to w h om R ussia is
dear . A s to th ose to w h om R ussia is not so dear , l et th em al so
k now th e p r ic e of th e stak e on th e R ev ol ution, for w h en th is stak e
is l aid th e fate of both R ussia and th e R ev ol ution is dec ided .
B ew ar e th at a time w il l ev er c ome w h en th er e w il l be in th e
mind of ev er yone anoth er issue : ` F or th e R ev ol ution or for R ussia?'
T h e M iddl e C l ass and its R el ation to th e l iar

3 3 9
Wh en it w il l be imp ossibl e to say th at th e R ev ol ution smash ed th e
th r one to sav e R ussia, w h en th e R ev ol ution w il l h av e betr ayed us
abr oad as w el l as at h ome, w h en th er e w il l be th e p ossibil ity of suc h
a sac r il egious issue, do any of you th ink th at th e p eop l e w il l say
:
` We ar e for th e R ev ol ution and against R ussia' ? ( S h outs
: " N ev er ! " )
Yes, th en th e mov ement ` for R ussia' w il l r ise and noth ing w il l r emain
of th e R ev ol ution!
Gentl emen, th e Gov er nment k now s w h at it h as at stak e
. We
k now th at al so
. L et th e R ussian p eop l e al so k now th at th is is th e
final stak e
. B ut if anyone w il l inter fer e w ith th is w or k , bec ause h e
c ontinues p r op aganda tr ansp or ted fr om Ger many, or bec ause h e p uts
p ar ty c onsider ations abov e th e national c ause, w e w il l l et h im k now
th at h e is a tr aitor and th at w e sh al l r egar d h im as suc h ! " ( L oud
ap p l ause and sh outs of " B r av o! " )
A fter th e l ast sp eak er ,
M . V. R odz iank o made th e fol l ow ing
statement to th e member s of
th e Duma
" S ome time ago I p r edic ted th at at some futur e time th e p r iv ate
sessions of th e Duma w oul d bec ome a p r ime nec essity for th e c oun-
tr y
. I th ink th at th is time h as c ome now
. T h e al ar ming and dan-
ger ous situation of th e c ountr y h as been suffic ientl y w el l defined
h er e
. I h av e noth ing to add to th e beautiful w or ds th at h av e been
said h er e
; I th ink th at by c ontinuing p er iodic al l y our meetings and
by disc ussing th e situation, ev en th ough in th is p r iv ate w ay, w e sh al l
suc c eed in l etting th e p eop l e h ear fr om th e c l ear - h eaded R ussian
Par l iament w or ds of tr uth , w ar ning and adv ic e as to h ow to steer th e
v essel of S tate, th e danger s th r eatening it and th e manner in w h ic h
th ey c an be p r ev ented
. I am c onv inc ed th at you j oin unr eser v edl y
in th e ap p eal to sup p or t th e new Gov er nment
. " ( L oud ap p l ause . )
T h e fol l ow ing r esol ution w as intr oduc ed and unanimousl y
adop ted
" T h e meeting of th e member s of th e N ational Duma ur gentl y
r eminds th e Pr ov isional Gov er nment, at th e time of its r ec onstr uc -
tion, th at th e for eign p ol ic y r egar ding w ar and p eac e sh oul d be, as
h er etofor e, based on unc onditional and unsw er v ing l oyal ty to our
v al iant A l l ies, bec ause w ith th is l oyal ty ar e insep ar abl y bound both
R ussia' s v ital inter ests and h er h onor
.
T
HE A l l - R ussian C ongr ess
of Offic er s' Del egates op ened
on M ay 2 8 , 1 9 1 7 . T h e fir st sp eec h w as made by L ieu-
tenant- C ol onel Gush c h in, of th e Gener al S taff, w h o
gr eeted th e C ongr ess in th e name of th e E x ec utiv e C ommittee
of th e C ounc il of
Offic er s' Del egates .
3 4 0

T h e B ir th of th e R ussian Democ r ac y
Gush c h in' s S p eec h
" We under stand th e r esp onsibil ity assumed by th e E x ec utiv e
C ommittee in c al l ing you al l to ex p r ess your sel v es up on th e q ues-
tions w h ic h h av e c aused you so muc h p ain
. You h av e been inv ited
to Petr ogr ad not by your sup er ior offic er s' or der ,- fr om th is w e
ar e fr ee for ev er ,- but by a definite or ganiz ation of Offic er s' Del egates
in Petr ogr ad, w h ic h w as for med in th e v er y beginning of th e
R ev ol ution, out of th e c h aos of th at time, and w h ic h , ev en befor e
th e for mer T z ar ' s r esignation, c onsider ed th e Pr ov isional C ommittee
of th e Duma th e sol e gov er nmental auth or ity
. T h e offic er s of
Petr ogr ad aim at union w ith th e sol dier s, in w h om th ey w ant to
see th eir younger c omr ades
; nor h av e th ey insc r ibed on th eir
banner sep ar ation of th e sol dier s fr om th e w or k ingmen
. I n th e v er y
beginning of our w or k , w e met w ith some distr ust, w h ic h , h ow ev er ,
w e tr ied to ov er c ome by our union w ith th e C ounc il of Wor k men' s
and S ol dier s' Del egates
. We, offic er s, ar e a p ar t of th e p eop l e
;
but, at th e same time, w e ar e a sep ar ate or ganiz ation c al l ed to
defend R ussia and to guide our sol dier - br oth er s
. I n N ew R ussia
ev en th e disc ip l ine, w h ic h is th e A r my' s foundation, must be based
on new , sensibl e p r inc ip l es . N oth ing c an sep ar ate th e R ussian
offic er fr om th e sol dier .
We ar e one united famil y of sol dier s and w e h av e now one singl e
p ur p ose- v ic tor y ov er th e for eign enemy
. I n th e name of fr ee R us-
sia, w e must gain v ic tor y, for th e F ath er l and w il l not for giv e us th e
disgr ac e of defeat . "
U nanimous ap p l ause fol l ow ed th is sp eec h
. U . M . S tek l ov
gr eeted th e C ongr ess of Offic er s' Del egates in th e name of th e
E x ec utiv e C ommittee of th e Petr ogr ad C ounc il of Wor k men' s
and S ol dier s' Del egates .
S tek l ov ' s S p eec h
" T h e time h as c ome," began U
. M . S tek l ov , " w h en ev er y son of
R ussia must define h imsel f p ol itic al l y and ap p l y al l h is effor ts to th e
str ength ening of th e foundations of R ussia' s c itiz ensh ip
. A t p r esent,
mor e th an ev er , ar e ap p r op r iate th e w or ds of th e p oet w h o said
: ` N ot
ev er y one needs to be a p oet, but ev er y one is obl iged to be a c itiz en
. "
T h e R ussian offic er s must al so state th eir attitude tow ar ds th e
p r esent moment, bec ause th ey ar e an or ganiz ation w h ic h h as p l ayed
and is at p r esent p l aying an imp or tant p ar t in th e c ountr y' s l ife and
th r ough w h ose h ands p ass mil l ions of l iv es in th e bl oom of youth
.
T h e R ussian offic er s ar e affec ted, not l ess th an oth er c itiz ens, by th e
gener al sh ak e- up . T h e offic er s, as a w h ol e, ar e a h eal th y body and
h av e r ender ed many gr eat ser v ic es to th e R ev ol utionar y M ov ement .
F r om v ffi_ - er s' famil ies c ame th e Dec embr ists, w h o in th e p er iod of
T h e M iddl e C l ass and its R el ation to th e War

3 4 1
sl av er y did not fear to r aise th e banner of fr eedom and to l ay dow n
th eir l iv es for th e h igh est ideal s of h umanity
. T h e number of offic er s
w h o w er e mar tyr s for fr eedom c onstantl y inc r eased in th e year s fol -
l ow ing th e emanc ip ation mov ement, and onl y th e p er iod of r eac tion,
th e p er iod of A l ex ander I I I and N ic h ol as I I , p ut th e offic er s al so
under r estr aint
. T h e R ussian offic er s h av e suffer ed, and now , mor e
th an ev er befor e, h av e th ey th e r igh t to c ur se th e ol d r egime, w h ic h
r oused p ubl ic sentiment against th em . ( A p p l ause . ) Wh en indiv idual
r ep r esentativ es of your c l ass stained th eir unifor ms by p ar tic ip ation
in p unitiv e ex p editions, you, R ussian offic er s, suffer ed in sil enc e, and
you nev er ac k now l edged in your midst th e unifor m of a gendar me
.
( E nth usiastic ap p l ause . )
N ow you must tak e a dec ided stand . T h e time w h en tyr anny
c oul d util iz e offic er s for th e sup p r ession of th e p eop l e' s str uggl e h as
p assed for ev er , and now , ev en if th er e sh oul d ap p ear a madman w h o
w oul d tr y to r ep eat th e ev ents of 1 9 0 5 - 1 9 0 6 , you must dec l ar e de-
c isiv el y th at you ar e c itiz ens of a gr eat c ountr y and ser v ants of a
gr eat p eop l e. "
T h e nex t sp eak er w as S . I . S h idl ov sk y . Wh en h e ap p ear ed
as th e r ep r esentativ e of th e E x ec utiv e C ommittee of th e Duma,
al l th e member s of th e C ongr ess r ose and gr eeted h im w ith
p r ol onged ap p l ause .
S h idl ov sk y' s S p eec h
" T h er e ar e ' times in th e h istor y of a p eop l e th at giv e bir th to a
w atc h w or d uniting al l th e p eop l e, times w h en th e attention must not be
div ided and w h en al l effor ts of th e p eop l e must be dir ec ted tow ar ds
one p oint
. A s suc h a p oint w e must now c onsider th e for eign enemy
c onfr onting our A r my
. T h is is th e onl y p l ac e w h er e w e c an see
danger to th e new or der
.
I ap p eal to you for unity, and I am sur e th at th e new fr eedom
is not menac ed by any l ur k ing danger and you c an fac e it sq uar el y
.
( A p p l ause. )
T h e task c onfr onting us w il l be mor e diffic ul t th an th ose w e
h av e al r eady p er for med
. Vic tor y ov er th e ol d or der w as c omp ar a-
tiv el y easy, bec ause T z ar ism h ad no defender s
. N ow th er e ar e befor e
you p r obl ems of c onstr uc tion, c omp l ic ated by th e gr eat w ar , w h ic h
must r estor e an or der under w h ic h l ife c an be r ebuil t in al l c ountr ies
on th e basis of univ er sal p eac e
. You ar e figh ting not Wil h el m, but
th e c onditions ex c l uding th e p ossibil ity of th is p eac eful ex istenc e
.
M y final p l ea to you is
: B e fir m and united and buil d th e futur e w ith
a c l ear under standing of our p r obl ems
; al so, tr y to unite th e A r my
for th e defense of h igh ideal s, th is defense to be c onduc ted onl y in a
w ay befitting a fr ee and c onfident p eop l e
. "
3 4 2

T h e B ir th of th e R ussian Democ r ac y
A fter th ese sp eec h es c ame th e gr eetings to th e C ongr ess
by th e r ep r esentativ es of th e A l l ied nations
. A mong oth er s,
th e A mer ic an A mbassador in Petr ogr ad, Dav id R . F r anc is,
and a member of th e B el gian C abinet, E mil e Vandet v el de,
sp ok e
.
A deep imp r ession w as made by th e del egation fr om th e
B l ac k S ea F l eet . T w o sail or s, A gnieev and B atk in, sp ok e
in th e name of th e sail or s, w or k ingmen and sol dier s of th e
S ebastap ol Gar r ison . A gnieev w el c omed th e offic er s of th e
R ussian R ev ol utionar y A r my " w h o defend now not th e dy-
nasty, not His M aj esty, N ic h ol as I I , but Her M aj esty, th e
R ussian R ev ol ution
. "
S ail or B atk in sp ok e w ith a gr eat deal of enth usiasm and
p assion . He c al l ed th e offic er s to union w ith th e sol dier s and
said th at " w h en th is w il l h av e been ac h iev ed, R ussian fr eedom,
w h ic h onl y a w eek ago w as on th e v er ge of r uin, w il l be
definitel y w on
. " " T h e w ar ," said B atk in, " is eq ual l y sup er fl uous
to you offic er s and to us sol dier s . B ut j ust now , w h en l ittl e,
bl ood- c ov er ed B el gium, w h ic h gav e F r anc e th e p ossibil ity of
p r ep ar ing and us th e op p or tunity of mak ing th e R ev ol ution,
l istens, tr embl ing, to your dec ision, you, bound by your
aw ak ened c onsc ienc e, must announc e to h er and to al l th e
A l l ies, th at ev er yone w h o sh eds h is bl ood togeth er w ith you
is your fr iend and th at you w il l not for sak e your fr iends in
diffic ul ty . T h is is a time not for w or ds, but for ac ts, and you
must r etur n and announc e to th e A r my th at th er e c an be no
tr aitor s in th e R ussian A r my and th at th ose w h o fr ater niz e
w ith th e enemy at a time w h en th e bl ood of th e F r enc h and
E ngl ish is being sh ed, ar e tr aitor s . "
T h e member s of th e C ongr ess r ose and for a l ong time
ap p l auded th is sp eec h .
T h e p r ogr am for th e day w as c omp l eted w h en th e M inister
of War , A
. F
. Ker ensk y, ap p ear ed in th e h al l . T h e C ongr ess
r emained standing dur ing th e M inister ' s sp eec h
.
Ker ensk y' s S p eec h
" C omr ades, I th ank you for th e h onor ," began A . F
. Ker ensk y,
" w h ic h I r egar d as your desir e to emp h asiz e your sol idar ity w ith
th e R ussian R ev ol ution, and I gr eet in you, th e R ussian A r my . I
T h e M iddl e C l ass and its R el ation to th e War

3 4 3
h av e ac c ep ted th e bur densome, but at th e same time h igh l y h onor abl e,
task of th e l eader sh ip of th e c ountr y' s ar med for c es
. I need your
sup p or t in or der to fol l ow th e c our se p ointed out to us by th e fr ee,
r ev ol utionar y p eop l e
. I c ame fr om c ir c l es w h ic h ar e str ange to you ;
I nev er w or e a mil itar y unifor m, but I h av e al so been th r ough th e
sc h ool of ir on disc ip l ine, in th e r ev ol utionar y p ar ties, th e member s
of w h ic h , l ik e you, sw or e eith er to c onq uer or to die for th e F ath er -
l and' s fr eedom
. I n our r ank s w e h ad our k ind of offic er s and sol dier s
;
but w e w er e al l eq ual , and th e offic er s' onl y p r iv il ege w as doubl e w or k
and doubl e r esp onsibil ity . N ow th e ar my of sl av es, subj ec ted by th e
ol d r egime, h as bec ome an ar my of fr ee sons of a fr ee c ountr y, and
th er e sh oul d be no one in th at ar my dep r iv ed of p ol itic al r igh ts
.
I h av e c ome to you to ex p r ess my c onv ic tion th at you, c omr ades,
offic er s, w il l r aise to th e h eigh t due th em th ose tr aditions w h ic h
h av e been p r esent in th e R ussian A r my sinc e th e time of th e Dec em-
br ists
. I r esp ec t you al l , eq ual l y, and I k now th e bur den of th e h er i-
tage you r ec eiv ed fr om th e p ast and w h ic h tor tur es your soul s
. B ut
you must, w ith an op en, fr ee mind, go to your younger c omr ades and
br ing th em into your midst, as eq ual s
. Dow n w ith doubts, distr ust and
desp ondenc y! I sh al l insistentl y demand, bac k ed by th e w h ol e p ow er
of th e r ev ol utionar y p eop l e, obedienc e to disc ip l ine based on c on-
sc ienc e, duty and tr uth
. T h is w il l mak e th e A r my a for c e befor e
w h ic h al l w il l bow and w h ic h al l w il l fear
. ( Veh ement ap p l ause . )
T h e p ur p ose of your C ongr ess I under stood to be your desir e to
ex tend your h ands to your fr iend and br oth er - th e sol dier
. I am
sur e th at th e bur den w h ic h I h av e assumed w il l seem to me l igh t and
j oyous and th at th e beautiful day of th e bir th of th e R ev ol utionar y
A r my w il l c ome, an A r my w h ic h w il l giv e up its l ife for fr eedom, eq ual -
ity and fr ater nity . "
T h e A l l - R ussian C ongr ess of Offic er s' Del egates adop ted
th e fol l ow ing r esol ution r egar ding th e w ar :
" T h e A l l - R ussian C ongr ess of Offic er s' Del egates, w h il e w el c oming
th e Pr ov isional Gov er nment' s effor ts for a l asting p eac e and br oth er -
h ood, r ec ogniz es th at :
( 1 ) A ny r etar dation in th e w or k of r estor ing th e A r my' s and N av y' s
figh ting c ap ac ity may r esul t in th e r uin of fr ee R ussia, bec ause it w il l
al l ow Ger many to beat our faith ful A l l ies, after w h ic h a h umil iating
p eac e w il l be for c ed up on us . -
( 2 ) T h e time for w or ds h as p assed, and ac tion is nec essar y in
or der to c omp el th e Ger man Gov er nment to ac c ep t th e w ish of th e
R ussian p eop l e- p eac e w ith out annex ations or indemnities, based on
th e p r inc ip l e of sel f- deter mination of p eop l es
.
( 3 ) Offensiv e ac tion is nec essar y on th e fr ont, as th e onl y guar anty
of suc c ess .
3 4 4

T h e B ir th of th e R ussian Democ r ac y
( 4 ) T h e w h ol e R ussian p eop l e must unite in a p ow er ful effor t to
c omp el Ger many to ac c ep t its w ish . "
With r egar d to th e inter nal c onditions of th e A r my, th e
C ongr ess adop ted th e fol l ow ing r esol ution
" T h e A l l - R ussian C ongr ess of Offic er s' Del egates fr om th e A r m
v
and N av y h as c ome to th e fol l ow ing c onc l usions
. Ow ing to deep
c auses r ooted in th e c onditions of l ife of th e p r e- r ev ol utionar y
p er iod and to th e inev itabl e sh oc k s of th e stor my c our se of th e
gr eat R ussian R ev ol ution, th e A r my h as been br ough t into a state of
p ainful disor ganiz ation, w h ic h h as affec ted th ose essential p ar ts of its
foundation w ith out w h ic h no ar my c an ex ist . T h is disor ganiz ation
is manifest in th e fol l ow ing c ir c umstanc es :
( 1 ) C omp l ete dec l ine of th e sup er ior offic er ' s auth or ity, manifest
not onl y in h is unc er tainty as to w h eth er h is or der s w il l be c ar r ied
out, but ev en in dir ec t fail ur e to c ar r y th em out, inc l uding or der s on
th e battl efiel d ; th e attemp ts on th e p ar t of th e mil tar y c ommittees to
br ing under th eir j ur isdic tion, mer el y by th eir ow n dec l ar ation, th e
q uestions of A r my administr ation and ev en th ose of op er ation
; th e
effor ts to p ut into p r ac tic e th e p r inc ip l e of el ec tion of sup er ior s
.
( 2 )
On th e one h and, c omp l ete absenc e of c onfidenc e on th e p ar t
of sol dier s in th e offic er s, w h o, as a w h ol e, ar e susp ec ted of disl oyal ty
dur ing th e r ev ol utionar y str uggl e ; on th e oth er h and, a c etr ain c on-
fusion among th e offic er s th emsel v es in th ese diffic ul t, al most tr agic
c onditions of th e tr ansitional p er iod
: l ac k of sel f- assur anc e, inabil ity
to dec ide on a l ine of c onduc t and l ac k of desir e for ener getic , un-
daunted w or k ' on new p r inc ip l es.
( 3 ) F r eq uent c ases of c omp l ete unfitness of p er sons of both
h igh er and l ow er r ank s for th e p osition oc c up ied
.
( 4 )
A bsenc e of a l ofty mil itar y sp ir it, ev ident in th e ir r esistibl e
and fr ank l onging on th e p ar t of th e sol dier s for p eac e, often p eac e
at any p r ic e ; w h ol esal e deser tion, esp ec ial l y in
- th e r ear div isions ;
th e sh ameful fac t of fr ater niz ing w h ic h h as br ough t about a state of
ac tual tr uc e in some sec tor s at th e fr ont .
( 5 ) A bsenc e of c oop er ation betw een fr ont and r ear , demon-
str ated in th e c omp l ete fail ur e on th e p ar t of th e r ear to satisfy th e
demands of th e fr ont .
( 6 )
T h e w or st p ossibl e disor ganiz ation in th e food and fodder
sup p l y system, w h ic h is destr oying th e A r my' s h or se- p ow er
.
T h e A l l - R ussian C ongr ess of Offic er s' Del egates fr om th e A r my
and N av y fer v entl y ap p eal s to th e offic er s of th e A r my and N av y for
th e good of r ev ol utionar y R ussia to for get th eir fatigue, to for get
th eir sad p er sonal ex p er ienc es and offenses, to c ast aside al l de-
sp ondenc y and ap ath y, to w or k w ith sel f- sac r ific e and ener gy for th e
T h e M iddl e C l ass and its R el ation to th e w ar

3 4 5
buil ding up of a gr eat R ev ol utionar y A r my, and in p ar tic ul ar , for th e
immediate ex ec ution of th e fol l ow ing measur es :
( a) Passing and p utting into effec t of a p ositiv e l aw w h ic h w oul d
v er y definitel y state th at disobedienc e to mil itar y or der s in th e w ar
ar ea is tr eason to th e c ountr y and is l iabl e to th e sev er est p unish -
ment
.
( b) S tr ic t l imitation of th e ac tiv ities of th e A r my C ommittees,
w ith in w el l - defined boundar ies, to ec onomic , soc ial and educ ational
q uestions, and ener getic op p osition to al l effor ts to ap p l y th e el ec tiv e
p r inc ip l e to th e offic e of Pr esident of th e C ounc il on F iel d Op er ations
.
( c )
A n ex tensiv e, c onstant, systematic and ener getic p r op a-
ganda by auth or itativ e and l eading or gans of th e R ussian Democ r ac y,
for th e p ur p ose of str ength ening th e disc ip l ine among th e sol dier s,
inc r easing th eir c onfidenc e in th e offic er s and p r omoting a c or r ec t
under standing of gov er nmental p r obl ems by th e A r my .
( d) T h e immediate or ganiz ation of disc ip l inar y c our ts for th e
c ontr ol of th e l ess intel l igent el ements of th e A r my .
( e) I mp r ov ement in th e mil itar y p r ep ar ation of offic er s and non-
c ommissioned offic er s .
( f)
F or mation in eac h p ar t of th e A r my of sp ec ial detac h ments
w h ic h w oul d be th e bul w ar k of l ofty mil itar y sp ir it and of c onsc ien-
tious p er for manc e of mil itar y duty .
( g) I mmediate c onsider ation of th e q uestion of ap p ointment of
h igh er offic er s, tak ing as th e basis th e meth od of r atific ation of
c ommander s by c ounc il c omp osed of p er sons both eq ual and sub-
or dinate to th e offic er w h o is being ap p ointed .
( h ) Putting into effec t r esp onsibil ity of c ommander s for th e
fiel d op er ations by means of ac c ounts to be giv en to c ommittees
sp ec ial l y el ec ted for th at p ur p ose fr om among offic er s and sol -
dier s ;
establ ish ing of th e c l osest p ossibl e r el ations betw een
th e fr ont and th e r ear , for w h ic h p ur p ose th e r eser v e for c es sh oul d
be p ut under th e j ur isdic tion of th e c or r esp onding c ommander at th e
fr ont, as r egar ds th e instr uc tion of th e for c es and th e meth od of r e-
infor c ement .
( i) T h or ough and ener getic or ganiz ation of al l p r obl ems of food
sup p l y and tr ansp or tation .
( j ) S ummoning of al l gov er nmental and soc ial for c es for a str ug-
gl e against th e disgr ac e of deser tion and ev asion of duty to th e
F ath er l and . "
C HA PT E R VI I I
T h e S ec ond C abinet
T
HE r esignation of A . I . Guc h k ov and P . N . M il iuk ov
l ed to a gov er nmental c r isis w h ic h ended after th e
E x ec utiv e C ommittee of th e Petr ogr ad C ounc il of
Wor k men' s and S ol dier s' Del egates dec ided, by a v ote of 4 1 to
1 9 , to p ar tic ip ate in th e Gov er nment .
Pr inc e G . E . L v ov w as again ap p ointed Pr ime M inister in th e
new C abinet . A . F . Ker ensk y w as ap p ointed M inister of War
and N av y, r ep l ac ing A . I . Guc h k ov , and to Ker ensk y' s p l ac e,
as M inister of j ustic e, w as ap p ointed P . N . Per ev er z ev , a
member of th e Par ty of S oc ial ists- R ev ol utionists
.
M . I .
T er estc h enk o r ep l ac ed P . N . M il iuk ov as M inister of F or eign
A ffair s, and to T er estc h enk o' s p ost, as M inister of F inanc e,
w as ap p ointed A . I . S h ingar iev , th e for mer M inister of A gr i-
c ul tur e . V. M . C h er nov , th e l eader of th e Par ty of S oc ial ists-
R ev ol utionists, w as ap p ointed M inister of A gr ic ul tur e .
T h e M inister s A . I
. Konov al ov , A . A . M anuil ov , V
. N . L v ov
and I . V. Godniev r etained th eir for mer p osts . N ew M inistr ies
of Post and T el egr ap h , of L abor , of S up p l y, and of Publ ic
Wel far e w er e or ganiz ed, and th e S oc ial - Democ r ats, E . G .
T ser etel l i and M . I
. S k obel ev , th e Peop l e' s S oc ial ist, A
. V.
Pesh ek h onov , and th e C onstitutional - Democ r at, Pr inc e D . I .
S h ak h ov sk oy, r esp ec tiv el y, w er e ap p ointed to fil l th ese p osts .
T h us in th e new C oal ition C abinet sev en M inistr ies w er e fil l ed
by C onstitutional - Democ r ats, six - by S oc ial ists, and tw o-
by th e Oc tobr ists .
T h e new Gov er nment began its ac tiv ities by p ubl ish ing th e
fol l ow ing dec l ar ation
" R eor ganiz ed and str ength ened by th e entr anc e of new r ep r esenta-
tiv es of th e R ev ol utionar y Democ r ac y, th e Pr ov isional Gov er nment
dec l ar es th at it w il l r esol utel y and w h ol e- h ear tedl y p ut into p r ac tic e
th e ideas of l iber ty, eq ual ity and fr ater nity- th e p r inc ip l es insc r ibed
on th e banner under w h ic h th e gr eat R ussian R ev ol ution h as c ome
into being . T h e Pr ov isional Gov er nment is p ar tic ul ar l y united on th e
fol l ow ing fundamental l ines of its futur e ac tiv ities :
1 ' - A . F . Ker ensk y, M inister of War
and N av y .
2 - Pr inc e G . E . L v ov , Pr ime M inister
and M inister of th e I nter ior .
3 - M . I . T er estc h enk o . M inister of
F or eign A ffair s .
4 - A . A . M anuil ov , M inister of E du-
c ation .
5 - N . P . Per ev er z ev . M inister of Jus-
tic e .
6 - V. M . C h er nov , M inister of A gr i-
c ul tur e.
7 _ % .
1 ' . Pesh ek h onov , M inister of
S up p l y
S E C ON D C A B I N E T
1 2
1 3
3 4 7
1 0
1 4
1 1
1 5
8 - A . I . S h ingar iov , M inister of F i-
nanc e .
9 - A . I . Konov al ov , M inister of
T r ade and I ndustr y .
1 0 - N . V. N ek r asov . M inster of Ways
of C ommunic ation .
1 1 - I . G . T ser etel l i . M inister of Post
and T el egr ap h .
1 2 - M . I . S k obel ev . M inister of L abor .
1 3 - I . V. Godnev , S tate C omp tr ol l er
.
1 4 - V. M . L v ov . Pr oc ur ator of th e
S ynod .
1 5 - Pr inc e D . I . S h ak h ov sk oy, M in-
ister of Publ ic Wel far e .
3 4 8

T h e B ir th of th e R ussian Democ r ac y
( 1 )
I n its for eign p ol ic y, r ej ec ting, in ful l h ar mony w ith th e entir e
p eop l e, th e v er y idea of a sep ar ate p eac e, th e Pr ov isional Gov er n-
ment p r oc l aims op enl y th at it is its aim to br ing about, at th e ear l iest
p ossibl e date, a univ er sal p eac e w ith out th e obj ec t of eith er imp osing
its r ul e ov er any nation, or tak ing aw ay any nation' s w eal th , or
annex ing for c ibl y for eign ter r itor y, i . e . , w e w ish p eac e w ith out
annex ations, w ith out indemnities and on th e p r inc ip l e of al l ow ing
ev er y national ity to w or k out its ow n destinies . F ir ml y c onv inc ed
th at w ith th e ov er th r ow of th e T z ar ' s r egime and th e intr oduc tion of
democ r atic p r inc ip l es in our domestic and for eign p ol ic ies, a new and
v al uabl e fac tor w as c r eated, induc ing th e A l l ied Democ r ac ies to asp ir e
for a l asting p eac e and br oth er h ood of nations, th e Pr ov isional
Gov er nment w il l tak e th e p r el iminar y step s tow ar ds effec ting an
under tsanding w ith th e A l l ies on th e basis of th e dec l ar ation made
by th e Pr ov isional Gov er nment on M ar c h 2 7 th .
( 2 ) B el iev ing th at th e defeat of R ussia and h er A l l ies w oul d
not onl y be th e sour c e of th e gr eatest c al amity for th e p eop l es of th e
w or l d, but w oul d r etar d and mak e imp ossibl e th e c onc l usion of
a gener al p eac e on th e basis of th e abov e mentioned p r inc ip l es,
th e Pr ov isional Gov er nment tr usts th at th e R ev ol utionar y A r my of
R ussia w il l not al l ow th e Ger man tr oop s to c r ush our A l l ies in th e
West and th en tur n th eir ar ms against us . T o str ength en th e p r inc i-
p l es of democ r atiz ation in our A r my, to or ganiz e and str ength en its
figh ting c ap ac ity for both defensiv e and offensiv e op er ations, is th e
most imp or tant task now befor e th e Pr ov isional Gov er nment .
( 3 ) T h e Pr ov isional Gov er nment w il l r el entl essl y and r esol utel y
figh t th e ec onomic disr up tion th r ough systematic intr oduc tion of
fur th er gov er nment and c ommunal c ontr ol ov er p r oduc tion, tr ans-
p or tation, ex c h ange and distr ibution of p r oduc ts, and if nec essar y,
w il l r esor t to r eor ganiz ation of th e industr ial l ife .
( 4 ) M easur es c onc er ning th e ful l est p ossibl e p r otec tion of l abor
w il l be dev el op ed fur th er in th e most ener getic w ay .
( 5 ) L eav ing it to th e C onstituent A ssembl y to dec ide th e q uestion
of tr ansfer of l and to th e toil er s, th e Pr ov isional Gov er nment w il l
tak e al l nec essar y measur es to sec ur e th e gr eatest p r oduc tiv ity in th e
bak ing and al l ied industr ies, in or der to satisfy th e needs of th e
c ountr y, and to r egul ate th e util iz ation of l and in th e inter ests of th e
c ountr y' s needs .
( 6 ) Desir ing to effec t a gr adual r eor ganiz ation of our system of
financ es on democ r atic p r inc ip l es, th e Pr ov isional Gov er nment w il l
p ay sp ec ial a ttention . t o th e inc r ease of dir ec t tax ation of th e p r op -
er ty- ow ning c l asses ( inh er itanc e tax ) , of tax ation of ex c ess p r ofits
amassed in w ar industr ies, inc ome tax , etc
.
T h e S ec ond C abinet

3 4 9
( 7 ) T h e w or k of intr oduc ing and str ength ening th e democ r atic
or ganiz ations of sel f- gov er nment w il l be c ontinued w ith al l p ossibl e
p er sistenc e and sp eed .
( 8 ) T h e Pr ov isional Gov er nment w il l , in l ik e manner , mak e ev er y
effor t to c onv ok e th e C onstituent A ssembl y in Petr ogr ad as soon as
p ossibl e .
( 9 ) C onsider ing it its obj ec t to p ut th e abov e mentioned p r ogr am
into p r ac tic e w ith out h esitation, th e Pr ov isional Gov er nment c ate-
gor ic al l y dec l ar es th at its w or k c an bear fr uit onl y on c ondition th at
th e r ev ol utionar y p eop l e p l ac e th eir ful l est and unc onditional faith
in th e Gov er nment and enabl e it to ex er c ise in r eal ity its ful l p ow er ,
w h ic h is so indisp ensabl e in th e matter of safeguar ding th e ac h iev e-
ments of th e R ev ol ution and th eir fur th er dev el op ment .
A p p eal ing to al l th e c itiz ens, w ith th e ur gent p l ea to p r eser v e th e
unity of p ow er w h ic h is being effec ted by th e Pr ov isional Gov er n-
ment, w e p r oc l aim th at th e Pr ov isional Gov er nment w il l tak e th e
most ener getic measur es to sav e th e c ountr y fr om al l c ounter -
r ev ol utionar y attemp ts as w el l as fr om anar c h istic , unl aw ful ac ts of
v iol enc e, disor ganiz ing th e c ountr y and p r ep ar ing th e gr ound for
c ounter - r ev ol ution . T h e Pr ov isional Gov er nment bel iev es th at on th is
r oad it w il l meet w ith th e unh esitating sup p or t of al l th ose to w h om
R ussia' s l iber ty is dear
. "
On M ay 1 8 , at a sp ec ial meeting of th e Petr ogr ad C ounc il
of Wor k men' s and S ol dier s' Del egates, M . I . S k obel ev , th e
new M inister of L abor , made p ubl ic th e Dec l ar ation of th e
Gov er nment, and N . S . T sc h eidz e, th e Pr esident of th e C oun-
c il , intr oduc ed a r esol ution, al r eady ac c ep ted by th e E x ec utiv e
C ommittee of th e C ounc il , ap p r ov ing th e entr anc e of th e
S oc ial ist M inister s into th e C abinet .
A mong th e B ol sh ev ik i w h o op p osed th e r esol ution w as
L eon T r otsk y, w h o th en addr essed th e C ounc il for th e fir st
time, h av ing onl y on th e p r ec eding day r etur ned fr om th e
U nited S tates .
T r otsk y p ointed out th at th e p ar tic ip ation of th e S oc ial ists
in th e C oal ition M inistr y w as a danger ous step . " I nev er
bel iev ed," h e said, " th at th e emanc ip ation of th e w or k ing c l ass
w il l c ome fr om abov e . Div ision of p ow er w il l
not c ease w ith th e
S oc ial ists' entr anc e into th e M inistr y . A str ong r ev ol utionar y
p ow er is nec essar y . T h e R ussian R ev ol ution w il l not p er ish .
B ut I bel iev e onl y in a mir ac l e fr om bel ow . T h er e ar e th r ee
c ommandments for th e p r ol etar iat : ( 1 ) T r ansmission of
3 5 0

T h e B ir th of th e R ussian Democ r ac y
p ow er to th e r ev ol utionar y p eop l e ; ( 2 ) c ontr ol ov er th eir ow n
l eader s, and ( 3 ) c onfidenc e in th eir ow n r ev ol utionar y p ow er s . "
A fter a debate, th e meeting adop ted th e fol l ow ing r esol ution,
w ith onl y sev er al dissenting v otes
" A c k now l edging th at th e dec l ar ation of th e Pr ov isional
Gov er nment, w h ic h h as been r ec onstr uc ted and for tified by
th e entr anc e of r ep r esentativ es of th e R ev ol utionar y Democ -
r ac y, c onfor ms to th e idea and p ur p ose of str ength ening th e
ac h iev ements of th e R ev ol ution and its fur th er dev el op ment,
th e C ounc il of Wor k men' s and S ol dier s' Del egates h as de-
ter mined
( 1 ) R ep r esentativ es of th e C ounc il of Wor k men' s and
S ol dier s' Del egates must enter into th e Pr ov isional Gov er n-
ment
.
( 2 ) T h ose r ep r esentativ es of th e C ounc il of Wor k men' s and
S ol dier s' Del egates w h o j oin th e Gov er nment must, until th e
c r eation of an A l l - R ussian or gan of th e C ounc il of Wor k men' s
and S ol dier s' Del egates, c onsider th emsel v es r esp onsibl e to
th e Petr ogr ad C ounc il of Wor k men' s and S ol dier s' Del egates,
and must p l edge th emsel v es to giv e ac c ounts of al l th eir ac -
tiv ities to th at C ounc il .
( 3 ) T h e C ounc il of Wor k men' s and S ol dier s' Del egates
ex p r esses its ful l c onfidenc e in th e new Pr ov isional Gov er n-
ment and ur ges al l fr iends of democ r ac y to giv e th is Gov er n-
ment ac tiv e assistanc e, w h ic h w oul d assur e it th e ful l measur e
of p ow er nec essar y for th e safety of th e R ev ol ution' s gains
and for its fur th er dev el op ment . "
A month l ater , in th e middl e of June, th is same p r obl em,
th e r el ation of th e p r ol etar iat to th e C oal ition Gov er nment,
w as onc e mor e debated,- th is time at th e A l l - R ussian C on-
gr ess of ' or k men' s and S ol dier s' Del egates . A gain . one of
th e main sp eak er s of th e B ol sh ev ik i w as L eon T r otsk y .
" I tel l you th at th e c ountr y is ap p r oac h ing an outr igh t c atastr op h e,"
said T r otsk y, " bec ause someh ow w e c annot under stand th at th e
w h ol e th ing l ies in th e c r eation of a h omogeneous p ow er . I n tw o
w eek s th e q uestion w il l bec ome mor e ac ute . T h e q uestion is- p ow er
to w h om and ov er w h om? I s it p ow er ov er th e R ev ol utionar y
Democ r ac y or th e p ow er of th e R ev ol utionar y Democ r ac y? Do not
T h e S ec ond C abinet

3 5 1
for get th at at th e moment of demobil iz ation, w e w il l need a stil l mor e
p ow er ful gov er nment, and, th er efor e I say th at ful l p ow er must be
tur ned ov er to th e Democ r ac y
.
T h e p ol ic y of c ontinual p ostp onement and th e detail ed p r ep ar ations
for c al l ing th e C onstituent A ssembl y is a fal se p ol ic y
. I t may destr oy
ev en th e v er y r eal iz ation of th e C onstituent A ssembl y
. A nd th ese
bl ac k r av ens of th e F our th I mp er ial Duma ar e not at al l so inno-
c ent
. T h eir ap p ointees in th e M inistr y ar e star v ing out th e R ussian
R ev ol ution p r ac tic al l y in al l sp h er es, w h il e th ey th emsel v es sit
in th e T av r ic h esk y Pal ac e and w ait for th e time, w h en, as Dep uty
Ker ensk y th ink s, th e c ountr y itsel f w il l w ish for th e r etur n of th e
ol d Oc tobr ist or T z ar ' s Gov er nment
. T h en R odz iank o w il l c ome
and tie us togeth er in one bag, you
fr om th e r igh t w ing and us
fr om th e l eft
. "
T r otsk y w as answ er ed by th e M inister of Post and T el e-
gr ap h , I . G
. T ser etel l i
" A s a r ep r esentativ e of th e R ev ol utionar y Democ r ac y, in th e
Pr ov isional Gov er nment," said I . G
. T ser etel l i, " I w ant to p oint
out, so as to mak e it absol utel y c l ear , on w h at c onditions w e c onsider
it p ossibl e to w or k , w h at w e w il l do in th e futur e, and w h at sup p or t
w e w ant fr om th e r ev ol utionar y masses, if th e Democ r ac y sh oul d w ish
th at w e r emain in p ow er
. T h e Pr ov isional Gov er nment c ame into
being by means of an agr eement betw een th e R ev ol utionar y Democ -
r ac y and th e bour geoisie
. We ar e l iv ing th r ough a moment w h en th e
c onc entr ation of al l for c es of th e c ountr y is needed to l iq uidate th e
inter ior and for eign c r ises .
T h is p r obl em c an onl y be met adeq uatel y by a gov er nment w h ic h
unites th e tr emendous maj or ity of th e p op ul ation and w h ic h r ests
on al l th e l iv ing for c es of th e c ountr y
. T h e S ov iets of Wor k men' s
and S ol dier s' Del egates undoubtedl y h av e gr eat infl uenc e
; none th e
l ess, w e c annot say th at th ey unite al l th e for c es of th e c ountr y
.
E x c ep t th e c l asses, w h ic h ar e united by th e C ounc il s, th er e ex ists
stil l th e tax - p aying R ussia and th e p r op er tied c l asses
. I n th e p r imar y
stages of th e R ev ol ution th er e w as a moment w h en th e I mp er ial
Duma bec ame th e c enter of it
. T h e Duma stood th en for p r ogr essiv e
ideas and in th is w ay h as r ender ed inv al uabl e ser v ic es to th e R ev ol u-
tion
. I n its p r ogr essiv e mov ements th e R ev ol ution c l eav ed aw ay fr om
itsel f sev er al c l asses of soc iety w h o w er e w ith it at th e beginning
.
T h ese c l asses r emained outside of th e p eop l e' s mov ements
. A t th e
fir st moment th e q uestion of w h eth er M il iuk ov or Guc h k ov , as r ep r e-
sentativ es of th e imp er ial istic c ir c l es, c oul d enter th e C abinet of th e
Pr ov isional Gov er nment, did not oc c ur at al l
. S oon, h ow ev er , th ese
el ements w er e c ast aside by th e p r ogr essiv e adv anc e of th e R ev ol ution
.
T h e R ev ol ution c al l s ev er ybody to c ome under its banner s, and h e
w h o tur ns aw ay fr om th ese banner s r emains isol ated
.
3 5 2

