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TIfEROUNDTOWERS .
137
viewsandsuitableeducationcalculatedtodoherjus-
tice : sothat,bytheuntowardhandoffate,andthe
iniquitousoperationoftheoldpoliticalstroke,the
knowledgeofthecharacterinwhichthosepapersare
couchedhasbecomealreadysoalmostextinct,that
theylieontheshelves,toallintentsandpurposesa
dead
letter* .
Inowbegleavetointroducethisidenticalwar-god,
inhismilitarycostumeandhyperboreanphilebeg,
inwhich,asbeforeobserved,theScythiansneverin-
vestedthemselves ;andhopethereaderwillenjoya,
heartylaughattheexpenseofthoseblunderers,who,
intheir preposterous,1
hadalmostsaid
repentant, de-
votiontomonasticrefinements,wouldrobthePagans
ofthislong-cherished idol, andconverthisgodship
intoa C hristian
nonentity !
Youwillfindhim-nameandallcorresponding-
describedfullyinthe" RitesandC eremoniesofall
Nations,"assimilarlyofficiatingandworshippedinthe
East . 1 1
Thereis,"saystheauthor, intheprovince
ofMatambo,an idol
whosepriestsare sorcerers
or ma-
gicians ;
andthisimagestands upright, directlyover
againstthetemplededicatedtohispeculiarservice,in
a
basketmadeintheformof a bee-hivet . "
*Irejoicetostate,thatthepresentA dministration,underthebenign
directionofourpatriotK ing,haveresolved,sofarasinthemlies,to
atoneforformerdepredators
. Thereisnowavigorousrevisalofthose
documentsgoingon,withaview,asIunderstand,totheirimmediate
publication .
+ Theantiquarianluminariesofthe
RoyalIrish A cademy wouldfain
makeoutthatthiswasa C hristian warrior .
Their highpriest has
latelyproclaimedthefact,intheir"collectivewisdom . "
Itisastonishing
howfondtheyhave suddenly becomeforthememoryofthemonks
; they
wouldnowfathereverythinglikecultureinthecountryuponthem . It
usednottohavebeenso
1 3 8
THEROUNDTOWERS.
' 1 Tothisdeityinparticulartheyapplythemselves
forsuccesswhentheygoout ahunting or _
fishing,
and
forthereliefof all suchasareindisposed*!
Miramba
*ThisimagewasfoundundertherootofatreedugupinRoscom-
mon . Itisaboutthesiz eofthedrawing ; ismadeofbrass,oncegilt,
thegilding,however,nowalmostwornoff
;andmaybeseenintheMuseum
ofTrinityC ollege,Dublin .
THEROUNDTOWERS.

1 3 9
alwaysmarchesatthehead of- theirarmies ;
andheis
presentedwiththefirstdeliciousmorsel,andthefirst
glassofwinethatisservedupatthegovernor' sor
kingofMatambo' stable . "
But
aliving
traveller,inaveryinterestingworkjust
launchedfromthepress,andwithoutexpectingtherein
tobecomemyauxiliary,decidesthisascriptionwithout
furtherpains. This village,"
saysourauthor( near
Rampore,ontheHimalaya range) , ` instancedthecare
whichthesacerdotalorders in theEasttakefortheir
comfortandgood .
Itwasaneat,clean,andsubstan-
tialplace,inallacceptationsoftheword .
These
Brahminvillagerspaynorentofanykindtothestate
theyliveonthegrantedlands,butareobligedtokeep
the temples inrepair,tofurnishalltheimplements,
andtotakecareofthegodshipswithinit-theseare
smallbrassimages,withnethergarmentsintheshape
ofpetticoats. Theyarecarriedinprocession,oncer-
tainoccasions,andtheceremoniesbelongingtothem
areperformedtwicea-day. Mahadeoisthegreatgod
ofthemountains . "
Butiftheadvocatesofmodernismhavecausetobe
annoyedatmydeprivingthemofthisspecimenof
theF ineA rtsinIreland,"whichtheythoughtthey
hadappropriatedtotheprejudiceoftruth,howmuch
greatermustnotbetheirchagrinatmywrenching
fromtheirgraspanother exceedinglycurious
" and
richly-ornamented" ecclesiastic
fi
? " Ecclesiastic,
11
indeed ! Yes ; butreverencedandrevered,bymanya
beatingheart,astheheadofallecclesiastics,forcen-
turiesuponcenturies,beforethenameofmonachism,
asconnectedwithC hristianity,waseverarticulated
!
*MajorA rcher' sTravelsinUpperIndia,vol . i . pp . 38 3,38 4 .
Lend. 18 33.
1 Sothe " collectivewisdom,"inthetruespiritofC hristianresti-
tutionandpenitentialcontrition,havelatelypronouncedhim ! Itis
1
4 0
THEROUNDTOWERS.
delightfultoseethissolicitousz ealwithwhich,whenitsuitsaprivate
purpose,theycherishthememoryofthemonks,being nolonger inthe
wayoftheir
secular perquisites : butifthepoormonkscouldspeak,
orsendavoicefromthetomb,itwouldbetosaythattheydidnot
choosetobeencumberedwithsuchmeretriciousflattery
; andthat,
havinglaidnoclaimtothose relics, ortothe towers
whichtheydecorated,
duringtheir
lifetime, theynowin death mustrepudiatetheascription
.
"
TimeoDanaasetdonaferentes,"wouldbetheiranswer
.
THE ROUND TOWERS.

14 1
This,Sir,isnolessapersonagethanMr . Budhahim-
self,orratherthepersonifiedabstract,inthepossession
ofoneofthelastqueensoftheTuath-de-danaans,at
themomentoftheinundationoftheScythiandynasty .
Ihopethat,aftersolonganobscuration,andtheun-
courtlytreatmenthehasreceivedduringthehumi-
liatingintervalofrevolvingcenturies,youwill-now
thathechoosestorevealhispropercharacter,avow
hisdelegation,andacknowledgethesupremacyof
thatpowerbywhichhisempirehadbeenoverthrown,
-treathimasan
Irishman,
withgenerouscordiality,
andimputenottohimacrimewhichbelongedonly
tohisfollowers .
ButhisdressislikeaC hristian . Somuchthe
better,man :
weoughttolikehimthemoreforthat
.
Buttobeserious,-although,asmyfriendHoracefor-
merlytoldme, ` 1
whathindersonelaughingfrom
speakingtruth? "-allourecclesiasticalritual,aswell
of
ceremony asof
costume, hasbeenborrowedfromthe
J ewish,andthatagainfromthePagans,withsuch
alterationsonlyastheallwiseJ ehovahthoughtneces-
sarytorecommend .
Besides,wehavetheauthority
ofDr . Buchananforstatingthat
"
Samona
isatitle
bestowedonthepriestsofG odama( Budha) ,andis
likewiseappliedtothe images
ofthe divinity, when
re-
presented,ashecommonlyis,
inthe
priestlyhabit* . "
*A siaticResearches, vol . vi .
;whereitwillbeobservedthatthe
Doctorwasnotwritingforme
. Hedidnot' even suspect theexistence
ofthisfigure.
Itis,liketheprecedingone,ofbronz e
.
1 4 2
C HA PTERXI.
PHA RA OH' ,thetitularappellationofthemonarchsof
Egypt,beingbutthelocalmodificationofthisour
IrishPhearagh,themindisinstinctivelydirectedto-
wardsthatgreatstorehouseofbygoneconsequence .
A ndasthebestauthoritythatwecancommandin
gaininganyinsightintoitsreversesisthroughthe
mediumofitsownhistorians,letushearwhatMa-
netho,apriestofthecountry,thustransmits
: -
"Wehadformerly,"sayshe,"akingnamedTi-
maeus,inwhosereign,Iknownotwhy,butitpleased
G odtovisituswithablastofhisdispleasure
;when,
onasudden,therecameuponthiscountryalarge
bodyofobscurepeoplefromtheEast,andwithgreat
boldnessinvadedtheland,andtookitwithoutoppo-
sition . Theirbehaviourtothenativeswasverybar-
barous
;fortheyslaughteredthemen,andmadeslaves
oftheirwivesandchildren
. Thewholebodyof
thispeoplewerecalledHuksos,orUksos
;thatis,
RoyalShepherds : forthefirstsyllable,inthesacred
*TheEgyptiansovereignassumedthistitle,asthehighestthatlan-
guageandimaginationcouldbestow
. Itsignifiesliterallytheactof
copulation,ofwhichitwouldrepresenthimaspresidinggenius-the
sourcewhenceallpleasureandhappinesscanflow-andisbutfaintlyre-
echoedintheMacedo-SyriacregalepithetofEvspysT*u,Benefactor,"
oreventhatbywhichwedesignateourkingasthefountainofgoodness
.
Therebeingnosuchletterasphintheancientalphabets,allthosewords
-viz
. Pheor,Pharaoh,andPharagh-shouldproperlybespelledF eor,
F araoh,andF aragh .
THEROUNDTOWERS.

1 4 3
dialect,
signifiesa ' king,' asthelatter,inthepopular
language,signifies' ashepherd . ' Thesetwocom-
poundedtogetherconstitutethewordHuksos
. ' These
peoplearesaidtohavebeenA rabians . "
TheVedas,orSanscritrecordsofHindustan, fur-
thermorestatethattheseinvaderswerethe 1 Pali,"
orshepherds, a powerful,warlike,andenterprising
Indiantribe . Whilethedeadlyaversionwhich
existedinthemindsoftheEgyptiansagainstthe
nameandofficeofashepherdinJ oseph' sday,isa
lastingmemorialoftheirvisitandtheirseverity' .
Theydidnotgo,however,withoutleavingbehind
themothersigns . ThepagesofHerodotusafford
ampleevidenceoftheresemblancebetweentheEgyp-
tiancustomsandthoseofthemoreremoteEast . By
hisdescriptionoftheritesandceremonies,themode
oflife,& c . ,ofthepriestsofEgypt,theyareatonce
identifiedwiththeBrahminsofIndia .
C hinastill
celebratesthatfestivaloflampswhichwasformerly
universalthroughouttheextentofEgypt
fi
; and 11 we
havethemostindubitableauthorityforstatingthat
thesepoysintheBritishoverlandarmyfromIndia,
whentheybeheldinEgypttheruinsofDendera,pro-
stratedthemselvesbeforetheremainsoftheancient
temples,andofferedupadorationtothem ; declaring,
uponbeingaskedthereasonofthisstrangeconduct,
*G en . xlvi . 34 .
t" On
thefifteenthdayofthefirstmontheveryyear . Everyperson
isobliged,ontheeveningofthatday,tosetoutalanternbeforehis
door,andtheseareofvarioussiz esandprices,accordingtothedifferent
circumstancesofthosetowhomtheybelong
. Duringthisfestival,they
haveallsortsofentertainments,suchasplays,balls,assemblies,music,
dancing,andthelanternsarefilledwithavastnumberofwaxcandles,
andsurroundedwithbonfires . "
1
4 4

THEROUNDTOWERS .
that they sawsculptured
beforethemtheG odsoftheir
"
country
Butthemoststupendousandappallingmementoof
theirdominionandsciencewasthethreegreatpyra-
midsofG eez a,theerectionofwhich,Herodotus
assuresus,( B . ii . 12 8 ) ,thoughthe priests
would
attributetoC heops,C ephrenes,andMycerinus,three
Egyptiankings, "
yetthe
people
ascribedthemtoa
shepherd namedPhilitis, whoatthattimefedhiscattle
inthoseplaces ;"soconsonantwiththe invasion above
authenticated
. Thisisadditionallyconfirmedbythe
Sanscritrecordsalreadyreferredto,informingusof
threemountains,
Rucm-adri, " theMountofG old,"
Rajat-adri,
" theMountofSilver,"andRetu-adri,
" theMountofG ems ;"havingbeenraisedbythat
IndiancolonywhohadconqueredEgypt ; whichis
onlyafigurativedenotationofthose factitiousheights,
thoseastoundingmonumentsofreligionandostenta-
tion,whichwereoriginallycasedwith yellow,white,
and spottedmarbles, broughtfromthequarriesof
A rabia,untilstrippedbytherapacityofsucceeding
colonies .
Belz oni' stestimonyisdecisiveonthispoint,ashis
drawingofthesecondpyramidrepresentstheupper
partofitscasingremainingstillentire,aboutathird
ofthedistancefromthesummittothebasedown-
wards .
Wemeetwithotherpyramids,itistrue,
chieflydispersedabouttheLibyandeserts,butthey
aremuchinferiortothefore-mentionedthree,except
onenearthemummies,whosedimensionsandstruc-
tureareverynearlythesamewiththelargestG ez ite
*Barker . -ThesameismentionedbyC aptainBurr,inreferenceto
theIndianfollowerswhohadattendedhimtothetempleofIsis .
THEROUNDTOWERS.

1 4 5
one . Thislatter,accordingtoG reaves,is6 9 3feet
squareatthebase ;
itsperpendicularheight4 9 9 feet ;
thatis,6 2 feethigherthanSt . Peter' satRome,and
15 5 feethigherthanSt . Paul' sinLondon ;
whilethe
incliningheightis6 9 3feet,exactlyequaltothe
breadthofthebase ; sothattheanglesandbasemake
anequilateraltriangle* . Belz onimeasuresthemall
differently,andgivestothesecondevengreater
dimensionsthanare usually assignedtothefirstor
largest ; viz . ,base,6 8 4 ;
perpendicularheight,4 5 6 ;
centrallinedownfront,fromapextobase,5 6 8
;coat-
ing,fromtoptowhereitends,14 0 .
Thevariationarisesfromthecircumstanceofthe
lattergentleman' smeasurementhavingbeentaken
afterthebasehadbeenclearedawayofallsandand
rubbish ;
whilethoseofhispredecessorsappliedonly
astakenfromthelevelofthesurroundingheap
. The
smallonesabovenoticedaresomequadrilateral, some
round,terminatinglikeasugar-loaf,
somerisingwith
agreaterandsomewithalesserinclination . A ll
commenceimmediatelysouthofC airo,butonthe
oppositesideoftheNile,andextend,inanunin-
terruptedrange,formanymilesinasoutherlydirec-
tion,parallelwiththebanksoftheriver ;
A fterwhathasbeensaidabove,Ineedscarcely
alludetotheridiculoussuppositionofthosehaving
beenbuiltbyJ osephasgranariesforhiscorn ! Their
formandconstruction,illadaptedtosuchanoccasion,
refutesthatabsurdity,asitdoesthederivationupon
whichithasbeenfounded ;viz . ,the G reek words
*Mr
. G reaves' sdiagonal,inproportiontohisbaseof
6 9 4 feet,is 9 9 1
feetnearly ; thehalfofwhichis 4 9 5
1
,
feet,fortheheightofthePyramid ;
forastheradiusistothetangentof 4 5 , soishalfthediametertohalf
thediagonal,oras 7
to10,or 706 to1000 . Say, 7 :
10 : :
6 9 4 = 4 9 5 ,1 .
-DissertationuponthePyramids .
L
14 G

THEROUNDTOWERS.
7rupog, wheat,and almorcu, Igather ; asif,forsooth,an
Egyptian
structure,erectedbeforethe G reek language
waseverknowntoexist,shouldwaitforadesignation
untilG reeceshouldbepleasedtochristenit .
Still
moredisposedmustonebetodiscardwithcontempt
theusualderivationgiventhem,ofau? ,fire ;asthis
notonlylaboursundertheweaknessoftheformer,
butbetraysanignoranceofthecorrectideaofthe
G reekword 7rueyos, ofwhich Trop,
fire,isthetrue
derivation, "
quiaflammaeinstarin acutum tendit* ;"
intimatingits continually tapering
untilitendsina
point ;
whereasthetopoftheEgyptian pyramids
neverdoessoend
; thatofthelargestabovedescribed
endinginaflatofninestones,besidestwowantingat
theangles,eachsideofthisplatformbeingabout
sixteenfeet ;
sothataconsiderablenumberofpeople
maystandonit,andhave,asfrommostofours,one
ofthemostbeautifulprospectsimaginable .
Wilkins' sderivation frompouro, a king,and misi,
arace,wouldseemplausibleenough,beingapurely
C opticorEgyptiananalysis ; butwhenweconsider
thegeneralascriptionofthembythepeopletothe
shepherdPhilitis,
whetherasoneofthePali,-thatis,
shepherds-orUksi,whichmeantthesame,-king-
shepherdsaboveadduced
;
oras emphaticallythe
shepherd, thesonofIsrael~ ,itarguesadisposition
onthepartofthepeopletoassignthehonour-if
takeninthelatterlight-totheworkmenemployed
;
ifintheformer,toaprinceofadifferentdynastyfrom
thosewhomtheEgyptianpriestswouldfainassociate
withthem . Thisderivation,therefore,willnotstand ;
andwehaveonlytobetakeourselvestotheingenious
*Scliiudl .

iG en . xlvii .
THEROUNDTOWERS.

1 4 7
conjectureofLacroz e*,which,perhaps,maygive
moresatisfactionrespectingtheetymologyoftheword
pyramid. Lacroz ederivesitfromthe Sanscritterm
Biroumas,andtracesananalogybetweenBrahma,
Birma,( whichtheIndiansofMalabarpronounce
Biroumas) andthewordPiromis,whichmeansthe
samething,namely,avirtuousanduprightcharacter
-Piromiameaning,accordingtohim,inthelanguage
ofC eylon,maningeneral .
Herodotusstates I' , thatthepriestsofEgyptkept
inaspaciousbuildinglargeimagesofwood,repre-
sentingalltheirpreceding highpriests, arrangedin
genealogicalorder,everyhighpriestplacinghisimage
thereduringhislife . TheymentionedtoHecataeus,
thehistorian,whentheywereshowingthisedificeto
him,thateachoftheimageshesawrepresenteda
Piromis, begottenbyanother Piromis, whichword,
saysHerodotus,signifies,intheirlanguage,a virtuous
and honestman . A passagefromSynesius,thecele-
bratedbishopofC yrene,inhistreatise " onProvi-
dence,"atoncecoincideswith,andisillustrativeof,
thisanecdote .
ThefatherofOsirisandTyphon,"
sayshe, " wasatthesametimea king, apriest,
and
aphilosopher
.
TheEgyptianhistoriesalsorankhim
amongthegods ; fortheEgyptiansaredisposedto
believethatmanydivinitiesreignedintheircountry
insuccessionbeforeitwasgovernedbymen,andbe-
foretheirkingswerereckonedinagenealogicalorder
by
Peirom
afterPeirom . "
TheJ apanesecelebrateanannualfestivalinhonour
ofone Peirun, who,theysay,wasmanyagesago
kingof F ormosa,
andwho,beingdisgustedwiththe
*Hist . C hrist. desIndes,p
. 4 2 9 .
' h Lib . ii
. p
. 4 .
L 2
1 4 8

THEROUNDTOWERS .
abandonedmoralsofhissubjects-wealthytraders
-consignedhimselfsolelytotheworshipofthe
gods . F orewarnedinadream,hetookflightfrom
theimpendingvisitation,andhadscarcelysailedere
theisland,withitsinhabitants,sunktothebottomof
thesea . A sforthegoodking,hearrivedsafein
C hina,whencehewentovertoJ apan,wherehehas
beeneversincehonouredbytheabovecommemora-
tion .
ThetrueC opticnameforthoseedifices,isPire
monc-whichsignifiesa sunbeam *-notsomuchin
allusiontotheir form, astotheirappropriation,which
weshallmakethesubjectofaseparateinquiry .
Ithas,Itrust,satisfactorilybeenprovedthatthe
erectionandnominationofthosewondrousedifices
werenotof native
growth . Ithas,Itrust,additionally
appearedthat both wereessentiallyIndian . Itmay
notnowbe ungermanetothematter,"ifwewould
foramomentdigress,toconsidertheeraoftheir
probabledate,asintroductorytothecharacterof
theirprobabledestination .
J osephusexpresslyinformsus,thattheIsraelites
wereemployedintheconstructionofthepyramids . Is
thereanyreasonwhyweshoulddoubtsorespectable
anauthority? Oh 1 yes,itissaidtheScripturesare
againstit,-thetaskoftheIsraelitesduringtheir
bondagebeingexclusivelyconfinedtothemakingof
brick . IdenythattheScriptureseitherallege
or
insinuateanysuchthing . Onthecontrary,wemay
fairlyinfer,fromExod . ix . 8 ,10,thattheywereen-
gagedinotherservileoffices
;
asalsofromPsalm
lxxxi . 6 ,whereitissaid, "
Iremovedhisshoulder
* Xve, generallyrendered fire,
isnotso,however,inthetrueimportof
theword,butthe Sun ;
fireisonlyasecondarysenseofit .
TILEROUNDTOWERS .

1 4 9
fromtheburden,andhishandsweredeliveredfrom
themortar-box,"-notpots,asourtranslationhasit
;
andsuchrenderingissupportedbytheSeptuagint,
Vulgate,Symmachus,andothers'
.
Thisascriptionreceivesfurthercountenancefroma
passageinDiodorus,i
. 2 ,where,referringtothose
immensepiles,andtheideasoftheEgyptiansthem-
selvesrespectingthem,headds,theysaythefirst
waserectedbyA rmaeus,thesecondbyA mosis,the
thirdbyInaron . "Whoisitthatpronouncesthelast
twonames,ifonlyspelled,aMosisandinA ron,and
recollects,atthesametime,whattheScripturestell
usofMosesandA aron,thatisnotatoncestruckwith
thesimilarityofthesound? A ndastoA rmaeus,why
itbearssoevidentanaffinitywithA ramaeusorA ra-
mean,thatonecannotavoidconnectingitwiththe
A ramitereadytoperish,"theverynamegivento
J acob,Deut . xxvi . 5 fi . Nothing,then,prevents,so
farasIcansee,ourconcludingoneofthosestructures
atleast-Isayoneatleast,toconciliatethebrick-
party
;andIthink,besides,Ihavereadsomewhere,
thatoneofthepyramids,thesmalleronesnodoubt,
wasbuiltofsuchmaterial-tohavebeentheworkof
thesonsofIsrael
. A ndtheratherasitwasconsonant
withtheuniformpracticeoftheancientOrientalna-
tionstoemploycaptiveforeignersonservileandlabo-
riousworks .
Theusualtime,too,assignedtotheslaveryofthe
Israelitescorrespondsverynearlywiththatgenerally
allottedtotheerectionofthosemasses . Thestayof
thesonsofIsraelinthelandofEgyptisgenerally
understoodtohavebeentwohundredandfifteen
years-oftheseJ osephruledseventy-fortyisafair
*Barker
.

7 Ibid .
1 5 0

THEROUNDTOWERS
.
averageforthegenerationthatsucceeded-which,
addedtohisseventy,leavesonehundredandfive
yearstotheExodus .
Now,welearnfromHerodotus,
thatC heops,the reputed founderofthefirstorgreatest
ofthesepyramids,wasthefirstalsooftheEgyptian
kingswhooppressed,orinanywaytyranniz edover,
hissubjects
. Hisreignisstatedtohavebeenfifty
years . C ephrenes,whosucceeded,showedhimselfin
everyrespecthisbrother,barring,astheotherbefore
him,theapproachtoeverytemple,stoppingtheper-
formanceoftheusualsacrifices,andkeepinghis
subjectsallthewhileemployedineveryspeciesof
oppressivetaskandlaboriousdrudgery . Theperiod
ofhisreignisstatedtohavebeenfifty-sixyears,
which,addedtotheprecedingfifty,makeonehundred
andsix,exactlyansweringtotheabovecalculation .
TheExodus,besides,isstatedtohaveoccurredB . C .
179 1 ; andHerodotusandDiodorustogether,while
acknowledgingtheirignoranceoftheactualdateof
thepyramids,andtheimpossibility,ontheirpart,to
ascertainit,declarealsotheirconviction,thatthey
musthavebeenbuiltatleastaboutthatperiod .
Ihavethus,Itrust,donehonourablejusticetothe
testimonyofJ osephus . Ihavedonesoformanyrea-
sons :
firstly,becauseoftheimportanceofthesubject
itself ;secondly,frommyrespectforthemeritsofthe
writer ;and,thirdly,becausethatIthinkitverypro-
bableindeed,thattheIsraelitesmayhavebeenoccu-
piedintheerectionofsomeoftheminorandlater
pyramids . But insuperable obstaclesstandintheway
ofourassociatingthemwiththestructureofthem all ;
andofthese oneis, theimprobabilitythatthevicto-
riousinvaderswouldsingleouttheinoffensiveIsrael-
itesasparticularobjectsoftheiroppression,when
THEROUNDTOWERS.

1 5 1
policyshouldsuggesttothemadirectlydifferent
courseinsecuringtheiradherenceinoppositionto
thenativeresidents
. ByJ osephus' saccount,however,
itwouldappearthattheIsraelitesalonewereengaged
uponthoseedifices ;
andtheScripturesthemselves
confinetheintimationofdrudgerytotheIsraelitish
race
: itthereforeismanifestthattheEgyptian
natives
werefavouredbythe
thenexisting
dynasty,whileitis
on allhandsagreed,thatthe
newcomers hadtreated,
duringthewholeperiodoftheirdominion,the
entire
Egyptiannationwithindiscriminaterigourandchas-
tisement .
Besidesthis,thatdeadlyanimosityexistinginthe
Egyptianmindtothenameandprofessionofshep-
herds,abovealludedto,atonceidentifiestheir
characterwiththatofthe " Uksi,"or
K ing-shep-
herds,"towhomwehavebeforereferred,andproves
thedateoftheirinvasionanteriorinpointoftimeto
Israel' sintroductionintothelandofEgypt .
J oseph
waswellawareoftheparticularsofthisinvasion,and
ofthestingitleftbehinditinthemindoftheEgyp-
tians ;
andaccordinglyheacquaintshisbrothers,
whose 11 tradealsohadbeenaboutcattle,"that
" everyshepherdwasanabominationtotheEgyp-
tians* . "
Manethohimself,theEgyptianpriest,ismyvoucher
forthisdeduction,whenhesays,that "
A fterthese-
theshepherd-kings-came
anothersetofpeople, who
weresojournersinEgypt,inthereignofA menophis
.
Thesechosethemselvesaleader,onewhowasapriest
ofHeliopolis,andwhosenamewasOsarsiph
; and
afterhehadlistedhimselfwiththisbodyofmen,he
changedhisnametoMoses . "
*G en . x1vi . 34 .
1 5 2

THE ROUND TOWERS.


Butthis,it will besaid,
is
atvariancewithMoses'
ownaccount,whichstatesthatheobtainedhisname
onbeingrescuedfromawaterycradlebyPharaoh' s
daughter . Notintheleast,Ireply ; foritismorethan
probablethat,afterhisslayingtheEgyptian,andcon-
sequentflight,hedroppedthisnametoensureconceal-
ment,andonlyresumeditonbeinginvestedwithhis
divinecommission . Or,whatismorelikelystill,and,
perhaps,thetruth,thatOsarsiphwasthenamewhich
his " mother " hadgivenhim,andwhichadheredto
himuntil"hegrewup,"-aterminScripturewhich
expresses mature age,-untilwhenitwasnotthatthe
princesshaddesignatedhimasMoses .
Strong,too,asmyvenerationis for J osephus,I
cannotconcealeitherfrommyselforfromthereader,
thathistestimonyin thisinstanceis ratherofadu-
biouscharacter . TheideaofinterpolationIaltoge-
ther. waive-itis,at all times, acontemptiblesubter-
fuge . Iwilltakeforgrantedthatthetextisgenuine ;
and, on theveryfaceofit,itbearstheimpress-in
thefirstplace,ofinaccuracy,confoundingtheperiod
ofhiscountrymen' s servitude withthatoftheiractual
sojourn
inEgypt ; and,inthesecondplace,of
indis-
tinctness, attachingatermofobloquytothoseedifices,
withoutcondescendingtoofferthereforanycause .
Herearehisownwords : -" Whentimehadoblite-
ratedthebenefitsofJ oseph,andthekingdomof
Egypthadpassedintoanotherfamily,theyinhu-
manelytreatedtheIsraelites,andworethemdownin
variouslabours : fortheyorderedthemtodivertthe
courseoftheriver( Nile) intomanyditches,andto
buildwalls,andraisemounds,bywhichtoconfine
theinundationsoftheriver( Nile) ;and,moreover,
vexedournationinconstructing F OOLISHPYRA MIDS,
THEROUNDTOWERS .

1 5 3
forcedthemtolearnvariousarts,andinuredthemto
undergogreatlabours ;
andafterthismannerdid
they,for fourhundredyears, endurebondage ; the
EgyptiansdoingthattodestroytheIsraelitesby
overmuchlabour,whilstweourselvesendeavouredto
struggleagainstallourdifficulties . "
Now,itisnotalittleremarkable,asconnectingthe
erectionofthepyramidswiththe " royalshepherd
race,"theformeroccupantsoftheabovefertileter-
ritory,thatthoseimmenseedificeshappentobesitu-
atedintheveryvicinityofG oshen . G eez a,where
thethree greatones
stand,isuniversallyallowedto
havebeenthesitewhereonMemphisoncestood ; and
asawestwindtookawaythelocusts,andcastthem
intotheRedSea( Exodusx . 19 ) ,G oshen,whichwe
find,byG enesisxlv . 10,cannothavebeenfarfrom
J oseph' sownresidence,willbemoreaptlyfixedin
thevicinityofthisspot,withintheHeliopolitannome,
thanwithinanyothernomeorpraefecture,particularly
theTanitic,< < wherethesamewind,"ashasbeen
justlyremarkedbyDr . Shaw, " wouldnothave
blownthoseinsectsintotheRedSea,butintothe
Mediterranean,orelseintothelandofthePhilistines . "
G oshen,then,wasthatpartofthelandofRameses,"
" thebestoftheland,"( G en . xlvii . 6 -11,) whichlay
intheneighbourhoodofC airo,butontheopposite
sideoftheNile,where,asalreadyobserved,the
pyramidsarefirstmetwith,andwhencetheyproceed
inacontinuedlinealongthebanksoftheriver,ina
southerlydirection,formanymilestogether
.
A fterreadingthesedetails,itwillbeimpossible,I
conceive,foranydispassionatemindtoremainlonger
insuspenseastotheoriginofthepyramids
. The
doubt,too,andobscurityinwhichtheyhavebeen
1 5
4

THE ROUND TOWERS.


heretoforeenvelopedcanbeexplainedwithsimilar
ease,ifwebutremembertheexecrationinwhichtheir
C ushitefounderswereheldbytheEgyptians,and
theirconsequentdisinclinationtoassociatetheirname
withsuchsplendidmemorials .
Withthisview,in-
deed,itisnotatallimprobablebutthatactivelegis-
lativemeasureswereadoptedtocancelandsuppress
everyvestigeofproofwhichcouldtendtoperpetuate
thememoryoftheobnoxiouserectors . Sothatwe
mustnotwonderif,afteralapseofyears,theirhistory
wasasgreatariddletotheEgyptiansthemselvesas
thatof ourpyramids istotheIrishnation .
A collateralcauseforthisuniversalignoranceoftheir
useandoriginwastheprobableabsenceofletterson
thepartoftheEgyptians,untilnow,forthefirsttime,
introducedbythoselearnedA rabians ; andthough
anyonewhoisacquaintedwiththeorientaldisquisi-
tionsofWilfrid,andthecoincidencesheestablishes
betweentheancienthistoryofEgyptandtheaccount
givenofthecustomsanddynastiesofthatkingdom,
asdrawnfromtheHindooPuranas,willatonce
admitthat theremusthavebeenaperiodwhena
HindoopowerhadreignedinEgyptbyrightofcon-
quest,"andestablishedthereinthepeculiarritesof
theirreligion,withtheelementsofliteratureand
socialcivilisation,yetisitprobablethat,duringtheir
sojourn,which,wehaveseen,wasacontinuedseries
ofwarfare,theykeptthemselvesalooffromallinter-
coursewiththenatives,andchecked,asmuchas
possible,thecirculationoftheirscienceamongthem .
Some sparks ofit,however,mustinevitablyhave
transpired ; andtheEgyptianintellectwastoofinely
constitutedtobeinsensibletoitsvalue,orallowitto
extinguishwithoutfood ; sothat,inthetimeof
THEROUNDTOWERS.

1 5 5
Moses,andlongafter,theirlearningandaccomplish-
mentswerecourtedbythephilosophersoftheday,
andweresoeminentlyconspicuous,astobecomea
proverb,( A ctsA post
. vii . 2 2 . ) Homer,weallknow,
visitedthatfavouredland-sodidPythagoras-so
didSolon,Thales,Plato,andEudoxus ;-inshort,all
thesagesofantiquity,ofwhomwereadsomuch,and
whomweperusewithsuch recuperative pleasure,
eitherfinishedtheireducationinthatfavouredschool,
orconversedwiththosewhohadthemselvesdoneso
.
TheEgyptiansaresaidtohavebeenthefirst who
broughtthe" rulesofgovernment,"withtheartof
making " lifeeasy"and apeoplehappy,"-the
true
end
ofworldlypolitics-toaregularsystem .
But
muchastheyexcelledothernationsinscientificlore,
innothingwastheirsuperioritysoconspicuousasin
that magic artwhichenabledthemtocope,forsolong
atime,andundersuchtryingvarieties,evenwiththe
prophetandambassadorofG odhimself.
Theseexhibitionsaretoostubbornlyauthenticated
byscripturalproofs,aswellintheOldasintheNew
Testament "` , foranyonetoaffectdisbeliefinthem
withoutatthesametimedisbelievingtheauthenticity
oftheScripturesthemselves . Yes,Iimplicitlysub-
scribetothetruthofthenarration
;
andasImeanto
bringhometheir initiation intheart,aswellasin
theirotherseveralaccomplishments,totheC haldean
diviners,or A ireC oti shepherds-abranchofthe
Tuath-de-danaancolonistsofthisourwesternisle-
fromwhom,ortheirrelatives,underthedesignation
ofUksi,Indo-Scythm,orC ushiteshepherds-who,if
notalloneandthesame,wereatleastmixedandincor-
*Exod . vii . 11,& c. ,and2 Tim . iii . 8 .
15 6

THEROUNDTOWERS.
porated-theEgyptianshadimbibedit-this,Itrust,
willpleadmyexcuseforobtrudingitsnoticehere,as
wellasfordilatingsomuchatlargeupontheearly
historyofEgypt*
.
*A mericaalsohashadherancientpageantry
. A ntoniodeSolis
givesthefollowingdescriptionoftheMexicanshrine
: -Thesiteof
thattempledevotedtotheworshipoftheSun,anditsaltarforhuman
sacrifices,wasalargesquareenvironedbywalls,cloisters,andgates ;
inthecentrewasraisedahightowerofapyramidicalform,broadatthe
base,andnarrowedtowardsthetop,havingfourequalsidesinasloping
direction ;inoneofwhichwasaflightofonehundredandfiftystepsto
thetop,coveredwiththefinestmarble,withasquaremarblepavement,
guardedwithabalustrade : inthecentrestoodalargeblackstone,in
mannerofanaltar,placedneartheidol
. Inthefrontofthistower,
andataconvenientdistancefromitsbase,stoodahighaltarofsolid
masonry,ascendedbythirtysteps : inthemiddleofitwasplaceda
largestone,onwhichtheyslaughteredthenumeroushumanvictims
devotedforsacrifice ;theoutsidebeingsetwithstakesandbars,on
whichwerefixedhumansculls . "
1 5 7
C HA PTERXII .
I
C OME
now,withthesameview,toconsiderthe
destination of theirfamous C Pyramids* . "
Inthis
pursuitthefirstthingthatstrikesusistheuniform
precisionandsystematicdesignapparentintheir
architecture . Theyallhavetheirsidesaccurately
adaptedtothefourcardinalpoints,asthefouraper-
turesnearthesummitofmostofoursindicatea
similarregardtofidelitytothecompass . Insix
of
themwhichhavebeenopened,theprincipalpassage
preservesthesameinclination of2 6
tothehoriz on,
beingdirectedtowardsthepolarstar
. A ndIdoubtnot,
weretheground within and aroundallofourssuffi-
cientlyexplored,therewouldbefound,insomeat
least,regularvistastocorrespondwiththisde-
scription . Theirobliquitytoobeingsoadjustedas
tomakethenorthsidecoincidewiththeobliquityof
thesun' sraysatthesummer' ssolstice,has,combined
withtheformerparticulars,ledsometosupposethey
*Theregularpyramidisasectionofthecube,whosealtitudeisequal
tohalfthediameterofthebase,andiscontainedwithinasemicircle .
Thegreatpyramidisnotofthispreciseorder ;
itsheightoraltitude
beingfoundmorethanhalfthediameterofitsbase . A secondorderis
thatwhosealtitudeisequaltohalfthediagonalofthebase,andis
alsoboundedandcontainedwithinasemicircle ; andconsequently,
ifthediagonalbegivenat1000,thealtitudewillbe5 00 : butthetrue
heightoftheEgyptianPyramidbeingdeterminedatlessthanhalfits
diagonal,isthereforefoundtobenotexactlyofthisorder,butnearly
approachingtoit,andprobablyaimedatintheoriginaldesign,though
failingintheexecution
.
DissertationuponthePyramids .
15 8

THE ROUND
TOWERS.
weresolelyintendedforastronomicaluses ;andcer-
tainly,ifnotaltogethertrue,itbespeaks,atallevents,
anintimateacquaintancewith astronomicalrules*,
aswellasadueregardtotheprinciplesof oeometryt.
Noone,Ibelieve,haseverquestionedthelatter
fact .
Some,inducedthereby,havethoughtthemto
beerectedforthepurposeofestablishingtheexact
measureofthecubit ;
ofwhichtheyhappentocon-
tainbothinbreadthandheightacertainnumberof
multiples .
Butastheywereevidentlyconstructed
bypersonswellversedinallthenicetiesofexact
measurement,andwhoconsequentlyhadnooccasion
forsuchcolossalreferencetorefreshtheirmemories,
liketheLancasterianapparatus,itisridiculousto
supposethemerectedwiththisview,norshouldI
havealludedtoitbuttoexposeitsweakness . Others
havefanciedthemintendedforsepulchres
; andas
*A stronomybeganveryearlytobecultivatedamongtheEgyptians ; and
tothemisattributedthediscoveryofthemagnitudeofthesolaryear,or,
asitisdistinguished, theEgyptianyear of 36 5 days ;whichdiscovery
appearstobenoticeable,andmemorializ edintheconstructionoftheir
G reatPyramid
. Theancientmeasureoflengthbeingthecubit,andthat
measurebeingdeterminedcommonwiththeHebrewsandEgyptians,as
nearlyasDr
. C umberlandcoulddetermineit,andreducedtoEnglish
measure,acertainstandardisobtained
:
butwefindalsoanother,called
thelongercubit,tohaveobtained,onwhichwemaywithequalpropriety
calculatethemeasuresoftheEgyptianPyramid,onwhichtoinferthe
numberofdayscontainedinthesolaryear
;themeasuresofthebaseof
theG reatPyramidbeingfound,ifnotexactly,yetnearlyapproximating
toit.
DissertationuponthePyramids .
1IhavenottheleastdoubtbuttheancientEgyptiansmeasuredby
thecubit,whateveritthenwas ; thatthenumberofcubitswasde-
signedlyfixeduponbytheminlayingthebaseofthePyramid ;
and
thatifwedividetheascertainedsumof
75 2 feetby 2 , thequotientwill
be 376 ,
whichisanumberexceeding 36 5 by11 : consequently,ifwe
estimatetheirancientcubitat 2 feet
U
ofaninch,thatmeasurewill
beascertained,andfoundtoapproximatenearlytothelongerHebrew
cubit
;andsowillthemeasuresofthePyramidbefoundtoagreewith
thenumberofdaysinthesolaryear . DissertationuponthePyramids .
THEROUNDTOWERS.

1 5 9
theEgyptians, taughtbytheirancientC haldeanvictors,
connected astronomy withtheir funereal and religious
ceremonies,
theyseemnotinthistobefarastray,if
webutextendtheapplicationtotheir sacredbulls
and otheranimals, andnotmerelytotheir kings, as
Herodotuswouldhaveussuppose
.
Theimmensesarcophaguslyingintheinteriorof
thefirstorG reatPyramid,withthe
bone foundby
theEarlofMunster*inthesecond,mustputthis
questionbeyondthepossibilityofdoubt
;asSir
EverardHome,afteralaboriousexaminationofthe
propertiesofthisrelic,founditaccuratelytoagree
withthelowerextremityofthethigh-boneofanox,
whileitcorrespondedwiththatofnoother
. animal .
Inconformitywiththisconclusionwerethedis-
coveriesofBelz oni,sometimebefore,inUpperEgypt,
whichaboundsinspecimensofthemostsplendid
antiquities,inacatacombamongstwhich,called
BibanelMoluk,"thatis
` 1 thegatesoftheking"-
meaningtherebythe universalkingoftheancients, the
generatingprincipleofvegetationandlife,ofwhich
A pis
and
Mnevis,Osiris and Typhon, werebutthe
representativesamong theEgyptians,as
other
nationshadadoptedequivalentformsandnames,
accordingtothegeniusoftheirclimesandlanguages
-ImeantheSun-well,inoneofthenumerous
chambersofthiscatacomb,Belz onidiscoveredanex-
quisitelybeautifulsarcophagusofalabaster,ninefeet
fiveincheslong,bythreefeetnineincheswide,and
twofeetandaninchhigh,coveredwithinandwithout
withhieroglyphics,andfiguresinintaglio,nearlyin
aperfectstate,soundinglikeabell,andastranspa-
rentasglass : fromtheextraordinarymagnificenceof
*ThenMajorF itz clarence,March2 nd,
18 18 .
1 6 0

THEROUNDTOWERS .
which,heconceives,itmusthavebeenthedepository
oftheremainsofA pis ; inwhichideaheisthe
moreconfirmedbyhavingfoundthecarcassofa bull
embalmedwithasphaltum,intheinnermostchamber .
ThepassageinHerodotus,towhichIbeforere-
ferred,appearstothrowsomelightontheintricate
subjectwhichwearenowpursuing. Inlib
. ii .
p . 12 4 ,& c . " thefatherofhistorians"tellsusthatthe
twokings,whosucceededeachotheronthethroneof
Egypt,afterthehappyreignofRhampsinitusandhis
predecessors,andtowhom"thebuildingofthosepyra-
ramidswasreputedlyascribed,hadshownthemselves
indeed brothers,
notmorebyaffinityofbloodthanby
thesimilar-outlinesoftheircrueltyandintolerance .
No
speciesofoppressionwasbythemleftunattempted ;
noextremeofrigourorrapaciousplunderbythem
unenforced : butwhatpeculiarlycharacteriz edthe
hardshipoftheirtyrannywastherestrainttheyput
uponthe religion andpiousexercisesoftheirsubjects ;
closingtheportalsof' the temples wheretheywere
wonttoadore,andpreventingtheoblationoftheir
usualsacrifices .
ThoughHerodotushasbeenjustlyhonouredwith
thedesignationof " F atherofHistorians,"hehasalso,
perhaps,notsoveryjustlybeencalled "
theF ather
ofErrors ;"and,ashehimselfadmittedhisincapability
ofobtaininganysatisfactoryinsightintotheoriginal
ofthosestructures,maywenotfairlyconcludethat,
intheextractnowcited,heeitherconfoundsthose
princeswiththe foreigndynasty whichwehaveal-
readyestablished,orelse,fromtheignorance superin-
duced
toobliteratetheirmemory,mistakestheerection
ofsomeofthe minor and later ones,whichthis " par
nobilefratrum " may,indeed,havedevised,inimitation
TUEROUND
TOWERS . 1 6
1
ofthe three
"
mountains"
builtbytheUksi . Whathe
states,however,isofvalue,asitpointsto a previous
formofworship, and a systemofgovernmentby an
alienhouse .
Theprohibitionofsacrifices,andthe
closingthetempledoors,makethisasclearaswords
candelineateanything . A llwewant,then,istobe
informedwhattheparticulartemples,alludedto,were
andthattheywerethe pyramids,will,I
think,becon-
cededbyeveryone,whohascarefullyperusedthe
argumentsheresetdown,andwhohasnothisjudg-
mentwarpedbyfavouriteplansofliterarysystemsand
speculativehypotheses .
Thisconclusionreceivesadditionalforcefromthe
conversationwhichWilford,inhis " Dissertationupon
EgyptandtheNile*,"tellsushehadwithseverallearned
Brahmins,when,upondescribingtothemtheform
andbearingsofthegreatEgyptianpyramid,oneof
themaskedif ithadnotacommunicationunderground
withtheriverC ali? Beingansweredthatsuchcom-
municationwasspokenofashavingonceexisted,and
thata well
wasstilltobeseen,theyunanimously
agreedthatitwasa temple appropriatedtotheworship
ofPadma-devi, andthatthesupposed
tomb wasa
trough,
which,oncertainfestivals,herpriestsusedto
fillwiththesacredwaterandlotos-flowers .
Mr . Davison,BritishC onsultoA lgiers,when
accompanyingMr. WortleyMontaguetoEgypt,in
176 3,discoveredhereachamber,beforeunnoticed,
anddescended,toadepthof15 5 feet,thethreesucces-
sivereservoirs . Theprincipalobliquepassagehas,
sincethen,beentracedbytheveryenterprisingmaster
ofamerchantvessel,C aptainC aviglia,2 00feetfar-
A siaticResearches .
9 1
1 6 2

THEROUNDTOWERS.
therdownthanbyanyformerexplorer,andfoundto
communicatewiththebottomofthewell,whichis
nowfilledwithrubbish
. A circulationofairbeing
thusprocured,hewasemboldenedtoproceed2 8 feet
farther,whichbroughthimtoaspacioushall,6 6 feet
by2 7,unequalinaltitude,anddirectlyunderthe
centreofthepyramid . Innoinstanceyetrecorded
hasanyappearancepresenteditselfofhumanremains
withinthoseapartments,norindeedwasthereany
possibilityofconveyingsuchthither,unlessplaced
therebeforetheerectionofthepileitself ;forthe
extremities
ofthegallery,whichleadsintothe great
chamber,
areso narrow and circumscribed, thatitis
withdifficulty onecaneffectan entranceintoit,evenby
creepinguponhisbelly
.
The symbolicalanatomy
prefiguredinthiscon-
trivance,andwhichequallyexhibitsitselfinallthe
templesoftheancients,aswell underasoverground,
issuchasalmosttohavetemptedmetomake this the
occasiononwhichIshoulduncoveranothersecretof
theirmysticcode . Butamore
concentrated
oppor-
tunitywilloccurasweadvance,andforwhichthis
intimationwillanswerasaprelude ; meanwhile,I
wouldhavethereadersoberlytobethinkhimself,what
possibleusecould
deadbodieshaveofwellsofwater?
Isnot such the type, asitisalsothe accompaniment, of
. life
andactivity?
A nddoesnot
this, ofitself,subvert
theabsurdityofthosetempleshavingbeenerectedas
meremausoleumsforkings?
Ihavealreadyhintedmyconfidentbelief
thatif
thegroundall,within,andaroundourpyramidswere
sufficientlyexamined, therewouldnotbewantingindi-
cationsofsubterraneouspassages . Iamthemore
confirmedinthismybelieffromtheappearancesthat
THEROUNDTOWERS.

1 6 3
presented themselvesonthedemolitionof
that at
Downpatrick,in179 0,
" tomakeroomfortherebuild-
ingofthatpartoftheoldcathedralnextwhichit
stood,andfromwhichitwasdistantabout4 0feet
.
Whenthetowerwasthrowndown,"continuesDubour-
dieu,in his ` 1 StatisticalSurvey
" ofthecounty, " and
clearedawaytothefoundation,anotherfoundation
wasdiscoveredunderit,andrunningdirectlyacross
thesiteofthetower,whichappearedtobe
a con-
tinuationofthechurchwall,which,atsomeperiod
priortothebuildingofthetower,seemedtohaveex-
tendedconsiderablybeyondit . "
Withgreatdefer-
ence,however,totheauthorityofsorespectablea
writer,Ihesitatenottoproclaimthatthesecondfoun-
dationsodiscoveredwas
not a" continuationofthe
churchwall,"buttheremnantofsome
pagan structure,
appertainingtothetoweritself-infact
aVih& r, or
collegeforitspriests-orelsethevestigeofsome
largertemple,andconnectedtherewith,previously
existingonthesamelocality
.
Thatthisannouncementiscorrectwillbeapparent,
fromthe
superiority ofmasonicskill exhibitedinthis
foundation, aswellasinitshavingbeenupona
largerscaleandamplerdimensionsthanwhatthe
C hristian " C athedral hadeveroccupied
;"
0 inthe
wallsofwhich,"saysmyauthority, " therearemany
piecesofcutstonethathaveevidentlybeenusedin
someformerbuilding
. Thesamecircumstancemay
alsobeobservedinseveraloftheruinedchurchesat
C lonmacnoise
. * "
Noroughtthisrelictofanancientpaganedificeto
exciteoursurprise,whenwearetoldthatthetemple
*Scientific Touristthrough Ireland,
p. 33 .
-Ni 2
1
6 4 THEROUNDTOWERS .
ofthe
Syriangoddess,"whichexistedinthedaysof
Lucian,wasnotthatwhichwasoriginallyerectedby
Deucalion,butonebuilt manyages
after,onthe same
site, byA ttis,Bacchus,orSemiramis .
Withthechurch,therefore,orotherC hristianedi-
fice,this foundation " hadnorelation
. St . Patrick
wasthefirstwhoerectedoneinthatvicinity,towhich
hegavethenameofSgibolPhadruig,orPatrick' s
G ranary
;
havingbeenbuiltontheidenticalspoton
whichDichu,sonofTrichem,ofthetribeoftheDal-
fiatachs,andlordoftheterritoryofLecale,hada
granaryconstructedtopreservehiscorn,beforethat
hisgratitudeforthesaint,bywhomhewasjustcon-
verted,inducedhimtoconsecratetheplacewhere
thateventoccurred,byraisingthereonahousetothe
G odofnatureandofharvests .
Itssituation,beitobserved,was"
twomilesfrom
thecityofDown*
;"different,therefore,fromthatof
thecathedral,aswasalsoits form :
havingbeenbuilt
fromnorthtosouth,atthesolicitationofDichuhim-
self,agreeablytotheplanoftheformerstore-house
.
Thistookplacein4 33-4
;andthough,forconces-
sionsake,Imayadmit,-what yetisfarfrombeingmy
conviction,-thatsome
ofourRoundTowersmayhave
beenerected subsequently
totheC hristianera,yet
positiveImustbethat noone
ofthem wasafterthe
successfulmission
oftheA postleofIreland ; andthe
explosionofthedoctrineswithwhicheventhe
most
modernofthem
mayhappentobeassociated,-while
themajority,andthe realones,I
shallprove,belong
toaninfinitelyearlierdate .
A safurtherinducementtoexploreforcavitiesbe-
*UshersPrimord . c . xvii . p. 8 4 6 .
THEROUNDTONERS .

1 6
5
neath,andconnectedwith,ourRoundTowers,Ibeg
leavetobringunderreviewwhatMaundrelrelatesof
twoRoundPillars,whichhemetwithinhisjourney
fromA leppotoJ erusalem,onthesea-coast,alittleto
thesouthofA radus,intheneighbourhoodofTripoli
.
Hedescribesoneofthemasthirty-threefeethigh,
composedofapedestal,tenhighandfifteensquare,
surmountedwithatallcylindricalstone,andcapped
withanotherintheformofa pyramid. Thesecond
wasnotquitesohigh-thirtyfeettwoinches-its
pedestal,whichwassupportedbyfourlions,rudely
carvedateachcorner,wasinheightsixfeet,being
sixteenfeetsixinchessquare ;
thesuperstructure
uponwhichwasonesinglestonecutintheshapeof
a
hemisphere . Eachofthesepillars,ofwhichhe
givesaccuratedrawings,hasunderitseveralcata-
combsorsepulchralchambers,theentrancestowhich
lieonthesouthside . Hepronouncesathirdwhich
hemetwith,as " averyancientstructure,andpro-
bablyaplaceofsepulchre* . "
WiththeopinionofthisjudicioustravellerIalto-
getherconcur,providedonly,assaidbefore,inrefer-
encetothepyramids,thattheapplicationbeextended
tothesacredbullsandcrocodiles,serpents,dragons,
andheifers,withthewholetrainof
bestial divinities,
whichbothIndiansandEgyptians,andalltheother
polishednationsofantiquity,thoughtpropertoadopt
asobjectsoftheirregard,andtreatwiththeho-
mage-thoughonly
commemorative, astheywilltell
you-oftheOneG reatSupreme fi .
*J ournal,pp . 2 1,2 3 .
tNeithercanI,withhim,restricttheirobjectto Tombs alone ; their
Phallicshapebespeaksanotherallusion ;asdoesthestyleofarchi-
tectureindicatean affinity of descent, thoughnotan identity of design
withthatofour Towers.
1 6 6

THEROUNDTOWERS .
Thisextensionoftheusewillatonceafforda
solutionoftheotherwiseunaccountableandunneces-
sary siz eof thosecavities,andisfurthersupportedby
Savary' sremark,madeonoccasionofhissearchingfor
theEgyptianLabyrinth,viz
. ,that " amidsttheruinsof
thetownsofC aroun,theattentionisparticularlyfixed
byseveralnarrow,low,andverylongcells,which
seemtohavehadnootherusethanthatofcontaining
thebodiesofthesacredcrocodiles ;theseremainscan
onlycorrespondwith,thelabyrinth . "WhileHero-
dotus' sdeclaration,ofhisnotbeingallowedtoenter
itsvaults,onthescoreoftheir containingwithin
themthebodiesofthefifteenkings,togetherwiththe
sacredcrocodiles," shouldafforditadeterminationno
longerliabletodoubt .
A rcher,also,whenmentioningaveryancient
Hindootemple,atthesouthendofthefortof
G ualior,resemblinginshapethoseontheC oromandel
coast,anddecoratedwithmuchcarving,saysthat
11 therewasasubterraneancommunicationwiththe
plainatthenorthend,butthepassagehasbeenso
longneglectedastobeimpassable . "
A mInotjustified,therefore,intheconviction,from
whatIhavealreadyintimated,astothe
complicated
designofthosesacredpiles,that
our RoundTowers
wouldbefoundsimilarlyfurnishedwithsubterranean
chambers ? Idorespectfullyurgethatsuch
is my
firmbelief, andthatitwouldbewellworththewhile
ofthelearnedcommunitytoinvestigatetheaccuracy
ofthesurmisehereputforward
.
THEROUNDTOWERS
.

1 6 7
C HA PTERXIII.
A NOTHER
characteristic,towhichIwouldfainattract
thereader' sregard,isthecircumstanceoftheirbeing
erectedinthevicinityof water .
A tG lendalough,
whatamagnificentlakesalutestheTower? In
DevenishandatK illmalloch,isnotthesamethe
case
? Inotherpartsofthecountry,also,wefind
themsimilarlylocated .
A ndevenwherenaturehas
notbeensolavishofher
inlandseas, yetiswater,of
someshape,alwaystobeseencontiguoustoour
towers .
Whatuse,itwillbeasked,doImeantomakeof
thisargument? orhowseeksupportfromtheacci-
dentalpropinquityofthiselement?
Remembermy
remarkuponthearticle,before,inconnexionwiththe
EgyptianPyramids
. C aptainMignan,besides,tellsus
thatatradition,handeddownfromtimeimmemorial,
saysthat C
nearthefootoftheruinofElMujelle-
bah,"whichlietakestobethatoftheTowerofBabel,
is a well, invisibletomortals ;"
and,asallEastern
heathenism,whenceourswasdeduced,partookin
somedegreeofthesameusagesandproperties,I
thinkitveryprobablethecorrespondencewillapply
inthisaswellasinotherpeculiarities ; andthe
ratherasfromsymptomsofvaults,whichhaveal-
readyappeared,andthehollowsounds,orechoes,
whichinvariablyaccompany,thepropositiondoesnot
1 6 8

THEROUNDTOWERS.
comeunwarranted,howeversinglyputforth,orwith-
outsomethinglikeargumenttorecommenditstrial .
WeknowthatinHieropolis,orthe " Holycity,"in
Syria,
whereaTemple,witha Tower, waserectedto
A starte, therestoodadjacenta lake,
were sacredfishes
werepreserved,inthemidstofwhichwasastone
altar,whichwas said, andreally
appeared, tofloat ;
whithernumbersofpersonsusedtoswimeveryday
toperformtheirdevotions .
Underthistemplethey
showedthecleftwhereitwassaidthewatersdrained
offafterDeucalion' sflood,andthistraditionbrought
ontheextraordinaryceremonynowabouttobenar-
rated,somethingsimilartowhichourancestorsmust
formerlyhavepractised here .
Ihave,"saysLucian*, " myselfseenthischasm,
anditisaverysmallone,underthetemple . Whether
itwasformerlylargerandsincelessenedIcannot
tell,butthatwhichIhaveseenissmall
. Incom-
memorationofthishistorytheyactinthismanner
twiceineveryyearwaterisbroughtfromtheseato
thetemple,andnotbythepriestsonly, butbyall
Syria andA rabia . ManycomefromtheEuphrates
tothesea,andallcarrywater,whichtheyfirstpour
outinthetemple,andafterwardsitsinksintothe
chasm,whichthoughsmall,receivesaprodigious
quantityofwater,andwhentheydoso,theysay,
Deucalioninstitutedtheceremonyasamemorialof
thecalamityabovenamed,andofhisdeliverancefrom
i t . "
Twiceayearamanwentuptothetopofthe
Priap,andthereremainedsevendays
. Hismodeof
gettingupwasthus : -Hesurroundeditand himself
withachain,andascendedbythehelpofthatand
*Inhistreatise " De Dea Syria. "
THEROUNDTOWERS .

1 6 9
certainpegs,whichstuckoutofitssidesforthepur-
pose,liftingthechainupafterhimateachresting
interval-amethodofascentwhichwillbereadily
understoodbythosewhohaveseenmenclimbupthe
palmtreesofEgyptandA rabia
. Havingreached
thesummitheletdownthechain,andbymeans
thereofdrewupallnecessariesinthewayoffood,
andwithalpreparedhim elfaseat,orrathernest
onhisaerialtabernacle .
Viewhimnowmountedonhissacredtower,
Helooksaroundwithconscioussenseofpower
.
Ontheseoccasionscrowdsusedtocomewithoffer-
ings,andthecustomwasforeachtodeclarehis
nametothepriests
;uponwhichonebelowcried
itouttohimonthetop,whothereuponmuttereda
prayer,which,inordertoarresttheattentionofthe
congregation,andenliventheirdevotion,heallthe
whileaccompaniedbystrikingabell .
1 7 0

THEROUNDTOWWWERS
.
Onewayoftheirsacrificingwasasshockingas
itwouldbeotherwiseridiculous .
Theycrowned
victimswithgarlands,thendrovethemoutofthe
temple-court,ononesidewhereofwasanabrupt
steep,wherefallingtheytherebyperished . Nay,
sometieduptheirverychildreninsacks,andthen
shovedthemdown,reproachingthemaswildbeasts,
miserablytoperish .
Thiswholeproceeding,onlyunder - amythological
garb,wasindirectharmonywiththedirectionsgiven
andthepracticepursuedbyG od' sownpeople
. The
manascendingtothetopofthetowerhadaparallel
inthatdeclarationoftheLordrecordedinExodus
xxiv . 1,2 ,3,viz
. ,
"
A ndhesaiduntoMoses,come
upuntotheLord,thou,
. andA aron,Nadab,andA bihu,
andseventyoftheeldersofIsrael,andworshipye
afaroff
. A ndMosesaloneshallcomeneartheLord
;
buttheyshallnotcomenigh,neithershallthepeople
goupwithhim . A ndMosescameandtoldthe
peopleallthewordsoftheLord,andallthejudg-
ments ; andallthepeopleansweredwithonevoice,
andsaid, ` A llthewordswhichtheLordhathsaid,
willwedo* . ' "
Hisstayingtheresevendayscorrespondedwith
Levit
. viii . 33,34 ,35 "A ndyeshallnotgoout
ofthedoorofthetabernacleofthecongregation
insevendays,untilthedaysofyourconsecrationbe
atanend
: forsevendaysshallyeconsecrateyou
.
A shehathdonethisday,sotheLordhathcom-
mandedtodo,tomakeanatonementforyou
. There-
*Ofthisdistantadorationwemaystillseetracesinthepracticeof
theIrishpeasantry,almostpreferringtosaytheirprayersoutsidethe
precinctsofthechapel,ormass-house,thanwithinit,unconsciously
derivedfromthisserviceoftheA frion,orbenediction-house, i . e . , the
RoundTowers
.
THEROUNDTOWERS .

1
7 1
foreshallyeabideatthedoorofthetabernacleof
thecongregationdayandnightsevendays,andkeep
thechargeoftheLord,thatyedienot ;forsoIam
commanded . " A ndagain,Ez ekielxliii . 2 5 -"
. Seven
daysshaltthouprepareeverydayagoatforasin-
offering
: theyshallalsoprepareayoungbullockand
aramoutoftheflock,withoutblemish . Sevendays
shalltheypurgethealtar,andpurifyit ;andthey
shallconsecratethemselves . "
Theenrolmentoftheirnameswasalsosanctioned
bydivinecommand,asExodusxxviii . 2 9 -"A nd
A aronshallbearthenamesofthechildrenofIsrael
inthebreastplateofjudgmentuponhisheart,when
liegoethinuntotheholyplace,foramemorialbefore
theLordcontinually
. "Whilsttheringingofthebell
isparticularlyenforcedbyatriplerepetition,Exodus
xxviii
. 33,34 -"A ndbeneathuponthehemofit
thoushaltmake pomegranates ofblue,andofpurple,
andofscarlet,roundaboutthehemthereof
;and
bellsof goldbetweenthemroundabout
. A golden bell
and apomnegranate, agolden
bell and apomegranate,
uponthehemoftheroberoundabout . "
Thislast-citedtextisofthemostinconceivable
advantageinthedevelopmentofthesubjectwhich
wethuspursue . Themostsuperficialmusthave
noticedhowthat,inthetracingofthisanalogy
betweentheceremoniesoftheG entilesandthe
Hebrews,Ihavestudiouslyguardedagainstitsap-
pearinganimitation,onthepartoftheformer,from
theritualofthelatter .
Thepriorityinpointofdate
willcertainlyappearontheG entileside
.
Mean-
while,ereotherlinksofconformitycrowduponour
path,itwillhewelltotakeheedtothefrequencyof
theword
pomegranate,
asoccurringintheScriptures
.
1
7
2

THEROUNDTOWERS .
Ithasalreadyappearedthatoneofthenamesofthe
Syrian
goddess,
inwhosehonourtheHieropolitan
Priapswereerected,was Rimmon
. Thisepithetyou
havehadbeforeexpoundedasexpressiveofthat
fruit ;
andasweseethat,bothintheJ ewishandthe
Paganformulae,itoccupiedsoprominentaposition ' ,
itmustoccasionyounosurpriseif,byandby,Idis-
coveritamongstthemouldings
t
ofourconsecrated
andvenerableRoundTowers .
A stotheirdevotionsatthelake,andthepropin-
quityofthelakeitselftothetemple,itisindirect
similitudetothe "
moltensea,"mentioned1K ingsviii .
2 3,2 4 ,2 5 ,2 6 ,
" thebrimwhereofwaswroughtlike
thebrimof a cup,withflowers
oflilies,"& c . ;-while
thecruelandshockingsacrificewithwhichthewhole
terminated,wastheexactrespondentoftheMosaical
scape-goat~ .
Letitnotbewonderedat,therefore,ifonthesum-
mitofoneofourRoundTowersaretobefound
thetracesoftheapparatusforabell
. F orindepen-
dentlyofwhatWalshandothersinformusof,viz
. ,
thattheIrish-enjoyingtranquillityandreposeafter
theexpulsionoftheOstmen,andsorecallingtheir
attentiontothecultivationofC hristianity,aftertheir
releasefromthatscourge-convertedthosestructures
ofexplodedpaganism,totheonlyobvioususeto
*TheG habrestothisdaychewaleafofitintheirmouths,while
performingtheirreligiousdutiesroundthesacredfire .
tThosearewhatMontmorencywouldfainmakeouttohavebeen
roses
importedfromtheVatican
.
jA similarsacrificeisdescribedbyMajorA rcherasstillpractisedin
themountainsofUpperIndia,whichhehimselfwitnessed
. "
A nun-
fortunategoat,"sayshe,
" leanandemaciated,wasbroughtasan
offeringtothedeities
; butsopoorinfleshwashethatnocrowwould
havewaitedhisdeathinhopesofamealfromhiscarcass
. "
THEROUNDTOWERS .

173
whichtheycouldthenbemadesubservient,namely,
thatof belfries, forthesummoningtogetherofthe
peopletopublicworship,someremnantsofwhichit
isbutnaturalmayyetremain-independently,Isay,
ofthis,haveInothereshownthat bells enteredessen-
tiallyintothecodeofthePaganceremonial,from
whenceitismorethanprobable,nay,adownright
certainty,thatthefirstC hristianecclesiasticsadopted
theuse,astheMahomedans,intheirminarets,didso
likewise* .
TheinstancetowhichIhavereferredinanearly
partofthisvolume,ofastonishmentcreatedinthe
Englishminds,ontheirfirstbeholdingoneofthose
implements,wasthatofG ildas,who,havingfinished
hiseducationatA rmagh,andreturnedtoBritain
abouttheyear5 08 ,wasengagedbyC adoc,abbotof
thechurchofMancarban,tosuperintendthestudies
ofhispupilsduringhisabsenceforatwelvemonth .
Havingdonesomostsuccessfully,andwithoutaccept-
ingofanyremunerationforhislabour,wefind,inan
*" Roundthe tee orumbrellaatthetop( oftheDagobsatC eylon) are
suspendedanumberofsmallbells,whichwiththeseform tees ofagreat
quantityofsmallerpagodasthatsurroundthequatine,beingsetin
motionbythewind,keepupaconstanttinkling,butnotunpleasing
sound . "-C OLEMA N.
ThetemplesofBudhintheBurmeseempirearealsopyramidical,
thetopalwayscrownedwithagiltumbrellaofironfilagree,hunground
withbells . -"The tee or umbrella
istobeseenoneverysacredbuilding
thatisofaspiralform ;therisingandconsecrationofthislastandin-
dispensableappendage,isanactofhighreligioussolemnity,anda
seasonoffestivityandrelaxation . Thepresentkingbestowedthe
tee
thatcoversShoemadoo : itwasmadeatthecapital . Manyoftheprin-
cipalnobilitycamedownfromUmmerapooratobepresentatthecere-
monyofitselevation . Thecircumferenceofthetieisfifty-sixfeet
;it
restsonanironaxis,fixedinthebuilding,andisfurthersecuredby
largechainsstronglyrivettedtothespire . Roundthelowerrimofthe
teeareappendedanumberof bells, whichagitatedbythewindmakea
continualjingling . "-SvmEs .
174

THEROUNDTOWERS
.
ancientlifeofC adoc,intheTinmouthMS
. ,Lam-
bethobservethat " C adoc,returningtohismonastery,
foundG ildasanoblescholar,withaverybeautiful
littlebell, whichhebroughtwithhimfromIreland . "
Thosebells,then,wemaybesure,appertained
exclusivelytotheserviceoftheRoundTowers*
.
HavingnoneoftheseinEngland,ofcoursetheyhad
nobells,andhencethesurprisemanifestedonthe
aboveoccasion
. InIreland,too,theymusthavebeen,
now,comparativelyobsoletet . A ndhencewefind,
accordingtoPrimateUsher,thattheir( restored) use
wasnotgeneralinthe
churches herebeforethelatter
endoftheseventhcentury ; whileanotherwriter
assuresusthatitwasnotuntiltheninthcentury
thatlargeoneswereinventedforthepurposeof
suspension$ .
TheshapeoftheIrish
pagan
bellswasprecisely
*" ItisremarkedthatinC hinatheyhavenoPyramids,butPagodas,
raisedbygalleries,oneaboveanother,tothetop : themostcelebrated
oftheseisthatcalledthePorcelainTowerinNankin,saidtobetwo
hundredfeethigh,andfortyfeetatthebase,builtinanoctagonalform .
ThesePagodasseemtohavebeendesignedforaltarsofincense,raised
totheiraerialdeities,withwhichtoappeasethem ;
andtheirhanging
bells, withtheirtintillationstodriveawaythedemons,
lesttheyshould,
bynoxiousandmalignantwindsandtempests,disturbtheirsereneatmo-
sphere,andafflicttheir
country. "-DissertationuponthePyramids .
1Thereasonofthiswillappearhereafter
; whileintheinterimI
mustobservethatthisnewappropriationofthemtoC hristianpurposes
waswhatoccasionedthaterroronthepartofawriter,somecenturies
after,who opined thatitwas SanctusPatricius
whofirstpresentedone
to SanctoK ierano . I makenoquestionofthe present :
butdoespre-
sentationimplyinvention?
:
C ambrensistellsratheracuriousstoryaboutSt
. F innarisbell : -
Thereis,"sayshe, "
inthedistrictofMactalewi,inLeinster,acertain
bellwhich,unlessitisadjuredbyitspossessoreverynightinaparticu-
larformofexorcismshapedforthepurpose,andtiedwithacord( no
matterhowslight) itwouldbefoundinthemorningatthechurchof
St . F innan,atC lunarech,inMeath,fromwhenceitwasbrought ; and,
addshe, " thishassometimeshappened
. "
THEROUNDTOWERS.

1 7 5
thesameasofthoseinthepresentday . Theywere
calledcrotals,orbell-cymbals . Oblong square ones,
someofbell-metal,someofiron,fromtwelveto
eighteenincheshigh,withahandletosoundthem
by,havebeen,also,dugupinourvariousbogs
. Of
thesethemuseumoftheDublinSocietypossesses
one ; anotherispreservedbytheMoirafamily . The
writerofthisarticlenothavingseeneitherofthese
relics,isratherdiffidentintheconjecturewhichheis
nowabouttoexpress ;
butfromtheaccountreceived
ofthatinthepossessionofthehouseofMoira,hefeels
stronglydisposedtoidentifyitsoriginwiththewor-
shipoftheabove-mentioneddeity,A starte . Lucian
expresslytellsusthatundertheveilofthisgoddess
wasreallymeantthe moon ; andthat " thehostof
heaven,"-includingsun,moon,andstars,andty-
pifyingthefulgorofthatOmniscientgermwhence
they all hademanated-constitutedtheobjectofthe
ancientIrishadoration,noone,Ibelieve,canlonger
question . Nowin ce Hall' sTourthroughIreland,"
18 13,Iseethisbelldescribedashaving"ahole
inoneofitssideslikeaquarterlymoon ;"andnot
knowingwhetherthisistheeffectofaccidentorcor-
rosion,orasymbolicalpropertyinitsoriginalshape,
ItrustIshallnotbedeemedfancifulifIascribeit
asareferencetothatplanetinwhosevainsolemnities
ithadbeenprimarilyexercised .
Whetherthisexpositionproveeccentricalor
otherwise-and,byinspection,itcanbereadilyas-
certained-Icannotpresumetodetermine ; norin-
deeddoesitvaluemuch* . Withonething,however,
*A communicationfromMr . Hallhimself,justimparted, assures
methat,
asfaras hecouldjudge, theaperturewas coeval withthein-
strument,andbynomeansaccidental
.
1 7 6

THEROUNDTOWERS
.
1amgratified,thatin"A rcher' sTravelsinUpper
India,"published,asbeforeobserved,withinthelast
fewweeks,Ifindthatdistinguishedsoldierand
shrewdobserver,delineateapieceofarchitecture
similarinallparticularstothisSyrianPriap-the
allusiontowhichhasrecalledmetoringthissecond
chimeuponthebells-andasthenoticeisofvalue
Ishallgiveitinhisexpresswords : -"A curious
structure,"sayshe, "
isatthebottomofthehill
( Dutteah)
. Itconsistsoffive conicalpillars, with
greenpaintedtops,inalinefromeasttowest ;the
twolargeronesinthecentre
: the pillars have tiles
stuckinthemresemblingsteps .
Wecouldnotlearn
whatwasitsmeaningoruse .
Thevillageiswholly
J ain, andisnamedSerrowlee
. "
Itisnotdifficulttounderstandwhynoinformation
couldbeobtained,fromthe present
inhabitants,asto
theobjectofthoseedifices
. Theirremote antiquity
isasufficientreply . ButIflattermyselfthatthe
reader,whohasaccompaniedmefromtheoutsetof
thisantiquarianvoyage,cannowsupplythedefect,
andexplainthat
theywereaseriesofRoundTowers,
or Phalli,erectedbytheaboriginalBudhists,
ofwhom
the J aina
areonlythewretchedremains ; andthat
those "
tiles,"whichare "
stuckinthem,resembling
steps,"
wereforthepurposeofascendingbytheaidof
ahoop,
suchaswehaveshownatHieropolis . The
projectingstonesin
our
Priaps,orthecavitiesthat
appearaftertheirremoval,arethusalsoaccounted
for .
177
C HA PTERXIV .
THE universalignorancewhichprevailsthroughout
theEast,astotheoriginofthoseantiquitieswhich
excitethewonderofeverytraveller,makesitneces-
sarythatweshould,again,directourcoursetowards
thathemisphere,toredeem,ifpossible,itsvenerable
remainsfromthatmoralnightwhichsuccessiveages
haveaccumulatedaroundthem .
Persia*wasthesourcewhichpoureditsvivifying
lightintothementalobnubilationofourEuropean
ancestors . Byareverseofthosecasualtiesfrom
whichnoconditioncanbeexempt,Persiahas,inher
turn,beenmadethetheatreofdarkness : andthough,
underthefosteringauspicesofBritishinstitutions,the
misthas,toalargeamount,beendispelled,yetisthe
proudesteraofhersplendourleftstillunexplored,and
*"ThiswordisgenerallysupposedtobederivedfromF ars,orPars,a
divisionoftheempireofIran,andappliedbyEuropeanstothewholeof
thatkingdom . Itiscertainlyawordunknown,inthesenseweuseit,
tothepresentnativesofIran,thoughsomeA rabicwriterscontendthat
Parsformerlymeantthewholekingdom . Inproofofthisassertion,a
passageoftheK oranisquoted,inwhichoneofMahomet' scompanions,
whocamefromavillagenearIsfahan,iscalledTelmanofF arsorPars .
WehavealsotheauthorityoftheScriptureforthenameofthisking-
dombeingParasorPhars . TheauthorsoftheUniversalHistory,on
whatauthorityIknownot,statethatthewordIranisnotageneral
nameofPersia,butofapartofthecountry . Thisiscertainlyerro-
neous : Iranhas,fromthemostancienttimestothepresentday,been
thetermbywhichthePersianscalltheircountry
;
anditincludes,in
thesensetheyunderstandit,alltheprovincestotheeastoftheTigris,
A ssyriaProper,Media,Parthia,Persia,andHvrcaniaorMaz enderan . "
---Sir
J ohnMalcolm .
N
1
7 8

THEROUNDTOWERS
.
thatistheepochwhichcalledforthintolifethose
monumentsofliteratureandphilosophicaleminence,,
which,resistingthecorrosionoftimeandtheassaults
ofwar,stillproudlyelevatetheirheadstowards
thoseorbs,withwhosepompousceremonialtheywere
essentiallyconnected,andwhosegenerativeproper-
tiestheytypicallysymboliz ed-ImeantheRound
Towers .
ThiswasthemomentofPersia' shalcyonpride
thistheperiodofherearthlycoruscation : tothis
haveallthefacultiesofmyardentmindwithvigour
beenaddressed ;andwhile,inthehumbleconscious-
nessofsuccessfulinvestigation,Iannounceitsissueto
havefarexceeded my hopes,Ishallavailmyselfof
theindustryofprecedinginquirerstothrowlight
upontheintervals,ofvalue,whichintervene ; but,
lestIshouldintrudeupontheprovinceoftheirwell-
earnedhonours,Ishall,ineverysuchcaseofborrowed
assistance,allowthewritersthemselvestospeak ;by
whichitwilladditionallyappearthat,withmuch
goodtaste,andwithhistoricalhonesty,theyhave
leftavacuumintheirresearches,forwhichthe
publicmindhasbeenlongathirst,andwhichmy
exclusiveresourcescouldalonesupply .
"ThePersianempire' -,"saysHeeren,"owedits
origintooneofthosegreatpoliticalrevolutionswhich
areofsuchfrequentoccurrenceinA sia,andtherise
andprogressofwhichwehavealreadyconsideredin
general . A rudemountaintribe,ofnomadhabits,
rushedwithimpetuousrapidityfromitsfastnesses,
andoverwhelmedallthenationsofsouthernA sia,
*Thesequotationsfromtheprofessor' sbookarenotgiven
consecu-
tively
ashewrotethem ;but
broughttogether fromdetachedsections
andchapters .
THEROUNDTOWERS.

1 7 9
( theA rabiansexcepted,) fromtheMediterraneanto
theIndusandlaxartes
. Themightyempireswhich
aroseinA siawerenotfoundedinthesamemanner
withthekingdomsofEurope
. Theyweregenerally
erectedbymightyconqueringnations,andthese,for
themostpart,nomadnations
. Thisimportantconsi-
derationwemustneverlosesightof,whenengaged
inthestudyoftheirhistoryandinstitutions
. "
"NotonlyisPersia
f
Propermemorableonac-
countofitshistoricalassociations,butalsoforthe
architecturalremainswhichitcontinuestopresent
.
TheruinsofPersepolisarethenoblestmonuments
ofthemostflourishingeraofthisempire,which
havesurvivedthelapseofages
. A ssolitaryin
theirsituationaspeculiarintheircharacter,theyrise
abovethedelugeofyears,whichforcenturieshas
overwhelmedalltherecordsofhumangrandeur,
aroundthem,ornearthem,andburiedalltracesof
SusaandofBabylon .
Theirvenerableantiquity
andmajesticproportionsdonotmorecommandour
reverence,thanthemysterywhichinvolvestheir
constructionawakensthecuriosityofthemostunob-
servantspectator . Pillarswhichbelongtonoknown
orderofarchitecture ;
inscriptionsinanalphabet
whichcontinuesanenigma ;fabulousanimalswhich
standasguardsattheentrance ;
themultiplicity
ofallegoricalfigureswhichdecoratethewalls,-all
conspiretocarryusbacktoagesofthemostremote
antiquity,overwhichthetraditionsoftheEastshed
adoubtfulandwanderinglight . "
11
ThePersianshavetakenmorepainsthanalmost
anyothernationtopreservetheirrecordsinwriting
;
ParsisthePersian,F arstheA rabic,pronunciationoftheword
.
N
1
8 0

THEROUNDTOWERS
.
yetithasbeentheirfate,incommonwithmostother
nationsofantiquity,tobeindebtedforthestability
oftheirfametoforeignhistorians
. Notwithstanding
thepainstheytooktoregistertheactsoftheir
government,the
originaldocumentsoftheirhistory,
withafewaccidentalexceptions,havealtogether
perished
. A ndtheinscriptionsofPersepolis,like
thehieroglyphicsoftheEgyptians,will,inamanner,
haveoutlivedthemselves,unlessacompletekeybe
discoveredtothealphabetinwhichtheyarecom-
posed . "
Now,asasetofftotheseextracts,itwillbe
necessarytoremarkthat,thoughtrueinsubstance,
theyareonlysoasdescriptiveofaparticularepoch .
Empireafterempirerolledover,insuccession,before
thatwhichthehistorianheredelineates,andwhich
wasbutthemotleycombinationofaruggedswarm
ofmountaineers,whostalkedwithferociousinsensi-
bilityovertheconsecratedrelicsofmonumentalglory
.
HerodotusandA rrianweretheauthoritiesthat
seducedhimintothismistake,theformerofwhom
statesthat "
thePersiansoriginallyoccupiedasmall
andcraggycountry,andthatitwasproposedinthe
timeofC yrusthattheyshouldexchangethisforone
morefertile ;
aplanwhichC yrusdiscouragedas
likelytoextinguishtheirhardyandwarlikepursuits ;"
andthelatter,that "
thePersians,when,underC yrus,
theyconqueredallA sia,wereapoorpeople,inhabit-
ingahillyregion*
;"butthosewriterswereasmisin-
formed,astoalleventsandparticularsrelatingtothis
*Ishouldhaveobserved,thatPlatoalso,speakingofthosemodern
Persians,says,theywereoriginallyanationofshepherdsandherdsmen,
occupyingarudecountry,suchasnaturallyfostersahardyraceof
people,capableofsupportingbothcoldandwatching,and,whenneedful,
ofenduringthetoilsofwar . -Platode Leg . iii . op . ii . p . 6 9 .
5 .
THEROUNDTOWERS .

1 8 1
locality,anteriortothetimespecifiedabove,asany
oftheircontemporaries ;andwhenwereflecthowvery
recentanerainthehistoryoftheworldwasthatin
whichC yrusappeared,itwillbeseenhowfragilea
substratumwasthatwhichtheprofessorhadadopted
fortheerectionofhismaterials . Wereadaccord-
ingly,inTerceira' sSpanishhistoryofthatcountry,
that therewasnotatthattime ( A . D . 15 9 0) one
maninPersia( thesewerethedirectdescendantsof
C yrus' smen) thatunderstoodtheir ancient letters,for
havingoftenseensomeplatesofmetalwith ancient
inscriptionsonthem,Imadeinquiryafterthemean-
ingofthem ;andmen well versed intheir antiquities,
and
studious, toldmethatwas F arskadeem,ancient
Persian, aftertheoldfashion,and thereforeI should
find
noman
thatunderstoodit . "
IndeedthereasoningsofHeerenhimself,-and
learnedIcheerfullyacknowledgethem,-wouldseem
tomakehimriseabovethenarrownessofhisG recian
supporters .
"
Evenprevious,"sayshe,
" tothetimewhenthe
A rabs,withtheswordinonehandandtheK oranin
theother,overranandsubduedPersia,theywere
themoreopentosettlersfromthenorthandeast,
fromthecircumstancethatPersiawassituatedonthe
greathighwayofnations,bywhichthehumanrace
speaditselffromeasttowest . A llthatismeant
tobeassertedis,thatthevariousraceswhosucces-
sivelyhaddominionintheseparts,allbelongedtothe
sameoriginalstock .
" Thisfact,whichtheobservationsofthebest
moderntravellerstendtoconfirm,mayexplainhowit
hascometopassthatmanydistricts,ancientlycele-
bratedfortheirfertility,areatpresentbarren and
1 8 2

THEROUNDTOWERS.
unproductive . A singleinvasion,bydestroyingthe
water-courses,issufficienttoreduce,inashorttime,
afertileandflourishingcountrytoanariddesert
;
andtohowmanysuchdisastrouscontingencieshas
notPersiaatalltimesbeenexposed! "
"A notherfact,suggestedbythelanguagesofA sia
andtheancientdialectsofPersia,istooimportantto
bepassedoverinsilence . NotonlyinthePersian
territorybutinotherpartsofEasternA sia,particu-
larlythetwoIndianpeninsulas,wefindlanguages
whichstillsubsist,mixedupwithotherswhichare
preservedtousonlyinafewwrittennames . Tothis
classbelongs,inPersia,theZ endandPehlivi,already
mentioned ;
inHindostan,thecelebratedSanscrit,as
wellasthePallintheBurmanpeninsula .
"
A ccordingly,weshallventuretoconsiderasthe
sameparentstocktheracewhichboreruleinIran,
comprehendingalltheinferiorraces,andwhichmay
betermedingeneralthePersianorMedo-Persian,
inasmuchasthecountriesinitsoccupationwere
termed,inawidersense,thelandofPersia
.
" TheyhavebeendenominatedbyRhode( Heilige
sagen,& c . ) thepeopleofZ end,notimproperly,ifwe
considertheZ endastheoriginallanguageofall
therace . . . notconfinedtoPersis,properlysocalled,
butextendingoverthesteppesofC armaniaandto
theshoresoftheC aspian . Evenatthepresentday
theyarecomprisedunderthegeneralnameofPersia,
thoughF arsistan,theoriginalcountryofthePersians,
formsaverysmallpartofthisterritory .
TheSemiticandthePersianwere,therefore,the
principallanguagesofA sia ; thelatterbeingspoken
asfarastheIndus . Ourknowledgeofthelanguages
prevalentontheothersideofthatriverisasyettoo
THEROUNDTOWERS
.

1 8 3
defectivetoenableustospeakwithanythinglike
certainty .
Possiblyitmaybereservedforourown
agetoarriveatimportantconclusionsonthissubject,
iftheaffinitybetweentheZ endandtheSanscrit,the
sacredlanguagesofPersiaandHindostan,shouldbe
established,-ifthespiritofdiscovery,whichcharac-
teriz estheBritishnation,shouldsucceedinrescuing
fromoblivionsomemoreremainsofancientIndian
literature,andasecondA nquetilDuperronpresent
thepublicwiththesacredbooksoftheBrahmans,
withthesamesuccessthathispredecessorhasillus-
tratedthoseoftheParsees
. "
ThoughIcannotavoidconcurringinthelaudable
hopethat "
ourownage"maywitnessimportant
conclusionsonthissubject,stillitstrikes me,-and I
earnestlyurgeitasworthythenoticeofaReform
Ministry, thatuntilthe IrishLanguage
berakedfrom
itsashes,noaccuracycaneverbeobtainedeitherin
theZ end,Pahlavi,orSanscrit dialects, whicharebut
emanationsfromit,orinthe subjectmatter, historical
orreligious,whichtheyprofesstopourtray .
"
Intheinteriorofthesedistrictsissituatedacon-
siderablelake,calledthelakeZ evora,unquestionably
the A riaPalus ofantiquity . A largeriver,anciently
bearingthesamename,atpresentcalledtheIlmend,
emptiesitselfintothisinlandseafromthedesertsto
thesouth-east,andC hristiefellinwithanotherstream
farthertothenorth,calledtheHerat,nearatownof
thesamename .
" Iconsider( withK inneir) thecityofHerattobe
samewiththeancientA ria,or,asitwasalsocalled,
A rtacoana . WearetoldthatA lexanderonhismarch
toBactrianainclinedtothesouthtovisitA ria
. We
mustcarefullydistinguishbetweenthetermsA ria
1 8 4

THEROUNDTOWERS
.
andA riana,asusedbytheG reeks . Theformerwas
appliedtoaprovincewhichweshallhaveoccasionto
describeinthesequel
. Thelatterisequivalentto
Iran,andappearstohavebeenformedfromthean-
cienttermintheZ endlanguage,Eriene . Thewhole
ofIrancomposesasortofoblong,theTigrisand
Indusformingitssidestotheeastandwest
; the
PersianG ulfandIndianOceanboundingittothe
south ; andtheC aspian,withMountTaurusandthe
riverOxus,shuttingitintothenorth . Thesewere
alsothelimitsoftheancientA riana ; ( seeStrabo,
p . 104 8
. ) exceptthat,towardsthewest,itsboundary
wasanimaginarylineseparatingitfromPersia
Proper
. Ofthismoreextensivedistrict,A ria( accord-
ingtoStrabo) formedonlyapart,distinguishedbyits
superiorfertility .
Herodotusappearstohavebeen
unacquaintedwiththetermA ria ; hemerelymen-
tionstheA riiasanationalliedtotheMedes .
"A ria,lyingtotheeastofMedia,deriveditsname
fromtheriverA rius,themodernHeri : andtheA rians
andMedeswereoriginallythesamerace ; theMedes,
accordingtoHerodotus,havingoriginallybornethe
nameA rians . Itisapparent,fromthesameplace,
( Herod . vii . 6 2 . ) thatwhatwerecalledthe
Median
habits werenotconfinedtoMediaProper,butex-
tendedtothecountrieslyingeastward,andasthese
touchedonBactria,wecannotbesurprisedatthecon-
formitywhichprevailed . "
TheselatterquotationsIhavethoughtfittointro-
ducetoshowtheignoranceofthemodernG reeks,-
thoseofC yrusandHerodotus' sdays-comparedwith
theirPelasgicpredecessors-Iran,therealnameforall
thosecountriesofhigherA siaasfarastheIndus*,being
~ ` E7rsxrsiiEral asiov"vopaa rn;A eiavn; pesxeiposeov
;
rrva, xar naeowy xxi M,,wrx& t
THEROUNDTOWERS.

1 8 5
called,intheZ end,
Eriene, theG reeks,whoseinter-
coursewiththeEastnowforthefirsttimebegan,with-
outtroublingtheirbrainstoascertainwhatthewordin
eitherform,meant,transmutedthislatterinto
A riana,
whereastheirforefathers,thePelasgi,aliteraryand
areligioustribe,changeditsnamesakeintheWest,
ourownIran-which,inthePahlavidialect,wascalled
Erin,
andintheZ end,wouldalsobecalled Eriene-
into lerne,
therebyevincingtheirknowledgeofthe
importoftheterm,andregisteringtheirsubscription
inits sacred
attributes* .
Thefollowing,however,ismoretothepoint,and,
initself,sufficienttoredeemtheprofessor' sentirework
fromanyoccasionalinclinationtoG reciansubserviency
.
11 Itcannotbedoubtedthat,atsomeremoteperiod,
antecedentto-thecommencementofhistoricalrecords,
onemightyracepossessedthesevastplains .
"Thetraditionsofthisracepreservesomeveryim-
portantparticularsrespectingtheirdescent, their
ancientabodes,and
theirgradual
dissemination
throughthelandofIran . Thesetraditionsarepre-
servedinthebeginningoftheVendidat,themost
important,anditisprobable,themostancientofall
theirsacredbooks,thecollectionofwhichisstyled
theZ endavasta,towhichweshallhaveoccasion
toreferhereafter . Thetwofirstchaptersofthis
work,entitled
F argards, containtheabovetraditions,
sTt T-v
areoraexTavBaxrom,vxatIayllavn,v . ua i yaea' msxxiefa-yA " ' '
7raQa/uxQov .
-Strabo,p. 109 4 .
*A lltheothervariationsarethussimilarlyaccountedfor ;beingbut
offshootsofthesameradix,suchasIhavealreadyshown,page12 8 ,
inreferencetoIreland-whilethecarefulreaderwillofhimselfsee
thatthenameofthatlakeinPersia,ofwhichtheG reeksandRomans,
conjointly,manufacturedA riaPalus,correspondstoourLoughErne,
andmustdoubtlesshavebeensocalledinPersiaalso,for
Palus isevi-
dentlybutthetranslationofLough
.
1 8 6

THEROUNDTOWERS.
notwraptup in allegory,butsoevidentlyhistorical
astodemandnothingmorethantheapplicationof
geographicalknowledgetoexplainthem
. Withthe
exceptionoftheMosaicalScriptures, weareac-
quaintedwithnothingwhichsoplainlywearsthe
stampofremoteantiquity,ascendingbeyond the
timeswithinwhichtheknownempiresoftheEast
flourished ;
inwhichwecatch,asitwere,thelast
faintechoofthehistoryofaformerworld,anterior
tothatgreatcatastropheofourplanet,whichisat-
testedinthevicinityoftheparentcountryofthese
legends,bytheremainsoftheelephant,therhino-
ceros,andthemammoth,andothercountries pro-
perlybelongingtothecountriesofthesouth
. It
wouldbeafruitlesslabourtoattempttoassigndates
totheseremains,butifthecompilerofthe Vendidat
himself,whowaslonganteriortothePersian,andas
weshallhaveoccasiontoshow,probablyalsotothe
Mediandynasty,asknowntous,receivedthemasthe
primevaltraditionsofhisrace,ouropinionoftheir
importancemaybefullyjustified
.
Theselegendsdescribeastheoriginalseatofthe
race,adeliciouscountry,named Eriene-Veedjo, which
enjoyedaclimatesingularlymild, havingseven
monthssummerandfiveofwinter
. Suchwasthe
stateatfirst,ascreatedbythepowerofOrmuz d ;
buttheauthorofevil,thedeath-dealingA hriman,
smoteitwiththeplagueofcold,sothatitcameto
havetenmonthsofwinterandonlytwoofsummer
.
Thusthenationbegantodeserttheparadisetheyat
firstoccupied,andOrmuz dsuccessivelycreatedfor
theirreceptionsixteenotherplacesofbenediction
andabundance,whicharefaithfullyrecordedinthe
legend .
THEROUNDTOWERS .

1 8 7
" WhatthenwasthesiteoftheErienereferredto?
TheeditorsandcommentatorsontheZ endavestaare
inclinedtodiscoveritinG eorgia,ortheC aucasian
district ;buttheopinionmustnecessarilyappearun-
satisfactorytoanyonewhowilltakeintoaccountthe
wholeoftherecord,andthesuccessionofplaces
therementionedastheabodesoftherace .
Onthe
contrary ;wetheretraceagradualmigrationofthe
nationfromeasttowest,notasthishypothesiswould
tendtoprove,fromwesttoeast . Thefirstabode
whichOrmuz dcreatedfortheexiledpeoplewas
Soghdi,whoseidentitywithSogdianaissufficiently
apparent ; nextMoore,orMaroo,inK hora. san ; then
Bakhdi,orBalkh( Bactriana) ,andsoontoF arsitself,
andtheboundariesofMediaorIndia . Theoriginal
countryofErienemustthereforelietotheeastof
Leed,andthusweareled,bythecourseoftradition,
tothoseregionswhichwehavealreadyreferredto,
asthesceneofthetraditionsandfablesofthenation,
viz . ,themountainoustractsonthebordersofBu-
charia,thechainofMustagandBeloor-land,asfar
astheParopamisanrangeontheconfinesofHindo-
stan,andextendingnorthwardstotheneighbourhood
oftheA ltainchain . Thissavageandungenialregion
enjoysatpresentonlyashortsummer,atthesame
timethatitcontainsthereliquesofanancientworld,
whichconfirm,bypositiveproof,thelegendofthe
Vendidat,thatancientlythe climate wasofa
totally
differentcharacter . Whenthealterednatureoftheir
originalseatscompelledtheracetoquitthem,Or-
muz dpreparedforthemotherplacesofreposeand
abundance,withintheprecincts ofthatterritory
whichhas preservedtothepresentdaytheappellation
1SS

THEROUNDTOWERS.
ofIran ; thenationcarryingwiththemthenameof
Eriene,whichisobviouslythesamewithIran .
" J emshid,thefatherofhispeople,themost
gloriousofmortalswhomthesuneverbeheld . In
hisdayanimalsperishednot : therewasnowant
eitherofwateroroffruit-bearingtrees,orofanimals
fitforthefoodofmankind . Duringthelightofhis
reigntherewasneitherfrostnorburningheat,nor
death,norunbridledpassions,northeworkofthe
Deevs . Manappearedtoretaintheageoffifteen
;
thechildrengrewupinsafetyaslongasJ emsliid
reignedthefatherofhispeople* .
" Therestorationofsuchagoldenagewastheend
ofthelegislationofZ oroaster,who,however,builthis
codeonareligiousfoundationagreeablytotheprac-
ticeoftheEast ; andthemultifariousceremonieshe
prescribedhadallreferencetocertaindoctrinesinti-
matelyassociatedwithhispoliticaldogmata ; andit
isabsolutelynecessarytobearinmindtheiralliance,
ifwewouldnotdoinjusticetoonepartorotherof
hissystem
.
11 OntheseprinciplesZ oroasterbuilthislawsfor
theimprovementofthesoilbymeansofagriculture,
bytendingofcattleandgardening,whichheper-
petuallyinculcates,asifhecouldnotsufficientlyim-
presshisdiscipleswithasenseoftheirimportance .
"A ccordingtohisownprofessionshewasonlythe
restorerofthedoctrinewhichOrmuz dhimselfhad
promulgatedinthedaysofJ emshid : thisdoctrine,
however,hadbeenmisrepresented,afalseandde-
lusivemagia,theworkofDeevs,hadcreptin,which
*Z endavesta,i . 14 .
THEROUNDTOWERS .

1 8 9
wasfirsttobeextinguished,inordertorestorethe
purelawsofOrmuz d .
" EvenPlato,thefirstG recianwriterwhomentions
Z oroaster,speaksofhimas asageofremoteantiquity ;
andthesameisestablishedbytheevidenceofHermip-
pusandEudoxus,whichPlinyhaspreserved
.
The
secondZ oroaster,supposedbyTouchertohaveflou-
rishedunderDariusHystaspes,isthemerefigmentof
somelaterG recianauthorsoflittlecredit .
"
Onthewhole,we arecompelled
tocarryback
Z oroastertotheperiodwhenBactrianawasaninde-
pendentmonarchy,
a
periodanteriortotheverycom-
mencementoftheMedianempire, asrelatedbyHero-
dotus,ascending beyondtheeighthcentury beforethe
C hristianera .
Whetherwemustreferhimto
a still
moreancientepoch, priortotheA ssyrianmonarchy,
thechronologicalnotices we
havealreadygivenare
allthatcanbeafforded,exceptwebepreparedto
transportthesagebeyondthe utmostlimitsofrecorded
history. "
A sIhavenolongeroccasion,however,forthe
sage
thantoshowthathewas a
reformer ;
and
thoughatleast " eight( morelikely eighteen) hun-
dredyearsbeforetheC hristianera,"-yetwashe
eventhen,comparatively,a modern,-I shallnow
turntoothersourcestoascendtothedynastiesthat
hadprecededhim .
11 Therareandinterestingtractontwelvereli-
gions,"saysSirW
. J ones, entitledtheDabistan,
andcomposedbyaMahomedantraveller,anativeof
C ashmere,namedMoshan,butdistinguishedbythe
assumedsurnameofF ani,orPerishable,beginswith
awonderfullycuriouschapteronthe religionof
Hushang,whichwas
longanterior
to Z eradust( Z o-
1 9 0

THEROUNDTOWERS .
raaster) , buthadcontinuedtobe secretlyprofessedby
manylearnedPersians,eventotheauthor' stime ; and
severalofthemosteminentofthesedissenting,inmany
points,fromtheG abrs,andpersecutedbytheruling
powersoftheircountry,hadretiredtoIndia,where
theycompiledanumberofbooks,nowextremely
scarce,whichMoshanhadperused,andwiththewriters
ofwhich,orwithmanyofthem,hehadcontracted
anintimatefriendship . F romthemhelearnedthata
powerfulmonarchyhadbeen . establishedforagesin
Iran,beforetheaccessionofC ayemurs ; thatitwas
calledtheMahabadeandynasty,forareasonwhich
willsoonbementioned
;
andthatmanyprinces,of
whomsevenoreightonlyarenamedintheDabis-
tan,andamongthemMahbul,orMahaBeli,had
raisedtheempiretothez enithofhumanglory . If
wecanrelyonthisevidence,-which tomeappears
unexceptionable,-the Iranianmonarchymusthave
beentheoldestintheworld . "
SirJ ohnMalcolmhadsomescruplesastothe
authenticityofthisproduction,andenteredupona
verysevereanalysisofitscontents
;
merelybecause
the idols whichtheancientPersiansarethereinstated
tohaveadored,andthe mode oftheiradoration,were
dissimilartothoseofIndia! Wasitnecessarythat
theyshouldbealike? Itistrue,thatfromPersia
everythingIndianflowed ; butthere,onitsimporta-
tion,itpartookofthepeculiaritiesofthesoiland
climate ; while,eveninPersiaitself,agreatdege-
neracyoccurred
; andthedeteriorationandmoral
laxity,thussuperinduced,waswhatthevirtuous
Z erdustsodeplored,andwhat kindled his
,fervour
tonewmodelthesystem .
But

theintroductionoftheangel G abriel,"
he
THE
ROUND TOWERS.

1 9 1
says, " appearsofitselfenoughtodiscreditthe
wholework
. " WasSirJ ohnsure,thatthisrender-
ingwasliteral? Hehimselfadmitsthatliewas
" followingaMahomedanauthor,whohascertainly
made a free translationofthePahlavitext
. "
A nd,
ifsoinonecase,whynotinanother? Buteven
admittingthattherewasno freedom
atallusedin
thematter ; andthat G abriel is therigidversionof
thenameofthemessengeremployed,thisshouldnot,
intheleast, affectourrelianceupontheDabistan,as
Ishalladduceagreater coincidence thanthis,nay,a
downright identity,
notonlyof
name
butof
essence ;
betweenthedivinedispensationinallpreviousages,
andthespiritualformofitwithwhichweareatpre-
sentblessed .
Butyouwillsay,perhaps,thatMoshanF ani' s
authoritieswere,inagreatmeasure, floating, and
dependentupon historiesof amerelyoralstamp,
which-wantingastheydo,theimpressoflettered
perpetuity,andsubject,astheyare,tovariation,
bothofcurtailmentandofaddition,besidesthecolour
of
depreciationorenhancement,whichtheymust
furthermoreundergo,accordingtothenatureofthe
successive media
throughwhichtheypass,-cannot,
afterrepeatedtransfusions,retainmuchsimilarity
withtheoriginaltruth,noraffordtoarationaland
thinkingmind,howevertheymaygratifyselfishor
nationallove,muchstabilityforconvictionorsatis-
factoryacquiescence?
TothefirstIshallreplythatitseemsnotcorrect,
asthemanuscriptsbywhichhewasguidedappear
stillinexistence ; andthiswasnotwithoutitsinflu-
enceonSirJ ohn' sownscepticism,whenhedeclares,
that 1 1
Thedoubtfulauthorityofthisworkhas
1 9
2

THE
ROUND TOWERS.
receivedsomesupportfromtherecentdiscoveryofa
volumeintheancientPehlivi,calledtheDussadeer,
orZ emarawatseer,towhichitsauthorsrefer
. "
Then,astothe vanity alludedto,thecompiler
maywellbeacquittedofany,asbeingofadifferent
creed,andproverbiallyintolerant,hecouldnot,
did
nottruthoversway, havefeltmuchcommunionofplea-
sureincelebratingthegloriesofadefunctreligion .
A ndthoughIconcedethat that
speciesofinformation,
whicharisesfromthetraditionsofsuccessiveracesof
men,cannotbesosatisfactoryasthatwhichis
stereo-
typed
inalphabeticcharacters ;nay,that,according
asitdivergesfromitsfirstoutlet,
itislikelyto
divergealsofromexactness ; stillIdoinsist,thatthe
prevalenceofthose traditions, wherevertheyoccur,
arguessomealliancewith
fact
and reality ; justas
idolatryitself,inallitsramifications,isbutthecor-
rupttransmissionoforiginalpurereligion
.
1 9 3
C HA PTERXV .
THE
objections againstthe Dabistan
being
thus
superseded ;
andtheideaofitsbeingan ' inven-
tion*,"havingnevercrossedanyone' sthoughts,I
shallnowgiveabird' s-eyeviewofitstenourinSir
J ohn' sownsummarythereof.
Ithasbeenbeforeobserved,"sayshe, "
thatthe
idolatrousreligionwhichMohsinF aniascribesto
theancientPersians,bearsnoresemblancetothe
worshipoftheHindoos : itseemsnearestthatwhich
wasfollowedbyasectof Sabians,
who,wearetold,
believed
in G od,
but
adored the planets, whom
they
deemedhisvicegerents,thatexercisedaninfluenceover
allcreatedthingsintheworld. This sectofSabians
weresaidtofollowthe ancient C haldeans,andto
inherittheirskillinastronomy,asciencebuiltupon
thesamefoundationastheadorationoftheplanets,
.
A ndthisleadsustoremark,thattheverytitleofthe
workfromwhichMohsinF anigivesanaccountof
thisworship,appearsmorelikethatofatreatise
*" A ndwhatwouldhardlyappearpossible,aswecannotdiscover
whatpurposesuchafinishedfableofidolatroussuperstitionwouldbe
meanttoanswer
. "-SirJ ohnMalcolm' sHistoryofPersia,vol . i . p
. 19 1 .
1' YetinHindoostan,also,aswelearnfromMajorA rcher,
11 an
astrologer isaconstitutedauthorityinallthevillages,andnothing
pertainingtolifeanditsconcernsiscommencedwithouthissanction
. "
1
9
4

THEROUNDTOWERS
.
upon astrology,thanuponreligion .
Hecallsit
A kheristan, or theregionof
the stars . Itis,however,
impossibletoenterintoanyminutecomparisonofthe
religionheascribestotheancientPersians,andthe
sectofSabiansthathavebeennoticed,
becausewe
haveonlyaverygeneralaccountofthetenetsofthe
latter
. "
A stothe impossibility herecomplainedof,itis
obviousthat thereisnone :
whoeverhasdigested
eventheearlypartofthisessaywillownitwasbut
ideal .
WiththisIshouldhavecontentedmyself,but
thatIfeelcalledupontocorrectanothermisconcep-
tion,whichtheabovemayhaveproduced .
ThatSabaismmeant idolatry
inthewaythereinsi-
nuated,Iutterlyandaltogetherrepudiate . Itwas
thereligionoftheearlyG reeksbeforetheirdegene-
ratemythologyhadloadeditwithsomanyabsurdi-
ties* ; andthatitwasso,isevidentfromtheterm
intheirlanguage,whichexpresses "toworship," viz . ,
6 egotuat,anevidentderivation,fromwhichisangli-
cised,Sabaismt . Theobjectofthisreligionwasthe
hostofheaven,meaningthesun,moon,andstars .
Thenamesassignedtothereputedidols, viz
. ,
Ura-
nus, i . e. Heaven,andG ea, i . e. Earth,withthe
energiesoftheskyandnaturetypifiedunderthe
namesofthe
C yclops"and" G iants,"incontro-
vertiblydemonstratethetruthofthisposition .
*Tout,danslesystemeprimitifdelareligiondesG recs,attestela
transpositiondestraditionscommedesprincipes
;toutyestvague,
sombreetconfus . -DE
SA C Y.
1TheSabiansthemselvesboastingtheoriginoftheirreligionfrom
Seth,andpretendingtohavebeendenominatedfromasonofhiscalled
Sabius,asalsoofhavingamongthemabook,whichtheycalledthe
Bookof
Seth. -Prideaux, parti . bookiii .
THE ROUND TOWERS.