T h e B ir th o f th e R ussian Democ r ac y
T h e fir st
C abinet of th e Pr ov isional Gov er nment w as r ep l ac ed
by th e C oal ition Gov er nment
. T h e q uestion ar ises w h eth er th er e ar e
not in th e p er sonnel of th e p r esent Gov er nment p er sons unabl e
to ac c omp l ish th e p r ogr am of p r inc ip al p ol itic al r efor ms map p ed out
by th e N ew Gov er nment
. T h e answ er to th is q uestion, l ife itsel f
w il l giv e
. Onl y by ac tual ex p er ienc e w il l it be made c l ear w h eth er
th e r ep r esentativ es of th e bour geoisie ar e r eal l y c ap abl e of under -
tak ing a r adic al p r ogr am of r efor ms or w h eth er th ey c ame to sabotage
th is p r ogr am
.
I f th e r ep r esentativ es of th e bour geoisie p r ov e in-
c ap abl e, th ey w il l be ex p el l ed, but until th at h ap p ens nobody may
disc r edit th em in adv anc e, bec ause ex ac tl y suc h a l ac k of c onfidenc e
w oul d br ing th e disor ganiz ation w h ic h is so danger ous at th e p r esent
time .
One must r ec ogniz e th at ev en th e I mp er ial Duma, w h ic h w as
c al l ed by some one h er e ` a meeting of dead men,' stil l h as gr eat
infl uenc e and auth or ity w ith v er y l ar ge masses of th e p eop l e, and
onl y in th e futur e p r ogr essiv e adv anc e of th e R ev ol ution w il l th e
r eal r ol e of th e I mp er ial Duma p ossibl y bec ome c l ear , and th en th e
p eop l e w il l bec ome av er se to it . "
C ontinuing, T ser etel l i p assed ov er to th e ar guments of th e
B ol sh ev ik i and p ointed out th at th e B ol sh ev ik i did not feel
r esp onsibil ity for th e c onseq uenc es to w h ic h th eir p r op osal s
may l ead
" I t is p r op osed th at w e sp eak to th e A l l ies w ith ul timatums, but did
th ose w h o made th ese p r op osal s th ink th at th is r oad migh t l ead to th e
br eak ing of dip l omatic r el ations w ith th e A l l ies and to th e v er y
sep ar ate p eac e w h ic h is c ondemned p r ac tic al l y by al l of us? Did
L enine th ink of th e c onseq uenc es of h is p r op osal to ar r est sev er al
doz en c ap ital ists? C an th e B ol sh ev ik i guar antee th at th eir r oad w il l
l ead us to th e c or r ec t sol ution of th e c r isis, and if th ey guar antee
th is, th en th ey do not k now w h at th ey ar e doing
. T h e B ol sh e-
v ik i r oad c an l ead onl y to c iv il w ar . "
T ser etel l i dec l ar ed th at h e w oul d not fol l ow th is r oad, but
w oul d l ead R ussia on th e r oad on w h ic h it is p ossibl e onl y to
die or to c onq uer . He h op ed th at R ussia w oul d c onq uer .
T ser etel l i w as fol l ow ed by th e B ol sh ev ik , Kamenev . Kam-
enev began by answ er ing th e for mer sp eak er :
" T h e p r esent C oal ition C abinet," said h e, " c annot r ec eiv e gr eat
and p ow er ful auth or ity bec ause th e or ganiz ed Democ r ac y, due to
its v er y str uc tur e, c annot giv e th is p ow er to th e p r esent Gov er n-
ment .
T h e men w h o ac c ep ted p osts in th e C oal ition Gov er nment,
ac c ep ted it w ith th e p ur p ose of p r ev enting th e r uin of R ussia, but
w er e suc h measur es tak en by th e Gov er nment?
T h e S ec ond C abinet

3 5 3
A l l
r ev ol utionar y measur es of th e Pr ov isional Gov er nment ar e
being del ayed and r ej ec ted, bec ause ev er yth ing in th e Gov er nment is
based on an agr eement betw een th e R ev ol ution and th e c ounter -
r ev ol ution w h ic h is being or ganiz ed .
Our M inister s, in th e final anal ysis, h av e to defend measur es w h ic h
ev en M il iuk ov or Pr inc e L v ov w oul d h ar dl y dar e to defend
. "
Kamenev stop p ed to disc uss th e statement th at th e B ol sh e-
v ik i desir ed a sep ar ate p eac e and dec l ar ed
" T h e C onfer enc e of th e B ol sh ev ik i h as ex p r essed a r esol ute p r otest
against th e base c al umny w h ic h c l aims th at w e ar e for a sep ar ate
p eac e .
I n gener al , h ow ev er , c omr ades, w e do not r ej ec t a sep ar ate p eac e
on th e gr ound th at agr eements w ith imp er ial ists ar e v al uabl e to us
and th at w e c onsider inv iol abl e th e note binding al l th e al l ies, w h ic h
dep r iv es th em of th e r igh t to indep endentl y c onc l ude a sep ar ate
p eac e . F or us, th er e is someth ing h igh er th an al l th ese agr eements-
namel y, th e inter ests of th e p r ol etar iat and th e R ev ol ution, and if
th ese inter ests sh oul d demand th e destr uc tion of th e ex isting agr ee-
ments, th en w e w il l destr oy th em .
Gener al l y sp eak ing, a sep ar ate p eac e is outside th e h or iz on
of
th ose ac ts w h ic h w e as a Par ty may under tak e . We suggest to tr eat
v er y c ar eful l y th e q uestion of a sep ar ate p eac e . Onl y th e one w h o
stak es ev er yth ing on a str ong ar my c an in th e end be for c ed to ac c ep t
a sep ar ate p eac e
.
I f th e r ev ol utionar y p r ol etar iat of E ur op e w il l fail to sup p or t th e
R ussian R ev ol ution, th e l atter w il l be r uined . A nd as th at sup p or t is
th e onl y guar anty of th e safety of th e R ev ol ution, w e c annot c h ange our
p ol ic y by disc ussing th e q uestion ass to h ow muc h fr ater niz ing w il l
stimul ate th e aw ak ening of th e p r ol etar ian p ow er s of E ur op e
. Oth er -
w ise, th e R ussian R ev ol ution w il l be r ender ed p ow er l ess by th e stones
of th e imp er ial istic mil l s, and it w il l not matter muc h w h eth er
th ese c ome fr om th e side of Ger many or A ngl o- Jap an
. A nd w e sh al l
not disc uss w h eth er it w oul d be better for us to be a c ol ony of Ger -
man or A ngl o- Jap anese imp er ial ism .
We do not c ar e for eith er , and w il l tr ead th e p ath w h ic h is out-
side of th ese p ossibil ities
. Histor y h as sh ow n th at th e l ogic of th e
R ev ol ution l ies r eal l y in th is p r oc ess
.
T h e R ev ol ution w as p l anned as a smal l R ev ol ution in th e name
of a gr eat w ar , but it tur ned out to be a gr eat R ev ol ution and
a smal l w ar
. We stand now at th e tur ning p oint, w h en it r eal l y
th r eatens to be seduc ed to a smal l r ev ol ution and a gr eat w ar . A nd
M il iuk ov , c oming for w ar d w ith h is dec l ar ations, did not sp eak in
fav or of th e aims c ontemp l ated by you, but for th e tr iump h of
th e ideas of th e p r esent moment, w h ic h h er e, in R ussia, must r esul t in
th e str angl ing of th e R ev ol ution
.
3 5 4

T h e B ir th o f th e R ussian Democ r ac y
T h e onl y outl et fr om th e situation is a c omp l ete br eak betw een
th e R ev ol ution and th e imp er ial istic aims
. A nd th is th e R ev ol ution
c annot do, until it br eak s w ith bour geoisie
.
F or tw o month s you h av e p l ac ed your c onfidenc e in M il iuk ov ,
al l ow ed h im to v iol ate th e young R ussian R ev ol ution in th e name of
h is imp er ial istic aims
. Wh en M il iuk ov w as issuing notes to w h ic h
you w oul d obj ec t, h e w oul d giv e ex p l anations and you w oul d find
th em satisfac tor y
. T h at l asted tw o month s, and you h av e no r igh t to
ex p ec t th at th e for eign p r ol etar iat w il l h av e faith in your notes and
tel egr ams, in w h ic h you c ontinue to w r ite one th ing, w h il e at h ome
you stand for an imp er ial istic gov er nment .
Wh en th e C oal ition C abinet w as for med and you r ec eiv ed new
M inister s, th e gener al situation did not imp r ov e, but gr ew w or se
.
You must p r ov e by deeds th at you stand for th e p r inc ip l e ` w ith out
annex ations or indemnities' w h il e, in r eal ity, F inl and is unabl e until
now to obtain fr om you th e r ec ognition of th ose r igh ts w h ic h you
your sel v es h av e r ec ogniz ed to be h er s, on p ap er
. A nd as to th e
U k r aine, you did not w ant to r ec ogniz e until now h er r igh t for
national sel f- definition . "
T h e C ongr ess dec ided to ac c ep t as a basic r esol ution th e one
offer ed by th e M ensh ev ik i and S oc ial ists- R ev ol utionists, w h ic h
w as p assed by a v ote of al l th e member s ex c ep t th e B ol sh e-
v ik i and a p ar t of th e M ensh ev ik i- I nter national ists
. T h e r eso-
l ution fol l ow s
" T h e C ongr ess r ec ogniz es :
1
. T h at under th e c onditions c r eated as a r esul t of th e fir st M in-
ister ial c r isis, th e p assing ov er of al l p ow er to th e bour geoisie el e-
ments ' w oul d deal a bl ow at th e c ause of th e R ev ol ution
.
2
. T h at th e tr ansfer of al l p ow er to th e C ounc il s of Wor k men' s and
S ol dier s' Del egates, at th e p r esent moment of th e R ussian R ev ol ution,
w oul d gr eatl y w eak en h er p ow er s by p r ematur el y dr iv ing aw ay fr om
h er el ements w h ic h ar e stil l c ap abl e of ser v ing h er , and w oul d
th r eaten th e r uin of th e R ev ol ution
; w e ap p r ov e th e ac tions of
th e Petr ogr ad C ounc il of Wor k men' s and S ol dier s' Del egates w h ic h
h as found an outl et fr om th e c r isis of A p r il 2 0 - 2 1 in th e c r eation
of a C oal ition Gov er nment, on th e basis of a r esol ute and c onsistent
democ r atic p l atfor m in th e sp h er e of for eign and inter ior p ol ic ies
.
Hav ing h ear d th e ex p l anations of th e c omr ades- M inister s about
th e gener al p ol ic y of th e Pr ov isional Gov er nment, and ex p r essing
ful l c onfidenc e in th em, th e A l l - R ussian C ongr ess r ec ogniz es th e
dir ec tion of th is p ol ic y as ser v ing th e inter ests of th e R ev ol ution
.
T h e C ongr ess c al l s up on th e Pr ov isional Gov er nment to c ar r y
out mor e r esol utel y and mor e c onsistentl y th e democ r atic p l atfor m
ac c ep ted by it, and, in p ar tic ul ar
: ( a) to str iv e p er sistentl y for th e
T h e S ec ond C abinet

3 5 5
sp eediest c onc l usion of a gener al p eac e w ith out annex ations or in-
demnities, on th e basis of sel f- definition of national ities ; ( b) to c ar r y
out th e fur th er democ r atiz ation of th e A r my and to str ength en its
figh ting p ow er ; ( c ) to under tak e, w ith th e dir ec t p ar tic ip ation of th e
toil ing masses, th e most ener getic measur es for th e c ombating of th e
financ ial - ec onomic disr up tion and disor ganiz ation of th e food sup p l y
p r oduc ed by th e w ar and made ac ute by th e p ol ic y of th e p r op er tied
c l asses
; ( d) to c onduc t a systematic and r esol ute figh t against c ounter -
r ev ol utionar y attemp ts
; ( e) to br ing about th e sp eediest r eal iz ation,
of th e measur es affec ting th e q uestions of l and and l abor , in ac c or danc e
w ith demands of th e or ganiz ed toil ing masses and dic tated by th e
v ital inter ests of p ubl ic ec onomy, gr eatl y sap p ed by th e w ar : ( f) to
aid in th e or ganiz ation of al l for c es of th e R ev ol utionar y Democ r ac y
by means of r ap id and r adic al r efor ms in th e systems of l oc al gov er n-
ment and autonomy on a democ r atic basis, and th e sp eediest intr oduc -
tion of Z emstv os and M unic ip al autonomy, w h er e th er e is none as
yet ; ( g) p ar tic ul ar l y does th e C ongr ess demand th e sp eediest c on-
v oc ation of th e A l l - R ussian C onstituent A ssembl y .
A t th e same time, for th e mor e suc c essful and r esol ute r eal iz ation
of th e indic ated p r ogr am, for th e ful l unific ation of th e for c es of th e
Democ r ac y and th e ex p r ession of its w il l in al l p h ases of gov er nment
l ife, th e C ongr ess finds it nec essar y to c r eate a sol e, p l enip otentiar y
and r ep r esentativ e or gan of th e w h ol e or ganiz ed R ev ol utionar y Democ -
r ac y of R ussia, w h ic h or gan must be c omp r ised of th e r ep r esentativ es
of th e A l l - R ussian C ongr ess of C ounc il s of Wor k men' s and S ol dier s'
Del egates as w el l as of r ep r esentativ es of th e A l l - R ussian C ongr ess
of Peasants' Del egates .
T o th is A l l - R ussian r ep r esentativ e body th e S oc ial ist M inister s
ar e r esp onsibl e for th e for eign and inter ior p ol ic y of th e Pr ov isional
Gov er nment .
T h is r esp onsibil ity giv es assur anc e th at w h il e th e S oc ial ist M in-
ister s r emain in th e Pr ov isional Gov er nment, th e Gov er nment ac ts in
ac c or d w ith th e Democ r ac y and th er efor e th e Gov er nment sh oul d
p ossess ful l p ow er and th e ac tiv e sup p or t of al l th e democ r atic for c es
of th e c ountr y .
T h e C ongr ess c al l s up on th e w h ol e R ev ol utionar y Democ r ac y of
R ussia to c onsol idate its for c es ev en mor e c l osel y ar ound th e C oun-
c il s of Wor k men' s, S ol dier s' and Peasants' Del egates
; to sup p or t
ener getic al l y th e Pr ov isional Gov er nment in al l its ac tiv ities to
str ength en and br oaden th e c onq uests of th e R ev ol ution
. "
C HA PT E R I X
A l l ied L abor and S oc ial ist L eader s in th eir R el ation
to th e R ussian R ev ol ution
T
HE
R ev ol ution in R ussia insp ir ed gr eatl y th e L abor and
S oc ial ist M ov ements in th e A l l ied c ountr ies, br inging
th em h op e th at th e fr ee R ussian Democ r ac y w oul d
p ar tic ip ate w ith r enew ed v igor in th e battl e of th e A l l ied
Democ r ac ies against Ger man autoc r ac y
. S uc h p r ominent
S oc ial ist and L abor l eader s as E mil e Vander v el de, A l ber t
T h omas, A r th ur Hender son and A r tur o L abr iol a, r ep r esenting
r esp ec tiv el y B el gian, F r enc h , E ngl ish and I tal ian S oc ial ism
and L abor , p er sonal l y v isited Petr ogr ad in M ay, 1 9 1 7
. Wh il e
James Dunc an and C h ar l es E dw ar d R ussel l , r ep r esenting
A mer ic an L abor and th at p ar t of A mer ic an S oc ial ism w h ic h
r ec ogniz es th is w ar , on th e A l l ied side, as a j ust w ar for a
democ r atic c ause, ar r iv ed l ater w ith th e A mer ic an E x tr aor -
dinar y M ission, S amuel Gomp er s,
,
th e Pr esident of th e A mer i-
c an F eder ation of L abor , on M ay 7 , c abl ed, in beh al f of
A mer ic an L abor , th e fol l ow ing ap p eal to th e E x ec utiv e C om-
mittee of th e Petr ogr ad C ounc il of Wor k men' s and S ol dier s'
Del egates
" T h e gr av est c r isis in th e w or l d' s h istor y is now h anging in th e
bal anc e
: and th e c our se w h ic h R ussia w il l p ur sue may h av e a de-
ter mining infl uenc e w h eth er democ r ac y or autoc r ac y sh al l p r ev ail
.
T h at democ r ac y and fr eedom w il l final l y p r ev ail th er e c an be no doubt
in th e minds of men w h o k now , but th e c ost, th e time l ost, and th e
sac r ific es w h ic h w oul d ensue fr om l ac k of united ac tion may h e
ap p al l ing . I t is to av oid th is th at I addr ess you .
I n v iew of th e gr av e c r isis th r ough w h ic h th e R ussian p eop l e ar e
p assing . w e assur e you th at you c an r el y absol utel y up on th e w h ol e-
h ear ted sup p or t and c oop er ation of th e A mer ic an p eop l e in th e gr eat
w ar against our c ommon enemy, Kaiser ism . I n th e ful fil l ment of
th at c ause th e p r esent A mer ic an Gov er nment h as th e sup p or t of 9 0
p er c ent . of th e A mer ic an p eop l e, inc l uding th e w or k ing c l asses of
both th e c ities and th e agr ic ul tur al sec tions .
I n fr ee A mer ic a, as in fr ee R ussia, th e agitator s for a p eac e fav or -
abl e to Pr ussian mil itar ism h av e been al l ow ed to ex p r ess th eir op in-
ions, so th at th e c onsc ious and unc onsc ious tool s of th e Kaiser ap p ear
mor e infl uential th an th ey r eal l y ar e . You sh oul d r eal iz e th e tr uth
of th e situation . T h er e ar e but - few in A mer ic a w il l ing to al l ow
T h e A l l ied L abor and S oc ial ist L eader s

3 5 7
Kaiser ism and its al l ies to c ontinue th eir r ul e ov er th ose non- Ger man
p eop l es w h o w ish to be fr ee fr om th eir domination
. S h oul d w e not
p r otest against th e p r o- Kaiser S oc ial ist inter p r etation of th e demand
for no annex ation, namel y, th at al l op p r essed non- Ger man p eop l e
sh al l be c omp el l ed to r emain under th e domination of Pr ussia and h er
l ac k eys, A ustr ia and T ur k ey? S h oul d w e not r ath er ac c ep t th e better
inter p r etation th at th er e must be no for c ibl e annex ations, but th at
ev er y p eop l e must be fr ee to c h oose any al l egianc e it desir es, as de-
manded by th e C ounc il of Wor k men' s and S ol dier s' Del egates?
L ik e your sel v es, w e ar e op p osed to al l p unitiv e and imp r op er in-
demnities .
We denounc e th e oner ous p unitiv e indemnities al r eady
imp osed by th e Kaiser up on th e p eop l e of S er bia, B el gium, and
Pol and .
A mer ic a' s w or k er s sh ar e th e v iew of th e C ounc il of Wor k men' s
and S ol dier s' Del egates th at th e onl y w ay in w h ic h th e Ger man
p eop l e c an br ing th e w ar to an ear l y end is by imitating th e gl or ious
ex amp l e of th e R ussian p eop l e, c omp el l ing th e abdic ation of th e Ho-
h enz ol l er ns and th e Hap sbur gs and dr iv ing th e tyr annous nobil ity,
bur eauc r ac y, and th e mil itar y c aste fr om p ow er .
L et th e Ger man S oc ial ists attend to th is, and c ease th eir fal se
p r etenses and under gr ound p l otting to br ing about an abor tiv e p eac e
in th e inter est of Kaiser ism and th e r ul ing c l ass
. L et th em c ease
c al l ing p r etended ` inter national ' c onfer enc es at th e instigation or
c onniv anc e of th e Kaiser . L et th em c ease th eir intr igues to c aj ol e
th e R ussian and A mer ic an w or k ing p eop l e to inter p r et your demand,
,
no annex ation, no indemnities,' in a w ay to l eav e undiminish ed th e
p r estige and th e p ow er of th e Ger man mil itar y c aste .
N ow th at R ussian autoc r ac y is ov er th r ow n, neith er th e A mer ic an
Gov er nment nor th e A mer ic an p eop l e ap p r eh end th at th e w isdom and
ex p er ienc e of R ussia in th e c oming C onstitutional A ssembl y w il l
adop t any for m of gov er nment oth er th an th e one best suited to your
needs . We feel c onfident th at no message, no indiv idual emissar y,
and no c ommission h as been sent or w il l be sent w ith auth or ity to
offer any adv ic e w h atev er to R ussia as to th e c onduc t of h er in-
ter nal affair s
. A ny c ommission th at may be sent w il l h el p R ussia
in any w ay th at sh e desir es to c ombat Kaiser ism w h er ev er it ex ists
or may manifest itsel f .
Wor d h as r eac h ed us th at fal se r ep or ts of an A mer ic an p ur p ose
and of A mer ic an op inions c ontr ar y to th e abov e statement h av e
gained some c ir c ul ation in R ussia
. We denounc e th ese r ep or ts as
th e c r iminal w or k of desp er ate p r o- Kaiser p r op agandists, c ir c ul ated
w ith th e intent to dec eiv e and to ar ouse h ostil e feel ings betw een th e
tw o gr eat democ r ac ies of th e w or l d
. T h e R ussian p eop l e sh oul d
k now th at th ese ac tiv ities ar e onl y additional manifestations of th e
3 5 8

T h e B ir th of th e R ussian Democ r ac y
` dar k for c es,' w ith w h ic h R ussia h as been onl y too famil iar in th e
unh ap p y p ast
.
T h e A mer ic an Gov er nment, th e A mer ic an p eop l e, th e A mer ic an
l abor mov ement, ar e w h ol e- h ear tedl y w ith th e R ussian w or k er s, th e
R ussian masses, in th e gr eat effor t to maintain th e fr eedom you h av e
al r eady ac h iev ed, and to sol v e th e gr av e p r obl ems yet befor e you
.
We ear nestl y ap p eal to you to mak e c ommon c ause w ith us to abol ish
al l for ms of autoc r ac y and desp otism and to establ ish and maintain
for gener ations yet unbor n th e p r ic el ess tr easur es of j ustic e, fr eedom,
democ r ac y, and h umanity
. "
E mil e Vander v el de, th e for mer C h air man of th e I nter na-
tional S oc ial ist B ur eau, w h o c ame to Petr ogr ad togeth er w ith
h is fr iends, De B r uc k er and De M ann, on M ay 1 9 , 1 9 1 7 , ex -
p r essed th e v iew s of th e B el gian S oc ial ist Del egation in a
l ength y inter v iew w ith r ep r esentativ es of th e Petr ogr ad and
M osc ow ' p r ess
" M y c omr ades, L ouis De B r uc k er and Henr y De M ann, bel ong to
th e ex tr eme l eft w ing of th e B el gian S oc ial - Democ r ats," said E mil e
Vander v el de
. " B efor e th e w ar both w er e ac tiv e r ep r esentativ es of
anti- mil itar ism
. I must say th at for us B el gians anti- mil itar ist p r op a-
ganda w as al w ays a q uestion of h onor .
M y ex p er ienc e, in c our t, as l aw yer for B r uc k er , w h o w as ac c used
of mak ing a sp eec h to sol dier s in w h ic h h e ur ged th em to disobey
or der s to sh oot str ik ing w or k er s or someth ing simil ar , I c onsider
one of th e best r eminisc enc es of my youth
. A l th ough I w as unabl e
to sec ur e B r uc k er ' s ac q uittal - h e w as sentenc ed to six month s in
p r ison- I r ec al l th is inc ident w ith j oy .
M y young c omr ade, De M ann, bec ame v er y p r ominent befor e th e
w ar as one of th e most ac tiv e w or k er s in th e c ause of th e inter national
fel l ow sh ip of S oc ial ists . I c onsider it nec essar y to state th at De M ann
h ad numer ous and c l ose c onnec tions w ith th e S oc ial ist c ir c l es of
Ger many and A ustr ia . He w as S ec r etar y of th e B el gian U nion of
S oc ial ist Young Peop l e, w h ic h c ar r ied on an ac tiv e anti- mil itar ist
p r op aganda .
On th e day B el gium w as inv aded by th e Ger man tr oop s, th ey
both enl isted in th e A r my . S inc e th en th ey h av e both been p r omoted
for ser v ic e at th e fr ont, De B r uc k er to th e r ank of ser geant, De M ann
to th at of sec ond l ieutenant .
T h is is not my fir st time in R ussia . I w as in Petr ogr ad sev er al
days befor e th e outbr eak of th e w ar . I sh al l r emember for ev er th e
tr ul y fr ater nal w el c ome giv en me, as r ep r esentativ e of th e B el gian
S oc ial - Democ r ats and C h air man of th e I nter national S oc ial ist B ur eau,
by th e R ussian S oc ial - Democ r ats of al l gr oup s .
R ec al l ing now my fir st v isit to Petr ogr ad . I c annot h el p ex p r essing
T h e A l l ied L abor and S oc ial ist L eader s

3 5 9
th e feel ing I h ad th e instant I enter ed fr ee R ussia . A t th at time,
in th e summer of 1 9 1 4 , B el gium w as th e fr eest c ountr y in E ur op e .
R ussia I saw th en in a state of gr iev ous op p r ession, th e R ussian
p eop l e w er e under th e c r uel yok e of th e autoc r ac y
. N ow R ussia is
th e fr eest c ountr y in th e w or l d, and th e B el gian p eop l e, ensl av ed by
th e Ger mans, l iv e under an op p r ession th at th e w or l d h as nev er
befor e seen
. I sh al l not tel l you th e h istor y of our suffer ings . You
k now it .
We th r ee c ame now to R ussia to gr eet th e R ussian R ev ol ution
in th e name of th e suffer ing B el gian w or k er s and to ask fr om th e
R ussian p eop l e assistanc e and sup p or t
.
Our ar r iv al w as simul taneous w ith th e r eor ganiz ation of th e R us-
sian Gov er nment . I n th e dec l ar ation of your new Gov er nment I note
th at its p r ogr am of for eign p ol ic ies is based on th e dec ision to figh t
for a p eac e w ith out annex ations or indemnities and in ac c or danc e w ith
th e p r inc ip l e of sel f- deter mination of nations
. We w oul d not be
S oc ial ists if w e did not adop t th is for mul a dir ec tl y and fr ank l y
. B ut
j ust as dir ec tl y do I state th at th is for mul a sh oul d be ex p r essed
definitel y and c onc r etel y
.
With r egar d to B el gium I dec l ar e th e fol l ow ing
:
T h e gr eat p ow er s c an, and, in my op inion, sh oul d r enounc e al l
c l aims to indemnities . T h is is p r omp ted not onl y by p r inc ip l es, but
al so by p l ain c ommon sense
. I t w oul d be insane to p r ol ong th e w ar
for th e sak e of indemnities, w h en th e w ar demands gigantic disbur se-
ments, not to sp eak of th e l oss of l ife, for w h ic h th er e is absol utel y no
c omp ensation
. B ut for B el gium th is q uestion is a differ ent one
. B el -
gium w anted no w ar
. Ger many c omp el l ed us to tak e up ar ms . On
A ugust 4 , 1 9 1 4 , th e Ger man C h anc el l or stated in th e R eic h stag : ` I
admit th at w e h av e c ommitted an inj ustic e tow ar ds B el gium
. Wh en
w e r eac h our goal , sh e w il l be c omp ensated for th is inj ustic e
. ' A mong
th e p eop l es of th e E ntente c ountr ies, p eop l es w h o p ut j ustic e abov e
ev er yth ing, th er e c an be no p er sons w h o w oul d not, in th is r esp ec t at
l east, sh ar e th e p oint of v iew of th e C h anc el l or
. We demand th at our
A l l ies c omp el Ger many to ful fil l th e obl igation ac k now l edged by h er
C h anc el l or
. I n some c ir c l es I h av e h ear d it said th at B el gium must, of
c our se, r ec eiv e an indemnity, but th is c oul d be p aid to h er by al l th e
p ow er s togeth er , or by th e p ow er s w h ic h guar anteed h er neutr al ity
.
We p r otest against th is p l an
. We p r otest bec ause th is p l an is im-
mor al
. Ger many is guil ty of an inj ustic e, ac k now l edged by h er C h an-
c el l or , and sh e must r ep ay B el gium' s l osses
.
We demand onl y ful l r estor ation of our indep endenc e
. T o th is
I sh al l add, not as a B el gian, but as a E ur op ean
: E v er y annex ation
w ith out th e p eop l e' s c onsent is mor e th an a c r ime, it is a fatal p ol itic al
mistak e .
B ut p r ec isel y bec ause I am, in p r inc ip l e, an op p onent of
il l egal annex ations, I c onsider a p eac e based on th e status q uo ante
3 6 0

T h e B ir th of th e R ussian Democ r ac y
bel l um as c ontr adic tor y of th at p r inc ip l e
. T h e emanc ip ation of th e
A r menians fr om th e T ur k ish desp otism, bl oody and unsc r up ul ous,
th e r etur n to th e I tal ian p eop l e of th e I tal ian T r entino, th e r etur n
to F r anc e of A l sac e and L or r aine, against Ger many' s annex ation of
w h ic h v iol ent p r otests w er e made by Kar l M ar x , B ebel and L ieb-
k nec h t, S r
. ,- th ese ar e not annex ations, but j ust th e op p osite,- I c on-
sider th em th e r estor ation of p eop l e' s r igh ts, v iol ated by for c e
.
T h e r igh ts of p eop l e to sel f- deter mination is th e basis of al l
futur e inter national p ol itic s
. With out a ful l r eal iz ation of th is r igh t,
a dur abl e p eac e is unth ink abl e
. T h e p eop l es w il l r eal l y r ec eiv e th is
r igh t w h en th e T z ar in B er l in and th e T z ar in Vienna fol l ow th e
T z ar of Petr ogr ad, into p r iv ate l ife .
T h r ee T z ar s, th e R ussian, Ger man and A ustr ian, ar e th e ter r ibl e
tr io, w h o for ov er a c entur y h av e been w eigh ing dow n h eav il y up on
E ur op e .
I t is th ey w h o tor e Pol and to p iec es at th e end of th e
eigh teenth c entur y
. I t is th ey, w h o, sev er al year s after th at, c om-
bined for th e p ur p ose of str angl ing th e F r enc h R ev ol ution and of
stop p ing th e mar c h of fr eedom
. I t is th ey w h o, h av ing deth r oned
N ap ol eon, c onc l uded th e ` Hol y A l l ianc e' against th e fr eedom of
p eop l es
. I t is th ey, w h o, in 1 8 4 8 , c ombined to smoth er th e R ev ol ution
in B er l in and Vienna . I t is th ey w h o c r eated th e p ol ic y of ar med
neutr al ity, w h ic h l ed to th e gr eat E ur op ean w ar and th e monstr ous
destr uc tion of l iv es .
T h e r eac tion h ad th r ee h eads
. One h ead of th is h ydr a h as been
c ut off, but tw o stil l r emain
; and, do not dec eiv e your sel v es, th ey ar e
mor e danger ous th an ev er ; th ey c onc eal mor e c r uel and insidious
p l ots against th e fr eedom of p eop l es th an ev er befor e .
T h e new sp ap er ' Pr av da' * to- day p ubl ish ed an ar tic l e ac c using me
of adv ising my R ussian c omr ades to giv e up r ev ol utionar y ac tiv ity
dur ing th e w ar and to bec ome r ec onc il ed w ith T z ar ism . I am al so
ac c used of h av ing my ap p eal to th e R ussian S oc ial ists edited by a
R ussian dip l omat .
I th ink it nec essar y to mak e a ful l ex p l anation of th at c ir c um-
stanc e
. I do not r egr et my ac ts of th at time . I f I h ad oc c asion to
do th e same th ing to- day, under simil ar c ir c umstanc es, I w oul d do it .
I t w as in th e fir st days of th e w ar . B el gium w as al r eady c r ush ed .
T h e Ger mans h ad inv aded F r anc e and w er e mov ing tow ar ds
Par is . T h e B el gian M inister of War ask ed me w h eth er I did not
c onsider it adv isabl e to ap p eal to my R ussian c omr ades, for th e p ur -
p ose of uniting al l fr eedom- l ov ing p eop l e in th eir figh t against Ger -
many, w h o h ad j ust th en c ommitted suc h a c r ime . I tol d h im I w as
r eady to do so . T h e M inister guar anteed th at my tel egr am w oul d
r eac h its destination . He p r omised to c ommunic ate w ith th e R ussian
E mbassy for th e p ur p ose of h av ing it p assed by th e R ussian c ensor .
I n th at tel egr am I tol d my R ussian c omr ades th at I k new th eir
- T h e offic ial p ubl ic ation of th e B ol sh ev ist Par ty .
T h e A l l ied L abor and S oc ial ist L eader s

3 6 1
attitude tow ar d T z ar ism and th at I agr eed w ith th em
. B ut, w h il e
under standing th eir p osition w ith r egar d to th e w ar , I ask ed th em
to ap p r ec iate th e situation as a w h ol e and c al l ed th eir attention to
th e fac t th at Ger man mil itar ism h ad seiz ed th e Wester n Democ -
r ac ies by th e th r oat, to str angl e th em, in or der to h av e r eac tion r eign
; n E ur op e . T h is is al l . I r ep eat, under simil ar c ir c umstanc es . I w oul d
do th e same th ing to- day .
T o say th at I am an op p onent of th e R ussian R ev ol ution is
sl ander against w h ic h I p r otest w ith al l th e p ow er s of my soul for
mysel f, my c omr ades and th e w h ol e B el gian p eop l e . You sur el y k now
th at w h en th e w or k er s in oc c up ied B el gium h ear d of th e R ussian
R ev ol ution, th ey r ej oic ed
. T o th em, as to mysel f, th e new s of R ussia' s
emanc ip ation meant th e c er tain emanc ip ation of B el gium
.
A s for th e statement by Pr inc e Kudash ev , it is al so inter p r eted
inc or r ec tl y and ev il - mindedl y . M y tel egr am h ad to p ass th e R ussian
c ensor . F or th is r eason it w as sent by our M inister of War to th e
R ussian E mbassy . I n th e ev ening of th at day, Kudash ev infor med
me th at bec ause of tw o sentenc es in w h ic h I sp ok e h ar sh l y of R ussian
T z ar ism, th e tel egr am w as l ik el y to be bar r ed, and ask ed me to mode-
r ate th ese sentenc es, if p ossibl e . S inc e th e moder ating of th ese h ar sh
w or ds did not distor t my th ough t, ful l y ex p r essed in my statement
th at I agr eed entir el y w ith my c omr ades' attitude tow ar ds T z ar ism, I
c onsented to th e c h anges, w h ic h I made togeth er w ith Kudash ev . "
With r egar d to th e p r esent time, Vander v el de said
" I find th at no time sh oul d be l ost, at p r esent, on festiv ities and
mutual c ongr atul ations on th e ac q uisition of fr eedom : one sh oul d not
indul ge in fier y sp eec h es on sol idar ity among p eop l es, one sh oul d not
h e del uded by il l usor y negotiations w ith th e gov er nmental S oc ial -
Democ r ats of Ger many, one sh oul d not be temp ted by fr ater niz ation
at th e fr ont, w h ic h th e Ger mans mak e use of onl y for th e p ur p ose of
esp ionage . Wor k in th e fac tor ies sh oul d now be c ar r ied on . T h e
Ger mans sh oul d be giv en no p ossibil ity of tr ansfer r ing div ision after
div ision fr om th e R ussian to th e F r enc h and I tal ian fr onts . Ker ensk y' s
sp eec h at th e Peasants' C ongr ess h as giv en me deep j oy . He under -
stands th e situation better th an any one el se . We tr ust th at h e w il l
p our h is c onv ic tion into th e soul of ev er yone . We tr ust th at th e R us-
sian Democ r ac y and th e R ussian A r my w il l p r ov e to th e w h ol e w or l d
th at th e disc ip l ine of sp ir it is mor e p ow er ful th an th e ir on disc ip l ine of
for c e . A nd, th er efor e, w e bel iev e in th e suc c ess of our c ommon c ause,
w e bel iev e th at fr eedom w il l not be c r ush ed but w il l tr iump h th r ough -
out th e w or l d . "
T h e w el l - k now n I tal ian S oc ial ist, A r tur o L abr iol a, ex p r essed
h is v iew s in a r emar k abl e sp eec h del iv er ed on June 2 , 1 9 1 7 , at
a meeting in th e Petr ogr ad Peop l e' s House
3 6 2

T h e B ir th of th e R ussian Democ r ac y
" B el iev e me, c itiz ens," said L abr iol a, " it is ex tr emel y diffic ul t to
c onv ey to you th e gr eetings of fr iends w h o h av e c ome h er e fr om a
far - off l and, for th e ex p r ess p ur p ose of c ongr atul ating th e R ussian
p eop l e, and to c onv ey th ese gr eetings in a for eign tongue and in th e
midst of so muc h ex c itement
.
A nd yet I w ant to bel iev e th at th e feel ings th at ar e stir r ing
w ith in me, w h en I sp eak w ith you, c itiz ens of R ussia, about th e
R ussian R ev ol ution, w il l giv e me a c er tain myster ious p ow er to p ene-
tr ate into your h ear ts and w il l enabl e me to r eac h your soul s
.
We, I tal ians, h av e al w ays l ov ed you for your suffer ing, for th e
untol d mar tyr dom you h av e been endur ing on your r oad to fr eedom
.
We l ov e you for th e gr eat deed you h av e ac c omp l ish ed
. We l ov e you as
br oth er s for h av ing l it th e beac on w h ic h is il l umining our dar k est
days and sh ow ing th e w ear y w ander er s of E ur op e a p eac eful h av en,
th e ideal of univ er sal br oth er h ood .
T o c r eate sp ir itual v al ues in your beautiful l anguage, to fol l ow
th e magnanimous genius of your r ac e, to w or k in ac c or d w ith th e
natur al asp ir ations of your soul - th is is to be your sh ar e of th e w or k
in th e famil y of nations .
B ut, c itiz ens, you h av e c r eated th is fr ee c ountr y not for your -
sel v es al one . You h av e gained fr eedom for al l your br oth er s th e
w or l d ov er . N ational th ough t, national ideas, national ex p er ienc e
must ser v e not onl y th e c ountr y w h er e th e th ough t h as or iginated,
w h er e th e idea h as been bor n or th e ex p er ienc e gained,- th ese ar e
c ontr ibutions to th e c ommon tr easur y of mank ind .
' I s it not tr ue, fr iends, th at if one l ink is tor n in th e gr eat c h ain
of th e h uman famil y, th en th e entir e c h ain inev itabl y fal l s ap ar t?
One l ink is a . smal l th ing
. B ut j ust br eak one l ink of a c h ain, and
th e entir e c h ain c eases to ser v e th e p ur p ose for w h ic h it w as destined
.
E v er y man, w h o, w h il e ful l y r esp ec ting th e p atr iotism of oth er n a-
tions
. a
t th e same time defends h is c ountr y, defends th e c ul tur al
v al ues for w h ic h it stands, is w or k ing for th e benefit of mank ind,
j ust as one of th e l ink s of th e c h ain c ontr ibutes to th e str ength of
th e c h ain
. B ut ev er y indiv idual and ev er y nation str iv ing to dep r iv e
oth er indiv idual s or p eop l es of th eir c ul tur al or p ol itic al indep endenc e,
c ommits a c r ime not onl y against one p ar tic ul ar nation, but against
mank ind as a w h ol e .
T o r esist suc h a man or suc h a nation is th e sac r ed duty of eac h
and ev er y one of us tow ar ds mank ind as a w h ol e'
. T h at is w h y,
c itiz ens, w e ar e r ej oic ing and c el ebr ating togeth er w ith you th e
dow nfal l of T z ar ism
. You h av e' k il l ed T z ar ism not onl y for your -
sel v es, but for entir e E ur op e
. T h e c onsp ir ac ies of monar c h s, as l ong as
R ussian T z ar ism w as in ex istenc e, tr ansfor med E ur op e into a p r ison
.
T h e ov er th r ow of R ussian T z ar ism mar k s th e beginning of th e r e-
p ubl ic an er a th r ough out E ur op e .
T h e A l l ied L abor and S oc ial ist L eader s

3 6 3
Pr oud of h er v ic tor ies w on in 1 8 6 6 and 1 8 7 0 , bl inded by th e
magnitude of h er sc ientific and industr ial p r ogr ess and by th e enor -
mous r ic h es amassed th r ough th e systematic l abor of th e Ger man
p eop l e, Ger many h as been c ar r ied aw ay by th e mad dr eam of sp r eading
th e netw or k of h er domination th r ough out E ur op e
. T h e c ommer c ial
sup r emac y of Ger many h as p r ac tic al l y made oth er c ountr ies h er ter r i-
tor ies, fr om an ec onomic standp oint
; th e w idening of Ger many' s
intel l ec tual infl uenc e h as been dir ec ted tow ar ds effac ing th e national
p ec ul iar ities of oth er nations
; th e gigantic mil itar y p ow er of Ger many
h as been c onstantl y th r eatening th e indep endenc e of th ese nations
.
I f th e Ger man dr eam w er e r eal iz ed, al l E ur op e w oul d be Ger maniz ed,
and ev er y tr ac e of national or iginal ity bl otted out in E ur op e
.
T h at is w h y in Jul y, 1 9 1 4 , and in M ay, 1 9 1 5 , th e v ast maj or ity of
th e I tal ian Democ r ac y r eal iz ed th e danger it fac ed
: th e v ic tor y of
Ger man mil itar ism means th e ensl av ement of entir e E ur op e
. T h en
th e v ast maj or ity of th e I tal ian Democ r ac y demanded th at I tal y j oin
th e R ep ubl ic of F r anc e and th e l iber ty- l ov ing p eop l e of E ngl and
.
A nd soon str uc k th e momentous h our about w h ic h I w ant to
r emind you. I n M ay and Jul y, 1 9 1 5 , th e R ussian sol dier s, al l th eir
br av er y notw ith standing, w er e c omp el l ed to r etr eat under th e on-
sl augh t of th e Ger man tr oop s, and to ev ac uate Pol and
. Wh at w oul d
h av e h ap p ened th en if th e A l l ies h ad been l eft w ith out sup p or t?
Per h ap s M ac k ensen' s and Hindenbur g' s tr oop s w oul d h av e j oined
h ands in Petr ogr ad and M osc ow
. A stil l l ar ger p ar t of R ussia w oul d
h av e been oc c up ied by th e Ger mans, and your emanc ip ation w oul d
h av e been attended w ith ev en mor e diffic ul ties . T h e I tal ian offensiv e
c h ec k ed Hindenbur g' s adv anc e . You nobl y r ep aid th is debt you
w er e in h onor bound to p ay, w h en th e fol l ow ing year , th r ough
B r usil ov ' s offensiv e, you h el p ed us to r ep ul se th e A ustr ian tr oop s .
Your aid sav ed many th ousands of I tal ians fr om A ustr ian bondage .
T h e sol dier s of R ussia and th e sol dier s of I tal y h av e th us enter ed
into a new br oth er l y al l ianc e, and th ese bonds of . br oth er h ood ar e
k eenl y fel t by our p eop l e .
N ow , after th r ee year s of tr emendous sac r ific es, th e q uestion
befor e us is h ow to br ing th e w ar to its natur al end
. T h ose
unj ust and v ic ious c onditions w h ic h for c entur ies h av e p r omoted
w ar s of c onq uest and mil itar istic aggr ession, and made nec essar y
sec r et dip l omac y for th e benefit of dynasties op p r essing th e masses,-
th ose c onditions must be er adic ated
. Pol and must h av e h er inde-
p endenc e r estor ed, F r anc e must r ec eiv e A l sac e- L or r aine, I tal y-
T r entino, T r iest and Z ar ah , a r ew ar d ful l y deser v ed by th e l ong
mar tyr dom of th e I tal ian p eop l e, at one time r ent asunder th r ough
dynastic annex ations
. B el gium, S er bia, R oumania must be r estor ed
in ac c or danc e w ith th eir asp ir ations
. Histor ic j ustic e and mor al obl i-
gation demand it .
3 6 4

T h e B ir th of th e R ussian Democ r ac y
I n th e name of th e gr eat sp ir it of j ustic e w h ic h is animating th e
R ev ol ution, th e fr ee p eop l e of R ussia w il l ,- I am c er tain of th is,-
c ome to th e r esc ue of al l th e nations str iv ing for th eir national in-
tegr ity, and w il l h el p to r eal iz e th e gr eat dr eam of univ er sal j ustic e,
for th e sak e of w h ic h you, too, h av e suffer ed so muc h
. "
A l ber t T h omas, th e F r enc h S oc ial ist l eader and at th at time
M inister of M unitions in th e F r enc h C abinet, ar r iv ed in Petr o-
gr ad in th e middl e of A p r il and sp ent tw o month s in R ussia
meeting R ussian p ol itic al l eader s, addr essing l ar ge meetings
and issuing statements to th e p r ess
. On M ay 2 1 , in M osc ow ,
h e addr essed a c onfer enc e of th e E x ec utiv e C ommittees of
th e C ounc il s of Wor k men' s and S ol dier s' Del egates, and th is
addr ess may be c onsider ed as one of th e most imp or tant
addr esses del iv er ed in R ussia by th e F r enc h S oc ial ist l eader
.
T h omas sp ok e about h is p ar tic ip ation at th e C onfer enc e
of th e Petr ogr ad C ounc il of Wor k men' s and S ol dier s' Del e-
gates and about th e p r obl ems c onnec ted w ith th e I nter national
S oc ial ist C onfer enc e .
" Wh en th e initiativ e w as tak en by B or gbyer ," said T h omas, " th e
F r enc h and E ngl ish S oc ial ists w anted to r efr ain fr om p ar tic ip ation
in th e C onfer enc e
. B ut w h en th is matter w as tak en up by th e
Petr ogr ad C ounc il of Wor k men' s and S ol dier s' Del egates, th e F r enc h
and E ngl ish S oc ial ists c h anged th eir attitude
. A nd now I w ish
to br ing to F r anc e not onl y gr eetings fr om th e R ussian c omr ades,
but al so c onc r ete p l ans w h ic h must be p r esented at th e I nter national
C onfer enc e
. "
His p ur p ose in c oming to R ussia, A l ber t T h omas ex p l ained
in th e fol l ow ing w or ds
" On th e one h and, I w ant th e F r enc h to h av e a c l ear c onc ep tion
of th e R ussian situation
. M y sec ond task is to ask and demand
of th e R ussian S oc ial ists th at th ey tr y to under stand us
. I am not
v er y muc h embar r assed w h en I find th at I am being attac k ed by
one or anoth er - p ar t of th e p r ol etar iat
. T h ese th ings ar e bound
to oc c ur in p ol itic s . B ut I w ant to ask my R ussian c omr ades w h er ein
is th e differ enc e betw een th eir p oint of v iew and th at of th e F r enc h
S oc ial ists? I w oul d l ik e to mak e our p osition c l ear to th e R ussian
c omr ades, so th at w e may c ome to an under standing . I sh al l fir st
of al l sp eak of th e fr iendl y agr eement at w h ic h w e ar r iv ed at th e
Petr ogr ad C onfer enc e . We sh al l c ar r y on a c amp aign for th e c al l ing
of an I nter national C onfer enc e . A nd you, as w el l as w e, ar e now
c onfr onted w ith th e definite p r obl em of p r ep ar ing th e gr ound for it
.
Ov er in F r anc e w e h av e, l ik e th e Petr ogr ad C ounc il of Wor k men' s
T h e A l l ied L abor and S oc ial ist L eader s

3 6 5
and S ol dier s' Del egates h er e, c ommenc ed th e figh t for th e p r inc ip l es
p r oc l aimed in th e ap p eal ' T o th e Peop l es of th e Wor l d,' - th e str uggl e
against inter national c ap ital ism . T h is I state w ith out h esitation .
B ut I say in j ust as unmistak abl e ter ms th at th er e is no w ay
of figh ting for th e I nter national e, if th e R ussian A r my does not h el p
F r anc e
. ( B oister ous ap p l ause . )
I n th e name of th e E x ec utiv e C ommittee, R osenbl um
answ er ed T h omas
" Our R ev ol ution is a r ev ol ution not onl y against autoc r ac y and
T z ar ism, but al so against w ar . T w o w eek s after th e beginning of th e
R ev ol ution, th e R ussian p r ol etar iat addr essed th e w el l - k now n ap p eal
to th e p eop l es of th e w or l d and h as w ith th e gr eatest anx iety
w aited to h ear h ow th e oth er Democ r ac ies w oul d r esp ond to it . We
w er e deep l y h ur t w h en w e r ec eiv ed no p r op er answ er to our ap p eal .
We ar e w aiting for th e S oc ial ists of th e A l l ied c ountr ies to j oin
us in our ap p eal
. T h e R ussian S oc ial ists nev er stood for a sep ar ate
p eac e
. T h ey onl y demanded th at th e R ussian sol dier sh oul d k now
for w h om h e is figh ting, th at th e R ussian sol dier sh oul d k now th at
h e is not sh edding h is bl ood in th e inter ests of imp er ial ism, or in th e
inter ests of th e R ussian or th e A l l ied bour geoisie, but for th e c ause
of univ er sal p eac e, for th e fr ee sel f- deter mination of national ities
.
Henc e it is c l ear th at th e c oming S oc ial ist C onfer enc e w il l be th e fir st
step in th e str uggl e for suc h a p eac e
. T h is str uggl e w il l r esur r ec t th e
I nter national e . We h ail your c onsent to attend th e c onfer enc e
. You
must begin in F r anc e th at c amp aign w h ic h w e ar e c ar r ying on in
R ussia . v oic ing th e sl ogans : ` Peac e w ith out annex ations or c ontr ibu-
tions . ' ` Peac e on th e basis of th e sel f- deter mination of national ities
. '
T h e democ r atic el ements of th e Wester n c ountr ies must j oin us in
ac c ep ting th ese sl ogans . "
I n h is answ er , A l ber t T h omas ex p r essed h is p l easur e at th e
fac t th at th e R ussian c omr ades h ad at l ast tac k l ed th e v er y
c r ux of th e q uestion
" I f th e R ussian R ev ol ution is a r ev ol ution not onl y against th e
T z ar but against w ar as w el l ," T h omas ex c l aimed, " th en it is essential
to k now w h at its ul timate aims ar e! I f you ar e tal k ing about p eac e
at any p r ic e, th en it is unac c ep tabl e to me . I n R ussia it is being
stated definitel y th at a sep ar ate p eac e is imp ossibl e, th at p eac e c an be
c onc l uded onl y by means of gener al dip l omatic negotiations . B ut it is
p ossibl e to attain
; th e same situation w ith out star ting p eac e negotia-
tions . I f th e mil itar y situation r emains unc h anged for a v er y l ong
time, th en th at is, as a matter of fac t, a sep ar ate p eac e
. "
Passing to th e sl ogan " Peac e w ith out annex ations and w ith -
out indemnities," A l ber t T h omas ask ed
: " Woul d th e r estor a-
3 6 6

T h e B ir th o f th e R ussian Democ r ac y
tion of A l sac e and L or r aine to F r anc e be c onsider ed an an-
nex ation?" He dec l ar ed th at for ov er 4 0 year s th e p op ul ation
of th ese Pr ov inc es, tor n aw ay fr om F r anc e, h as not c eased
ex p r essing th eir desir e to be again p ar t of F r anc e
" Pr ior to th e w ar ," said T h omas, " w e nev er demanded th e annex a-
tion of A l sac e- L or ar ine by for c e of ar ms
. We c onsider ed it p ossibl e
to attain th is aim by means of p eac eful dev el op ment, by fr ater nity
and j ustic e
. T h e c h auv inists h av e subj ec ted us to r idic ul e and insul t
for th is v er y r eason
. We nev er stood for th e sol ution of th is p r obl em
by means of bl oodsh ed . ( A p p l ause
. ) B ut th e day Ger many dec l ar ed
w ar , w e said fir ml y
: ` T h e q uestion h as been r aised in al l its ful l ness .
I t demands a sol ution . ' T h e q uestion of annex ation is fr eq uentl y
disc ussed in c onnec tion w ith a p l ebisc ite
. B ut as r egar ds A l sac e-
L or r aine, th is sol ution w il l be inadeq uate, as Ger many h as fl ooded
th ose Pr ov inc es w ith Ger man p easants and offic ial s . A t th e same time
many nativ es, not w anting to ser v e in th e Ger man A r my, h av e
emigr ated to F r anc e to ser v e in th e F r enc h A r my
. A p l ebisc ite
under suc h c ir c umstanc es is l iabl e not to v oic e th e r eal desir e of th e
p eop l e of th e Pr ov inc es . We w ish th at th e annex ation of A l sac e-
L or r aine be made w ith th e c onsent of th e p eop l e
. I w oul d be a tr aitor
to my c ountr y if I w er e to v ote for a for mul a w h ic h w oul d al l ow th e
Pr ussian immigr ants to sup p r ess th e desir es of th e p eop l e of A l sac e-
L or r aine .
I do not w ish to touc h up on any oth er p r essing p r obl ems ; I sh al l
not disc uss th e q uestion of indemnities w h ic h w e, F r enc h men, under -
stand not as a c ontr ibution but as a means of r estor ing our l osses
.
I sh al l stop to c onsider th e q uestion of th e r igh t of ev er y national ity
to w or k out its ow n destiny . T h e ter ms of p eac e must be suc h th at
A l sac e and L or r aine w il l be abl e to fr eel y deter mine th eir ow n fate .
On th is q uestion w e differ r adic al l y fr om th e Ger mans
. Ger many
under stands th is p r inc ip l e of sel f- deter mination in th e sense of al ter -
ing th e boundar ies and r etur ning us a number of v il l ages
. On suc h
ter ms w e c annot mak e p eac e .
B ut if Gemr any ac c ep ts our p oint of v iew , th en w e c an p ar tic ip ate
in an inter national c onfer enc e
. I f, h ow ev er , anoth er tr end of th ough t
w il l p r ev ail at th at c onfer enc e, if th e r igh t of sel f- deter mination
w il l be denied Pol and and A l sac e- L or r aine, th en th is c onfer enc e w il l
be mer el y a tr ap . "
R osenbl um r ep l ied by p ointing out th at in desc r ibing th e
R ussian R ev ol ution as a r ev ol ution against T z ar ism and in
fav or of univ er sal p eac e, h e did not mean th at th e R ussian
S oc ial ists w anted p eac e at any p r ic e
.
T h e A l l ied L abor and S oc ial ist L eader s

3 6 7
" R ussia does not th ink of p eac e in any oth er w ay ex c ep t as a
univ er sal p eac e . C omr ade T h omas c al l ed attention to th e p r ac tic al
standstil l at th e fr ont in A p r il . T h is w as p r Qbabl y not onl y your
misfor tune, but al so our s . T h is is an unc ontr ol l abl e p h enomenon
and it is of a temp or ar y natur e . T h e new C oal ition Gov er nment h as
fir ml y p r oc l aimed th e nec essity for r estor ing th e figh ting c ap ac ity of
th e A r my, and C omr ade T h omas h ad better not say th at th e in-
ac tiv ity of th e R ussian A r my is one of th e aims of th e R ussian
R ev ol ution . "
A fter R osenbl um, th e r ep r esentativ e of th e B ol sh ev ik i,
N ogin . sp ok e . He asser ted th at th e R ussian sol dier s w er e
tir ed out, th at mor e of th em w er e dying of h unger th an of
th e enemy' s bul l ets
. " I f th e w ar is c ontinued, th en th e c oun-
tr y, w h ic h is w ar w ear y, is th r eatened w ith inter nal disr up tion .
I t w il l th er efor e nev er do to sh ut our eyes to th e ac tual c ondi-
tions, and w e must not say th at th e disintegr ation of th e A r my
is mer el y ac c idental . "
A l ber t T h omas again took th e fl oor
. He c al l ed attention to
th e star tl ing c ontr adic tions betw een th e statements made by
R osenbl um and N ogin r egar ding th e c auses of th e standstil l
at th e fr ont
" T h e l ast sp eak er ' s statement th at th e R ussian A r my is tir ed,"
said T h omas, " is of v er y gr eat signific anc e for me
. I f th is is so,
th en th e entir e bur den of th e w ar w il l fal l up on F r anc e . I h av e h ear d
tw o entir el y differ ent op inions and w oul d l ik e to k now w h ic h is
sh ar ed by th e maj or ity . I f you c l aim th at th e R ussian A r my is w ar -
w ear y, I w oul d say th at th e A r mies of th e A l l ies h av e al so suffer ed
gr eat l osses, but stil l th ey c ontinue to figh t . I p er sonal l y bel iev e
th at no matter h ow tir ed th e R ussian A r my is, it w il l find str ength
to w age th e str uggl e w ith r enew ed effor t . I k now th at th e ol d
r egime h as l eft you a r uined and r av ish ed estate . B ut w h er e is th e
str ength of th e R ussian R ev ol ution if it is unabl e to imp r ov e up on
th e ol d! "
On th e p r ev ious day A l ber t T h omas addr essed a l ar ge meet-
ing of offic er s, in M osc ow
. T h e Vic e- C h air man of th e meeting,
Gen . Pr inc e S . A
. Dr outsk oy, in an enth usiastic sp eec h ,
gr eeted A l ber t T h omas as th e democ r atic M inister of fr ee
F r anc e
.
" I n th e name of th e gr eat and fr ee R ussian A r my, in th e name of
th e offic er s and A r my offic ial s of th e M osc ow Gar r ison," said Pr inc e
S . A
. Dr outsk oy, " I gr eet you, as th e M inister of our gal l ant and
nobl e A l l y, F r anc e .
3 6 8

T h e B ir th of th e R ussian Democ r ac y
We dec l ar e, and you may w el l bel iev e our asser tion, th at our
A r my w il l be abl e to do its duty tow ar ds th e c ountr y and tow ar ds
our gl or ious A l l ies, w h o ar e figh ting ev en as w e ar e for th e fr eedom
of th e nations of th e w or l d .
Our bl oodl ess R ev ol ution, th e fir st in th e h istor y of mank ind,
h as not w eak ened us . On th e c ontr ar y, it h as inc r eased our p ow er s
for c r eating and safeguar ding th e h ap p iness and p r ogr ess of fr ee
p eop l es .
Our united A r mies w il l be abl e to p r op er l y sol v e th is p r obl em
.
L ong l iv e th e gal l ant F r enc h A r my! L ong l iv e our A l l ies! "
A l ber t T h omas r esp onded w ith th e fol l ow ing sp eec h
" Offic er s of th e M osc ow Gar r ison : I h av e l istened w ith th e gr eat-
est p l easur e to your gr eetings . A s th e C h ief of th e War - T ec h nic al
Dep ar tment, I w ish , in my tur n, to gr eet th e fr ee A r my of R ev ol u-
tionar y R ussia, in th e name of th e F r enc h A r my . ( A p p l ause . )
We ar e al so famil iar w ith r ev ol utionar y times . Our A r my al so
k now s w h at it means to p ass th r ough th e indec ision and c onfusion
of a simil ar p er iod . B ut th e sol dier s and w or k er s of F r anc e dec ided
th is q uestion by one migh ty str ok e in 1 7 9 2 .
I n th e F r enc h R ev ol utionar y A r my w h ic h fough t at Val mi, th e
offic er s of th e ol d r egime, insp ir ed by th e new br eath of th e R ev ol u-
tion, l ed th e tr oop s of l iber ated F r anc e to v ic tor y, side by side w ith
th e young r ev ol utionar y offic er s
. I n th e h op e of a simil ar union, I
am gr eeting you to- day, offic er s of th e M osc ow Gar r ison
.
Of c our se, I under stand w h at anx iety sometimes c r eep s into your
h ear ts . Of c our se, I r eal iz e h ow muc h ener gy, h ow muc h w il l p ow er
is r eq uir ed in or der to adap t your sel v es to th e new c onditions, in
or der to under stand th e bitter ness w h ic h sometimes ar ises in th e
h ear ts of your sol dier s, th ose v er y same sol dier s w h o h av e for so
many year s been sup p r essed by th e ol d r egime . B ut I h av e faith in
your mind and w il l
. I tr ust th at th r ough a p r op er under standing
of th e demands of th e R ev ol utionar y A r my, you w il l soon l ead th e
R ev ol utionar y A r my to v ic tor y, for th e sak e of R ussia' s h onor , for
th e sak e of th e A l l ies' h onor . ( A p p l ause . )
Offic er s of th e M osc ow Gar r ison : We ar e c ounting on you, w e
ar e w aiting imp atientl y, sometimes anx iousl y, for th e R ussian A r my
to w age a new offensiv e . I t c annot be unk now n to you th at th e
Ger mans h av e massed th eir for c es on our fr ont . Our A r my and th e
E ngl ish A r my, united, w il l h al t,- you may r est assur ed,- th e Ger man
onsl augh t . T h ey w il l h al t it in or der to enabl e you to c ome to our
aid in time . T h ink of it, nev er in th e c our se of th e w ar w as th er e
a moment w h ic h c oul d be c omp ar ed to th e p r esent! N ev er w er e
c onditions better for figh ting and w inning th e w ar . I t is onl y nec es-
sar y th at th e R ussian A r my ar r iv e in time
. I t is nec essar y th at th e
R ussian A r my ar r iv e w h en th e F r enc h and B r itish A r mies ar e engaged
T h e A l l ied L abor and S oc ial ist L eader s

3 6 9
in th e dec isiv e str uggl e . T h e R ussian A r my must ar r iv e befor e th e
enemy h as a c h anc e to r ep l enish h is sup p l ies th r ough th e new c r op ,-
w e must, by our united effor t, c r ush Pr ussian mil itar ism dur ing th e
c oming summer . I am seek ing assur anc e h er e and I am finding it .
I th ank you, Gener al , for your statement th at th e R ussian A r my
w il l do its duty tow ar ds th e c ountr y, th e A l l ies and R ussia' s l iber ty .
We ar e sur e th at R ussia is w aging h er str uggl e for fr eedom not onl y
by demonstr ations in th e str eets of M osc ow and Petr ogr ad, but al so
on th e fr ont .
T h er e w il l be no fr eedom for R ussia, th er e w il l be no fr eedom for
any p eop l e in th e w or l d as l ong as th e Hoh enz ol l er n h eel is abl e to
c r ush any nation . T h er e w il l be no fr eedom in th is w or l d until
Democ r ac y w il l p r ev ail ev er yw h er e .
S oc ial ists of th e R ussian A r my! Offic er s of th e R ussian A r my!
You w il l h el p th e c ause of l iber ty . You w il l h el p th e Democ r ac y of
al l c ountr ies to gain mor e str ength . L ong l iv e F r ee R ussia! L ong
l iv e th e fr ee A r my of R ev ol utionar y R ussia! "
T h at same day A l ber t T h omas addr essed th e gener al meet-
ing of th e M osc ow C ounc il of S ol dier s' Del egates
. His ap p ear -
anc e at th is meeting w as th e signal for enth usiastic and p r o-
l onged ap p l ause
" C omr ades," T h omas began, " I am h ap p y th at on th e fir st day of
my ar r iv al in M osc ow I h av e th e op p or tunity of c onv eying th e fr a-
ter nal gr eetings of th e F r enc h sol dier s to you, sol dier s of R ussia .
( S h outs : " B r av o! Hur r ah ! " B oister ous ap p l ause . )
We w h o ar e l iv ing in th e F ar West h av e l ong k now n h ow th e
R ussian sol dier c an c onq uer or die ; w e k now h ow , w h en in th e be-
ginning of th e w ar th er e w as a sh or tage of ammunition, h e p ar r ied
th e bl ow s of Pr ussian mil itar ism w ith h is bar e h ands . ( B oister ous
ap p l ause
. )
We k now th at th ose r el ations w h ic h h av e been establ ish ed in
fr ee R ussia betw een th e r ev ol utionar y tr oop s and th e w or k men h av e
w el ded th em into one w h ol e and enabl ed th em to ov er th r ow th e ol d
r egime . We . F r enc h men, ar e esp ec ial l y p l eased to note th at in your
c ountr y, as w el l as in our s, th e R ev ol ution w as made by th e R ev ol u-
tionar y A r my and th e p eop l e, w h o, togeth er , c onstitute one w h ol e . "
A l ber t T h omas th en tur ned to th e q uestion of disc ip l ine
" A R ev ol utionar y A r my must h av e r ev ol utionar y disc ip l ine, th at
is, disc ip l ine based not on fear , but on th e c l ear and definite r eal iz a-
tion of one' s duty . I f under th e ol d r egime th e sol dier s obeyed
th e offic er s for fear of being p unish ed, th en now or der s sh oul d h e
ex ec uted v ol untar il y, bec ause ev er ybody k now s now th e aim w h ic h
F r ee R ussia and h er A l l ies ar e p ur suing
.
3 7 0

T h e B ir th of th e R ussian Democ r ac y
A t th e p r esent moment w e ar e ex p ec ting sup p or t fr om you, fr om
th e R ev ol utionar y A r my, for j ust at p r esent h undr eds of Ger man
r egiments and battal ions ar e massed against th e F r enc h tr oop s
. We,
F r enc h men, ar e now v er y muc h c onc er ned w ith th e q uestion of th e
R ussian tr oop s r ender ing sup p or t to th e F r enc h A r my
.
I l istened c ar eful l y to C omr ade Ker ensk y' s ap eal to th e R ussian
A r my in Petr ogr ad
. C omr ade Ker ensk y stated th at th e c ountr y w as
in danger
. T h is is th e v er y same sl ogan th at w as sounded in F r anc e
at th e v er y beginning of th e w ar
. A nd w e, al so, h ear d th at said by
a S oc ial ist- M inister
. I n r esp onse to h is c al l , bour geoisie and p r ol e-
tar iat r ush ed to th e
fr ontier s, w h er e, sh oul der to sh oul der , th ey figh t
to defend th eir c ountr y and th eir l iber ty fr om th e Ger mans
.
B y r ep el l ing th e Ger man h or des," T h omas c onc l uded, " th e R ussian
A r my w il l sav e th e c ountr y and th e new l y- w on R ussian l iber ty . "
A fter a tw o month s' stay in R ussia, A l ber t T h omas, in h is
final inter v iew , th us v oic ed h is imp r essions
" I c ame fr om F r anc e ful l of faith in th e final tr iump h of th e
R ussian R ev ol ution and in its benefic ial r esul ts for th e c ommon
c ause of th e A l l ies
. I w as not p er tur bed by th e r umor s r eac h ing us,
th at al ong w ith th e c h ange in Gov er nment, a c h ange in th e op inion
r egar ding th e w ar h ad ap p ar entl y al so tak en p l ac e in sev er al c l asses of
R ussian soc iety . Dur ing my tw o month s' stay in your c ountr y, I
h av e seen and h ear d a gr eat deal , and now I am l eav ing p er meated
w ith th e v er y same faith th at I h ad on my dep ar tur e fr om F r anc e
.
I do not c l ose my eyes to th e diffic ul ties you w il l h av e to ov er c ome,
togeth er w ith th e A l l ies c l osel y united w ith R ussia
. I h ar bor no
il l usions as to th e near futur e, and for esee al l th e obstac l es w h ic h w e
w il l h av e to enc ounter befor e r eac h ing th e final goal
. T h e l ast days,
h ow ev er , h av e c onv inc ed me th at means and w ays for an agr eement
betw een th e R ussian democ r ats and th e democ r ac y of th e A l l ied
c ountr ies ar e being al r eady dev ised and th at th e disc or d ex isting
betw een th em at p r esent w il l soon v anish entir el y
.
T h e c oal ition M inistr y is ev identl y deep l y r ooted in th e c oun-
tr y, and th e idea of for ming a C abinet of simil ar p ol itic al asp ir a-
tions, w h ic h at th is time c oul d be soc ial istic onl y, does not meet w ith
symp ath y in p ol itic al c ir c l es
. Of th is I h av e bec ome c onv inc ed fr om
my inter v iew s w ith p r ominent r ep r esentativ es of p ol itic al p ar ties
.
T h e w ar p r obl em is al so near sol ution, but h er e some p r essur e
must be br ough t, and th at as soon as p ossibl e
. I t is indisp ensabl e to
p ut an end to th e sep ar ate tr uc e, and to sh ow th e enemy th at th e
R ussian A r my r ep r esents a for midabl e p ow er , to be r ec k oned w ith
.
L eav ing Petr ogr ad, I c ar r y aw ay th e c onv ic tion th at on th e q uestion
of w ar some p r ogr ess h as been made in th e attitude of th e r ep r e-
sentativ es of th e ex tr eme r adic al fac tions of R ussian S oc ial ism
. I f,
on th e one h and, th e notes of th e A l l ies, r ep l ying to th e R ussian
T h e A l l ied L abor and S oc ial ist L eader s

3 7 1
note in r egar d to th e w ar aims, sh ow dev iation fr om th e for mer l y
r ep eatedl y ex p r essed r eadiness to c onc ede to th e for mul as announc ed
by th e R ussian Democ r ac y, th en, on th e oth er h and, th e R ussian
democ r ats ar e al so ap p ar entl y inc l ined to c omp r omise somew h at on
th e p r ev iousl y announc ed for mul as
. I n sh or t, one may sp eak of th e
h ar mony ex isting at p r esent betw een th e A l l ies and R ussia .
T h us, dur ing my stay in R ussia, th e A l l ies sc or ed a dip l omatic
v ic tor y in th at th ey h av e r ec onc il ed th e S oc ial ists of F r anc e w ith
th ose of R ussia . I am c onv inc ed th at as soon as c omp l ete agr eement
betw een us and th e R ussian S oc ial ists is r eac h ed, th e p r obl em of
w ar w il l be sol v ed immediatel y, and w e w il l ap p r oac h th e er a of
p eac e.
Our sol e aim sh oul d be th e str uggl e against Ger man imp er ial ism,
and to th at end an ener getic c ontinuation of th is w ar and unity
betw een th e A l l ies ar e al so imp er ativ e . I am l eav ing w ith a new
faith th at th is unity is not far off . "
O
N June 9 th , A r th ur Hender son, th e B r itish M inister of
L abor , del iv er ed a sp eec h on th e q uestion of w ar and
p eac e befor e th e E x ec utiv e C ommittee of th e C ounc il
of Wor k men' s and S ol dier s' Del egates .
" T o my sh ar e
. " Hender son began, " h as fal l en th e gr eat h onor of
c onv eying th e h ear t- fel t gr eetings fr om th e B r itish l abor and S oc ial ist
mov ements to th e fr ee R ussian Democ r ac y . I h av e c ome to th e
R ussian Democ r ac y at an h istor ic al moment and it is w ith th e gr eatest
j oy th at I am r eady to sh ak e h ands w ith th e r ep r esentativ es of fr ee
R ussia
. for I h op e th at th e Democ r ac ies of R ussia and Gr eat B r itain
w il l r emain fr iends for ev er
. I c an assur e you th at th e p r ol etar iat of
Gr eat B r itain is r eady to ser v e th e R ussian Democ r ac y in ev er y p os-
sibl e w ay
. We ful l y r eal iz e th e tr emendous imp or tanc e of th e c h ange
w h ic h h as tak en p l ac e in R ussia due to th e ov er th r ow of th e ol d
autoc r ac y
. Wh at you h av e done h as no p r ec edent in th e h istor y of
mank ind, for nev er h as th er e been a r ev ol ution so c omp l ete and at
th e same time so bl oodl ess
. I t is h igh l y imp or tant th at th is inter nal
tr iump h of th e Democ r ac y w h ic h h as been attained in R ussia, sh oul d
be fir ml y establ ish ed and bec ome p er manent, for th is new l y- gained
l iber ty h as been r ec ogniz ed as one of th e most p otent fac tor s of
l asting p eac e among th e nations of th e w or l d
. S uc h a p eac e w oul d
be in ful l ac c or d w ith th e ideal s of fr ee democ r ac y
. E v er y effor t
must be made to av er t th e p ossibil ity of p eac e ter ms being dic tated
by mil itar y desp ots ir r esp onsibl e to th e democ r ac y
.
S inc e th e day of my ar r iv al in Petr ogr ad I h av e been c onstantl y
besieged w ith q uestions about th e attitude of th e B r itish p r ol etar iat
tow ar ds th e p r esent w ar
. I n th e fir st p l ac e, I w oul d l ik e to emp h asiz e
3 7 2

_ T h e B ir th of th e R ussian Democ r ac y
th e fac t th at th e E ngl ish w or k ing c l ass h as dec isiv el y op p osed th is
w ar and h as been figh ting to th e l ast for th e p r eser v ation of p eac e .
E v en w h en th e R ussians w er e anx iousl y ask ing w h y th e B r itish do
not c ome to th e r esc ue of th eir c ountr y, th e B r itish p r ol etar iat stil l
r emained in th e same p osition of iner tia . T h is attitude c h anged onl y
w h en B el gium' s neutr al ity w as v iol ated and w h en it bec ame c er tain
th at Ger many and A ustr ia w er e str iv ing to attain th e h egemony in
E ur op e and th r ough out th e w or l d, and w h en th e Ger man S oc ial -
Democ r ats v oted th e w ar budgets in th e R eic h stag .
T h e E ngl ish w or k er s ar e figh ting onl y in or der to defend th eir
c ountr y and to c omp el th e foe to r esp ec t inter national tr eaties
. Of
c our se, th ey ar e str iv ing for p eac e, but suc h a p eac e as w oul d be
c ap abl e of sec ur ing th e h ap p iness and w el far e of th e nations of th e
w or l d and w h ic h w oul d er adic ate al l l aw ful c auses for futur e w ar s
.
T h e w or k er s of E ngl and ar e th er efor e op p osed to any p eac e tr eaties
th at w oul d establ ish th e domination of one nation ov er anoth er , th e
ap p r op r iation of national w eal th or for c ibl e annex ation of for eign
ter r itor y . T ogeth er w ith th eir R ussian c omr ades, th ey p r oc l aim th at
p eac e must be c onc l uded on th e p r inc ip l es of no annex ation, no in-
demnities and th e r igh t of ev er y nation to w or k out its ow n destiny .
I n ac c or danc e w ith a simil ar p oint of v iew , th e p eac e tr eaty must
p ur sue th e obj ec t of establ ish ing th e unity, th e indep endenc e, th e
autonomy, safety and l iber ty of al l nations, gr eat and smal l . T h e
Pol ish q uestion, th e q uestion of a united indep endent Pol and must
be sol v ed in ac c or danc e w ith th e w ish of th e Pol ish p eop l e . T h e
c omp l ete r estor ation of B el gium
as
an indep endent S tate must be
guar anteed unc onditional l y . F ur th er , in th e inter ests of p r eser v ing
futur e p eac e, th e p op ul ation of M esop otamia and A fr ic a must h e
fr eed fr om th e yok e of T ur k ish or Ger man r ul e, ev en if it h as to be
done th r ough sp ec ial inter national c ommittees . I mp or tant r efor ms
ar e al so to be intr oduc ed into T ur k ey in th e inter ests of th e A r menian
and A r abian p op ul ations . C onstantinop l e, if p ossibl e, must be tr ans-
for med into a fr ee p or t, and th e Dar danel l es inter national iz ed . Ways
and means of a mor e satisfac tor y and stabl e sol ution of th e B al k an
p r obl em must be found . A l l ar e p r obabl y inc l ined to th ink th at in
th e B al k ans a p ol itic al under standing c oul d be ar r iv ed at w h ic h w oul d
safeguar d p eac e and mutual good w il l among th e v ar ious national ities
.
We must endeav or to destr oy al l th at stands in th e w ay of national
and inter national dev el op ment on th e p r inc ip l es of soc ial p r ogr ess
.
We ar e asp ir ing to establ ish a famil y of fr ee nations, eac h of w h ic h
must h av e amp l e op p or tunity for indep endent dev el op ment of its
p ow er s ; nations c omp eting w ith eac h oth er in th e p r ogr ess of
k now l edge, educ ation, and soc ial w el far e
. We must mak e an effor t
to c r eate neigh bor l y r el ations among al l nations, in or der to abol ish
al l fear of attac k or inj ustic e on th e p ar t of th e mor e ambitious and
T h e A l l ied L abor and S oc ial ist L eader s

3 7 3
mor e p ow er ful tow ar ds th e w eak er . S uc h a famil y of fr ee nations
w oul d be c ap abl e of r ec ogniz ing and c ar r ying into p r ac tic e th e
p r inc ip l es of ar bitr ation . T h e ap p ar atus nec essar y for th e ap p l ic ation
of th e abov e- mentioned p r inc ip l e to inter national disp utes must be-
c ome a p er manent institution .
I w oul d not l ik e to see my sp eec h misinter p r eted, for th e c onse-
q uenc es of suc h a misunder standing migh t be ex tr emel y gr av e and
ev en danger ous to th e futur e of c iv il iz ation
. T h e B r itish p r ol etar iat,
of c our se, w ants a p eac e and w il l h ail p eac e
. B ut th is must h e an
h onor abl e p eac e! T h is must be a l asting p eac e! T h is must be a p eac e
th at w oul d p r ev ent any domination of br ute for c e in th e futur e!
B er gson said
: ' We must l iv e not on th e str ength of th e ideal of
p ow er , but of th e p ow er of ideal s . ' T h ese ar e th e fac tor s w h ic h h av e
made th e p r ol etar iat of B r itain c ome out in fav or of w ar in 1 9 1 4
.
T h ese ar e th e ideal s w h ic h insp ir ed th e p r ol etar iat of E ngl and in 1 9 1 4 .
and to w h ic h h e must r emain tr ue in 1 9 1 7 sinc e th ey h av e been c onse-
c r ated by th e bl ood of th e sons of E ngl and . "
On June 2 8 th , sp eak ing befor e th e E ngl ish c ol ony in M os-
c ow , A r th ur Hender son said
We ar e figh ting bec ause th e fr eedom of th e w or l d and th e
safety of our A l l ies h av e not been made sec ur e as yet
. A s r e-
gar ds R ussia, w e ar e gl ad th at sh e h as enter ed into th e famil y of
fr ee nations and is tak ing h er fir st step s on th e r oad to fr eedom
.
S h e is now mor e c l osel y th an ev er bound up w ith th e gr eat
Democ r ac ies w h ic h ar e tak ing p ar t in th e w ar of l iber ation . Of al l
th e mar v el ous th ings th at oc c ur r ed dur ing th is w ar , th er e is noth ing
mor e mar v el ous th an th e R ussian R ev ol ution
. L ong h as th e gr eat
nation suffer ed fr om th e inc omp etenc e of its r ul er s, but w h en its
p atienc e w as ex h austed, th e nation r ose l ik e one man
.
" I may assur e th e R ussian p eop l e th at th e Gov er nment and th e
p eop l e of Gr eat B r itain h av e al l th e c onfienc e in R ussia and w il l
r emain tr ue to th eir A l l ies until th e end of th e gr eat unfinish ed
str uggl e for th eir l iber ation
. R eal iz ing th e v er y diffic ul t situation
in w h ic h R ussia now finds h er sel f, I w il l not j oin th e c r itic s w h om I
h av e often h ear d .
I sh al l j ust say th at th e Gov er nment of Gr eat
B r itain w il l r ender th e R ussian Gov er nment al l h el p p ossibl e- finan-
c ial , ec onomic and mor al sup p or t, and w il l r ender th is w ith th e
gr eatest r eadiness .
T h e B r itish Gov er nment h as al r eady done muc h . I h av e some
definite data w h ic h I w ish to p r esent to th e R ussian p eop l e .
S inc e th e beginning of th e w ar th e B r itish Gov er nment h as h el p ed
th e R ussian Gov er nment financ ial l y to th e ex tent of not l ess th an
5 0 0 ,0 0 0 ,0 0 0 p ounds ( ster l ing) . E ngl and h as sup p l ied R ussia w ith foot-
w ear w or th mil l ions of p ounds and c l oth ing w or th h undr eds of
mil l ions
. Of w ar mater ial E ngl and h as sent to R ussia : ov er 1 5 0
. 0 0 0
3 7 4