1 9 5
IhavesaidthatthenameC yclops,inthisreligious
code,wasmeanttofigureforththeenergiesofthe
atmosphere ; Ineedbutmentiontheirdenominations
toestablishmyproof. Theyare " Steropes,"from
TTEp0W- , lightning ; A rgues,from
apy
-% quick-flash-
ing ;andBrontes,from ( 3pov
. r' ,
thunder. Eventhe
celebratednameof Hercules
*
himself,andthetwelve
labourspoeticallyascribedtohim,-who,wemust
observe,manyagesbeforetheTirynthianherois
fabledtohaveperformedhiswonders,orhismother
C lymenatohavebeenborn,hadtemplesraisedto
himinPhoeniciaandEgypt,aswellasatC adiz and
theIsleofThasos-arenothingmorethanafigura-
tivedenotationoftheannualcourseofthesolar
luminarythroughthesignsoftheZ odiac
.
In supportofthisIshallquotetheauthorityof
Porphyry,whowashimselfborninPhoenicia,and
whoassuresusthat "
theytheregavethenameof
Herculestothesun,andthatthefableofthetwelve
laboursrepresentsthesun' sannualpathinthe
heavens . "
Orpheus,ortheauthorofthehymnsthat
passunderhisname,saysthatHerculesis"thegod
whoproducedtime,whoseformsvary,thefatherof
allthingsanddestroyerofall ; heisthegodwho
bringsbackbyturnsA uroraandthenight,andwho
movingonwardsfromeasttowest,runsthroughthe
careerofhistwelvelabours ; thevaliantTitan,who
chasesawaymaladies,anddeliversmanfromtheevils
whichafflicthim . " ThescholiastonHesiodlike-
wiseremarks,"Thez odiacinwhichthesunper-
formshisannualcourseisthetruecareerwhich
Herculestraversesinthefableofthetwelvelabours
;
ThisisonlyacorruptionfromtheIrishword
Ercol, thesun .
o2
1 9 6

THEROUNDTOWERS.
andhismarriagewithHcebe,thegoddessofyouth,
whomheespousedafterhehadendedhislabours,
denotestherenewaloftheyearattheendofeach
solarrevolution . "
WhilethepoetNonnas,adverting
tothesunasadoredbytheTyrians,designateshim
HerculesA strokiton,
( a6 TOoX1T( mv,) orthegodclothed
inamantleofstars
;followingupthisdescriptionby
statingthat "
heisthesamegodwhomdifferent
nationsadore,underamultitudeofdifferentnames-
Belus,onthebanksoftheEuphrates-A rnmon,in
Libya-A pis,atMemphis-Saturn,inA rabia-J u-
piter,inA ssyria-Serapis,inEgypt-Helios,among
theBabylonians -
A pollo,atDelphi - IEsculapius,
throughoutG reece,"& c . & c .
Eventhefatherofhistoryhimself,thegreatC o-
lossusoftheG reeks,whilstclaimingforhiscountry-
menthehonourofinstitutingtheirowntheogony,
evincesintheattemptmoreofmisgivinganddoubt
thanwasconsistentwiththepossessionofauthentic
information . Hiswordsarethese
: --A sforthe
godswhenceeachofthemwasdescended,orwhether
theywerealwaysinbeing,orunderwhatshapeor
formtheyexisted,theG reeksknewnothingtillvery
lately.
HesiodandHomerwere,Ibelieve,about
fourhundredyearsolderthanmyself,andnomore,
andthesearethemenwhomadeatheogonyfdrthe
G reeks ;
whogavethegodstheirappellations,de-
finedtheirqualities,appointedtheirhonours,and
describedtheirforms ;
asforthepoets,whoaresaid
tohavelivedbeforethesemen,Iamofopinionthey
cameafterthem . "
Buteventhisassumption,wereitconcededtothe
utmost,wouldnotmilitateagainstthedoctrinewhich
Ihavelaiddown
;forHomer' seducationwasreceived
THEROUND' POWERS.

1 9 7
inEgypt,andIndiawasthemediumwhichillumi-
natedthelattercountry ; nothing,therefore,pre-
ventsouryieldingtothestreamofgeneralauthority
inascribingtheintroductiontothePelasgi . The
word
x? ovog itself,or thefatherofJ ove,"wasnothing
morethananequivalentwiththeLatin tempos ; and
fortheverybestpossiblereason,becausetherevolu-
tionsofthisplanet,asoftheothercelestialorbs,
came,fromtheirperiodicalandregularappearances,
tobeconsideredtheordinarymeasurementsofthe
partsofdurationortime .
Itmust,nodoubt,appearacontradictionthat
C hronos,-the " sonofUranus,andTerra,"aswe
weretoldatschool,andthefirstperson,assomewhere
elsestated,whowashonouredwithacrown,-should
becalledan
"orb,"andhave
periodicalappear-
ances ;"andthatthoseappearancesshouldregulate
ourestimateofdays,weeks,years,andseasons .
The
difficulty,however,willcease,whenweconsiderthat
thoughthe sun, moon,
and stars
weretheprimary
objectsoffalseworship,thedeificationofdeadmen,
deceasedheroes,afterwardscreptin,theconsequence
ofwhichwasamixedkindofidolatry,consistingof
stars and heroes, or heroines,deceased-a planetbeing
assignedtoeachasthegreatestpossiblehonour .
" Thatwhommencouldnothonourinpresence,be-
causetheydweltfaroff,theytookthecounterfeitof
hisvisagefromfar,andmadeanexpressimageof
aking,whomtheyhonoured,totheendthatbytheir
forwardnesstheymightflatterhimthatwasabsent,
asifhewaspresent* . "
Letusnowseebowthereligionoftheancient
Irishharmoniz eswiththatoftheDabistan,asillus-
*WisdomofSolomon,xiv . 16 ,17 .
19 8

THE ROUND TOWERS .


trated
inthecompositionofsomeofourancient
names . Here Baal or Moloch,
and
A starte
areob-
viouslyintheforeground ; whilstthepopularand
vernacularnamesforthoseluminariesamongstthe
peasantrythemselves,namely,
G rian forthe sun,
Luan
forthe moon,Righ for king,
and
Rea
for queen,
intheirappropriationtoseverallocalitiesthroughout
thecountry,indicate,buttooplainly,themelancholy
taleoftheirformerdeification .
Toinstancesomefewofthosenames,thatstrike
meas demonstrative
ofthisSabianworship,Ishall
beginwith
Baltinglas* . -Thisnameofatownandmountain
" To
thisexactlycorresponds,aswellinimportasinappropriation,
thenameofoneofthehillsuponwhichRomewasbuilt,thatis, Pala-
tines,
which-nodoubt,totheamaz ementofetymologicalempirics-is
nothinglessthanacompoundof
Baal and tinne ; thatis, Baal' s fire-
theinitialBandPbeingalwayscommutable . A nd A ven-tinus, the
epithetofanotheroftheSevenMounts,isderivedfrom A van, ariver ;
and tinne, fire,meaningthefire-hill,neartheriver . A ndastheformer
wasdevotedtothe sun,so thelatterwastothe moon ;
inconfirmation
ofwhichitgotanothername,viz . ,
Re-monius, ofwhichthecomponent
partsare Re, themoon
; and
moin, anelevation .
The Pru-taneion, also,amongsttheG reeks,waswhat? A fire-hill .
Startlenot,itisaliteraltruth . ButtheDictionariesandLexiconssay
nothingaboutthesematters ?
nay,offerother explanationsf mystifica-
tions,Sir,ifyouplease,wherebytheyimplicate,aswellthemselvesas
theirreaders,inabsurdities ; whichcouldnotbeexpectedtobeotherwise,
uninstructed,
astheirauthorsnecessarilywere,
intheelementsofthat
languagewhenceallthosewordshavediverged .
Pru-taneion, then,iscompoundedof Bri, a mount,and tinne, fire ; the
B, asbeforeobserved,beingcommutablewith P, particularlyamongst
theG reeks,whoindifferentlycalledBritain
Beravsxn
and IIQsravixn( vncof
beingunderstood) . Everycommunityhad,ofold,oneofthose Bri-
tennes, or firemounts, naturalorartificial . Theguardianofthesacred
elementthereinwascalled,
Bri-ses
;
andthedwellingassignedhim,
hard by, A stu . ThenumberofthoselatterC ecropsreduced,inA ttica,
fromonehundredandsixty,totwelve . OftheseTheseusappointedthe
principalstation at C ecropia, thenameofwhichhechanged,by
wayof
eminence, to A stu ; andhencethislatterword,whichoriginallybut
representedtheabodeofthe Sacerdos, cameultimatelytosignify a city
atlarge ;as Prutaneion didaC ommonC ouncilHall .
THEROUNDTOWERS
.

1 9 9
inthecountyofWicklow,andprovinceofLeinster,
isequivalenttoBaal-tinne-glass,thatis,
11 Baal' s-fire-
green,"alludingtothecolourofthegrassatthespring
season . These igneous
betrayalsofhumanfrailtyand
superstitionwerecelebratedthroughoutIrelandat
boththe
vernal and autumnal
equinoxes,inhonourof
thetwindivinitiessooftenadvertedtointhecourse
ofthisbook .
Theeveofthevernalonewascalled
A icheBaal-tinne,
thatis,thenightofBaal' sfire,the
eveoftheautumnal,
A icheShamain, thatis,thenight
ofthemoon' ssolemnity ;
onbothwhichoccasions
fireswerelightedonall "
thehighplaces" dedicated
totheirworship .
Thereturnoftheserespectiveseasonsgave
risetovarioussuperstitionsamongsttheilliterate
populace,oneofwhichwasthatofborrowinga
pieceofmoneyatthefirstsightofthenew-moon,if
theyhaditnotthemselves,asanomenofplenty
throughoutthemonth* . A ndtheirprayingtothat
luminary,whenfirstseenafteritschange,issowell
knownastobementionedevenbyaF renchwriter,
whomSelden,
"
DeDiisSyriis,"quotesinthese
words : --Semittentagenouxenvoyantlalune
nouvelle,etdisentenparlantalune,laisenousausi
sainsquetonousastrouve* . "
Thenewmoonnearesttothewintersolsticewas
* To thisday,themostkindlywish,andordinarysalutation,oftheIrish
peasant,continuestobe Baldhiaduit,Baldhiaort, thatisthegodBaal
toyou,orthegodBaaluponyou .
iTheIrishmodeofexpressingitis Slanfuartosin,agusclanadfaga
tosin . TheC affreswhoresideallroundtheC ape,paytheiradoration
tothemoon,bydancingtoherhonourwhenshechanges,orwhen
sheisatthefull . Theyprostratethemselvesontheground,thenrise
upagain,and,gaz ingatherorb,withloudacclamations,makethefol-
lowingaddress : -"We,thyservants,salutethee
. G iveusstoreofmilk
andhoney
;increaseourflocksandherds,andwewillworshipthee . "
2 0 0

THEROUNDTOWERS
.
celebratedwithpeculiarceremonies . Onthatnight
thechiefDruid,attendedbycrowdsofthepeople,
usedtogointothewoods,andcutwithagolden
sickleabranchofthemistletoeoftheoak,whichhe
wouldcarryinprocessiontothesacredgrove
. This
goldensickleorcrescent,correspondedinformand
naturewiththatwhichA ureliusA ntoninus,theRo-
manemperor,woreathiscoronation,tointimatehis
adherencetothePhoeniciandoctrinesinwhichhe
hadbeenearlyinstructed-hisadoptednamestill
furtherintimatingthathehadbeen,what
it
literally
signifies,Heliogabalus,thatis,priestofthesun* .
Thecrescentitselfisthefavouritebadge ofSheevah,
the matrimonial deityoftheIndians,whichheisre-
presentedaswearinginfrontofhiscrown .
A ftertheintroductionofC hristianity,itsfirst
preacherswishingtodefertotheprejudicesofthe
inhabitants,yetnotsoastointerferewiththecele-
brationofEasteratthevernalequinox,withanac-
commodatingpolicy,retainedtheBaal-tinneceremo-
nial,onlytransferringittothe saints' days
;
thus
diverting theirattentionfromtheirformerdevotion,
andfixingituponthosewho,intheirz ealouspropa-
gationofthegospeltruths,maybeconsideredas
C hristian
stars ;-conformablytothatgraciouscha-
racterof " aburningandshininglight,"whichour
Saviourhimselfappliedtohisprecursor,St . J ohn .
IiihonourofthisA postle,J une2 4 th,thedayof
hisnativity,wassubstituted,intheoldecclesiastical
calendar,forthepagansolsticefestival,andcalled
solstitiumvulgi,thevulgarsolstice .
Theintentionofthetransferwas,however,lost
sightofbytheilliterate ; andwhentheywould
*Thewordismore mysterious, asIshallexplainelsewhere .
THE
ROUNDTOWERS .

2 0 1
kindletheir,firesonthetopsof mountains
onthose
occasions,theyusedtoblendwiththemthefeatures
ofthepaganinstitution,bypassingchildrenand
cattlebetweenthemforthepurposeofpurification .
Thepropriety,therefore,ofthussubservingto
deep-rootedprejudices,hasbysomebeenimpugned ;
but
" surely,"afterall,tousethewordsofavery
ablewriter, "
theyweremuchwiserand,betterwho,
inthoseearlytimes,graftedtheevangelicaluponthe
druidicalculture,thantheywho,insubsequenttimes,
institutedasystemofextirpationinordertoregene-
rate . "
Theotherpagansolemnitiesweresimilarlymeta-
morphosed,andpartookofsimilartransmutations .
ThefirstofMayaloneretainedthenameandcharac-
teristicsofitsoriginalappropriation,beingstillcalled
11 La-Beuil-tinne,"
thatis,thedayofBaal' sfire,as
familiarlyasthenameof C hristmas
isgiventothe
2 5 thofDecember . Onit,too,firesarekindledon
"
highplaces,"asbefore ; andchildrenandcattle
purifiedbypassingbetweenthem
;-
-
,,
Yet,oh
! remember
OftIhaveheardtheesay,thesecretheart
IsfairDevotion' stemple : therethesaint
Evenonthatlivingaltarlightstheflame
Ofpurestsacrifice,whichburnsunseen,
Notunaccepted . *"
InextturntoK illmalloch,theancientnameof
which,asgivenbyPtolemy,wasMacollicon,-ame-
tathesisforMallochicon
;
andthefinal, icon, whichis
onlyaG reektermination,beingtakenaway,leaves
Malloch,thatis,Moloch,theA polloorgreatdivi-
nityoftheancientuniverse
.
Todivertthenativesfromthismisplacedenthu-
siasm,oneoftheearlyconvertstoC hristianityas-
*HannahMore
.
2 0 2

THEROUNDTOWERS
.
sumedtohimselfthenameof Maloch ; andthenpre-
fixingtoittheadjunct K ill, madeitthe churchof
Maloch,
insteadofthe cityofMoloch .
Hereisstilltobeseen,careeringtowardstheskies,
oneofthose "
singular templesofroundform,"-ofthe
existenceofwhichVitruviuswassoignorant,butwhose
dogmaticenunciation of
Q monopteres"and " perip-
teres,"soundsasfeeblyin my ears,asMontmorency' s
assumptionthattheRoundTowersweredungeons !
-andtheviolencewhichthisstructurehaslatterly
undergone-bytheeffortmadetoincorporateitwith
theC hristiancathedral,builtbesideitinrivalship,
afteraninterval of nearlythreethousandyears-isone
ofthemosttriumphantevidenceswhichtruthcan
produceinsuppressionoferror . Mysoulburned
withearnestnesstovisitthishallowedscene,upon
whichIhadrevolvedsomuch,andwhichIassociated
inmyfancywiththerecordedgloriesofA pollo . I
have,atlast,seenit ;
andhemustbeindeedaslave
tofaction,orthedupeofprejudice,whowillnotsub-
scribetothatevidencewhichtheverystonespro-
claim .
A pollo' sTemple,ortheRoundTower,standsat
thecornerofthecathedral,subsequentlybuilthalf-
aroundit :
and,asyouascendtheparapet of the
latter,by an intermural
staircase,havingtopass,after-
wards,fromoneside
of thisparapettotheother,just
attheverycornerbywhichtheTowerisgirt,the
passbeingverynarrow,andalmostterrificindimen-
sions,whollydefencelessbesides,ontherighthand
whichlooksdownintothebody
of thecathedral,the
constructors of
thislatteredificewereobliged,intheir
desiretointermarryC hristianitywithpaganism,to
scoopoff,orrathertofile,aboutsixinchesofthe
ancient
rotundstructure,allalong,ontheleft,tothe
THE
ROUND TOWERS.

2 0 3
heightofthehumanfigure,soastoallowmoreroom
;
yeteventhusmutilated,Icouldnotbutreverence
andbowdownbeforetheTower .
"
F or,eventhefaintestrelicsofashrine,
Of any
worship,wakesomethoughtsdivine* . "
A fterthistransformation,K ilmallochassumedan
entirelyC hristianaspect
;andthemonasticbuildings
thatcrowdedthetownsurpassed,intheirstyle,any
thingsimilarthroughouttheisland
. Thematerials,
however,ofwhichthosewereconstructed,being
inferiorinqualitytothe Tuathan
composition,didnot
longkeepplace
;sothatnow,whilsttheRound
Towerstillmaintainsitsboldpre-occupancy,the
C hristianchurchesexhibitbutapileofruins !
Thedrearinessofthisonceimperialsiteisamoving
instanceofworldlyvicissitudes ; andonecanscarcely
avoid,whenpassingbythelonelinessofitsdilapi-
datedmansions,applyingtheappositeandmelan-
cholyapostropheattributedtoOssian, " Whydost
thoubuildthehall,sonofthewingeddays? Thou
lookestfromthytowersto-day
; yetafewyears,and
theblastofthedesertcomes,ithowlsinthyempty
courts . "
A rd-Mulchan,thenameofavillageinthebarony
ofDuleck,countyMeath,comesfrom
A rd, thehigh
place,ormound,
Mulchan
ofMoloch . A nd,however
extraordinaryitmayappeartosomereaders,Icannot
buthaz ardmyopinion,thatthenameoftheindi-
vidualtowhomSt
. Patrickhadbeensoldduringhis
captivityinthisisland,viz
. ,Milco-Mac-Huanan,that
is,Milco,theson-of-Huanan,originatedinthecir-
cumstanceofthefamily' sdevotiontotheserviceof
thisidol ;
andifadoubtremainedastothejustness
*Byron
.
2 04

THE ROUND
TOWERS.
ofthisconclusion,itwill,methinks,beremoved,
whenweconsiderthecloseofhismortalcareer,and
theunfortunateblindnesswithwhichheclungtohis
fatuity .
Hewasapettyprinceofthatpartofthecountry,
afterwardscalledDalruadia,ortheprincipalityofthe
Dalruads,fromtheprevalenceofthatdemi-tribe,in
Ulster ; andwhenPatrick,-inprosecutionofthat
missionofgrace,towhichhehadbeendeputedby
divineinterposition ; andimpelled,perhaps,moreover,
byacompassionatez ealandC hristianrecollection
ofhispreviousbondage,-undertook,amongstother
conversions,thatofhisformermaster,wefindthat
thesentimentwasnotreciprocatedon his
part ; but
that,eitherashamedofallowinghimselftobeper-
suaded,inhisoldage,toabandonthereligionin
whichhehadbeenearlyinitiated ;
ormarkedout
byProvidenceasanawfulvictimtotheprevailing
superstition,heplungedhimselfintoafirewhichhad
accidentallybrokeoutinhiscastle,andsowascon-
sumedbythatelementwhichhehadbeforewor-
shippedashisG od
!
A thlone,-orasancientlyandcorrectlywritten
A tli-luain,-thenameofatownsituatedontheriver
Shannon,where itisfordable,
boundingLeinsterin
Westmeath,andC onnaughtinG alway,iscom-
poundedofthewords A th, whichsignifiesaford ; and
luain,
ofthemoon .
Thecommonpeoplestillcallit
Blah-luin,anevidentcorruptionof
Baile-ath-luin, that
is,thevillageofthefordofthemoon
;equivalentto
Moon-ford-town . Thisnameestablishestheanalogy
oftheSyrianA startewiththeworshipherepaidto
the " queenofnight,"andthemanylunettes,orgold
crescents,foundburiedinthe neighbourhood, are
4 4 confirmationgstron"oftheinferencededuced
.
THEROUNDTOWERS.

2 0 5
The moon, whose course through the heavens
regulated
themonthsoftheearlylunaryear,and
whoseinfluencewasregardedbytheancients,in
commonwiththatofthesun,asoneofthe, fertiliz ing
principles of nature, andasexertedchieflyamidwilds
andwoods,atadistancefromthecrowdedabodesof
man,hadinthisspot,apparently,apeculiarclaim
forherspecialappropriation . F or,heretheaged
majestyoftheriverShannon,theG angesofIreland-
aswefindreciprocallythatShannonisoneofthe
G angiannames,andSaor,orSuir,thenameof
anotherIrishriver,meaning sacred"water,belongs
alsototheIndusitself-displaysitsimposinggran-
deurinallthevarietiesofsublimeanddelightful
scenery . Notfaroffisoneofthosebeautifullakes
intowhichthismonarchofwatersexpandshimself,to
bask,asitwere,inrepose,fromthetiresomegaz e
attendingthecrowdedpathofhisordinarytravels ;
The' deep,yetclear ; tho' gentle,yetnotdull ;
Strongwithoutrage ;withouto' erflowingfull* . "
LoughReaisthenameofthelakeabovereferred
to,which,fromitsproximitytoA thlone,givescon-
currentsanctiontothederivationaboveassigned
.
F or Rea, inIrish,correspondstoMalcoth,orA starte,
i. e . ,queen,thatis,Shamaim,oftheheavens
; as Righ
doestoBaal,orMolock,master,orkingofthe
same ; andbothre-echoedinthe
regina and rex of
theLatins
1- .
Ishouldfurthernotice,thatintheBaronyof
C astle-reagh,--anamewhich,thoughprefacedbya
*OnesuperstitionofthePagansneverfailstoassertitsinfluence
uponspotslikethis-the geniusloci isalwaysascendant . -DEA NS.
. r
A b-roch
also,theofficialtitleofJ oseph,whenappointedregentof
Egypt,signifiesfatherofthe king .
2 0 6

THE ROUND TOWERS .


modern
adjunct,stilltestifiesitsdevotion,atonetime,
tothemoon-therehasbeen,someyearsago,dug
uponeofthosebeautifulplatesofgold,shapedlike
ahalf-moon,atonceconfirmatoryofthepropriety
ofthelocalname,andofthenatureoftheworship
ofitsprimitiveincumbentshavingbeenlunaror
Sabian
. Thisrelicisnowinthepossessionofthe
Downshirefamily .
Inreferenceto Shannon, towhichIhavebefore
adverted,asbeingoneofthenamesofthe G anges,
itisnotalittlecuriousthat Durga, thesupposed
divinityofthiswater,andwhosefestivalisannually
solemniz edallthroughHindoostan,shouldberepre-
sented by Derg,
thesupposeddivinityofthe Shan-
non,
andshouldhaveitsnamestillmoreperpe-
tuatedintheIrishword
Dearg-art, thatis,theabode
ofDerg,inLoughDerg,thelowerlakeuponthis
river .
F romitsmouthtoitssourcethisnoblestreamis
characteriz edwithrelicsofprimevalworship,cor-
responding,informandtendency,withthoseon
thebanksofitsIndiannamesake . ScatteryIsland,
orasitshouldmoreproperlybecalled,InisC atty,
situatedverynearwhereitdischargesitselfintothe
sea,retainsabeautifulRoundTower,towhichhas
beenafterwardsappended,intheC hristiantimes,
themysticalnumberofsevenchurches,andthe
ruinsofwhicharestillperceptible . Thecircumstance
ofanearlyprofessorofourheaven-taughtreligion
havingtakenuphissecludedresidencewithinthepre-
cinctsofthisspot,hasledmanymodernstosuppose
thattheriverobtaineditsnamefromhim,whereas
theword Shannon is
derivedfrom ShanA oun, that
is,the
agedriver ;"andthesaintreceivedhisname
THEROUND TOWERS.

2 0 7
fromthat
piouspolicy beforeexplained,aswellas
fromtheconstancyofhisabodeinitsvicinity-not
viceversa*
.
K illeshandra,thenameofatowninthecountyof
Leitrim,onthebordersofthecountyofC avan,
signifies,inIrish,
thetempleofthemoon' scycle,"
orcircle .
InSanscrit,whichisadialectofthe
aboriginalIrish fi,
itdenotesexactlythesame .
We
findbesidesHerodotusmakingmention,B
. xi . c
. 9 8 ,
ofacityinEgypt,duringthePersiandominion,
calledA rchandra,thatis, "
thecityofthemoon . "
HeassertsthatitisnotEgyptian,neitherderived
fromthewifeofDanaus,thedaughterofA rchander
yettheoppositemaybewellsupported,without
atthesametimeinjuringthisderivation,forthe
daughtersofDanauswerecertainlyinitiated
in the
Phallicrites ;
nay,theywerethepersonswhofirst
importedthemintoA ttica : anditiseminentlyworth
notice,thatthiswastheveryspottwheretheTuath-
de-danaankingshappenedtobestationeduponthe
firstScythiandeluge
;theword" K ill " havingbeen
*TheHimalayaarethepeculiarabodesofthegodsoftheHindoos
;
therivers,issuingfromtheeternalsnows,aregoddesses,andaresacred
intheeyesofall .
Shrines,ofthemostholyandawfulsanctity,areat
thefountainheadsoftheG angesandJ umna
;andonthesummitof
K edarNauth,C ali,thatgoddessofbloodyrites,issupposedtohave
takenupherresidence .
One,amongthenumerousproceedingsofher
votaries,istoscrambleashighupthemountainastheycanattain,
takingwiththem a goat
foranoffering : theanimalisturnedloosewith
aknife tiedroundhisneck
;thebeliefis,thatthegoddesswillfindthe
victim,andimmolateitwithherownhand. -A RC HER
.
iThisadjectiveIapplyindiscriminatelytoPersiaortoIreland
.
$
It lies in thedistrict
ofIns-oin, whichmeansthe abode
of Ma-
gicians ; corruptednowtoInis-owen,whichwouldimportEugene' s
island. A naggravatedblunder-theplacebeinginthe
verycentre of
thecountry,withwhichsuchanimaginarychevalierwasneveras-
sociated .
2 0 8

THEROUNDTOWERS .
prefixed
toitonlyupontheintroductionofC hris-
tianity .
G ranard,thenameofatowninthecountyof
Longford,iscompoundedofthewords G rian, the
sun,and ard, aheight,thatis,thesun' shigh-
place .
Nor,Isuspect,willitbedeemedanover-
effortofcriticism,ifIrepeat,thatinourIrish
G rianis
tobefoundtherootofthatepithetofA pollo,
G rynwus*,
whichwasalsothenameofacityofA sia
Minor,consecratedtohisworship,andfavoured,as
Straboinformsus,withagrove,atemple,andanoracle
ofthatdeity
. TheriverG ranicus,too,wasderived
therefrom,becauseitssourcelayinMountIda,sacred
to G rian,
orthesun,whereonwassituatedthe
Idean
stone,upon which,wearetold,Hectorwaswont
tosacrifice ; andcorrespondingtothe C romleachs,so
commonthroughoutthisisland . Theword
C arne,
also,meaningaheapofstones,onwhichaninferior
orderofclergy,thencecalled C arneach, usedtooffi-
ciate,belongstothesameroot,asbothOvidand
Macrobiusdeclarethatitwascalled,bytheancients,
G ranet .
A sLough Rea hadbeendedicatedtothemoon,so
wastheotherluminaryalsohonouredwithalake,-
HisHis tibi
G ryna i nemorisdicaturorigo,
Nequissitlucus,quaseplusjactet A pollo .
VIRG . Eel. 6 .
hG ranem dixerepriores . -OvID.
A lthoughthoseheapsarenowbutsignalsofaccidentalorviolent
death,forwhicheachpassengerbespeakshissorrowby addingasmall
stone,
yetweseethatintheirorigintheyweremorereligiouslyde-
signed ;andwhilethis latterpracticeis observedalsoinIndia,itap-
pearsthattheyhaveretainedtheremorecorrectlytheprimitiveidea,as
maybeinferredfromthesewordsofMajorA rcher : "Ontheright
andleftareseveralcairnsofstones,erectedbypartiesoftravellersas
theycross,in acknowledgmenttothedeitiesorpresidingspiritsfor
theirprotection . "
THEROUNDTOWERS
.

2 09
calledafterhisname,-whichwefindintheadjoining
country,whereLough G rant' signifiestheLakeof
the
Sun ;
aswedoalso Beal-ath,or A th-en-righ,that
is,the F ordofBaal, orthe F ordoftheK ing,i
.
e . ,the
Sun ; corespondingto
A th-lone, or F ordoftheMoon
.
Theabovearebutafewofthoseimperishable
memorialsintertwinedroundthosehauntswhichour
forefathershavetrod ;
theimportofwhich,however,
hasbeensoperverted by modernscribblers, astogive
occasiontoO' F lahertytogiveuptheirsolutionin
despair,and,asacovertohisretreat,topronounce
them " asoutlandishintheirsound,asthenamesof
thesavagesinsomeoftheA mericanforests* . "Inthis
rhodomontade,however,hewasmuchmorefortunate
thanhehadintended,or,astheEnglishmensayof
ourcountrymen, " heblunderedhimselfintothe
right . "Littledidhesuspecthownearaconnexion
thereexistedbetweenthetwopeoplewhomhe
affected,thusridiculously,toassociate
; andanyone
whoattendstothepositionwhichIsubjoin,inde-
pendentlyofmanyothersthatcouldbebroughtin
supportofit,willadmitthehappinessofthisunin-
tionalcoincidence
. TheA lganK inesearethemost
influentialandcommandingpeopleinthewholeof
NorthA merica
; theirnameinIrish"indicatesas
much,viz . , A lgan-K ine,
or K ineA lgant, a noblecom-
munity . Thelanguageofthispeopleisthemaster
oneofthewholecountry ; and,whatistrulyremark-
able,understood,asBarondeHumboldtasserts,by
alltheIndiannationsexcepttwo . Whatthenare
weto inferfromthisobviousaffinity ? Most
Ogyg . seuRer
. Iber . C hron . ,parti . p. 16 .
h
OneoftheancientnamesofIrelandis InisA lgan, thatis,the
NobleIsland.
1 ,
2 1
0

THEROUNDTOWERS.
undoubtedly,thatacolonyofthesamepeoplewho
firstinhabitedIreland,andassignedtoitsseveral
localitiesthosecharacteristicnames,whichsodiscon-
certedtheharmonyofMr . O' F laherty' sacousticorgans,
hadfixedthemselves,atanearlydate,inwhathas
beenmiscalledtheNewWorld
.
Small,however,asisthenumberofthenames
hereselected,theyareenough,Iflattermyself,to
establishtheprevalenceofourSabianritual
. But
whatputsthismatterbeyondanythinglikeaques-
tionistheinscriptionuponastone,stillextant,in
thecountyofDublin,evidentlyasymboloftheSun
andMoon,which,likeOsirisandIsisofEgypt,were
consideredbytheancientIrishasunitedinmatri-
mony .
11
G od,inthenatureofeachbeing,founds
Itsproperbliss,andsetsitsproperbounds
Butasheframedawholethewholetobless,
Onmutualwantsbuiltmutualhappiness
;
Sofromthefirst,eternalorderran,
A ndcreaturelinkedtocreature,mantoman
.
Whate' eroflifeallquickeningetherkeeps,
Orbreathesthroughair,orshootsbeneaththedeeps,
Orpoursprofuseonearth,onenaturefeeds
Thevitalflame,andswellsthegenialseeds .
Notmanalone,butallthatroamthewood,
Orwingthesky,orrollalongtheflood,
Eachlovesitself,butnotitselfalone,
Eachsexdesiresalike,tilltwoareone
. "-POPE.
TILEROUNDTOWERS
.
C HA PTERXVI
.
WOMA N, thepoetryofNature,"saysanelegant
writerofthepresentday,
"haseverbeenthetheme
oftheminstrel,andtheidolofthepoet' sdevotion .
Theonlyideasweentertainofacelestialnatureare
associatedwithher
;inherpraisetheworldhasbeen
exhaustedofitsbeauties,andsheislinkedwiththe
starsandthegloriesoftheuniverse,asif,though
dwellingin a lowlier sphere,shebelongedto a
supe-
rior world
. "
Thisdeificationofthe
female
character wasthe
true
substance ofthoseimaginary goddesses, so sadly
disfiguredbythecircumscribedstupidityofG reek
andRomanmythologists
.
J uno, Baaltis,Diana,
Babia, Venus, A phrodite,Derceto, Militta, Butsee,
Semiramis, A starte,Io,Luna,Rimmon,Lucina,G eni-
talis,Ourania,A targatis,& c . ,& c . ,
wereallbutficti-
tiousandidealforms,resolvingthemselvesinto one
andthesamerepresentation
ofthatsweetestornament
ofthecreation, woman ;
andthesametermsbeing
appliedtothe moon, withthesame symbolic force
andthesame typical
significance,illustratestheapti-
tudeofthat
tributary
quotation,withwhichthis
chapterhascommenced,andtothebeautyofwhich
theheartofevery"manthatisbornofwoman"must
feelinglyrespond
.
Europaitself,nowgeographicallyappropriated,as
adenomination,tooneofthequartersoftheglobe,
r2
2 11
2 1 2

THEROUNDTOWERS
.
was,originally,synonymouswithanyoftheabove-
mentionednames ; andpartookintheacquiescence
paidbyadoringmillionstotheall-fascinatingobject
ofsorefinedanallegory .
Ofallthosevariousepithets,howevervitiatedby
time,orinjuredbyaccommodationtodifferentcli-
matesandlanguages,theimport,-intactandun-
damaged,-isstillpreservedinthe
primitive Irish
tongue,
andinthatalone ;andwiththatfertilityofcon-
ceptionwherebyitengendered
allmyths, andkeptthe
humanintellectsuspendedbyits
verbalphantasma-
goria,
weshallfindthe drift
andthe design, the type
andthe thingtypified,
unitedintheligatureofone
appellativechord,
whichtothe enlightened andthe
few,
presentedachastened,yetsublimeandmicro-
scopic,
moral delineation
; buttothe profane andthe
many
wasanimpenetrablenight,producingsubmis-
sionthemostslavish,andmentalprostrationthe
mostabject
;or,wheneverarayofthe equivoque did
happentoreachtheireyes-perverted,withthatpro-
pensitywhichweallhavetothedepraved,intothe
mostrecklessindulgenceandthemostprofligate
licentiousness
.
Inthelimitshereprescribedforthedevelopement
ofour outline,-which
eventhemostheedlessmust
haveobserved,insteadofbeingcompressed,as
intended,withinthecompassofonevolume,could
moreeasilyhavebeendilatedtothemagnitudeof
four,-itcannotbesupposedthatIcoulddwell,with
muchminuteness,upontheseveralcollateralparticu-
larstowhichImayincidentallyrefer . A s,however,
that
twofoldtenour towhichIhaveabovealluded,
mayrequiresomethingmoreinthewayofillustra-
tion,Ishalltakeanytwooftheaggregateofnames
THEROUNDTOWERS
.

2
1 3
therecollected,andinthemexemplifywhathasbeen
said .
Supposethentobe Militta and A starte . Ofthese,
then,thefirstmeans appetency,
suchasisnatural
betweenthesexes ;andthesecond dalliance, ofthe
same mutual sort ;andwhileboth,alike,typifythe
delights of
love,
theyboth,equally,personatethe
mistress ofthe starry
firmament,whoseinfluence
wascourtedforthematurityofallsuchconnexion,
astheseasonofhersplendouristhemostsuitable
foritsgratification .
F rom
A starte
( A TTapr) , theG reeksformed A ster
( A orp) a star,therebyretainingbutonebranchof
thisduplicity . -TheIrishdeducedfromitthewell-
knownendearment, A store ;
andIbelieveIdonot
exaggerate,whenIaffirm,that,inthewholecircuit
ofdialectalenunciations,thereexistsnotanother
sound,calculatedtoconveytoanativeofthiscoun-
trysomanycomminglingideasof tenderpathos,
andof exaltedadventure, asthissyllabicrepresenta-
tionofthe
lunar deity~ .
SuchwasSabaism,-composedoflove,religion,
andastrology : suchtoowas Budhism, asIhave
alreadyshown ; and Phallism, beingbutanother
name,equivalentwiththislatter,itfollowsthatthe
whole three-Sabaism, Budhism, and Phallism-are,
toallintentsandpurposes,but identicallyone .
Thisbeingabouttobedemonstrated,a' fewpages
forwards,as theoldestspeciesofworshiprecogniz ed
uponearth, itwereneedless,onewouldhope,to
enterintoacomparison,inpointofantiquity,between
*Thechildrengatheredthewood,thefatherskindledthefire,and
thewomenkneadedthedough,tomakecakesforthequeenofheaven .
-J erem . vii .
18
.
2 1 4

THEROUNDTOWERS .
it andanyofitslivingderivatives . Butasmany
learnedmen,misledbythatcloudwhichheretofore
envelopedthesubject,havepromulgatedthebelief
that Brahminismwas theparentstock,whence Bud-
hism, withitsadjuncts,divergedasascion,Ishall,
omittingothers,addressmyselftotheconsideration
ofMr . C olebrooke' sarguments,whichIselectfrom
themass,indeferencetoacharactersohonourably
interwovenwiththerevivalofeasternliterature .
` ~ ThemythologyoftheorthodoxHindus,"says
thisvenerableandgoodman," theirpresentchrono-
logy,adaptedtoastronomicalperiods,theirlegendary
tales,andtheirmysticalallegories,areabundantly
extravagant,buttheJ ainsandtheBauddhassurpass
theminmonstrousexaggerationsofthesamekind .
Inthisrivalshipofabsurdfictionitwouldnotbeun-
reasonabletopronouncethattobethemostmodern
whichhasoutgonetherest
. "
Hissecondpositionis,that " theG reekwriters
whomentiontheBramins,speakofthemasaflourish-
ingsociety,whereastheBudhiststheyrepresentas
aninconsiderablehandful : therefore,"& c .
TothefirstIshallopposeDr . Buchanan' stesti-
mony,whostatesthat "howeveridleandridiculous
thelegendsandnotionsoftheworshippersofBouddha
maybe,theyhavebeeninagreatmeasureadopted
bytheBrahmins, butwithalltheirdefectsmonstrously
aggravated . "
A ndeven,hadwenotthisrebuttingevidence,the
inference,initself,isdecidedlyweak ;foritwouldgo
equallytoestablishthat Romani. sm ismorerecent
than Protestantism,
ascontainingagreaternumberof
ceremonialobservancesthanthislatterdoes : whereas
thereverseiswhat reason wouldleadustoconclude,
THE ROUND
TOWERS.

2 1 5
viz . ,that
ritualmultiplications arethegrowthof lon-
gevity, andthattheretrenchmentoftheirnumberis
whatreformationaspiresto
.
Imakeafree-willoffering,unrestrictedandunim-
peded,ofallthevaluethatcanbelongtoG recian
historians-theG reeks,whomtheirowncountry-
man,Lucian,sojustlybantersasdistinguishedfor
nothingsomuchasatotalindifferencetotruth !
Butadmittingthemtobeasveraciousasthey
werenotoriouslynotso,theintercourse,ofthevery
earliestofthem,withIndiaanditsdependencies,
wasmuchtoomodern,toallowtheirstatementstobe
furtherconclusive,thanasreferstothetimebeing
andIamveryreadytoallowthat,attheparticular
momentdescribed,theBudhistswereinthewane,
whiletheBrahminsruledascendant-nay,thatthere
werebutafewstragglingvotariesoftheformercreed
thenexistingatallinthatcountry,thelatter,though
schismaticsfromtheecclesiasticalroot,having,by
gainingoverthecivilpowerontheirside,effected
theirexpulsionmanyagesbefore
.
ThesubterraneantemplesofG yah,Ellora,Salsette,
Elephanta,andthoseothermonumentsofpietyand
civileminencewhichstillshedalustreoverIndia,
andwhichnosubsequentstateoftheartscould
rival,muchlesseclipse,owetheirexistencetoan
eraanteriortothiscatastrophe . TheBudhistswere
thearchitectswheninthez enithofhumanpower .
Thesculpturesanddevicesestablishthisfact :
for
ofthewholelistofdeitiespersonatedinthosein-
scriptions,theBrahminshaveretainednonebutsuch
assuitedtheirpurpose
. These,inallconscience,
werenumerousenough
;
andastheBrahmins,when
atthe helm,permittednottheintroductionof
2 1 6

THEROUNDTOWERS .
"
strangegods,"itisevidentthatthose,whichthey
haveincommonwiththeBudhists,arebut cull-
ings fromthe " mother-church,"ill-understoodand
worseinterpreted ; thesimilarity,however,beingstill
sogreatas,afteralapseofcenturies,togiverise
tothequestionof,whetherthestemorthebranch,
thesireortheoffspring,hadthepriorityinpointof
time
` 0 J ' airemarque,"saysthephilosopherBailly,
"quelesBramesaimaient a etreappellesParamenes,
parrespectpourlamemoiredeleursancetres,qui
portoientcenom . "MonsieurG ebelinismore
explicit . " Pausaniasnousdit,queMercure,lememe
queButta,ouBudda,undesfondateursdeladoc-
trinesdesParamenes,onBrames,estappellePara-
mont
. "
ThisParamon,whohadsecededfromtheBudhist
doctrine,andplacedhimselfattheheadofthatsect
whostillbearhisname,wasthesonof Budh-dearg,a
religiousdenomination,mostpainfullyinexplicableto
inquirersintothosematters,butwhich one,atleast,
fromhisacquaintancewiththeIrishlanguage,should
havebetterknown . " Ithink,"saysVallancey,
"dearg
isacontractionfor
darioga, rexsupremus,whichcor-
respondswiththeC haldaean darag, dux,anepithet
givento Budya
! "
A llthosewords,infact, dearg,darioga, and darag,
are oneandthesame,
adjuncts,itistrue,ofBudya,
butmeaningneither
dux, rex,
nor
supremus, exceptin
asmuchastheywere his epithets,thecorrectrender-
ingbeing red, which,addedtoBudh,signifiesthe
RedLingam,
the
Sardana-palus,
the
Eocad, the Penis
LettressurlesSciences,p . 2 02 .
Hist . duC alendrier,pref. p . 14 .
THEROUNDTOWERS.

2 17
sanctus,
the godofnature, the ruberpalus, the
Helio-
go-balus,
the corporealspirit, the
agentofproduction,
the typeoflife,as
itisalsothe
concurrentsymbolof
universaldissolution .
Theseseveralterms,whichare,eachandall,con-
vertible,pourtraynotonlytheprocreativepowersof
the male
worldpersonified,butlikewiseitssymbols,
whichwerethe RoundTowers ; andnottheseonly,
but Obelisks*
also,and naturallyerect
stonest,which,
thoughnotcircularlyfashioned,yettypified,intheir
ascension,theupwardbent of allvegetablegrowth
. ,
Thisisthetruesolution of thoseenigmatical
lithoi,
bywhichtheancientsrepresentedthe bountyof
Pro-
vidence . Maghody
wasthenameappropriatedto
himunderthischaracter ; andtheimport of this
wordconveying,literally,theideaofthe
G oodG od,
showsthephilosophicfeeling,nolessthanitdoesthe
religiousseriousness,ofthegratefulcontrivers
I. A nd
whileremindedbythethought,perhapsImaybeper-
*ObeliscumDeosoli,specialimunere,dedicatumfuisse . -A MMIA NU3
.
C hinensesetIndi,praeterimaginesinpagodisetdelubris,prm-
grandesaliquandoetiam integrasrupes, presertimsinaturain
pyrami-
dalemformam vergebant,inidolaformarisolebant . -HYDE.
*Isitnotpitiable,therefore,tohearMr . Deane,inthelastvolumeof
theTransactionsoftheSocietyofA ntiquaries,London,ascribethe
erectionofthoseobeliskswhichhemetinBritanny,tothefollowing
text? viz . ,-" BeholdSaullaysleepingwithinthetrench,andhis
spearstuckinthegroundathisbolster . "-lSam . xxvi. 7 .
WhenC aptainPykelandedintheislandofElephanta,nearBombay,
hefoundinthemidstofaG entootemplealowaltar,onwhichwas
placedalargepolishedstone,ofa cylindrical form,standingonitsbase,
thetop
rounded, orconvex ;theycalledit Mahody,-that
thenameof
theinconceivableG odwasplacedunderitalooffromprofanation
.
Launder,in his
VoyagetoIndia,p
. 8 1,sawone erected ina tank
of
water .
Herodiantellsushesawasimilarstone,roundatthebottom,
diminishingtowardsthetopinaconicalform,atEmessa,inPhoenicia,
andthatthenametheygaveitwasHeliogahalus . -VA LLA NC EY
.
2 1 8

THEROUNDTOWERS.
mitted,withhumbledeference,tosuggesttoliterary
gentlemenoccupiedinthetranslationofEastern
manuscripts,thatwhenevertheymeetwithanypro-
pernameoftheinconceivableG odhead,orofany
placeortempledevotedtohisuse,andbeginning
withtheword
Magh ; suchasMagh-Balli-Pura* ;
theyshouldnotrender Magh bygreat-which hitherto
hadbeenthepractice-butby
good ; asitisnotthe
power
ofthedivinitythatistherebymeanttobe
signified,buthis l' ounty
: suchashisvotarieschiefly
supplicated,andsuchaswasmostinfluentialto
ensuretheirfealty
.
C hristnah,theIndianA pollo,isthedarling,"
saysA rcher,
"oftheHindooladies ; andinhis
pranks,andthedemolishingpitchersofmilk,ormilk-
pitchers,hasacquiredafameinfinitelysurpassing
thatenjoyedbytheherooftheagreeableditty en-
titled
K ittyof C oleraine
! "
IconfessIdonotunderstandthelevityoftempe-
ramentwhichbetraysitselfinthiswitticism . F or
mypartIcannotcontemplateanyformofreligion
withoutasensationofawe
. Theremaybemuch
imposture,muchalsoofhypocrisy,andnosmallshare
ofself-delusionamongst individuals ofeverysect,but
sinceritywillbefoundinthe
aggregate ofeach
andwhere certainty
isnotattainablebyfinitecom-
prehensions,nay,where unity
isincompatiblewith
freedomofthoughtandwill,itwouldmorebecome
us,methinks,tomakeallowanceforeachother' s
weaknesses,thantovilifyanyworship,which,after
all,mayonlydifferfromourownastomode
. C hris-
tianity,beyondaquestion,doesnotinculcatesuch
intolerance .
The true_ followerofthatfaithrecog-
*i . e
. theG ood-Baal-Peon .
THEROUNDTOWERS .

2 1 9
niz esinevery altar anevidenceofcommonpiety ;
perceivesineveryarticulationofthenameof Lord, a
mutualsenseofdependenceandasimilarappealfor
succour ;andtakingtheseasinletsintothecharacter
ofthesupplicant,hetracesanapproximationtothat
hopewherebyheishimselfsustained,andrejoicesin
thediscovery . yetisitnolesstrue,that,when,super-
addedtothesegeneralities,hebeholdsthe " image"
ofhisC reator,acknowledgingthemissionofthe
secondG odhead,andbyreliance
on theall-fulness
ofhisimmaculateatonement,immersedinthewaters
ofregeneratinggrace,hisbosomexpandswith
more,
gladness,andliewelcomesthestrangerasabrother
.
Thattherebukehereintendedisnotgratuitousor
uncalledfor,IrefertothetestimonyofSirWilliam
J ones,who,withsomeinfusion,Iregret,ofthesame
ironyandincredulity,offersthefollowingportrait,the
resultoftardyconviction,ofthesuper-humanquali-
ficationsofthisidenticalC hristnah,
viz . ,-" The
prolixaccountsofhislifearefilledwithnarratives
ofamostextraordinarykind,andmoststrangely
variegated
. ThisincarnatedeityofSanscritromance
wasnotonlycradled,buteducatedamongshep-
herds .
A tyrant,atthetimeofhisbirth,orderedall
themaleinfantstobeslain . Heperformedamaz ing
butridiculousmiracles,andsavedmultitudespartly
byhismiraculouspowers,andpartlybyhisarms
andraisedthedead,bydescendingforthatpurpose
intotheinfernalregions
. Hewasthemeekestand
besttemperedofbeings
; washedthefeetofthe
Brahmans,andpreachedindeedsublimely,butalways
intheirfavour
. Hewaspureandchasteinreality,
butexhibitedeveryappearanceoflibertinism
. Lastly,
hewasbenevolentandtender,andyetfomentedand
conductedaterriblewar . "
2 2 0

THEROUNDTOWERS.
Mahony,also,isareluctantwitnesstothesame
effect .
"
ThereligionofBhoodha,"sayshe, " asfar
asIhavehadanyinsightintoit,seemstobefounded
onamildandsimplemorality . Bhoodhahastaken
forhisprinciples
wisdom, justice, and
benevolence ;
from. whichprinciplesemanatetencommandments,
heldbyhisfollowersasthetrueandonlyruleof
theirconduct .
Heplacesthemunderthreeheads,
thought,word,
and deed ; anditmaybesaidthatthe
spiritofthemisbecomingandwell-suitedtohim,
whosemildnaturewasfirstshockedatthesacrificeof
cattle* . "
IhavealreadyshownthatBudhaisbutatitle,
embodyinganabstract ; that,therefore,itwasnot
limitedtooneindividual,butappliedindiscriminately
toaseries
. A sIshallsoonbringthissuccession
nearerto ourownfire-hearths, andinaway,perhaps,
whichmay,else,electrifyover-sensitivenerves,itmay
beprudentthatIshouldpremiseanothercitation,
descriptiveofananswer,madebyadignitaryoftheir
creed,tothelast-mentionedauthoruponhisenunci-
atingaprincipleoftheHindoodoctrine
. " TheHin-
doos,"rejoinedthepriest, " mustsurelybelittleac-
quaintedwiththissubject,bythisallusiontoonly
one( incarnation)
.
Bhoodha,iftheymeanBhoodha
DhannanRaja,becameman,andappearedassuch
intheworldatdifferentperiods,duringagesbefore
hehadqualifiedhimselftobeaBhoodha . These
variousincarnationstookplacebyhissupremewill
andpleasure,andinconsequenceofhissuperior
qualificationsandmerits
. Iamthereforeinclined
*Wilford,inlikemanner,afteramorematureacquaintancewiththe
system,says, " IbegleaveheretoretractwhatIsaidinaformerEssay
onEgypt,concerningthefollowersofBuddha . "
THEROUNDTOWERS
.