T h e B ir th o f th e R ussian Democ r ac y
tons of metal , ov er 5 0 0
aer op l ane engines, ov er 7 0 0 c annon and
l ong- distanc e guns, ammunition and ac c essor ies w or th fr om 3 to 4
mil l ion, 3 0 0 ,0 0 0 r ifl es, 2 ,5 0 0 mac h ine guns, ov er a th ousand mil l ion of
c ar tr idges and th ousands of automobil es and auto- tr uc k s .
I f th e R ussians w il l c onsider th ese figur es as w el l as th e q uantity
of tonnage used up for th e tr ansp or tation of th is fr eigh t w h il e ev er y
ton w as needed for our sel v es, th ey w il l h av e to admit th at E ngl and
w as not an unfaith ful A l l y . "
On June 2 9 th , A r th ur Hender son addr essed th e E x ec utiv e
C ommittee of th e M osc ow C ounc il of Wor k men' s and S ol dier s'
Del egates in th e fol l ow ing w or ds
" Wh en th e w ar began, w e w anted to r emain neutr al , but w h en
Ger many v iol ated B el gium' s neutr al ity and w h en R ussia sh outed :
` Hel p us! ' w e, as a L abor Par ty, dec ided to sup p or t our Gov er nment
and to figh t . A t our l ast C ongr ess, w h ic h w as h el d tw o and a h al f
year s after th e beginning of th e w ar , w e disc ussed th e q uestion as to
w h eth er our attitude tow ar ds th e w ar w as r igh t . A r esol ution sup -
p or ting our entr anc e into th e w ar w as adop ted by a v ote of 1 ,1 0 0 ,0 0 0
against 3 4 8 ,0 0 0 . I must c al l your attention to th is v ote bec ause it is
of gr eat imp or tanc e as bear ing fav or abl y up on our p r esent p osition .
I must al so p oint out th at w h en th e w ar br ok e out, w e w er e not
an imp er ial istic nation . We c oul d not send to F r anc e mor e th an an
ex p editionar y for c e of 1 0 0 ,0 0 0 men . We h ad to or ganiz e an A r my
of 5 ,0 0 0 ,0 0 0 v ol unteer s
. T ens of th ousands of th ese w er e tr ades-
unionists . M any of th em ar e stil l in th e tr enc h es on th e F r enc h
fr ont . I n addition to th ese A r mies, w e h av e r ec eiv ed aid fr om C anada,
I ndia and N ew Z eal and .
How did it h ap p en th at w e h av e r ec eiv ed suc h aid not onl y in
E ngl and, but in th e c ol onies as w el l ? We w oul d not h av e r ec eiv ed
suc h aid w er e w e to w age a w ar of aggr ession . We do not need any
ter r itor ial ac q uisitions . We sh ar e your p oint of v iew
: w e w ant p eac e
w ith out annex ations . We ar e al so for th e, r igh t of ev er y nation to
w or k out its ow n destiny
. T h at is w h y w e r ec eiv ed so muc h of th e
p op ul ar sup p or t . "
Passing ov er to R ussia' s domestic affair s, Hender son c on-
tinued
" I n th e fir st p l ac e, I must c onv ey to you th e gr eetings fr om th e
B r itish L abor Par ty
. We, th e fir st and th e ol dest Democ r ac y, ar e
gr eeting th e R ussian Democ r ac y, th e youngest in th e famil y of na-
tions
. We k now th at you h av e ac c omp l ish ed your R ev ol ution w ith
gr eat diffic ul ty, and you h av e p er for med th is diffic ul t task in th e
inter ests of Democ r ac y th e w or l d ov er .
Henc efor th al l th e fr ee Democ r ac ies must stand togeth er
. B ut
T h e A l l ied L abor and S oc ial ist L eader s

.
3 7 5
th er e ar e oth er p eop l es w h o ar e yet to be fr eed
. T h ey c an onl y be
fr eed by fr ee p eop l es . I f w e w ant to sec ur e th eir l iber ty, w e must
figh t and defend it
. I f any one tel l s you th at w e, E ngl ish w or k er s,
ar e c ar r ying on a c ap ital istic and imp er ial istic w ar , answ er
: ' N o,
th ey ar e figh ting a w ar of l iber ation
. '
Wh at p r oof h av e w e th at th e Ger man Gov er nment is going to
enfr anc h ise th e Ger man p eop l e? S h oul d w e h av e suc h p r oof, I am
sur e th at p eac e w il l be c onc l uded . B ut until th e w or k ing c l ass of
E ngl and r ec eiv es suc h assur anc es, it w il l defend E ngl and' s fr eedom .
We h av e giv en our sons for our ideal s, but not for a c ap ital istic and
mil itar istic w ar
. I w ish th at th e fr iendsh ip betw een E ngl and and
R ussia gr ow s ev er str onger and str onger
. We sh al l need you after
th e w ar , and you w il l need us
; th er efor e, l et us c ontinue th e figh t
side by side
. "
V. V. R oudnev ' s S p eec h
V. V
. R oudnev , Pr esident of th e M osc ow M unic ip al Duma
and C h air man of th e meeting, gr eeted Hender son, as th e
r ep r esentativ e of B r itish l abor , in th e name of th e M osc ow
C ounc il of Wor k men' s and S ol dier s' Del egates .
" C omr ade Hender son and w e our sel v es," said R oudnev , " agr ee th at
th e sp eediest ter mination of th e w ar is th e ur gent and imp er ativ e
task now befor e th e w or k ing c l ass - of al l c ountr ies . T h e R ussian
Democ r ac y h as in th is w ar been p l ac ed in th e most diffic ul t situation :
in th e fir st p l ac e, bec ause R ussia is ec onomic al l y bac k w ar d and,
sec ondl y, bec ause h av ing r ec eiv ed a bur densome h er itage fr om th e
ol d r egime, w e ar e c omp el l ed to r ec onstr uc t our ec onomic l ife under
th e str ess of p r ol onged w ar far e . With us, ac c or ding to th e p r ev ail ing
op inion, th e w ar is th r eatening to k il l th e R ev ol ution and its ac h iev e-
ments if th e R ev ol ution does not k il l th e w ar by a h er oic effor t
.
We w oul d h av e been satisfied if th e w or k ing c l ass of E ngl and
w er e to dr aw a l ine of demar k ation betw een . its inter p r etation of th e
sl ogans of th e w ar of l iber ation and th at of th e imp er ial ists . C om-
r ade Hender son stated th at th e B r itish w or k er s w oul d attend th e
I nter national C onfer enc e onl y on c ondition th at an I nter al l ied C on-
fer enc e be c al l ed fir st
. S uc h an attitude is not in ac c or d eith er w ith
th e inter ests of th e R ussian or inter national Democ r ac y
. We ex p ec t
th e w or k ing c l ass of E ngl and to br ing al l p ossibl e p r essur e to bear
on th e imp er ial istic c l asses, on th e c h ar ac ter of th e p ol ic y adop ted
by th e E ngl ish r ul ing c l asses . We w oul d al so l ik e to see ac tual step s
tak en by th e E ngl ish Gov er nment tow ar ds th e sp eediest p ossibl e
r ev ision of tr eaties binding E ngl and and R ussia
. We h op e th at th e
E ngl ish w or k ing c l ass w il l under stand th e R ussian R ev ol utionar y
Democ r ac y, its asp ir ation tow ar ds th e sp eediest p ossibl e c onc l usion
of p eac e th r ough th e r estor ation of inter national sol idar ity of th e
3 7 6

T h e B ir th o f th e R ussian Democ r ac y
w or k ing c l ass and not by c r ush ing th e enemy
. We tr ust th at th e
E ngl ish w or k ing c l ass w il l sup p or t th e R ussian Democ r ac y in its
p r ac tic al step s tak en tow ar ds c al l ing a c onfer enc e,- an under tak ing
th at is intended to benefit not onl y th e R ussian Democ r ac y, but th e
I nter national e
. "
Hender son' s R ep l y
I n answ er ing R oudnev ' s sp eec h , Hender son said, among
oth er th ings, th e fol l ow ing
" I t w oul d h av e been a gr eat er r or on my p ar t to say th at th er e is
ev en a sembl anc e of under standing betw een us . I c an onl y say th at
w e sh al l giv e ser ious c onsider ation to th e p r op ositions adv anc ed h er e
.
I th ink w e sh al l agr ee on one p oint
: w e al l w ant p eac e, but th er e
is a differ enc e in th e meth ods by means of w h ic h w e w oul d obtain
p eac e . Your C h air man th ink s th at th e meth ods w h ic h w e h av e
adop ted may p r ol ong th e w ar . B ut it w oul d be of l ittl e av ail if I
w er e to tr y to p r ov e th at fr om our p oint of v iew your meth ods w il l
al so l ength en th e w ar . I c an onl y r ep eat onc e mor e
: ` We sh al l
c onsider th is . " '
C HA PT E R X
T h e A mer ic an M ission L o R ussia
T
HE new s of th e R ussian R ev ol ution ar oused ev er y-
w h er e, in th e A l l ied c ountr ies, a feel ing of p r ofound j oy
and symp ath y . A mong th e many j ubil ant ex p r essions
and statements in th ose signific ant days, th e p r ofound and
p ow er ful statement of Pr esident Wil son, in h is A ddr ess to
C ongr ess on A p r il 2 , 1 9 1 7 , r emains outstanding
.
" R ussia w as k now n by th ose w h o k new it best," said Pr esi-
dent Wil son, " to h av e been al w ays in fac t democ r atic at h ear t,
in al l th e v ital h abits of h er th ough t, in al l th e intimate r el a-
tionsh ip s of h er p eop l e th at sp ok e th eir natur al instinc t, th eir
h abitual attitude tow ar ds l ife . T h e autoc r ac y th at c r ow ned
th e summit of h er p ol itic al str uc tur e, l ong as it h ad stood and
ter r ibl e as w as th e r eal ity of its p ow er , w as not in fac t R ussian
in or igin, c h ar ac ter or p ur p ose
; and now it h as been sh ak en off
and th e gr eat gener ous R ussian p eop l e h av e been added in al l
th eir naiv e maj esty and migh t to th e for c es th at ar e figh ting
for fr eedom in th e w or l d, for j ustic e and for p eac e . Her e is
a fit p ar tner for a L eague of Honor
. "
On M av 1 5 th e S tate Dep ar tment, in Wash ington, offic ial l y
announc ed th e p er sonnel of a S p ec ial A mer ic an M ission to
R ussia
. Hon . E l ih u R oot, for mer S ec r etar y of S tate, w as
ap p ointed to h ead th e M ission as A mbassador E x tr aor dinar y
.
A s h is assoc iates, w ith th e r ank of E nv oys E x tr aor dinar y, th e
fol l ow ing w er e ap p ointed
: Joh n R . M ott of N ew Yor k , C h ar l es
P
. C r ane of I l l inois, C yr us H
. M c C or mic k of I l l inois, S amuel
R
. B er tr on of N ew Yor k , James Dunc an of M assac h usetts,
and C h ar l es E dw ar d R ussel l of N ew Yor k
. M aj or - Gen . Hugh
L
. S c ott, C h ief of S taff of th e U nited S tates A r my, w as ap -
p ointed M il itar y R ep r esentativ e of th e Pr esident, and R ear -
A dmir al James H
. Gl ennon,- N av al R ep r esentativ e .
On M ay 2 6 Pr esident Wil son tr ansmitted a note to Petr o-
gr ad, th e p ubl ic ation of w h ic h w as del ayed until June 1 0 .
T h e tex t of th e note fol l ow s
" I n v iew of th e ap p r oac h ing v isit of th e A mer ic an Del egation to
R ussia to ex p r ess th e deep fr iendsh ip of th e A mer ic an p eop l e for
3 7 8

T h e B ir th of th e R ussian Democ r ac y
th e p eop l e of R ussia and to disc uss th e best and most p r ac tic al means
of c oop er ation betw een th e tw o p eop l es in c ar r ying th e p r esent
str uggl e for th e fr eedom of al l p eop l es to a suc c essful c onsummation,
it seems op p or tune and ap p r op r iate th at I sh oul d state again, in th e
l igh t of th is new p ar tner sh ip , th e obj ec ts th e U nited S tates h as h ad
in mind in enter ing th e w ar . T h ose obj ec ts h av e been v er y muc h
bec l ouded dur ing th e l ast few w eek s by mistak en and misl eading
statements, and th e issues at stak e ar e too momentous, too tr emen-
dous, too signific ant for th e w h ol e h uman r ac e to p er mit any mis-
inter p r etations or misunder standings, h ow ev er sl igh t, to r emain un-
c or r ec ted for a moment .
T h e w ar h as begun to go against Ger many, and in th eir desp er ate
desir e to esc ap e th e inev itabl e ul timate defeat th ose w h o ar e in
auth or ity in Ger many ar e using ev er y p ossibl e instr umental ity, ar e
mak ing use ev en of th e infl uenc e of gr oup s and p ar ties among th eir
ow n subj ec ts to w h om th ey h av e nev er been j ust or fair or ev en tol er -
ant, to p r omote a p r op aganda on both sides of th e sea w h ic h w il l
p r eser v e for th em th eir infl uenc e at h ome and ' th eir p ow er abr oad,
to th e undoing of th e v er y men th ey ar e using .
T h e p osition of A mer ic a in th is w ar is so c l ear l y av ow ed th at no
man c an be ex c used for mistak ing it
. S h e seek s no mater ial p r ofit
or aggr andiz ement of any k ind . S h e is figh ting for no adv antage or
sel fish obj ec t of h er ow n, but for th e l iber ation of p eop l es ev er yw h er e
fr om th e aggr essions of autoc r atic for c e . T h e r ul ing c l asses in
Ger many h av e begun of l ate to p r ofess a l ik e l iber al ity and j ustic e
of p ur p ose, but onl y to p r eser v e th e p ow er th ey h av e set up in Ger -
many and th e sel fish adv antages w h ic h th ey h av e w r ongl y gained for
th emsel v es and th eir p r iv ate p r oj ec ts of p ow er al l th e w ay fr om
B er l in to B agdad and beyond . Gov er nment after Gov er nment h as
by th eir infl uenc e, w ith out op en c onq uest of its ter r itor y, been l ink ed
togeth er in a net of intr igue dir ec ted against noth ing l ess th an th e
p eac e and l iber ty of th e w or l d . T h e mesh es of th at intr igue must
be br ok en, but c annot be br ok en unl ess w r ongs al r eady done ar e
undone
; and adeq uate measur es must be tak en to p r ev ent it fr om
ev er being r ew ov en or r ep air ed
.
Of c our se, th e I mp er ial Ger man Gov er nment and th ose w h om it
is using for th eir ow n undoing ar e seek ing to obtain p l edges th at th e
w ar w il l end in th e r estor ation of th e status q uo ante
. I t w as th e
status q uo ante out of w h ic h th is iniq uitous w ar issued for th , th e
p ow er of th e I mp er ial Ger man Gov er nment w ith in th e emp ir e and
its w idesp r ead domination and infl uenc e outside of th at emp ir e . T h at
status must be al ter ed in suc h fash ion as to p r ev ent any suc h h ideous
th ing fr om ev er h ap p ening again
.
We ar e figh ting for th e l iber ty, th e sel f- gov er nment, and th e
undic tated dev el op ment of al l p eop l es, and ev er y featur e of th e settl e-
T h e A mer ic an M ission to R ussia

3 7 9
ment th at c onc l udes th is w ar must be c onc eiv ed and ex ec uted for
th at p ur p ose
. Wr ongs must fir st be r igh ted, and th en adeq uate
safeguar ds must be c r eated to p r ev ent th eir being c ommitted again .
We ough t not to c onsider r emedies mer el y bec ause th ey h av e a
p l easing and sonor ous sound
. Pr ac tic al q uestions c an be settl ed onl y
by p r ac tic al means
. Ph r ases w il l not ac c omp l ish th e r esul t . E ffec tiv e
r eadj ustments w il l ; and w h atev er r eadj ustments ar e nec essar y must
be made.
B ut th ey must fol l ow a p r inc ip l e, and th at p r inc ip l e is p l ain . N o
p eop l e must be for c ed under sov er eignty under w h ic h it does not
w ish to l iv e . N o ter r itor y must c h ange h ands ex c ep t for th e p ur p ose
of sec ur ing th ose w h o inh abit it a fair c h anc e of l ife and l iber ty
.
N o indemnities must h e insisted on ex c ep t th ose th at c onstitute p ay-
ment for manifest w r ongs done
. N o r eadj ustments of p ow er must
be made ex c ep t suc h as w il l tend to sec ur e th e futur e p eac e of th e
w or l d and th e futur e w el far e and h ap p iness of its p eop l es
.
A nd th en th e fr ee p eop l es of th e w or l d must dr aw togeth er in
some c ommon c ov enant, some genuine and p r ac tic al c oop er ation
th at w il l in effec t c ombine th eir for c e to sec ur e p eac e and j ustic e in
th e deal ings of nations w ith one anoth er . T h e br oth er h ood of man-
k ind must no l onger be a fair but emp ty p h r ase ; it must be giv en a
str uc tur e of for c e and r eal ity . T h e nations must r eal iz e th eir c ommon
l ife and effec t a w or k abl e p ar tner sh ip to sec ur e th at l ife against th e
aggr essions of autoc r atic and sel f- p l easing p ow er .
F or th ese th ings w e c an affor d to p our out bl ood and tr easur e .
F or th ese ar e th e th ings w e h av e al w ays p r ofessed to desir e, and
unl ess w e p our out bl ood and tr easur e now and suc c eed, w e may
nev er h e abl e to unite or sh ow c onq uer ing for c e again in th e gr eat
c ause of h uman l iber ty . T h e day h as c ome to c onq uer or submit .
I f th e for c es of autoc r ac y c an div ide us th ey w il l ov er c ome us
; if
w e stand togeth er , v ic tor y is c er tain and th e l iber ty w h ic h v ic tor y
w il l sec ur e . We c an affor d, th en, to be gener ous, but w e c annot
affor d, th en or now , to h e w eak or omit any singl e guar anty of
j ustic e and sec ur ity
. "
T h is note w as sup p l emented by anoth er ex p l aining th e aims
of th e A mer ic an E x tr aor dinar y M ission to R ussia
. T h e sec ond
note w as made p ubl ic on June 1 8 , and r ead as fol l ow s
" T h e High C ommission now on its w ay fr om th is c ountr y to
R ussia is sent p r imar il y to manifest to th e R ussian Gov er nment and
p eop l e th e deep symp ath etic feel ing w h ic h ex ists among al l c l asses in
A mer ic a for th e adh er enc e of R ussia to th e p r inc ip l e of democ r ac y,
w h ic h h as been th e foundation of th e p r ogr ess and p r osp er ity of th is
c ountr y
. T h e High C ommissioner s go to c onv ey th e gr eetings of
th is R ep ubl ic to th e new and p ow er ful member w h ic h h as j oined
th e gr eat famil y of democ r atic nations .
3 8 0

T h e B ir th of th e R ussian Democ r ac y
T h e C ommissioner s w h o w il l bear th is fr ater nal message to th e
p eop l e of R ussia h av e been sel ec ted by th e Pr esident w ith th e sp ec ial
p ur p ose of giv ing r ep r esentation to th e v ar ious el ements w h ic h mak e
up th e A mer ic an p eop l e and to sh ow th at among th em al l th er e is
th e same l ov e of c ountr y and th e same dev otion to l iber ty and
j ustic e and l oyal ty to c onstituted auth or ity . T h e C ommission is not
c h osen fr om one p ol itic al gr oup , but fr om th e v ar ious gr oup s into
w h ic h th e A mer ic an el ec tor ate is div ided
. U nited, th ey r ep r esent
th e R ep ubl ic . . How ev er muc h th ey may differ on p ubl ic q uestions,
th ey ar e one in sup p or t of democ r ac y and in h ostil ity to th e enemies
of democ r ac y th r ough out th e w or l d .
T h e C ommission is p r ep ar ed, if th e R ussian Gov er nment desir es,
to c onfer up on th e best w ays and means to br ing about effec tiv e
c oop er ation betw een th e tw o Gov er nments in th e p r osec ution of th e
w ar against th e Ger man autoc r ac y, w h ic h is to- day th e gr av est men-
ac e to al l democ r atic Gov er nments . I t is th e v iew of th is Gov er n-
ment th at it h as bec ome th e sol emn duty of th ose w h o l ov e democ -
r ac y and indiv idual l iber ty to r ender h ar ml ess th is autoc r atic Gov -
er nment . w h ose ambition, aggr ession, and intr igue h av e been dis-
c l osed in th e p r esent str uggl e . Wh atev er th e c ost in l ife and tr easur e,
th e sup r eme obj ec t sh oul d be and c an be attained onl y by th e united
str ength of th e democ r ac ies of th e w or l d, and onl y th en c an c ome
th at p er manent and univ er sal p eac e w h ic h is th e h op e of al l p eop l e
.
T o th e c ommon c ause of h umanity, w h ic h R ussia h as so c our a-
geousl y and unfl inc h ingl y sup p or ted for near l y th r ee year s, th e U nited
S tates is p l edged
. T o c oop er ate and aid R ussia in th e ac c omp l ish -
ment of th e task , w h ic h as a gr eat democ r ac y is mor e tr ul y h er s
to- day th an ev er befor e, is th e desir e of th e U nited S tates . T o stand
side by side, sh oul der to sh oul der against autoc r ac y, w il l unite th e
A mer ic an and R ussian p eop l es in a fr iendsh ip for th e ages
.
With th is sp ir it, th e High C ommissioner s of th e U nited S tates
w il l p r esent th emsel v es in th e c onfident h op e th at th e R ussian Gov -
er nment and p eop l e w il l r eal iz e h ow sinc er el y th e U nited S tates
h op es for th eir w el far e and desir es to sh ar e w ith th em in th eir futur e
endeav or s to br ing v ic tor y to th e c ause of democ r ac y and h uman
l iber ty . "
T h e M ission r eac h ed Petr ogr ad, v ia Vl adiv ostok , on June
1 3 , 1 9 1 7
. On June 1 5 th e M ember s of th e S p ec ial Dip l omatic
M ission of th e U nited S tates w er e p r esented to th e R ussian
Pr ov isional Gov er nment by th e A mbassador of th e U nited
S tates, th e Honor abl e Dav id R
. F r anc is, w h o said
" T h or ough l y imbued w ith th e sp ir it of ser v ic e, th ese A mer i-
c ans h av e c h eer ful l y r esp onded to th e c al l of Pr esident Wil son,
T h e A mer ic an M ission to R ussia,

3 8 1
and ar e h er e to p er for m an imp or tant duty . I feel it a gr eat
h onor to p r esent th is S p ec ial Dip l omatic M ission of th e U nited
S tates to th e Pr ov isional Gov er nment of R ussia .
Per mit me to intr oduc e to th e C ounc il of M inister s th e
distinguish ed C h air man of th e M ission, th e Honor abl e E l ih u
R oot, for mer S ec r etar y of War , for mer S ec r etar y of S tate,
for mer S enator of th e U nited S tates, al w ays a tr ue A mer ic an . "
M r . R oot th er eup on made th e fol l ow ing addr ess
" M r . Pr esident and M ember s of th e C ounc il of M inister s
: T h e
M ission for w h ic h I h av e th e h onor to sp eak is c h ar ged by th e
Gov er nment and p eop l e of th e U nited S tates of A mer ic a w ith a
message to th e Gov er nment and p eop l e of R ussia
. T h e M ission
c omes fr om a democ r atic R ep ubl ic
. I ts member s ar e c ommissioned
and instr uc ted by a Pr esident w h o h ol ds h is h igh offic e as C h ief
E x ec utiv e of mor e th an 1 0 0 ,0 0 0 ,0 0 0 fr ee p eop l e by v ir tue of p op ul ar
el ec tion, in w h ic h mor e th an 1 8 ,0 0 0 ,0 0 0 v otes w er e fr eel y c ast, and
fair l y c ounted p ur suant to l aw , by univ er sal , eq ual , dir ec t, and sec r et
suffr age .
F or one h undr ed and for ty year s our p eop l e h av e been str uggl ing
w ith th e h ar d p r obl ems of sel f- gov er nment
. With many sh or t-
c omings, many mistak es, many imp er fec tions, w e stil l h av e main-
tained or der and r esp ec t for l aw , indiv idual fr eedom, and national
indep endenc e
. U nder th e sec ur ity of our ow n l aw s, w e h av e gr ow n
in str ength and p r osp er ity
. B ut w e v al ue our fr eedom mor e th an
w eal th
. We l ov e l iber ty, and w e c h er ish abov e al l our p ossessions
th e ideal s for w h ic h our fath er s fough t and suffer ed and sac r ific ed
th at A mer ic a
. migh t be fr ee .
We bel iev e in th e c omp etenc e of th e p ow er of democ r ac y and in
our h ear t of h ear ts abides faith in th e c oming of a better w or l d in
w h ic h th e h umbl e and op p r essed of al l l ands may be l ifted up by
fr eedom to a h er itage of j ustic e and eq ual op p or tunity
.
T h e new s of R ussia' s new - found fr eedom br ough t to A mer ic a
univ er sal satisfac tion and j oy
. F r om al l th e l and symp ath y and h op e
w ent out to th e new sister in th e c ir c l e of democ r ac ies
. A nd th e
M ission is sent to ex p r ess th at feel ing
.
T h e A mer ic an democ r ac y sends to th e democ r ac y of R ussia a
gr eeting of symp ath y, fr iendsh ip , br oth er h ood, Godsp eed
. Distant
A mer ic a k now s l ittl e of th e sp ec ial c onditions of R ussian l ife w h ic h
must giv e for m to th e Gov er nment and to th e l aw s w h ic h you ar e
about to c r eate
. A s w e h av e dev el op ed our institutions to ser v e th e
needs of our national c h ar ac ter and l ife, so w e assume th at you w il l
dev el op your institutions to ser v e th e needs of R ussian c h ar ac ter
and l ife .
A s w e l ook ac r oss th e sea w e distinguish no p ar ty, no c l ass
. We
3 8 2

T h e B ir th o f th e R ussian Democ r ac y
see gr eat R ussia as a w h ol e, as one migh ty, str iv ing, asp ir ing democ -
r ac y . We k now th e sel f- c ontr ol , essential k indl iness, str ong c ommon
sense, c our age, and nobl e ideal ism of th e R ussian c h ar ac ter
. We
h av e faith in you al l
. We p r ay for God' s bl essing up on you al l . We
bel iev e you w il l sol v e your p r obl ems, th at you w il l maintain your
l iber ty, and th at our tw o gr eat nations w il l mar c h side by side in
th e tr iump h ant p r ogr ess of democ r ac y until th e ol d or der ev er yw h er e
h as p assed aw ay and th e w or l d is fr ee .
One fear ful danger th r eatens th e l iber ty of both nations
. T h e
ar med for c es of a mil itar y autoc r ac y ar e at th e gates of R ussia and
of h er A l l ies . T h e tr iump h of Ger man ar ms w il l mean th e death of
l iber ty in R ussia
. N o enemy is at th
e
gates of A mer ic a, but A mer ic a
h as c ome to r eal iz e th at th e tr iump h of Ger man ar ms means th e
death of l iber ty in th e w or l d
; th at w e w h o l ov e l iber ty and w oul d k eep
it must figh t for it, and figh t for it now w h en th e fr ee democ r ac ies
of th e w or l d may be str ong in union, and not del ay until th ey may
be beaten dow n sep ar atel y in suc c ession .
S o A mer ic a sends anoth er message to R ussia- th at w e ar e going
to figh t, for your fr eedom eq ual l y w ith our ow n, and w e ask you to
figh t for our fr eedom eq ual l y w ith your s
. We w oul d mak e your
c ause our s, and, w ith a c ommon p ur p ose and mutual h el p ful ness of
a fir m al l ianc e, mak e sur e of v ic tor y ov er our c ommon foe .
You w il l r ec ogniz e your ow n sentiments and p ur p oses in th e w or ds
of Pr esident Wil son to th e A mer ic an C ongr ess, w h en on th e sec ond
of A p r il l ast h e adv ised a dec l ar ation of w ar against Ger many . He
said :
` \Ve ar e ac c ep ting th is c h al l enge of h ostil e p ur p ose bec ause w e
k now th at in suc h a gov er nment ( th e Ger man Gov er nment) , fol l ow -
ing suc h meth ods, w e c an nev er h av e a fr iend
; and th at in th e
p r esenc e of its or ganiz ed p ow er , al w ays l ying in w ait to ac c omp l ish
w e k now not w h at p ur p ose, th er e c an be no assur ed sec ur ity for th e
democ r atic gov er nments of th e w or l d . We ar e about to ac c ep t th e
gage of battl e w ith th is natur al foe to l iber ty and sh al l , if nec essar y,
sp end th e w h ol e for c e of th e nation to c h ec k and nul l ify its p r eten-
sions and its p ow er . We ar e gl ad, now th at w e see th e fac ts w ith no
v eil of fal se p r etense about th em, to figh t th us for th e ul timate p eac e
of th e w or l d and for th e l iber ation of its p eop l es, th e Ger man p eop l es
inc l uded
; for th e r igh ts of nations gr eat and smal l and th e p r iv il ege
of men ev er yw h er e to c h oose th eir w ay of l ife and of obedienc e
.
T h e w or l d must be made safe for democ r ac y
. I ts p eac e must be
p l anted up on th e tested foundations of p ol itic al l iber ty
. We h av e
no sel fish ends to ser v e
. We desir e no c onq uest, no dominion . We
seek no indemnities for our sel v es, no mater ial c omp ensation for th e
sac r ific es w e sh al l fr eel y mak e
. W e ar e but one of th e c h amp ions
of th e r igh ts of mank ind . We sh al l
, h e satisfied w h en th ose r igh ts
S E N A T OR E L I HU R OOT
Head of th e U . S . E x tr aor dinar y M ission to R ussia .
3 8 4

T h e B ir th of th e R ussian Democ r ac y
h av e been made as sec ur e as th e faith and th e fr eedom of nations
c an mak e th em
. '
A nd you w il l see th e feel ing tow ar d R ussia w ith w h ic h A mer ic a
h as enter ed th e gr eat w ar in anoth er c l ause of th e same addr ess .
Pr esident Wil son fur th er said :
` Does not ev er y A mer ic an feel th at assur anc e h as been added to
our h op e for th e futur e p eac e of th e w or l d by th e w onder ful and
h ear tening th ings th at h av e been h ap p ening w ith in th e l ast few w eek s
in R ussia? R ussia w as k now n by th ose w h o k new it best to h av e
been al w ays in fac t democ r atic at h ear t, in al l th e v ital h abits of h er
th ough t, in al l th e intimate r el ationsh ip s of h er p eop l e th at sp ok e
th eir natur al instinc t, th eir h abitual attitude tow ar ds l ife . T h e autoc -
r ac y th at c r ow ned th e summit of h er p ol itic al str uc tur e, l ong as it
h ad stood and ter r ibl e as w as th e r eal ity of its p ow er , w as not in
fac t R ussian in or igin, c h ar ac ter , or p ur p ose, and now it h as been
sh ak en off and th e gr eat gener ous R ussian p eop l e h av e been added
in al l th eir naiv e maj esty and migh t to th e for c es th at ar e figh ting
for fr eedom in th e w or l d, for j ustic e, and for p eac e . Her e is a fit
p ar tner for a L eague of Honor . '
T h at p ar tner sh ip of h onor in th e gr eat str uggl e for h uman fr ee-
dom, th e ol dest of th e gr eat democ r ac ies now seek s in fr ater nal
union w ith th e youngest
.
T h e p r ac tic al and sp ec ific meth ods and p ossibil ities of our al l ied
c oop er ation, th e member s of th e M ission w oul d be gl ad to disc uss
w ith th e member s of th e Gov er nment of R ussia . "
T h e M inister of F or eign A ffair s, M . I . T er estc h enk o, r ep l ied
to M r
. R oot' s addr ess, in E ngl ish , as fol l ow s
" I t is a gr eat h onor to me to h av e th e p l easur e of r ec eiv ing th is
M ission, w h ic h is sent by th e A mer ic an p eop l e and th eir Pr esident
to fr eed R ussia to ex p r ess th e feel ings of deep symp ath y w h ic h
th e Pr ov isional Gov er nment, r ep r esenting th e p eop l e of R ussia, h av e
tow ar d your c ountr y .
T h e ev ent of th e gr eat R ev ol ution w h ic h w e h av e ac h iev ed mak es
al l ies of th e ol dest and th e new est R ep ubl ic s in th e w or l d
. Our
R ev ol ution w as based on th e same w onder ful w or ds w h ic h fir st w er e
ex p r essed in th at memor abl e doc ument in w h ic h th e A mer ic an p eop l e
in 1 7 7 6 dec l ar ed th eir indep endenc e .
Just as th e A mer ic an p eop l e th en dec l ar ed :
' We h ol d th ese tr uth s to be sel f- ev ident, th at al l men ar e c r eated
eq ual , th at th ey ar e endow ed by th eir C r eator w ith c er tain inal ienabl e
R igh ts, th at among th ese ar e L ife, L iber ty, and th e p ur suit of Hap -
p iness .
T h at to sec ur e th ese r igh ts, Gov er nments ar e instituted
among M en, der iv ing th eir j ust p ow er s fr om th e c onsent of th e
gov er ned .
T h at w h enev er any for m of Gov er nment bec omes de-
str uc tiv e of th ese ends, it is th e R igh t of th e Peop l e to al ter or to
T h e A mer ic an M ission to R ussia

3 8 5
abol ish it, and to institute new Gov er nment, l aying its foundation on
suc h p r inc ip l es and or ganiz ing its p ow er s in suc h for m as to th em
sh al l seem most l ik el y to effec t th eir S afety and Hap p iness
. Pr u-
denc e, indeed, w il l dic tate th at Gov er nments l ong establ ish ed sh oul d
not be c h anged for l igh t and tr ansient c auses
; and ac c or dingl y, al l
ex p er ienc e h ath sh ow n, th at mank ind ar e mor e disp osed to suffer ,
w h il e ev il s ar e suffer abl e, th an to r igh t th emsel v es by abol ish ing th e
for m to w h ic h th ey ar e ac c ustomed
. B ut w h en a l ong tr ain of abuses
and usur p ations, p ur suing inv ar iabl y th e same Obj ec t ev inc es a de-
sign to r educ e th em under absol ute Desp otism, it is th eir r igh t, it is
th eir duty to th r ow off suc h Gov er nment, and to p r ov ide new Guar ds
for th eir futur e sec ur ity . '
S o th e R ussian p eop l e, w h o for c entur ies h av e been ensl av ed by
a Gov er nment w h ic h w as not th at w h ic h th e feel ing of th e nation
w ish ed or w anted, h av e so dec l ar ed and sh ak en off th e fetter s w h ic h
bound th em, and as th e w ind bl ow s aw ay th e l eav es in autumn so th e
Gov er nment w h ic h h as bound us for c entur ies h as fal l en, and noth ing
is l eft but th e fr ee gov er nment of th e p eop l e
.
S o th e R ussian p eop l e now stand befor e th e w or l d c onsc ious of
th eir str ength and astonish ed at th e ease w ith w h ic h th at R ev ol ution
h ap p ened, and th e fir st days of our fr eedom, indeed, br ough t sur p r ise
to us as w el l as to th e r est of th e w or l d, but th e day w h ic h br ough t
th e R ev ol ution w as not onl y a day w h ic h br ough t fr eedom, for it
br ough t us fac e to fac e w ith tw o enor mous p r obl ems w h ic h now stand
befor e th e R ussian p eop l e, and th ese p r obl ems ar e th e c r eation of a
str ong democ r atic for c e in th e inter ior of R ussia, and a figh t w ith th e
c ommon foe w ith out, w ith th at foe w h ic h is figh ting you as w el l as
us, and w h ic h is now th e l ast for m and l ast str ength of autoc r ac y
:
and it w as w ith a feel ing of gl adness th at w e found you on th e side
of th e A l l ies, and th at after our R ev ol ution th er e w as no autoc r ac y
among th ose w ith w h om w e found our sel v es figh ting
. We found
w ith j oy th at in th e h igh , l ofty motiv es w h ic h h av e imp el l ed your
gr eat R ep ubl ic to enter th is c onfl ic t th er e is no str ain of autoc r ac y
or sp ir it of c onq uest, and our fr ee p eop l e must be guided by th ose
same h igh , l ofty motiv es and p r inc ip l es .
A nd now l et us stand togeth er , for w e p ur sue th e same endeav or
in th e w ar and in th e p eac e w h ic h is to fol l ow
. We r ep r esentativ es
of th e R ussian nation w h o h av e been p l ac ed at its h ead to l ead th e
R ussian nation th r ough its h ar dsh ip s on its w ay to fr eedom, fol l ow ing
th ese p r inc ip l es w h ic h h av e al w ays br ough t a nation fr om c omp l ete
sl av er y into c omp l ete fr eedom, ar e c onfident w e sh al l find th e w ay
w h ic h w il l l ead us side by side, not onl y th e R ussian p eop l es, but its
A l l ies, al ong th at w ay w h ic h w il l br ing us to futur e h ap p iness
.
T h e R ev ol ution of R ussia is a mor al fac tor w h ic h sh ow s th e w il l
of th e R ussian p eop l e in its endeav or to sec ur e l iber ty and j ustic e,
3 8 6