2 2
1
tobelieve,thattheHindoos,whothusspeakof
theincarnationofaBhoodha,cannotalludeto
himwhosereligionandlawIpreach,whoisnowa
residentofthehallofglory,situatedabovethe
twenty-sixthheaven . "
NowitisstatedinthePuranas,thatagiant,named
Sancha-mucha-nagaintheshapeofa snake, witha
mouthlikea shell,
andwhoseabodewasinashell,
havingtwocountenances,waskilled by C hristnah ;
andasthisirresistiblydirectsourreflectiontothe
earlypartofthebookofG enesis,Ishalladducewhat
Mr
. Deanehassetforthonthislatterhead .
"Thetraditionoftheserpent,"sayshe, " isa
chainofmanylinks,which,descendingfromPara-
dise,reaches,intheenergeticlanguageofHomer,
Toaadv
evEeO'
drew,
o6 ovoveavossvr' aZ o yair~ s,
butconducts,ontheotherhand,upwardstothepro-
mise,that ' theseedofthewomanshouldbruisethe
serpent' shead . ' . . . .
Themysticserpententeredinto
themythologyofeverynation,consecratedalmost
everytemple,symboliz edalmosteverydeity,was
imaginedintheheavens,stampedupontheearth,
andruledintherealmsofeverlastingsorrow . . . .
This
universalconcurrenceoftraditionsprovesacommon
sourceofderivation,andthe,oldestrecordofthe
legendmustbethatuponwhichtheyareallfounded
.
Themostancientrecordofthehistoryoftheserpent-
tempteristhebookofG enesis ! Inthebookof
G enesis,therefore,isthefactfromwhichalmostevery
superstition,connectedwiththemythologicalserpent,
isderived
a . "
That " theoldestrecordofthelegendmustbethat
*ObservationsonDrakontia
. London,18 33 .
2 9 2

THEROUNDTOWERS .
uponwhichtheyareallfounded,"noonecangainsay,
inasmuchastheparentisalwaysseniortotheoff-
spring
:
butitisnotquitesucha truism that "
the
mostancientrecordofthehistoryoftheserpent-
tempteristhebookofG enesis
. "Beforealineofit
waseverwritten,oritsauthorevenconceived,the
allegoryoftheserpentwaspropagatedalloverthe
world
. Temples,constructedthousandsofyearsprior
tothebirthofMoses,beartheimpressofitshistory
.
"
Theextentandpermanenceofthesuperstition,"
saystheeruditeex-secretaryoftheA siaticSociety,
nowProfessorofSanscritintheUniversityofOx-
ford, "
wemaylearnfromA bulfaz l,whoobserves
thatinsevenhundredplacestherearecarvedfigures
ofsnakes,whichtheyworship
. Thereis,likewise,
reasontosupposethatthisworshipwasdiffused
thoughoutthe wholeof
India,as,besidesthenume-
rousfablesandtraditionsrelatingtothe
Nagas, or
snakegods,
scatteredthroughthePuranas,vestiges
ofitstillremainintheactualobservancesofthe
Hindus . "
Toexploretheorigin,however,ofthisOphite
veneration,alltheeffortsofingenuityhavehitherto
miscarried
: andthecombinationof solar
symbols
withit,insomeplacesofitsappearance,has,instead
offacilitating,augmentedthedifficulty
. " The
portals of
alltheEgyptiantemples,"observesthe
G entleman' sMagaz ine,aredecoratedwiththesame
hierogramofthe circle andthe serpent .
Wefindit
alsouponthetempleofNakiRustan,inPersia,upon
thetriumphalarchatPechin,inC hina ; overthe
gates of
thegreattempleofC haundiTeeva,inJ ava,
uponthewalls of A thens,andinthetemple
of
Minerva,atTegea-fortheMedusa' shead,socom-
THEROUNDTOWERS .

2 2 3
moninG reciansanctuaries,isnothingmorethan
theOphitehierogram,filledupbyahumanface .
EvenMexico,remoteasitwasfromtheancient
world,haspreserved,withOphiolatreia,itsuniversal
symbol* . "
HowwouldMr
. Deaneaccountforthiscommix-
ture ? 11
Thevotariesofthesun,"sayshe, having
takenpossessionofanOphitetemple,adoptedsome
ofitsrites,andthusinprocessoftimearosethecom-
poundreligion,whosegodwasnamedA pollo
. "
But,sir,thesymbolsare coeval, imprinted together
uponthoseedifices,atthe very moment oftheircon-
struction
; and,therefore, " noprocessoftime "
was
requiredtoamalgamateareligionwhosegod( itis
true) wasA pollo,butwhichwasalreadyinsepa-
rable,and,thoughcompound,one .
Ihavebeforeestablishedthesamenessofdesign
whichbelonged,indifferently,to solar
worshipandto
*TheMexicanhierogramisformedbytheintersectingoftwogreat
serpentswhichdescribethecirclewiththeirbodies,andhaveeacha
humanheadinitsmouth
.
2 2 4

THE
ROUND TOWERS.
phallic . I
shall,erelong,provethatthesamecha-
racteristicextends,equally,to ophiolatreia ;
andif
they
allthreebeidentical,as
itthusnecessarilyfollows,
whereistheoccasionforsurpriseatourmeeting
the sun,phallus,
and serpent, theconstituentsymbols
ofeach, embossedupon
the
sametable,
and
grouped
underthesame
architrave?
11
Here,"saysacorrespondent,intheSupplement
tothe
G entleman' sMagaz ineof
A ugustlast, 1 1
we
havetheumbilicated
moon inherstateofopposition
tothesun,andthesignoffruitfulness . Shewas
also,inthedoctrinesofSabaism,thenortherngate,
bywhichMercuryconductedsoulstobirth,asmen-
tionedbyHomerinhisdescriptionoftheC aveofthe
Nymphs,andupon-whichthereremainsacommen-
tarybyPorphyry
. OfthiscaveHomersays : -
F ountainsithadeternal,andtwogates,
Thenorthernonetomenadmittancegives ;
Thattothesouthismoredivine-away
Untrodbymen--t' immortalsonlyknown . '
11 The C ross,
ingentilerites,wasthesymbol
of
reproductionandresurrection . Itwas,asShaw
remarks,` thesamewiththeineffableimageof
eternitythatistakennotice of bySuidas . ' The
C rescent
wasthelunarshiporarkthatbore,inMr
.
F aber' slanguage,theG reatF atherandtheG reat
Motheroverthewatersofthedeluge ;anditwas
alsotheemblemoftheboatorshipwhichtookaspi-
rantsoverthelakesorarmsoftheseatotheSacred
Islands,towhichtheyresortedforinitiationintothe
mysteries ; andovertheriverofdeathtotheman-
sionsofElysium . The C ockatrice wasthesnake-
god
. Itwasalsothebasiliskorcock-adder . '
Habet
THE ROUND TOWERS.

2 2 5
caudemutcoluber,residuumverocorpusutgallus
. "
TheEgyptiansconsideredthebasiliskastheemblem
ofeternalages : essequiaverovidetur
~ o4 s
xupiez eiv
xat' Oavcrou,exauroconformatumcapitibusdeorum
appingebantIEgyptii
. ' Whatrelationhadthiswith
theNebustanorBraz enSerpent,
towhichthe
IsraelitespaiddivinehonoursinthetimeofHez e-
kiah? Whatisthecirclewiththeseasonsatthe
equinoxesandsolsticesmarkeduponit? -thesigns
ofthefourgreatPaganfestivalscelebratedatthe
commencementofeachoftheseseasons? Thecorner
ofthestonewhichisbrokenoff,probablycontained
somesymbol . Iamnothierophantenoughtoun-
riddleandexplainthehiddentaleofthiscombina-
tionofhieroglyphics
. Weknowthatthesea-goat
andthePegasusontabletsandcenteviralstones,
foundonthewallsofSeverusandA ntoninus,were
badgesofthesecond,andtheboarofthetwentieth
legion ; butthisbas-reliefseemstorefer,-insome
darkmanner,tomattersconnectedwiththeancient
heathenmysteries .
Theformoftheborderaround
themisremarkable .
Thestonewhichbearsthem
was,Iapprehend,broughtinitspresentstatefrom
Vindolana,where,asIhaveobserved,aninscription
totheSyriangoddesswasformerlyfound
. Thesta-
tionofMagna,also,afewyearssince,produceda
longinscriptiontothesamegoddessintheIambic
verseoftheLatincomedians
;andacave,containing
altarstoMithras,andabustofthatgod,seated
betweenthetwohemispheres,andsurroundedbythe
twelvesignsoftheZ odiac,besidesothersignaand
ayaalu. a-ra ofthePersiangod,wasopenedatBorco-
vicusonlyabouttenyearssince
.
These,therefore,
andothersimilarremains,foundintheRomansta-
Q
2 2 6

THEROUNDTOWERS .
tionsintheneighbourhoodofVindolana,inducemeto
think,thatthesymbolsunderconsideration,andnow
forthefirsttimetakennoticeof,wereoriginally
placednearthealtarsofsomedivinityinthestation
oftheBowers-in-the-Wood
.
Iknowofnoestablish-
mentthattheK nightsTemplarshadinthisneighbour-
hood . "
Themodestyof "V. W. "isnotlessthanhisdili-
gence ; andboth,Iconsider,exemplaryandgreat .
Buthewillexcuseme,whenItellhim,thatthe
C ross, the C rescent, andthe C ockatrice, arestill
maiden
subjectsafterhishands . NeitherF aber,
Shaw,norSuidas,pretendeventoapproachthose
matters,saveintheir
emblematic
sense ; and,asevery
emblemmusthaveasubstratum,I,forone,cannot
contentmyselfwiththatremoteandsecondaryknow-
ledge,whichisimpartedbythe
exoterictype,
butmust
enterthepenetralia,andexplorethesecretsofthe
eisoterictemple .
A sanoldserpentcastshisscalyvest,
Wreathsinthesun,inyouthfulglorydress' d ;
So,whenA lcides' mortalmouldresign' d,
Hisbetterpartenlarg' d,andgrewrefind
;
A ugusthisvisageshone ; almightyJ ove
Inhisswiftcarhishonour' doffspringdrove
Higho' erthehollowcloudsthecoursersfly,
A ndlodgetheherointhestarrysky*
. "
*Ovid .
2 2 7
C HA PTERXVII.
{ ` C HILLY
astheclimateoftheworldisgrowing-
artificialandsystematicasithasbecome-andun-
willingaswearetoownthefact,therearefew
amongstusbutwhohavehadthosefeelingsonce
stronglyentwinedaroundthesoul,andwhohavefelt
howdearwastheirpossessionwhenexisting,and
howacutethepangwhichtheirseveringcost
.
F ewerstillwerethelabyrinthsunclosedinwhich
theiraffectionslayfolded,butinwhoseheartsthe
nameof woman wouldbefound,althoughtherough
collisionwiththeworldmayhavepartiallyeffacedit
. "
Thisinstinctiveinfluence,whichthedaughtersof
EveuniversallyexerciseoverthesonsofA dam,is
notmoreirresistibleinthepresentday,thanit
provedinthecaseoftheirgreatprogenitor .
Love,
howeverdisguised-andhowcoulditbemorebeauti-
fullythanbythescripturalpenman? -love,
in
its
literalandall-absorbingseductiveness, wasthesimple
butfascinatingaberrationcouchedunderthefigure
ofthe forbiddenapple .
A lltheillusionsoffancyresolvethemselvesinto
thissweetabyss . Thedreamsofcommentatorsmay,
therefore,henceforwardbespared ; thecalculations
ofbookmakers,onthistopic,dispensedwith : what-
everbemyfate,oneconsolation,atleast,awaitsme,
o,2
2 2 8

THEROUNDTOWERS
.
that,inadditiontothe
Towers,I shallhaveexpounded
themysteriesofG enesis
.
Tobeginwiththe Tree
ofK nowledge-what,do
yousuppose,wasit,inactualearnest? Verily,neither
morenorlessthantheall-enchanting Budh !
andthat
verbal
phantasmagoria, towhichIhavesometime
agoalluded,canbeillustrated,nowherebetter,than
inthatrefined,andhithertoinexplicable,allegoryto
whichthistermgavebirth .
Inthe Irish
language,which,asbeingthatof
ancientPersia,or Iran,
mustbetheoldestinthe
world,andofwhichthe Hebrew, broughtawayby
A braham,fromUroftheC haldees,isbutadis-
tantandimperfectbranch,-well,inthisprimordial
tongue,thenurseryatonceofscience,ofreligion,
andofphilosophy,all mysteries, also,havebeenma-
tured :
anditwillirrefutablymanifestitself,that
initwasexclusivelywoventhatelegantly-wrought
veil,ofcolloquialillusiveness,whichshroudsthe
nature
ofourfirstparents' downfall .
How,thinkyou,wasthisaccomplished
? By
assigningtocertaintermsatwo-foldsignification,of
whichonerepresentedacertain passion,quality, or
virtue,
andtheotherits sensibleindex . Tothelatter
alonehadthe multitude anyaccess ; whilethesanctity
oftheformerwasguardedagainstthem,byallthe
terrorsofreligiousinterdicts .
F orinstance,intheexamplebeforeus, Budh,
or F iodh-which isthesamething-means,pri-
marily, lingam, and,secondarily,a tree . Ofthese,the
latter,whichwasthepopularacceptation,wasonly
the outwardsignal
oftheformer,whichwasthe
in-
ward, mystified, passion, comprehendedonlybythe
initiated . When,therefore,wearetoldthatEve
[ T o f a c e p a g e 2 2 9 .
FROM T HE
RUINS OF T HE PALENCIAN CIT Y.
T HE ROUND T OWERS.

2 2 9
w a s d e s i r e d n o t t o t a s t e o f t h e t r e e , i . e . , Bud h , w e
a r e t o un d e r s t a n d t h a t s h e w a s p r o h i b i t e d w h a t Bud h
m e a n t i n i t s t r ue s i g n i f i c a t i o n , v i z . , li n g a m : i n o t h e r
w o r d s , t h a t w h e n c a ut i o n e d a g a i n s t t h e Bud h , i t
w a s n o t a n ,
i n s e n s i b le t r e e ,
i t s s y m b o li c i m p o r t , t h a t
w a s m e a n t t h e r e b y , b ut t h e v i t a l p h a llus , i t s a n i m a t e
p r o t o t y p e
: - t h a t , i n s h o r t ,
m i s s i s
a m b a g i b us , " t h e
w o r d Bud h w a s t o b e t a k e n , n o t f i g ur a t i v e ly , b ut
li t e r a lly .
Ag a i n , i n t h i s c r a d le o f li t e r a r y w o n d e r s - t h e Ir i s h
la n g ua g e - e v e r y le t t e r i n i t s a lp h a b e t e x p r e s s e s s o m e
p a r t i c ula r t r e e ; b ut i t s s e c o n d , Be t h , - w h e n c e
t h e
Be t a
o f t h e G r e e k s , a n d a f o r m a t i v e o n ly o f Bud h , t h e
r a d i x - s i g n i f i e s - i n a d d i t i o n t o t h e t r e e
w h i c h i t
r e p r e s e n t s ' k - k n o w le d g e , a ls o ! An d h e r e , o b v i o us a s
li g h t , a n d i m p r e g n a b le
t o c o n t r a d i c t i o n , y o u h a v e t h e
t r e e o f k n o w le d g e , i n n a t ur a l n a k e d n e s s , d i v e s t e d
o f a ll
t h e
m y s t e r y o f p o m i f e r o us v e r b i a g e , a n d i d e n t i f i e d i n
a t t r i b ut e s , a s i n p r o li f i c i m p o r t , w i t h
t h e n a m e a n d e s s e n c e
o f t h e s a c r e d
Bud h !
But w h a t h a d t h e s e r p e n t t o d o w i t h t h e b us i n e s s ?
On ly a s a n a c t o r i n t h e g e n e r a l s y m b o li s a t i o n : t h e
i n t r o d uc t i o n o f h i m b e i n g b ut a n a lle g o r i c a l m o d e o f
s a y i n g t h a t t h e Bud h , i . e . , t h e s e n s ua l p r o p e n s i t y -
o f w h i c h t h e s e r p e n t i s t h e m o s t e x p r e s s i v e t y p e ,
b e i n g n o t o r i o us ly t h e m o s t lus t f ul o f li v i n g c r e a t ur e s
- h a d m a d e h e r d e v i a t e f r o m t h e p a t h s o f p ur i t y f .
* T h e Be t ula , o r b i r c h - t r e e .
+ We r e a d d i t i o n a l p r o o f r e q ui r e d t h a t t h i s i s t h e t r ue s o lut i o n o f t h e
Mo s a i c m y t h ,
r e s p e c t i n g t h e f o r b i d d e n a p p le , i t i s i r r e s i s t i b ly o f f e r e d t o
a n y o n e w h o w i ll s e e t h a t r e li c o f Ea s t e r n i d o la t r y , p r e s e n t e d b y Li e u-
t e n a n t Co lo n e l Og g t o t h e Mus e um o f t h e Ea s t In d i a Co m p a n y , Lo n -
d o n , w h i c h c o n s i s t s o f a t a b ula r f r a m e o f w h i t e m a r b le , f ur n i s h e d w i t h a
f o un t a i n , a n d e m b le m a t i c a lly s t o r e d w i t h r e li g i o us d e v i c e s ; t h e m o s t
e x t r a o r d i n a r y o f w h i c h i s a r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t h e Li n g a m a n d Po n i i n
2 30

T HE ROUND T OWERS
.
He r e t h e n w e h a v e ,
a t le n g t h , a r r i v e d a t t h e f o un -
t a i n h e a d a n d s o ur c e o f t h e m y s t e r y o f Bud h i s m .
Ev e
h e r s e lf , I e m p h a t i c a lly a f f i r m , w a s t h e v e r y f i r s t Bud -
h i s t .
An d , a c c o r d i n g ly , w e f i n d t h a t , i n f o r m e r
a g e s , w o m e n un i v e r s a lly v e n e r a t e d t h e
Bud h , a n d
c a r r i e d i m a g e s o f i t , a s a t a li s m a n , a r o un d t h e i r n e c k s
a n d i n t h e i r b o s o m s .
But i f Ev e w a s t h e f i r s t Bud h i s t , t h e f i r s t
p r i e s t o f
t h e Bud h i s t o r d e r w a s h e r f i r s t - b o r n , b ut a p o s t a t e s o n
Ca i n : a n d i n
h i s a c k n o w le d g i n g t h e b o un t y o f Bud h ,
t h e s un , w h o m a t ur e s t h e f r ui t s o f t h e e a r t h , - a n d
t h e r e b y r e c o g n i s i n g Je h o v a h o n ly a s t h e G o d o f
n a t ur e
a n d o f i n c r e a s e , - r a t h e r t h a n i n lo o k i n g f o r w a r d
b y f a i t h t o t h e r e d e m p t i o n b y b lo o d , a s a
d i f f e r e n t
s a c r i f i c e w o uld h a v e i n t i m a t e d , c o n s i s t e d
" t h e w h o le
f r o n t a n d b e a r i n g " o f h i s t r e a s o n a n d o f f e n c e * .
If t h o u d o e s t w e ll, s h a lt t h o u n o t b e a c c e p t e d ?
An d i f t h o u d o e s t n o t w e ll, a s i n - o f f e r i n g li e t h a t t h e
d o o r " - t h e m e a n s o f p r o p i t i a t i o n a r e w i t h i n y o ur
i m m e d i a t e r e a c h
.
c o n j un c t i o n , a r o un d t h e b o t t o m o f w h i c h , i n s y m b o li c a l s ug g e s t i o n , i s
c o i le d a s e r p e n t
; w h i le t h e t o p o f a n o t h e r Li n g a m , p la c e d un d e r n e a t h ,
i s e m b o s s e d t o w a r d s t h e t e r m i n a t i o n , c o n i c a l a n d s un n y , w i t h f o ur h e a d s ,
f a c i n g t h e c a r d i n a l p o i n t s , a n d e x a c t ly c o r r e s p o n d i n g w i t h t h o s e w h i c h
g r a c e t h e p r e p ut i a l a p e x
o f t h e " Ro un d T o w e r " o f De v e n i s h . T h o s e
f o ur h e a d s r e p r e s e n t t h e f o ur g o d s o f t h e Bud h i s t t h e o lo g y , w h o h a v e
a p p e a r e d i n t h e p r e s e n t w o r ld , a n d a lr e a d y o b t a i n e d t h e p e r f e c t s t a t e o f
Ni r w a n a ; v i z . , Ch a r c h a s a n , G o n a g o n , G a s p a , a n d G o ut a m a . An d t h e
e n t i r e c o i n c i d e n c e b e t w e e n t h i s Li n g a m a n d t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f o ur
Ro un d T o w e r s i s s uc h a s t o c o n v i n c e t h e m o s t o b d ur a t e s c e p t i c , e v e n
h a d I n o t p ut t h e q ue s t i o n b e y o n d d i s p ut e b e f o r e , t h a t t h e y w e r e un i -
f o r m i n d e s i g n , a n d
i d e n t i c a l i n p ur p o s e .
* T h e o f f e r i n g s m a d e a t t h e p r e s e n t d a y a r e p r e c i s e ly o f t h e s a m e
k i n d . " Bo i le d r i c e , f r ui t s , e s p e c i a lly t h e c o c o a - n ut , f lo w e r s , n a t ur a l
a n d a r t i f i c i a l, a n d a v a r i e t y o f c ur i o us f i g ur e s m a d e o f p a p e r , g o ld le a f ,
a n d t h e c ut t i n g s o f t h e c o c o a - n ut k e r n e l a r e t h e m o s t c o m m o n . " -
SYMES
.
T HE ROUND T OWERS.

2 3 1
T h e e n d e a r i n g t o n e , i n w h i c h t h i s i s c o n v e y e d ,
b e s p e a k s a n a p p e a l t o s o m e us a g e f a m i li a r t o t h e
p a r t y . It b e t o k e n s , i n d i s p ut a b ly , t h a t , o n p r e v i o us
o c c a s i o n s , w h e n Ca i n h a d a c t e d
"
w e ll, " h e h a d m e t
w i t h n o r e j e c t i o n
. - An d f o r t h e t r ut h o f t h i s , Je h o -
v a h r e f e r s t o t h e d e f e n d a n t ' s o w n e x p e r i e n c e a n d
s e lf - c o n v i n c i n g c o n s c i o us n e s s .
Ca i n ,
t h e r e f o r e , w a s a p r i e s t un d e r a f o r m e r d i s -
p e n s a t i o n ; a n d a f a v o ur e d o n e t o o ; a n d
h i s b e i n g
d e p r i v e d
o f
t h i s o f f i c e , o r , i n o t h e r w o r d s , ` ' c a s t o f f
f r o m t h e p r e s e n c e o f t h e Lo r d , " w a s t h e g r e a t s o ur c e
a n d o r i g i n o f h i s p r e s e n t w r e t c h e d n e s s
.
But i f a p r i e s t , h e m us t h a v e b e e n s o t o a la r g e r
c o n g r e g a t i o n t h a n h i s f a t h e r , m o t h e r , a n d b r o t h e r
a n d b e s i d e s h e , a s w e ll a s Ab e l, m us t h a v e h a d
w i v e s
;
b ut
t h e Sc r i p t ur e s d o n o t t e ll us t h a t Ad a m
a n d Ev e , a s i n d i v i d ua ls , h a d a n y d a ug h t e r s ;
i t
f o l-
lo w s , t h e r e f o r e , t h a t t h e c o n s o r t s o f t h e t w o b r o t h e r s
m us t h a v e s p r un g f r o m s o m e
o t h e r p a r e n t s . T h e r e ,
t h e n , w e r e m o r e m e n a n d w o m e n o n t h e e a r t h t h a n
Ad a m a n d Ev e : a n d t h i s i s s t i ll f ur t h e r c o n f i r m e d
b y t h e a p p r e h e n s i o n s e x p r e s s e d b y Ca i n h i m s e lf ,
a f t e r t h e m ur d e r o f Ab e l, le s t h e m i g h t b e s la i n b y
s o m e o n e m e e t i n g h i m
.
Ye s , i n t h e p a r a d i s a i c a l s t a t e , b e f o r e " s i n e n t e r e d
i n t o t h e w o r ld , " t h e e a r t h w a s a s c r o w d e d w i t h p o p u-
la t i o n a s i t i s a t p r e s e n t ;
a n d Ad a m a n d Ev e a r e o n ly
p ut a s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s , m a le
a n d
f e m a le , o f t h e e n t i r e
h um a n s p e c i e s , a ll o v e r t h e g lo b e ~ .
* Me t h i n k s I h e a r s o m e w i s e a c r e s t a r t up h e r e a n d s a y , t h i s c a n n o t
b e , b e c a us e m a n i n a n
un c i v i li s e d s t a t e o c c up i e s m o r e s p a c e t h a n w h e n
r e s t r i c t e d b y s o c i a l us a g e s . Pr a y , s i r , w h o t o ld y o u t h a t
m a n
w a s t h e n
un c i v i li s e d P
T h e n , i n f a c t , i t w a s t h a t h e m a y b e c a lle d t r uly c i v i li s e
a s m o r e r e c e n t f r o m t h e c o n v e r s e o f h i s Cr e a t o r
.
2
3
2

T HE
ROUND T OWERS.
He r e I c a n n o t d o b e t t e r t h a n s e t t h e r e a d e r r i g h t
a s t o t h e r e n d e r i n g o f a s ub s e q ue n t t e x t , w h i c h
s a y s , t h a t
"
G o d s e t a m a r k up o n Ca i n le s t a n y o n e
m e e t i n g h i m s h o uld k i ll h i m ; " n o r c a n I r e c o lle c t
a n o t h e r i n s t a n c e w h e r e i n h um a n i n g e n ui t y , w h i le
s t r ug g li n g a f t e r t r ut h , h a s b e e n m o r e d i r e c t ly i n s t r u-
m e n t a l i n t h e d i s s e m i n a t i o n o f e r r o r .
On e w o uld s up p o s e t h a t t h e s e t t i n g
"
a m a r k
up o n " a p e r s o n , i n s t e a d o f a lla y i n g h i s f e a r s o f b e i n g
m o le s t e d b y t h o s e m e e t i n g h i m , s h o uld , o n t h e c o n -
t r a r y , a g g r a v a t e t h e m , f r o m i t s e x t r a o r d i n a r y a s p e c t
.
Be s i d e s , i n t h e i n n um e r a b le f a n t a s i e s w h i c h c o m -
m e n t a t o r s h a v e c o n j ur e d up , a s s p e c i f i c a t i o n s o f t h i s
" m a r k , " n o v e s t i g e w h a t s o e v e r h a s b e e n y e t t r a c e d , o n
t h e h um a n f o r m , t o j us t i f y t h e i n f e r e n c e .
We a r e o b li g e d , t h e r e f o r e , a t la s t , t o r e c ur t o t h e
t r ut h ;
a n d i t f o r t un a t e ly h a p p e n s , t h a t t h i s i s a c c e s -
s i b le , b y o n ly t r a n s la t i n g t h e o r i g i n a l a s i t s h o uld p r o -
p e r ly b e , t h us , v i z . , "
An d G o d g a v e Ca i n a s i g n
le s t
a n y m e e t i n g h i m , s h o uld k i ll h i m
. "
T h e o n ly q ue s t i o n n o w i s , w h a t t h a t s i g n w a s
w h i c h G o d g a v e t o Ca i n ?
An d t o r e s o lv e t h i s , w e
h a v e b ut t o b e t h i n k o ur s e lv e s o f h i s d e r e li c t i o n , -
n a m e ly , t h e o f f e r i n g w o r s h i p t o Bud h , i . e . ,
n a t ur e ,
o r t h e s un
: a n d h i s r e f us i n g t o s a c r i f i c e , i n c o n s e -
q ue n c e - o f s uc h d e v o t i o n , a n y t h i n g e n d o w e d w i t h
li f e ,
o f w h i c h Bud h , i . e . Li n g a m , - a c c o r d i n g t o t h e d o ub le
a c c e p t a t i o n o f t h e w o r d , - w a s t h e t y p e , a s i t i s a ls o
t h e s i g n
o f Bud h , t h e s un , - a n d w e h a v e i n f a lli b ly
d e v e lo p e d t h e a n s w e r a n d t h e s e c r e t .
St a m p i n g t h e n a t ur e o f h i s c r i m e , a n d a t t h e s a m e
t i m e i n d i c a t i n g t h a t , i n t h e n o w f a lle n c o n d i t i o n o f
n a n , t h i s b a d g e o f h i s r e v o lt w o uld b e r a t h e r a
s e c ur i t y a g a i n s t t r e s p a s s , a n d a p a s s p o r t t o a c c e p t =
T HE ROUND T OWERS.

2 33
a n e e , t h a n a n i n d uc e m e n t t o a n n o y a n c e , G o d s h o w s
t o Ca i n , a s m uc h i n d e r i s i o n a s i n a n g e r , t h e s ub s t a n -
t i a l
i m a g e o f t h a t d e i t y t o w h i c h h e h a d b ut j us t b e -
f o r e d o n e h o m a g e , v i z . , Bud h ; a n d t h e r e up o n Ca i n
g o e s , a n d , o n " t h e la n d a w a n d e r e r , " h e e r e c t s t h i s
s i g n i
n t o a d e i f i e d Ro un d T o w e r .
Pe r h a p s t h e r e a d e r w o uld li k e t o h a v e s o m e c o l-
la t e r a l p r o o f s f o r t h e s e s t a r t li n g i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s . I
s h a ll g i v e t h e m , a s c o n v i n c i n g a s t h e s o lut i o n i t s e lf
i s i r r e f ut a b le a n d t r ue .
T h e Ma y p o le f e s t i v a l, w h i c h t h e Re v . Mr
. Ma ur i c e
h a s s o s a t i s f a c t o r i ly s h o w n t o b e b ut t h e r e m a i n s o f
a n a n c i e n t i n s t i t ut i o n o f In d i a a n d Eg y p t , ( h e s h o uld
h a v e a d d e d Pe r s i a , a n d , i n d e e d , p la c e d i t f i r s t , )
w a s , i n f a c t , b ut p a r t a n d p a r c e l o f t h i s Ro un d
T o w e r w o r s h i p . Ma y t h e f i r s t i s t h e d a y o n w h i c h
i t s o r g i e s w e r e c e le b r a t e d ;
n o r i s t h e c us t o m , e v e n
n o w , c o n f i n e d t o t h e Br i t i s h i s le s a lo n e , b ut a s n a t u-
r a lly p r e v a i ls un i v e r s a lly t h r o ug h o ut t h e Ea s t , w h e n c e
i t e m a n a t e d ,
o f o ld , t o us . Le s t , t o o , t h e r e s h o uld b e
a n y m i s t a k e , a s t o t h e o b j e c t o f a d o r a t i o n , w e a r e t o ld
i n t h e s e c o n d v o lum e o f t h e As i a t i c Re s e a r c h e s , i n a
le t t e r f r o m Co lo n e l Pe a r c e , t h a t Bh a d a n i , i . e
. , As t a r t e ,
i . e . , Lun a , i
. e . , V e n us , i . e . , " Mo lli um m a t e r c up i -
d i n um , " w a s t h e g o d d e s s i n w h o s e h o n o ur t h o s e f e s -
t i v i t i e s w e r e r a i s e d
.
No w a s a s t r o n o m y w a s c o n n e c t e d w i t h a ll t h e c e r e -
m o n i e s o f t h e a n c i e n t s , t h e s un ' s e n t r a n c e i n t o T a ur us ,
w h i c h i n i t s e lf b e s p e a k s t h e v i g o ur o f r e a n i m a t e d
p r o d uc t i v e n e s s , a t t h e v e r n a l e q ui n o x , w a s t h e s y m -
b o l i n t h e h e a v e n s a s s o c i a t e d b y t h e w o r s h i p p e r s w i t h
t h i s a lle g o r i c a l g a i e t y . But t h i s e v e n t t a k e s p la c e a
li t t le e a r li e r e v e r y y e a r t h a n t h e p r e c e d i n g o n e , b y
r e a s o n o f w h a t a s t r o n o m e r s c a ll t h e p r e c e s s i o n , s o
t h a t
2 3
4

T HE ROUND T OWERS .
a t p r e s e n t , i t o c c ur s a t a s e a s o n f a r m o r e a d v a n c e d
t h a n i t d i d a t f i r s t .
T h e o r y a n d o b s e r v a t i o n b o t h c o n c ur i n e s t a b li s h -
i n g , t h a t 7 2 y e a r s i s t h e p e r i o d w h i c h t h e e q ui n o x
w i ll t a k e t o p r e c e d e o n e d e g r e e o f t h e 36 0, i n t o w h i c h
t h e h e a v e n s a r e d i v i d e d - 2 1 6 0 y e a r s , t h i r t y d e g r e e s ,
t h a t i s , o n e s i g n , - a n d 2 5 , 9 2 0, 36 0 d e g r e e s , o r t h e
t w e lv e s i g n s o f t h e z o d i a c . If , t h e r e f o r e , w e c o m p ut e ,
a t t h i s r a t e , t h e p r e c i s e y e a r a t w h i c h t h e v e r n a l
e q ui n o x m us t h a v e c o i n c i d e d w i t h t h e f i r s t o f Ma y , -
w h i c h m us t c e r t a i n ly h a v e b e e n t h e f a c t a t t h e o r i g i n
o f t h e i n s t i t ut i o n , - i t w i ll p r o v e t o h a v e b e e n a b o ut
t h e 4 000t h b e f o r e t h e Ch r i s t i a n e r a , w h i c h e x a c t ly c o r -
r e s p o n d s w i t h t h e t i m e o f Ca i n , a n d i r r e f ut a b ly c o n -
f i r m s t h e o r i g i n , w h i c h I h a v e a s s i g n e d , t o t h e w o r -
s h i p o f t h e Bud h , T o w e r , Ph a llus , o r Ma y p o le
.
Mr . Ma ur i c e ' s p o s i t i o n d e s e r v e s t o b e r e m a r k e d . ` I
h a v e li t t le d o ub t , t h e r e f o r e , " s a y s h e , " t h a t Ma y - d a y ,
o r a t le a s t t h e d a y o n w h i c h t h e s un e n t e r e d T a ur us ,
h a s b e e n i m m e m o r i a lly k e p t a s a s a c r e d f e s t i v a l, f r o m
t h e c r e a t i o n o f t h e e a r t h a n d m a n , o r i g i n a lly i n t e n d e d
a s a m e m o r i a l o f t h a t a us p i c i o us p e r i o d , a n d t h a t m o -
m e n t o us e v e n t
. "
It i s w i t h e x t r e m e r e luc t a n c e t h a t I w o uld d i s s e n t
f r o m a w r i t e r w h o h a s c o n t r i b ut e d s o la r g e ly , a s t h e
g e n t le m a n b e f o r e us , t o w a r d s t h e r e s t o r a t i o n o f li t e -
r a t ur e ; b ut s i n c e w e a g r e e a s t o t h e e r a o f t h e o r i g i n
o f t h e f e s t i v a l, a n d s ub s t a n t i a lly a s t o i t s
d e s i g n , I
h a v e t h e le s s h e s i t a t i o n i n r e c o r d i n g m y b e li e f t h a t
i t w a s n o t t h e c r e a t i o n o f t h e e a r t h , o r o f m a n , t h a t w a s
i n t e n d e d t o h e c o m m e m o r a t e d , b ut t h e c o m m e n c e -
m e n t o f a n e w d i s p e n s a t i o n , c o n s e q ue n t up o n m a n ' s
d e f e c t i o n * .
* In f i g
. 1 , Pla t e 33, o f Mr . Co le m a n ' s b o o k ,
" i s a f o ur - h e a d e d
Li n g a , o f w h i t e m a r b le , o n a s t a n d o f t h e s a m e , s ur r o un d e d b y Pa r v a t i ,
T HE ROUND T OWERS.

2 3 5
Lo r d , f r o m t h e Sh a s t e r , q uo t e s t h e f o llo w i n g a b -
s t r a c t , m a r k i n g t h e o p i n i o n o f t h e Ea s t e r n s t h e m s e lv e s ,
a s t o Ad a m a n d Ev e h a v i n g h a d m a n y c o n t e m p o -
r a r i e s . T h i s r e la t e s a n i n t e r v i e w b e t w e e n a d i f f e r e n t
c o up le . Be i n g b o t h p e r s ua d e d t h a t G o d h a d a
h a n d i n t h i s t h e i r m e e t i n g , t h e y t o o k c o un c i l f r o m
t h i s b o o k , t o b i n d t h e m s e lv e s i n t h e i n v i o la b le b o n d
o f m a r r i a g e , a n d w i t h t h e c o ur t e s i e s i n t e r c e d i n g b e -
t w e e n m a n a n d w i f e , w e r e lo d g e d i n o n e a n o t h e r ' s
b o s o m s : f o r j o y , w h e r e o f t h e s un p ut o n h i s n up t i a l
lus t r e , a n d lo o k e d b r i g h t e r t h a n o r d i n a r y , c a us i n g t h e
s e a s o n t o s h i n e up o n t h e m w i t h g o ld e n j o y ; a n d t h e
s i lv e r m o o n w e lc o m e d t h e e v e n i n g o f t h e i r r e p o s e ,
w h i ls t m us i c f r o m h e a v e n , a s i f G o d ' s p ur p o s e i n
t h e m h a d b e e n d e t e r m i n a t e , s e n t f o r t h a p le a s i n g
s o un d , s uc h a s us e t h t o f le e t f r o m t h e lo ud t r um p e t ,
t o g e t h e r w i t h t h e n o i s e o f t h e t r i um p h a n t d r um .
T h us p r o v i n g t h e e f f e c t s o f g e n e r a t i o n t o g e t h e r , t h e y
h a d f r ui t f ul i s s ue , a n d s o p e o p le d t h e Ea s t , a n d t h e
w o m a n ' s n a m e w a s Sa n a t r e e . "
T h i s Ma y p o le c e r e m o n y , un d e r t h e n a m e o f
Ph a lli c a ,
Di o n y s i a , o r Or g i a , w h i c h la s t w o r d , t h o ug h s o m e -
t i m e s a p p li e d t o t h e m y s t e r i e s o f o t h e r d e i t i e s , b e lo n g s
m o r e p a r t i c ula r ly t o t h o s e o f Ba c c h us * , w a s c e le -
Dur g a , G a n e s , a n d t h e Bull Na n d i , i n a d o r a t i o n .
T h e s i z e o f t h e
s t a n d o r t a b le t i s a b o ut t w o f e e t s q ua r e , a n d t h e w h o le i s r i c h ly p a i n t e d
a n d g i lt . On t h e c r o w n o f t h e Li n g a i s a r e f ulg e n t s un . " In f i g . 2 o f
s a m e " i s a Pa n c h Muc k t i , o r f i v e - h e a d e d Li n g a , o f b a s a lt , o f w h i c h
t h e f i f t h h e a d r i s e s a b o v e t h e o t h e r f o ur , s ur m o un t e d b y t h e h o o d e d
s n a k e . Ea c h o f t h e h e a d s h a s a ls o a s n a k e w r e a t h e d a r o un d i t , a s w e ll
a s a r o un d t h e Ar g h a
.
T h e Bull Na n d i i s k n e e li n g i n a d o r a t i o n b e f o r e
t h e s p o ut o f t h e Yo n i
.
* An d Ba c c h us , i n r e a li t y , w a s b ut a n o t h e r n a m e f o r o n e o f t h e
v a r i o us Bud h a s . Ev e n un d e r t h e n a m e o f Di o n y s o s w e f i n d h i m , t o t h i s
h o ur , a m o n g s t o ur s e lv e s . " On Sli a b h G r i a n , o r t h e Hi ll o f t h e Sun , "
s a y s T i g h e , " o t h e r w i s e c a lle d T o r y Hi ll, i n t h e c o un t y K i lk e n n y , i s a
2
3
6

T HE ROUND T OWERS .
b r a t e d , a t o n e t i m e , t h r o ug h o ut At t i c a w i t h a ll t h e
e x t r a v a g a n c e o f r e li g i o - la s c i v i o us p o m p . Ar c h e r , i n
h i s ` 0
T r a v e ls i n Up p e r In d i a , " a r r i v e d a t a v i lla g e
j us t a f e w h o ur s o n ly a f t e r t h e Ma y g a i e t i e s w e r e
o v e r , a n d f o un d t h e p o le
s t i ll s t a n d i n g . T h e o c c a -
s i o n , " s a y s h e , " w a s o n e o f f e s t i v i t y , f o r a ll h a d
s t r i n g s o f f lo w e r s a b o ut t h e i r h e a d s , a n d t h e y s p o k e
o f t h e m a t t e r a s o n e o f g r e a t p le a s ur e a n d a m us e -
m e n t . " As , h o w e v e r , h e d i d n o t c o m e i n f o r t h e
a c t ua l' o b s e r v a n c e s , I s h a ll s up p ly t h e o m i s s i o n b y
d e t a i li n g t h e f o r m o f i t s c e le b r a t i o n i n o ur o w n
c o un t r y .
" An c i e n t ly , " s a y s M' Sk i m i n , i n h i s Hi s t o r y o f
Ca r r i c k f e r g us , " a la r g e c o m p a n y o f y o un g m e n
a s s e m b le d e a c h Ma y - d a y , w h o w e r e c a lle d Ma y -
b o y s . T h e y w o r e a b o v e t h e i r o t h e r d r e s s w h i t e li n e n
s h i r t s , w h i c h
w e r e c o v e r e d w i t h a p r o f us i o n o f
v a r i o us c o lo ur e d r i b b o n s , f o r m e d i n t o la r g e a n d
f a n t a s t i c k n o t s
.
On e o f t h e p a r t y w a s c a lle d K i n g ,
a n d t h e o t h e r Que e n , e a c h o f w h o m w o r e a c r o w n ,
c o m p o s e d o f t h e m o s t b e a ut i f ul f lo w e r s o f t h e s e a -
s o n , a n d w a s a t t e n d e d b y p a g e s w h o h e ld up t h e
t r a i n .
Wh e n m e t , t h e i r f i r s t a c t w a s d a n c i n g t o m us i c
r o un d t h e p o le , p la n t e d t h e p r e c e d i n g e v e n i n g
; a f t e r
w h i c h t h e y w e n t t o t h e h o us e s o f t h e m o s t r e s p e c t -
a b le i n h a b i t a n t s r o un d a b o ut , a n d h a v i n g t a k e n a
s h o r t j i g i n f r o n t o f e a c h h o us e , r e c e i v e d a v o lun t a r y
o f f e r i n g f r o m t h o s e w i t h i n .
T h e s um g i v e n w a s
r a r e ly le s s t h a n f i v e s h i lli n g s
. In t h e c o ur s e o f t h i s
r a m b le t h e K i n g a lw a y s p r e s e n t e d a r i c h g a r la n d o f
c i r c ula r s p a c e , s i x t y - f o ur y a r d s i n c i r c um f e r e n c e , c o v e r e d w i t h s t o n e s .
In t h i s s t a n d s a v e r y la r g e o n e , a n d o n t h e e a s t s i d e a n o t h e r , r e a r e d
o n t h r e e s up p o r t e r s , a n d c o n t a i n i n g a n i n s c r i p t i o n , w h i c h i n Ro m a n
le t t e r w o uld e x h i b i t
" Be li Di n o s e . "
T HE ROUND T OWERS.

2 3 7
f lo w e r s t o s o m e h a n d s o m e y o un g w o m a n , w h o w a s
h e n c e c a lle d ' t h e Que e n o f Ma y '
. t i ll t h e f o llo w i n g
y e a r . "
Wi t h t h i s c o m p a r e t h e d e s c r i p t i o n g i v e n b y t h e
a ut h o r o f t h e " Ri t e s a n d Ce r e m o n i e s o f a ll Na -
t i o n s , " o f a s i m i la r w o r s h i p a s c e le b r a t e d a m o n g s t
t h e Ba n i a n s
. -
U
An o t h e r g o d , " s a y s h e ,
"
m uc h
e s t e e m e d a n d w o r s h i p p e d b y t h e s e p e o p le , i s c a lle d
Pe r i m a l, a n d h i s i m a g e i s t h a t o f
a p o le , o r t h e
la r g e
m a s t o f a s h i p .
T h e In d i a n s r e la t e t h e f o llo w i n g
le g e n d c o n c e r n i n g t h i s i d o l . At Cy d a t n b a r a n ,
a c i t y
i n G o lc o n d o , a p e n i t e n t h a v i n g a c c i d e n t a lly p r i c k e d
h i s f o o t w i t h a n a w l, le t i t c o n t i n ue i n t h e w o un d f o r
s e v e r a l y e a r s t o g e t h e r ; a n d a lt h o ug h t h i s e x t r a v a -
g a n t m e t h o d o f p ut t i n g h i m s e lf t o e x c e s s i v e t o r t ur e
w a s d i s p le a s i ug t o t h e g o d Pe r i m a l, y e t t h e z e a lo t
s w o r e h e w o uld n o t h a v e i t p ulle d o ut t i ll h e
s a w t h e
g o d d a n c e . At la s t , t h e i n d ulg e n t g o d h a d c o m p a s s i o n
o n h i m ,
a n d d a n c e d , a n d t h e s un , m o o n , a n d s t a r s d a n c e d
a lo n g w i t h h i m , Dur i n g t h i s c e le s t i a l m o v e m e n t , a
c h a i n o f g o ld d r o p p e d f r o m e i t h e r t h e s un o r t h e g o d ,
a n d t h e p la c e h a s b e e n e v e r s i n c e c a lle d Cy d a m -
b a r a n .
It w a s a ls o i n m e m o r y o f t h i s r e m a r k a b le
t r a n s a c t i o n , t h a t t h e i m a g e o f t h e g o d w a s c h a n g e d
f r o n t t h a t o f a n a p e t o a p o le , t h e r e b y i n t i m a t i n g ,
( a d d s t h e g o o d - n a t ur e d e x p o s i t o r o f h i m s e lf , ) t h a t
a ll r e li g i o us w o r s h i p s h o uld r e a c h up t o w a r d s h e a v e n ,
t h a t h um a n a f f e c t i o n s s h o uld b e p la c e d o n t h i n g s
a b o v e . "
No w , t h i s m y s t e r i o us Pe r i - Ma l i s b ut a n e up h o n y
f o r Pe r i - Ba l, t h a t i s , t h e
Ba a l- Pe o r b e f o r e e x p la i n e d
a n d w h e n y o u r e m e m b e r t h e d e s t i n a t i o n w h i c h I h a v e
t h e r e a s s i g n e d h i m , y o u w i ll p e r c e i v e t h e p r o p r i e t y
o f h i s h a v i n g b e e n r e p r e s e n t e d b y a
m a s t o r Ma y -
2 3 8

T HE ROUND T OWERS
.
p o le .
As t o t h e In d i a n le g e n d , i t o n ly s h o w s t h e
a n t i q ui t y o f t h e r i t e , s up e r a d d e d t o t h a t r e li g i o us
i n v e s t m e n t
w h i c h w a s m e a n t a s a s h i e ld a g a i n s t p r o f a -
n a t i o n
.
V a lla n c e y a ls o m e n t i o n s t h e f o llo w i n g a d d i t i o n a l
c us t o m , w h i c h h e h i m s e lf w i t n e s s e d i n t h e c o un t y o f
Wa t e r f o r d - " On t h e f i r s t d a y o f Ma y , a n n ua lly , a
n um b e r o f y o ut h s , o f b o t h s e x e s , g o r o un d t h e p a r i s h
t o
e v e r y c o up le m a r r i e d w i t h i n t h e y e a r ,
a n d o b li g e
t h e m t o g i v e a b a ll
. T h i s i s o r n a m e n t e d w i t h g o ld
o r s i lv e r c o i n
. I h a v e b e e n a s s ur e d , t h e y s o m e -
t i m e s e x p e n d e d t h r e e g ui n e a s o n t h i s o r n a m e n t . T h e
b a lls a r e s us p e n d e d b y a t h r e a d , i n t w o h o o p s p la c e d a t
r i g h t a n g le s , d e c o r a t e d w i t h f e s t o o n s o f f lo w e r s
. T h e
h o o p s a r e f a s t e n e d t o t h e e n d o f a lo n g p o le , a n d c a r -
r i e d a b o ut i n g r e a t s o le m n i t y , a t t e n d e d w i t h s i n g i n g ,
m us i c , a n d d a n c i n g . "
T h e m um m e r s ,
i n li k e m a n n e r , w h o w e n t a b o ut
up o n t h i s d a y , d e m a n d i n g m o n e y , a n d w i t h s i m i la r
s o le m n i t i e s , a s i f f o r t h e m o o n i n la b o ur ,
w e r e d e r i v e d
f r o m t h e s a m e o r i g i n . In Ce y lo n t h i s p r a c t i c e i s c o n -
f i n e d t o "
w o m e n a lo n e " " , w h o , a s t h e e d i t o r o f t h e
Ri t e s a n d Ce r e m o n i e s , " &c
. , i n f o r m s us , 00 g o f r o m
d o o r t o d o o r w i t h t h e i m a g e
o f Bud d u i n t h e i r b a n d s ,
c a lli n g o ut a s t h e y p a s s ,
' Pr a y , r e m e m b e r Bud d u t . '
T h e m e a n i n g i s , t h a t w i ll e n a b le t h e m t o s a c r i f i c e t o
t h e g o d
. So m e o f t h e p e o p le g i v e t h e m m o n e y , o t h e r s
* " T h e r e a r e i n In d i a ( a ls o ) p ub li c w o m e n , c a lle d
w o m e n o f t h e i d o l,
a n d t h e o r i g i n o f t h i s c us t o m i s t h i s
: w h e n a w o m a n h a s m a d e a v o w
f o r t h e p ur p o s e o f h a v i n g c h i ld r e n , i f s h e b r i n g s i n t o t h e w o r ld a p r e t t y
d a ug h t e r , s h e c a r r i e s i t t o Bo d , - s o t h e y c a ll t h e i d o l w h i c h t h e y a d o r e ,
a n d le a v e s i t w i t h h i m . " - Re n a ud o t ' s An c
. Re l . p . 1 09 .
1 It i s g e n e r a lly k n o w n , t h a t t h e r e li g i o n o f Bo ud h o u i s t h e r e li g i o n
o f t h e p e o p le o f Ce y lo n , b ut n o o n e i s a c q ua i n t e d w i t h i t s f o r m s a n d p r e -
c e p t s . - JOINMLLE.
T HE ROUND T OWERS
.

2 3 9
c o t t o n t h r e a d , s o m e r i c e , a n d o t h e r s o i l f o r t h e la m p s
.
Pa r t o f t h e s e g i f t s t h e y c a r r y t o t h e p r i e s t s o f
Bud d u,
a n d t h e r e m a i n d e r t h e y c a r r y h o m e f o r t h e i r o w n us e . "
T h e m o n e y c o lle c t e d i n Ir e la n d , o n t h e s a m e o c c a -
s i o n , w o uld a p p e a r t o h a v e b e e n s o m e w h a t s i m i la r ly
e x p e n d e d , h a v i n g b e e n " m o s t ly s a c r i f i c e d t o t h e
j o lly g o d
; t h e r e m a i n d e r g i v e n t o t h e p o o r i n t h e
n e i g h b o ur h o o d . "
He r e , f o r a w h i le , m y p r o p e r c a r e s r e s i g n e d ,
He r e le t m e s i t i n s o r r o w f o r m a n k i n d ;
Li k e y o n n e g le c t e d s h r ub , a t r a n d o m c a s t ,
T h a t s h a d e s t h e s t e e p , a n d s i g h s a t e v e r y b la s t * .
* G o ld s m i t h .
2 4 0

T HE ROUND T OWERS.
CHAPT ER XV III.
WHEN I
c a s t b a c k m y e y e up o n t h i s n a r r a t i v e , t h r o ug h
t h e lo n g p e r s p e c t i v e o f a g e s w h i c h i t i n v o lv e s , I c o n -
f e s s I f e e l i n c o m m o d e d b y s o m e m i s g i v i n g s o f s e lf -
d i s t r us t .
Wh e n I c o n s i d e r t h e m i g h t y i n d i v i d ua ls , o f
t r a n s c e n d a n t
p o w e r s a n d a lm o s t i n e x h a us t i b le r e s o ur c e s ,
w h o , h a v i n g r e c o n n o i t r e d i t s c o a s t , e i t h e r
p e r i s h e d i n
t h e i m p o t e n c y o f e f f e c t i n g a la n d i n g , o r , m o r e w i s e ly ,
r e c e d e d
f r o m i t a s i m p r e g n a b le , I a m t h r o w n b a c k , a s
i t w e r e , up o n m y s e lf , a n d i m p e d e d b y t h e c o m p a r i s o n
o f m y o w n li t t le n e s s .
But i f G o d h a s o f t e n c h o s e n t h e s m a ll t h i n g s o f
t h e e a r t h t o c o n f o un d t h e g r e a t ; " a n d i f s uc c e s s i n
p a s t un d e r t a k i n g s b e a n y g ua r a n t e e a g a i n s t t h e a llu-
s i v e n e s s o f i n w a r d p r o m i s e
; i f t h e r o a d s b e a ll
c h a lk e d , t h e p o s t s li g h t e d , a n d t h e s e n t i n e ls f a i t h f ul,
w h y , t h e n ,
a llo w t h e i n f lue n c e o f p e t t y f e a r s t o m a r ,
a t a ll e v e n t s , t h e p r o j e c t o f a n e n n o b li n g e n t e r p r i s e
?
In t h a t c h e r i s h e d v o lum e , w h e n c e o ur f i r s t le s s o n s
up o n r e li g i o n h a v e b e e n d e d uc e d , a n d w h i c h , a s
e m b o d y i n g t h e p r i n c i p le s o f o ur h a p p i n e s s h e r e , a n d
o ur
h o p e s h e r e a f t e r , h a s b e e n h o n o ur e d w i t h t h e p r e -
e m i n e n t
a n d d i s t i n c t i v e a p p e lla t i o n o f t h e Bi b le , o r
Bo o k ,
t h e r e o c c ur n um e r o us p h r a s e s o f m y s t e r i o us
i m p o r t , b ut p r e g n a n t
s i g n i f i c a n c y , w h i c h p i o us m e n ,
un a b le t o s o lv e ,
h a v e c o n t e n t e d t h e m s e lv e s w i t h
c la s s i f y i n g a s un d e r t h e h e a d o f " a b o v e r e a s o n " -
T HE ROUND T OWERS.

2 4 1
c o n t r a r y , " a n d " a c c o r d i n g t o , " b e i n g t h e t w o
o t h e r c o n s t i t ue n t s o f t h e i r p r e d i c a m e n t a l li n e .
T h o s e c o n v e n t i o n a l t e r m s w h i c h e x p e d i e n c y a lo n e
h a s i n v e n t e d , a r e , t o s a y t h e le a s t , a r b i t r a r y ; a n d
a s a ll m e n h a v e a n e q ua l r i g h t t o f o r m a
s p e c i f i c a -
t i o n o f t h e i r s ub j e c t - m a t t e r , I s h a ll, w i t h o ut d i s c o n -
c e r t i n g t h e o r d e r o f t h e a b o v e d i v i s i o n , e n d e a v o ur ,
o n ly , t o r e s c ue t h e p o i n t s t o w h i c h I r e f e r , f r o m i m -
m e r s i o n i n t h e f i r s t c la s s * ; o r - i f a llo w e d t h e la t i -
t ud e o f
p a r li a m e n t a r y
e lo c ut i o n - t o t a k e t h e m o ut
f r o m t h e c o n d e m n a t i o n o f
Sc h e d ule A.
T o b e g i n , t h e n , w i t h t h e f o llo w i n g t e x t , v i z . , T h e
s o n s o f G o d s a w t h e d a ug h t e r s o f m e n t h a t t h e y
w e r e f a i r , a n d t h e y t o o k t h e m w i v e s o f a ll w h i c h t h e y
c h o s e f . "
Wh a t d o y o u un d e r s t a n d b y t h e e x p r e s s i o n 1 1 s o n s
o f G o d ? "
Hi s p e c uli a r p e o p le , y o u r e p ly
; s uc h , f o r i n s t a n c e ,
a s c a lle d up o n h i s n a m e $ ; o r , p e r h a p s , Se t h ' s d e -
s c e n d a n t s i n o p p o s i t i o n t o t h o s e o f Ca i n , t h e un -
r i g h t e o us .
T ur n , s i r , t o t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e f i r s t a n d s e c o n d
c h a p t e r s o f Jo b , a n d r e a d w h a t y o u a r e t h e r e i n -
f o r m e d o f
.
" No w t h e r e w a s a d a y w h e n t h e s o n s o f G o d
c a m e t o p r e s e n t t h e m s e lv e s b e f o r e t h e Lo r d , a n d
Sa t a n c a m e a ls o a m o n g t h e m . " An d " Ag a i n , t h e r e
w a s a d a y , w h e n t h e s o n s o f G o d
c a m e t o p r e s e n t
t h e m s e lv e s b e f o r e t h e Lo r d , a n d Sa t a n c a m e a ls o
a m o n g t h e m t o p r e s e n t h i m s e lf b e f o r e t h e Lo r d . "
We ll, w h a t i s y o ur a n s w e r n o w ? o r w i ll i t n o t b e
d i f f e r e n t f r o m w h a t i t w a s b e f o r e ? Ca n y o u s e r i o us ly
* T h a t i s , " a b o v e r e a s o n . "
t G e n e s i s v i . 2 .

* Ib i d . , i v . 2 6 .
IL
2 4 2

T HE ROUND T OWERS,
i m a g i n e t h a t
i t
w a s a n y r a c e o f o r d i n a r y h um a n
b e i n g s t h a t w a s t h us d e n o m i n a t e d ? An d a r e y o u
n o t c o m p e lle d t o a s s o c i a t e t h e i d e a , w i t h s o m e o n e
o f t h e o t h e r s up e r i o r p r o d uc t i o n s , o f o m n i p o t e n t
a g e n c y ?
I w i ll m a k e y o u, s i r , i f y o u h a v e c a n d o ur i n y o ur
c o n s t i t ut i o n , a c k n o w le d g e t h e f a c t . Li s t e n - - Wh e r e
w a s t t h o u w h e n I la i d t h e f o un d a t i o n s o f t h e e a r t h ?
De c la r e i f t h o u h a s t un d e r s t a n d i n g : w h e n t h e m o r n -
i n g s t a r s s a n g t o g e t h e r , a n d a ll t h e s o n s o f G o d
s h o ut e d f o r j o y * . "
He r e a llus i o n i s m a d e t o a p e r i o d a n t e c e d e n t t o
t h e e x i s t e n c e o f e i t h e r G a i n o r Se t h . T h e
m y r i a d s o f
r e v o lv i n g a g e s s ug g e s t e d b y t h e i n t e r r o g a t o r y s e t e v e n
f a n c y a t d e f i a n c e ; n o r a r e t h e i r li m i t s d e m a r k e d b y
t h e v a g ue a n d i n d e f i n i t e
e x o r d i um o f e v e n t h e t a le n t e d
a n d o t h e r w i s e h i g h ly - f a v o ur e d le g i s la t o r , Mo s e s h i m -
s e lf j ' . An d y e t , i n t h i s i n c o m p r e h e n s i b le
i n a n e o f
t i m e , d o w e s e e t h e
s o n s o f G o d s h o ut i n g f o r j o y ,
b e f o r e t h e s p e c i e s o f m a n , - a t le a s t , i n h i s d e g e n e r a t e
s i n f uln e s s , - h a d a p p e a r e d up o n t h i s s ur f a c e !
It i s m a n i f e s t , t h e r e f o r e , t h a t s o m e
e m a n a t i o n o f
t h e G o d h e a d , d i s t i n c t f r o m
m e r e h um a n i t y , i s c o uc h e d
un d e r t h e p h r a s e o f ` `
t h e s o n s o f G o d ; " a n d a c c o r d -
i n g ly w e p e r c e i v e , t h a t , w h e n t h e y
" w e n t i n un t o t h e
d a ug h t e r s o f m e n , a n d t h e y b a r e c h i ld r e n t o t h e m , "
i t i s e m p h a t i c a lly n o t i c e d , a s a n o c c ur r e n c e o f
un us ua l
i m p r e s s , t h a t
"
t h e s a m e b e c a m e m i g h t y m e n , w h i c h
w e r e o f o ld , m e n o f r e n o w n t . "
At t h e c o m m e n c e m e n t o f t h e v e r s e , w h e n c e t h e la s t
e x t r a c t h a s b e e n t a k e n , y o u w i ll f i n d t h e n a m e o f
g i a n t
* Jo b x x x v i i i .
t In t h e b e g i n n i n g G o d
c r e a t e d , &c . G e n . 1 . i .
; ; G e n e s i s v i . 4 .
T HE ROUND T OWERS .

2 4 3
m e n t i o n e d ; a n d i n s t a n t ly a f t e r , a s i f i n
j ux t a p o s i t i o n ,
n a y , a s
i f s y n o n y m o us
w i t h i t i n m e a n i n g , i s r e p e a t e d
"
t h e s o n s o f G o d : " t h e r e b y i d e n t i f y i n g b o t h i n
n a t ur e a n d i n c h a r a c t e r , a n d p r o v i n g t h e i r s a m e n e s s
b y t h e i r c o n v e r t i b i li t y .
T h e He b r e w w o r d f r o m w h i c h g i a n t h a s b e e n t r a n s -
la t e d , s i g n i f i e s t o f a ll : a n d w h a t , d o y o u s up p o s e ,
c o n s t i t ut e d t h i s a p o s t a c y ? In s o o t h , n o t h i n g e ls e t h a n
t h a t
c a r n a l i n t e r c o ur s e ,
w h i c h t h e y c o uld n o t r e s i s t
i n d ulg i n g w i t h t h e d a ug h t e r s o f m e n , "
w h e n t h e i r
s e n s e s t o ld t h e m t h e y w e r e lo v e ly * . T h us d o b o t h
n a m e s c o r r o b o r a t e m y t r ut h ; w h i le b o t h r e c i p r o c a lly
i llus t r a t e e a c h o t h e r .
" It m a y s e e m s t r a n g e , " s a y s Wi lf o r d , " t h a t t h e
p o s t e r i t y o f Ca i n s h o uld b e s o m uc h n o t i c e d i n t h e
Pur a n a s , w h i ls t t h a t o f t h e p i o us a n d b e n e v o le n t
Ruc h i i s i n a g r e a t m e a s ur e n e g le c t e d
. But li t t le i s
s a i d o f t h e p o s t e r i t y o f Se t h , w h i ls t t h e i n s p i r e d p e n -
m a n t a k e s p a r t i c ula r n o t i c e o f t h e i n g e n ui t y o f t h e
d e s c e n d a n t s o f Ca i n , a n d t o w h a t a h i g h d e g r e e o f
p e r f e c t i o n t h e y c a r r i e d t h e a r t s o f c i v i l li f e . T h e
c h a r m s a n d a c c o m p li s h m e n t s o f t h e w o m e n a r e p a r t i c u-
la r ly m e n t i o n e d . `
T h e s a m e b e c a m e m i g h t y m e n ,
w h i c h w e r e o f o ld , m e n o f r e n o w n . ' "
An d a g a i n , - " We h a v e b e e n t a ug h t t o c o n s i d e r
t h e d e s c e n d a n t s o f Ca i n a s a m o s t p r o f li g a t e a n d
a b o m i n a b le r a c e
. T h i s o p i n i o n , h o w e v e r , i s n o t
c o un t e n a n c e d , e i t h e r b y s a c r e d o r p r o f a n e h i s t o r y
.
T h a t t h e y w e r e n o t e n t r us t e d w i t h t h e s a c r e d d e p o s i t
* Dr . G i ll, v e r y i n n o c e n t ly ,
w o uld a c c o un t f o r i t o t h e r w i s e , v i z .
e i t h e r b e c a us e t h e y m a d e t h e i r f e a r f a ll up o n m e n , o r m e n t h r o ug h
f e a r t o f a ll b e f o r e t h e m , b e c a us e o f t h e i r h e i g h t a n d s t r e n g t h - o r r a t h e r
b e c a us e t h e y f e ll a n d r us h e d o n m e n w i t h g r e a t v i o le n c e , a n d o p p r e s s e d
t h e m i n a c r ue l a n d t y r a n n i c a l m a n n e r ! ! ! "
R 2
2 4 4

T HE ROUND T OWERS.
o f r e li g i o us t r ut h s , t o t r a n s m i t t o f ut ur e a g e s , i s s uf -
f i c i e n t ly c e r t a i n . T h e y m i g h t , i n c o n s e q ue n c e o f t h i s ,
h a v e d e v i a t e d g r a d ua lly f r o m t h e o r i g i n a l b e li e f , a n d
a t la s t f a lle n i n t o a s up e r s t i t i o us s y s t e m o f r e li g i o n ,
w h i c h s e e m s , a ls o , a n a t ur a l c o n s e q ue n c e o f t h e f e a r -
f ul d i s p o s i t i o n o f Ca i n , a n d t h e h o r r o r s h e m us t h a v e
f e lt , w h e n h e r e c o lle c t e d t h e a t r o c i o us m ur d e r o f h i s
b r o t h e r Ab e l . "
T h i s , s o f a r a s i t g o e s , i s s a t i s f a c t o r y e n o ug h ; b ut
i t i s g r o p i n g i n t h e d a r k , a n d w i t h o ut a p i lo t
. A f e w
p a g e s , i n t h e d i s t a n c e , w i ll, h o w e v e r , b r i n g us t o t h e
r i g h t un d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e s e p o i n t s a ls o : m e a n w h i le ,
I r e t ur n t o t h e Mo s a i c a l r e c o r d , f o r t h e i n s i g h t t h e r e i n
a f f o r d e d i n t o t h e h i s t o r y o f Ca i n .
We a r e t o ld , t h e n , t h a t h e k n e w h i s w i f e , a n d
s h e c o n c e i v e d a n d b a r e En o c h : " a n d a s t h i s n a m e
s i g n i f i e s i n i t i a t i o n i n s a c r e d r i t e s , a s w e ll a s i t d o e s a n
a s s e m b ly o f c o n g r e g a t e d m ult i t ud e s - i n
w h i c h la t t e r
s e n s e , i t w a s a c c ur a t e ly a p p li e d t o t h e " c i t y " w h i c h
h e h a d
"
b ui ld e d " - i t s h o w s t h a t t h e n e w r e li g i o n
b a d e f a i r f o r p e r p e t ui t y .
Ir a d , t h e n a m e o f En o c h ' s s o n , p r o v e s t h e c r o w n -
i n g f i n i s h o f t h e m a t ur e d c e r e m o n i a l, f o r i n t i m a t i n g ,
a s i t d o e s , c o n s e c r a t e d t o G o d , w e a r e n a t ur a lly le d t o
c o n n e c t i t s b e a r e r w i t h t h e p r o f e s s i o n o f t h a t w o r s h i p
w h i c h h i s n a m e r e p r e s e n t e d
.
As Ir a d
s i g n i f i e s
c o n s e c r a t e d t o G o d , s o Ir a n d o e s
t h e la n d o f t h o s e s o c o n s e c r a t e d ; a n d , a c c o r d i n g ly , w e
m a y b e a s s ur e d , t h a t i t w a s i n
t h a t p r e c i s e r e g i o n t h a t
t h e Bud h i s t s h a d f i r s t e s t a b li s h e d t h e i n s i g n i a o f t h e i r
e m p i r e * .
* Ph i lo s o p h e r s w i ll ult i m a t e ly r e p o s e i n t h e b e li e f , t h a t As i a h a s b e e n
t h e p r i n c i p a l f o un d r y o f t h e h um a n k i n d ;
a n d Ir a n , o r Pe r s i a , w i ll b e
c o n s i d e r e d a s o n e o f t h e c r a d le s f r o m w h i c h t h e s p e c i e s t o o k t h e i r d e -
T HE ROUND T OWERS.

2 4 5
Le t us , n o w , i n q ui r e w h a t li g h t w i ll t h e
Da b i s t a n
a f f o r d t o o ur la b o ur s . It i s k n o w n t h a t Si r Jo h n
Ma lc o lm w a s n o r e a d y c o n v e r t t o i t s m e r i t s ; h i s
a b r i d g e m e n t o f i t , t h e r e f o r e , c a n n o t b e s us p e c t e d o f
a n y c o lo ur i n g ; a n d , a s I li k e t h e t e s t i m o n y o f r e -
luc t a n t w i t n e s s e s , I s h a ll e v e n m a k e h i m t h e i n t e r -
p r e t e r o f i t s r e c o n d i t e c o n t e n t s .
" In a lm o s t a ll t h e m o d e r n a c c o un t s o f Pe r s i a , " s a y s
h e , "
w h i c h h a v e b e e n t r a n s la t e d f r o m Ma h o m e d a n
a ut h o r s , K a i o m ur s i s
c o n s i d e r e d t h e f i r s t k i n g
o f t h a t
c o un t r y : b ut t h e Da b i s t a n , a b o o k p r o f e s s e d ly c o m -
p i le d f r o m w o r k s o f t h e a n c i e n t G ue b r s , o r w o r s h i p -
p e r s o f f i r e , p r e s e n t s us w i t h a c h a p t e r o n a s uc c e s s i o n
o f m o n a r c h s a n d p r o p h e t s w h o p r e c e d e d K a i o m ur s .
Ac c o r d i n g t o i t s a ut h o r t h e Pe r s i a n s , p r e v i o us t o t h e
r e i g n o f K a i o m ur s , a n d c o n s e q ue n t ly lo n g b e f o r e t h e
m i s s i o n o f Z o r o a s t e r ,
v e n e r a t e d a p r o p h e t c a lle d Ma h -
a b a d , o r t h e G r e a t ( r a t h e r t h e G o o d )
Ab a d , w h o m
t h e y c o n s i d e r e d a s t h e f a t h e r o f m e n . We a r e t o ld
i n t h e Da b i s t a n t h a t t h e a n c i e n t Pe r s i a n s d e e m e d i t
i m p o s s i b le t o a s c e r t a i n w h o w e r e t h e f i r s t p a r e n t s o f t h e
h um a n r a c e . T h e k n o w le d g e o f m a n , t h e y a lle g e d ,
w a s q ui t e i n c o m p e t e n t t o s uc h a d i s c o v e r y : b ut t h e y
b e li e v e d , o n t h e a ut h o r i t y o f t h e i r b o o k s , t h a t Ma h -
a b a d w a s t h e p e r s o n le f t a t t h e e n d o f t h e la s t g r e a t
c y c le , a n d c o n s e q ue n t ly t h e f a t h e r o f t h e p r e s e n t
w o r ld . T h e o n ly p a r t i c ula r s t h e y r e la t e o f h i m a r e ,
t h a t h e a n d h i s w i f e , h a v i n g s ur v i v e d t h e f o r m e r c y c le ,
w e r e b le s s e d w i t h a n um e r o us p r o g e n y , w h o i n h a b i t e d
c a v e s a n d c le f t s o f r o c k s , a n d w e r e un i n f o r m e d o f
p a r t ur e t o p e o p le t h e v a r i o us r e g i o n s o f t h e e a r t h
. - Dr . Ba r t o n , T r a n s
.
Ph i l . So c . Ph i la d . v i . p . 1 .
It f o llo w s t h a t Ir a n o r Pe r s i a , ( I c o n t e n d f o r t h e
m e a n i n g , n o t t h e
n a m e , ) w a s t h e c e n t r a l c o un t r y w h i c h w e s o ug h t . - Si r W. Jo n e s , As i a t i c
Re s e a r c h e s .
2 4 6

T HE ROUND T OWERS .
b o t h
t h e c o m f o r t s a n d lux ur i e s o f li f e : t h a t t h e y
w e r e a t
f i r s t s t r a n g e r s t o o r d e r a n d g o v e r n m e n t , b ut
t h a t Ma h - a b a d , i n s p i r e d a n d a i d e d b y Di v i n e Po w e r ,
r e s o lv e d t o a lt e r t h e i r c o n d i t i o n ; a n d , t o e f f e c t t h a t
o b j e c t , p la n t e d g a r d e n s , i n v e n t e d o r n a m e n t s ,
a n d f o r g e d
w e a p o n s
. He a ls o t a ug h t m e n t o t a k e t h e f le e c e
f r o m t h e s h e e p , a n d t o m a k e c lo t h i n g
; h e b ui lt c i t i e s ,
c o n s t r uc t e d p a la c e s , f o r t i f i e d
t o w n s , a n d i n t r o d uc e d
a m o n g h i s d e s c e n d a n t s a ll t h e b e n e f i t s o f a r t a n d
c o m m e r c e .
1
Ma h - a b a d h a d t h i r t e e n s uc c e s s o r s o f h i s o w n f a -
m i ly ; a ll o f w h o m a r e s t y le d Ab a d ,
a n d d e e m e d
p r o p h e t s .
T h e y w e r e a t o n c e t h e m o n a r c h s a n d t h e
h i g h p r i e s t s o f t h e c o un t r y ;
a n d d ur i n g t h e i r r e i g n s ,
t h e w o r ld , w e a r e i n f o r m e d , e n j o y e d a g o ld e n a g e ,
w h i c h w a s , h o w e v e r , d i s t ur b e d b y a n a c t o f Az e r -
a b a d , t h e la s t p r i n c e o f t h e Ma h a b a d e a n d y n a s t y ,
w h o a b d i c a t e d t h e t h r o n e , a n d r e t i r e d t o a li f e o f
s o li t a r y d e v o t i o n
.
"
By t h e a b s e n c e o f Az e r - a b a d , h i s s ub j e c t s w e r e
le f t t o t h e f r e e i n d ulg e n c e o f t h e i r p a s s i o n s , a n d e v e r y
s p e c i e s o f e x c e s s w a s t h e c o n s e q ue n c e . T h e e m p i r e
b e c a m e a s c e n e o f r a p i n e a n d o f m ur d e r
. T o us e t h e
e x t r a v a g a n t e x p r e s s i o n o f o ur a ut h o r ( t h e Da b i s t a n ) ,
t h e m i lls , f r o m w h i c h m e n w e r e f e d , w e r e t ur n e d b y t h e
t o r r e n t s o f b lo o d t h a t f lo w e d f r o m
t h e v e i n s o f t h e i r
b r o t h e r s ; e v e r y a r t a n d s c i e n c e f e ll i n t o o b li v i o n ; t h e
h um a n r a c e b e c a m e a s b e a s t s o f p r e y , a n d r e t ur n e d t o
t h e i r f o r m e r r ud e h a b i t a t i o n s i n c a v e r n s a n d m o un t a i n s .
1 1 So m e s a g e s , w h o v i e w e d t h e s t a t e o f t h e e m p i r e
w i t h c o m p a s s i o n , i n t r e a t e d ly - Af f r a m , a s a i n t - li k e ,
r e t i r e d m a n , t o a s s um e t h e g o v e r n m e n t .
T h i s h o ly
m a n , w h o h a d r e c e i v e d t h e t i t le o f ly ( p ur e ) , f r o m h i s
p r e - e m i n e n t v i r t ue s , r e f us e d t o a t t e n d t o t h e i r r e q ue s t ,
T HE ROUND T OWERS.

2 4 7
t i ll a d i v i n e c o m m a n d , t h r o ug h t h e a n g e l
G a b r i e l, le d
h i m t o c o n s e n t t o b e t h e i n s t r um e n t o f r e s t o r i n g
o r d e r , a n d o f r e v i v i n g t h e n e g le c t e d la w s a n d i n s t i -
t ut i o n s o f Ma h - a b a d . ly - Af f r a m f o un d e d a n e w
d y n a s t y , w h i c h w a s c a lle d t h e ly - a b a d ;
w h o , a f t e r
a lo n g a n d p r o s p e r o us r e i g n , s ud d e n ly d i s a p p e a r e d ,
a n d t h e e m p i r e f e ll a g a i n i n t o c o n f us i o n . Or d e r w a s
r e s t o r e d - b y h i s s o n , Sh a h K i s le e r ,
w h o w a s w i t h
d i f f i c ult y p r e v a i le d up o n t o q ui t h i s r e li g i o us r e t i r e -
m e n t t o a s s um e t h e r e i n s o f g o v e r n m e n t
. Hi s s uc -
c e s s o r s w e r e p r o s p e r o us t i ll t h e e le v a t i o n o f t h e la s t
p r i n c e o f t h e d y n a s t y , w h o s e n a m e w a s Ma h a b o o l
.
T h i s m o n a r c h , w e a r e t o ld , w a s c o m p e lle d , b y t h e
i n c r e a s i n g d e p r a v i t y o f h i s s ub j e c t s , t o r e s i g n h i s
c r o w n .
" He w a s s uc c e e d e d b y , h i s e ld e s t s o n , Ye s s a n , w h o ,
a c t i n g un d e r d i v i n e i n f lue n c e , s up p o r t e d h i m s e lf i n
t h a t c o n d i t i o n w h i c h h i s f a t h e r h a d a b a n d o n e d
. T h i s
p r i n c e f o un d e d a n e w d y n a s t y , w h i c h t e r m i n a t e d i n
h i s d e s c e n d a n t , Ye s s a n - Ag r i n
. At t h e e n d o f h i s
r e i g n t h e g e n e r a l w i c k e d n e s s o f m a n k i n d e x c e e d e d
a ll b o un d s , a n d G o d m a d e t h e i r m ut ua l h o s t i li t y t h e
m e a n s o f t h e Di v i n e v e n g e a n c e , t i ll t h e h um a n r a c e w a s
n e a r ly e x t i n c t . T h e f e w t h a t r e m a i n e d h a d f le d t o
w o o d s a n d m o un t a i n s , w h e n t h e a ll- m e r c i f ul Cr e a t o r
c a lle d K a i o m ur s , o r G i ls h a h , t o t h e t h r o n e . "
We o n ly n o w w a n t a k e y t o un lo c k t h e p o r t a ls o f
t h i s Ma g h - a b a d e a n h o us e h o ld ; a n d I f la t t e r m y s e lf
t h a t t h i s , w h i c h I a m a b o ut t o t e n d e r , w i ll c o n s um -
m a t e , t o a n a c c ur a c y , t h a t v e r y d e s i r a b le p ur p o s e .
Ca i n ' s i m m e d i a t e p r o g e n y a r e t h e y w h i c h a r e
i n c lud e d un d e r t h e a b o v e d e n o m i n a t i o n .
T h e i r f a i t h
a n d w o r s h i p a r e e x a c t ly s y m b o li s e d un d e r i t s d e r i v a -
t i v e d r e s s . Ma g h , a s b e f o r e e x p la i n e d , i s g o o d ; a n d
2 4 8

T HE ROUND T OWERS.
Ab a d ,
a n
un i t ;
t h a t i s , w h e n c o m b i n e d , t h e G o o d
On e , o r Un i t , t h e a ut h o r o f f r ui t f uln e s s a n d p r o d uc -
t i v e n e s s - i n w h i c h li g h t a lo n e ,
a s
a ll- b o un t i f ul a n d
a ll- g e n e r o us , w a s h e r e c o g n i s e d b y t h i s f a m i ly .
T h i s un i t y o f t h e G o d h e a d w a s w h a t w a s
r e li -
g i o us ly c o m p r e h e n d e d un d e r t h e Ph a lli c c o n f i g ur a t i o n
o f t h e Ro un d T o w e r e r e c t i o n s
; a n d t h i s , f ur t h e r m o r e ,
e luc i d a t e s t h a t , h e r e t o f o r e e n i g m a t i c a l, d e c la r a t i o n o f
t h e Bud h i s t s t h e m s e lv e s , v i z . , t h a t t h e p y r a m i d s , i n
w h i c h t h e s a c r e d r e li c s a r e d e p o s i t e d ,
" b e t h e i r s h a p e
w h a t i t w i ll, a r e a n i m i t a t i o n o f t h e w o r ld ly t e m p le o f
t h e Sup r e m e Be i n g * . "
But i f
Ma g h - a b a d e a n w a s t h e n a m e a d o p t e d b y
t h e m w i t h t h i s s p i r i t ua l t e n d e n c y , T ua t h - d e - d a n a a n
w a s t h a t w h i c h p i c t ur e d t h e m a s a c e r d o t a l i n s t i t u-
t i o n . T h e la s t m e m b e r o f t h i s c o m p o un d I h a v e
a lr e a d y e x p o un d e d . It r e m a i n s t h a t I d e v e lo p e w h a t
t h e t w o f i r s t p a r t s c o n c e a l .
T ua t h , t h e n , i s n e i t h e r m o r e n o r le s s t h a n a d i a -
le c t a l m o d i f i c a t i o n f o r Bud h , w h i c h , a c c o r d i n g t o t h e
li c e n s e o f la n g ua g e s , t r a n s f o r m e d i t s e lf , o t h e r w i s e , a n d
i n d i f f e r e n t ly , i n t o
But t ,
But t a , Fi o d , Fi o t h ,
T h o t , T ua t h ,
Dua t h , Sua t h , Po o d , Wo a d ; a n d i n t h e t w o la s t
f o r m s - o f w h i c h o n e i s G o t h i c , a n d t h e o t h e r T a -
m uli c - a d m i t t e d a f i n a l s y lla b le , - w h i c h w a s b ut a n
i n s i g n i f i c a n t t e r m i n a t i o n , - n a m e ly , e n , m a k i n g Po o d -
e n a n d Wo a d - e n ; o r Po d e n a n d Wo d e n .
In t h e s e s e v e r a l v a r i a t i o n s , a n d t h e i n n um e r a b le
o t h e r s , w h i c h b r a n c h , t h e r e f r o m , w h i le t h e s e n s i b le
i d e a i s p r e s e r v e d un d e r n e a t h , t h e r e i s s up e r i n d uc e d
a n o t h e r o f a m o r e r e f i n e d c o m p le x i o n . T h us ,
Bud h ,
* An e d i f i c e o f t h i s k i n d , i n w h i c h t h e r e li c s o f Bud h a w e r e k e p t ,
n e a r Be n a r e s , i s d e s c r i b e d b y Wi lf o r d a s a b o ut
f i f t y
f e e t h i g h , o f a
c y li n d r i c a l f o r m , w i t h i t s t o p s h a p e d li k e a d o m e ,
T HE ROUND T OWERS
.

2
4
9
w h i le i t p r i m a r i ly r e p r e s e n t s t h e s un , i t s t y p e , t h e
p e n i s ; a n d a g a i n , i t s s i g n , a t r e e ,
e x p r e s s e s , a ls o , t h e
a t t r i b ut e s o f m a g i c , s c i e n c e , d i v i n a t i o n , a n d w i s d o m .
T h e s e w e r e t h e c o n s e q ue n c e s o f t h a t m y s t e r i o us
g a r b i n w h i c h t h e p r i e s t s i n v e s t e d t h e t r ue
e le m e n t s
o f t h e i r r e li g i o n .
Be i n g t h e m s e lv e s t h e s o le p o s -
s e s s o r s o f i t s i n w a r d s e c r e t s ;
a n d a ll li t e r a t ur e a n d
e r ud i t i o n g o i n g h a n d i n h a n d , a ls o , t h e r e w i t h , i t w a s
s o d e x t e r o us ly m a n a g e d , t h a t a s o r t o f r e v e r e n t i a l
f e e li n g a t t a c h e d , n o t o n ly t o t h o s e q ua li t i e s
i n t h e
a b s t r a c t , b ut t o t h e c o n s e c r a t e d
p e r s o n a g e s w h o w e r e
t h e i r d e p o s i t o r i e s . He n c e , w h i le
Bud h c a m e t o s i g -
n i f y d i v i n a t i o n a n d w i s d o m , Bud h a ,
i t s p r o f e s s o r , d i d a
d i v i n e a n d w i s e m a n ;
a n d T ua t h , b e i n g o n ly a m o d i -
f i c a t i o n o f t h e f o r m e r e p i t h e t ,
T ua t h a i s t h e c o r r e -
s p o n d i n g t r a n s m ut a t i o n o f t h e la t t e r
.
T ua t h a , t h e r e f o r e , s i g n i f i e s m a g i c i a n s *
; a n d s o w e
h a v e t h e f i r s t
c o m p o n e n t o f T ua t h - d e - d a n a a n s e lu-
c i d a t e d . T h e s e c o n d
r e q ui r e s n o U d i p us t o s o lv e i t ,
De
b e i n g b ut t h e v e r n a c ula r t e r m w h e r e b y w a s e x -
p r e s s e d t h e De i t y ;
a n d a s I h a v e p r e v i o us ly e s t a -
b li s h e d t h e i m p o r t o f Da n a a n s
t o h a v e b e e n Alm o n e r s ,
i t f o llo w s t h a t t h e a g g r e g a t e t e n o ur o f t h i s r e li g i o us -
c o m p o un d - d e n o m i n a t i o n i s
t h e Ma g i c i a n - g o d - a lm o -
n e r s , o r t h e Alm o n e r - m a g i c i a n s o f t h e De i t y
.
* " T ua t h a He r e n t a r c a i n t a i s
Do s n i e f e a d s i t h la i t a i t h n ua . "
T h a t i s ,
T h e
m a g i c i a n s o f Ir e la n d p r o p h e s i e d
T h a t n e w t i m e s o f p e a c e w o uld c o m e .
I w o uld p o i n t y o ur a t t e n t i o n t o t h i s s t a n z a , n o t o n ly a s c o n f i r m a t o r y o f
t h e s o lut i o n a b o v e g i v e n f o r t h e w o r d
T ua t h a , b ut a s f ur n i s h i n g a n o t h e r
li n k i n t h a t g r e a t c h a i n o f
a n a lo g y , w h i c h I h a v e t r a c e d b e t w e e n t h e
n a m e s o f Ir e la n d a n d a n c i e n t Pe r s i a
. Ha r a n , i n Me s o p o t a m i a , i s b ut
t h e p r e f i x i n g o f a n a s p i r a t e t o Br a n , t h e Pa h la v i v a r i a t i o n f o r Ir a n , t h e
o r i g i n a l n a m e f o r t h a t
Sa c r e d La n d .
2
5 0

T HE ROUND T OWERS
.
As f r o m Bud h w a s f o r m e d
Fi o d h , s o f r o m Fi o d h
a r o s e Fi d h i us ;
a n d a s t h a v e b e f o r e s h e w n t h a t
He r -
c ule s a n d De us w e r e s y n o n y m o us t e r m s , a n d b o t h
p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n s o f t h e
Sun , s o , a c c o r d i n g ly , w e f i n d
t h a t t h i s s y m b o li c a l a d j un c t w a s r e c i p r o c a lly a p p r o -
p r i a t e d t o o n e a s t o t h e o t h e r
.
I d w e ll up o n t h o s e t e r m s w i t h t h e m o r e i m p r e s s i v e
f o r c e , b e c a us e t h a t
t h e s p i r i t o f n o o n e o f t h e m h a s
e v e r b e f o r e b e e n d e v e lo p e d
. Me De us Fi d h i us , a n d Me
He r c ule s Fi d h i us , w e w e r e t a ug h t a t s c h o o l t o c o n s i d e r
a s a p p e a ls t o t h e G o d o f T r ut h , a n d t h e
He r c ule s o f
Ho n o ur . Mo s t a s s ur e d ly t h o s e v i r t ue s a r e c o m p r e -
h e n d e d un d e r t h e r a d i x o f t h e g r e a t m y s t e r i o us Or i -
g i n a l ; b ut t h e d i c t i o n a r i e s a n d le x i c o n s t h a t g a v e us
t h o s e s i g n i f i c a t i o n s , k n e w n o m o r e o f w h a t t h a t
Or i -
g i n a l w a s , t h a n t h e y d i d o f t h e c o n n e x i o n b e t w e e n
s o ul a n d b o d y .
De us Fi d h i us , t h e n , m e a n s G o d t h e
Bud h a , a n d a s
s uc h t h e
All- w i s e ,
t h e
All- s a c r e d , t h e All- a m i a b le ,
a n d
t h e All- h o s p i t a b le ; a n d He r c ule s Fi d h i us , t h a t i s ,
He r c ule s t h e Bud h a , i s , i n s e n s e a n d m e a n i n g , e x a c t ly
t h e s a m e
.
T h e La t i n w o r d Fi d e s , a n d t h e En g li s h
Fa i t h , a r e
b ut d i r e c t e m a n a t i o n s f r o m t h e s a m e c o m m un i o n
. A
t h o us a n d o t h e r a n a lo g i e s m us t s ug g e s t t h e m s e lv e s
n o w i n c o n s e q ue n c e .
In a w o r d , i f y o u g o t h r o ug h
t h e c i r c le o f n a t ur a l r e li g i o n a n d a r t i f i c i a l
s c i e n c e , - i f
y o u a n a ly s e t h e v o c a b ula r y o f c o n v e n t i o n a l
t a s t e a n d
o f m o d i s h e t i q ue t t e , y o u w i ll f i n d t h e
c o n s t i t ue n t
p a r t i c le s , o f a ll t h e le a d i n g o ut li n e s , r e s o lv e t h e m -
s e lv e s i n t o t h e p h y s i c a l s y m b o li z a t i o n o f t h e r a d i c a l
Bud h .
Wh a t i n f e r e n c e , I a s k m y r e a d e r , w o uld h e d r a w
f r o m t h e a b o v e f a c t s ? Un q ue s t i o n a b ly t h a t a t t h e
T HE ROUND T OWERS.

2 5 1
o ut s e t o f s o c i a l li f e , m a n k i n d a t la r g e h a d us e d b ut
o n e li n g ua l c o n v e r s a t i o n ; a n d a s t h e
Ir i s h i s t h e o n ly
la n g ua g e i n w h i c h a r e t r a c e d t h e g e r m s o f a ll t h e
d i v e r g i n g r a d i i - n a y ,
a s i t i s t h e f o c us i n w h i c h a ll
a m i c a b ly m e e t - i t f o llo w s , i n e v i t a b ly , t h a t i t m us t
h a v e b e e n t h e un i v e r s a l la n g ua g e o f t h e f i r s t h um a n
c ult i v a t o r s - t h e n ur s e r y o f le t t e r s , a n d t h e c r a d le o f
r e v e la t i o n .
Ho w c h a r m i n g i s d i v i n e Ph i lo s o p h y
No t h a r s h a n d c r a b b e d , a s d ull f o o ls s up p o s e ,
But m us i c a l a s i s Ap o llo ' s lut e ,
An d a p e r p e t ua l f e a s t o f n e c t a r e d s w e e t s
Wh e r e n o c r ud e s ur f e i t r e i g n s . "
2 5 2
CHAPT ER XIX.
T HE T ua t h - d e - d a n a a n s , o r Ma h a b a d e a n s , . b e i n g t h us
f a r p r o v e d a s t h e f i r s t o c c up i e r s o f Ir a n , i t m a y b e
a s k e d , h o w h a p p e n s i t t h a t n o Pe r s i a n h i s t o r i a n s ,
a n t e r i o r t o Mo h s a n Fa n i , h a v e n o t i c e d t h e i r e x i s t -
e n c e ? In t h e f i r s t p la c e , I a n s w e r t h a t t h e y a ll h a v e
m e n t i o n e d t h e m , h o w e v e r un c o n s c i o us ly b y t h e m -
s e lv e s , o r
i n a d v e r t e n t ly b y o t h e r s . An d e v e n h a d t h i s
n o t b e e n t h e f a c t - h a d n o t a s i n g le s y lla b le b e e n
r e c o r d e d , b e a r i n g r e f e r e n c e t o t h e i r n a m e , t h e r e m o t e
e r a , i n i t s e lf , o f t h e i r d e t a c h m e n t f r o m t h a t c o un t r y ,
w o uld b e t h e b e s t p o s s i b le a p o lo g y f o r t h e o m i s s i o n .
T h e p r o f e s s e d w r i t e r s up o n Pe r s i a b e lo n g a ll t o
a r e c e n t p e r i o d ; a n d t h e m a g a z i n e s w h i c h t h e y c o n -
s ult e d , f o r t h e s c a n t y i n f o r m a t i o n w h i c h t h e y f ur n i s h ,
w e r e e i t h e r Ar a b s o r G r e e k s - t h e f o r m e r a b o d y o f
p r e d a t o r y w a r r i o r s , w h o s e o n ly i n s i g h t i n t o le t t e r s
a r o s e f r o m t h e o p p o r t un i t i e s w h i c h t h e i r r a p i n e s h a d
s up p li e d t h e m ; a n d t h e la t t e r , a c o m m un i t y w h o ,
i n s e n s i b le t o t h e b e a ut i e s o f m o r a l t r ut h , t o o k d e li g h t
i n d i s t o r t i n g e v e n t h e m o s t c o m m o n p la c e o c c ur r e n c e s ,
i n t o t h e m o s t un n a t ur a l i n c r e d i b i li t i e s a n d m i s s h a p e n
i n c o n g r ui t i e s .
But i n d e p e n d e n t ly o f t h e s e c a us e s , a n o t h e r m o r e
p o w e r f ul o n e h a d , lo n g b e f o r e , c o - o p e r a t e d . A r i v a l
d y n a s t y , s t a r t i n g up f r o m a m o n g s t t h e m s e lv e s , s uc -
c e e d e d , b y t h e i s s ue o f a r e li g i o us r e v o lut i o n , t o e f f e c t
t h e i r e x p uls i o n ; a n d t h a t o n c e a s c e r t a i n e d - t h e d o o r s
T HE ROUND T OWERS
.

2 5 3
o f a d m i s s i o n e v e r a f t e r c lo s e d a g a i n s t t h e i r r e t ur n - t h e
v i c t o r s w e r e n o t s a t i s f i e d w i t h t h e m o n o p o ly o f c i v i l
p o w e r , b ut t h e y m us t w r e a k t h e i r v e n g e a n c e s t i ll
m o r e , b y t h e e r a s ur e o f e v e r y v e s t i g e o f t h e f o r m e r
s w a y .
In t h i s d e v a s t a t i n g c o ur s e , t h e Ro un d T o w e r s , a s
t h e t e m p le s o f t h e i r f i g ur a t i v e v e n e r a t i o n , w e r e p a r -
t i c ula r ly o b n o x i o us ; a n d , a c c o r d i n g ly , w e m a y b e
a s s ur e d , t h a t i t w a s o w i n g t o t h e d ur a b i li t y o f t h o s e
e d i f i c e s , a n d n o t t o t h e c le m e n c y o f t h e a s s a i la n t s ,
t h a t a n y o n e o f t h e m h a s b e e n a b le t o s ur v i v e t h e
h ur r i c a n e .
Wh o , y o u w i ll a s k , w e r e t h o s e d e s t r o y e r s ?
T h e y
w e r e t h e Pi s h - d e - d a n a a n s . An d s o e n e r g e t i c a lly d i d
t h e y p r o s e c ut e t h e i r e x t i n g ui s h i n g p la n , a i d e d , b e -
s i d e s , b y t h e a n t i q ui t y o f i t s r e m o t e o c c ur r e n c e , t h a t
a ll w r i t e r s up o n t h a t c o un t r y , b e f o r e t h e c o m p i le r s o f
t h e Da b i s t a n , h a v e s e t t h e m d o w n a s i t s f i r s t d y n a s t y ,
m a k i n g t h e K a i a n i a n s , t h e As k a n i a n s , a n d t h e Sa s s a -
n i a n s , t h e i r s uc c e s s o r s .
He r e I a m o b li g e d , i n c o m p li a n c e w i t h t h e j us t i c e
o f m y s ub j e c t , t o e x p o s e a n e r r o r o f a g e n t le m a n ,
w h o m I w o uld r a t h e r h a v e o v e r lo o k e d .
1 1 T h e T ua t h a - d a d a n o f t h e Ir i s h , " s a y s V a lla n c e y ,
a r e t h e Pi s h - d a d a n o f t h e Pe r s i a n s
; ' w h i c h h e p r e -
t e n d s t o p r o v e a s f o llo w s
: - " Fi r s t , t h e n , " s a y s h e ,
" T ua t h
a n d
Pi s h a r e s y n o n i m o us i n t h e Ch a ld e e , a n d
b o t h s i g n i f y m y s t e r y , s o r c e r y , p r o p h e t s , &c
. : t h e y a r e
b o t h o f t h e s a m e s i g n i f i c a t i o n i n t h e Ir i s h
; t h e r e f o r e
b y Pi s h - d a d a n a n d T ua t h a - d a d a n ,
I un d e r s t a n d t h e
Da d a n i t e s , d e s c e n d e d o f De d a n , w h o h a d s t ud i e d t h e
n e c r o m a n t i c a r t , w h i c h s p r un g f r o m t h e Ch e s d i m , o r
Ch a ld e a n s . "
Of a p i e c e w i t h t h i s w a s h i s a s s e r t i o n t h a t
Nua g h a
2 5 4
T HE ROUND T OWERS
.
Ai r g i o d la m h o f t h e Ir i s h , w a s Z e r d us t
o f t h e Pe r -
s i a n s
! An d w h e r e f o r e , t h i n k y o u, r e a d e r ?
Be c a us e ,
f o r s o o t h , Ai r g i o d la m h s i g n i f i e s s i lv e r - b a n d , a n d Z e r -
d us t , g o ld - h a n d ! Ye s , b ut h e m a d e o ut a n o t h e r
a n a lo g y , a n d i t i s w o r t h w h i le t o h e a r i t
; v i z . , t h a t
Nua g h a h a d h i s h a n d c ut
o f f b y a Fi r - Bo lg
g e n e r a l ;
w h i le Z e r d us t ' s li f e w a s t a k e n a w a y b y a T ur a n i a n
c h i e f t a i n ! ! !
T h i s i s b ut a n i t e m
i n t h a t g r e a t o c e a n o f i n c e r t i -
t ud e , i n w h i c h t h a t e n t e r p r i z i n g e t y m o lo g i s t h a d , un -
f o r t un a t e ly , b e e n s w a llo w e d up
. Ha v i n g p e r c e i v e d
b y t h e p e r us a l o f t h e m a n us c r i p t s o f o ur c o un t r y , t h a t
t h e r e m us t h a v e b e e n a t i m e , w h e n i t b a s k e d i n t h e
s un s h i n e o f li t e r a r y s up e r i o r i t y ;
y e t un a b le t a n g i b ly
t o g r a p p le w i t h i t , h a v i n g n o
c lue i n t o t h e o r i g i n o f
i t s
s a c r e d r e p ut e , o r t h e c o lla t e r a l p a r t i c ula r s o f i t s
d a t e , n a t ur e , o r p r o m o t e r s , h e w a s t o s s e d a b o ut b y t h e
f e r m e n t o f a p a r t ur i e n t
i m a g i n a t i o n , w i t h o ut t h e
s a v i n g b a lla s t o f a d i s c r i m i n a t i n g f a c ult y .
T h e G e n e r a l' s w o r k , a c c o r d i n g ly , i s o n e w h i c h
m us t b e r e a d w i t h g r e a t r e s e r v e
; n o t b e c a us e t h a t i t
d o e s n o t o f f e r m a n y v a lua b le h i n t s , b ut b e c a us e t h a t
i t s p la n i s s o c r ud e , a n d i t s m a t t e r s o
i ll- d i g e s t e d - t h e
s a m e t h i n g b e i n g c o n t r a d i c t e d i n o n e p la c e , w h i c h w a s
a f f i r m e d
i n a n o t h e r , o r e ls e
r e p e a t e d i n t e r m i n a b ly ,
w i t h o ut r e g a r d t o
m e t h o d
o r t o
s t y le - t h a t w h e n y o u
h a v e w a d e d t h r o ug h t h e w h o le , y o u f e e l y o u, h a v e
d e r i v e d f r o m i t n o o t h e r b e n e f i t , t h a n t h a t o f w h e t t i n g
y o ur a v i d i t y f o r a c o r r e c t i n s i g h t i n t o t h o s e s ub j e c t s ,
o f w h i c h t h e a ut h o r , y o u i m a g i n e , m us t h a v e h a d s o m e
i d e a , b ut w h i c h a ls o , i t i s e v i d e n t , h o w e v e r i n d e f a -
t i g a b le h e w a s i n t h e a t t e m p t , h e h a d n o t , h i m s e lf ,
t h e p o w e r t o p e n e t r a t e .
T h e g r e a t p r a i s e , t h e r e f o r e , w h i c h I w o uld a w a r d
T HE ROUND T OWERS .

2 5 5
t o
t h i s w r i t e r , i s t h a t , w i t h o n e le g a lm o s t i n t h e
g r a v e , h e s a t d o w n , i n t h e e n t h us i a s m o f a y o ut h -
f ul a s p i r a n t , t o m a s t e r t h e d i f f i c ult i e s o f t h e Ir i s h
t o n g ue , w h i c h ,
m ut i la t e d t h o ug h i t b e , a n d b e g r i m e d
b y d i s us e , h e k n e w w a s , n o t w i t h s t a n d i n g , t h e o n ly
s ur e i n le t t o t h e g e n i us o f t h e p e o p le , a s w e ll a s t o
t h e a r c a n a o f t h e i r a n t i q ui t i e s , t h e m o s t p r e c i o us , a s
t h e y a r e , a n d f r ui t f ul, o f a n y c o un t r y o n t h e s ur -
f a c e o f t h e g lo b e .
But t h o ug h h i s p e r s e v e r a n c e h a d r e n d e r e d h i m
t h e b e s t Ir i s h i a n o f h i s a g e , a n d o f m a n y a g e s b e f o r e
h i m , y e t h a s h e c o m m i t t e d
i n n um e r a b le b lun d e r s ,
e v e n i n t h e e x p o s i t i o n o f t h e m o s t s i m p le w o r d s
;
a n d t h e q ue s t i o n n o w i n p o i n t w i ll v e r i f y t h i s d e c la -
r a t i o n , w i t h a s m uc h e x a c t i t ud e a s a n y o t h e r t h a t
c o uld b e a d d uc e d
.
T ua t h ,
t h e n , a n d p i s h a r e b y n o m e a n s s y n o n y -
m o us ;
n e i t h e r d o t h e y s i g n i f y m y s t e r y o r p r o p h e t s ,
e x c e p t i n a s e c o n d a r y li g h t . In t h e i r o r i g i n a l
a c c e p t a t i o n , t h e y a r e t h e a n t i p o d e s o f e a c h o t h e r , a s
m uc h a s m a le i s
t o
f t
m a le , a n d a s r e la t i v e i s t o
c o r -
r e la t i v e * .
T h e y a r e t h e d i s t i n c t i v e d e n o m i n a t i o n s f o r t h e
g e n i t a l o r g a n s o f
b o t h s e x e s , r e s p e c t i v e ly - T ua t h s i g -
n i f y i n g Li n g a m ;
a n d Pi s h , Yo n i .