T h e B ir th of th e R ussian Democ r ac y
and th ese el ements th e R ussian p eop l e sh ow and w ish to sh ow , not
onl y in th eir inter nal affair s, w h ic h w e our sel v es h av e to l ead and in
w h ic h w e w ish to be guided by th ese p r inc ip l es, but al so in our inter -
national r el ations and in oar inter national p ol ic ies .
T h is w ar , w h ic h w as br ough t up on us th r ee year s ago and w h ic h
th e R ussian R ev ol ution found w h en it enter ed th e str uggl e of fr ee
nations, l eft one door for us to enter , and by th at door w e h av e
enter ed and sh al l c ontinue in th at p ath
. T h ese R ussian p eop l e str iv e
for th e end of mil itar ism and for a dur abl e p eac e w h ic h w oul d ex c l ude
ev er y v iol enc e fr om w h atev er side it may c ome and al l imp er ial istic
sc h emes, w h atev er th eir for m may be
. T h e R ussian p eop l e h av e no
w ish of c onq uest or dominion and ar e op p osed to th ose ideas in
oth er s, and fir st of al l th ey w il l not al l ow any of th ose imp er ial istic
desir es w h ic h our enemy h as for med, manifest or h idden, to c ome
to good in w h atev er sp h er e h e may h av e p l anned th em, p ol itic al ,
financ ial , or ec onomic . T h is c onstitues th e fir m w il l or w h at R ussia
h as to guar d h er sel f against .
T h er e is al so a sec ond gr eat th ough t w h ic h w as ex p r essed by th at
memor abl e doc ument by w h ic h th e nation of th e U nited S tates and
its p eop l e on th e day of th eir indep endenc e dec l ar ed th eir desir es and
w ish es, and w h ic h says th at nations sh oul d h av e a r igh t to sh ow
th emsel v es th e w ay th ey w ish to go and to dec ide th eir ow n futur e,
and th is h igh p r inc ip l e th e R ussian p eop l e h av e ac c ep ted and c onsider
th at it must guide th eir p ol ic ies ; and th ey c onsider al so th at al l
nations, h ow ev er smal l or gr eat, h av e th e r igh t to dec ide w h at th eir
futur e w il l be, and th at no ter r itor y and no p eop l e c an be tr ansfer r ed
fr om one c ountr y to anoth er w ith out th eir c onsent . Human beings
h av e th e r igh t to say for th emsel v es w h at th ey sh al l do and w h ose
subj ec ts th ey sh al l bec ome .
I am h ap p y to see you, and h ap p y to say th at th er e is no idea or
fac tor of a mor al or mater ial k ind to div ide us or to p r ev ent us fr om
being h and in h and ac r oss th e Pac ific . T h ese tw o gr eat p eop l es, th e
fr ee p eop l e of R ussia and th e fr ee p eop l e of A mer ic a, th e gr eat p eop l e
of th e U nited S tates, th e ol dest, str ongest, and p ur est democ r ac y,
h and in h and, w il l sh ow th e w ay th at h uman h ap p iness w il l tak e in
th e futur e .
A l l ow me, th er efor e, to gr eet you, to w el c ome you in th e name
of my c ol l eagues and of our Gov er nment, w h ic h r ep r esents our p eop l e,
and to say h ow h ap p y w e ar e to see you h er e . "
O
N Jul y 1 0 th e A mer ic an M ission announc ed th at its
p ur p ose h ad been ac h iev ed in a month ' s v isit
. S enator
R oot issued th e fol l ow ing statement
" T h e M ission h as ac c omp l ish ed w h at it c ame h er e to do,
T h e A mer ic an M ission to R ussia

3 8 7
and w e ar e gr eatl y enc our aged
. We found no or ganic or in-
c ur abl e mal ady in th e R ussian Democ r ac y
. Democ r ac ies ar e
al w ays in tr oubl e, and w e h av e seen days j ust as dar k in th e
p r ogr ess of our ow n
.
We must r emember th at a p eop l e in w h om al l c onstr uc tiv e
effor t h as been sup p r essed for so l ong c annot immediatel y
dev el op a genius for q uic k ac tion . T h e fir st stage is nec essar il y
one of debate . T h e sol id, admir abl e tr aits in th e
. R ussian
c h ar ac ter w il l p ul l th e nation th r ough th e p r esent c r isis
.
N atur al l ov e of l aw and or der and c ap ac ity for l oc al sel f-
gov er nment h av e been demonstr ated ev er y day sinc e th e
R ev ol ution .
T h e c ountr y' s most ser ious l ac k is money and
adeq uate tr ansp or tation .
We sh al l do w h at w e c an to h el p
R ussia in both . "
T h e M ission r etur ned fr om R ussia ear l y in A ugust and
r ep or ted to Wash ington on A ugust 1 2 .
Dur ing its stay in
R ussia th e M ission h ad been v er y ac tiv e, and S enator R oot
h ad p er sonal l y addr essed many meetings, among th em th e
M osc ow M unic ip al Duma, th e War - I ndustr ial C ommittee at
M osc ow , th e A l l - R ussian Z emstv os U nion, th e M osc ow Peo-
p l e' s B ank and th e M osc ow S toc k E x c h ange
. S enator R oot
ap p ear ed al so at l ar ge p ubl ic meetings, addr essing w or k ing-
men and sol dier s .
James Dunc an, th e r ep r esentativ e of L abor in th e M ission,
on June 2 9 addr essed th e A l l - R ussian C ongr ess of Wor k -
men' s and S ol dier s' Del egates, gr eeting th e C ongr ess in th e
name of th e w or k ingmen of th e U nited S tates . He p ointed
out th at th e p ur p ose of th e A mer ic an M ission w as to ex tend a
br oth er l y h and to th e R ussian Democ r ac y . N
. S . T sc h eidz e,
th e C h air man of th e C ongr ess, th ank ed th e sp eak er in beh al f
of th e R ussian p r ol etar iat
" N ev er w as th e unity of th e w or k er s as nec essar y as it is
now ," said T sc h eidz e . " We h op e th at h er e, in R ussia, th e
monar c h y w il l nev er be r eestabl ish ed and th at w ith th e aid of
th e democ r ac ies of oth er c ountr ies th e dynasties of Ger many
and A ustr ia- Hungar y w il l fal l as w el l . T h e assistanc e of
A mer ic a is w anted up on one q uestion p ar tic ul ar l y . You said
th at w e need a sp eedy ter mination of th e w ar . T h is is tr ue .
3 8 8

T h e B ir th o f th e R ussian Democ r ac y
B ut you said th at th e w ar must be a v ic tor ious one . I f by
th ese w or ds you under stand th e dec l ar ation of th e C ounc il s
of Wor k men' s and S ol dier s' Del egates, th en w e gr eet suc h a
v ic tor y .
S uc h a v ic tor y w e ar e al l c r av ing for . I t w il l h el p
us to c ontinue th e c l ass str uggl e and w il l br ing us to th e
k ingdom of S oc ial ism . L ong l iv e S oc ial ism! L ong l iv e th e
l abor ing c l ass of A mer ic a! "
C h ar l es E dw ar d R ussel l , on June 2 5 , h ad outl ined befor e th e
C ounc il of Wor k men' s and S ol dier s' Del egates th e aims of th e
U nited S tates and th e r easons w h ic h br ough t th e c ountr y into
th e w ar
. His dec l ar ation th at th e U nited S tates is figh ting
onl y bec ause th e v er y p r inc ip l e of democ r ac y is in danger
w as c h eer ed by al most th e entir e assembl y
.
S
E N A T OR R OOT p r obabl y best ex p r essed th e p ur p ose
of th e M ission, sp eak ing at th e r ec ep tion tender ed h im
by th e C ity of N ew Yor k , after th e r etur n of th e M ission,
on A ugust 1 5 , 1 9 1 7 .
" I t w as th e p ur p ose of th is M ission," said S enator R oot, " not
mer el y to c ar r y a message of fr iendsh ip and good feel ing fr om
th e U nited S tates to R ussia
. A s ev ents dev el op ed befor e w e
r eac h ed R ussia, it bec ame th e func tion of th is gr oup of A mer i-
c an c itiz ens to c ar r y to th e p eop l e of R ussia a message of faith
in Democ r ac y, to say to th em
: ` T ak e h ear t, be of good c h eer ;
faint not, desp air not . We say to you fr om th e h undr ed mil -
l ion fr ee p eop l e of A mer ic a, w h o for one h undr ed and for ty
year s h av e been figh ting th e battl es of Democ r ac y, th at th er e
l iv es a p ow er in Democ r ac y th at w il l ov er c ome al l ev fl , and it
is w ith you, and w ith it you w il l tr iump h . ' "
S enator R oot and h is M ission h ad ac c omp l ish ed p er fec tl y
th e task th at h ad dev ol v ed up on th em . On th e oth er h and, th e
M ission br ough t bac k a message to th e U nited S tates, and
th is message is again best ex p r essed in S enator R oot' s ow n
w or ds, sp ok en at th e same r ec ep tion
" We h av e c ome bac k w ith faith in R ussia, faith in th e
q ual ities of c h ar ac ter th at ar e th e essential tests of c omp etenc y
for sel f- gov er nment, faith in th e p ur p ose, th e p er sistenc e and
th e p ow er of th e R ussian p eop l e to k eep th emsel v es fr ee . A nd
T h e A mer ic an M ission to R ussia

3 8 9
th ey k now th at th ey c annot be fr ee, th at th ey c annot buil d
up a str uc tur e of gov er nment based up on and c onfor ming to
th e l ife and c h ar ac ter and genius of th e R ussian p eop l e - if
Ger many is al l ow ed to dominate in th eir l and . "
On th e same day, sp eak ing befor e th e C h amber of C om-
mer c e of th e S tate of N ew Yor k , S enator R oot said
" T h er e is but one danger I see, and th at is th at R ussia may
be ov er w h el med by Ger many ; and if th at w er e to h ap p en,
th e dev el op ment of th e fr ee institutions in R ussia, adap ted to
h er l ife and c h ar ac ter and th e genius of th e R ussian p eop l e,
w oul d be made imp ossibl e . T h e R ussians k now th at- th e
th ough tful men of R ussia k now th at- and, w ith c our age
w or th y of al l h onor , w ith c our age w or th y of imitation by us,
th ey ar e w r estl ing migh til y to p r ev ent th at gr eat misfor tune .
N o one c an tel l w h at th e outc ome w il l be, but th is is c er tain,
th at R ussia, tir ed of th e w ar , w or n and h ar r ied by w ar ; R ussia,
w h ic h h as l ost 7 ,0 0 0 ,0 0 0 of h er sons, w ith ev er y v il l age in
mour ning, ev er y famil y ber eav ed ; R ussia h as again tak en up
th e h eav y bur den ; sh e h as to a gr eat ex tent r estor ed th e disc i-
p l ine of h er A r my
; sh e h as p ut aw ay th e br igh t v ision of p eac e
and r est, and r etur ned yet again to th e sac r ific e and suffer ing
of w ar in or der th at sh e migh t c ontinue fr ee . "
T h is statement w as made on th e ev e of th e M osc ow N a-
tional C onfer enc e, w h en nobody, ev en among th e R ussian
statesmen, c oul d h av e for eseen th e inev itabil ity of R ussia' s
temp or ar y c ol l ap se . E v er ybody w as c er tain th at R ussia w oul d
stil l be sav ed th r ough th e unity of al l h er p r ogr essiv e for c es .
T h e A mer ic an M ission natur al l y sh ar ed th is v iew and r e-
tur ned to th e U nited S tates op timistic , w ith faith in R ussia,
w h ic h now , in th e l igh t of th e l atest dev el op ments, may seem
ungr ounded . B ut suc h a c onc l usion w oul d c er tainl y be ex -
tr emel y sup er fic ial . *
I t w as on th e w ay fr om th e Pac ific p or t to Wash ington,
w h en S enator R oot, being adv ised of th e p essimistic r ep or ts
c oming fr om R ussia, r emar k ed to a gr oup of new sp ap er men
* I t must be stated th at al l th e for eign statesmen w h o v isited R ussia at
th at time, not onl y S enator R oot, but al so th e L abor and S oc ial ist l eader s .
E mil e Vander v el de, A l ber t T h omas, A r tur o L abr iol a and A r th ur Hender -
son,- al l of th em l eft R ussia op timistic , w ith out any p r esentiment of th e
c oming c atastr op h e
.
3 9 0

T h e B ir th of th e R ussian Democ r ac y
" We took a l ong time to for m th e Gov er nment of th e U nited
S tates of A mer ic a, and I j udge fr om th e new sp ap er s th at w e
h av e not yet p er fec ted it and th at a gr eat deal r emains to be
done . "
I n th ese few w or ds w e h av e th e best r ep l y to al l w h o ar e
p essimistic about R ussia . Wh atev er h as h ap p ened, th e R us-
sian Democ r ac y is stil l al iv e and w il l nev er r etur n to th e ol d
r egime or ac c ep t th e Ger man domination, w h ic h is onl y an-
oth er for m of th e ol d r egime . S enator R oot' s statement th at
R ussia must r etur n to w ar " in or der th at sh e migh t c ontinue
fr ee" stil l r emains th e ax iom th at sums up th e R ussian situa-
tion . T h is tr uth w as k now n to th e educ ated R ussian c l asses
l ong ago, and now th e Ger man " p eac e" mak es it c l ear to th e
masses . Democ r atic R ussia and autoc r atic Ger many at p eac e
w ith one anoth er w h il e th e w or l d is afl ame w ith w ar for
Democ r ac y ; R ussia " neutr al " w h il e Ger many is c utting h er
l iv ing body and tr amp l ing up on h er soul , is suc h a gl ar ing
c ontr adic tion th at no one c an bel iev e in th e stabil ity of suc h a
p eac e .
I f th e w ar c ontinues R ussia w il l c ome bac k . R ussia w il l
c ome bac k if sh e is not dead, and sh e is far fr om being dead .
A nd if R ussia c omes bac k now , after sh e h as l iv ed th r ough th e
nigh tmar e of B ol sh ev ism, sh e w il l be a dec ided, a p ow er ful
al l y, w h ose beh av ior w il l sur p ass ev er y op timistic h op e and
ev er y faith enter tained by th ose w h o k now h er and l ov e h er
.
C HA PT E R XI
T
T h e R ussian M ission to th e U nited S tates
HE R ussian E x tr aor dinar y M ission to th e U nited S tates
ar r iv ed in Wash ington on June 1 9 , 1 9 1 7
. T h e M ission
w as h eaded by Pr ofessor B or is A . B ak h meteff, th e
fir st A mbassador of fr ee R ussia to th e U nited S tates
. T h e
M ission inc l uded L ieutenant- Gener al V . R oop , R ep r esentativ e
of th e R ussian A r my ; Pr ofessor J . V. L omonosoff, R ep r e-
sentativ e of th e M inistr y of M eans of C ommunic ation
; Pr o-
fessor N . A
. B or odine, R ep r esentativ e of th e M inistr y of A gr i-
c ul tur e ; J . J . S ouk ine, of th e M inistr y of F or eign A ffair s ; E . I .
Omel c h enk o, of th e M inistr y of T r ade and I ndustr y, and V
. J .
N ov itsk y, of th e M inistr y of F inanc e .
On Jul y 5 A mbassador B ak h meteff p r esented h is c r edential s
to Pr esident Wil son w ith th e fol l ow ing addr ess
" M r . Pr esident : I h av e th e h onor of p r esenting to you th e l etter s
by w h ic h th e Pr ov isional Gov er nment of R ussia is ac c r editing me to
th e Gov er nment of th e U nited S tates of A mer ic a as its A mbassador
E x tr aor dinar y and Pl enip otentiar y .
M y Gov er nment h as dir ec ted me to ex p r ess to you its p r ofound
gr atitude for th e nobl e ac t of p r omp t r ec ognition by your Gov er n-
ment of th e new or der establ ish ed in R ussia and to c onv ey to th e
Gov er nment and to th e p eop l e of th e U nited S tates th e feel ings of
sinc er e symp ath y and fr iendsh ip .
A t th e p r esent time th e h istor ic al p ath s of th e U nited S tates and
R ussia h av e been dr aw n c l ose in th e c ommon str uggl e for fr eedom
and l asting p eac e of th e w or l d, and in th is str ife th e new - bor n R ussian
Democ r ac y is being guided by th e same unsel fish aims, th e same
h uman and democ r atic p r inc ip l es as th is gr eat R ep ubl ic
.
T h e suc c ess of our mutual task mak es essential th e fir m estab-
l ish ment of th e democ r atic r egime in R ussia as w el l as th e c on-
sol idation of R ussia' s figh ting p ow er
. T o th at end ar e tending th e
effor ts of th e Pr ov isional Gov er nment, w h ic h is w aiting to find a
sour c e of new str ength in th e h ear ty sp ir it and br oth er l y sup p or t of
th e U nited S tates
. F or suc h attainments th e Pr ov isional Gov er n-
ment is endeav or ing to establ ish a ful l under standing and a c l ose c o-
op er ation w ith th e Gov er nment of th is c ountr y, w h ose immense r e-
sour c es and unl imited ener gy c an c ontr ibute most effec tiv el y to th e
ac h iev ements of our c ause
. T o br ing suc h c oop er ation into effec t
and to establ ish means of c ommon ac tiv ity on th e most p r ac tic al
l ines and w ith no l oss of time, th e Pr ov isional Gov er nment h as c on-
3 9 2

T h e B ir th of th e R ussian Democ r ac y
sider ed it nec essar y to bestow on me ex c ep tional p ow er s to tr eat and
dec ide, on beh al f of my Gov er nment, al l manifol d q uestions in w h ic h
suc h c oop er ation sh oul d h av e to r ev eal itsel f .
T o sec ur e unity of ac tion, th e Pr ov isional Gov er nment h as c on-
c entr ated under my sup r eme guidanc e th e ac tiv ities of v ar ious R us-
sian institutions and r ep r esentativ es ' in th is c ountr y, and h as p r o-
v ided for amp l ified effic ac y by sending a number of new , c omp etent
del egates w h o h av e ac c omp anied me on my M ission
.
C onfident th at th e natur al symp ath y of th e tw o nations w il l gr ow
into bonds of sol id fr iendsh ip , I l ook for w ar d w ith th e gr eatest
h op es to th e r esul ts of th e united effor ts of th e tw o gr eat Democ -
r ac ies, based on mutual under standing and c ommon aims . "
T h e fol l ow ing is th e r ep l y of th e Pr esident
" M r . A mbassador , to th e k een satisfac tion w h ic h I der iv ed fr om
th e fac t th at th e Gov er nment of th e U nited S tates w as th e fir st to
w el c ome, by its offic ial r ec ognition, th e new Democ r ac y of R ussia
to th e famil y of fr ee S tates is added th e ex c ep tional p l easur e w h ic h
I ex p er ienc e in now r ec eiv ing fr om your h and th e l etter s w h er eby
th e Pr ov isional Gov er nment of R ussia ac c r edits you as its A m-
bassador E x tr aor dinar y and Pl enip otentiar y to th e U nited S tates, and
in ac c or ding to you for mal r ec ognition as th e fir st A mbassador of
fr ee R ussia to th is c ountr y .
F or th e p eop l e of R ussia th e p eop l e of th e U nited S tates h av e
ev er enter tained fr iendl y feel ings, w h ic h h av e now been gr eatl y deep -
ened by th e k now l edge th at, ac tuated by th e same l ofty motiv es, th e
tw o Gov er nments and p eop l es ar e c oop er ating to br ing to a suc c ess-
ful ter mination th e c onfl ic t now r aging for h uman l iber ty and a
univ er sal ac k now l edgment of th ose p r inc ip l es of r igh t and j ustic e
w h ic h sh oul d dir ec t al l Gov er nments . I feel c onv inc ed th at w h en
th is h ap p y day sh al l c ome no smal l sh ar e of th e c r edit w il l be due
to th e dev oted p eop l e of R ussia, w h o, ov er c oming disl oyal ty fr om
w ith in and intr igue fr om w ith out, r emain steadfast to th e c ause .
T h e M ission w h ic h it w as my p l easur e to send to R ussia h as
al r eady assur ed th e Pr ov isional Gov er nment th at in th is momentous
str uggl e and in th e p r obl ems th at c onfr ont and w il l c onfr ont th e fr ee
Gov er nment of R ussia th at Gov er nment may c ount on th e steadfast
fr iendsh ip of th e Gov er nment of th e U nited S tates and its c onstant
c oop er ation in al l desir ed ap p r op r iate dir ec tions
.
I t onl y r emains for me to giv e ex p r ession to my admir ation of
th e w ay in w h ic h th e Pr ov isional Gov er nment of R ussia ar e meeting
al l r eq uir ements, to my entir e symp ath y w ith th em in th eir nobl e
obj ec t to insur e to th e p eop l e of R ussia th e bl essings of fr eedom and
of eq ual r igh ts and op p or tunity, and to my faith th at th r ough th eir
effor ts R ussia w il l assume h er r igh tful p l ac e among th e gr eat fr ee
nations of th e w or l d . "
PR OF . B OR I S A . B A KHM E T E V
F ir st A mbassador fr om fr ee R ussia to th e U nited S tates .
3 9 4

T h e B ir th of th e R ussian Democ r ac y
On June 2 1 A mbassador B ak h meteff issued th e fol l ow ing
statement to th e A mer ic an p r ess
" I n beh al f of th e R ussian Pr ov isional Gov er nment and in beh al f
of al l th e p eop l e of N ew R ussia, I h av e been fir st of al l sent h er e to
ex p r ess th eir gr atitude to th e Gov er nment of th e U nited S tates for
th e p r omp t r ec ognition of th e new p ol itic al or der in R ussia .
T h is nobl e ac tion of th e w or l d' s gr eatest Democ r ac y h as affor ded
us str ong mor al sup p or t and h as c r eated among our p eop l e a gener al
feel ing of p r ofound ap p r ec iation .
C l ose and ac tiv e r el ationsh ip betw een th e tw o nations, based up on
c omp l ete and sinc er e under standing, enc ounter ed inev itabl e obstac l es
dur ing th e ol d r egime, bec ause of its v er y natur e . T h e situation is
now r adic al l y c h anged w ith fr ee R ussia star ting a new er a in h er
national l ife . T h e natur al and deep feel ing of symp ath y w h ic h al w ays
ex isted betw een th e p eop l e of th e tw o gr eat nations w il l gr ow now ,
by th e for c e of ev ents, into a stabl e fr iendsh ip - into p er manent and
ac tiv e c oop er ation .
I h av e been in th is c ountr y h er etofor e on sev er al oc c asions ; I h av e
many fr iends h er e and h av e al w ays l ook ed for w ar d to a c l ose union
and fr iendsh ip betw een th e U nited S tates and R ussia . T h e U nited
S tates w ith its enor mous natur al r esour c es and its w onder ful genius
for or ganiz ation, c an now gr eatl y aid in th e w or k of r ec onstr uc tion
w h ic h is tak ing p l ac e in R ussia .
A noth er obj ec t of our M ission is to establ ish th e most effec tiv e
means by w h ic h th e A mer ic an and R ussian Democ r ac ies c an w or k
h and in h and in th e c ommon task of suc c essful l y c ar r ying on th e
w ar . T h e fr iendl y assistanc e w h ic h th e U nited S tates h as al r eady
r ender ed h as been of th e h igh est v al ue
.
T h e Pr ov isional Gov er nment is ac tual l y mobil iz ing al l its r esour c es
and is mak ing gr eat effor ts to or ganiz e th e c ountr y and th e A r my
for th e p ur p ose of c onduc ting th e w ar
. We h op e to establ ish a v er y
c l ose and ac tiv e c oop er ation w ith th e U nited S tates in or der to
sec ur e th e most suc c essful and intensiv e ac c omp l ish ments of al l w or k
nec essar y for our c ommon end
; for th e p ur p ose of disc ussing al l
matter s r el ating to mil itar y affair s, munitions and sup p l ies, r ail w ays
and tr ansp or tation, financ e and agr ic ul tur e, our M ission inc l udes
eminent and distinguish ed sp ec ial ists .
On th e oth er h and, I h op e th at th e r esul t of our stay and w or k in
A mer ic a w il l br ing about a c l ear under standing on th e p ar t of your
p ubl ic of w h at h as h ap p ened in R ussia and al so of th e p r esent situa-
tion and th e end for w h ic h our p eop l e ar e most ear nestl y str iv ing .
T h er e h av e been many and v ar ious nar r ativ es of w h at h as been and
is tak ing p l ac e in R ussia, but th er e seems to be l ac k of ex ac t and tr ue
c omp r eh ension
. Our C ommission w il l mak e ev er y endeav or to th r ow
T h e R ussian M ission to th e U nited S tates

3 9 5
l igh t up on th e v er y gr eat and w or l d imp or tant ev ents of th e R ussian
R ev ol ution .
T h e ac h iev ements of th e R ev ol ution ar e to be for mal l y set for th
in fundamental l aw s enac ted by a C onstituent A ssembl y w h ic h is to
be c onv ok ed as soon as p ossibl e . I n th e meanw h il e th e Pr ov isional
Gov er nment is c onfr onted w ith th e task of br inging into l ife th e
democ r atic p r inc ip l es w h ic h w er e p r omul gated dur ing th e R ev ol ution
.
I t is ac tiv el y engaged in r ec onstr uc ting th e v er y l ife of th e entir e
c ountr y al ong democ r atic l ines intr oduc ing fr eedom, eq ual ity and
sel f- gov er nment .
N ew R ussia r ec eiv ed fr om th e ol d Gov er nment a bur densome h er i-
tage of ec onomic and tec h nic al disor ganiz ation w h ic h affec ted al l
br anc h es of th e l ife of th e S tate, a disor ganiz ation w h ic h stil l w eigh s
h eav il y on th e w h ol e c ountr y . T h e Pr ov isional Gov er nment is doing
ev er yth ing in its p ow er to r el iev e th e diffic ul t situation . I t h as
adop ted many measur es for sup p l ying p l ants w ith r aw mater ial and
fuel , for r egul ating th e tr ansp or tation of th e food sup p l y for th e
A r my and for th e c ountr y, and for r el iev ing th e financ ial diffic ul ties .
I n th is ener getic w or k of r ec onstr uc tion, essential for R ussia' s
ac tiv e p ar tic ip ation in th e w ar , th e Pr ov isional Gov er nment is steadil y
gaining in str ength and ac tiv ity
. T h e l atest r ep or ts demonstr ate th at
th e new Gov er nment h as th e c ap ac ity to c ar r y on its w or k w ith
v igor al ong p r ac tic al l ines and is ex er c ising r eal p ow er w h ic h is
dail y inc r easing
. S uc h p ow er is based on th e gener al c onfidenc e and
ful l and w h ol e- h ear ted sup p or t ac c or ded th e new C oal ition M inistr y
.
T h e p ar tic ip ation in th e new Gov er nment by new member s w h o
ar e ac tiv e and p r ominent l eader s in th e C ounc il of Wor k men' s and
S ol dier s' Del egates h as sec ur ed ful l sup p or t fr om th e democ r atic
masses
. T h e esteem in w h ic h suc h l eader s as M r . Ker ensk y . T ser e-
tel l i and oth er s ar e h el d among th e w or k ing c l asses and sol dier s is
c ontr ibuting to th e str ength and stabil ity of th e new Gov er nment
.
T h e C onstitutional - Democ r atic Par ty, th e L abor Par ty, th e S oc ial -
ist- Pop ul ists, and, ex c ep ting a smal l gr oup of ex tr emists, th e S oc ial -
Democ r ats- al l th ese p ar ties, embr ac ing th e v ast maj or ity of th e
p eop l e, ar e r ep r esented by str ong l eader s in th e new Gov er nment,
th er eby sec ur ing for it auth or ity
. F ir ml y c onv inc ed th at unity of
p ow er is essential and c asting aside c l ass and sp ec ial inter ests, al l
soc ial and p ol itic al el ements h av e j oined in th e national p r ogr am
w h ic h th e new Gov er nment p r oc l aimed and w h ic h it is str iv ing to
ful fil l .
T h is p r ogr am r eads :
` T h e Pr ov isional Gov er nment, r ej ec ting, in ac c or d w ith th e w h ol e
p eop l e of R ussia, al l th ough t of sep ar ate p eac e p uts it op enl y as its
del iber ate p ur p ose th e p r omp test ac h iev ement of univ er sal p eac e ;
suc h p eac e to p r esume no dominion ov er oth er nations, no seiz ur e of
3 9 6

T h e B ir th of th e R ussian Democ r ac y
th eir national p r op er ty nor any for c ed usur p ation of for eign ter r i-
tor y ; p eac e w ith no annex ations or c ontr ibutions, based up on th e
fr ee deter mination by eac h nation of its destinies .
B eing ful l y c onv inc ed th at th e establ ish ment of democ r atic p r in-
c ip l es in its inter nal and ex ter nal p ol ic y h as c r eated a new fac tor in
th e str iv ing of th e A l l ied Democ r ac ies for dur abl e p eac e and fr a-
ter nity of al l nations, th e Pr ov isional Gov er nment w il l tak e p r ep ar a-
tor y step s for an agr eement w ith th e A l l ies founded on its dec l ar ation
of M ar c h 2 7 th . T h e Pr ov isional Gov er nment is c onsc ious th at th e
defeat of R ussia and h er A l l ies w oul d be th e sour c e of th e gr eatest
miser y and w oul d not onl y p ostp one but ev en mak e imp ossibl e th e
establ ish ment of univ er sal p eac e on a fir m basis . T h e Pr ov isional
Gov er nment is c onv inc ed th at th e R ev ol utionar y A r my of R ussia
w il l not al l ow th e Ger man tr oop s to destr oy our A l l ies on th e West-
er n F r ont and th en fal l up on us w ith th e w h ol e migh t of th eir
w eap ons
. T h e c h ief aim of th e Pr ov isional Gov er nment w il l be to
for tify th e democ r atic foundations of th e A r my and or ganiz e and
c onsol idate th e A r my' s figh ting p ow er for defensiv e as w el l as
offensiv e p ur p oses . '
T h e l ast dec ision of th e R ussian C ongr ess of Wor k men' s and
S ol dier s' Del egates, th e dec ision of th e A l l - R ussian Peasants' C on-
gr ess, th e dec ision of th e Duma, th e v oic e of th e c ountr y as ex p r essed
fr om day to day by al most th e entir e R ussian p r ess, in r esol utions
adop ted at differ ent c onfer enc es and c ongr esses- al l th ese c onfir m
th eir ful l sup p or t to th is national p r ogr am and l eav e not th e sl igh test
doubt th at R ussia is dec ided as to th e nec essity to figh t th e Ger man
autoc r ac y until th e c onditions for a gener al and stabl e p eac e in
E ur op e ar e establ ish ed .
S uc h dec ision is bec oming mor e and mor e ev ident eac h day in
p r ac tic al w or k and r esul ts and sh ow s itsel f in th e p r essing and r ap id
r eor ganiz ation of th e A r my w h ic h is now being ful fil l ed under th e
fir m and effic ient measur es adop ted by M inister Ker ensk y
.
T h e R ussian p eop l e th or ough l y under stand and ar e ful l y c onv inc ed
th at it is absol utel y nec essar y to r oot out th e autoc r atic p r inc ip l es
w h ic h under l ie and ar e r ep r esented by Ger man mil itar ism and w h ic h
th r eaten th e p eac e, th e fr eedom and th e h ap p iness of th e w or l d . T h e
R ussian p eop l e feel most k eenl y th at no stabl e p eac e c an be sec ur ed
until th e Ger man autoc r atic p r inc ip l es ar e destr oyed and th at oth er -
w ise th e R ev ol ution w il l h av e been in v ain and its ac h iev ements
w il l p er ish
.
N ew R ussia, in ful l ac c or d w ith th e motiv es w h ic h imp el l ed th e
U nited S tates to enter th e w ar , is str iv ing to destr oy tyr anny, to
establ ish p eac e on a sec ur e and p er manent foundation and to mak e
th e w or l d safe for Democ r ac y .
We ar e r ep r esenting h er e th e p ol itic al unity w h ic h h as c r ystal l iz ed
T h e R ussian M ission to th e U nited S tates

3 9 7
in R ussia and ar ound w h ic h a national p r ogr am h as been dev el op ed .
T o our h ost of fr iends in th e U nited S tates w e ap p eal and w ith out
distinc tion of p ar ty or c l ass w e w il l w or k h and in h and for th e c om-
mon c ause. "
On June 2 3 r d A mbassador B
. A . B ak h meteff made th e
fol l ow ing sp eec h befor e th e House of R ep r esentativ es :
" M r
. S p eak er , M ember s of th e House of R ep r esentativ es : I am
deep l y c onsc ious h ow gr eat an h onor h as been c onfer r ed on me and
th e member s of my M ission by th is gr ac ious r ec ep tion . . I under stand
h ow unusual it is for th is House to ac c or d to for eigner s th e p r iv il ege
of th e fl oor . I r eal iz e th at if you w er e mov ed to mak e suc h an
ex c ep tion it w as due to th e gr eat and most ex tr aor dinar y h istor ic
ev ents w h ic h h av e been and ar e now tak ing p l ac e in th e w or l d .
Gr eat, indeed, is th e h onor and th e p r iv il ege to sp eak h er e in th is
House, ex emp l ifying as it does, th e C onstitution of th e U nited S tates
- th at w onder ful doc ument w h ic h embodies so c l ear l y and yet so
ter sel y th e p r inc ip l es of fr ee gov er nment and democ r ac y .
M ember s of th e House of R ep r esentativ es : Wh en addr essing you
in beh al f of th e Gov er nment of th e p eop l e of N ew R ussia, w h en c on-
v eying to you th e gr eeting of th e new - bor n R ussian Democ r ac y, you
w il l c onc eiv e h ow imp r essed I am by th e h istor ic al signific anc e of
th is moment, you w il l under stand w h y my emotions do ov er w h el m
me . Dur ing th e l ast few month s R ussia h as r eal l y l iv ed th r ough
ev ents of w or l d- w ide imp or tanc e
. With a singl e imp ul se th e nation
h as th r ow n dow n th e ol d fetter s of sl av er y . F r ee, sh e is enter ing
now th e daw n of new l ife, j oining th e r ank s of Democ r ac y, str iv ing
for th e h ap p iness and th e fr eedom of th e w or l d .
Does one not feel oc c asional l y th at th e v er y gr eatness and sig-
nific anc e of ev ents ar e not ful l y ap p r ec iated due to th e fac il ity and
sp ontaneity w ith w h ic h th e gr eat c h ange w as c omp l eted! I s it
al w ays ful l y r eal iz ed and c onc eiv ed w h at it r eal l y means to h umanity,
th at a nation of one h undr ed and eigh ty mil l ions, a c ountr y boundl ess
in ex p anse, h as been suddenl y set fr ee for m th e w or st of op p r ession,
h as been giv en th e j oy and h ap p iness of a fr ee, sel f- c onsc ious ex -
istenc e!
With w h at emotions ar e insp ir ed w e- w h o h av e c ome to you as
messenger s of th ese gr eat ev ents, as bear er s of th e new p r inc ip l es
p r oc l aimed by th e R ussian R ev ol ution!
M ay I be p er mitted to r eiter ate th e ex p r ession of th e feel ings th at
stir our h ear ts, and, imp r essed as I am by th e migh t and gr andeur of
th e w onder ful ev ents, w el c ome and gr eet you on beh al f of fr ee R ussia
.
Her e, at th e v er y c r adl e of r ep r esentativ e gov er nment, I feel it
p r op er to r ec al l th e v er y moments of bir th of c onstitutional l ife in
R ussia w h ic h p r esented th emsel v es some tw el v e year s ago, at th e time
3 9 8

T h e B ir th o
f th e R ussian Democ r ac y
of th e fir st R ussian R ev ol ution
. I t w as th en th at th e Duma c ame
into being .
F r om th e v er y inc ep tion of th is A ssembl y th e ol d
auth or ity endeav or ed to c ur tail th e p ow er s th at h ad been c onfer r ed
on it
. I ts v er y ex istenc e w as an uninter r up ted str uggl e
; but in sp ite
th er eof, notw ith standing th e l imitations and nar r ow ness of th e el ec tion
l aw s, th e Duma w as bound to p l ay a most imp or tant p ar t in th e
national l ife of R ussia .
I t w as th e v er y fac t of th e being of a r ep r esentativ e body w h ic h
p r ov ed to be so fr uitful and p ow er ful
. I t w as th at myster ious for c e
of r ep r esentation, th e for c e w h ic h dr aw s ev er yth ing into th e w h ir l p ool
of l egisl ativ e p ow er , th e for c e th e ex istenc e of w h ic h your A mer ic an
fr amer s of th e C onstitution so deep l y r ec ogniz ed and under stood, it
w as th at for c e w h ic h l ed th e Duma, h ow ev er l imited, to ex p r ess th e
feel ings of R ussia and fr ame h er h op es dur ing th e w or l d' s gr eat
c r isis, and made th e Duma ul timatel y th e c enter and th e h op e of
national l ife .
I t w as th e Duma, w h ic h , at th e ep oc h w h en th e ol d auth or ity by
v ic ious and ineffic ient management h ad disor ganiz ed th e sup p l ies of
th e c ountr y and br ough t th e mil itar y op er ations to unp r ec edented
r ev er ses- it w as th e Duma, w h ic h , w ith ener gy and dev otion, c al l ed
th e p eop l e to or ganiz e national defense and ap p eal ed to th e v ital
for c es of th e c ountr y to meet th e Ger man attac k and sav e th e nation
fr om definite subj ugation . A gain, w h en it ap p ear ed th at th e sh or t-
sigh ted Gov er nment, w h ic h nev er took adv antage of th e p atr iotic
enth usiasm and national sac r ific e, w as not onl y inc ap abl e of l eading
th e w ar to a suc c essful end, but w oul d inev itabl y br ing R ussia to
mil itar y c ol l ap se and ec onomic and soc ial r uin- it w as th e Duma
again w h ic h at th at ter r ibl e h our p r oc l aimed th e nation in danger .
I t w as at th e feet of th e Duma th at th e sol dier s of th e R ev ol ution
dep osed th eir banner s and, giv ing al l egianc e, br ough t th e R ev ol ution
to a suc c essful issue
. I t w as th en th at fr om th e r uins of th e ol d
r egime emer ged a new or der embodied in th e Pr ov isional Gov er n-
ment, a youth ful offsp r ing of th e ol d Duma p r oc r eated by th e for c es
of th e R ev ol ution .
I nstead of th e ol d for ms, th er e is now being fir ml y establ ish ed
and deep l y embedded in th e minds of th e nation th e p r inc ip l e th at
p ow er is r ep osed in and sp r ings fr om, and onl y fr om, th e p eop l e .
T o effec tuate th is p r inc ip l e and to enac t ap p r op r iate fundamental
l aw s, th at is going to be th e main func tion of th e C onstituent A s-
sembl y w h ic h is to be c onv ok ed as p r omp tl y as p ossibl e .
T h is A ssembl y, el ec ted on a democ r atic basis, is to r ep r esent th e
w il l and c onstr uc tiv e p ow er of th e nation . I t w il l inaugur ate th e for ms
of futur e p ol itic al ex istenc e as w el l as establ ish th e fundamental basis
of th e ec onomic str uc tur e of futur e R ussia
. E v entual l y al l main
q uestions of national being w il l be br ough t befor e, and w il l be de-
T h e R ussian M ission to th e U nited S tates