-
I h a v e a lr e a d y e x p la i n e d t h a t T ua t h i s b ut a m o d i -
f i c a t i o n o f t h e w o r d
Bud h - t h e f i n a l
d h
o f t h e la t t e r
h a v i n g b e e n c h a n g e d i n t o t h e f i n a l t h
o f t h e f o r m e r ,
o n ly f o r e up h o n y ; b e c a us e t h a t p r e f i x e d t o d e - d a n a a n
t h e c o lli s i o n o f t h e t w o d ' s , - a s Bud - d e - d a n a a n -
w o uld n o t s o un d w e ll ; i t w a s , t h e r e f o r e , m a d e But h -
* G e n e r a l V a lla n c e y w a s e q ua lly i g n o r a n t a s t o t h e m e a n i n g o f t h e
a d d i t i o n a l w o r d s
De - d a n a a n .
2 5 6

T HE ROUND T OWERS .
d e - d a n a a n ; a n d , - t h e i n i t i a ls b a n d t b e i n g a lw a y s
c o n v e r t i b le , - h e n c e b e c a m e
T ua t h - d e - d a n a a n .
T h e c a s e w a s e x a c t ly
o p p o s i t e w i t h r e s p e c t t o
p i s h : I m e a n s o f a r a s t h e a lt e r a t i o n o f t w o o f i t s
le t t e r s i s c o n c e r n e d .
Pi t h i s t h e us ua l m e t h o d o f
p r o n o un c i n g t h a t t e r m :
n o r i s i t , e x c e p t w h e n f o l-
lo w e d b y a d , t h a t i t a s s um e s t h e o t h e r g a r b . But
a s d h , i n t h e f o r m e r i n s t a n c e , w a s c o m m ut e d i n t o
t h ,
s o t h , i n t h i s la t t e r , i s s t i ll f a r t h e r i n t o s h
;
t h e r e -
f o r e , i n s t e a d o f Pi t h - d e - d a n a a n , w e m a k e i t
Pi s h - d e -
d a n a a n .
T o s c r e e n t h o s e t w o li g a m e n t s o f
s e x ua l f a m i li a r i t y
f r o m t h e p e r i l o f p r o f a n e a n d i r r e v e r e n t a c c e p t a -
t i o n s , a ll t h e i n v e s t i t ur e o f m a g i c
w a s s h r o ud e d
up o n t h e m . T h e v o c a b ula r y o f
lo v e a n d o f r e li g i o n
b e c a m e o n e a n d t h e s a m e : m y s t e r y a n d
e n c h a n t m e n t
w e r e i d e n t i f i e d , a n d t h e
n e g o t i a t i o n s o f t h e e a r t h ,
a n d t h e r e v o lut i o n s
o f t h e h e a v e n s , w e r e b le n d e d
w i t h t h e w i t c h e r y o f a m a t i v e s w a y .
In t h i s un i v e r s a li t y o f d o m a i n , n o o n e o f t h o s e
d e a r h e lp m a t e s
h a d a g r e a t e r p o r t i o n o f h o n o ur
a s s i g n e d t o i t , t h a n t h e o t h e r . T h e y w e r e e q ua l i n
p o w e r , a n d a li k e i n a t t r i b ut e s .
An d t o s e t t h i s
e q ua li t y b e y o n d t h e c o n t i n g e n c i e s o f d o ub t , i t w a s
w i t h a l a r r a n g e d , t h a t w h i le
e a c h , p r i m a r i ly ,
r e t a i n e d
i t s d i s t i n c t s e x ua l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , t h e y s h o uld
b o t h ,
s e c o n d a r i ly , h a r m o n i s e un d e r a n o t h e r
m ut ua l e x p o s i -
t i o n ;
a n d , w h a t m o r e a p p r o p r i a t e o n e c o uld b e
d e v i s e d , t h a n t h a t o f t h e
i n f lue n c e w h i c h t h e y e x e r -
c i s e d ? a n d o f t h e
v e i l w i t h w h i c h t h e y w e r e g ua r d e d ?
Ma g i c , t h e r e f o r e , a n d
m y s t e r y , w e r e t h e t w o s e -
c o n d a r y i m p o r t s , i n w h i c h b o t h w e r e
un i t e d ; a n d t h e
a m b i g ui t y
t h us o c c a s i o n e d , w a s w h a t c a s t V a lla n c e y
T HE ROUND T OWERS
.

2 5 7
up o n t h a t s h o a l, w h i c h p r o v e d s i m i la r ly f a t a l t o m a n y
a p r e c e d i n g s p e c ula t o r
.
T o e x e m p li f y - Bud h , o r T ua t h ,
i n i t s li t e r a l a n d
s ub s t a n t i v e a c c e p t a t i o n , i m p li e s t h e Li n g a m ; c o lla t e -
r a lly , m a g i c ; a n d b y c o n v e n t i o n , m y s t e r y , p r o p h e t s ,
le g i s la t o r s , &c
.
Pi s h ,
i n li k e m a n n e r , o r
Pi t h , d e -
n o t e s , li t e r a lly , t h e Yo n i ; c o lla t e r a lly , m a g i c ; a n d
b y c o n v e n t i o n , m y s t e r y , p r o p h e t s ,
le g i s la t o r s , &c .
An d
t h e o f f s h o o t s o f e i t h e r , i n a n i n f e r i o r a n d d e t e r i o r a t e d
v i e w , s uc h a s Bud h - o g
f r o m t h e f o r m e r , a n d
Pi s h - o g
f r o m t h e la t t e r , i n t i m a t e , i n d i s c r i m i n a t e ly , w i t c h c r a f t ,
w i z a r d , o r w i t c h .
No w t h e w o r d s
De - d a n a a n s ,
h a v i n g b e e n a lr e a d y
i llus t r a t e d a s m e a n i n g G o d - Alm o n e r s , i f w e p r e f i x t o
t h e m , s e v e r a lly , T ua t h
a n d
Pi s h ,
t h e y w i ll b e c o m e
T ua t h - d e - d a n a a n s , a n d Pi s h - d e - d a n a a n s ; t h e f o r m e r
e x p r e s s i n g , li t e r a lly , Li n g a m - G o d - Alm o n e r s ; a n d t h e
la t t e r , li t e r a lly , Yo n i - G o d - Alm o n e r s
;
a n d b o t h e q ua lly ,
b y c o n v e n t i o n , Ma g i c - G o d - Alm o n e r s .
As w e h a v e h a d e x h i b i t e d n um e r o us r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s
o f t h e h o m a g e p a i d t o t h e p a t e r n a l m e m b e r o f t h i s
t h e o c r a c y , p e r h a p s I m a y b e p e r m i t t e d t o a d d uc e a
s i n g le q uo t a t i o n d e m o n s t r a t i v e o f t h e h o n o ur s s h o w n
t o h i s m a t e r n a l
c o lle a g ue .
" T h e Ch i n e s e , " s a y s t h e a ut h o r o f I Ri t e s a n d
Ce r e m o n i e s , ' " w o r s h i p a g o d d e s s , w h o m t h e y c a ll
Puz z a , a n d o f w h o m t h e i r p r i e s t s g i v e t h e f o llo w i n g
a c c o un t
: - T h e y s a y t h a t t h r e e n y m p h s c a m e d o w n
f r o m h e a v e n t o w a s h t h e m s e lv e s i n a r i v e r , b ut s c a r c e
h a d t h e y g o t i n t o t h e w a t e r b e f o r e t h e h e r b Lo t o s
a p p e a r e d o n o n e o f t h e i r g a r m e n t s , w i t h i t s c o r a l
* T h e Lo t o s w a s t h e m o s t s a c r e d p la n t o f t h e a n c i e n t s , a n d t y p i f i e d
t h e t w o p r i n c i p le s o f t h e e a r t h ' s f e c un d a t i o n c o m b i n e d - t h e g e r m s t a n d -
i n g f o r t h e Li n g a m ; t h e f i la m e n t s a n d p e t a ls f o r t h e Yo n i .
S
2 5 8

T HE ROUND T OWERS .
f r ui t up o n i t . T h e y w e r e s ur p r i s e d t o t h i n k w h e n c e
i t c o uld p r o c e e d ; a n d t h e n y m p h , up o n w h o s e g a r -
m e n t i t w a s , c o uld n o t r e s i s t t h e t e m p t a t i o n o f i n -
d ulg i n g h e r s e lf i n t a s t i n g i t . But b y t h us e a t i n g s o m e
o f i t , s h e b e c a m e
p r e g n a n t , a n d w a s d e li v e r e d o f a
b o y , w h o m s h e b r o ug h t up , a n d t h e n r e t ur n e d t o
h e a v e n
. He a f t e r w a r d s b e c a m e a g r e a t m a n , a c o n -
q ue r o r a n d le g i s la t o r , a n d t h e n y m p h w a s a f t e r w a r d s
w o r s h i p p e d un d e r t h e n a m e o f Puz z a v . "
An d t h us w e s e e t h a t Bud h a n d Pi t h w e r e t h e
a c t ua l r e g ula t o r s o f t h e s o la r un i v e r s e .
T i m e , h o w e v e r , d i s s o lv e d t h e c h a i n w h i c h li n k e d
t o g e t h e r t h o s e m y s t e r i o us a b s o lut e s : o r , r a t h e r , t h e
z e a lo t s
o f e a c h c o n t r i v e d t o s e v e r a n a t t a c h m e n t ,
w h i c h w a s i n t e n d e d , b y n a t ur e , t o b e r e c i p r o c a l a n d
m ut ua l f . Wa r , d e v a s t a t i n g , d e s e c r a t i n g w a r , s p r e a d
a b r o a d o v e r t h e p la i n ! Hum a n e n e r g i e s w e r e e v o k e d
i n t o a n un k n o w n a c t i v i t y ! Me n ' s p a s s i o n s , a lw a y s
i n f la m m a b le b y t h e j e a lo us y o f p a r t i s a n s h i p , w e r e
h e r e f ur t h e r m o r e s t i m ula t e d b y t h e r a n c o ur o f r e -
li g i o n ! An d h e a r t s w e r e la c e r a t e d , a n d c o un t r i e s
w e r e d e p o p ula t e d i n s us t a i n m e n t o f t h e c o n s e q ue n c e s
o f a p h y s i o lo g i c a l d i s q ui s i t i o n ! ! !
But w h a t d o y o u c o n c e i v e t o h a v e b e e n t h e t o p i c
a t i s s ue ? V e r i ly , i t w a s w h e t h e r t h e m a le o r t h e f e m a le
c o n t r i b ut e d m o r e la r g e ly t o t h e a c t o f g e n e r a t i o n ! -
t h o s e w h o v o t e d f o r t h e f e m a le s i d e , r a n g i n g t h e m -
s e lv e s un d e r t h e b a n n e r s o f Pi s h , a n d t h o s e f o r t h e
m a le
un d e r t h e s t a n d a r d o f
Bud h , w h i le b o t h e q ua lly
* T h i s Puz z a i s n o t h i n g m o r e t h a n o ur Ir i s h Pi s h :
a n d , w h a t i s
m i r a c ulo us ly c o i n c i d e n t , t h e t i t le o f t h e e n t h us i a s t w h o a n n ua lly k i lls
s o m e b o d y i n h o n o ur o f h e r , un d e r t h e n a m e o f t h e g o d d e s s Ma n e p a , a t
T a n c p ut , i s Ph ut , o r But h ; t h a t i s , t h e Bud h o f t h e Ir i s h !
t T h e r e f o r e s h a ll a m a n le a v e h i s f a t h e r a n d h i s m o t h e r , a n d s h a ll
c le a v e un t o h i s w i f e ; a n d t h e y s h a ll b e o n e f le s h . - G e n e s i s x i . 2 4 .
T HE ROUND T OWERS
.

2 5 9
a p p e a le d t o h e a v e n f o r a d j ud i c a t i o n o f t h e i r s ui t , b y
a r r o g a t i n g t o t h e m s e lv e s t h e a d j un c t o f De - d a n a a n v ,
o r G o d - Alm o n e r s .
" No t b ut t h e h um a n f a b r i c f r o m i t s b i r t h
Im b i b e s a f la v o ur o f i t s p a r e n t e a r t h ,
As v a r i o us t r a c t s e n f o r c e a v a r i o us t o i l,
T h e m a n n e r s s p e a k t h e i d i o m o f t h e s o i l
. '
Wh e t h e r o r n o t , h o w e v e r , t h e r e s ult i s t o b e c o n -
s i d e r e d a s d e c i s i v e o f t h e m a t t e r i n d i s p ut e , o n e t h i n g
a t le a s t i s c e r t a i n , v i z . , t h a t t h e Pi
. r h - G o d - Alm o n e r s
o b t a i n e d t h e v i c t o r y ; a n d t h e
Bud h - G o d - Alm o n e r s
w e r e t h r o w n up o n t h e o c e a n ;
o v e r w h o s e b o s o m ,
w a f t e d t o o ur g e n i a l s h o r e s , t h e y d i d n o t o n ly i m p o r t
w i t h t h e m a ll t h e c ult ur e o f t h e Ea s t , w i t h i t s a c -
c o m p a n y i n g r e f i n e m e n t a n d p o li s h e d c i v i li z a t i o n
; b ut
t h e y r a i s e d t h e i s le t o t h a t p i n n a c le
o f li t e r a r y a n d
r e li g i o us b e a t i t ud e , w h i c h m a d e i t a p p e a r t o t h e
f a n c i e s o f d i s t a n t a n d e n r a p t ur e d h e a r e r s , m o r e t h e
d a y - d r e a m o f r o m a n c e , t h a n t h e s o b e r o ut li n e o f a n
a c t ua l lo c a li t y .
I s h a ll n o w i llus t r a t e a p a r t o f t h o s e t r ut h s b y t h e
In d i a n h i s t o r y o f t h e c i r c um s t a n c e s , a s c o p i e d f r o m
t h e i r Pur a n a s , b y o n e w h o h a d n o a n t i c i p a t i o n o f m y
d i f f e r e n t ly - d r a w n c o n c lus i o n s , a n d o n e , i n f a c t , w h o
d i d n o t k n o w e i t h e r t h e
s c e n e o r t h e
s ub s t a n c e o f t h e
o c c ur r e n c e w h i c h h e t h us t r a n s c r i b e s .
"
Yo n i , t h e
f e m a le n a t ur e , i s a ls o , " s a y s . Wi lf o r d ,
d e r i v e d f r o m t h e s a m e r o o t
( y u, t o m i x ) .
Ma n y
Pun d i t s i n s i s t t h e Ya v a n a s w e r e s o n a m e d f r o m t h e i r
o b s t i n a t e a s s e r t i o n o f a s up e r i o r i n f lue n c e i n t h e
f e m a le o v e r t h e
li n g a o r m a le n a t ur e , i n p r o d uc i n g a
p e r f e c t o f f s p r i n g
. It m a y s e e m s t r a n g e , t h a t a q ue s t i o n
o f m e r e p h y s i o lo g y s h o uld h a v e o c c a s i o n e d n o t o n ly
a v e h e m e n t r e li g i o us c o n t e s t , b ut e v e n a b lo o d y w a r
;
s 2
2 6 0

T HE ROUND T OWERS.
y e t t h e f a c t a p p e a r s t o b e h i s t o r i c a lly t r ue , t h o ug h
t h e Hi n d u w r i t e r s h a v e d r e s s e d i t up , a s us ua l, i n a
v e i l o f h i s t o r i c a l a lle g o r i e s a n d m y s t e r i e s , w h i c h w e
s h o uld c a ll o b s c e n e , b ut w h i c h t h e y c o n s i d e r a s
a w f ully s a c r e d .
' 1
T h e r e i s a le g e n d i n t h e Se r v a r a s a , o f w h i c h t h e
f i g ur a t i v e m e a n i n g i s m o r e o b v i o us
. Wh e n Sa t i , a f t e r
t h e c lo s e o f h e r e x i s t e n c e a s t h e d a ug h t e r o f Da s c h a ,
s p r a n g a g a i n t o li f e i n t h e c h a r a c t e r o f Pa r v a t i , o r
Mo un t a i n Sp r i n g , s h e w a s r e - un i t e d i n m a r r i a g e t o
Ma h a d e v a
.
T h i s d i v i n e p a i r h a d o n c e a d i s p ut e o n
t h e c o m p a r a t i v e i n f lue n c e o f t h e s e x e s i n p r o d uc i n g
a n i m a t e d b e i n g s , a n d e a c h r e s o lv e d , b y m ut ua l a g r e e -
m e n t , t o c r e a t e a p a r t a n e w r a c e o f m e n * . T h e r a c e
p r o d uc e d b y Ma h a d e v a w e r e v e r y n um e r o us a n d
d e v o t e d t h e m s e lv e s e x c lus i v e ly t o t h e w o r s h i p o f t h e
m a le d e i t y ;
b ut t h e i r i n t e lle c t s w e r e d ull, t h e i r
b o d i e s f e e b le , t h e i r li m b s d i s t o r t e d , a n d t h e i r c o m -
p le x i o n s o f m a n y d i f f e r e n t h ue s .
Pa r v a t i h a d , a t t h e
s a m e t i m e , c r e a t e d a m ult i t ud e o f h um a n b e i n g s , w h o
a d o r e d t h e f e m a le p o w e r
o n ly , a n d w e r e a ll w e ll
s h a p e d , w i t h s w e e t a s p e c t s a n d f i n e c o m p le x i o n s
. A
f ur i o us c o n t e s t e n s ue d b e t w e e n t h e t w o r a c e s , a n d
t h e . Li n g a j a s
w e r e d e f e a t e d i n b a t t le ; b ut Ma h a d e v a ,
e n r a g e d a g a i n s t t h e
Yo n 6 a s , w o uld h a v e d e s t r o y e d
t h e m w i t h t h e f i r e o f h i s e y e ,
i f Pa r v a t i h a d n o t
i n t e r p o s e d a n d s p a r e d t h e m t ; b ut h e w o uld s p a r e
* "
T h e r e i s a s e c t o f Hi n d us , b y f a r t h e m o s t n um e r o us o f a n y , w h o ,
a t t e m p t i n g t o r e c o n c i le t h e t w o s y s t e m s , t e ll us , i n t h e i r a lle g o r i c a l s t y le ,
t h a t Pa r v a t i a n d Ma h a d e v a f o un d t h e i r c o n c ur r e n c e
e s s e n t i a l t o t h e
p e r f e c t i o n o f t h e i r o f f s p r i n g , a n d t h a t V i s h n u, a t t h e r e q ue s t o f t h e g o d -
d e s s , e f f e c t e d a r e c o n c i li a t i o n b e t w e e n t h e m ; h e n c e t h e n a v e l o f V i s h n u,
b y w h i c h t h e y m e a n t h e o s
t i n t - , i s w o r s h i p p e d a s o n e a n d t h e s a m e
w i t h t h e s a c r e d Yo n i . '
t Sh e "
m a d e us e o f t h e s a m e a r t i f i c e t h e o ld w o m a n , c a lle d Ba ub o ,
T HE ROUND T OWERS.

2 6 1
t h e m o n ly o n c o n d i t i o n t h a t t h e y s h o uld i n s t a n t ly
le a v e t h e c o un t r y , w i t h a p r o m i s e t o s e e i t n o m o r e ;
a n d f r o m t h e Yo n i , w h i c h t h e y a d o r e d a s t h e s o le
c a us e o f t h e i r e x i s t e n c e , t h e y w e r e n a m e d Ya v a n a s
. "
It i s e v i d e n t t h a t a m i s t a k e h a s b e e n c o m m i t t e d i n
t h e a b o v e n a r r a t i v e , m a k i n g t h e
v i c t o r s t h e p e r s o n s
w h o w e r e o b li g e d t o q ui t ! a n d w e k n o w f r o m t e s t i -
m o n y , a d d uc e d up o n a d i f f e r e n t o c c a s i o n , t h a t i n -
s t a n c e s o f s uc h c o n f us i o n w e r e n e i t h e r un f r e q ue n t
n o r un c o m m o n * . But e v e n a d m i t t i n g i t t o b e a c c u-
r a t e , t h e a p p a r e n t c o n t r a d i c t i o n i s e a s i ly r e c o n c i le d ;
a s i t i s p r o b a b le , t h a t t h e c o n t e s t w a s p r o t r a c t e d f o r a
lo n g p e r i o d o f t i m e ,
b e f o r e i t w a s ult i m a t e ly d e c i d e d i n
f a v o ur o f o n e p a r t y ; a n d , i n t h e a lt e r n a t i o n s o f s uc -
c e s s , o n e s i d e b e i n g up t o - d a y , a n d a n o t h e r up p e r -
m o s t t o - m o r r o w , w h a t c o uld b e m o r e n a t ur a l t h a n
t h a t a c o lo n y o f t h e
Ya v a n a s , o r Pi s h - d e - d a n a a n s , -
w h i c h i s t h e s a m e , - s h o uld h a v e f le d f o r s h e lt e r t o
In d i a , b e f o r e t h a t t h e a us p i c e s o f t h e i r a r m s , p r o p e lle d
b y t h e f a i r c a us e
w h i c h t h e y v i n d i c a t e d , h a d , a t le n g t h ,
a c c o m p li s h e d t h e o v e r t h r o w o f t h e i r a d v e r s a r i e s .
T h i s o b j e c t , h o w e v e r , o n c e o b t a i n e d - f ull m a s -
t e r s o f t h e i r w i s h e s - a n d s o le a r b i t e r s o f Ir a n - t h e y
w e r e n o t s a t i s f i e d w i t h t h e m e r e e x t i n c t i o n o f a ll t h e
s y m b o ls o f t h e i r p r e d e c e s s o r s , - s a v e a n d e x c e p t t h e
T o w e r s
w h i c h s t o o d p r o o f t o t h e i r a t t a c k s - b ut t h e y
e s t a b li s h e d t h e r e i n s t e a d a c o d e , a s w e ll p o li t i c a l a s
m o r a l, m o r e c o n s o n a n t w i t h t h e i r o w n p r e j ud i c e s :
a n d t h e w o n d e r w o uld b e g r e a t , i n d e e d , i f , a f t e r t h i s
d i d t o p ut Ce r e s i n g o o d h um o ur , a n d s h o w e d h i m t h e p r o t o t y p e o f t h e
Lo t o s .
Ma h a d e v a s m i le d a n d r e le n t e d ; b ut o n t h e c o n d i t i o n t h a t t h e y
s h o uld i n s t a n t ly le a v e t h e c o un t r y . "
* But s uc h i s t h e c o n f us i o n a n d un c e r t a i n t y o f t h e Hi n d u r e c o r d s ,
t h a t o n e i s r e a lly a f r a i d o f f o r m i n g a n y o p i n i o n w h a t e v e r
. - WILFORD.
2 6 2

T HE ROUND T OWERS.
t r i um p h a n t a s s e r t i o n o f f e m a le p o w e r , g r a t i t ud e a n d
r e li g i o n s h o uld n o t b o t h c o m b i n e i n m a k i n g t h e t y p e
o f t h a t i n f lue n c e - t h e s a c r e d
c r e s c e n t , o r y o n i - t h e
p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n o f t h e i r d o c t r i n e s ;
a n d w o m a n h e r s e lf ,
a ll lo v e ly a n d a ll- a t t r a c t i v e , t h e c o n c e n t r a t e d t e m p le
o f t h e i r d i v i n i t y up o n e a r t h !
Suc h w a s t h e c o m m e n c e m e n t o f t h e Pi s h - d e -
d a n a a n d y n a s t y i n Pe r s i a ; a n d i t s i n f lue n c e s t i ll o p e -
r a t i n g , a f t e r a lo n g i n t e r v a l o f t i m e , i s
w h a t t h e h i s -
t o r i a n un c o n s c i o us ly d e s c r i b e s i n t h e f o llo w i n g t e r m s ,
v i z . . -
G If w e g i v e a n y c r e d i t t o Fe r d o s i , m o s t o f t h e
la w s o f m o d e r n h o n o ur a p p e a r t o h a v e b e e n un d e r -
s t o o d a n d p r a c t i s e d w i t h a n e x c e p t i o n i n f a v o ur o f
t h e a n c i e n t Pe r s i a n s , w h o s e d ue ls , o r c o m b a t s ( w h i c h
w e r e f r e q ue n t ) , w e r e g e n e r a lly w i t h t h e m o s t d i s t i n -
g ui s h e d a m o n g t h e e n e m i e s o f t h e i r c o un t r y o r t h e
h um a n r a c e .
T h e g r e a t r e s p e c t i n w h i c h t h e f e m a le
s e x w a s h e ld w a s , n o d o ub t , t h e p r i n c i p a l c a us e o f
t h e p r o g r e s s t h e y h a d m a d e i n c i v i li z a t i o n . T h e s e
w e r e a t o n c e t h e c a us e o f g e n e r o us e n t e r p r i s e a n d i t s
r e w a r d
. It w o uld a p p e a r , t h a t i n f o r m e r d a y s t h e
w o m e n o f Pe r s i a h a d a n a s s i g n e d a n d h o n o ur a b le
p la c e i n s o c i e t y
; a n d w e m us t c o n c lud e , t h a t a n
e q ua l r a n k w i t h t h e m a le c r e a t i o n , w h i c h i s s e c ur e d
t o t h e m b y t h e o r d i n a n c e s o f Z o r o a s t e r , e x i s t e d lo n g
b e f o r e t h e t i m e o f t h a t r e f o r m e r , w h o p a i d t o o g r e a t
a t t e n t i o n t o t h e h a b i t s a n d p r e j ud i c e s o f h i s c o un t r y -
m e n , t o h a v e m a d e a n y s e r i o us a lt e r a t i o n s i n s o i m -
p o r t a n t a n us a g e . We a r e t o ld b y Qui n t us Cur t i us ,
t h a t Ale x a n d e r w o uld n o t s i t i n t h e p r e s e n c e o f Si s y -
g a m b i s t i ll t o ld t o d o s o b y t h a t m a t r o n , b e c a us e i t
w a s n o t t h e c us t o m i n Pe r s i a f o r s o n s t o s i t i n p r e -
s e n c e o f t h e i r m o t h e r s . T h e r e c a n b e n o s t r o n g e r
T HE ROUND T OWERS. 2 6 3
p r o o f t h a n t h i s a n e c d o t e a f f o r d s , o f t h e g r e a t r e s p e c t
i n w h i c h t h e f e m a le s e x w e r e h e ld i n t h a t c o un t r y
a t t h e p e r i o d o f . h i s i n v a s i o n * . "
Wi t h o ut t h e e , w h a t w e r e un e n li g h t e n e d m a n ?
A s a v a g e r o a m i n g t h r o ug h t h e w o o d s a n d w i ld s
In q ue s t o f p r e y ; a n d w i t h t h e un f a s h i o n e d f ur
Ro ug h c la d ; d e v o i d o f e v e r y f i n e r a r t ,
An d e le g a n c e o f li f e . No r h a p p i n e s s
Do m e s t i c , m i x e d o f t e n d e r n e s s a n d c a r e ,
No r m o r a l e x c e lle n c e , n o r s o c i a l b li s s ,
No r g r a c e , n o r lo v e , w e r e h i s t
.
# Si r Jo h n Ma lc o lm , v o l . i . p . 2 7 0.
.
t T h o m s o n .
2 6 4
CHAPT ER XX.
BUT y o u w i ll s a y t h a t I h a v e v e n t ur e d n o t h i n g li k e
p r o o f , o f t h e p a r a d o x i c a l a f f i r m a t i o n p r o p o un d e d a
s h o r t w h i le a g o , a s t o t h e
T ua t h - d e - d a n a a n s h a v i n g
b e e n m e n t i o n e d , b y a ll Ea s t e r n w r i t e r s , i n c o n n e x i o n
w i t h Pe r s i a
; a n d y e t un n o t i c e d , t h e w h i le , b y t h e m -
s e lv e s , n o t le s s t h a n un h e e d e d b y t h e i r r e a d e r s ?
T r ue : I b ut a w a i t e d t h e o p p o r t un i t y w h i c h h a s
j us t a r r i v e d .
Ar e y o u n o t a w a r e , t h e n , h o w t h a t a ll o r i e n t a l
w r i t e r s , w h e n r e f e r r i n g t o Bud h a , w h o w a s b o r n a t
Ma g h a d a , i n So ut h Ba h a r , s t a t e t h a t h e w a s t h e s o n
o f Sua d - d h a - d a n a ?
An d h a v e I n o t a lr e a d y s h o w n
y o u. t h a t Sua d h a n d T ua t h w e r e b ut d i s g ui s e s o f e a c h
o t h e r , a n d b o t h r e s o lv a b le i n t o Bud h ?
T h o s e f i r s t c o m p o n e n t s , t h e r e f o r e , i n e a c h b e i n g
t h e s a m e , lo o k a t t h e e n t i r e c o m p o un d w o r d s , T ua t h -
d e - d a n a a n , a n d Sua d - d h a - d a n a ,
a n d a r e n o t t h e r e s t ,
a ls o , i n f a lli b ly i d e n t i c a l ?
Ad m i t t i n g t h i s , y o u r e p ly , h o w c o uld t h e y , i n t h a t
e a r ly a g e , m a k e t h e i r w a y t o Ir e la n d
? w h i c h , f r o m i t s
e x t r e m e p o s i t i o n , m us t h a v e b e e n t h e v e r y la s t p la c e
t h e y w o uld h a v e t h o ug h t o f !
If t h e q ue s t i o n r e f e r s t o t h e r o ut e p ur s ue d , I d e -
c li n e i t s s o lut i o n , a s n o t n e c e s s a r y f o r m y d e s i g n
.
A p i e c e o f s ug a r , o r a m o r s e l o f p e p p e r , i n a n e g -
le c t e d c o r n e r o f a v i lla g e i n n , w o uld b e a c e r t a i n
T HE ROUND T OWERS .

2 G 5
p r o o f , " s a y s He e r e n , 1 1 o f t h e t r a d e w i t h e i t h e r In d i e s ,
e v e n i f w e p o s s e s s e d n o o t h e r e v i d e n c e s o f t h e c o m -
m e r c e o f t h e Dut c h a n d En g li s h w i t h t h o s e c o un t r i e s
. "
An d w h e n I h a v e a lr e a d y m a d e t h e c o i n c i d e n c e s b e -
t w e e n t h e t w o Ir a n s a n d t h e i r i n h a b i t a n t s , t h e i r f o r m s
o f w o r s h i p , t h e i r la n g ua g e a n d m o d e o f li f e , t o b e
h i s t o r i c a l a x i o m s , I s ur e ly c a n n o t b e e x p e c t e d t o
w a s t e la b o ur up o n s uc h a t r i f le , w h i c h s i n k s i n t o
n o t h i n g a g a i n s t e v i d e n c e s o f t h e a c t ua l f a c t ' .
But i f t h e le n g t h o f t h e v o y a g e b e t h e o b s t a c le
i n s i n ua t e d , t h e n w o uld I f i n d s o m e d i f f i c ult y t o - d o
w h a t ? - k e e p m y m us c le s g r a v e : a s i f , f o r s o o t h ,
t h e a d v e n t ur o us s o n s o f m a n c o uld o n ly , s lo w ly a n d
i m p e r c e p t i b ly , a n d li k e s o m a n y a n t s p us h i n g a lo a d
b e f o r e t h e m , i n t r o d uc e t h e m s e lv e s , i n c h b y i n c h , a n d
i n m e a s ur e d s uc c e s s i o n , i n t o t h e d i v e r s i f i e d t e r r a -
q ue o us g lo b e s p r e a d a b r o a d f o r t h e i r e n j o y m e n t ! -
w h e n w e h a v e d i r e c t d e m o n s t r a t i o n t h a t s uc h w a s
f a r f r o m h a v i n g b e e n t h e c a s e , i n t h e i n s t a n c e o f a
c o lo n y , w h i c h s t a r t i n g f r o m T y r e , a n d le a v i n g b e -
h i n d , o n a ll s i d e s , t h e m o s t i n v i t i n g a n d d e li c i o us
c o un t r i e s , p la n t e d i t s e lf d o w n , p e r h a p s , f r o m t h e
m e r e s p i r i t o f r o m a n c e , i n t h e c i r c um s c r i b e d li t t le
i s la n d o f Ca d i z , lo n g b e f o r e Ca r t h a g e o r Ut i c a h a d
e x i s t e n c e e v e n i n n a m e !
No , s i r , w e m us t n o t b e s o f o n d o f d e r o g a t i n g
f r o m t h e a n c i e n t s a ll p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h o s e e m b e lli s h -
m e n t s w h i c h p r o m o t e s o c i e t y . As i a w a s t h e c r a d le
o f t h e w h o le h um a n r a c e ; a n d t h e n c e , a s i t s p o p u-
* Wh e n h i s t o r y f a i ls i n a c c o un t i n g f o r f o r e i g n e x t r a c t i o n o f a n y
p e o p le , o r w h e r e i t i s m a n i f e s t ly m i s t a k e n , h o w c a n t h i s e x t r a c t i o n b e
m o r e r a t i o n a lly i n f e r r e d a n d d e t e r m i n e d , o r t h a t m i s t a k e r e c t i f i e d , t h a n
f r o m t h e a n a lo g y o f la n g ua g e s ?
An d i s n o t t h i s a t o n c e s uf f i c i e n t ly
c o n c lus i v e , i f n o t h i n g e ls e w a s le f t t h e m
? - Eug e n e Ar a m .
2 6 6
T HE ROUND T OWERS.
la t i o n o v e r f lo w e d , m i g r a t o r y h e r d s i n d i f f e r e n t s t a t e s
o f c i v i li z a t i o n , a n d w i t h d i f f e r e n t f o r m s o f r e li g i o us
c ult ur e ; p o ur e d i n t h e i r s uc c e s s i v e c o lo n i e s w i t h m ult i -
t ud i n o us i n un d a t i o n i n t o t h e o t h e r " c o n t i n e n t a l la n d s ;
b ut , w i t h m o r e z e a l, a n d w i t h s t r o n g e r p r e f e r e n c e ,
i n t o t h o s e c o m p a c t li t t le n e s t s w h i c h h a v e b e e n s i g -
n i f i c a n t ly d e n o m i n a t e d t h e " Is le s o f t h e G e n t i le s . "
V e s s e ls r o d e o v e r t h e b r i n y s ur g e s w i t h a s p r o ud
a c a n v a s a s n o w r e c e i v e s t h e g a le * . T h e m o d e l o f
t h e a r k
w o uld b e le s s o n s uf f i c i e n t , t o i n s t r uc t a n e n -
t e r p r i s i n g g e n e r a t i o n i n t h e s c i e n c e o f n a v a l a r c h i -
t e c t ur e : a n d w e m a y w e ll s up p o s e t h a t , o f a ll p ur -
s ui t s c ult i v a t e d b y h um a n a r t , t h i s w o uld h a v e o c c u-
p i e d t h e v e r y f o r e m o s t r e g a r d , b y a p e o p le j us t
r e s c ue d , t h r o ug h i t s s a lut a r y i n s t r um e n t a li t y , f r o m
t h e d e s o la t i n g s c o ur g e o f a n a ll- s w a llo w i n g a b y s s
.
1 1 We ll, t h e n , a t a ll e v e n t s , " - I f a n c y I h e a r y o u
e x c la i m , - " y o u a d m i t t h e s t o r y o f t h e
d e lug e ? "
Ce r t a i n ly a n d t h a t o f
No a h ,
a n d t h e
a r k , a n d t h e
d o v e , a n d t h e r a v e n . But d i d I n o t , a ls o , c o n c e d e
t h e s t o r y o f t h e g i a n t s , a n d o f t h e s e r p e n t ? o f t h e s o n s
o f G o d , a n d o f t h e t r e e o f k n o w le d g e ? Na y ,
h a v e I
n o t p ut t h e t r ut h o f t h o s e p a r t i c ula r s b e y o n d t h e p o s s i b i -
li t y o f s c e p t i c i s m , m uc h m o r e o f d e n i a l
? But , b e li e v e
m e , t h a t t h e li q ui d w h i c h c o m p o s e d t h i s " d e lug e "
w a s m o r e o f t h e c o lo ur o f c la r e t t h a n i t w a s o f w a t e r ;
- t h a t t h e r e w a s n o m o r e o f w o o d o r
t i m b e r i n t h e
c o n s t r uc t i o n o f t h i s "
a r k " t h a n t h e r e w a s i n t h a t o f
t h e
"
t r e e o f k n o w le d g e " - t h a t t h o s e t w o la t t e r w e r e
* T h e m e r c h a n t s o f Ma g a d h a f o r m e d n o t o n ly a p a r t i c ula r c la s s , b ut
a ls o a p a r t i c ula r t r i b e . It s e e m s t h a t t h e y w e r e b o ld , e n t e r p r i s i n g , a n d ,
a t t h e s a m e t i m e , c a ut i o us a n d c i r c um s p e c t ; h e n c e t h e y a r e s a i d t o b e
m e r c h a n t s b y t h e f a t h e r s ' , a n d w a r r i o r s b y t h e m o t h e r s ' s i d e , a c c o r d i n g
t o Mr . Co le b r o o k ' s a c c o un t o f t h e Hi n d u c la s s e s
. - As i a t . Re s . i x . p . 7 9 .
T HE ROUND T OWERS.

2 6 7
c o n g e n i a l a n d c o r r e s p o n d e n t t o e a c h o t h e r , i n t h e i r
c o n f i g ur a t i o n a n d i n t e n t i o n , - - - a n d t h a t f le s h a n d
b lo o d
w e r e t h e e le m e n t s o f w h i c h t h e y w e r e b o t h c o m -
p o s e d .
Fo r a ll t h a t m e e t s t h e b o d i ly s e n s e , I d e e m
Sy m b o li c a l, o n e m i g h t y a lp h a b e t
Fo r i n f a n t m i n d s
Co uld t h e c o i n c i d e n c e o f m e a s ur e
' b e t w e e n t h e
g r e a t Eg y p t i a n
p y r a m i d ,
a t i t s b a s e , a n d t h a t o f t h e
No a c h i c a r k , i n a n c i e n t c ub i t s t , h a v e b e e n a c c i d e n -
t a l, d o y o u i m a g i n e ? An d i f n o t , w h a t c o m m un i t y
o f p ur p o s e , d o y o u t h i n k , h a d b e e n s ub s e r v e d b y s uc h
n um e r i c a l a n a lo g y ?
T h e t r i a n g le , i n t h e o ld w o r ld , w a s a s a c r e d f o r m
.
It r e p r e s e n t e d t h e p r o p e r t i e s - c a p a c i t y a n d d i la t a -
t i o n - o f t h e f e m a le s y m b o l . Luc i a n , i n h i s " Auc -
t i o n , " s t a t e s t h e f o llo w i n g d i a lo g ue a s h a v i n g o c c ur r e d
b e t w e e n Py t h a g o r a s a n d a p ur c h a s e r , v i z .
PYT H. Ho w d o y o u r e c k o n ?
PUR.
On e , t w o , t h r e e , f o ur .
PYT H. Do y o u s e e ? Wh a t y o u c o n c e i v e
f o ur ,
t h e s e a r e t e n
;
a n d a p e r f e c t
t r i a n g le ,
a n d o ur
o a t h .
* Se e " A Di s s e r t a t i o n o n t h e An t i q ui t y ,
Or i g i n , a n d De s i g n o f t h e
p r i n c i p a l Py r a m i d s o f Eg y p t , " &c . &c .
t Me r s e n n us w r i t e s t h us : - " I f i n d t h a t t h e c ub i t ( up o n
w h i c h a
le a r n e d Je w i s h w r i t e r , w h i c h I r e c e i v e d
b y t h e f a v o ur o f t h e i llus t r i o us
Hug e n i us , K n i g h t o f t h e Or d e r o f St . Mi c h a e l, s up p o s e s t h e d i m e n s i o n s
o f t h e t e m p le w e r e f o r m e d ) a n s w e r s t o 2 31 o f o ur i n c h e s ;
s o t h a t i t
w a n t s } o f a n i n c h o f t w o o f o ur f e e t ,
a n d c o n t a i n s t w o Ro m a n f e e t
a n d t w o d i g i t s , a n d a g r a i n , w h i c h i s
a o f a d i g i t . " T h e Pa r i s f o o t , w i t h
w h i c h Me r s e n n us c o m p a r e d t h i s c ub i t , i s e q ua l t o 1
6 0
o f t h e En g li s h
f o o t , a c c o r d i n g t o Mr . G r e a v e s ; a n d c o n s e q ue n t ly i s t o t h e Ro m a n f o o t
a s 1 06 8 t o 9 6 7 . In t h e s a m e p r o p o r t i o n , r e c i p r o c a lly , a r e
2 3 ; a n d
2 5 - s a ?o . T h a t c ub i t , t h e r e f o r e , i s e q ua l t o 2 5 6 8 un c i e o f t h e Ro m a n
f o o t , a n d c o n s e q ue n t ly f a lls w i t h i n t h e m i d d le o f t h e li m i t s 2 5
1 5 0, a n d
f o
a ~ w i t h w h i c h w e h a v e j us t c i r c um s c r i b e d
t h e s a c r e d c ub i t ; s o t h a t I
s us p e c t t h i s c ub i t w a s t a k e n f r o m s o m e a ut h e n t i c m o d e l,
p r e s e r v e d i n a
s e c r e t
m a n n e r f r o m t h e k n o w le d g e o f t h e Ch r i s t i a n s . - Si r
ISAAC
NEWT ON.
2 6 8

T HE ROUND T OWERS
.
No w , Py t h a g o r a s , t h o ug h a Sa m i a n , w a s
e d u-
c a t e d i n Eg y p t ;
a n d t h e r e li g i o us m y s t e r i e s , w i t h
w h i c h h e h a d b e e n t h e r e i m b ue d , a r e w h a t i s s o p r o -
f a n e ly r i d i c ule d b y t h i s i n f i d e l s c o f f e r .
It i s n o t m y p r o v i n c e t o j us t i f y t h e c e r e m o n i a l o f
t h e Eg y p t i a n s , a n y f ur t h e r t h a n a s i n d i c a t i v e o f g r a -
t i t ud e t o t h e G o d h e a d b ut t h e r e f le c t i o n m us t s ug -
g e s t i t s e lf t o e v e r y o b s e r v a n t m i n d , t h a t t h e y a r e
n e v e r c a lle d i d o la t e r s i n a n y p a r t o f t h e Pe n t a t e uc h ;
a n d Plut a r c h , i n a d d i t i o n ,
p o s i t i v e ly a s s e r t s , t h a t
' t h e y h a d i n s e r t e d n o t h i n g i n t o t h e i r w o r s h i p w i t h -
o ut a r e a s o n , - n o t h i n g m e r e ly f a b ulo us , - n o t h i n g
s up e r s t i t i o us ; b ut t h e i r i n s t i t ut i o n s h a v e r e f e r e n c e
e i t h e r t o m o r a ls o r s o m e t h i n g us e f ul i n li f e , a n d b e a r
a b e a ut i f ul r e s e m b la n c e , m a n y o f t h e m , t o s o m e f a c t s
i n h i s t o r y , o r s o m e a p p e a r a n c e i n n a t ur e . "
If w e i n v e s t i g a t e t h e s e c r e t o f t h i s Py t h a g o r e a n
a s s e v e r a t i o n , w e s h a ll f i n d t h a t t h e n um b e r s 1 , 2 , 3,
4 , t h r i c e j o i n e d , a n d t o uc h i n g e a c h o t h e r , a s i t w e r e ,
i n t h r e e a n g le s , i n t h i s m a n n e r -

c o n s t i t ut e a n e q ui la t e r a l t r i a n g le , a n d a m o un t a ls o , i n
c a lc ula t i o n , t o t e n .
Wh i le t h e i n w a r d m y s t e r y ,
c o uc h e d un d e r i t s f i g ur e , e m b r a c e d a ll t h a t w a s s o -
le m n i n r e li g i o n a n d i n t h o ug h t ,
b e i n g , i n f a c t , t h e
i n d e x o f m a le a n d f e m a le un i t e d - t h e un i t , i n t h e
c e n t r e , s t a n d i n g f o r t h e Li n g a m
.
Lo o k n o w a t t h e f o r m o f t h e g r e a t Eg y p t i a n p y r a -
m i d ;
a n d i s i t n o t p r e c i s e ly t h a t o f t h e a b o v e t r i -
a n g le - ? Is t h e r e n o t , a ls o , a n a p e r t ur e
i n t o i t , a b o ut
T HE ROUND T OWERS.

2 6 9
t h e m i d d le a s h e r e * ? An d w h e n t o a ll, w e a d d t h e
n o t i o n o f
w e lls
o f w a t e r w i t h i n s i d e , i s n o t t h e d e m o n -
s t r a t i o n c o m p le t e ; t h a t t h e g o d d e s s o f t h e Lo t o s ,
t h e
s o f t p r o m o t e r o f d e s i r e , t h e a r b i t r e s s o f
m a n , ' a n d t h e
c o m p e e r o f t h e a n g e ls , w a s t h e h o n o ur e d o b j e c t o f
i t s s y m b o li c a l e r e c t i o n t ?
In 1 Pe t . i i i . 2 0, i t i s a s s e r t e d t h a t o n ly
" e i g h t
p e r s o n s " w e r e p r e s e r v e d i n t h e a r k . Le t us s up p o s e
t h e m t o h a v e b e e n No a h a n d h i s w i f e , w i t h h i s t h r e e
s o n s a n d
t h e i r
w i v e s .
At a c o m p a r a t i v e ly s h o r t i n t e r -
v a l, a f t e r t h e d a t e a s s i g n e d t o t h i s e v e n t , - a t m o s t
b ut 35 2 y e a r s , - o n Ab r a h a m ' s a r r i v a l i n t h e la n d o f
Eg y p t , w e f i n d a f lo ur i s h i n g k i n g d o m , a n o r g a n i s e d
p o li c e , a s y s t e m a t i c le g i s la t ur e , a n d c o m p r e h e n s i v e
i n s t i t ut i o n s , d i f f us e d o v e r i t s s ur f a c e . All t h e o t h e r
p a r t s o f t h e w o r ld , w e m us t b e r e a d y t o p r e s um e , i f
n o t e q ua lly e n li g h t e n e d , w e r e , a t le a s t , a s p o p ulo us
;
a n d I p ut i t t o y o ur g o o d s e n s e t o d e c i d e , w h e t h e r
e i g h t i n d i v i d ua ls c o uld , w i t h i n t h a t p e r i o d , n o t o n ly
p r o c r e a t e s o p le n t i f ully a s t o r e p le n i s h t h e w h o le
e a r t h , b ut e n li g h t e n i t , a d d i t i o n a lly , w i t h s uc h a c o r us -
c a t i o n o f s c i e n c e , a s n o s ub s e q ue n t e r a h a s b e e n
s i n c e a b le t o e c li p s e
?
In d e e d , t h e Sc r i p t ur e s t h e m s e lv e s g i v e us , e ls e -
w h e r e , t o un d e r s t a n d t h a t St
. Pe t e r d i d n o t c o r r e c t ly
i n t e r p r e t t h i s h i s t o r y .
1 1 Co m e t h o u, " s a y s G e n e s i s
v i i . 1 , " a n d
a ll t h y h o us e , i n t o t h e a r k ! "
T h i s g r a -
* An d h e b r o ug h t m e t o t h e d o o r o f t h e c o ur t
; a n d w h e n I lo o k e d ,
b e h o ld a h o le i n
t h e w a ll. T h e n s a i d h e un t o m e , So n o f m a n , d i g n o w
i n t h e w a ll
; a n d w h e n I h a d d i g g e d i n t h e w a ll, b e h o ld a d o o r
: a n d h e
s a i d un t o m e , G o i n , a n d b e h o ld t h e w i c k e d a b o m i n a t i o n s t h a t t h e y d o
h e r e . So , I w e n t i n , a n d s a w ;
a n d , b e h o ld , e v e r y f o r m o f c r e e p i n g
t h i n g s , a n d a b o m i n a b le b e a s t s , a n d a ll t h e i d o ls o f t h e h o us e o f Is r a e l,
p o ur t r a y e d up o n t h e w a ll r o un d a b o ut
. - Ez s uuEL.
t " In t e r o m n e s e o s , n o n c o n s t a t a
q ui b us f a c t o r s i n t , j us t i s s i m o c a s u
o b li t e r a t i s t a n t e e v a n i t a t i s a ut h o r i b us
. " - PLIN.
2 7
0

T HE ROUND T OWERS .
c i o us i n v i t a t i o n , a t s o c r i t i c a l a j un c t ur e , w o uld
h a v e b e e n t o o w e lc o m e a p r o f f e r , t o b e lo s t s i g h t o f b y
a n y o n e , w h o c o uld m a k e i t a v a i la b le ;
a n d m us t n o t
w e s up p o s e t h a t t h e d o m e s t i c s t o w h o m t h e e x t e n s i o n
w a s a d d r e s s e d , w i t h t h e i r s e v e r a l d e p e n d e n t s a n d
c o lla t e r a l o f f s p r i n g , w o uld h a v e b e e n g la d a n d h a p p y
t o g r a s p a t i t w i t h d e li g h t ?
But t h e n a m e o f t h e t y p e i t s e lf i s w o r t h a h un d r e d
d e d uc t i o n s f r o m e q ui v o c a l p r e m i s e s . T h e c o f f e r o f
t h e la w , t h e c o f f i n o f Jo s e p h , t h e m o n e y c h e s t o f
t h e t e m p le , a r e a ll s e v e r a lly t r a n s la t e d a r k , a n d r e -
c o r d e d i n He b r e w b y t h e w o r d
i t 7 K i r o n : b ut t h e
" a r k o f No a h * , " a n d Mo s e s ' s " a r k o f b ulr us h e s ' "
a r e p e c uli a r ly d e s i g n a t e d , n s n
T h e b i t , o r
m a n
t e b a h l .
Wh a t i s t h e m e a n i n g o f t h e s e m y s t e r i o us t e r m s ?
" Quo s p e c t a n d a m o d o , q uo s e n s u c r e d i s , e t o r e ? "
As t h e T a u o f t h e He b r e w s i s , i n d i f f e r e n t ly , i n
p o w e r , T
a n d T h , T h e b i t h a s a s g o o d a r i g h t t o b e
s p e lle d w i t h , a s w i t h o ut , a n h , a t t h e e n d o f i t , -
a n d , i n d e e d , a b e t t e r r i g h t , c o n s i d e r i n g t h e e le m e n t s
w h e r e o f i t i s c o m p o un d e d
.
T h e b i t h , t h e n , i s t h e p r o -
p e r a n d t r ue s o un d , a n d t h e m y s t e r y o f i t s i m p o r t I
t h us un r a v e l .
It s f i r s t s y lla b le , T h e , s i g n i f i e s s a c r e d o r c o n s e -
a , v
- Im
, y y
n o n
- O T w y
r r i - n , r r n t n t w ~ y h
W2 4 Pt m a f l 1 = s Y1 RT
. 31
r Mo
m m r n r t o w 5 w r um r n v y n
MH 0 w a r y 1- 01 1 M - T 1 1 1 4
r 1 n r r t 3+ h un r r n
G e n . v i . 1 4 .
h Ex o d . i i . 3 .
T h e Se p t ua g i n t t r a n s la t o r s , n o t p e r c e i v i n g a n y d i f f e r e n c e , r e n -
d e r e d a ll, s i m i la r ly , b y t h e w o r d u w . i c !
T HE ROUND T OWERS.

2 7 1
c r a t e d *
; a n d s i n c e t h e le t t e r s b a n d p a r e c o m m ut a b le
- - - b i t h i s t h e s a m e a s p i t h , t h a t i s , Ct e i s o r Yo n i . T h e
w o r d s
T h e - b i t h , t h e n , t o g e t h e r , i n a ll t h e a t t r a c t i o n o f
t r ut h , i n t i m a t e t h e c o n s e c r a t e d Ct e i s ; o r t h e s a c r e d
Yo n i
f i
!
But
Pi t h ,
i t s e lf , i s o n ly a c o n v e r s i o n o f Fi d h , - - t h e
i n i t i a l le t t e r s P a n d F b e i n g a lw a y s i n t e r c h a n g e a b le ,
a n d n o t m o r e s o - t h a n t h e p e n ult i m a t e s t a n d
d .
An d
Fi d h ,
i n i t s a b s t r a c t a n d o r i g i n a l p o s i t i o n , s uc h a s
w e h a v e e a r ly s e e n . i t , i s m a s c uli n e , t h e p lur a l o f
Bud h ,
c o n v e y i n g v a r i o us ly t h e s i g n i f i c a t i o n s o f Bi n . ,
g a m s , t r e e s , a n d b ulr us h e s . He r e , h o w e v e r , w h e r e i t
i s f e m i n i n e , i t s s e x r e v e r s e d , a n d t h e a n a t o m y o f n a t ur e
p o ur t r a y e d b y t h e
p h y s i c s o f la n g ua g e ,
t h e i d e a o f
t h e b ulr us h e s a lo n e p r e s e n t s i t s e lf ; a n d t h e b a s k e t
i n w h i c h Mo s e s w a s s a v e d f r o m t h e w a t e r s , a n d
w h i c h w a s m a d e o f s uc h r e e d s , w a s a p p r o p r i a t e ly
d e n o m i n a t e d b y t h i s m y s t e r i o us s y m b o l, a s a t y p e
o f
t h e v i r g i n i t y i n w h i c h t h e Me s s i a h w a s t o b e i n c a r -
n a t e d , n o t le s s t h a n o f t h e r e d e m p t i o n w h i c h w a s t o
a c c r ue f r o m h i s s uf f e r i n g s .
An o t h e r s t a g e h a s b e e n t h us a d v a n c e d ; a n d lo !
t h e b e a ut i f ul un i o n w h i c h s ub s i s t s ,
a s t o d e s i g n , b e -
t w e e n t h e r e s ult s o f o ur d i s c o v e r i e s , a n d t h e c o n s o li n g
a s s ur a n c e s o f p ur e Ch r i s t i a n i t y
Le t us n o w p r o c e e d a li t t le f a r t h e r i n t h i s c o ur s e - - -
" Sa n c t o s a us i r e c lud e r e f o n t e s
a n d c o n n e c t t h e s e t r ut h s w i t h t h e T ua t h - d e - d a n a a n s
a n d t h e Pi s h - d e - d a n a a n s .
* As d o e s a ls o T h a , T o , T i , T h o , T h u, w i t h t h e i r s e v e r a l c o m m u-
t a b le s , d e r i v a t i v e s , f o r m a t i v e s , &c .
t An d t h e V a lle y o f T o - p h i h h , i n w h i c h h um a n v i c t i m s w e r e s a c r i -
f i c e d , t h us d i s c lo s e s , i n t h e s y m b o li c
s e c r e t o f i t s s h a p e ,
t h a t t h e p r o p i t i a -
t i o n o f t h i s
i n s t r um e n t
w a s t h e g r a n d o b j e c t o f t h e s a c r i f i c e r s .
$ V i r g i l .
2
7
2

T HE ROUND T OWERS .
"
No a h w a s a j us t m a n , " o b s e r v e s t h e s c r i p t ur a l
h i s t o r i a n ,
" a n d
p e r f e c t i n h i s g e n e r a t i o n s ; a n d No a h
w a lk e d w i t h G o d
s . "
T h e n a m e o f t h i s p a t r i a r c h i m p li e s li t e r a lly a
b o a t .
t h e c h a r a c t e r a s s i g n e d h i m i s n o t s o w e ll un -
d e r s t o o d .
T o s uc c e e d i n t h e i n v e s t i g a t i o n w e m us t h a v e
r e c o ur s e t o t h e c o n t e x t
: a n d h e r e , t h e f i r s t t h i n g
t h a t s t r i k e s us i s t h e o b s e r v a t i o n
t h a t t h e e a r t h w a s
c o r r up t
b e f o r e G o d , a n d f i lle d w i t h v i o le n c e
;
f o r a ll
f le s h
h a d c o r r up t e d h i s w a y up o n t h e e a r t h t . "
A p a s s a g e i n t h e Ne w T e s t a m e n t w i ll b e t h e b e s t
c o m m e n t up o n t h i s s ub j e c t , w h e r e t h e p a t i e n c e o f
G o d w i t h t h e i n i q ui t i e s o f m a n k i n d b e i n g a t le n g t h
e x h a us t e d , i t i s s a i d , t h a t h e
" g a v e t h e m o v e r t o a
r e p r o b a t e m i n d , " " t o
d i s h o n o ur t h e i r o w n b o d i e s b e -
t w e e n t h e m s e lv e s
V "
But No a h d i d n o t p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h o s e un h a llo w e d
a b o m i n a t i o n s , a n d h e , a c c o r d i n g ly ,
" f o un d g r a c e i n
t h e e y e s o f t h e Lo r d
. "
We n o w , t h e r e f o r e , s e e t h e p r o p r i e t y o f t h e n a m e
a s s i g n e d t o h i s a r k
Is - a n d t h e i n t i m a t i o n o f a p p r o v a l
c o n v e y e d b y t h e d i v i n e c o m m a n d o f
" Co m e t h o u
a n d a ll t h y h o us e i n t o i t , " w a s b ut a n o t h e r f o r m o f
t h e i n j un c t i o n e ls e w h e r e c o n v e y e d , t o t h e s a m e e f f e c t ,
i n t h e w o r d s , "
Be y e f r ui t f ul a n d m ult i p ly
'
. "
No a h , t h e n , a n d K a i o m ur s
* * w e r e o n e a n d t h e s a m e
p e r s o n , t h e r e f o r m e r o f t h e h um a n s p e c i e s , a n d t h e
* G e n e s i s v i . 9 .

1 G e n e s i s v i . 1 2 .

:
Ro m a n s i . 2 0- 2 4 .
G e n e s i s v i . 8 .

1 1 T h e - b i t h .

Q G e n e s i s i x . 1 .
* * T h i s k i n g i s s t a t e d t o h a v e r e c la i m e d h i s s ub j e c t s f r o m a s t a t e o f
t h e m o s t s a v a g e b a r b a r i t y . a
e w a s , w e a r e t o ld b y o ur a ut h o r , t h e s o n
o f Yus s a n - Aj um , w h i le o t h e r s c a ll h i m t h e g r a n d s o n o f No a h ; a ll
a g r e e i n a c k n o w le d g i n g h i m a s t h e f o un d e r o f a d y n a s t y , w h i c h a r e
k n o w n i n h i s t o r y a s t h a t o f t h e Pa i s h d a d i a n
. - SIR JOHN MALCOLM.
T HE ROUND T OWERS.

2 7
3
f i r s t m o n a r c h o f t h e Pi s h - d e - d a n a a n d y n a s t y . Ya -
v a n a
w a s a n o t h e r n a m e a p p r o p r i a t e d t o h i m , a n d
e q ui v a le n t w i t h
No a h ,
e x c e p t i n g o n ly t h a t t h e f o r m e r
i s li t e r a l, a n d t h e la t t e r f i g ur a t i v e . An a d v a n t a g e ,
h o w e v e r , a r i s e s f r o m t h i s d i f f e r e n c e , f o r w h e n w e
k n o w t h a t Ya v a n a
m e a n s t h e y o n i , a n d
No a h a
b o a t , a n d t h a t b o t h w e r e e q ua lly c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f
t h e s a m e i n d i v i d ua l c h a r a c t e r , w e c o n c lud e t h a t
t h e la t t e r d e n o m i n a t i o n w a s b ut t h e s y m b o l o f t h e
f o r m e r , - t h a t , i n f a c t , i t w a s t h e lun a r b o a t * , o r t h e
c r e s c e n t ,
t h e c o n c h a V e n e r i s , a n d t h e t y p e o f c o m f o r t t
t h a t w a s v e i le d un d e r t h e m y s t e r y o f t h i s a m b i g uo us
d e v i c e .
T h i s f a c t o n c e e x p la i n e d , y o u h a v e t h e i m m e d i a t e
s o lut i o n o f t h o s e
"
s e m i c i r c ula r i m p le m e n t s " s o un i -
* T h e Ir i s h n a m e f o r a b o a t i s b a ud h , w h i c h i s o n ly a f o r m a t i v e o f
p i t t a
.
F G e n e s i s v
. 2 9
.
T
2
7
4

T HE ROUND T OWERS,
v e r s a l t h r o ug h o ut t h i s i s la n d , a n d w h i c h Le d w i c h
a c k n o w le d g e s
h a v e c r e a t e d m o r e t r o ub le t o t h e
a n t i q ua r i a n s t o d e t e r m i n e t h e i r us e , t h a n a ll t h e
o t h e r a n t i q ui t i e s p ut t o g e t h e r . "
T h e s e a r e a ll m a d e o f t h e f i n e s t g o ld , a n d , a s
e m b le m s o f t h e y o n i , w h i c h w a s t h e Ro m a n p a lla -
d i um , us e d t o h a v e b e e n w o r n a s
b r e a s t - p la t e s b y t h e
p r i e s t s a n d s o v e r e i g n s . T h e y w o uld s o m e t i m e s , a ls o ,
e x h i b i t t h e m a s o r n a m e n t s t o t h e h e a d - d r e s s :
a n d
w h e n s o d e s i g n e d , t h e t w o t e r m i n a t i n g a n g le s us e d
t o h a v e b e e n f ur n i s h e d w i t h c i r c ula r c up s , w h e r e b y
t h e y w o uld b e t t e r a d h e r e t o t h e p a r t : o f s uc h , li k e -
w i s e , w e h a v e t h e f o llo w i n g s p e c i m e n .
Yun i s t h e us ua l m o d e o f p r o n o un c i n g
Ya v a n n a ;
* If t h e r e a d e r w i ll n o w t ur n t o p a g e 2 2 3, w i ll h e n o t t h i n k i t p r o b a b le
t h a t t h e
s y m b o l
c o n t a i n e d o n t h e b r o k e n - o f f p o r t i o n o f t h e s t o n e , t h e r e
r e p r e s e n t e d , m us t h a v e b e e n t h e p h a llus ?
T ILE ROUND ' r o w 4 T , . Ii s .

2 7 5
a n d a s t h e v e n e r a t i o n o f p o s t e r i t y f o r t h e v i r t ue s
o f t h i s le g i s la t o r , a t a m o m e n t w h e n v i c e h a d
t h r e a t e n e d a g e n e r a l d e c a y , - - le d t h e m t o c o n s i d e r
h i m a g o d , h e h e n c e o b t a i n e d t h e p r e f i x o f De o o r
De u,
w h i c h a lo n g w i t h t h a t o f Ca li , w h o s e c h a m p i o n
h e s h o w e d h i m s e lf , m a k e up t h e r o m a n t i c , e m b le m a t i c ,
a n d n o m i n a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f De uc a li y un t .
Sa f e o ' e r t h e m a i n o f li f e t h e v e s s e l r i d e s ,
Wh e n p a s s i o n f ur ls h e r s a i ls , a n d r e a s o n g ui d e s ;
Wh i ls t s h e w h o h a s t h a t s ur e s t r ud d e r lo s t ,
Mi d s t r o c k s a n d q ui c k s a n d s b y t h e w a v e s i s t e s t
;
No c e r t a i n r o a d s h e k e e p s , n o r p o r t c a n f i n d ,
T o s s ' d up a n d d o w n b y e v e r y w a n t o n w i n d i . "
T h e s t r ug g le s f o r a s c e n d a n c y b e t w e e n c o n t e n d i n g
p a r t i e s a r e n o t t h e g r o w t h o f a d a y ; s t i ll le s s a r e
t h e y un s t a i n e d b y t h e e f f us i o n o f b lo o d . De lug e w a s
n o v e r y e x t r a v a g a n t h y p e r b o le t o a p p ly t o s uc h a
c a r n a g e ; f o r , i n d e p e n d e n t ly o f o ur k n o w i n g t h a t
e v e r y v i s i t a t i o n , w h e t h e r b y f i r e , w a t e r , o r s w o r d , w a s
s o d e n o m i n a t e d b y t h e e a s t e r n s , w e h a v e t h e Sc r i p -
t ur e s t h e m s e lv e s i llus t r a t i n g t h i s us e o f t h e t e r m , i n
a p p ly i n g i t t o t h e d e s c r i p t i o n , a t a f a r la t e r p e r i o d ,
o f a n e q ua lly s e v e r e a n d n o le s s d i s t r e s s i n g c a t a -
s t r o p h e .
No w , t h e r e f o r e , t h e Lo r d b r i n g e t h up o n h i m t h e
w a t e r s o f t h e r i v e r , s t r o n g a n d m a n y , e v e n t h e K i n g
o f As s y r i a a n d a ll h i s g lo r y ; a n d h e s h a ll c o m e up
o v e r a ll h i s c h a n n e ls , a n d g o o v e r a ll h i s b a n k s . An d
b e s h a ll p a s s t h r o ug h Jud a h ; h e s h a ll o v e r f lo w a n d
* Wh o c a n f o r g e t t h e f a b le i n Ov i d ,
d e j a c t i b us la p i d i b us 2
h But a s h i s d e s c e n d a n t s g a v e h i m h i s r i g h t a s t o t h e t i t le o f De v a ,
a n d d e c r e e d d i v i n e h o n o ur s t o b e p a i d t o h i m , w e s h a ll h e n c e f o r t h c a ll
h i m De v a - c a la - Ya v a n a ; o r , a c c o r d i n g t o t h e v ulg a r m o d e o f p r o n o un c i n g
t h i s c o m p o un d w o r d , De o - c a l- Yun , w h i c h s o un d s e x a c t ly li k e De u- c a li o n
i n G r e e k . - WILFORD.
* Fi e ld i n g .
T 2
2 7 6

T HE ROUND T OWERS.
g o o v e r , h e s h a ll r e a c h e v e n t o t h e n e c k
; a n d t h e
s t r e t c h i n g o ut o f h i s w i n g s s h a ll f i ll t h e b r e a d t h o f
t h y la n d , 0 Im m a n ue l *
. "
But h o w , y o u a s k , a c c o un t f o r t h e m a r i n e s t r a t a ,
a n d o t h e r r e m a i n s , f o un d w i t h i n t h e e a r t h ' s r e -
c e s s e s ?
I a n s w e r , t h e y w e r e t h e r e , i m b e d d e d a n d i n a n i -
m a t e , b e f o r e e v e r m a n w a s p la c e d a b o v e t h e m a s a
d e n i z e n .
It i s c le a r ly a s c e r t a i n e d , " s a y s Cuv i e r , " t h a t t h e
o v i p a r o us q ua d r up e d s a r e f o un d c o n s i d e r a b ly e a r li e r ,
o r i n m o r e a n c i e n t s t r a t a , t h a n t h o s e o f t h e v i v i p a -
r o us c la s s .
T h us t h e c r o c o d i le s o f Ha r f le ur a n d o f
En g la n d a r e f o un d i m m e d i a t e ly b e n e a t h t h e c h a lk .
T h e g r e a t a lli g a t o r s a n d t h e t o r t o i s e s o f Ma e s t r i c h t
a r e f o un d i n t h e c h a lk f o r m a t i o n , b ut t h e s e a r e b o t h
m a r i n e a n i m a ls . T h i s e a r li e s t a p p e a r a n c e o f f o s s i l
b o n e s s e e m s t o i n d i c a t e , t h a t d r y la n d s a n d f r e s h
w a t e r s m us t h a v e e x i s t e d b e f o r e t h e f o r m a t i o n o f t h e
c h a lk s t r a t a ; y e t n e i t h e r o f t h a t e a r ly e p o c h , n o r
d ur i n g t h e f o r m a t i o n o f t h e c h a lk s t r a t a , n o r e v e n
f o r a lo n g p e r i o d a f t e r w a r d s , d o w e f i n d a n y f o s s i l
r e m a i n s o f m a m m i f e r o us la n d q ua d r up e d s . We b e g i n
t o f i n d t h e b o n e s o f t h e m a m m i f e r o us s e a a n i m a ls ,
n a m e ly , o f t h e la m a n t i n a n d o f s e a ls , i n t h e c o ur s e o f
s h e ll li m e s t o n e w h i c h i m m e d i a t e ly c o v e r s t h e c h a lk
s t r a t a i n t h e n e i g h b o ur h o o d o f Pa r i s . But n o b o n e s
o f t h e m a m m i f e r o us la n d q ua d r up e d s a r e t o b e f o un d
i n t h a t f o r m a t i o n
;
a n d n o t w i t h s t a n d i n g t h e m o s t
c a r e f ul i n v e s t i g a t i o n s , I h a v e n e v e r b e e n a b le t o d i s -
c o v e r t h e s li g h t e s t t r a c e o f t h i s c la s s , e x c e p t i n g i n
t h e f o r m a t i o n s w h i c h li e o v e r t h e c o a r s e li m e s t o n e
* Is a i a h v i i i . 7 - 8 .
T HE ROUND T OWERS.

2 7 7
s t r a t a : b ut o n r e a c h i n g t h e s e m o r e r e c e n t f o r m a t i o n s ,
t h e b o n e s o f la n d q ua d r up e d s a r e d i s c o v e r e d i n g r e a t
a b un d a n c e .
"
As i t i s r e a s o n a b le t o b e li e v e , t h a t s h e lls a n d f i s h
d i d n o t e x i s t a t t h e p e r i o d o f t h e f o r m a t i o n o f t h e
p r i m i t i v e r o c k s , w e a r e a ls o le d t o c o n c lud e t h a t t h e
o v i p a r o us q ua d r up e d s b e g a n t o e x i s t a lo n g w i t h t h e
f i s h e s , w h i le t h e la n d q ua d r up e d s d i d n o t b e g i n t o
a p p e a r t i ll lo n g a f t e r w a r d s , a n d un t i l t h e c o a r s e s h e ll-
li m e s t o n e h a d b e e n a lr e a d y d e p o s i t e d , w h i c h c o n t a i n s
t h e g r e a t e r p a r t o f o ur g e n e r a o f s h e lls , a lt h o ug h o f
q ui t e d i f f e r e n t s p e c i e s f r o m t h o s e t h a t a r e n o w f o un d
i n a n a t ur a l s t a t e . T h e r e i s a ls o a d e t e r m i n a t e o r d e r
o b s e r v a b le i n t h e d i s p o s i t i o n o f t h o s e b o n e s w i t h
r e g a r d t o e a c h o t h e r , w h i c h i n d i c a t e s a v e r y r e m a r k -
a b le s uc c e s s i o n i n t h e a p p e a r a n c e " o f " t h e d i f f e r e n t
s p e c i e s .
" All t h e g e n e r a w h i c h a r e n o w un k n o w n , a s t h e
Pa la e o t h e r i a , An a p a lw o t h e r i a , a n d w i t h t h e lo c a li t i e s
o f w h i c h w e a r e t h o r o ug h ly a c q ua i n t e d , a r e f o un d i n
t h e m o s t a n c i e n t o f t h e f o r m a t i o n s o f w h i c h w e a r e
n o w t r e a t i n g , o r t h o s e w h i c h a r e p la c e d d i r e c t ly o v e r
t h e c o a r s e li m e s t o n e s t r a t a . It i s c h i e f ly t h e y w h i c h
o c c up y t h e r e g ula r s t r a t a w h i c h h a v e b e e n d e p o s i t e d
f r o m f r e s h w a t e r s , o r c e r t a i n a lluv i a l b e d s o f v e r y
a n c i e n t f o r m a t i o n , g e n e r a lly c o m p o s e d o f s a n d a n d
r o un d e d p e b b le s .
"
T h e m o s t c e le b r a t e d o f t h e un k n o w n s p e c i e s b e -
lo n g i n g t o k n o w n g e n e r a , o r t o g e n e r a n e a r ly a lli e d
t o t h o s e w h i c h a r e k n o w n , a s t h e f o s s i l e le p h a n t ,
r h i n o c e r o s , h i p p o p o t a m o s , a n d m a s t o d o n
; a r e n e v e r
f o un d w i t h t h e m o r e a n c i e n t g e n e r a , b ut a r e o n ly
c o n t a i n e d i n a lluv i a l f o r m a t i o n s . La s t ly - t h e b o n e s
o f s p e c i e s w h i c h a r e a p p a r e n t ly t h e s a m e w i t h t h o s e
2 7 $

T HE ROUND T OWERS
.
t h a t s t i ll e x i s t a li v e , a r e n e v e r f o un d e x c e p t i n li g h t
a n d a lluv i a l d e p o s i t i o n s
. "
Fr o m a ll w h i c h , t h i s p h i lo s o p h e r d r a w s t h e f o llo w -
i n g j us t c o n c lus i o n , v i z . ,
T h us w e h a v e a c o lle c t i o n
o f f a c t s , a s e r i e s o f e p o c h s a n t e r i o r t o t h e p r e s e n t
t i m e , a n d o f w h i c h t h e s uc c e s s i v e s t e p s m a y b e
a s c e r t a i n e d w i t h p e r f e c t c e r t a i n t y , t h o ug h t h e p e r i o d s
w h i c h i n t e r v e n e d c a n n o t b e d e t e r m i n e d w i t h a n y
d e g r e e o f p r e c i s i o n .
T h e s e e p o c h s f o r m s o m a n y
f i x e d p o i n t s , a n s w e r i n g a s r ule s f o r d i r e c t i n g o ur i n -
q ui r i e s r e s p e c t i n g t h i s a n c i e n t c h r o n o lo g y o f t h e
e a r t h . "
T o r e t ur n
G o d s a i d un t o No a h , t h e e n d o f a ll
f le s h i s c o m e b e f o r e m e
; f o r t h e e a r t h i s f i lle d w i t h
v i o le n c e t h r o ug h t h e m
; a n d , b e h o ld , I w i ll d e s t r o y
t h e m w i t h t h e e a r t h
No w , w e s e e t h a t t h e e a r t h h a s n o t
b e e n d e s t r o y e d ,
a n d t h i s s i n g le
c i r c um s t a n c e , i n i t s e lf , o ug h t t o h a v e
b e e n e n o ug h t o s h o w us t h a t t h e w h o le r e g i s t e r w a s
b ut f i g ur a t i v e . T h e r a v e n a n d t h e d o v e
w e r e i n d i s -
p e n s a b le a ux i li a r i e s t o t h e s t r uc t ur e o f t h e a lle g o r y
t h e f o r m e r t y p i f i e s t h e m a s s a c r e t h a t p r e v a i le d d ur i n g
t h e p e r i o d o f t h e c o n t e s t ; a n d t h e la t t e r , i n i t s m e e k
a n d i t s t e n d e r c o n s t a n c y , t h e i n v a r i a b le a t t e n d a n t ,
b e s i d e s , o f V e n us
a n d t h e b o a t , c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a lly p o ur -
t r a y s t h e o v e r t ur e s m a d e f o r a n a c c o m m o d a t i o n , un t i l,
a f t e r a s e c o n d e m b a s s y , t h e
o li v e - b r a n c h o f p e a c e w a s
s a lut e d , a n d t h e c e s s a t i o n o f h o s t i li t i e s w a s t h e c o n -
s e q ue n c e
1 - .
Be h o ld , t h e n , t h e f o lly o f t h o s e d r e a m e r s w h o
w o uld m a k e T h e b i t h
s o c a lle d , a s i f t h e a r k h a d
r e s t e d up o n i t !
Wh y , Si r , i n t h e e n t i r e c a t a lo g ue o f
* G e n e s i s v i i . 2 .

- f G e n e s i s v i i i . 1 0- 1 1 .
T ILE ROUND T OWERS.

2 7 J
lo c a l n a m e s , t h e r e i s n o o n e h a lf s o c o m m o n a s t h a t
o f T h e b i t h a n d T h e b w ! An d s ur e ly y o u w i ll n o t
c la i m f o r y o ur
i d e a l
m a n - o f - w a r , i n a d d i t i o n t o o t h e r
p r o p e r t i e s , t h a t o f
ub i q ui t y
a ls o , b y m a k i n g i t p e r c h
up o n a ll t h o s e p la c e s , a t o n e a n d t h e s a m e t i m e
No , t h e s e s c e n e s h a v e b e e n a ll d e n o m i n a t e d f r o m
t h e f o r m o f r e li g i o n w h i c h t h e y r e c o g n i z e d , a n d o f
w h i c h t h e Pi t h , Yo n i , o r s a c r e d Bo a t ,
w a s t h e c o n v e n -
t i o n a l s i g n : a s t h e c o un t r i e s o f Ph ut ,
t h a t i s ,
But ,
a n d Buo t a n , w e r e s o d e s i g n a t e d , li k e w i s e , f r o m t h e i r
a d o p t i n g t h e
o p p o s i t e
s y m b o l, v i z . , t h e
Bud h , Ph a llus ,
o r s a c r e d Li n g a i n !
Pe r p le x e d i n t h i s e n t a n g le m e n t , a n d t o s s e d a b o ut
i n " a s e a o f s p e c ula t i o n , " Mr . Ja c o b Br y a n t , i n s o m e
r e s p e c t s a c le v e r m a n , a f t e r a f a t i g ui n g c r ui s e o f
s o m e w h a t m o r e t h a n h a lf a c e n t ur y , f e ll a t la s t a
v i c t i m i n t h e g e n e r a l s h i p w r e c k
.
" Yo ur w i s e m e n d o n ' t k n o w m uc h o f n a v i g a t i o n
.
T h e G e n t i le s , s a y s h e , w o r s h i p p e d No a h ' s a r k ! Ye s
t h e y d i d
; b ut n o t i n t h e s e n s e i n w h i c h h e un d e r -
s t o o d i t * .
An o t h e r a x i o m o f h i s i s , t h a t t h e d e lug e m us t h a v e
r e a lly h a p p e n e d , b e c a us e t h a t t h e t r a d i t i o n o f i t i s
* T h e f o llo w i n g i s a n a b s t r a c t o f t h e Hi n d o o v e r s i o n o f t h i s a lle g o r y ,
a s c o p i e d f r o m t h e i r Pur a n a s : " Sa t y a v r a t a , h a v i n g b ui lt t h e a r k , a n d
t h e f lo o d i n c r e a s i n g , i t w a s m a d e f a s t t o t h e p e a k o f Na u- b a ud h a , w i t h
a c a b le o f a p r o d i g i o us le n g t h .
Dur i n g t h e f lo o d , Br a h m a , o r t h e
c r e a t i n g p o w e r , w a s a s le e p
a t t h e b o t t o m o f t h e a b y s s : t h e g e n e r a t i v e
p o w e r s o f n a t ur e ,
b o t h m a le a n d f e m a le , w e r e r e d uc e d t o t h e i r s i m p le s t
e le m e n t s , t h e
Li n g a a n d t h e Yo n i . T h e Yo n i a s s um e d t h e s h a p e
o f t h e h ull o f a
s h i p , s i n c e t y p i f i e d b y t h e Ar g h a , w h i ls t t h e Li n g a
b e c a m e t h e
m a s t . In t h i s m a n n e r t h e y w e r e w a f t e d o v e r t h e d e e p ,
un d e r t h e c a r e a n d p r o t e c t i o n o f V i s h n u.
Wh e n t h e w a t e r s h a d r e t i r e d ,
t h e f e m a le p o w e r
o f n a t ur e a p p e a r e d i m m e d i a t e ly i n t h e c h a r a c t e r o f
Ca p o t e s w a r i ,
o r t h e d o v e , a n d s h e w a s
. , s o o n j o i n e d b y h e r c o n s o r t , i n
t h e s h a p e o f Ca p o t e s w a r a . "
2 8 0

T HE
ROUND T OWERS.
un i v e r s a l
! T o t h i s , a ls o , I c h i m e i n m y a f f i r m a t i v e
r e s p o n s e , a n d p r o c la i m , y e a
. But t h e t r a d i t i o n o f
t h e
t r e e o f k n o w le d g e i s e q ua lly un i v e r s a l
.
An d t h o ug h
t h e g r o un d - w o r k o f b o t h o c c ur r e d ,
a n d w a s s ub s t a n -
t i v e ly t r ue ,
y e t w a s t h e d e s c r i p t i o n o f n e i t h e r
m o r e t h a n
a g r a c e f ul a lle g o r y ;
w h i le t h e s a lut a r y a la r m
i m -
p a r t e d un d e r t h i s g ui s e , a n d t h e m o n i t o r y
le s s o n
s ug g e s t e d b y i t s h o r r o r s , i n a m us i n g
t h e f a n c y , e d i f i e d
i t , a t t h e s a m e m o m e n t , b y k e e p i n g b e f o r e i t a
p i c t ur e
o f t h a t s p i r i t ua l d e s o la t i o n ,
w h i c h
s i n
le a v e s i n t h e
c i t a d e l o f t h e s o ul * .
C'
Mo s e s , " s a y s t h e Ap o s t le ,
" w a s le a r n e d i n a ll
t h e w i s d o m o f t h e Eg y p t i a n s , a n d w a s m i g h t y i n
w o r d s a n d i n d e e d s i . "
No w St r a b o a s s ur e s us t h a t t h e Eg y p t i a n s o f h i s
d a y w e r e a s i g n o r a n t , a s h e - w a s h i m s e lf , o f t h e o r i g i n
o f t h e i r r e li g i o n , o f t h e i m p o r t o f t h e i r s y m b o ls , a n d
o f t h e i r n a t i o n a l h i s t o r y . T h e y p r e t e n d e d t o r e t a i n
s o m e e v a n e s c e n t t r a c e s t h e r e o f i n t h e t i m e o f Di o -
d o r us ; b ut s o s c r up ulo us ly e x a c t w e r e t h e y i n t h e
c o n c e a lm e n t o f t h e i r t e n o ur , t h a t t o p r y i n t o t h e m ,
p r o f a n e ly , w a s m o r a lly i m p o s s i b le .
He r o d o t us h i m s e lf , w h o n e g le c t e d n o c h a n n e l o f
i n f o r m a t i o n , f o un d i t n o e a s y m a t t e r t o g le a n a f e w
i n i t i a t o r y
s c r a p s f r o m t h e m . An d e v e n t h e s e w e r e
a c c o m p a n i e d w i t h s uc h s o le m n d e n un c i a t i o n s , t h a t
h i s e m b a r r a s s m e n t i s b e t r a y e d w h e n b ut a llud i n g t o
t h e i r t e n d e n c y .
If , d ur i n g Mo s e s ' s r e s i d e n c e a t Ph a r a o h ' s c o ur t ,
h i s o p p o r t un i t i e s o f i n s i g h t w e r e g r e a t e r , i t i s s t i ll s e lf -
e v i d e n t t h a t t h e a c c o m p li s h m e n t s w h i c h h e o b t a i n e d
w e r e m o r e o f a s e c ula r c h a r a c t e r t h a n o f a r e li g i o us
* Se e p a g e 6 3 .

F Ac t s v i i . 2 2 .
T HE ROUND T OWERS.

2
8
1
c a s t - t h a t t h e
c o ur t i e r w a s t h e f i r s t o b j e c t o f t h e
y o un g p r i n c e s s ' s d i r e c t i o n s , a n d t h e q ua li f i c a t i o n s o f
t h e s t a t e s m a n
h e r n e x t a m b i t i o n f o r h e r c h a r g e . T h e
m y s t e r i e s
o f t h e p r i e s t s w e r e t o o a w f ul, a n d t o o s a n c -
t i f i e d , t o b e d e b a s e d t o t h e r o ut i n e o f a s c h o o l- b o y ' s
r e h e a r s a l
; a n d e v e n w h e n r i p e n i n g a g e d i d b e s p e a k
a m o r e c h a s t e n e d m i n d , t h e c o m m un i c a t i o n o f t h e i r
c o n t e n t s w a s o b s c ur e d b y t h e i n t e r p o s i t i o n o f a n
a lm o s t i m p e n e t r a b le um b r a g e .
T h us p a lli a t e d b y t y p e s , Mo s e s d i d , h o w e v e r , i m -
b i b e f r o m t h e Eg y p t i a n s a ll t h e k n o w le d g e w h i c h
t h e y t h e n p o s s e s s e d o f t h e n a t ur e o f t h e i r c e r e m o n i e s
;
a n d t h e r e c o r d o f t h e
f a ll, t h e d e lug e , a n d t h e
c r e a t i o n ,
a r e t h e d i r e c t t r a n s c r i p t s o f t h e i n s t r uc t i o n s o c o n -
v e y e d
. But t h o ug h i t i s un d e n i a b le , f r o m t h e i r
s y m b o ls ,
t h a t t h e Eg y p t i a n s m us t h a v e b e e n w e ll
a p p r i s e d o f t h e
c o n s t i t ut i o n o f t h o s e r i t e s , y e t a m I a s
s a t i s f i e d a s I a m o f m y p h y s i c a l m o t i o n , t h a t t h e f o ld -
i n g s o f t h a t w e b , i n w h i c h t h e y w e r e s o m y s t i c a lly
d o ub le d ,
w a s lo s t t o t h e i r g r a s p i n t h e la b y r i n t h s o f
a n t i q ui t y .
Mo s e s , t h e r e f o r e , c o uld n o t h a v e le a r n e d
f r o m t h e
Eg y p t i a n s m o r e t h a n t h e Eg y p t i a n s t h e m s e lv e s h a d
k n o w n . He r e la t e d t h e a lle g o r y a s li e h a d
r e c e i v e d
i t f r o m t h e m
: a n d i t i s , d o ub t le s s , t o h i s i g n o r a n c e o f
i t s
a m b i g uo us i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , a c c e s s i b le
o n ly t h r o ug h
t h a t la n g ua g e i n w h i c h i t w a s o r i g i n a lly i n v o lv e d ,
t h a t
w e a r e i n d e b t e d f o r a t r a n s m i s s i o n ,
s o e s s e n t i a lly
Ir i s h .
T h e Pi s h - d e - d a n a a n d y n a s t y w h i c h r o s e up o n t h e
r ui n s o f t h e T ua t h - d e - d a n a a n s ,
i n Ir a n , w a s i t s e lf , i n
a f t e r a g e s , e j e c t e d f r o m t h a t c o un t r y
. Eg y p t w a s t h e
r e t r e a t o f t h e i r s h a t t e r e d f o r t un e s ; a n d t h e r e , d ur i n g
t h e i r a b o d e , un d e r t h e n a m e o f t h e
Sh e p h e r d - k i n g s ,
2 8 2

T HE ROUND T OWERS
.
t h e y e r e c t e d t h e Py r a m i d s , i n h o n o ur o f Pi t h , o r
Pa d m a - d e v i ,
b ut a t a n a g e lo n g a n t e r i o r t o w h a t m a y
b e p r e s um e d f r o m Ma n e t h o * .
Pr e v i o us ly , h o w e v e r , t o t h e i r a r r i v a l i n Eg y p t ,
Sh i n a a r i n Me s o p o t a m i a a f f o r d e d t h e m a n a s y lum .
He r e i t w a s t h a t Ni m r o d b r o k e i n t : a n d , a s I h a v e
b e f o r e b ut t r a n s i e n t ly g la n c e d a t t h a t c i r c um s t a n c e , I
s h a ll n o w r e v e r t t o i t w i t h m o r e p r e c i s i o n .
Be t w e e n t h e - t e n e t s o f t h e Pi s h - d e - d a n a a n s a n d
t h o s e o f t h e i r T ua t h - d e - d a n a a n
p r e d e c e s s o r s , t h e r e
w a s b ut a s i n g le p o i n t o f d i s s e n t i e n t b e li e f . T h e
la n g ua g e , t h e c us t o m s , t h e m a n n e r s a n d m o d e s o f
li f e o f b o t h w e r e t h e s a m e . T o a ll i n t e n t s a n d p ur -
p o s e s t h e y w e r e o n e i d e n t i c a l p e o p le .
But a s t h e f o r m e r h a d i m a g i n e d t h a t t h e Yo n i
a lo n e w a s t h e a ut h o r o f p r o c r e a t i o n , w h i le t h e o t h e r s
c la i m e d t h a t h o n o ur f o r t h e i r o w n s y m b o l, t h e
Li n g a m ,
a n a n i m o s i t y e n s ue d , w h i c h w a s n o t a lla y e d
e v e n b y t h e c o n s c i o us n e s s , t h a t e a c h , s e c r e t ly , w o r -
s h i p p e d t h e t y p e o f t h e o t h e r ' s c r e e d .
T h e g o d d e s s , h o w e v e r , p r e v a i le d i n t h e s t r ug g le ,
a n d h e r g lo r i e s i n Ir a n w e r e g r e a t a n d f a r s p r e a d .
Mo n a r c h s b o w e d a t t h e n o d o f h e r o m n i p o t e n c e , a n d
t h e e a r t h s w e lle d w i t h t h e g e s t a t i o n s o f h e r p r a i s e
1 .
* T h e d a t e o f
t h o s e Uk s i w a s n o t t h e o n ly m i s c o n c e p t i o n t h i s h i s t o r i a n
h a s c o m m i t t e d
. He w a s e q ua lly i n t h e d a r k a s t o t h e p la c e w h e n c e
t h e y c a m e , a n d , f o r w a n t o f a b e t t e r n a m e , ' c a lle d t h e m , a t a v e n t ur e ,
Ar a b i a n s
' h Se e p a g e 6 4 .
* Mo s t o f t h e o r a c le s
i n t h e a n c i e n t w o r ld w e r e b ut p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n s
o f t h i s i n f lue n c e - t h e
g o d d e s s i n v a r i a b ly b e i n g t h e s a c r e d Yo n i . An d
t h e p r i e s t e s s e s s o f a r p r e v a i le d up o n t h e c r e d ulo us w o r s h i p p e r s a s t o
m a k e t h e m b e li e v e t h a t
s h e a c t ua lly s p o k e ! T h e o r a c le o f De lp h i , t h e
m o s t v e n e r a b le i n a ll G r e e c e , o b t a i n e d i t s n a m e f r o m t h e v e r y t h i n g -
t h e f i r s t s y lla b le
De , s i g n i f y i n g d i v i n e
o r s a c r e d ;
a n d t h e s e c o n d p h i ,
i . e . , p h i t h ,
y o n i : t h e le t t e r
l h a v i n g b e e n i n s e r t e d o n ly f o r e up h o n y .
Ev e n i n t h e G r e e k
la n g ua g e t h i s i m p o r t i s n o t y e t lo s t .
T HE ROUND T OWERS.

2 8 3
" Se d ult i m a d i e s s e m p e r h o m i n i
e s t e x p e c t a n d a . " A
r ud e a n d a la w le s s s w a r m o f s t r a g g le r s , h e a d e d b y a n
a d v e n t ur e r o f c o m m a n d i n g a b i li t i e s a n d d e t e r m i n e d
h e r o i s m ,
d e lug e d ,
i n t ur n , t h e
Bo a t m e n , o r t h e
No a -
c h i d w * , a n d s w a m p e d t h e m i n a f lo o d , a s s a n g ui n a r y
a n d a s d i s a s t r o us , a s t h a t w h i c h t h e y h a d , t h e m s e lv e s ,
b e f o r e , b r o ug h t up o n t h e a d v e r s a r i e s o f t h e i r z e a l
.
But i t w a s n o t t h e
b lo o d s h e d o f t h e s c e n e t h a t
a f f e c t e d t h e m h a lf s o m uc h a s t h e i n s ult o f f e r e d b y
t h e e r e c t i o n o f - t h e T o w e r f An d a s n o c lue c a n b e
s o a d e q ua t e f o r t h e a n a ly s i s o f t h i s
e n i g m a , a s t h a t
w h i c h t h e y t h e m s e lv e s h a v e b e q ue a t h e d - f o r i t w a s
f r o m t h e Ya v a n a s o r Pi s h - d e - d a n a a n s t h a t Mo s e s h a d
b e e n t a ug h t t h e f a c t - I s h a ll p la c e s uc h b e f o r e y o ur
e y e s , i n a ll t h e e lo q ue n c e o f a s e lf - i n t e r p r e t i n g d i s -
s y lla b le .
S- y 1 r i
i s t h e n a m e b y w h i c h t h e s c r i p t ur a l r e c o r d
* As
No a h
w a s h i m s e lf n a m e d f r o m t h e s y m b o li c a l b o a t , s o
w a s h i s
e ld e s t s o n Ja p h e t h , f r o m i t s s a n c t i f i e d p r o t o t y p e . Ja - Ph i t h
s i g n i f i e s
c o n s e c r a t e d t o Pi t h , o r t h e Yo n i . An d a g a i n , h i s s o n ' s n a m e , Ja - v a n ,
m e a n s c o n s e c r a t e d t o w o m a n .
1 "
In t h e c i t y o f Ba b y lo n t h e r e i s a t e m p le w i t h b r a z e n g a t e s , c o n -
s e c r a t e d t o Jup i t e r Be lus , b e i n g f o ur s q ua r e ; a n d e a c h s i d e b e i n g t w o
f ur lo n g s i n le n g t h . In t h e m i d s t o f t h i s h o ly p la c e t h e r e i s a s o li d
t o w e r , o f t h e t h i c k n e s s a n d h e i g h t o f a f ur lo n g ;
up o n w h i c h t h e r e i s a n -
o t h e r t o w e r p la c e d , a n d up o n t h a t a n o t h e r ;
a n d s o o n , o n e up o n a n o t h e r ,
i n s o m uc h t h a t t h e r e a r e e i g h t i n a ll
.
On t h e o ut s i d e o f t h e s e t h e r e a r e
s t e p s o r s t a i r s p la c e d , b y w h i c h m e n g o up f r o m o n e t o w e r t o a n o t h e r
.
In t h e m i d d le o f t h e s e s t e p s t h e r e a r e r e s t i n g - p la c e s
; a n d r o o m s w e r e
m a d e f o r t h e p ur p o s e , t h a t t h e y w h o g o t o t h e t o p m a y h a v e c o n v e n i e n c e s
t o s i t d o w n a n d r e s t t h e m s e lv e s . ' - HEROn o T US.
1 " T i s a t o w e r e x a c t ly r o un d , i n f o r m o f a c o n e , o r r o un d p y r a m i d
; t h e
d i a m e t e r , o r t h i c k n e s s a t t h e b a s e , b e i n g 8 1 f e e t ; t h e c i r c um f e r e n c e , o r
w a y r o un d , 2 5 4 1 f e e t ; t h e h e i g h t p e r p e n d i c ula r li k e w i s e 8 1 f e e t , e q ua l
t o t h e d i a m e t e r ; t h e h e i g h t li k e w i s e , o b li q ue ,
9 01 f e e t ; a n d t h e a n g le s
o f t h e s i d e s e q ua l t o t h o s e o f t h e f o r m e r d e s i g n :
t h e w h o le li k e w i s e a
m a s s o f b r i c k a n d b i t um e n w o r k , a m o un t i n g t o
1 4 0, 5 8 9 c ub i c f e e t ,
up o n 5 2 07 s q ua r e . " - MARK G REG ORY.
2
8
4

T HE ROUND T OWERS.
p e r p e t ua t e s t h i s
s t r uc t ur e *
.
If y o u p ut t h i s i n t o
En g li s h le t t e r s , a n d r e a d t h e m r e g ula r ly , f r o m le f t t o
r i g h t , i t w i ll b e Li d g a m .
But t h e He b r e w s r e a d i n
t h e o p p o s i t e d i r e c t i o n , f r o m r i g h t t o le f t ;
a n d t h a t
i s t h e v e r y c a us e o f t h e a p p e a r a n c e o f t h e d i n t h e
w o r d
;
f o r a s Ma g n i l- r e a d i n g b a c k w a r d s - w o uld
p r o d uc e a c a c o p h o n y , t h e n
o f t h e o r i g i n a l w a s le f t
o ut , a n d d s ub s t i t ut e d , m a k i n g Ma g d i l : r e i n s t a t e ,
t h e r e f o r e , t h e n , a n d e n un c i a t e t h e He b r e w w o r d ,
a s y o u w o uld t h e Ir i s h o r t h e Sa n s c r i t , a n d i t w i ll
n o t o n ly un m a s k t h e s e c r e t o f t h i s lo n g d i s p ut e d
e d i f i c e , b ut b e , s o un d , a n d p e r s o n a t e , i n a ll t h e n i c e t y
o f a c c e n t ua t i o n , Li n g a m , a n d t h us p r e v e n t a ll f ur t h e r
c o n t r o v e r s y a b o ut t h e c h a r a c t e r o f
t h e
T o w e r
o f
Ba b e l .
T h e w a i e s t h r o ug h w h i c h m y w e a r y s t e p s I g ui d e ,
In t h i s r e s e a r c h e o f o ld a n t i q ui t i e ,
Ar e s o e x c e e d i n g r i c h e , a n d lo n g , a n d w y d e ,
An d s p r i n k le d w i t h s uc h s w e e t v a r i e t i e ,
Of a ll t h a t p le a s a n t i s t o e a r e a n d e y e ,
T h a t I, n i g h r a v i s h t w i t h r a r e t h o ug h t ' s d e li g h t ,
My t e d i o us t r a v e l q ui t e f o r g o t t h e r e b y ;
An d w h e n I g i n t o f e e l d e c a y o f m i g h t ,
It s t r e n g t h t o m e s up p li e s a n d c h e e r s m y d ulle d s p r i g h t t .
* G e n e s i s x i . 4 .
' h Sp e n s e r ' s Fa e r i e Que e n e .
2 8 5
CHAPT ER XXI.
I HAV E
s t a t e d t h a t i t w a s f r o m t h e Pi s h - d e - d a n a a n s
o r Ya v a n a p h i lo s o p h e r s o f Eg y p t t h a t Mo s e s h a d
le a r n e d t h e
-
a lle g o r i e s o f t h e De lug e a n d o f t h e Fa ll
.
I n o w a d d , t h a t i t w a s b y t h e m a ls o h e h a d b e e n
i n s t r uc t e d i n t h a t c o n s o la t o r y a s s ur a n c e w h i c h t o ld h i m
t h a t t h e " s e e d o f t h e w o m a n s h o uld b r ui s e t h e
s e r p e n t ' s h e a d * . "
In t r ut h , i t w a s t h i s v e r y p r o m i s e m a d e t o t h e
a n c e s t o r s o f t h o s e p e o p le i n Pa r a d i s e , w h i c h i s b ut
a n o t h e r n a m e f o r Ir a n f i , t h a t g a v e r i s e t o t h e s c h i s m
b e t w e e n t h e m a n d t h e T ua t h - d e - d a n a a n s . .
1 1
Un t o t h e w o m a n h e s a i d , I w i ll g r e a t ly m ult i p ly
t h y s o r r o w a n d t h y c o n c e p t i o n ; i n s o r r o w t h o u s h a lt
b r i n g f o r t h c h i ld r e n ; a n d t h y d e s i r e s h a ll b e t o t h y
h us b a n d , a n d h e s h a ll r ule o v e r t h e e $ . "
T h e n a t ur e o f t h e c r i m e i s h e r e c le a r ly d e n o t e d b y
t h e s ui t a b le n e s s o f
t h e
p un i s h m e n t . But t h e s a m e
o v e r - r uli n g Jud g e , w h o , i n c o n f o r m i t y w i t h h i s j us t i c e ,
c o uld n o t b ut c h a s t i s e t h e v i o la t i o n o f h i s i n j un c t i o n s ,
y e t , i n m e r c y t o m a n ' s w e a k n e s s , a n d s e e i n g t h a t
" h e a ls o i s f le s h , " c o n d e s c e n d e d t o p r o m i s e t h a t t h e
s
Sh i lo h i s a n Ir i s h w o r d , li t e r a lly m e a n i n g s e e d , a n d a d d i t i o n a lly
s h o w i n g t h a t i t w a s i n o ur s a c r e d la n g ua g e a ll t h o s e o c c ur r e n c e s w e r e
o r i g i n a lly n a m e d .
t Bo t h w o r d s e q ua lly s i g n i f y t h e h a p p y c o un t r y ,
o r t h e s a c r e d la n d .
$ G e n e s i s i i i . 1 5 .
Se e c h a p
. x v i i . , p a g e 2 2 9
.
2 8
6

T HE ROUND T OWERS.
i n s t r um e n t o f h i s
s e d uc t i o n s h o uld b e a ls o t h e v e h i c le
o f h i s
r e d e e m i n g t r i um p h .
< < I w i ll p ut ' e n m i t y b e t w e e n t h e e ( t h e s e r p e n t ) a n d
t h e w o m a n , a n d b e t w e e n t h y s e e d a n d h e r s e e d ; i t
s h a ll b r ui s e t h y h e a d , a n d t h o u s h a lt b r ui s e h i s
h e e l * . "
Pi n n i n g t h e i r f a i t h up o n t h e li t e r a l f ulf i lm e n t o f
t h e s e t e r m s , w h i c h t o ld t h e m t h a t t h e
f e m a le , a s
s uc h , w o uld b e t h e un a i d e d a ut h o r o f a
b e i n g , w h o s e
h e a li n g e f f e c t s w o uld r e s t o r e t h e m t o t h e i n h e r i t a n c e
s o h e e d le s s ly f o r f e i t e d , t h e i r v e n e r a t i o n f o r t h a t
s y m b o l o f d i v i n e i n t e r p o s i t i o n b e c a m e c o r r e s p o n d -
i n g ly un b o un d e d ;
a n d t h e i r e n t h us i a s m , f o r t h e p r i n -
c i p le o f i t s s t r i c t v e r i f i c a t i o n , w a s w h a t e n g e n d e r e d
t h e t h o ug h t , t h a t , i n t h e g e n e r a l p r o c r e a t i n g s c h e m e ,
t h e y o n i w a s t h e v i v i f i e r .
T h e T ua t h - d e - d a n a a n s , o r Li n g a j a s , o n t h e o t h e r
h a n d , w e r e n o t le s s s a t i s f i e d i n t h e i r s e c ur i t y
; b ut
lo o k i n g up o n t h e t e r m s w i t h a m o r e
s p i r i t ua l i n t e r -
p r e t a t i o n , a n d le d b y t h e o p e r a t i o n o f o r d i n a r y
p h y -
s i c s , t o c o n s i d e r t h e q ue s t i o n a s a
d e v i a t i o n f r o m t h e
g e n e r a l r ule , t h e y e r e c t e d t h e s y m b o l
o f m a le c a p a b i li t y
a s t h e s t a n d a r d o f t h e i r d o c t r i n e
. An d t h us w h i le
t h e z e a l o f b o t h p a r t i e s s h o o k t h e v e r y f r a m e - w o r k o f
s o c i e t y , y e t d i d t h e y
c o n c ur i n a ll t h e
e s s e n t i a ls o f
t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e r e li g i o n s ; a n d e v e n t h e p a r t i c ula r s
o f t h a t p r o s p e c t b y w h i c h t h e y w e r e b o t h s us t a i n e d ,
i n s t e a d o f o p e r a t i n g a s a n e x c e p t i o n t o t h e un i v e r -
s a li t y
o f t h i s t r ut h , o n ly c o n f i r m i t s i m p o r t .
T h e Je w s , w h o w e r e b ut n e w ly
b r o ug h t f o r w a r d
up o n t h e s t a g e , a n d w h o , i n t h e i n s c r ut a b le c o un c i ls
o f h e a v e n , w e r e s e le c t e d a s t h e o b j e c t s o f G o d ' s

G e n e s i s i i i . 1 5 .
T HE ROUND T OWERS .