3 9 9
c ided by th e C onstituent A ssembl y
: c onstitution, c iv il and c r iminal
l aw , administr ation, national ities, c onditions of l abor , annih il ation of
al l r estr ic tiv e l egisl ation, enc our agement of intense and fr uitful de-
v el op ment of th e c ountr y
. S uc h ar e th e task s of th e A ssembl y, th e
asp ir ations and h op es of th e nation
.
M ember s of th e House : Don' t you r eal l y feel th at th e A ssembl y
is ex p ec ted to br ing into l ife onc e mor e th e gr and p r inc ip l e w h ic h
your il l ustr ious Pr esident so ap tl y ex p r essed into th e subl ime w or ds,
` Gov er nment by c onsent of th e gov er ned' !
I t is th e Pr ov isional Gov er nment th at is gov er ning R ussia at
p r esent. I t is th e task of th e Pr ov isional Gov er nment to c onduc t
R ussia safel y to th e C onstituent A ssembl y
. Guided by democ r atic p r e-
c ep ts th e Pr ov isional Gov er nment meanw h il e is r eor ganiz ing th e
c ountr y on th e basis of fr eedom, eq ual ity and sel f- gov er nment, is r e-
buil ding its ec onomic and financ ial str uc tur e .
T h e outstanding featur e of th e p r esent Gov er nment is its r ec ogni-
tion of th e p r inc ip l es of l egal ity as fundamental and al l imp or tant .
I t is manifestl y under stood in R ussia th at l aw , h av ing its or igin in
th e p eop l e' s w il l , is th e substanc e of th e v er y ex istenc e of th e S tate .
R ep osing c onfidenc e in suc h r ul e, th e R ussian p eop l e ar e r ender -
ing to th e new auth or ities th eir sup p or t . T h e p eop l e ar e r eal iz ing
mor e and mor e th at for th e v er y sak e of fur th er fr eedom l aw must
be maintained and manifestation of anar c h y sup p r essed . I n th is
r esp ec t l oc al l ife h as ex emp l ified th e w onder ful ex er tion of sp on-
taneous p ubl ic sp ir it w h ic h h as c ontr ibuted most effec tiv el y to th e
p r oc ess of sel f- or ganiz ation of th e nation . On many oc c asions, fol -
l ow ing th e r emov al of th e ol d auth or ities, a new l y el ec ted administr a-
tion h as natur al l y ar isen, c onsc ious of national inter est and often
dev el op ing in its sp ontaneity amaz ing ex amp l es of p r ac tic al states-
mansh ip .
I t is th ese c onditions w h ic h p r ov e th at th e Pr ov isional Gov er nment
is gaining ev er y day imp or tanc e and p ow er , is gaining c ap ac ity to
c h ec k el ements of disor der ar ising eith er fr om attemp ts of r eac tion
or ex tr emism . A t th e p r esent time th e Pr ov isional Gov er nment h as
star ted to tak e most dec isiv e measur es in th at r esp ec t, emp l oying
for c e w h en nec essar y, al th ough al w ays str iv ing for a p eac eful sol u-
tion .
T h e l ast r esol utions w h ic h h av e been fr amed by th e C ounc il of
Wor k ingmen, th e C ounc il of Peasants and oth er democ r atic or -
ganiz ations r ender th e best p r oof of th e gener al under standing of th e
nec essity of c r eating str ong p ow er
. T h e c oal itionar y c h ar ac ter of
th e new C abinet, w h ic h inc l udes eminent S oc ial ist l eader s and r ep r e-
sents al l th e v ital el ements of th e nation, th er efor e enj oying its ful l
sup p or t, is most effec tiv el y sec ur ing th e unity and p ow er of th e
4 0 0

T h e B ir th of th e R ussian Democ r ac y
c entr al Gov er nment, th e l ac k of w h ic h w as so k eenl y fel t dur ing th e
fir st tw o month s after th e R ev ol ution .
R eal iz ing th e gr andeur and c omp l ex ity of th e p r esent ev ents and
c onsc ious of th e danger w h ic h is th r eatening th e v er y ac h iev ements
of th e R ev ol ution, th e R ussian p eop l e ar e gath er ing ar ound th e new
Gov er nment, united on a ` national p r ogr am . '
I t is th is p r ogr am of ` national sal v ation' w h ic h h as united th e
middl e c l asses as w el l as th e p op ul ists, th e l abor el ements and S oc ial -
ists
.
Deep p ol itic al w isdom h as been ex h ibited by subor dinating
v ar ious c l ass inter ests and differ enc es to national w el far e
. I n th is
w ay th is Gov er nment is sup p or ted by an immense maj or ity of th e
nation, and outside of th e r eac tionar ies is being op p osed onl y by
c omp ar ativ el y smal l gr oup s of ex tr emists and inter national ists
.
A s to for eign p ol ic y, R ussia' s national p r ogr am h as been c l ear l y
set for th in th e statement of th e Pr ov isional Gov er nment of M ar c h
2 7 th and mor e ex p l ic itl y in th e dec l ar ation of th e new Gov er nment
of M ay 1 8 th .
With al l emp h asis may I state th at R ussia r ej ec ts any idea of
sep ar ate p eac e
. I am aw ar e th at r umor s w er e c ir c ul ated in th is c ountr y
th at a sep ar ate p eac e seemed p r obabl e . I am h ap p y to affir m th at
suc h r umor s w er e w h ol l y w ith out foundation in fac t .
Wh at R ussia is aiming for is th e establ ish ment of a fir m and
l asting p eac e betw een democ r atic nations . T h e tr iump h of Ger man
autoc r ac y w oul d r ender suc h p eac e imp ossibl e . I t w oul d be th e
sour c e of th e gr eatest miser y and besides th at be a th r eatening menac e
to R ussia' s fr eedom
. T h e Pr ov isional Gov er nment is mak ing al l
endeav or to r eor ganiz e and for tify th e A r my for ac tion in c ommon
w ith its A l l ies .
M ember s of th e House, I w il l c l ose my addr ess by saying : ` R ussia
w il l not fail to be a w or th y p ar tner in th ; L eague of Honor . " '
T
HE
fol l ow ing is th e addr ess A mbassador B . A . B ak h -
meteff del iv er ed befor e th e U nited S tates S enate, on
June 2 6 . 1 9 1 7 :
" M r . Pr esident, Gentl emen of th e S enate
: A t th e outset p er mit
me to ex p r ess to you sinc er e th ank s and k een ap p r ec iation for th e
w ar m r ec ep tion you h av e so gr ac iousl y giv en to th e member s of th e
M ission and to mysel f . Gr eat is th e h onor you h av e bestow ed up on
me- by p er mitting me to addr ess your distinguish ed body, abr ogating
th us a c ustom w h ic h h as been up h el d for mor e th an a c entur y, but
stil l mor e gr atifying is th e ex p r ession of c or dial symp ath y and
fr iendl y feel ing w h ic h h av e been so manifestl y ex h ibited by your
r ec ep tion .
F r om th e moment of our ar r iv al in th is c ountr y w e h av e been
T h e R ussian M ission to th e U nited S tates

4 0 1
deep l y affec ted by th e ex tr aor dinar y gr eeting ac c or ded us and by th e
c onstant ex p r ession of h ear ty w el c ome and sinc er e symp ath y w ith
w h ic h w e h av e been h ail ed fr om al l sides
.
T h at bonds of fr iendsh ip and symp ath y united th e p eop l e of th e
tw o nations w e k new befor e w e dep ar ted fr om R ussia
. T h is w as
amp l y manifested dur ing th e ear l y days of th e R ev ol ution . T h e ac t
of p r omp t r ec ognition of our new Gov er nment h as been of inc al c ul abl e
v al ue
. F or th e br oth er l y enc our agement w h ic h you gav e us, and for
th e nobl e manner in w h ic h you so gener ousl y str etc h ed for th a h el p -
ing h and w e ar e h er e, in beh al f of th e N ew R ussia, to ex p r ess to you
our deep est and most h ear tfel t gr atitude
.
We h av e c ome h er e as w el l to mak e c l ear th e sp ir it and meaning
of th e gr eat ev ents tak ing p l ac e in our c ountr y . A th or ough under -
standing is indisp ensabl e to enabl e our M ission to ac c omp l ish th e
imp or tant task of establ ish ing c l ose and effec tiv e c oop er ation be-
tw een th e tw o c ountr ies for c ommon ac tion and for c ommon c ause .
With th e gr eatest of h op es do I l ook for w ar d to th e r esul ts of suc h
c oop er ation, so v ital to our mutual desir e to for m a l eague of h onor
among fr ee nations on th e smok ing r uins of Ger man autoc r atic
mil itar ism . A t th is moment al l eyes ar e tur ned to R ussia
. M any
h op es and many doubts ar e r aised by th e tide of ev ents in th e gr eatest
of r ev ol utions, at an ep oc h of th e w or l d' s gr eatest w ar
. Justifiabl e
is th e attention, l aw ful th e h op es and natur al l y c onc eiv abl e th e
anx iety
. T h e fate of nations, th e fate of th e w or l d is at stak e, al l
dep endent on th e fate of R ussia .
F r eedom and p eac e w il l be, th e bl essings of th e futur e if R ussia
h ap p il y emer ges fr om th e str uggl e as a p ow er ful democ r ac y, sp ar k -
l ing w ith th e gal l antr y of h er A r my, r etur ning fr om fiel ds w on in
c ommon str ife w ith h er A l l ies .
A n unp r ec edented ep oc h of sp ir itual dep r ession, a new p er iod of
str enuous and anx ious mil itar y p r ep ar ation w oul d fol l ow sh oul d R us-
sia fail to ac c omp l ish h er task of p ol itic al r egener ation or sh oul d sh e
c ol l ap se for ec onomic al r easons or th e ineffic ienc y of h er ar ms .
I n al l fr ank ness and sinc er ity do I ex p ose my c ause, c onfident of
your good w il l and p aying tr ibute to th e manifest feel ings of symp a-
th y, may I say, affec tion
. I am not going to c onc eal th e gr av ity of
th e situation th at c onfr onts th e R ussian Pr ov isional Gov er nment .
T h e R ev ol ution c al l ed for th e r ec onstr uc tion of th e v er y foundations
of our national l ife
. I t is not easy to c omp r eh end w h at it means to
or ganiz e al l of R ussia on democ r atic l ines
. S uc h w or k inv ol v es th e
w h ol e of our soc ial , ec onomic and p ol itic al r el ations
. T h e entir e S tate
str uc tur e is affec ted by th e c h anges, inv ol v ing v il l age, distr ic t, c ounty,
in fac t, ev er y tow n fr om th e smal l est to th e c entr al S tate
. T h e c r ea-
tion anew of a c ountr y of boundl ess ex p anse on distinc tl y new p r in-
c ip l es w il l , of c our se, tak e time, and imp atienc e sh oul d not be sh ow n
4 0 2

T h e B ir th of th e R ussian Democ r ac y
in th e under standing of so gr and an ev ent as R ussia' s entr y into th e
r ank s of fr ee nations .
We sh oul d not for get th at in th is immense tr ansfor mation v ar ious
inter ests w il l seek to asser t th emsel v es, and until th e w or k of settl e-
ment is c omp l eted a str uggl e among op p osing c ur r ents is inev itabl e
and ex agger ations c annot be av oided
. A ttemp ts on th e p ar t of dis-
or ganiz ing el ements to tak e adv antage of th is moment of tr ansition
must be ex p ec ted and met w ith c al mness and c onfidenc e
.
I n ex p osing to you a ` ue p ic tur e of th e situation I feel th at it is
my duty to p r esent to you tw o c onsider ations w h ic h mak e me feel
th at R ussia h as p assed th e stage w h en th e futur e ap p ear ed v ague and
unc er tain
. I n th e fir st p l ac e, it is th e fir m c onv ic tion of th e nec essity
of l egal ity w h ic h is w idel y dev el op ing and fir ml y establ ish ing itsel f
th r ough out th e c ountr y . I n th e eyes of th e R ussian p eop l e th is
p r inc ip l e of l egal ity is based on th e fer til e democ r atic doc tr ine th at
Gov er nments der iv e th eir j ust p ow er fr om th e c onsent of th e gov -
er ned and h enc e th at a str ong Gov er nment must be c r eated by th e
w il l of th e p eop l e .
T h r ee days ago, in th e House of R ep r esentativ es, I stated th at a
str ong maj or ity of th e R ussian p eop l e h ad united ar ound th e C oal ition
C abinet on a national p r ogr am . I mentioned th e c onfidenc e and p ow -
er ful sup p or t w h ic h th e Gov er nment is at p r esent enj oying and
w h ic h fr om day to day giv es it mor e str ength and deter mination not
onl y to sup p r ess ac ts of l aw l essness on th e p ar t of disor ganiz ing
for c es, but al so to c ar r y out th e c onstr uc tiv e w or k of national or gan-
iz ation . M y l atest adv ic es giv e j oyful c onfir mation of th e establ ish -
ment of a fir m p ow er , str ong in its democ r atic p r ec ep ts and ac tiv ity,
str ong in th e tr ust r ep osed in it by th e p eop l e, in its abil ity to
enfor c e l aw and or der .
I n th e sec ond p l ac e, and no l ess imp or tant, is th e gr ow ing c on-
v ic tion th at th e issues of th e R ev ol ution and th e futur e of R ussia' s
fr eedom ar e c l osel y c onnec ted w ith th e figh ting migh t of th e c ountr y .
I t is suc h p ow er , it is th e for c e of ar ms w h ic h al one c an define and
mak e c er tain th e ac h iev ements of th e R ev ol ution against autoc r atic
aggr ession .
T h er e h as been a p er iod, c l osel y fol l ow ing th e R ev ol ution, of al most
total susp ension of al l mil itar y ac tiv ity, a p er iod of w h at ap p ear ed
to be disintegr ation of th e A r my, a p er iod w h ic h gav e r ise to ser ious
doubts and to gl oomy
. for ebodings . A t th e same time th er e ensued
unl imited fr eedom of sp eec h and of th e p r ess w h ic h affor ded op p or -
tunities for ex p r ession of th e most ex tr eme and anti- national v iew s,
fr om al l of w h ic h r esul ted w idesp r ead r umor s th r ough out th e w or l d
th at R ussia w oul d abandon th e w ar and c onc l ude a sep ar ate p eac e
w ith th e C entr al Pow er s .
With al l emp h asis and w ith th e deep est c onv ic tion may I r eiter ate
T h e R ussian M ission to th e U nited S tates

4 0 3
th e statement th at suc h r umor s ar e w h ol l y w ith out foundation in fac t
.
R ussia r ej ec ts w ith indignation any idea of sep ar ate p eac e . Wh at
my c ountr y is str iv ing for is th e establ ish ment of a fir m and l asting
p eac e betw een democ r atic nations . R ussia is fir ml y c onv inc ed th at
a sep ar ate p eac e w oul d mean th e tr iump h of Ger man autoc r ac y,
w oul d r ender l asting p eac e imp ossibl e, w oul d c r eate th e gr eatest
danger for Democ r ac y and l iber ty and be an ev er th r eatening menac e
to th e new - bor n fr eedom' of R ussia .
T h ese r umor s w er e due to misap p r eh ension of th e signific anc e of
th e ev entful p r oc esses of r eor ganiz ation w h ic h th e A r my w as to
under go as a r esul t of th e emanc ip ation of th e c ountr y
. L ik e th e
nation, th e A r my, an offsp r ing of th e p eop l e, h ad to be r ebuil t on
democ r atic l ines .
S uc h w or k tak es time, and fr ic tion and p ar tial
disor ganiz ation must be ov er c ome
. T o adop t new p r inc ip l es to a
body so h uge and so v er y imp or tant as is a moder n ar my is no
simp l e task . Patienc e is r eq uir ed to mol d it in ac c or danc e w ith
for ms of democ r ac y and p er sonal l iber ty, p r eser v ing at th e same
time th e disc ip l ine so essential for suc c ess on th e fiel d of battl e .
One must al so r eal iz e th at th e times h av e p assed w h en th e fates
of nations c oul d be dec ided by an ir r esp onsibl e Gov er nment or by a
few indiv idual s and w h en th e p eop l e sh ed th eir bl ood for issues to
th em unk now n
. We l iv e in a democ r atic ep oc h w h er e p eop l e w h o
sac r ific e th eir l iv es sh oul d ful l y r eal iz e th e p r inc ip l es for w h ic h th ey
ar e figh ting.
Just as th e R ussian p eop l e h ad to under go a p r oc ess of r eor gan-
iz ation and p ol itic al r ev ol ution, so al so did th e A r my . I t w as nec es-
sar y for it to outl iv e il l usions and dec ep tions, and to r al l y ar ound
a p r ogr am of h istor ic al nec essity and national tr uth .
T h e national p r ogr am of th e Gov er nment c al l s for effec tiv e or -
ganiz ation and c onsol idation of th e A r my' s figh ting p ow er for offen-
siv e as w el l as defensiv e p ur p oses . T h is is th e outc ome, th e
c r ystal l iz ation of th e w il l of th e p eop l e . T h is is th e w ar p r ogr am of
th e nation w h ic h h as r al l ied ar ound th e Gov er nment, th e Democ r ac y
of R ussia, giv ing its l eader s v igor and str ength .
C onsc ious of th e enor mous task , th e Pr ov isional Gov er nment is
tak ing measur es to p r omp tl y r estor e th r ough out th e c ountr y th e
c onditions of l ife so deep l y disor ganiz ed by th e ineffic ienc y of th e
p r ev ious r ul er s and to p r ov ide for w h atev er is nec essar y for mil itar y
suc c ess . I n th is r esp ec t ex c ep tional and gr av e c onditions c al l for
ex c ep tional means . I n c l ose touc h w ith th e Pan- Peasant C ongr ess,
th e Gov er nment h as tak en c ontr ol of stor es of food sup p l ies and
is p r ov iding for effec tiv e tr ansp or tation and j ust distr ibution . F ol -
l ow ing ex amp l es of oth er c ountr ies at w ar , th e Gov er nment h as
under tak en th e r egul ation of th e p r oduc tion of main p r oduc ts v ital
for th e c ountr y and th e A r my
. T h e Gov er nment at th e same time
4 0 4

T h e B ir th of th e R ussian Democ r ac y
is
mak ing al l endeav or to settl e l abor diffic ul ties, tak ing measur es
for th e w el far e of w or k men, c onsistent w ith ac tiv e p r oduc tion nec es-
sitated by national w el far e .
A s to th e A r my, th e p r oc ess of c r ystal l iz ation of th e national
w il l is ex p r essing itsel f in a gr ow ing sentiment of gener al and c om-
mon ap p r ec iation of th e ev ents and a th or ough under standing of th e
situation .
Peac eful in its intentions, str iv ing for a l asting p eac e, based on
democ r atic p r inc ip l es and establ ish ed by democ r atic w il l , th e R ussian
p eop l e and its A r my ar e r al l ying th eir for c es ar ound th e banner s of
fr eedom, str ength ening th eir r ank s in c h eer ful sel f- c onsc iousness,
to die but not to be sl av es .
R ussia w ants th e w or l d to be safe for Democ r ac y
. T o mak e it
safe means to h av e Democ r ac y r ul e th e w or l d . "
C HA PT E R XI I
On th e E v e of th e Offensiv e
A
F T E R month s of fier y debates, at many c onfer enc es
and c onv entions of Wor k men' s, S ol dier s' , Peasants'
and C ossac k s' Del egates, as to w h at th e mil itar y
p ol ic y of R ev ol utionar y R ussia sh oul d be, on Jul y 1 , 1 9 1 7 ,
th e R ussian A r my star ted its offensiv e .
T h is offensiv e is c l osel y assoc iated w ith A . F . Ker ensk y' s
name
. A s M inister of War , Ker ensk y ac c omp l ish ed an enor -
mous and, as w e sh al l see l ater , an ex tr emel y diffic ul t task in
br inging th e A r my to an offensiv e . . B ut, w ith al l due c r edit
to Ker ensk y' s p er sonal effor ts, it must be stated most emp h at-
ic al l y th at in al l h is endeav or s h e mer el y ex ec uted th e sup r eme
w il l of th e R ussian Democ r ac y w h ic h , th r ough its v ar ious
or gans, w as ur ging th e A r my and its l eader s to begin an
ac tiv e p ol ic y . I f th e offensiv e ended in disaster , if th e p ol ic y
of an offensiv e at th at time w er e to be c r itic ised now , in th e
l igh t of th e l atest ev ents, th is c r itic ism sh oul d be dir ec ted not
against Ker ensk y but against al l th e or ganiz ed bodies of th e
R ussian Democ r ac y w h ic h infl uenc ed and dir ec ted th e p ol ic y
of th e Pr ov isional Gov er nment .
We w il l q uote fr om a r esol ution adop ted on June 2 5 , fiv e
days befor e th e offensiv e star ted, by th e A l l - R ussian C ongr ess
of Wor k men' s and S ol dier s' Del egates .
A t th is C ongr ess
w er e r ep r esented 3 0 5 l oc al C ounc il s of Wor k men' s and S ol -
dier s' Del egates . One th ousand and ninety Del egates w er e
p r esent ; among oth er s, th er e w er e tw enty- one r ep r esentativ es
fr om th e fr ont . S o, it may be said th at th e C ongr ess r ep r e-
sented, to a v er y c onsider abl e degr ee, th e R ussian p r ol etar iat
and A r my . *
T h is C ongr ess said in its r esol ution r egar ding th e w ar
" T h e C ongr ess r eiter ates th at as l ong as th e w ar is not ended
th r ough th e effor ts of th e democ r atic el ements of al l nations,
* T h e r ep r esentation . ac c or ding to main p ar ties, w as as fol l ow s
: S oc ial -
ists- R ev ol utionists- 2 8 5 ; M ensh ev ik i- 2 4 8 ; B ol sh ev ik i- 1 0 5
; N on- Par tisan
S oc ial ists- 7 3 ; I nter national ists- 3 2
; B und- 1 0 ; " E dinstv o" ( Pl ek h anov ' s
Gr oup ) - 3
.
4 0 6

T h e B ir th of th e R ussian Democ r ac y
th e R ussian R ev ol utionar y Democ r ac y must, in ev er y w ay
p ossibl e, h el p to str ength en th e figh ting p ow er of th e A r my
and its c ap ac ity for defensiv e and offensiv e op er ations, be-
c ause th e disr up tion of th e R ussian F r ont w oul d be a defeat of
th e R ussian R ev ol ution and a h eav y bl ow to th e c ause of
inter national Democ r ac y . T h e C ongr ess th ink s th at th e q ues-
tion of an offensiv e must be dec ided ex c l usiv el y fr om th e
p oint of v iew of p ur el y mil itar y and str ategic c onsider ations . "
On Jul y 1 8 , tw o w eek s after th e offensiv e star ted, th e E x -
ec utiv e C ommittee of th e A l l - R ussian C ounc il of Wor k men' s,
S ol dier s' and Peasants' Del egates issued th e fol l ow ing j oint
ap p eal to th e A r my
" C omr ades- S ol dier s! T h e A l l - R ussian C ongr ess of C ounc il s of
Wor k men' s and S ol dier s' Del egates and th e A l l - R ussian C ongr ess of
Peasants' Del egates h av e eq ual l y r ec ogniz ed th e nec essity for for tify-
ing and str ength ening th e mil itar y migh t of th e A r my and its p ow er
for defensiv e and offensiv e op er ations as l ong as th e w ar l asts .
T h e w or k ingmen, sol dier s and p easants w h o h av e c ome fr om al l
ov er R ussia and fr om al l p ar ts of th e fr ont r ec ogniz e th at th e C om-
manding S taff al one may dec ide as to p l ac e and time for an offensiv e .
N ow th e mil itar y auth or ities, ac ting under th e dir ec t l eader sh ip
of our c omr ade, M inister of War Ker ensk y, h av e giv en or der s to
adv anc e . T h e r ev ol utionar y tr oop s on th e S outh w ester n F r ont ar e
obeying th is or der h er oic al l y, k now ing th at th ey ar e p er for ming a
gr eat ser v ic e to th e c ause of fr eedom, th e c ause of p eac e and th e
c ause of th e R ev ol ution .
T h e offensiv e h as begun
. Our br oth er s ar e sh edding th eir bl ood
for th e c ommon c ause . A l l disc or d must v anish now . A l l must h el p
th ose w h o stand in th e fr ont r ank s under th e enemy' s fir e . N ot to
c ome to th eir assistanc e now w oul d mean to subj ec t th em to th e
danger of annih il ation, w oul d mean a betr ayal of th e F ath er l and and
th e R ev ol ution .
A nd yet th er e ar e new sp ap er s, w h ic h , by th eir ar tic l es and ap -
p eal s, c r eate c onfusion in th e h ear ts of th ose w h o ar e r eady to h asten
to th e assistanc e of . our h er oic A r my and w eak en th eir enth usiasm
to sup p or t th e r ev ol utionar y sol dier s on th e S outh w ester n F r ont
.
B ew ar e, c omr ades, for th ese p ap er s, no matter w h at th ey ar e
c al l ed, w h eth er it be ` T h e, T r uth ' or ` T h e S ol dier ' s T r uth ,' ar e dir ec tl y
antagonistic to th e c l ear l y ex p r essed w il l of th e w or k er s, sol dier s
and p easants w h o h av e met at th e A l l - R ussian C ongr ess .
B ew ar e, c omr ades, for ev en w or se th ings ar e h ap p ening ev er y-
w h er e . T h ese v er y imp r udent ar tic l es and ap p eal s of th ese p ap er s
ar e being made use of by sc oundr el l y- sp ying gendar mes, p ol ic emen,
A . F . KE R E N S KY
Dur ing h is v isit to th e F r ont, as C ommander - in- C h ief of th e
R ussian A r mies .
A . F . KE R E N S KY
Dur ing h is tour al ong th e F r ont .
On th e E v e of th e Offensiv e

4 0 9
w h o use th ese to ac c omp l ish th eir bl ac k w or k of sedition, to c al l you
to betr ay your ow n br oth er s, w h o ar e giv ing th eir l iv es for our
c ommon c ause .
C omr ades- w ar r ior s! I n th e name of th e A l l - R ussian C ounc il of
Wor k men' s, S ol dier s' and Peasants' Del egates, w e say to you
:
Obey onl y th e c al l of th e A l l - R ussian C ounc il !
C ar r y out al l th e w ar or der s of your mil itar y C ommander !
B e r eady, ev er y one of you, at th e fir st or der to mar c h out to
th e assistanc e of your br oth er s!
L et th em k now th at al l R ev ol utionar y R ussia is beh ind th em! "
T h is w as th e v oic e - of th e E x ec utiv e C ommittee of th e A l l -
R ussian C ounc il of Wor k men' s, S ol dier s' and Peasants' Del e-
gates . T h e C ossac k s' j udgment, r egar ding th e w ar p ol ic y,
w as v oic ed in th e fol l ow ing r esol ution, unanimousl y adop ted
by th e A l l - R ussian C ossac k s' C ongr ess on June 2 7 :
" T h e A l l - R ussian C ossac k s' C ongr ess h ol ds th at th e onl y means
for obtaining th e p eac e so needed for th e p r op er up - buil ding of th e
Gov er nment ap p ear s to be an immediate and dec isiv e offensiv e .
T h er e must be no sep ar ate p eac e . T h e w ar must, in c omp l ete
h ar mony w ith our A l l ies, be br ough t to a v ic tor y th at w il l mak e
p ossibl e th e c onc l usion of p eac e on th e basis of th e c omp l ete sel f-
deter mination of al l nations, w ith out for c ibl e annex ations or p unitiv e
indemnities .
T h e C ongr ess gr eets al l th e l iv e R ussian for c es and A r my units
th at ar e p r eser v ing th eir c our age and sensibl e disc ip l ine, and c al l s
up on al l c itiz ens of R ussia to sup p or t th e L iber ty L oan and to giv e
ev er yth ing p ossibl e for th e p r osec ution of th e w ar . Deser ter s and
al l th ose w h o c ar r y on agitation w h ic h disor ganiz es th e c ountr y and
destr oys th e str ength of th e A r my, th e C ongr ess dec l ar es tr aitor s to
th e c ountr y, and dr aw s th e attention of th e Pr ov isional Gov er nment
to th e nec essity for tak ing th e most r esol ute measur es against de-
ser ter s and against c r iminal agitator s as w el l
. "
On June 1 6 , th e Duma, in p r iv ate session, after sp eec h es
by S . I . S h idl ov sk y, V. V
. S h ul gin, P . N . M il iuk ov and
V. A . M ak l ak ov , h ad adop ted th e fol l ow ing r esol ution
" A sep ar ate p eac e w ith Ger many or an ac tual tr uc e w ith h er , a
w ith dr aw al on th e p ar t of R ussia fr om th e str uggl e j ust at th e time
w h en th e oth er p ow er s ar e mak ing sel f- sac r ific ing effor ts in or der
to c onc l ude th e str uggl e, w oul d be base tr eac h er y tow ar ds th e A l l ies,
a tr eac h er y for w h ic h p oster ity w il l not for giv e our gener ation . I f
w e c onc l ude a sep ar ate p eac e, Ger many w il l h av e c omp l etel y ac h iev ed
th e aims w h ic h sh e set out to ac h iev e . T h is p eac e w il l c ut R ussia
off mor al l y fr om th e r est of E ur op e . R ussia' s name w il l be sc or ned
4 1 0

T h e B ir th of th e R ussian Democ r ac y
for dec ades in al l c ountr ies w h er e l oyal ty is r esp ec ted and tr eac h er y
br anded
. C onc l uding suc h a p eac e, R ussia, fenc ed off fr om th e r est
of th e w or l d by th is imp assabl e mountain c h ain of c ountr ies al l ied
w ith Ger many, w il l h av e to submit to al l th e demands of th is al l ianc e,
and w il l bec ome for it a fiel d for ex p l oitation and p r ofiteer ing . T h e
gr eat R ussia, w il l be tr ansfor med into a Ger man c ol ony, w h ic h w il l
be ex p l oited in ac c or danc e w ith th e th eor ies, w or k ed out by th e
Ger man sc ientists, th at S l av dom, as an infer ior r ac e, must ser v e onl y
as a soil for th e fl our ish ing of Ger man c ul tur e .
I n th is c r itic al h our , th e member s of th e Duma c onsider it th eir
duty to r emind th e c ountr y th at R ussia is now fac ed w ith th e ter r ibl e
q uestion : to be or not to be
. T h e Duma c onsider s it its duty to
ap p eal to R ussia, to al l c itiz ens, and in p ar tic ul ar to th e w ar r ior s
of R ussia, r eminding th em th at th e fate of th e F ath er l and is in th eir
ow n h ands, th at to r etr eat fr om th e inter national h umane c ause bind-
ing us to th e A l l ies means to bec ome th e sl av es of th e Ger man p eop l e .
T h e Duma r ec ogniz es th at onl y in an immediate offensiv e,
in a c l ose union w ith th e A l l ies, l ies th e sol e h op e of a sp eedy l iq uida-
tion of th e w ar and th e str ength ening of th e l iber ties w on by th e
p eop l e. "
T h e abov e- giv en r esol utions sh ow c l ear l y th at A . F . Ker en-
sk y h ad beh ind h im al l th e c l asses of th e R ussian Democ r ac y
w h en, on th e ev e of th e offensiv e, h e, as M inister of War ,
issued th e fol l ow ing c ommand to th e A r my
" R ussia, l iber ated fr om th e c h ains of sl av er y, is fir ml y r esol v ed to
p r otec t, at al l c osts, th e r igh ts of h onor and l iber ty . With faith in
th e fr ater nal feel ings of nations, th e R ussian Democ r ac y c al l ed up on
th e w ar r ing c ountr ies to c ease th e c ar nage and to c onc l ude an h onor -
abl e p eac e, sec ur ing tr anq uil ity for al l nations ; but, in r esp onse to th is
fr ater nal ap p eal , th e enemy h as p r op osed tr eason .
T h e A ustr o- Ger mans h av e offer ed R ussia a sep ar ate p eac e and
tr ied to bl ind our v igil anc e by fr ater niz ation, h ur l ing th emsel v es at
th e same time against our A l l ies w ith th e h op e of c r ush ing us after
th eir defeat
. C onv inc ed now th at R ussia w il l not al l ow h er sel f to
be tr ic k ed, th e enemy is th r eatening us and c onc entr ating tr oop s on
our fr ont .
War r ior s, our M oth er l and is in danger . Our fr eedom and th e
R ev ol ution ar e in p er il . T h e time h as c ome w h en our A r my must
ac c omp l ish its duty
. Your C ommanding Gener al , bel ov ed th r ough
v ic tor y, p r oc l aims th at eac h ' day l ost adds new str ength to our enemy,
and th at onl y an immediate, dec isiv e bl ow c an disr up t th e p l ans of
th e foe .
T h er efor e, ful l y c onsc ious of th e gr eat r esp onsibil ity of th e c oun-
tr y, in th e name of th e fr ee R ussian p eop l e and its Pr ov isional Gov -
On th e E v e o f th e Offensiv e

4 1 1
er nment, I c al l up on th e A r mies, inv igor ated by th e R ev ol ution, to
star t th e offensiv e . T h e enemy must w ait befor e c el ebr ating v ic tor y .
A l l nations must k now th at it w as not th r ough w eak ness th at
w e
tal k ed p eac e . L et th em k now th at l iber ty str ength ens our for c es
.
Offic er s and sol dier s, you must r eal iz e th at al l R ussia is bl essing your
ac ts on th e fiel d of h onor
. I n th e name of l iber ty, futur e p r osp er ity,
and in th e name of a l asting and h onor abl e p eac e, I c ommand you,
` F or w ar d! ' "
O
F th e many oc c ur r enc es of th is p er iod, th e ev e of th e
R ev ol utionar y offensiv e, of sp ec ial inter est is th e
v er bal duel betw een L enine, l ater th e h ead of th e
B ol sh ev ik i Gov er nment, and Ker ensk y at th e A l l - R ussian
C ongr ess of Wor k men' s and S ol dier s' Del egates on June 2 2 .
L enine suggested th e immediate ov er th r ow of th e c ap ital istic
system, ar guing th at oth er w ise it is imp ossibl e to end th e w ar .
He admitted th at Ger many h ad c onq uer ed muc h ter r itor y, but
h ad al so l ost muc h ; E ngl and h ad al so tak en muc h ter r itor y .
He dec l ar ed it doubtful th at sh e w oul d r etur n it of h er ow n
ac c or d .
L enine w as indignant ov er th e fac t th at th e B ol sh ev ik i
w er e ac c used of desir ing a sep ar ate p eac e
: " Dow n w ith
sep ar ate p eac e," h e c r ied ; " w e w il l nev er c onsent to it! " I n
c onc l uding, h e ex p r essed h is fir m c onv ic tion th at th e c h anc es
ar e nine to one of h is tac tic s being suc c essful , and r ead a l etter
fr om a p easant w h o ap p r ov ed th e tac tic s of th e B ol sh ev ik i .
Ker ensk y made h is answ er to L enine in th e fol l ow ing w or ds,
and h is w or ds may be tak en as th e answ er of th e R ussian
Democ r ac y to B ol sh ev ism, at th at time .
Ker ensk y' s S p eec h
" M y fel l ow - c itiz en, L enine, h as c onc l uded h is sp eec h w ith a q uota-
tion . A l l ow me al so to begin my sp eec h w ith th e q uotation fr om a
doc ument. You r emember th e r ep l y of th e E x ec utiv e C ommittee
to th e p r ov oc ateur ap p eal of Pr inc e L udw ig of B av ar ia . I h av e now
befor e me a new w ir el ess message, sent out on June 7 , at 2 o' c l oc k ,
a r esp onse to th e r ep l y of th e C ounc il of Wor k men' s and S ol dier s'
Del egates
` T h e C ounc il of Wor k men' s and S ol dier s' Del egates says th at th e
R ussian R ev ol utionar y Democ r ac y is unw av er ing in its c our se tow ar ds
univ er sal p eac e . T h is is al so our aim
. B ut to attain th is aim onl y
4 1 2

T h e B ir th of th e R ussian Democ r ac y
tw o substantial p r op osal s w er e made, and both by us . T h e fir st
p eac e offer w as made by th e C entr al Pow er s in Dec ember , 1 9 1 6 .
T h e C entr al Pow er s offer ed to enter into p eac e negotiations at an
ear l y date, in or der to av er t fur th er bl oodsh ed and to p ut an end
to th e h or r or s of w ar . T h e h and w h ic h w e p r offer ed w as r e-
j ec ted by th e Gov er nments of th e E ntente w ith a sneer
. B ut at
th at time R ussia w as dominated by th e T z ar . Our sec ond offer w as
made in th e for m of a c ir c ul ar p r oc l amation issued by th e A ustr o-
Hungar ian C ommander - in- C h ief . T h e C entr al Pow er s ex p r essed th eir
r eadiness to ap p oint th eir auth or iz ed r ep r esentativ es for th e p ur -
p ose of negotiating about th e w ar aims and th e p ossibil ity of an
ar mistic e .
A t th at time th e T z ar ' s Gov er nment w as no l onger in
ex istenc e and its p l ac e h ad been tak en by th e C ounc il s of Wor k -
men' s and S ol dier s' Del egates . Wh at w as th e answ er th is time? R us-
sia w ants p eac e w ith out annex ations and w ith out indemnities, but
at th e same time sh e does not w ish to r enounc e h er tr eaties w ith
E ngl and, F r anc e and I tal y . Do you k now of th ese tr eaties? We,
Ger mans, do not k now th eir ex ac t c ontex t, but w e k now w h at E ngl and,
F r anc e and I tal y w ant of us . I n th is manner is one of th e sp ec ific aims
stated, namel y, th at A ustr ia- Hungar y is to c ede to I tal y T r ieste, T r en-
tino and Dal matia . M r . R ibot, th e F r enc h Pr ime M inister , said : " We
don' t w ant any c onq uests, but th at does not mean th at w e h av e r e-
nounc ed our r igh t to demand A l sac e- L or r aine . We w il l figh t until
th ese Pr ov inc es ar e r estor ed to our c ountr y . " T h e Pr ov inc es about
w h ic h M r . R ibot is now sp eak ing ar e ol d Ger man ter r itor y, of w h ic h
w e w er e r obbed 2 0 0 year s ago . B r iand w ants to annex th e
entir e l eft bank of th e R h ine R iv er and th e Ger man c ol onies . A l l
th is is sanc tioned by E ngl and and th e for mer R ussian Gov er nment .
F r anc e, E ngl and and
I tal y ar e demanding v ast annex ations,
and in addition, an indemnity of 1 0 0 bil l ions, and R ussia w ants
p eac e w ith out annex ations or indemnities
. I s th is, in your op inion,
not a c ontr adic tion? Wh er ein l ies th e tr uth ? A r e th er e any w ar aims
of th e E ntente Pow er s w h ic h R ussia h as not r ej ec ted, or is th e desir e
p r ev al ent to mak e th e p eac e w h ic h h as time and again been v oic ed in
th e r ank s of th e R ussian A r my? I f th e new R ussian Gov er nment, at
th e instigation of th e A l l ies, w ish es to be c onv inc ed w h eth er th e
Ger man div isions of h eav y ar til l er y ar e stil l p r esent on th e E aster n
F r ont, l et th em do it
. A c ting in th is w ay, it w il l , of c our se, c l eav e
aw ay fr om th e idea of a univ er sal p eac e and w il l go fur th er
al ong th e r oad up on w h ic h th e for mer R ussian Gov er nment so suc -
c essful l y r etr eated, namel y, th e r oad th at l eads to new fr ater nal
gr av es
. Wh en w il l you final l y bec ome c onv inc ed th at your gr av e-
digger is E ngl and? E v en as 1 3 year s ago, sh e, for h er ow n ends, l ed
you into w ar w ith Jap an, so is sh e now r uining you in or der to
On th e E v e o f th e Offensiv e

4 1 3
str ength en h er w or l d domination
. C ommander - in- C h ief of th e Ger -
man E aster n F r ont . '
Our answ er to th is w as p r omp t : ` Hav ing r ec eiv ed th e w ir el ess
message intended to p r ov ok e us, w e, united in th e l ov e for our
c ountr y, ar e c al l ing up on al l th e tr ue sons of R ussia to br and w ith
c ontemp t th is new dec l ar ation of th e Ger man fist ; w e c al l up on al l
to p l ac e th eir ful l est c onfidenc e in our R ev ol utionar y Gov er nment .
We go and sh al l c ontinue to go dow n to th e ol d gr av es of our
br oth er s, in or der to attain h ap p iness and l iber ty . A Div ision of th e
R ussian R ev ol utionar y F r ont . '
We ar e c al l ed up on to r ej ec t a sep ar ate p eac e w ith our ow n
c ap ital ists and w e ar e tol d th at in th is manner w e sh al l best aid th e
tr iump h of th e R ev ol ution . T h is is p r ac tic al l y th e same th ing th at
th e Ger man p r inc e is offer ing us . ( A p p l ause . )
We ar e being tol d th at E ngl and w ish es to r uin us . I s it not a fac t
th at th e B ol sh ev ist p r op ositions do not find any fav or abl e r ec ep tion in
feudal Ger many? Wh at w e ar e adv ised to do w il l not l ead to th e be-
ginning of a w or l d r ev ol ution, but to th e end of th e R ussian R ev ol u-
tion . Wh il e c ar r ying out L enine' s suggestion, w e sh al l l ead th e R us-
sian Democ r ac y out of th e h istor ic c onditions under w h ic h th e entir e
w or l d ex ists and r ise in r ebel l ion against th e l aw s of ec onomic
dev el op ment
. S uc h a c our se c annot but l ead to r uin and fail ur e of
th ose p r inc ip l es for w h ic h w e ar e figh ting . "
A . F
. Ker ensk y th en p r oc eeded to disc uss th e p ol ic y of th e
Pr ov isional Gov er nment as r egar ds th e w ar
- aims, and said
" We ar e gr adual l y c omp el l ing th e Gov er nment of R ussia and th e
democ r atic c ountr ies to ac c ep t our p osition . You h ear d w h at th e
r ep r esentativ es of th e maj or ity of th e Ger man S oc ial - Democ r atic
Par ty said in S toc k h ol m . I f you w il l c omp ar e th is w ith w h at R ibot
said, you w il l see th at th er e is not suc h a w ide gul f betw een th e
tw o
. ( A p p l ause fr om th e B ol sh ev ik i . )
We ar e being tol d th at th e p ol ic y of th e Pr ov isional Gov er nment
is al so in th e inter ests of th e c ap ital ists
. C omr ades, th er e is a l imit
w h er e ignor anc e c omes in c ontac t w ith th e del iber ate distor tion of
tr uth
. T h e Pr ov isional Gov er nment fol l ow s th e c our se dic tated by
th e
. intel l igenc e of th e Democ r ac y and by th e inter ests of Democ -
r ac y th e w or l d ov er . We c an testify th at our inter national p ol ic y
yiel ds gr eat p ositiv e r esul ts . You k now th at a c onfer enc e for th e
p ur p ose of r ev ising th e tr eaties h as al r eady bec ome p ossibl e
. We
ar e v er y definitel y and c onsistentl y c ar r ying out th is l ine of inter -
national p ol ic y w h ic h al one l eads to th e suc c essful sol ution of th e
task s befor e us . A nd yet, w e ar e being tol d th at w e ar e doing th e
w il l of th e R ussian c ap ital ists and ar e ac ting under th e infl uenc e of
R ussian bank er s .
I f th is w er e so, th en th e C abinet c r isis w oul d not h av e l ed to
4 1 4

T h e B ir th of th e R ussian Democ r ac y
a
C oal ition Gov er nment w ith S oc ial ist M inister s, but to M il iuk ov ' s
p ol ic y .
I f th e Ger man S oc ial - Democ r ats w er e abl e and str ong
enough to c omp el th eir Gov er nment to fol l ow us, th ey w oul d h av e to
star t a figh t in th eir ow n c ountr y fir st
. L enine k now s th is
. A nd if
th is is so, w h y did not L enine stop in Ger many w h il e on h is w ay to
R ussia and w h y did h e not r emain th er e to p r eac h h is ideas
. ( L oud
ap p l ause
. ) and, if nec essar y, go to j ail , side by side w ith L iebk nec h t?
( Pr otest on th e p ar t of th e B ol sh ev ik i
. )
We ar e being inv ited to l aunc h up on a S oc ial ist and soc ial adv en-
tur e
. We c annot fol l ow th is c our se . We ar e at p r esent or ganiz ing
th e c ountr y and th e A r my so th at th e A r my sh oul d be abl e to figh t
and do its duty w h eth er it w il l h av e to r emain on th e defensiv e or on
th e offensiv e
. We k now th at a p assiv e defensiv e is not a defensiv e,
but amounts to a v ol untar y c onsent to be r obbed
. A nd th er e w as a
good r eason for R ober t Gr imm to w ir e v ia B er l in th at a Ger man
offensiv e on our fr ont w oul d endanger th e c ause of p eac e
. Wh en w e
do not w ish to do some one el se' s w il l ,
w e ar e th r eatened w ith h eav y
ar til l er y
. N ow w h at ar e you going to do about it? Wil l you get
sc ar ed? ( S h outs fr om th e maj or ity of th e C onfer enc e :
" N o! " )
We ar e being tol d : ` Do not l et th e A l l ies l ead you by th e nose
. '
T h e A l l ies do not l ead us by th e nose
. Just now th e R ussian
tr oop s h av e been absol utel y for bidden to l and togeth er w ith th e
A l l ied tr oop s near A th ens . We ex er t an infl uenc e ov er th e A l l ied
Gov er nments th at ar e mor e democ r atic th an th e Gov er nments of
Ger many and A ustr ia, th r ough our R ev ol ution and th e c h ar m of
our ideas . . We ar e h el p ing th ose nations th at w ant l iber ty and th e
r igh t to w or k out th eir ow n destinies, but w e must fir st of al l safe-
guar d our ow n p ol itic al and ec onomic fr eedom . T h is l iber ty dep ends
up on w h at r esistanc e it c an offer to th e p r essur e of inter national
c ap ital . We ar e being tol d th at th e Ger man S oc ial ists ar e aw aiting
th e moment w h en w e sh al l final l y p er suade th e A l l ies to c onsent to
our ter ms of p eac e on th e p r inc ip l e of sel f- deter mination of nation-
al ities . Yes, th ey ar e w aiting, but meanw h il e h el p ing th e Ger man
C ommander - in- C h ief . T h ey tel l us th at w e ar e in fav or of p eac e
w ith out annex ations and w ith out indemnities, and at th e same time
w e c ontinue to annex th e Pr ov inc es th at w e oc c up y ; for instanc e, w e
do not ev ac uate th e fr ee r ep ubl ic of A r menia . T h ese w or ds betr ay
suc h p r ofound ignor anc e of th e c onditions on our C auc asus fr ont
th at th er e is no r oom for ar gument h er e
. ( A p p l ause . )
I sh al l not answ er any ac c usations r egar ding F inl and and th e
U k r aine
. B ut, r el ying on p ubl ic op inion in th e r ank s of th e R ussian
Democ r ac y, I say th at in time of
. w ar it is absol utel y imp ossibl e to
effec t any r ear r angements on th e p r inc ip l e of national ism
. ( Voic es :
" C or r ec t . " )
E v er y offic er and sol dier under stands th at th is is im-
p ossibl e fr om p oint of v iew of tec h niq ue
.
On th e E v e of th e Offensiv e

4 1 5
R ead th e doc ument of th e F innish S oc ial - Democ r atic Par ty and
you w il l under stand h ow far r emov ed fr om th e tr uth w er e th e B ol sh e-
v ik i, w h o ev en tw o w eek s ago denied th at th e F inns w er e asp ir ing
for th eir indep endenc e . We ap p eal to th e c omr ades and S oc ial ists
of al l national ities r esiding in R ussia, and say : ` N ow th at th e R ussian
Democ r ac y h as sounded th e p r inc ip l e of sel f- deter mination of na-
tional ities, do not adop t any tac tic s th at w oul d destr oy th e br oth er l y
union of al l th e toil er s . C ome w ith us . Do not l et your sel v es be
c ar r ied aw ay by c h auv inist tendenc ies
. ' I n so far as th ese asp ir ations
ar e menac ing th e R ussian R ev ol ution, w e say : ' T h is must not be
done . '"

t
A . F . Ker ensk y fur th er stated th at h e h ad not for bidden, but
h ad onl y r efused to sanc tion th e offic ial desp atc h ing of Del e-
gates to th e S oc ial ist C onfer enc e .
" I am often r ep r oac h ed bec ause th e bour geois p r ess ap p r ov es of my
p ol ic y . B ut if I w er e to br ing h er e p r ess c omments of our enemies
and if I w er e to sh ow th at it fav or ed th e tac tic s of some of our
Par ties, w oul d you not say th at I w as a v il l ain and a sc oundr el ?
( B oister ous ap p l ause . )
A t a c l osed session I gav e a detail ed ex p l anation and said th at
it w as my task to tr ansfor m th e R ussian A r my into a r ev ol utionar y
A r my, democ r atiz ed fr om top to bottom, w h il e p r eser v ing w ith in
th e A r my th e ir on disc ip l ine of duty tow ar ds th e R ev ol ution- suc h an
A r my for w h ic h p er sonal safety and w el far e ar e subor dinated to th e
c ommon good, to th e c ause of l iber ty and th e tr iump h of th ose ideas
for w h ic h one c an sac r ific e h is h ap p iness and l ife . A s M inister of
War , I am gl ad to testify th at th e br ains of th e A r my ar e w ith me
and I w ith th em . ( B oister ous ap p l ause . )
A s M inister of War , to w h om th e p ac ific ation and th e or ganiz a-
tion of th e A r my is a task of p r imar y imp or tanc e, I ap p eal to you,
r ep r esentativ es of al l C ounc il s of Wor k men' s and S ol dier s' Del egates,
to giv e your mor al sup p or t to th e R ussian R ev ol ution and to its
Gov er nment, to defend it against anar c h y and demor al iz ing in-
fl uenc es, to c al l th e c ountr y to or der and in c ase of ex tr eme nec essity
to auth or iz e us to use ev er y means at our c ommand in or der to p r e-
v ent our enemies fr om th e R igh t fr om tr iump h ing th r ough th e an-
ar c h y fr om th e L eft . " ( S h outs
: " Pl ease, p l ease! " " Go to it! " )
C HA PT E R XI I I
T h e
Gr eat C r isis- Jul y, 1 9 1 7
T
HE offensiv e star ted on Jul y 1 st r esul ted in disaster
bec ause of th e mutiny in th e R ussian A r my . T h is, to-
geth er w ith an offensiv e star ted by th e A ustr o- Ger man
A r my, c r eated a situation w h er e th e Pr ov isional Gov er nment
found it nec essar y to r esor t to ex tr aor dinar y, str ic t measur es
to r estor e disc ip l ine in th e mil itar y r ank s .
Due to th e c r isis, Pr ime- M inister Pr inc e G
. E . L v ov h ad
r esigned fr om th e C abinet, and A . F . Ker ensk y h ad been ap -
p ointed in h is p l ac e, r etaining th e p or tfol io of M inister of War
.
One of th e fir st ac ts of th e new C abinet w as th e fol l ow ing
ap p eal to th e A r my issued on Jul y 2 1 , 1 9 1 7
:
" T h r ee w eek s ago, in c omp l ianc e w ith th e or der of th e M inister
of War , th e ar mies of th e S outh w ester n F r ont, under th e l eader sh ip
of th e C ommander - in- C h ief, w ith migh ty r ev ol utionar y enth usiasm,
star ted an offensiv e . A bout 3 6 ,0 0 0 p r isoner s of w ar , mor e th an 9 0
guns and 4 0 0 mac h ine guns w er e c ap tur ed . T h e gl or ious name of
th e ` r egiments of th e 1 8 th of June' * w il l h enc efor th be r ec or ded in
th e h istor y of th e R ev ol ution
. T h ese h er oic figh ter s p l ac ed abov e
th eir p er sonal l iv es, th eir h onor , th e l ife of th e fr ee F ath er l and and
th e sal v ation of th e R ussian R ev ol ution, w h ic h w as th r eatened by
l oyal ty to Wil h el m' s bayonets on th e fr ont and by a tr eac h er ous
mutiny in th e r ear
.
T h e mutiny in th e r ear h as been sup p r essed by th e p eop l e' s
auth or ity, but th e R ev ol ution is stil l in gr eat danger .
M uster ing h is for c es, th e enemy al so star ted an offensiv e .
L et h is insidious p l an of simul taneous inv asion of th e fr ont and
tr eac h er ous attac k fr om th e r ear ser v e to unite mor e c l osel y al l
.
th ose to w h om R ussia and h er l iber ty ar e not emp ty w or ds
.
S ol dier s of th e R ev ol utionar y A r mies! Your br oth er s th at h av e
gone into th e battl e w ith r ed fl ags c al l up on you to j oin th em in th e
attac k for th e defense of l iber ty, for j ust ter ms of a l asting p eac e
.
B y th e w il l of th e r ev ol utionar y p eop l e, at th e fir st or der of your
mil itar y sup er ior s, mar c h for w ar d in c l ose r ank s
. S av e l iber ty, sav e
th e F ath er l and . "
T h e C ommander - in- C h ief of th e S outh w ester n F r ont
. Gen-
er al Kor nil ov , addr essed th e fol l ow ing ap p eal to th e tr oop s
" M adness, dish onor and tr eac h er y of sev er al p ar ts of th e
- June 1 8 th in th e R ussian
c al endar is eq uiv al ent to
Jul y 1 , new
styl e .
T h e Gr eat C r isis- Jul y, 1 9 1 7

4 1 7
E l ev enth and S ev enth A r mies h av e insc r ibed dar k p ages in th e h istor y
of th e fr ee R ussian A r my, p ages w h ic h w il l be r emember ed for ev er
and ev er . T h e R ussian A r my h as not k now n a l ik e disgr ac e, h as not
suffer ed suc h degr adation fr om th e v er y beginning of its ex istenc e,
and our ol d r egimental banner s h av e nev er been abased so l ow in th e
h ands of our fath er s and for efath er s .
Dur ing th ese gl oomy days of nigh tmar e onl y th e figh ting v al or
of th e infantr y r egiments w h o h av e r emained tr ue to th eir duty, of
al l th e sh oc k and motor - c yc l e battal ions, of al l th e ar mor ed div isions
and al l th e ar til l er y, C ossac k and c av al r y sec tions r ep ul sed th e ad-
v anc e of th e enemy and p ut a damp er up on th e S atanic j oy of th e
Ger man E mp er or , Wil h el m . Gl or y to you, for emost and v al iant sons
of Gr eat R ussia! Gl or y to you, fear l ess and manl y figh ter s for th e
F ath er l and and fr eedom! T h e c ountr y w il l nev er for get your sel f-
sac r ific es, and th e c oming h ap p iness and gr eatness of th e F ath er l and
w il l be th e fr uit of your ac ts and your h er oism .
Offic er s and th e few sol dier s of th e infantr y r egiments w h o
h av e r emained tr ue to your duty, w h o h av e not dish onor ed your sel v es
by sh ameful fl igh t and tr eac h er y, I am addr essing mysel f to you
.
Your deeds ar e immor tal ; your h er oism w il l enr ic h h istor y and p os-
ter ity . A c ountr y p ossessing v al iant c itiz ens l ik e you does not p er ish
and c annot p er ish . Deser ted by your seditious and tr eac h er ous c om-
r ades- sol dier s ov er p ow er ed by mad p r op aganda- you al one r emained
at your p ositions, and th r ow ing against th e str ong number s of th e
enemy onl y your unl imited v al or and br av er y you p er ish ed in th e
uneq ual figh t of one against sev er al doz ens of th e adv anc ing enemy
.
You, h er oic offic er s and l oyal sol dier s, h av e p aid w ith your l iv es for
th e dish onor of your ow n A r my, . but your bl ood is th e p l edge of th e
r egener ation of th e bel ov ed r egiments and of th e r ebuil ding of th e
figh ting migh t of our A r my.
A few w eek s w il l p ass and th e r ev iv ed, fr ee R ussian A r my, h av -
ing l iber ated itsel f fr om th e madness of entic ement and th e mir e of
disintegr ation, w il l stand up w ith for midabl e, migh ty p ow er against
th e enemy, and th en it w il l insc r ibe your names in sp ar k l ing l etter s
in th e memor y of th e c oming gener ations
. "
T h e E x ec utiv e C ommittee of th e A l l - R ussian C ounc il s of
Wor k men' s, S ol dier s' and Peasants' Del egates, on Jul y 2 2 , in
nigh t session, dec ided to c onfer sup r eme and unl imited p ow er
on Ker ensk y' s C abinet and adop ted th e fol l ow ing r esol ution,
w h ic h w as p assed by a maj or ity of 2 5 2 v otes to 5 7 :
" R ec ogniz ing th at th e c ountr y is menac ed by a mil itar y debac l e
on th e fr ont and by anar c h y at h ome, it is r esol v ed :
F ir st- T h at th e c ountr y and th e R ev ol ution ar e endanger ed
.
S ec ond- T h at th e Pr ov isional Gov er nment be p r oc l aimed th e Gov -
er nment of N ational S afety .
0
4 1 8

T h e B ir th of th e R ussian Democ r ac y
T h ir d- T h at unl imited p ow er s be ac c or ded th e Gov er nment for r e-
establ ish ing th e or ganiz ation and disc ip l ine of th e A r my for a figh t
to th e finish against th e ' enemies of p ubl ic or der and for th e r eal iz a-
tion of th e w h ol e p r ogr am embodied in th e Gov er nment p r ogr am
j ust announc ed. " *
A t th e same time th e E x ec utiv e C ommittee issued th e fol -
l ow ing ap p eal to th e A r my
F el l ow - sol dier s
: One of our ar mies h as w av er ed, its r egiments
h av e fl ed befor e th e enemy
. Par t of our fr ont h as been br ok en
.
E mp er or Wil h el m' s h or des, w h ic h h av e mov ed for w ar d, ar e br inging
w ith th em death and destr uc tion .
Wh o is r esp onsibl e for th is h umil iation? T h e r esp onsibil ity
r ests w ith th ose w h o h av e sp r ead disc or d in th e A r my and sh ak en
its disc ip l ine, w ith th ose w h o at a time of danger disobeyed th e
mil itar y c ommands and w asted time in fr uitl ess disc ussions and
disp utes .
M any of th ose w h o l eft th e l ine and sough t safety in r unning aw ay
p aid w ith th eir l iv es for h av ing disobeyed or der s
. T h e enemy' s fir e
mow ed th em dow n
. I f th is c ostl y l esson h as taugh t you noth ing,
th en th er e w il l be no sal v ation for R ussia
.
E nough of w or ds! T h e time h as c ome to ac t w ith out h esitation
.
We h av e ac k now l edged th e Pr ov isional Gov er nment
. With th e Gov -
er nment l ies th e sal v ation of th e R ev ol ution
. We h av e ac k now l edged
its unl imited auth or ity and its unl imited p ow er . I ts c ommands must
be l aw
. A l l th ose w h o in battl e disobey th e c ommands of th e Pr o-
v isional Gov er nment w il l be r egar ded as tr aitor s . T o tr aitor s and
c ow ar ds no mer c y w il l be sh ow n .
F el l ow - sol dier s : You w ant a dur abl e p eac e
. You w ant your l and,
your fr eedom
. T h en you must k now th at onl y by a stubbor n str uggl e
w il l you w in p eac e for R ussia and al l nations
. I f you yiel d befor e
th e tr oop s of th e Ger man E mp er or , you l ose both your l and and
your fr eedom . T h e c onq uer ing, imp er ial istic Ger mans w il l for c e you
again and again to figh t for your inter ests
.
F el l ow - sol dier s at th e fr ont
: L et th er e be no tr aitor s or c ow ar ds
among you
. L et not one of you r etr eat a singl e step befor e th e foe .
Onl y one w ay is op en for you- th e w ay for w ar d .
F el l ow - sol dier s in th e r ear : B e r eady to adv anc e to th e fr ont
for th e sup p or t of your br oth er s, abandoned and betr ayed, fl eeing
fr om th eir p ositions . S ummon al l your str ength for th e str uggl e
for a dur abl e p eac e, for your l and and your fr eedom . With out
w av er ing, w ith out fear , w ith out disastr ous disc ussions, c ar r y out al l
mil itar y c ommands
. A t th e time of battl e disobedienc e and w av er ing
* T h e p r ogr am is giv en on p p . 4 3 2 - 4 3 3 .
T h e Gr eat C r isis- Jul y, 1 9 1 7

4 1 9
ar e w or se th an tr eac h er y
. Your r uin, th e r uin of R ussia l ies in dis-
obedienc e and w av er ing .
F el l ow - sol dier s
: You ar e being w atc h ed by th ose w h o w or k for
R ussia, and by th e w h ol e w or l d . T h e r uin of th e R ussian R ev ol ution
sp el l s r uin for al l
. S ummon up al l your manh ood, your p er sev er anc e
and sense of disc ip l ine and sav e th e F ath er l and . "
C onfr onted w ith th e symp toms of sp r eading demor al iz ation
and disintegr ation in th e A r my, th e Pr ov isional Gov er nment
found it nec essar y to r estor e c ap ital p unish ment, abol ish ed
in th e ear l y days of th e R ev ol ution, and on Jul y 2 5 it issued
th e fol l ow ing dec r ee
" T h e sh ameful c onduc t of sev er al mil itar y div isions in th e r ear
as w el l as on th e fr ont, w h o h av e for gotten th eir duty tow ar ds th e
F ath er l and and w h o h av e p l ac ed R ussia and th e R ev ol ution on th e
v er ge of r uin, c omp el s th e Pr ov isional Gov er nment to adop t ex tr a-
or dinar y measur es in or der to r estor e or der and disc ip l ine in th e
r ank s of th e A r my .
F ul l y c onsc ious of th e bur den of r esp onsibil ity for th e fate of th e
F ath er l and, th e Pr ov isional Gov er nment finds it nec essar y :
l . T o r estor e th e death p enal ty for th e dur ation of th e w ar for
th ose in th e mil itar y ser v ic e, for most ser ious c r imes
.
2 . T o establ ish mil itar y- r ev ol utionar y c our ts, c onsisting of sol -
dier s and offic er s, for th e immediate tr ial of suc h c r iminal s . "
U nfor tunatel y, ev en th e ex tr aor dinar y measur es r esor ted to
by th e Pr ov isional Gov er nment c oul d not stop th e p r oc ess of
disintegr ation w h ic h , in a few month s after th e Jul y c r isis,
w ith th e B ol sh ev ik i c oming into p ow er , r esul ted in th e c om-
p l ete annih il ation of th e onc e so p ow er ful and gl or ious R us-
sian A r my . T o under stand th is p r oc ess it is nec essar y to
under stand not onl y and not so muc h th e faul ts and fail ur es
of th e Pr ov isional Gov er nment, as th e c r iminal p ol ic y of th e
ol d r egime in its r el ation to th e A r my .
F r om th e beginning of th e w ar , in 1 9 1 4 , up to th e R ev ol ution
th e T z ar ' s Gov er nment mobil iz ed not l ess th an 1 4 - 1 5 mil l ion
men . T h ese figur es ar e ap p r ox imate bec ause ev en th e T z ar ' s
offic ial s did not p ossess ex ac t data as to h ow many men w er e
c al l ed to ac tiv e ser v ic e in R ussia . N ot infr eq uentl y w e find
h er e and th er e, c oming fr om auth or itativ e sour c es, th at dur ing
th e tw o and a h al f year s of w ar befor e th e R ev ol ution th e
T z ar ' s Gov er nment mobil iz ed up to 1 8 or 1 9 mil l ion men .
T h ese enor mous masses of p eop l e w er e th r ow n al most bar e-
4 2 0

T h e B ir th of th e R ussian Democ r ac y
h anded against th e w onder ful l y eq uip p ed T eutonic ' ar mies .
I t is enough to r ec al l th e tr agedy of 1 9 1 5 , w h en th e R ussian
A r my h ad to r etr eat fr om Gal ic ia and giv e up Pol and bec ause
th er e w er e no sh el l s for th e R ussian guns . B ut th is is not al l ,
- th e R ussian sol dier s w er e not ev en giv en enough r ifl es .
A t th e tr ial of Gener al S uk h oml inov , th e S ec r etar y of War
under th e ol d r egime, w h o h as been sentenc ed, for h igh tr eason,
to l ife imp r isonment at h ar d l abor , Gener al Yanush k ev itc h ,
th e for mer C h ief of th e R ussian Gener al S taff, stated : " T h er e
w er e times dur ing our r etr eat fr om Gal ic ia, in th e summer
of 1 9 1 5 , w h en th e Ger mans, k now ing th at w e did not h av e any
sh el l s, w oul d p ut th eir guns at a distanc e of onl y 2 0 0 0 yar ds
and sh oot dow n one h el p l ess r egiment after anoth er . We h ad
no guns, w e h ad no r ifl es . I n th e v er y beginning of th e w ar
one r ifl e, on th e av er age, w as giv en to tw o sol dier s . T h en
it w as one r ifl e for th r ee sol dier s, th en for four , and final l y one
r ifl e onl y w as giv en for ev er y ten sol dier s
. T h e sol dier s in
th e r ear h ad to w ait until th eir c omr ades on th e fir ing- l ine
w er e k il l ed so th at th ey migh t h av e th eir r ifl es and tak e th eir
p l ac es . "
A s a r esul t of th e ineffic ienc y and tr eac h er y of th e ol d r egime,
R ussia' s c asual ties in th is w ar amounted to about 8 . 0 0 0 0 0 0 .
I f th e R ussian A r my h ad been p r op er l y managed sinc e th e
beginning of th e w ar , th e w ar migh t p ossibl y h av e been ov er
l ong ago, w ith R ussia and h er A l l ies v ic tor ious, w ith R ussian
c asual ties p r obabl y not mor e th an one- th ir d of w h at th ey
ac tual l y h av e been .
T h e gr eatest fac tor in th e demor al iz ation and disintegr ation
of th e R ussian A r my w as th e ol d r egime w ith its c entur ies of
op p r essing and h umil iating th e soul of th e p easant sol dier , w ith
its unsp eak abl e c r ime in th r ow ing against th e T eutonic w ar -
mac h iner y mil l ions of R ussia' s youth , unar med and insuffic ient-
l y tr ained for th e gr eat ar t of moder n w ar far e . I f, nev er th el ess,
th e R ussian A r my h as, ev en in th is w ar , ac c omp l ish ed mir a-
c l es, it is bec ause of th e innate tr aits of th e R ussian c h ar ac ter .
T h e T z ar ' s Gov er nment br ough t R ussia to th e tr agic defeat
of 1 9 1 5 , w h il e th e c h ar ac ter of th e R ussian sol dier , h is w on-
der ful c ap ac ity for sel f- sac r ific e made p ossibl e for th e R ussian
T h e G r e a t C r i s i s - J u l y , 1 9 1 7

421
A r m y s u c h a g l o r i o u s a c h i e v e m e n t a s t h e o f f e n s i v e i n G a l i c i a ,
i n t h e s u m m e r o f 1 9 1 6, wh e n t h e Ru s s i a n s o l di e r s , l e d by
G e n e r a l B r u s i l o v , a t t a c k e d t h e e n e m y c o n t i n u o u s l y f o r t h r e e
m o n t h s a n d c a p t u r e d 5 0 0 , 0 0 0 A u s t r i a n p r i s o n e r s a n d 49 8 g u n s
.
N e v e r t h e l e s s , o n t h e e v e o f t h e Re v o l u t i o n t h e s p i r i t o f t h e
Ru s s i a n A r m y wa s a l r e a dy u n de r m i n e d by t h e c r i m i n a l p o l -
i c y o f t h e o l d r e g i m e . T h e n u m be r o f de s e r t e r s , by t h a t t i m e ,
a m o u n t e d t o h u n dr e ds o f t h o u s a n ds . T h e Re v o l u t i o n , i n i t s
n a t u r a l e n de a v o r t o a c c o r d t h e di g n i t y o f c i t i z e n s h i p t o e v e r y
o n e f i g h t i n g f o r Ru s s i a ' s a n d t h e wo r l d' s f r e e do m , we n t t o t h e
o t h e r e x t r e m e , wh i c h l e d t o t h e f i n a l di s o r g a n i z a t i o n i n t h e
A r m y . On M a y 27 , A . F. Ke r e n s k y , a s M i n i s t e r o f Wa r ,
s i g n e d t h e D e c l a r a t i o n o f S o l di e r s ' Ri g h t s , wh i c h t o g e t h e r
wi t h t h e f a m o u s Or de r N o . 1 * m a y be c o n s i de r e d a s t h e m o s t
f a t a l a c t s o f t h e Re v o l u t i o n
. T h e s e de c r e e s we r e p r o ba bl y
p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y i n e v i t a bl e , bu t t h e i r f a t a l r o l e i n t h e de s t r u c -
t i o n o f t h e Ru s s i a n A r m y c a n n o t be u n de r e s t i m a t e d .
T h e D e c l a r a t i o n o f S o l di e r s ' Ri g h t s , i n i t s f i r s t t h r e e p a r a -
g r a p h s , de c l a r e s t h a t t h e s o l di e r s a n d o f f i c e r s s h a l l e n j o y a l l t h e
r i g h t s o f f r e e c i t i z e n s ; t h e y m a y be l o n g t o a n y p o l i t i c a l p a r t y ;
t h e y m a y s p e a k , wr i t e o r p u bl i s h a n y t h i n g wh a t s o e v e r o n a n y
p o l i t i c a l , r e l i g i o u s , s o c i a l o r o t h e r s u bj e c t , wi t h i n t h e s c o p e
o f t h e o r di n a r y l a ws .
T h e f o u r t h p a r a g r a p h g r a n t e d f u l l r e l i g i o u s f r e e do m ; t h e
n e x t t wo s a f e g u a r de d t h e f r e e do m o f s o l di e r s ' c o r r e s p o n de n c e
a n d t h e r i g h t t o r e c e i v e a n y p r i n t e d m a t t e r . Fu r t h e r m o r e ,
t h e s o l di e r s we r e g i v e n t h e r i g h t t o di s c a r d t h e u n i f o r m e x c e p t
wh e n i n a c t u a l s e r v i c e ; t h e c o m p u l s o r y s a l u t e t o s u p e r i o r s
wa s a bo l i s h e d . T h e s o l di e r s we r e g i v e n t h e r i g h t t o l e a v e
t h e ba r r a c k s o r s h i p s , o u t s i de o f du t y h o u r s , o n t h e m e r e
a n n o u n c e m e n t o f s u c h i n t e n t i o n t o t h e i r s u p e r i o r s . A l l m a t -
t e r s p e r t a i n i n g t o t h e i n t e r n a l e c o n o m i c c o n di t i o n s o f t h e r e g i -
m e n t o r s h i p we r e p l a c e d i n t h e h a n ds o f e l e c t i v e c o m m i t t e e s
c o n s i s t i n g o n e - f i f t h p a r t o f t h e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f t h e o f f i c e r s
a n d t h e r e s t o f t h e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f t h e s o l di e r s
.
* Or de r N o
. 1 wa s i s s u e d by t h e Pe t r o g r a d C o u n c i l o f Wo r k m e n ' s a n d
S o l di e r s ' D e l e g a t e s
. I t c a l l e d u p o n t h e s o l di e r s n o t t o e x e c u t e t h e o r de r s
o f t h e i r o f f i c e r s u n l e s s t h o s e o r de r s we r e a p p r o v e d by t h e r e v o l u t i o n a r y
a u t h o r i t i e s .
. 422

T h e B i r t h o f t h e Ru s s i a n D e m o c r a c y
I t i s t r u e t h a t t h e D e c l a r a t i o n r e p e a t e d t h e wo r d di s c i p l i n e
a l m o s t i n e v e r y p a r a g r a p h . I t s a i d, f o r i n s t a n c e , t h a t a l t h o u g h
t h e s o l di e r s s h a l l e n j o y a l l t h e r i g h t s o f f r e e c i t i z e n s , t h e y
m u s t r e g u l a t e t h e i r c o n du c t " by t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s o f s e r v i c e
a n d di s c i p l i n e . " I n p a r a g r a p h f o u r t e e n , wh e r e t h e D e c l a r a t i o n
s t a t e d t h a t f r o m n o w o n n o o n e i n t h e A r m y m i g h t be s u b-
j e c t e d t o p u n i s h m e n t wi t h o u t t r i a l , i t s t a t e d a l s o t h a t du r i n g
a n a c t u a l m i l i t a r y o p e r a t i o n t h e s u p e r i o r h a s t h e r i g h t , o n h i s
o wn r e s p o n s i bi l i t y , t o t a k e a l l m e a s u r e s , e v e n t o t h e u s e o f
a r m e d f o r c e a g a i n s t t h o s e wh o do n o t o be y h i s o r de r s . N e v e r -
t h e l e s s , t h e D e c l a r a t i o n , u n de r t h e c o n di t i o n s u n de r wh i c h i t
wa s i s s u e d, c o u l d n o t c r e a t e a n y i m p r e s s i o n o n t h e p e a s a n t
s o l di e r ' s m i n d o t h e r t h a n t h a t i t di d c r e a t e . T h e a u t h o r i t y o f
t h e o f f i c e r wa s br o k e n do wn , a n d a f t e r g e n e r a t i o n s o f o p p r e s -
s i o n a n d s e v e r e di s c i p l i n e t h e A r m y s wu n g t o t h e o p p o s i t e
e x t r e m e
. " T h e f r e e s t A r m y i n t h e wo r l d, " a s t h e r e p r e s e n t a -
t i v e s o f t h e Re v o l u t i o n a r y D e m o c r a c y c a l l e d t h e Ru s s i a n
A r m y du r i n g t h o s e da y s , s o o n be c a m e t h e m o s t de m o r a l i z e d
A r m y i n t h e wo r l d, a n d a f t e r a f e w m o n t h s o f v a r i o u s e x p e r i -
m e n t s c e a s e d t o e x i s t a s a n A r m y .
We h a v e s a i d be f o r e t h a t a l l t h i s p r o c e s s wa s p r o ba bl y
i n e v i t a bl e u n de r t h e c i r c u m s t a n c e s c r e a t e d by t h e Re v o l u t i o n .
T h e M a r c h Re v o l u t i o n i n i t s e l f wa s s u c h a m i r a c l e t h a t e v e r y -
o n e i n Ru s s i a be g a n t o be l i e v e t h a t o t h e r m i r a c l e s wo u l d
f o l l o w . I n a ddi t i o n , i t m u s t be c o n s i de r e d t h a t a r e v o l u t i o n a r y
g o v e r n m e n t wh i c h i s n o t e x t r e m e l y l i be r a l i n i t s p o l i c y i s i m -
m e di a t e l y s u s p e c t e d o f t y r a n n y by t h e p e o p l e i n e x p e r i e n c e d i n
f r e e do m . T h i s e x p l a i n s wh y Pr o f . M i l i u k o v de m a n de d f r o m
G r e a t B r i t a i n t h a t L e o n T r o t s k y , wh o h a d be e n de t a i n e d
by t h e B r i t i s h a u t h o r i t i e s i n H a l i f a x , s h o u l d be a l l o we d t o
r e t u r n t o Ru s s i a . T h i s e x p l a i n s wh y n o t o n l y Ke r e n s k y ' s
bu t e v e n G u c h k o v ' s
m e a s u r e s ,
a l t h o u g h
de s t r u c t i v e t o
t h e A r m y , we r e n e v e r t h e l e s s p o l i t i c a l l y i n e v i t a bl e . Fr o m
p o i n t o f v i e w o f s t r i c t di s c i p l i n e , t h e f i r s t bl o w t o t h e A r m y
wa s t h e f i r s t C o n v e n t i o n o f t h e D e l e g a t e s f r o m t h e Fr o n t ,
wh i c h A . I . G u c h k o v , u n de r t h e c i r c u m s t a n c e s , h a d t o a ddr e s s
' a s M i n i s t e r o f Wa r
.
A n A r m y br o u g h t i n t o t h e wh i r l -
wi n d o f p o l i t i c a l di s c u s s i o n , a n A r m y wh e r e e v e n s t r a t e g i c
T h e G r e a t C r i s i s - J u l y , 1 9 1 7

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p r o bl e m s a r e di s c u s s e d a n d de c i de d a t s o l di e r s ' m e e t i n g s i s
n o l o n g e r a n A r m y .
N o o n e , i n di v i du a l l y , m a y be bl a m e d f o r t h e di s o r g a n i z a t i o n
o f t h e Ru s s i a n A r m y , - e v e r y bo dy c o n t r i bu t e d t o t h i s u n f o r -
t u n a t e , a l t h o u g h , u n de r t h e c i r c u m s t a n c e s , i n e v i t a bl e p r o c e s s .
T h e s h o r t - s i g h t e dn e s s o f t h e Re v o l u t i o n a r y D e m o c r a c y , i n
t h a t r e s p e c t , wa s p r o ba bl y be s t di s p l a y e d i n t h e f o l l o wi n g
p r o n o u n c e m e n t o f t h e Pe t r o g r a d C o u n c i l o f Wo r k m e n ' s a n d
S o l di e r s ' D e l e g a t e s , i s s u e d o n M a y 28 a n d r e f e r r i n g t o t h e
j u s t t h e n p u bl i s h e d D e c l a r a t i o n o f S o l di e r s ' Ri g h t s
" C o m r a de s , S o l di e r s
: T wo m o n t h s we h a v e be e n wa i t i n g f o r t h e
da y wh e n t h e r i g h t s wh i c h we g a i n e d t h r o u g h t h e Re v o l u t i o n wo u l d
r e c e i v e t h e f o r c e o f l a w, o bl i g a t o r y o n a l l s e r v i n g i n t h e A r m y
.
H a v i n g j o i n e d t h e r a n k s o f r e v o l u t i o n a r y f i g h t e r s , we h a v e f r e e d
o u r s e l v e s f r o m t h e o p p r e s s i o n o f T z a r i s m .
T h e Re v o l u t i o n m a de a l l e q u a l ; t h e s o l di e r i s n o w a c i t i z e n by l a w .
E x c e p t wh e n o n du t y , t h e di f f e r e n c e be t we e n s o l di e r s a n d o f f i c e r s
h a s be e n a bo l i s h e d .
Pa r a g r a p h 1 2 o f t h e D e c l a r a t i o n o f S o l di e r s ' Ri g h t s a bo l i s h e s t h e
o l d s y s t e m o f s a l u t i n g .
Fr o m n o w o n t h e s o l di e r - c i t i z e n i s f r e e f r o m t h e s l a v e r y o f s a l u t i n g
a n d a s a n e q u a l , f r e e p e r s o n wi l l g r e e t wh o m s o e v e r h e c h o o s e s
.
L o n g l i v e t h e f r e e - t h i n k i n g s o l di e r - c i t i z e n !
L o n g l i v e t h e u n i t e d, s t r o n g , f r e e A r m y o f t h e p e o p l e !
D i s c i p l i n e i n t h e Re v o l u t i o n a r y A r m y wi l l e x i s t , p r o m p t e d by
p o p u l a r e n t h u s i a s m a n d t h e s e n s e o f du t y t o wa r d t h e f r e e c o u n t r y
r a t h e r t h a n by a s l a v i s h s a l u t e .
We s o l di e r s s h a l l be a bl e t o p r o v e t h a t t h e f r e e A r m y o f c i t i z e n -
T
s o l di e r s i s m u c h s t r o n g e r t h a n t h e A r m y o f t h e o l d r e g i m e . "
H E g r a v e c r i s i s i n t h e A r m y wa s a c c o m p a n i e d by a
c r i s i s i n t h e i n t e r i o r o f Ru s s i a , br i n g i n g t o t h e f o r e t wo
f a c t o r s wh i c h , a f e w m o n t h s l a t e r , br o u g h t Ru s s i a t o
h e r t e m p o r a r y r u i n
. T h e s e f a c t o r s we r e t h e B o l s h e v i k i a n d
t h e Uk r a i n i a n p r o bl e m .
B o t h o f t h e s e p r o bl e m s m a de t h e i r a p p e a r a n c e i n t h e e a r l y
da y s o f t h e Re v o l u t i o n
. Wh i l e t h e o n l y wa y f o r Ru s s i a ' s
s a l v a t i o n l a y i n t h e u n i o n o f a l l t h e p r o g r e s s i v e f o r c e s wi t h
t h e Pr o v i s i o n a l G o v e r n m e n t i n i t s e n de a v o r s t o br i n g t h e
c o u n t r y t o t h e C o n s t i t u e n t A s s e m bl y , wh i c h a l o n e c o u l d s o l v e
t h e c o n s t i t u t i o n a l a n d s o c i a l p r o bl e m s c o n f r o n t i n g t h e n e w
424

T h e B i r t h o f t h e Ru s s i a n D e m o c r a c y
D e m o c r a c y , t h e B o l s h e v i k i i n c i t e d t h e m a s s e s wi t h t h e i r
de m a g o g y a n d m a de s t e a dy e n de a v o r s t o o v e r t h r o w t h e Pr o -
v i s i o n a l G o v e r n m e n t . A t t h e s a m e t i m e c e r t a i n e l e m e n t s o f
t h e Uk r a i n i a n " i n t e l l i g e n t s i a , " p r o ba bl y n o t wi t h o u t t h e i n -
f l u e n c e o f A u s t r i a , m a de s t e a dy a t t e m p t s t o s o l v e , be f o r e t h e
c o n v o c a t i o n o f t h e C o n s t i t u e n t A s s e m bl y , t h e p r o bl e m o f t h e
r e l a t i o n o f t h e Uk r a i n e t o t h e Ru s s i a n S t a t e
. On J u n e 1 6 t h e
Pr o v i s i o n a l G o v e r n m e n t f o u n d i t n e c e s s a r y t o a ddr e s s t o t h e
Uk r a i n i a n p e o p l e t h e f o l l o wi n g a p p e a l , s i g n e d by Pr i n c e G
. E .
L v o v
" T o t h e Uk r a i n i a n Pe o p l e : I n t h e s e da y s
o f m o m e n t o u s e x -
p e r i e n c e s t h e Ru s s i a n Pr o v i s i o n a l G o v e r n m e n t c a l l s u p o n y o u i n
be h a l f o f Fr e e Ru s s i a . T h e s e a r e g r a v e e x p e r i e n c e s t h a t Ru s s i a
i s p a s s i n g t h r o u g h i n o r de r t o s t r e n g t h e n t h e f r e e do m t h a t wi l l g i v e
p r o s p e r i t y t o t h e p e o p l e a n d wi l l r e s t o r e t o a l l n a t i o n a l i t i e s t h e i r
r i g h t s
.
I f Ru s s i a i s de v a s t a t e d by t h e i n t e r n a l e n e m y , i f t h e f o e s o f
l i be r t y t r i u m p h , l o s t wi l l be t h e c o m m o n c a u s e o f a l l t h e p e o p l e s
i n h a bi t i n g Ru s s i a .
T o l e a d t h e c o u n t r y t h r o u g h a l l da n g e r s , t o br i n g t o g e t h e r t h e
C o n s t i t u e n t A s s e m bl y o f a l l t h e p e o p l e s , wh e r e t h e y s h a l l m a n i f e s t
t h e i r wi l l f i r m l y a n d o p e n l y by u n i v e r s a l a n d e q u a l s u f f r a g e - t h i s i s
t h e p r o bl e m be f o r e t h e G o v e r n m e n t , t h e p r o v i s i o n a l g u a r di a n o f t h e
r e v o l u t i o n a r y a u t h o r i t y .
T h i s i s a l s o y o u r p r o bl e m , c i t i z e n s o f t h e Uk r a i n e
. A r e y o u n o t a
p a r t o f Fr e e Ru s s i a ? I s n o t t h e f a t e o f t h e Uk r a i n e t i e d u p i n di s -
s o l u bl y wi t h t h e de s t i n y o f t h e wh o l e o f l i be r a t e d Ru s s i a ?
Wh o c a n do u bt bu t t h a t Ru s s i a , s t a n di n g u n de r t h e ba n n e r o f
c o m p l e t e s e l f - g o v e r n m e n t o f t h e p e o p l e , wi l l s e c u r e t h e r i g h t s o f a l l
t h e n a t i o n a l i t i e s wi t h i n h e r bo r de r s ! T h r o u g h t h e i r r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s
t o t h e C o n s t i t u e n t A s s e m bl y t h e p e o p l e s wi l l be a bl e t o de v i s e f o r
t h e m s e l v e s t h o s e f o r m s o f g o v e r n m e n t a n d e c o n o m i c o r g a n i z a t i o n
wh i c h a r e i n c o m p l e t e a c c o r d wi t h t h e i r n a t i o n a l a s p i r a t i o n s .
T h e Pr o v i s i o n a l G o v e r n m e n t h a s a l r e a dy c o m m e n c e d t h e r e a l i -
z a t i o n o f t h e r i g h t s t o c u l t u r a l s e l f - de t e r m i n a t i o n o f a l l t h e p e o p l e s
o f Ru s s i a , a n d i m bu e d ' wi t h s y m p a t h y a n d wi t h a f e e l i n g o f du t y
t o wa r ds t h e Uk r a i n i a n p e o p l e , i t i s e n de a v o r i n g t o o bl i t e r a t e a l l s i g n s
o f t h e a bu s e t o wh i c h t h e p e o p l e h a v e be e n s u bj e c t e d .
T h e Pr o v i s i o n a l G o v e r n m e n t h a s c o n s i de r e d a n d h o l ds i t a s i t s
du t y t o c o m e t o a n u n de r s t a n di n g wi t h t h e s o c i a l - de m o c r a t i c o r g a n i -
z a t i o n s o f t h e Uk r a i n e r e g a r di n g- t h o s e t r a n s i t o r y m e a s u r e s wh i c h i n
t h e r u n o f a f f a i r s c o u l d a n d s h o u l d be a do p t e d, t o s e c u r e t h e r i g h t s o f
t h e Uk r a i n i a n p e o p l e i n t h e m a n a g e m e n t o f l o c a l a f f a i r s a n d a u t o n o m y
i n t h e s c h o o l s a n d c o u r t s - m e a s u r e s t h a t wi l l p r o v i de f o r t r a n s i t i o n
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t o t h e s t a t e o f l i be r t y wh i c h t h e Uk r a i n e m u s t r e c e i v e f r o m t h e C o n -
s t i t u e n t A s s e m bl y .
H o we v e r , a c o m p l e t e r e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f t h e g o v e r n m e n t a l o r -
g a n i s m o f Ru s s i a a n d t h e e s t a bl i s h m e n t o f a g e n e r a l Ru s s i a n A r m y
i s i m p o s s i bl e u n de r t h e p r e s s u r e o f t h e i n t e r n a l e n e m i e s a n d u n de r t h e
g r a v e s t da n g e r t o t h e c a u s e o f l i be r t y f r o m wi t h o u t .
B r o t h e r s ! Uk r a i n i a n s ! D o n o t s t a r t o u t o n t h e r o a d wh i c h l e a ds t o a
s p l i t i n t h e f o r c e s o f l i be r a t e d Ru s s i a ! D o n o t a l i e n a t e y o u r s e l v e s f r o m
t h e c o m m o n c o u n t r y ; do n o t di s m e m be r t h e g e n e r a l A r m y ; do n o t i n -
t r o du c e f r a t r i c i da l s t r i f e i n t o t h e p e o p l e ' s r a n k s j u s t a t a m o m e n t wh e n
t h e e f f o r t s o f a l l t h e u n i t e d f o r c e s a r e n e e de d f o r t h e p r o t e c t i o n o f
t h e c o u n t r y a g a i n s t m i l i t a r y de s t r u c t i o n a n d f o r t h e o v e r c o m i n g o f t h e
i n t e r i o r o bs t a c l e s . I n y o u r a n x i e t y t o i m m e di a t e l y f i x s e c u r e l y t h e
f o r m s o f g o v e r n m e n t a l o r g a n i z a t i o n f o r t h e Uk r a i n e , do n o t s t r i k e
a de a dl y bl o w a t t h e e n t i r e G o v e r n m e n t a n d a t y o u r s e l v e s a s we l l ,
f o r t h e r u i n o f Ru s s i a a l s o s p e l l s t h e r u i n o f y o u r c a u s e .
L e t a l l t h e p e o p l e s o f Ru s s i a c l o s e t h e i r r a n k s t i g h t e r i n t h e
s t r u g g l e a g a i n s t t h e da n g e r s wh i c h t h r e a t e n t h e c o u n t r y f r o m wi t h -
o u t a n d f r o m wi t h i n . A n d l e t t h e m s u bm i t t h e f u n da m e n t a l p r o bl e m s
f o r a f i n a l s o l u t i o n t o t h e n o t f a r - o f f C o n s t i t u e n t A s s e m bl y , wh e r e
t h e y t h e m s e l v e s wi l l de c r e e t h e de s t i n i e s o f Ru s s i a a s we l l a s o f h e r
i n di v i du a l p r o v i n c e s . "
T h e g r o wt h o f t h e Uk r a i n i a n m o v e m e n t n e c e s s i t a t e d s e n d-
i n g t o t h e Uk r a i n e t wo m e m be r s o f t h e C a bi n e t , t h e M i n i s t e r
o f Po s t a n d T e l e g r a p h , T s e r e t e l l i , a n d t h e M i n i s t e r o f Fo r e i g n
A f f a i r s , T e r e s t c h e n k o , wh o s e c o n c e s s i o n s t o t h e Uk r a i n e , i n
be h a l f o f t h e Pr o v i s i o n a l G o v e r n m e n t , c r e a t e d o p p o s i t i o n i n
t h e C a bi n e t a n d r e s u l t e d i n t h e r e s i g n a t i o n o f t h e f i v e m e m -
be r s o f t h e C a bi n e t be l o n g i n g t o t h e C o n s t i t u t i o n a l - D e m o -
c r a t i c Pa r t y . T h e s e r e s i g n a t i o n s o c c u r r e d o n J u l y 1 5 . On
J u l y 20 Pr i n c e G . E
. L v o v r e s i g n e d a n d
A .
F
. Ke r e n s k y wa s
a p p o i n t e d Pr i m e M i n i s t e r . B e f o r e t h e r e s i g n a t i o n o f Pr i n c e
L v o v , o n J u l y 1 6, t h e Pr o v i s i o n a l G o v e r n m e n t a do p t e d t h e
f o l l o wi n g r e s o l u t i o n r e g a r di n g t h e Uk r a i n i a n p r o bl e m
" A f t e r h a v i n g l i s t e n e d t o t h e i n f o r m a t i o n g i v e n by M i n i s t e r s
Ke r e n s k y , T e r e s t c h e n k o a n d T s e r e t e l l i o n t h e Uk r a i n i a n q u e s t i o n ,
t h e Pr o v i s i o n a l G o v e r n m e n t h a s c o m e t o t h e f o l l o wi n g de c i s i o n :
T o a p p o i n t a s u p r e m e bo dy f o r t h e m a n a g e m e n t o f a f f a i r s i n
t h e Uk r a i n e , a s e p a r a t e o r g a n - a G e n e r a l S e c r e t a r i a t e - t h e f o r m a -
t i o n o f wh i c h wi l l be de t e r m i n e d by t h e G o v e r n m e n t wi t h t h e a p -
p r o v a l o f t h e C e n t r a l Uk r a i n i a n Ra da , s u p p l e m e n t e d, i n a l l j u s t i c e ,
by r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f t h e o t h e r n a t i o n a l i t i e s i n h a bi t i n g t h e Uk r a i n e .
426

T h e B i r t h o f t h e Ru s s i a n D e m o c r a c y
t h r o u g h t h e i r de m o c r a t i c o r g a n i z a t i o n s
. A l l m e a s u r e s c o n c e r n i n g t h e
a f f a i r s o f t h e Uk r a i n e wi l l be r e a l i z e d t h r o u g h t h e a bo v e o r g a n
.
C o n s i de r i n g t h a t t h e q u e s t i o n r e g a r di n g t h e n a t i o n a l - p o l i t i c a l
c o n s t r u c t i o n o f t h e Uk r a i n e a n d t h e m e t h o d o f s o l v i n g t h e a g r a r i a n
p r o bl e m t h e r e , wi t h i n t h e l i m i t s o f t h e g e n e r a l l a ws , s h o u l d be di s -
p o s e d o f by t h e C o n s t i t u e n t A s s e m bl y , t h e Pr o v i s i o n a l G o v e r n m e n t
wi l l be de e p l y i n t e r e s t e d i n t h e wo r k i n g o u t o f t h e p r o j e c t o f t h e
n a t i o n a l - p o l i t i c a l s t a t u t e s o f t h e Uk r a i n e
. T h i s p r o j e c t i s t o be
wo r k e d o u t by t h e C e n t r a l Ra da o f t h e Uk r a i n e , s u p p l e m e n t e d a s
a f o r e s a i d i n a s e n s e wh i c h t h e Ra da i t s e l f wi l l f i n d t o be i n c o n f o r m i t y
wi t h t h e i n t e r e s t s o f t h e Pr o v i n c e , f o r s u bm i s s i o n t o t h e C o n s t i t u e n t
A s s e m bl y , wh e r e t h e f o r m s f o r t h e s o l u t i o n o f t h e l a n d q u e s t i o n s h a l l
a l s o be s u bm i t t e d .
T h e Pr o v i s i o n a l G o v e r n m e n t de e m s i t n e c e s s a r y t o p r e s e r v e t h e
f i g h t i n g c a p a c i t y o f t h e u n i t e d A r m y
; i t c o n s i de r s i n a dm i s s i bl e a n y
m e a s u r e s l i k e l y t o br e a k u p t h e u n i t y o f t h e A r m y ' s o r g a n i z a t i o n a n d
c o m m a n d, a s , f o r i n s t a n c e , t h e c h a n g i n g a t t h i s t i m e o f t h e p l a n o f
m o bi l i z a t i o n by s wi n g i n g o v e r t o a s y s t e m o f t e r r i t o r i a l f o r m a t i o n
o f t h e m i l i t a r y de t a c h m e n t s , o r o f v e s t i n g c o m m a n di n g a u t h o r i t y i n
a n y s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n
. I n a ddi t i o n , t h e G o v e r n m e n t t h i n k s i t p o s -
s i bl e t o c o n t i n u e t o a s s i s t i n t h e m a t t e r o f br i n g i n g t h e Uk r a i n i a n s
t o a f i r m e r n a t i o n a l u n i f i c a t i o n i n t h e v e r y r a n k s o f t h e A r m y , o r t o
t h e f o r m a t i o n o f di s t i n c t i v e de t a c h m e n t s o f Uk r a i n i a n s e x c l u s i v e l y ,
i n s o f a r a s s u c h a m e a s u r e wi l l , i n t h e e s t i m a t i o n o f t h e M i n i s t e r o f
Wa r , be c o n s i de r e d t e c h n i c a l l y p o s s i bl e a n d wi l l n o t a f f e c t t h e f i g h t i n g
e f f i c i e n c y o f t h e A r m y
. A t p r e s e n t , a i m i n g a t a m o r e s y s t e m a t i c
a n d m o r e s u c c e s s f u l a c h i e v e m e n t o f t h i s o bj e c t , t h e Pr o v i s i o n a l G o v -
e r n m e n t t h i n k s i t p o s s i bl e t o i n v i t e t h e Uk r a i n i a n s o l di e r s t h e m -
s e l v e s t o a i d i n t h e r e a l i z a t i o n o f t h e o bj e c t
. T o t h i s e n d t h e r e m a y ,
wi t h t h e a p p r o v a l o f t h e C e n t r a l Ra da , be de l e g a t e d s p e c i a l Uk r a i n i a n
r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s wh o wi l l be a t t a c h e d t o t h e o f f i c e s o f t h e M i n i s t e r o f
Wa r a n d o f t h e C h i e f C o m m a n de r a t G e n e r a l H e a dq u a r t e r s
. A s f o r
t h e l o c a l m i l i t a r y c o m m i t t e e s o f t h e Uk r a i n i a n s , t h e y a c c o m p l i s h
t h e i r f u n c t i o n s o n g e n e r a l p r i n c i p l e s
; h o we v e r , t h e i r a c t i v i t y m u s t be
i n a c c o r da n c e wi t h t h e a c t i v i t y o f t h e o t h e r m i l i t a r y s o c i a l o r g a n i z a -
t i o n s . "
T
H E B o l s h e v i s t p r o bl e m , a s a p r o bl e m t h r e a t e n i n g t h e
v e r y e x i s t e n c e o f t h e Ru s s i a n D e m o c r a c y , m a de i t s
a p p e a r a n c e o n J u l y 1 7 , 1 9 1 7 , wh e n t h e Pe t r o g r a d B o l -
s h e v i k i m a de t h e i r f i r s t a t t e m p t t o s e i z e g o v e r n m e n t a l p o we r
.
T h e u n de m o c r a t i c , t y r a n n i c a l c h a r a c t e r o f t h e B o l s h e v i s t
m o v e m e n t wa s be s t i l l u s t r a t e d i n t h o s e da y s wh e n t h e y m a de
a n a t t e m p t t o be c o m e t h e G o v e r n m e n t o f Ru s s i a i n s p i t e o f
T h e G r e a t C r i s i s - J u l y , 1 9 1 7

427
t h e f a c t t h a t a g a i n s t t h e m we r e a r r a y e d n o t o n l y t h e m i ddl e
c l a s s , bu t a l s o t h e e n t i r e Ru s s i a n Re v o l u t i o n a r y D e m o c r a c y
.
On J u n e 22 t h e A l l - Ru s s i a n C o n g r e s s o f Wo r k m e n ' s a n d
S o l di e r s ' D e l e g a t e s i s s u e d t h e f o l l o wi n g a p p e a l wi t h r e g a r d
t o t h e B o l s h e v i s t a g i t a t i o n :
" C o m r a de s , S o l di e r s a n d Wo r k m e n ! T h e B o l s h e v i k i Pa r t y i s
c a l l i n g u p o n y o u t o g o o u t i n t o t h e s t r e e t .
T h i s a p p e a l i s m a de wi t h o u t t h e k n o wl e dg e o f t h e C o u n c i l o f
Wo r k m e n ' s a n d S o l di e r s ' D e l e g a t e s , t h e A l l - Ru s s i a n C o n g r e s s , o r
a l l o f t h e S o c i a l i s t Pa r t i e s . I t i s s o u n de d j u s t a t t h a t m o m e n t o f
s u p r e m e da n g e r wh e n t h e A l l - Ru s s i a n C o n g r e s s h a s c a l l e d u p o n o u r
c o m r a de s , t h e wo r k e r s o f t h e D i s t r i c t o f V y bo r g , t o r e m e m be r t h a t
de m o n s t r a t i o n s i n t h e s e da y s m a y h u r t t h e c a u s e o f t h e Re v o l u t i o n .
C o m r a de s , i n t h e n a m e o f m i l l i o n s o f wo r k e r s , p e a s a n t s , a n d
s o l di e r s , i n t h e r e a r a n d a t t h e f r o n t , we t e l l y o u
: ' D o n o t do t h a t
wh i c h y o u a r e c a l l e d u p o n t o do
. '
A t t h i s da n g e r o u s m o m e n t y o u a r e c a l l e d o u t i n t o t h e s t r e e t s t o
de m a n d t h e o v e r t h r o w o f t h e Pr o v i s i o n a l G o v e r n m e n t , t o wh o m t h e
A l l - Ru s s i a n C o n g r e s s h a s j u s t f o u n d i t n e c e s s a r y t o g i v e i t s s u p p o r t .
A n d t h o s e wh o a r e c a l l i n g y o u c a n n o t bu t k n o w t h a t o u t o f y o u r
p e a c e f u l de m o n s t r a t i o n c h a o s a n d bl o o ds h e d m a y r e s u l t .
Kn o wi n g y o u r de v o t i o n t o t h e c a u s e o f t h e Re v o l u t i o n , we
t e l l y o u : ` Y o u a r e be i n g c a l l e d t o a de m o n s t r a t i o n i n f a v o r o f
t h e Re v o l u t i o n , bu t we k n o w t h a t c o u n t e r - r e v o l u t i o n i s t s wa n t t o t a k e
a dv a n t a g e o f y o u r de m o n s t r a t i o n . We k n o w t h a t t h e c o u n t e r -
r e v o l u t i o n i s t s a r e e a g e r l y a wa i t i n g t h e m o m e n t wh e n s t r i f e wi l l
de v e l o p i n t h e r a n k s o f t h e Re v o l u t i o n a r y D e m o c r a c y a n d wi l l e n a bl e
t h e m t o c r u s h t h e Re v o l u t i o n
.
C o m r a de s ! I n t h e n a m e o f a l l t h e C o u n c i l s o f Wo r k m e n ' s a n d
S o l di e r s ' D e l e g a t e s , i n t h e n a m e o f t h e C o u n c i l o f Pe a s a n t s ' D e l e -
g a t e s , i n t h e n a m e o f t h e a c t i n g A r m y a n d t h e S o c i a l i s t Pa r t i e s , we
t e l l y o u
: ' N o t a s i n g l e di v i s i o n , n o t a r e g i m e n t , n o t a g r o u p o f wo r k e r s
m u s t g o o u t i n t o t h e s t r e e t t o - m o r r o w
. N o t a s i n g l e de m o n s t r a t i o n
s h o u l d be h e l d t o - da y
. '
T h e r e i s a h a r d s t r u g g l e a h e a d o f u s .
Wh e n Ru s s i a ' s l i be r t y wi l l r e a l l y be t h r e a t e n e d by c o u n t e r -
r e v o l u t i o n a r y da n g e r s , we s h a l l c a l l y o u
. T h e o u t br e a k s o f t h o s e
be n t u p o n di s o r g a n i z i n g o u r f o r c e s , s p e l l r u i n t o t h e Re v o l u t i o n
.
C o n s e r v e y o u r f o r c e s
.
Pr e s e r v e t h e ba s i s o f f r i e n ds h i p a n d s o l i da r i t y wi t h t h e r e s t o f
Ru s s i a . "
I n s p i t e o f a l l t h e e n de a v o r s o f t h e r e s p o n s i bl e r e v o l u t i o n a r y
l e a de r s , t h e B o l s h e v i k i s t a r t e d t h e i r r e v o l t o n J u l y 1 7 , a n d i n
t wo da y s a bo u t f i v e h u n dr e d m e n , wo m e n a n d c h i l dr e n we r e
428

T h e B i r t h o f t h e Ru s s i a n D e m o c r a c y
k i l l e d i n
t h e s t r e e t s o f Pe t r o g r a d . T h e Un i t e d E x e c u t i v e
C o m m i t t e e
o f t h e A l l - Ru s s i a n C o u n c i l s o f Wo r k m e n ' s , S o l -
di e r s ' a n d Pe a s a n t s ' D e l e g a t e s i m m e di a t e l y i s s u e d, a t t h e v e r y
o u t s e t o f t h e r e v o l t , t h e f o l l o wi n g a p p e a l
" C o m r a de s , Wo r k e r s a n d S o l di e r s ! Y e s t e r da y s e v e r a l m e m be r s
o f t h e C a bi n e t , be l o n g i n g t o t h e C o n s t i t u t i o n a l - D e m o c r a t i c Pa r t y ,
r e s i g n e d f r o m t h e s t a f f o f t h e Pr o v i s i o n a l G o v e r n m e n t
. I n v i e w o f
t h e c r i s i s wh i c h t h i s h a s c r e a t e d, a j o i n t s e s s i o n o f t h e E x e c u t i v e
C o m m i t t e e o f t h e Wo r k m e n ' s a n d S o l di e r s ' D e l e g a t e s a n d t h e E x e c u -
t i v e C o m m i t t e e o f t h e Pe a s a n t s ' D e l e g a t e s , a s t h e a u t h o r i z e d o r g a n s o f
t h e Re v o l u t i o n a r y D e m o c r a c y o f e n t i r e Ru s s i a , wa s c a l l e d t o c o n s i de r
a wa y o u t o f t h e di f f i c u l t s i t u a t i o n .
B u t t h e wo r k o f t h i s s e s s i o n wa s i n t e r r u p t e d
. I n s p i t e o f t h e
r e p e a t e d wa r n i n g s o f t h e C o u n c i l o f Wo r k m e n ' s , S o l di e r s ' a n d Pe a s -
a n t s ' D e l e g a t e s , s e v e r a l de t a c h m e n t s o f s o l di e r s m a r c h e d o u t a r m e d
a n d t r i e d t o c a p t u r e t h e t o wn , s e i z i n g a u t o m o bi l e s , a r bi t r a r i l y a r r e s t i n g
p r i v a t e i n di v i du a l s , a n d a c t i n g wi t h t h r e a t s a n d v i o l e n c e .
On c o m i n g t o t h e T a v r i c h e s k y Pa l a c e t h e y de m a n de d, wi t h a r m s i n
t h e i r h a n ds , t h a t t h e E x e c u t i v e C o m m i t t e e s t a k e o v e r a l l p o we r .
Wh i l e o f f e r i n g t h i s p o we r t o t h e C o u n c i l s t h e y we r e t h e f i r s t t o
e n c r o a c h u p o n t h i s p o we r
. T h e A l l - Ru s s i a n E x e c u t i v e o r g a n s - t h e
C o u n c i l s o f Wo r k m e n ' s , S o l di e r s ' a n d Pe a s a n t s ' D e l e g a t e s - r e j e c t
wi t h i n di g n a t i o n e v e r y a t t e m p t t o br i n g p r e s s u r e o n i t s wi l l .
I t i s wr o n g t o a t t e m p t by a r m e d de m o n s t r a t i o n t o i m p o s e t h e
wi l l o f s e v e r a l de t a c h m e n t s o f t h e g a r r i s o n o f o n e c i t y u p o n t h e
wh o l e Ru s s i a n p e o p l e . Up o n t h e s h o u l de r s o f a l l wh o da r e d t o c a l l
o u t a r m e d p e o p l e wi t h t h i s a i m l i e s t h e bl o o d wh i c h wa s s h e d o n t h e
s t r e e t s o f Pe t r o g r a d .
T o wa r ds o u r Re v o l u t i o n a r y A r m y , wh i c h , o n t h e f r o n t , i s de -
f e n di n g t h e c o n q u e s t s o f t h e Re v o l u t i o n , t h e s e de e ds a r e n o t h i n g
s h o r t o f t r e a s o n . A n y o n e i n t h e r e a r wh o e n c r o a c h e s u p o n t h e wi l l
o f t h e a u t h o r i z e d o r g a n s o f t h e D e m o c r a c y a n d t h u s i n c i t e s i n i t s
r a n k s c i v i l s t r i f e s t a bs i n t h e ba c k t h e r e v o l u t i o n a r y A r m y f i g h t i n g
a g a i n s t t h e t r o o p s o f Wi l h e l m
.
T h e A l l - Ru s s i a n E x e c u t i v e C o m m i t t e e o f t h e C o u n c i l s o f Wo r k -
m e n ' s , S o l di e r s ' a n d Pe a s a n t s ' D e l e g a t e s p r o t e s t s a g a i n s t t h e s e o m i n o u s
s y m p t o m s o f di s i n t e g r a t i o n wh i c h s e e k t o u n de r m i n e e v e r y p o p u l a r
a u t h o r i t y , n o t e x c l u di n g t h e a u t h o r i t y o f t h e f u t u r e C o n s t i t u e n t
A s s e m bl y .
T h e A l l - Ru s s i a n E x e c u t i v e C o m m i t t e e s o f t h e C o u n c i l s o f Wo r k -
m e n ' s . S o l di e r s ' a n d Pe a s a n t s ' D e l e g a t e s de m a n d o n c e a n d f o r a l l
t h e c e s s a t i o n o f s i m i l a r de m o n s t r a t i o n s di s g r a c i n g r e v o l u t i o n a r y
Pe t r o g r a d .
A l l t h o s e wh o s t a n d f o r t h e de f e n s e o f t h e Re v o l u t i o n a n d i t s
T h e G r e a t C r i s i s - J u l y , 1 9 1 7

429
c o n q u e s t s a r e c a l l e d u p o n by t h e E x e c u t i v e C o m m i t t e e s o f t h e A l l -
Ru s s i a n C o u n c i l s o f Wo r k m e n ' s , S o l di e r s ' a n d Pe a s a n t s ' D e l e g a t e s
t o a wa i t t h e de c i s i o n o f t h e a u t h o r i z e d o r g a n s o f t h e D e m o c r a c y
. T o
t h i s de c i s i o n , i n wh i c h t h e v o i c e s o f a l l Re v o l u t i o n a r y Ru s s i a wi l l be
r e f l e c t e d, m u s t s u bm i t a l l t h o s e t o wh o m t h e c a u s e o f f r e e do m i s de a r . "
T h e B o l s h e v i s t u p r i s i n g e n de d o n J u l y 1 9
. S e v e r a l C o s s a c k
de t a c h m e n t s , t r u e t o t h e Pr o v i s i o n a l G o v e r n m e n t , we r e a bl e
t o di s p e r s e t h e B o l s h e v i s t m o bs
. On J u l y 21 t h e Un i t e d
E x e c u t i v e C o m m i t t e e o f t h e A l l - Ru s s i a n C o u n c i l s o f Wo r k -
m e n ' s , S o l di e r s ' a n d Pe a s a n t s ' D e l e g a t e s i s s u e d a n e w a p p e a l
" T h e a c u t e da n g e r t o wh i c h t h e Re v o l u t i o n wa s s u bj e c t e d by t h e
a n a r c h i s t i c de m o n s t r a t i o n s o f i n di v i du a l g r o u p s o f s o l di e r s a n d wo r k -
m e n du r i n g t h e 1 6t h a n d 1 7 t h o f J u l y i s o v e r . A t t h e p r e s e n t t i m e l i f e
i s be g i n n i n g t o f o l l o w i t s n o r m a l c o u r s e . T h e m a d a t t e m p t h a s
e v o k e d a m o n g t h e m a s s e s a s t r o n g r e a c t i o n a n d t h e da n g e r l i e s n o w
i n t h o s e p a s s i o n s , i n p a n i c a n d i n t h e a n i m o s i t y wh i c h t h r e a t e n t o
a s s u m e t h e f o r m o f a n o u t bu r s t o f a c o u n t e r - r e v o l u t i o n a r y n a t u r e .
A t t h e p r e s e n t t i m e i t i s a bs o l u t e l y n e c e s s a r y t h a t a l l t h e Pe a s -
a n t s ' C o u n c i l s , t h e C o u n c i l s o f Wo r k m e n ' s a n d S o l di e r s ' D e l e g a t e s ,
a s we l l a s t h e c o m m i t t e e s o f t h e t r o o p s ' di v i s i o n s o n t h e f r o n t a n d
t h e g a r r i s o n s p r e s e n t a u n i t e d f r o n t i n t h e s t r u g g l e a g a i n s t t h e
v a r i o u s a t t e m p t s t o m a k e u s e o f t h e Pe t r o g r a d e v e n t s i n o r de r t o s o w
di s c o n t e n t a m o n g t h e m a s s e s .
C a l l i n g t h e e n t i r e Re v o l u t i o n a r y D e m o c r a c y t o u n i t e c l o s e l y
be h i n d t h e f u l l y a u t h o r i z e d o r g a n s , we be g y o u t o r e p o r t a l l t h e
a r bi t r a r y , wi l f u l de m o n s t r a t i o n s , a n y c o u n t e r - r e v o l u t i o n a r y o u t bu r s t s
a n d a t t e m p t s a t p o g r o m s , t o i n f o r m wh e n e v e r p o s s i bl e a n d i n de t a i l
a bo u t t h e s i t u a t i o n
. A l wa y s be r e a dy a t t h e n e c e s s a r y m o m e n t t o s u p -
p o r t t h e C e n t r a l C o m m i t t e e o f t h e A l l - Ru s s i a n C o u n c i l s o f Wo r k -
m e n ' s , S o l di e r s ' a n d Pe a s a n t s ' D e l e g a t e s wi t h a l l t h e we i g h t o f t h e
m o r a l a u t h o r i t y o f c l o s e l y u n i t e d a n d o r g a n i z e d i n s t i t u t i o n s o f t h e
r e v o l u t i o n a r y A r m y . Ou r p r i n c i p l e i s - c l o s e a dh e r e n c e o f t h e Re v o -
l u t i o n a r y D e m o c r a c y t o i t s p o l i t i c a l c e n t e r s , t h e C o u n c i l s o f Wo r k -
m e n ' s , S o l di e r s ' a n d Pe a s a n t s ' D e l e g a t e s . "
I n c o m p l e t e a c c o r d wi t h t h e a t t i t u de o f t h e Ru s s i a n D e m o c -
r a c y , A . F . Ke r e n s k y , a s M i n i s t e r o f Wa r a n d N a v y , o n J u l y
20 a ddr e s s e d t h e f o l l o wi n g a p p e a l t o t h e A r m y a n d N a v y
" Fr o m t h e be g i n n i n g o f t h e Re v o l u t i o n , bo t h i n Kr o n s t a dt a n d
o n s e v e r a l v e s s e l s o f t h e B a l t i c Fl e e t , u n de r t h e i n f l u e n c e o f
G e r m a n a g e n t s a n d p r o v o c a t o r s , t h e r e a p p e a r e d s o m e p e o p l e c a l l i n g
f o r a c t i o n t h r e a t e n i n g t h e Re v o l u t i o n a n d t h e s a f e t y o f t h e Fa t h e r -
l a n d .
A t t h e t i m e wh e n o u r v a l i a n t A r m y , h e r o i c a l l y s a c r i f i c i n g
i t s e l f , e n t e r e d u p o n a bl o o dy f i g h t wi t h t h e e n e m y
; a t t h e t i m e
wh e n , t r u e t o D e m o c r a c y , o u r f l e e t wa s u n r e m i t t i n g l y c a r r y i n g
43 0

T h e B i r t h o f t h e Ru s s i a n D e m o c r a c y
o u t t h e h a r d m i l i t a r y t a s k t h a t r e s t e d u p o n i t , Kr o n s t a dt a n d s e v e r a l
v e s s e l s , l e d by t h e ' Re p u bl i c a ' a n d ' Pe t r o p a v l o s c k , ' i n t h e i r a c t i o n we r e
de a l i n g bl o ws t o t h e i r o wn c o m r a de s by p a s s i n g r e s o l u t i o n s a g a i n s t
a t t a c k , i n c i t i n g t o di s o be di e n c e t o t h e r e v o l u t i o n a r y a u t h o r i t i e s i n t h e
f o r m o f t h e Pr o v i s i o n a l G o v e r n m e n t , a n d e n de a v o r i n g t o br i n g p r e s s -
u r e u p o n t h e wi l l o f t h e e l e c t e d bo di e s o f t h e D e m o c r a c y , r e p r e s e n t e d
by t h e A l l - Ru s s i a n C o n g r e s s o f Wo r k m e n ' s , S o l di e r s ' a n d Pe a s a n t s '
D e l e g a t e s
.
D u r i n g t h e v e r y a dv a n c e o f o u r A r m y di s o r de r be g a n i n Pe t r o g r a d,
wh i c h t h r e a t e n e d t h e Re v o l u t i o n a n d wh i c h h a s s u bj e c t e d o u r A r m y
t o t h e bl o ws o f t h e e n e m y . Wh e n , o n t h e de m a n d o f t h e Pr o v i s i o n a l
G o v e r n m e n t , a c t i n g i n a c c o r d wi t h t h e E x e c u t i v e C o m m i t t e e o f
t h e C o u n c i l s o f Wo r k m e n ' s , S o l di e r s ' a n d Pe a s a n t s ' D e l e g a t e s , t h e
s h i p s o f t h e f l e e t we r e c a l l e d o u t i n o r de r t o i n f l u e n c e q u i c k l y a n d
de c i s i v e l y t h o s e m e n f r o m Kr o n s t a dt p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n t h e s e t r e a c h e r -
o u s de r a n g e m e n t s , t h e e n e m i e s o f t h e p e o p l e a n d t h e Re v o l u t i o n , a c t -
i n g t h r o u g h t h e C e n t r a l C o m m i t t e e o f t h e B a l t i c Fl e e t , t h r o u g h f a l s e
i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s o f t h e s e m e a s u r e s s t i r r e d u p m u t i n y a m o n g t h e s h i p s '
c r e ws . T h e s e t r a i t o r s h a v e p r e v e n t e d t h e de s p a t c h i n g t o Pe t r o g r a d
o f s h i p s t r u e t o t h e Re v o l u t i o n a n d t h e t a k i n g o f m e a s u r e s f o r t h e
s p e e di e s t s t o p p a g e o f t h e di s o r de r s o r g a n i z e d by t h e e n e m y . T h e y
h a v e , m o r e o v e r , i n c i t e d t h e c r e ws t o u n a u t h o r i z e d a c t s - t o t h e r e -
m o v a l o f t h e G e n e r a l C o m m i s s a r y On i p k o , t h e o r de r f o r t h e a r r e s t
o f t h e A s s i s t a n t M i n i s t e r o f t h e N a v y , C a p t a i n o f t h e Fi r s t Ra n k ,
D u de r o v , a n d t o t h e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f a s e r i e s o f de m a n ds t o t h e
E x e c u t i v e C o m m i t t e e o f t h e C o u n c i l s o f Wo r k m e n ' s , S o l di e r s ' a n d
Pe a s a n t s ' D e l e g a t e s .
T h e s e di t i o u s a n d t r e a c h e r o u s a c t i v i t i e s o f a n u m be r o f p e o p l e
h a v e f o r c e d t h e Pr o v i s i o n a l G o v e r n m e n t t o i s s u e a n o r de r f o r t h e
i m m e di a t e a r r e s t o f t h e i r l e a de r s . I n c l u de d i n t h i s o r de r i s t h e
a r r e s t o f t h e de l e g a t i o n , r e c e n t l y a r r i v e d i n Pe t r o g r a d ,
f r o m t h e
B a l t i c Fl e e t , u p o n wh i c h t h e Pr o v i s i o n a l G o v e r n m e n t de c i de d i n o r de r
t o s t a r t a t h o r o u g h i n v e s t i g a t i o n .
I n v i e w o f t h e a bo v e s t a t e d, I o r de r :
1 . T h e C e n t r a l C o m m i t t e e o f t h e B a l t i c Fl e e t t o be i m m e di a t e l y
di s ba n de d, a n e w o n e t o be e l e c t e d i n i t s p l a c e .
2 . T o de c l a r e t o a l l c r e ws a n d v e s s e l s o f t h e B a l t i c Fl e e t t h a t I c a l l
u p o n t h e m t o i m m e di a t e l y r e m o v e f r o m t h e i r m i ds t s u s p i c i o u s p e r -
s o n s wh o a r e i n c i t i n g t o di s o be di e n c e t o t h e Pr o v i s i o n a l G o v e r n m e n t ,
a n d a g i t a t i n g a g a i n s t a n a dv a n c e , a n d t o br i n g t h e m f o r i n v e s t i g a t i o n
a n d t r i a l t o Pe t r o g r a d .
3
. T o t h e c r e ws o f Kr o n s t a dt a n d t h e s h i p s o f t h e l i n e , ' Pe t r o -
p a v l o s c k
. ' ' Re p u bl i c a , ' a n d ' S l a v a , ' wh o s e h o n o r i s s t a i n e d by c o u n t e r -
r e v o l u t i o n a r y a c t s a n d r e s o l u t i o n s
: I o r de r t h e a r r e s t wi t h i n 24
h o u r s o f a l l t h e r i n g - l e a de r s a n d t h a t t h e y be s e n t f o r i n v e s t i g a t i o n
T h e G r e a t C r i s i s - J u l y , 1 9 1 7

43 1
a n d t r i a l t o Pe t r o g r a d, a n d be o r de r e d t o g i v e a s s u r a n c e o f f u l l
o be di e n c e t o t h e Pr o v i s i o n a l G o v e r n m e n t
. I de c l a r e t o t h e c r e ws o f
Kr o n s t a dt a n d t h e a bo v e - m e n t i o n e d s h i p s t h a t i n c a s e o f f a i l u r e t o
c o m p l y wi t h m y p r e s e n t o r de r t h e y wi l l be de c l a r e d t r a i t o r s t o t h e
c o u n t r y a n d t h e Re v o l u t i o n a n d t h a t t h e m o s t r e s o l u t e m e a s u r e s wi l l
be t a k e n a g a i n s t t h e m .

,
C o m r a de s
: T h e Fa t h e r l a n d i s o n t h e br i n k o f r u i n o n a c c o u n t o f
s e di t i o n a n d t r e a c h e r y . D e a t h i s t h r e a t e n i n g i t s f r e e do m a n d t h e
c o n q u e s t s o f t h e Re v o l u t i o n
. T h e G e r m a n a r m i e s h a v e a l r e a dy be g u n
t h e a dv a n c e o n o u r f r o n t
. E v e r y h o u r we m a y e x p e c t a g g r e s s i v e
a c t i o n f r o m t h e e n e m y ' s f l e e t , wh i c h m a y t a k e a dv a n t a g e o f t h e t e m -
p o r a r y di s o r g a n i z a t i o n . D e c i s i v e m e a s u r e s a r e n e c e s s a r y i n o r de r t o
n i p i t i n t h e bu d . T h e A r m y h a s a do p t e d s u c h m e a s u r e s . T h e Fl e e t
m u s t c o o p e r a t e wi t h t h e A r m y . I n t h e n a m e o f t h e Fa t h e r l a n d, t h e
Re v o l u t i o n a n d f r e e do m , i n t h e n a m e o f t h e we l