2 8 7
i m m e d i a t e s up e r i n t e n d e n c e ,
b e i n g i n f o r m e d o f t h e
t e n o ur o f t h e Pa r a d i s a i c a l h o p e , a b us e d i t m o r e w a n -
t o n ly t h a n e v e r d i d t h e Pi s h - d e - d a n a a n s o r t h e
T ua t h -
d e - d a n a a n s
.
Un a b le t o c o m p r e h e n d , f r o m t h e i r n a r r o w m e n t a l
c a li b r e , a n y a g e n c y i n t h e f o r m o f a d i v i n e
e m a n a t i o n ,
a n d y e t f a n c y i n g , e a c h o f t h e m , t h a t s h e w o uld
h e r s e lf b e t h e m o t h e r o f t h e e x p e c t e d Re d e e m e r ,
t h e i r w o m e n i n d ulg e d i n a ll t h e lus t s o f
d e s i r e , a n d ,
w h e r e n o o p p o r t un i t y o f f e r e d f o r li c e n s e d g r a t i f i c a t i o n ,
r e v e lle d i n t h e a r m s o f i n c e s t .
T h i s a lo n e c a n a p o lo g i z e f o r t h a t i n t e n s i t y o f
p a s s i o n , e x c e e d i n g e v e n t h e d i c t a t e s o f n a t ur a l t h i r s t ,
a n d un r e s t r a i n e d b y t h e c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f d e c e n c y o r
c o n s a n g ui n i t y , w h e r e o f w e r e a d i n t h e Old T e s t a m e n t ,
r e s p e c t i n g t h e Is r a e li t i s h d a ug h t e r s *
; w h i le i t a ls o
d e m o n s t r a t e s , t h a t t h e c a r n a li t y o f t h e i r s o uls d i d n o t
a llo w t h e m , t h o r o ug h ly , t o un d e r s t a n d t h e p r e c i s e
n a t ur e o f t h e f a v o ur
d e s i g n e d .
Fa r o t h e r w i s e t h e c a s e w i t h t h e i n t e lle c t ua l r a c e s ,
w h i c h t h e y w e r e n o w a p p o i n t e d t o s up e r s e d e .
` < In o r d e r t o r e c la i m t h e v i c i o us , t o p un i s h t h e
i n c o r r i g i b le , t o p r o t e c t t h e o p p r e s s e d , t o d e s t r o y t h e
o p p r e s s o r , t o e n c o ur a g e a n d r e w a r d t h e g o o d , a n d t o
s h o w a ll s p i r i t s t h e p a t h t o t h e i r ult i m a t e h a p p i n e s s ,
G o d h a s b e e n p le a s e d t o m a n i f e s t h i m s e lf , s a y t h e
Br a h m i n s , i n a v a r i e t y o f w a y s , f r o m a g e t o a g e , i n
a ll p a r t s o f t h e h a b i t a b le g lo b e . Wh e n h e a c t s
i m m e d i a t e ly , w i t h o ut a s s um i n g a s h a p e , o r s e n d i n g
f o r t h a n e w e m a n a t i o n , w h e n a d i v i n e s o un d i s h e a r d
f r o m t h e s k y , t h a t m a n i f e s t a t i o n o f h i m s e lf i s c a lle d
a c a s a v a n i ,
o r a n e t h e r i a l v o i c e : w h e n t h e v o i c e p r o -
* G e n e s i s x i x . 31 , 32 , 33, 34 .
2 8 8

T HE ROUND T OWERS .
c e e d s f r o m a m e t e o r , o r a
f la m e , i t i s s a i d t o b e a g n a -
r up i , o r f o r m e d o f f i r e ; b ut a n a v a t a r s i s
a d e s c e n t o f
t h e De i t y i n t h e s h a p e o f a m o r t a l ; a n d a n a v a n t a r a
i s a s i m i la r i n c a r n a t i o n o f a n i n f e r i o r k i n d , i n t e n d e d
t o a n s w e r s o m e p ur p o s e o f le s s m o m e n t
. T h e Sup r e m e
Be i n g , a n d t h e c e le s t i a l e m a n a t i o n s f r o m h i m , a r e
n i r a c a r a ,
o r b o d y le s s , i n w h i c h s t a t e t h e y m us t b e i n v i -
s i b le t o m o r t a ls ; b ut w h e n t h e y a r e p r a t y a - s h a , o r
o b v i o us t o s i g h t , t h e y b e c o m e s a c a r a , o r e m b o d i e d ,
e i t h e r i n s h a p e s d i f f e r e n t f r o m t h a t o f a n y m o r t a l, a n d
e x p r e s s i v e o f t h e d i v i n e a t t r i b ut e s , a s Ch r i s t i n a
r e v e a le d h i m s e lf t o Ar j un ; o r i n a h um a n f o r m ,
w h i c h Ch r i s h n a us ua lly b o r e , a n d i n t h a t m o d e o f
a p p e a r i n g , t h e d e i t i e s a r e g e n e r a lly s up p o s e d t o b e b o r n
o f w o m e n w i t h o ut a n y c a r n a l i n t e r c o ur s e * . "
Is t h i s r e p ug n a n t t o t h e s p i r i t o f Ch r i s t i a n i t y ?
No ; i t i s i t s c o un t e r p a r t . " I k n o w , " s a y s Jo b , i n t h e
m o m e n t o f i n s p i r a t i o n , t h a t m y Re d e e m e r li v e t h I%"
Pr o p h e t i c a lly , y o u r e p ly ; a n d y o u b a c k t h e o p i n i o n
b y o ur Sa v i o ur ' s o w n a p p e a l, t h a t
"
Ab r a h a m s a w h i s
d a y a n d w a s g la d I. "
Ab r a h a m , c e r t a i n ly , b e li e v e d b y a n t i c i p a t i o n , b ut
Jo b b y r e t r o s p e c t i o n . An d i f y o u w i ll n o t t h i n k m y
a s s e r t i o n d e c i s i v e o f t h e m a t t e r , I w i ll p r o d uc e a n
a ut h o r i t y t o w h i c h y o u w i ll m o r e r e a d i ly s ub s c r i b e .
` c
An d a ll t h a t d w e ll up o n t h e e a r t h s h a ll w o r s h i p
h i m w h o s e n a m e s a r e n o t w r i t t e n i n t h e b o o k o f li f e
o f t h e La m b s la i n f r o m t h e f o un d a t i o n o f t h e w o r ld
. "
It w i ll b e i n v a i n f o r y o u t o a t t e m p t t o p a r r y t h e
e v i d e n c e o f t h i s s t a r t li n g t e x t . No v i s i o n a r y f o r e -
s i g h t
w i ll a c c o m p li s h i t s d e f e a t . n o i d e a l s ub s t i t ut i o n s
w i ll s h a k e i t s v a li d i t y .
* As i a t i c Re s e a r c h e s .

- f Jo b x i x . 2 5
.
Jo h n v i i i . 5 6 .

Re v e la t i o n x i i i . 8 .
T HE ROUND T OWERS .

2 8 9
" Ho w i t c a m e t o p a s s , " s a y s Sk e lt o n , " t h a t t h e
Eg y p t i a n s , Ar a b i a n s , a n d In d i a n s , b e f o r e Ch r i s t c a m e
a m o n g us , a n d t h e i n h a b i t a n t s o f t h e e x t r e m e n o r t h e r n
p a r t s o f t h e w o r ld , e r e t h e y h a d s o m uc h a s h e a r d o f
h i m ,
p a i d a r e m a r k a b le v e n e r a t i o n t o t h e s i g n o f t h e
c r o s s , i s t o m e un k n o w n , b ut t h e f a c t i t s e lf i s k n o w n .
In s o m e p la c e s t h i s s i g n w a s g i v e n t o m e n a c c us e d
o f a c r i m e , b ut a c q ui t t e d : a n d i n Eg y p t i t s t o o d f o r
t h e s i g n i f i c a t i o n o f e t e r n a l
li f e * . "
" V . W. " h a s a s s e r t e d s o m e t h i n g s i m i la r t ; b ut
n e i t h e r o n e n o r t h e o t h e r h a s a t t e m p t e d t o f a t h o m i t s .
o r i g i n .
` ` T h e Dr ui d s , " a d d s Sc h e d i us , " s e e k s t ud i o us ly
f o r a n o a k t r e e , la r g e a n d h a n d s o m e , g r o w i n g up w i t h
t w o p r i n c i p a l a r m s , i n f o r m o f a c r o s s ,
b e s i d e t h e
m a i n s t e m up r i g h t . If t h e t w o h o r i z o n t a l a r m s a r e
n o t s uf f i c i e n t ly a d a p t e d t o t h e f i g ur e , t h e y f a s t e n a
c r o s s - b e a m t o i t .
T h i s t r e e t h e y c o n s e c r a t e i n t h i s
m a n n e r . Up o n t h e r i g h t b r a n c h , t h e y c ut i n t h e
b a r k , i n f a i r c h a r a c t e r s , t h e w o r d
He s us : up o n t h e
m i d d le o r up r i g h t s t e m , t h e w o r d
T a r a m i s
: up o n t h e
le f t b r a n c h , Be le n us : o v e r t h i s , a b o v e t h e g o i n g o f f o f
t h e a r m s , t h e y c ut t h e n a m e o f G o d , T h a u : un d e r a ll,
t h e s a m e r e p e a t e d T h a u i . "
" T h e f o r m o f t h e g r e a t t e m p le , " o b s e r v e s Dr .
Ma c c ullo c h , " a t Lo c h Be r n e r a , i n t h e Is le o f Le w i s ,
t h e c h i e f i s le o f t h e He b r i d e s , i s t h a t o f a c r o s s , c o n -
t a i n i n g , a t t h e i n t e r s e c t i o n , a c i r c le w i t h a c e n t r a l
s t o n e ; a n a d d i t i o n a l li n e b e i n g s up e r a d d e d o n o n e
s i d e o f t h e lo n g e s t a r m s , a n d n e a r ly p a r a lle l t o i t .
* Ap p e a l t o Co m m o n Se n s e , p . 4 5
.
h Se e Ch a p
. x v i . p . 2 2 4 .
De Mo r i b . G e r m a n . x x i v .
2 9 0

T HE ROUND T OWERS
.
We r e t h i s li n e a b s e n t , i t s p r o p o r t i o n w o uld b e n e a r ly
t h a t o f t h e Ro m a n c r o s s , o r c o m m o n c r uc i f i x
. "
An d t h e n , i n r e p ly t o t h e s up p o s i t i o n o f i t s h a v i n g
b e e n c o n v e r t e d b y t h e Ch r i s t i a n s i n t o t h i s f o r m , h e
a v e r s t h a t " t h e w h o le i s t o o c o n s i s t e n t , a n d t o o m uc h
o f o n e a g e , t o a d m i t o f s uc h
; w h i le a t t h e s a m e t i m e ,
i t c o uld n o t , un d e r a n y c i r c um s t a n c e s , h a v e b e e n
a p p li c a b le t o a Ch r i s t i a n w o r s h i p . It s e s s e n t i a l p a r t ,
t h e c i r c ula r a r e a , a n d t h e n um b e r o f s i m i la r s t r uc -
t ur e s f o un d i n t h e v i c i n i t y , e q ua lly b e s p e a k i t s a n c i e n t
o r i g i n .
It m us t , t h e r e f o r e , b e c o n c lud e d , t h a t t h e
c r uc i f o r m s h a p e w a s g i v e n b y t h e o r i g i n a l c o n t r i v e r s
o f t h e f a b r i c ; a n d i t w i ll a f f o r d a n o b j e c t o f s p e c ula -
t i o n t o a n t i q ua r i e s , w h o , i f t h e y a r e s o m e t i m e s a c -
c us e d o f h e a p i n g a d d i t i o n a l o b s c ur i t y o n t h e r e c o r d s o f
a n t i q ui t y ,
m us t a ls o b e a llo w e d t h e f r e q ue n t
- m e r i t o f
e li c i t i n g li g h t f r o m d a r k n e s s . T o t h e m I w i lli n g ly
c o n s i g n a ll f ur t h e r s p e c ula t i o n s c o n c e r n i n g i t * . " . . . " Ye t
i t s e e m s un q ue s t i o n a b le t h a t t h e f i g ur e o f a c r o s s w a s
k n o w n t o t h e G o t h i c n a t i o n s , a n d a ls o us e d b y t h e m
b e f o r e t h e y w e r e c o n v e r t e d t o Ch r i s t i a n i t y t "
I d o n o t k n o w w h e t h e r o r n o t w o uld t h e Do c t o r
d e e m m e a n
"
a n t i q ua r y , " o r i f h e d i d , i n w h i c h c la s s
w o uld h e a s s i g n m e a p la c e .
I w i ll un d e r t a k e , n o t -
w i t h s t a n d i n g , t o s o lv e t h i s d i f f i c ult y w i t h a s m uc h
p r e c i s i o n a s I h a v e t h e o t h e r s b e f o r e i t .
T h e e x i s t e n c e o f t h e " c r o s s , " a n d i t s w o r s h i p , a n -
t e r i o r t o t h e Ch r i s t i a n e r a , b e i n g n o lo n g e r li a b le t o
d i s p ut e , i t r e m a i n s o n ly t h a t w e i n v e s t i g a t e t h e c a us e
w h i c h i t c o m m e m o r a t e s t .
* We s t e r n Is la n d s , v o l . i . p . 1 8 4 , &c .
' h Hi g h la n d s , v o L i i i . p . 1 36 .
' I i n q ui r e d , " s a y s Mr . Ma r t i n , o f t h e i n h a b i t a n t s , w h a t t r a d i t i o n
t h e y h a d c o n c e r n i n g t h e s e s t o n e s ; a n d t h e y t o ld m e , i t w a s a p la c e
T HE ROUND T OWERS.

2
9
1
Our f i r s t a i d i n t h i s r e s e a r c h w i ll b e t h e n o t i c e o f
i t s a c c o m p a n i m e n t s ; a n d w h e n w e f i n d t h a t i t g o e s
e v e r i n t h e t r a i n o f a p a r t i c ula r d i v i n i t y , a r e w e n o t
c o m p e lle d t o c o n n e c t t h a t d i v i n i t y w i t h t h e i d e a o f a
c r uc i f i x i o n ?
T a ut , a m o n g s t t h e Eg y p t i a n s , i s e m b le m i z e d b y
t h r e e c r o s s e s * . T h e Sc a n d i n a v i a n s r e p r e s e n t t h e i r
T e ut a le s b y a c r o s s .
An d a c r o s s i s t h e d e v i c e b y
w h i c h t h e Ir i s h T ua t h i s p e r p e t ua t e d .
But t h e s e a r e a ll o n e a n d t h e s a m e n a m e , v a r i e d
b y t h e g e n i us o f t h e d i f f e r e n t c o un t r i e s . T h e c e n t r e
f r o m w h i c h t h e y d i v e r g e , a s w e ll a s t h e f o c us t o w h i c h
t h e y
r e t ur n ,
I h a v e s h o w n t o b e
Bud h
: a n d a s t h i s
s y m b o l o f h i s w o r s h i p i s un i v e r s a lly r e c o g n i z e d , d o e s
n o t t h e
c r uc i f i x i o n
t h us i m p li e d , i d e n t i f y h i s f a t e w i t h
t h a t o f t h e " La m b s la i n f r o m t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e
w o r ld t ? "
T h e Py t h o n i c a lle g o r y w h i c h t h e G r e e k s h a v e s o
o b s c ur e d , i n r e a li t y o r i g i n a t e d i n t h i s r e li g i o us t r a n s -
a c t i o n . Fo r w h a t i s t h e i r f a b le ? Is i t n o t t h a t Ap o llo
s le w w i t h h i s a r r o w
t h e s e r p e n t Py t h o n ? An d a s
Ap o llo m e a n s s o n o f t h e Sun , i s n o t t h e s ub s t a n c e o f
t h e w h o le , t h a t t h e o f f s p r i n g o f a v i r g i n ' s
w o m b - t h a t
i s , a n e m a n a t i o n o f t h e Sun , o r
Bud h - o v e r c a m e b y h i s
a p p o i n t e d f o r w o r s h i p i n t h e t i m e o f h e a t h e n i s m ; a n d t h a t t h e c h i e f
Dr ui d s t o o d n e a r t h e b i g s t o n e i n t h e c e n t r e , f r o m w h e n c e h e a d d r e s s e d
h i m s e lf t o t h e p e o p le t h a t s ur r o un d e d h i m .
* Un i t e d a t t h e f e e t i n t h i s m a n n e r FT ' , . i . T h e j e w e l i n t h e f r e e -
m a s o n s r o y a l a r c h i s t h us f o r m e d . No a h w a s a f r e e m a s o n ; a n d b e i n g
t h e i n v e n t o r o f t h a t m y s t e r i o us a n d s a c r e d ly - r e li g i o us c e r e m o n y , c a lle d
t h e De lug e ,
w e m a y b e s a t i s f i e d t h a t a ll t h e s e c r e t s o f t h a t b o d y b e a r
r e f e r e n c e t o m y d e v e lo p m e n t s .
I lo o k up o n t h e i r i n s t i t ut i o n a s m o s t
s o le m n a n d
m a j e s t i c a lly s ub li m e .
t In t h e a c c o un t s t r a n s m i t t e d t o us o f t h e v a r i o us Bud d h a s , n o t e r m
o c c ur s m o r e c o m m o n ly a s d e s c r i p t i v e o f t h e i r i n n o c e n c e a n d t h e i r m e e k -
n e s s t h a n t h a t o f
la m b .
u 2
2 9 2

T HE ROUND T OWERS .
o w n
d e a t h - t y p i f i e d
b y a n a r r o w - s i n
a n d
s e n s ua li t y ,
o f w h i c h t h e s e r p e n t , i . e . p i t h , i s t h e s y m b o l?
We a r e n o w p r e p a r e d f o r t h e r e c e p t i o n o f t h a t
c h r o n i c le , t r a n s m i t t e d t h r o ug h t h e Pur a n a s , a n d
n o t i c e d a lr e a d y a t p a g e 2 2 1 ; v i z . , t h a t a " g i a n t ,
n a m e d Sa n c h a - m uc h a - n a g a , i n t h e s h a p e o f a
s n a k e ,
w i t h a m o ut h li k e a s h e ll, a n d w h o s e a b o d e w a s i n a
s h e ll,
h a v i n g t w o c o un t e n a n c e s , w a s k i lle d b y Ch r i s t n a b . "
T h e v e r y n a m e o f
t h i s a lle g o r i c g i a n t " i n d i c a t e s
t h e m y s t e r i o us s n a k e - h i s
b e i n g i n t h e
f o r m o f a
s n a k e i s b ut t h e p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n o f s e n s ua li t y - h i s h a v -
i n g
a m o ut h
li k e a s h e ll a llud e s t o t h e c o n c h a V e n e r i s ,
o r t h e Pi t h - - h i s h a v i n g h i s a b o d e i n t h a t s h e ll d e n o t e s
i t s b e i n g t h e s e a t o f t e m p t a t i o n - h i s h a v i n g t w o c o un -
t e n a n c e s i m p li e s t h e d i s g ui s e
w h i c h
s i n a s s um e s - a n d
h i s b e i n g s la i n b y Ch r i s t n a h d e n o t e s t h a t t h e So n o f
G o d , b y m o r t i f i c a t i o n a n d s e lf d e n i a l, a n d t h e m o s t r i g i d
a b s t i n e n c e f r o m a ll w o r ld ly p le a s ur e s ,
v e r i f i e d , i n
h i s
o w n p e r s o n , t h e p r o m i s e m a d e i n Pa r a d i s e , a n d f o r
t h e
m i n o r d i s q ui e t ud e s
w h i c h
g ui lt e n t a i ls - e x p r e s s e d
b y t h e " h e e l"
b e i n g
" b r ui s e d " b y t h e " s e r p e n t , " -
i n f li c t e d a b lo w , w h i c h la i d lo w h i s e m p i r e , a n d
s t a m p e d t h e s i g n a l o f v i c t o r y o v e r h i s " h e a d * . "
"
Ye s e a r c h t h e Sc r i p t ur e s , " s a y s o ur Sa v i o ur , " f o r
i n t h e m y e t h i n k y e h a v e e t e r n a l li f e : a n d t h e y a r e
t h e y w h i c h t e s t i f y o f m e f i . "
T e s t i f i c a t i o n c a n b e m a d e o n ly i n t h e c a s e o f a p a s t
o c c ur r e n c e . It i s n e v e r us e d i n t h e w a y o f p r o p h e c y .
An d i n c o n f o r m i t y w i t h i t s t r ue i m p o r t , y o u w i ll f i n d ,
f r o m G e n e s i s t o Re v e la t i o n , t h e c o n c ur r e n t t e n o r o f
t h e Sa c r e d V o lum e g i v i n g p r o o f t o t h e f a c t o f Ch r i s t ' s
f o r m e r a p p e a r a n c e up o n t h e e a r t h a s m a n
But s up p o s e m e f o r a m o m e n t t o d e s c e n d f r o m t h i s
* G e n
. i i i . 1 5 .

1 Luk e i i i . 39 .
T HE ROUND T OWERS.

2 9 3
p o s i t i o n , a n d v i e w t h o s e p r e v i o us m a n i f e s t a t i o n s a s
o r d i n a r y s ub j e c t s o f h i s t o r y , t h e n h e a r a n o ut li n e
o f w h a t i s t r a n s m i t t e d t o us r e s p e c t i n g o n e o f t h e m .
Ch a n a k y a , Z a c h a , o r , a s o ur r e g i s t e r s h a v e i t ,
Ma c h a * , o n e o f t h e p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n s o f Bud h , t h e
g e n e r a l a p p e lla t i v e o f t h o s e h e a v e n - s e n t d e v o t e e s ,
w a s s o s t a r t li n g a p a r a g o n o f h um a n i m p e c c a b i li t y , a s
t o i n s p i r e h i s f o llo w e r s w i t h t h e c o n v i c t i o n , o f h i s
b e i n g a n i n c a r n a t i o n o f t h e G o d h e a d .
He i s s t a t e d t o h a v e b e e n t h e s o n o f o n e o f t h e
m o s t p o w e r f ul o f e a s t e r n k i n g s ; b ut , a c c o r d i n g t o
t h e i r p r e c o n c e i v e d n o t i o n s o f t h e f ut ur e Re d e e m e r ,
b o r n o f h i s m o t h e r w i t h o ut a n y k n o w le d g e o f t h e
o t h e r s e x .
T h e c i r c um s t a n c e s a t t e n d a n t up o n h i s i n f a n t i n e
e d uc a t i o n , a n d t h e p r e c o c i t y o f h i s p a r t s , f a v o ur e d a n
i n a ug ur a t i o n up o n w h i c h t h e i r f a n c i e s h a d b e e n lo n g
r i v e t e d
.
Af t e r a la b o r i o us o r d e a l o f p i o us a us t e r i t y ,
n o t w i t h o ut m i r a c ulo us p r o o f s a n d o t h e r i n t i m a t i o n s
o f Di v i n e a p p r o v a l, h e w a s d uly a d m i t t e d t o t h e
h o n o ur o f c a n o n i z a t i o n , a n d e n t e r e d , a c c o r d i n g ly ,
up o n h i s t a s k o f c o n s i g n e d Sa v i o ur o f t h e w o r ld
.
T h e e n c o un t e r s w i t h w h i c h h e h a d t o c o n t e n d , i n
t h i s up h i ll w o r k , a g a i n s t f le s h a n d b lo o d , w e r e t h o s e
w h i c h w e r e , a f t e r w a r d s , a g a i n c o m b a t e d b y t h e
a d m i t t e d Sa v i o ur w h o m h e h a d p e r s o n a t e d
. T h e
s a m e f a ult s h e r e p r e h e n d e d
; t h e s a m e w e a k n e s s h e
d e p lo r e d ; t h e s a m e h y p o c r i s y h e r e b uk e d ; a n d t h e
s a m e v i r t ue s h e i n c ulc a t e d . T h e p ur i f i c a t i o n o f t h e
i n n e r s p i r i t w a s t h e o b j e c t w h i c h b o t h p r o f e s s e d , a n d
t h e i m p r o v e m e n t o f h um a n m o r a ls i n s o c i a l i n t e r -
c o ur s e a n d r e la t i o n , t h e e v i d e n c e i n p r a c t i c e , up o n
w h i c h b o t h e q ua lly i n s i s t e d .
Se e p a g e 1 31 .
2 9 4

T HE
ROUND T OWERS.
If Ch r i s t p r o m i s e d a h e a v e n
t o t h e v o t a r i e s o f h i s
t r ut h s , Bud h a d i d
a n i r w a n a t o h i s d i s c i p le s a n d
i m i t a t o r s :
a n d t h o ug h t h e f o r m e r p la c e , t o o ur i m a -
g i n a t i o n , s o un d s r e p le t e w i t h
a ll d e li g h t s , w h i le t h e
la t t e r i s m e r e ly f i g ur e d a s e x e m p t f r o m
a ll p a i n f uln e s s ,
y e t
b o t h
a g r e e i n o n e p a r t i c ula r , n o t a li t t le s o o t h i n g
t o w o un d e d h o p e ,
i n b e i n g e s s e n t i a lly s uc h , a s w h e r e
t h e w i c k e d c e a s e f r o m t r o ub li n g , a n d w h e r e t h e
w e a r y a r e a t r e s t . "
But g r e a t a s w a s t h e r e s e m b la n c e w h i c h t h e p e r -
s o n a l e x a m p le a n d t h e d o c t r i n a l le s s o n s o f Ma c h a a n d
Ch r i s t b o r e t o o n e a n o t h e r , i t w a s a s n o t h i n g c o m -
p a r e d t o t h e a lm o s t i n c r e d i b le s i m i li t ud e o f t h e i r
r e s p e c t i v e d e p a r t ur e s . T h e y b o t h d i e d t h e i n g lo -
r i o us d e a t h o f t h e
c r o s s t o r e c o n c i le m a n t o h i s
o f f e n d e d Cr e a t o r
; a n d i n c o n f i d e n t d e p e n d e n c e up o n
t h e b e s t a ut h e n t i c a t e d a s s ur a n c e , e x ult e d o n t h e
o c c a s i o n , h o w e v e r g a lli n g t h e p r o c e s s , o f e x p i a t i n g ,
b y t h e i r o w n s uf f e r i n g s , t h e a c c um ula t e d s i n s o f
h um a n i t y .
Is i t t o b e w o n d e r e d a t , t h e r e f o r e , t h a t t h e t r a c e s
w h i c h t h e y h a v e le f t b e h i n d t h e m , i n t h e i r d i f f e r e n t
a g e s , s h o uld b e a r a n a n a lo g y t o o n e a n o t h e r ? Or
w o uld n o t t h e w o n d e r r a t h e r b e t h a t t h e y d i d n o t ,
i n a ll r e s p e c t s , h a r m o n i s e ?
"
Le t n o t t h e p i e t y o f t h e Ca t h o li c Ch r i s t i a n , " s a y s
t h e Re v . Mr . Ma ur i c e ,
" b e o f f e n d e d a t t h e _ p r e c e d -
i n g a s s e r t i o n , t h a t t h e c r o s s
w a s o n e o f t h e m o s t us ua l
s y m b o ls a m o n g t h e h i e r o g ly p h i c s o f Eg y p t a n d
In d i a .
Eq ua lly h o n o ur e d i n t h e G e n t i le a n d t h e
Ch r i s t i a n w o r ld , t h i s e m b le m o f un i v e r s a l n a t ur e , o f
t h a t w o r ld t o w h o s e q ua r t e r s i t s d i v e r g i n g r a d i i
p o i n t e d , d e c o r a t e d t h e h a n d s o f m o s t o f t h e s c ulp -
t ur e d i m a g e s i n t h e f o r m e r c o un t r y , a n d i n t h e la t t e r
T HE ROUND T OWERS
.

2
9 5
s t a m p e d i t s f o r m up o n t h e m o s t m a j e s t i c o f t h e s h r i n e s
o f t h e i r d e i t i e s * . "
T h e
f a c t
a lo n e i s h e r e a t t e s t e d t o : n o t a s y lla b le i s
s a i d a s t o t h e r e a s o n w h y : a n d t h o ug h I c a n n o t b ut
r e c o g n i s e t h e s c r up le s o f t h e w r i t e r , n o r w i t h h o ld m y
a d m i r a t i o n f r o m t h e r o t un d i t y
i n w h i c h t h e d i c t i o n
h a s b e e n c a s t , y e t t h e r e a d e r m us t h a v e s e e n t h a t , a s
t o
a c t ua l i llus t r a t i o n ,
i t i s , - li k e t h e Re v . Mr . De a n e ' s
f lo ur i s h a b o ut t h e w o r s h i p o f t h e s e r p e n t - V o x e t p - r t y -
t e r e a n i h i l t ! "
~ ~ Yo u d o e r r , n o t k n o w i n g t h e Sc r i p t ur e s , "
s a i d
a m a s t e r , w i t h o ut p r i d e , a n d w h o c o uld n o t e r r .
If t h e
r e m a r k a p p li e d i n h i s d a y , i t i s n o t t h e le s s ur g e n t i n
o ur s . So a s t o un d i n g d i d t h e c o r r e s p o n d e n c e b e t w e e n
t h e Ch r i s t i a n a n d t h e Bud h i s t d o c t r i n e s a p p e a r t o
t h e e a r ly m i s s i o n a r i e s t o T h i b e t a n d t h e a d j a c e n t
c o un t r i e s - a c o r r e s p o n d e n c e n o t li m i t e d t o m e r e
p o i n t s o f f a i t h a n d p r e c e p t o r i a l m a x i m s , b ut e x h i b i t -
i n g i t s o p e r a t i o n i n a ll t h e o ut w a r d d e t a i ls o f
f o r m ,
t h e i n h a b i t a n t s g o i n g e v e n s o f a r a s t o w e a r
c r o s s e s
a r o un d t h e i r n e c k s - t h a t T h e v e n o t , Re n a ud o t , La -
c r o z e , a n d An d r a d a , h a v e s up p o s e d , i n t h e i r i g n o -
r a n c e o f t h e c a us e o f s uc h a f f i n i t y , t h a t Bud h i s m
m us t h a v e b e e n a v i t i a t i o n o f
Ch r i s t i a n i t y
b e f o r e
p la n t e d
; w h e r e a s Bud h i s n n
f lo ur i s h e d t h o us a n d s o f
y e a r s b e f o r e i t , o r Br a h m i n i s m e i t h e r
; a n d t h i s c r o s s
w a s t h e s y m b o l o f Bud h a c r uc i f i e d .
~ ~ Our s e c o n d i llus t r a t i o n , " s a y s t h e `
Dub li n Pe n n y
Jo ur n a l, ' r e f e r r i n g t o w h a t I h a v e h e r e i n t r o d uc e d ,
1 1
b e lo n g s t o a la t e r p e r i o d , a n d w i ll g i v e a g o o d i d e a
o f t h e us ua l m o d e o f r e p r e s e n t i n g t h e
Sa v i o ur ,
w h e -
* In d i a n An t i q ui t i e s , v o l
. i i . p . 36 1 .
H Se e c h a p t e r x v i . p . 2 2 1 .

7
Ma t t h e w x x i i
. 2 9 .
2
9 6

T HE ROUND T OWERS
.
t h e r o n s t o n e c r o s s e s , o r o n b r o n z e , w h i c h p r e v a i le d
f r o m t h e s i x t h t o t h e t w e lf t h c e n t ur y
. Suc h r e m a i n s ,
h o w e v e r , a r e v a lua b le , n o t o n ly a s m e m o r i a ls o f t h e
a r t s , b ut a s p r e s e r v i n g t h e Ce lt i c c o s t um e o f a p o r t i o n
o f t h e i n h a b i t a n t s o f o ur i s la n d i n t h o s e r e m o t e a g e s
.
It w i ll b e s e e n t h a t i n t h i s ,
a s i n o n e o f t h e s h r i n e -
f i g ur e s b e f o r e g i v e n , t h e k i lt , o r p h i li b e g , i s d i s -
T HE ROUND T OWERS.

2 9
7
t i n c t ly m a r k e d , a n d
c o n t r o v e r t s t h e e r r o n e o us a s s e r t i o n
o f Pi n k e r t o n , f o r m e r ly n o t i c e d , t h a t "
i t w a s a lw a y s
q ui t e un k n o w n a m o n g s t t h e We ls h a n d Ir i s h * . "
Ho w o t h e r s m a y r e c e i v e i t , I d o n o t k n o w
; b ut f o r
m y s e lf , I c o n f e s s , I f i n d i t n o e a s y m a t t e r t o m a i n t a i n
t h e c o m p o s ur e o f m y c o un t e n a n c e a t t h i s a f f e c t e d
p o m p o s i t y
o f c e n s o r i a l
m a g n i lo q ue n c e . T h e
s e lf - c o m -
p la c e n c y
o f t h e c e n s o r o n e c o uld t o le r a t e w i t h e a s e , i f
t h e a s s um p t i o n
o f t h e h i s t o r i a n h a d a ug h t t o s up p o r t
i t . But a la s !
e v e r y p o s i t i o n i n t h e e x t r a c t i s t h e
d i r e c t o p p o s i t e o f t r ut h , w i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n o f t h a t
w h i c h a s s e r t s a n o t h e r p e r s o n ' s e r r o r
; a n d e v e n t h i s
i s b e c lo ud e d w i t h s uc h e g r e g i o us o b s c ur a t i o n s a s t o
s h o w , t h a t le a v i n g Pi n k e r t o n t o P
t w o uld b e
c o n s i g n i n g t h e b li n d t o a b li n d e r c o n d uc t o r .
Fo r , i n t h e f i r s t p la c e , t h e p h i li b e g w a s n o t a
Ce lt i c
c o s t um e a t a ll, b ut b e lo n g e d t o t h e De - d a n a a n , o r
Ir a n i a n c o lo n y T , w h o , o n t h e i r o v e r t h r o w h e r e , t o o k
i t w i t h t h e m t o w h a t i s n o w c a lle d Sc o t la n d
. T h e
Fi r b o lg s , w h o w e r e Ce lt s , a n d o c c up i e d t h i s i s la n d
b e f o r e t h e Ir a n i a n s , w o r e a n o t h e r s t y le o f d r e s s a lt o -
g e t h e r , w h i c h , o n t h e r e - c o n q ue s t o f t h e c o un t r y b y
t h e Sc y t h i a n s w a r m s , B . C. 1 000, b e c a m e a g a i n t h e
n a t i o n a l un i f o r m
. Fo r t h e Fi r b o lg s , h a v i n g a s s i s t e d
t h e Sc y t h i a n s i n d i s lo d g i n g t h e Ir a n i a n s f r o m t h e
t h r o n e o f t h e k i n g d o m , a n d a g r e e i n g w i t h t h e m f ur -
t h e r m o r e i n p o i n t o f w o r s h i p a n d o f g a r b , t h e y d i d
n o t o n ly m a k e t h e i r o w n h a b i t s , a s w e ll o f
r e li g i o n a s
o f d r e s s ,
un i v e r s a l t h r o ug h o ut t h e r e a lm , b ut o b li t e -
r a t e d e v e r y v e s t i g e o f t h e o b n o x i o us c o s t um e , a n d
c a n c e lle d e v e r y s y m p t o m o f i t s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c c e r e -
* V o l . i . p a g e 308 , o n t h e a r t i c le " Fi n e Ar t s "
t T h e i n i t i a l s ub s c r i b e d t o t h e a r t i c le .
* Se e Ap p e n d i x .
2 9 8

T HE ROUND T OWERS.
m o n i a l, e x c e p t a lo n e t h o s e Ro un d T e m p le s o f a d a -
m a n t i n e s t r e n g t h , w h i c h d e f i e d t h e a s s a i lm e n t o f a ll
v i o le n c e a n d b a t t e r i e s
.
T h e r e w a s n o r e m n a n t , t h e r e f o r e , o f t h e k i lt t o b e
m e t w i t h i n Ir e la n d , e i t h e r i n t h e
s i x t h c e n t ur y , o r i n
t h e t w e lf t h , o r i n d e e d f o r m a n y c e n t ur i e s b e f o r e t h e
Ch r i s t i a n e r a a t a ll . T h i s e f f i g y * , t h e r e f o r e ,
c o uld
n o t h a v e b e e n i n t e n d e d f o r o ur Sa v i o ur , w a n t i n g , b e -
s i d e s , t h e I. N. R. I . f ,
a n d w e a r i n g t h e
Ir a n i a n r e g a l
c r o w n ,
i n s t e a d o f t h e Je w i s h c r o w n o f t h o r n s
.
T h e r e -
f o r e a r e w e j us t i f i e d i n a s c r i b i n g i t t o i t s o w n e r ,
Bud h a , w h o m a g a i n w e f i n d i m p r i n t e d i n t h e s a m e
c r uc i f i e d f o r m ,
b ut w i t h m o r e
i r r e s i s t i b i li t y o f i d e n t i f i -
c a t i o n , o v e r t h e m o n um e n t s o f h i s n a m e - o v e r t h e
d o o r s a n d li n t e ls o f t h e t e m p le s o f h i s w o r s h i p .
* Li k e t h e t w o f o r m e r e f f i g i e s , a t p a g e s 1 38 a n d 1 4 0, i t i s m a d e o f
b r o n z e ,
a n d f o un d i n Ir e la n d a f t e r t h e T ua t h - d e - d a n a a n s . T h o s e f o un d
a f t e r t h e i r b r e t h r e n i n t h e Ea s t a r e m a d e o f t h e s a m e m e t a l . " So m e -
t i m e s , " s a y s Ar c h e r , " t h e i m a g e s a r e o f w o o d o r s t o n e , b ut t h e s e , un le s s
p o s s e s s i n g t h e r a r i t y o f s o m e m o n k i s h le g e n d , a r e n o t i n s uc h r e p ut e a s
t h e i r b r o t h e r s o f b r a s s . "
- h T h i s i s t h e o n ly p e c uli a r m o n o g r a m o f Je s us Ch r i s t - I. H. S. b e -
lo n g i n g o r i g i n a lly t o Bud h a , t h o ug h a p p r o p r i a t e d a f t e r w a r d s t o h i m .
T H z w a s i t s p r o p e r f o r m , a n d i t c o m p r e h e n d e d a m y s t e r i o us n um b e r ,
a s f o llo w s : -
T .
H
4 00
8
2 00
6 08
An o t h e r m o n o g r a m o f Bud h a w a s
4 , P H
. It c o m p o s e d t h e s a m e
n um e r i c a l e n i g m a , v i z . -
41 .

5 00
P 1 00
H . .

8
6 08
Sa lv e v e r a De um f a c i e s , v ult us q ue p a t e r n m ,
Oc t o e t s e x c e n t i s n um e r i s , c ui li t e r a t r i n a
Co n f o r m e t s a c r um n o m e n , c o g n o m e n e t o m e n
.
MART IANUS CAPELLA.
THEROUNDTOWERS.
I I I I I l l I l I

i i
r
2 9 9
Mr
. G o u g h , d e s c ri b i n g t h i s e d i f i c e , t e l l s u s t h a t
" On
t h e w e s t f ro n t o f t h e t o w e r( B re c h i n ) a re t w o a rc h e s ,
o n e w i t h i n t h e o t h e r, i n re l i e f . On t h e p o i n t o f t h e
o u t e rm o s t i s
a t ru e f i x ,
a n d b e t w e e n b o t h , t o w a rd s t h e
m i d d l e , a re f i g u re s o f t h e V i rg i n Ma ry a n d St . J o h n ,
t h e l a t t e rh o l d i n g a c u p w i t h a l a m b
. Th e o u t e r
3 0
0

THEROUND'ro w ERS .
a rc h i s a d o rn e d w i t h k n o b s , a n d w i t h i n b o t h i s a s l i t
o rl o o p . A t b o t t o m o f t h e o u t e ra rc h a re
t w o b e a s t s
c o u c h a n t . I f
o n e o f t h e m , b y h i s p ro b o s c i s ,
w a s n o t
e v i d e n t l y a n e l e p h a n t ,
I s h o u l d s u p p o s e t h e m t h e s u p -
p o rt e rs o f t h e Sc o t c h a rm s
. P a ra l l e l w i t h t h e c ru c i f i x
a re t w o p l a i n s t o n e s , w h i c h d o n o t a p p e a rt o h a v e
h a d a n y t h i n g u p o n t h e m *
. "
C a p t a i n Ma c k e n z i e , i n h i s a n t i q u i t i e s o f t h e We s t
a n d So u t h C o a s t o f C e y l o n , w h i c h s t i l l p ro f e s s e s a d -
h e re n c e t o B u d h i s m , t e l l s u s t h a t
" a t e a c h s i d e o f t h e
d o o rw a y ( o f t h e t e m p l e a t C a l a n e ) , i n c l o s e d i n re c e s s e s
c u t i n t h e w a l l , a re t w o l a rg e f i g u re s , t h e ja n i t o rs o f t h e
g o d ( B u d h ) . . . .
A l a rg e e l e p h a n t 's t o o t h a n d a s m a l l
e l e p h a n t o f b ra s s f o rm t h e o rn a m e n t o f a l a m p s t e a d . . . .
A f e m a l e f i g u re o f t h e n a t u ra l s i z e , d e c e n t l y a n d n o t
u n g ra c e f u l l y a rra y e d i n t h e s a m e g a rb , w a s re p re -
s e n t e d s t a n d i n g i n a n o t h e rq u a rt e r, h o l d i n g a l a m p i n
t h e e x t e n d e d h a n d .
Th e g a l l e ry w a s e n t i re l y c o v e re d
w i t h p a i n t i n g s , c o n t a i n i n g a n h i s t o ry o f t h e l i f e o f
B o o d h o o - o n e o f t h e s e s e e m e d t o re p re s e n t t h e b i rt h
o f t h e d i v i n e c h i l d .
A
l a rg e w h i t e e l e p h a n t
m a d e a
c o n s p i c u o u s f i g u re i n m o s t o f t h e s e a s s e m b l i e s f i . "
Sc o t c h a rm s , i n d e e d ! Wh y , Si r, t h o s e a n i m a l s
w e re re c u m b e n t t h e re , i n d e i f i e d t ra n s f i g u ra t i o n ,
b e f o re e v e r
P i c t
o rSc o t h a d p l a n t e d a p ro f a n e f o o t
w i t h i n t h e i rn e i g h b o u rh o o d
. Wh a t c o n n e x i o n , l e t
m e a s k , c o u l d t h i s e l e p h a n t a n d t h i s b u l l h a v e w i t h
C h ri s t i a n i t y , t o e n t i t l e t h e m t o t h e h o n o u ro f b e i n g
g ro u p e d w i t h o u rSa v i o u r? Or, i f a n y , h o w h a p -
p e n s i t t h a t w e n e v e rs e e t h e m e n t e ri n t o s i m i l a r
c o m b i n a t i o n s , i n c h u rc h e s o rc h a p e l s , o rc o n v e n t s o r
c a t h e d ra l s t ?
* A rc h . So c . A n t . L o n d . v o l
. i i
. p . 8 3 .
t
A s i a t i c Re s e a rc h e s .
THEROUNDTOWERS.

3 0 1
B u t i f t h e y b e l o n g n o t t o t h e C h ri s t i a n c e re m o n i a l ,
t h e y d o t o s o m e t h i n g e l s e . Th e y a re t h e
g ra n d , d i s -
t i n c t i v e
a n d i n d i s p e n s a b l e a d ju n c t s o f B u d h i s m ; b e i n g
t h e t w o a n i m a l s
i n t o w h i c h ,
a c c o rd i n g t o i t s d o c t ri n e o f
m e t e m p s y c h o s i s , t h e s o u l o f B u d h a h a d e n t e re d a f t e rh i s
d e a t h .
Th i s w a s t h e o ri g i n o f t h e Eg y p t i a n
A p i s : a n d
w h o i s n o t f a m i l i a rw i t h t h e h o n o u rs l a v i s h e d u p o n
t h e s a c re d b u l l ? To t h i s d a y t h e e l e p h a n t i s w o r-
s h i p p e d i n t h e B u rm a n e m p i re * , w h e re t h e g e n i u s
o f B u d i s m s t i l l l i n g e ri n g l y t a rri e s ; a n d " L o rd o f t h e
Wh i t e El e p h a n t " i s
t h e p ro u d e s t e n s i g n o f p o w e r
c l a i m e d b y t h e s u c c e s s o rs t o t h e t h ro n e o f P e g u
.
Th e h u m a n f i g u re s , t h e n , o f c o u rs e , c a n n o t b e
i n t e n d e d f o r" St . J o h n o rt h e V i rg i n Ma ry . " Th e y
re p re s e n t B u d h a 's V i rg i n Mo t h e r,
a l o n g w i t h h i s
f a v o ri t e d i s c i p l e , Ra m a .
A n d t h u s d o e s t h e t e s t i m o n y
o f A rt e m i d o ru s , w h o f l o u ri s h e d l 0 4 y e a rs b e f o re C h ri s t ,
a n a t i v e h i m s e l f o f Ep h e s u s , a n d w h o d i d n o t h i m -
s e l f u n d e rs t a n d
t h e m y s t e ry o f t h a t V i rg i n w h o m h e
h i s t o ri c a l l y re c o rd s , re c e i v e i l l u s t ra t i o n
f ro m
m y p ro o f ,
w h i l e i t g i v e s i t
c o n f i rm a t i o n i n re t u rn .
Hi s w o rd s a re - " A d ja c e n t t o B ri t a i n t h e re s t a n d s
a n i s l a n d , w h e re
s a c re d ri t e s a re p e rf o rm e d t o C e re s
a n d t h e V i rg i n ,
s i m i l a rt o t h o s e i n Sa m o t h ra c e . "
I n i t i a t i o n i n t h e p ri n c i p l e s o f t h i s Sa m o t h ra c i a n
c e re m o n i a l w a s t h o u g h t s o n e c e s s a ry a n a c c o m p l i s h -
* " He
h a s a s e p a ra t e a p a rt m e n t , s h ro u d e d f ro m v u l g a re y e s b y a
b l a c k v e l v e t c u rt a i n , ri c h l y e m b o s s e d w i t h g o l d , i n a s p l e n d i d p a l a c e a t
Um m e ra p o o r
: a n d h i s w h o l e re s i d e n c e i s a s d a z z l i n g a n d s u m p t u o u s a s
g o l d a n d s i l v e rc a n m a k e i t
. He i s f u rn i s h e d w i t h a s i l k b e d , a d o rn e d
w i t h g o l d t a p e s t ry , h a n g i n g s , a n d je w e l l e ry , a n d h a s h i s g o l d a p p u rt e -
n a n c e s .
F o re i g n m i n i s t e rs a re i n t ro d u c e d t o h i s s a c re d p e rs o n , a n d h e
ra n k s b e f o re e v e ry m e m b e ro f t h e ro y a l c o u rt e x c e p t t h e k i n g . " -
SYb I ES.
3 0 2

THEROUNDTOWERS.
m e n t f o re v e ry h e ro a n d e v e ry p ri n c e , t h a t n o a s p i -
ra n t t o t h o s e d i s t i n c t i o n s e v e rv e n t u re d u p o n h i s d e s -
t i n a t i o n , w i t h o u t f i rs t p a y i n g a v i s i t t o t h a t re l i g i o u s
re n d e z v o u s . Th e s o l e m n i t y , a t t a c h i n g t o t h e ri t u a l
t h e re p e rf o rm e d , w a s n o t g re a t e rt h a n t h e v e n e ra t i o n
p a i d t o t h e p l a c e i t s e l f .
A l l f u g i t i v e s f o u n d s h e l t e r
w i t h i n i t s p ri v i l e g e d p re c i n c t s , a n d t h e n a m e o f
s a c re d w a s a s s i g n e d i t , a s t h e o rd i n a ry c h a ra c t e ri s t i c
o f s u c h s a n c t u a ri e s * .
"
Th e re a re , " s a y s t h e Sc h o l i a s t u p o n A ri s t o -
p h a n e s , "
t w o o rd e rs o f m y s t e ri e s c e l e b ra t e d i n t h e
c o u rs e o f t h e y e a r, i n h o n o u ro f C e re s a n d t h e
V i rg i n - t h e l e s s e ra n d t h e g re a t e r;
t h e f o rm e r
b e i n g b u t a s o rt o f p u ri f i c a t i o n a n d h o l y p re p a ra t i o n
f o rt h e l a t t e ri . "
Wh o t h i s V i rg i n w a s , h o w e v e r, n o n e b u t t h e
i n i t i a t e d
e v e rp re s u m e d t o i n v e s t i g a t e , t h e p ra c t i c e
o b s e rv e d i n re s p e c t t o h e r, b e i n g t h e s a m e a s t h a t
w h i c h i n f l u e n c e d t h e o t h e ro rd i n a n c e s o f a n t i q u i t y
a n d w h i c h m a d e St ra b o h i m s e l f d e c l a re , t h a t
" a l l
t h a t c a n b e s a i d c o n c e rn i n g t h e g o d s m u s t b e b y t h e
e x p o s i t i o n o f o l d o p i n i o n s a n d f a b l e s :
i t b e i n g t h e c u s -
t o m o f t h e a n c i e n t s t o w ra p u p i n e n i g m a a n d a l l e g o ry
t h e i rt h o u g h t s a n d d i s c o u rs e s c o n c e rn i n g n a t u re , w h i c h
a re , t h e re f o re , n o t e a s i l y e x p l a i n e d i . "
P ro c l u s a l s o s a y s , " I n a l l i n i t i a t i o n s a n d m y s t e -
* I t w a s o n l y a s a n e p i t h e t
t h a t t h e t i t l e s a c re d c o u l d a p p l y t o Sa m o -
t h ra c e : a n d a s s u c h , e v e ry o t h e rl o c a l i t y , w h e re i n t h o s e m y s t e ri e s w e re
c o m m e m o ra t e d , s h a re d i t i n c o m m o n . B u t i n t h i s
o u ri s l a n d , t o w h i c h
A rt e m i d o ru s a b o v e a l l u d e s , a n d w h e re s u p e ri o rs o l e m n i t y a t t e n d e d t h e
c e l e b ra t i o n , t h e n a m e o f s a c re d w a s n o a d v e n t i t i o u s c l a u s e , b u t ,
p a r
e x c e l l e n c e , t h e c o n s t i t u e n t e s s e n c e o f i t s p ro p e ra p p e l l a t i o n . - Se e p a g e s
1 2 8 , 9 .
f Mu o Tn QI ' h
p
o Ts a s rra 4 To u EV 1 a u To U ;
A n p u n Te 4 Ka i Ko e n ; Ta p i c e a Ka , Ta
p c s y a x a . Ka i s a ri
Ta f A l Ke a a o x s e o rP OZZOa e o r; Ma i s re a y v i u v s
;
Ta r( <s y a Xa r.
$L i b . x . p . 4 7 4 .
THEROUNDTOWERS.
3 0 3
ri e s , t h e g o d s e x h i b i t t h e m s e l v e s u n d e rm a n y f o rm s ,
a n d w i t h a f re q u e n t c h a n g e o f s h a p e ;
s o m e t i m e s a s
l i g h t d e f i n e d t o n o p a rt i c u l a rf i g u re
; s o m e t i m e s i n a
h u m a n f o rm
; a n d s o m e t i m e s i n t h a t o f s o m e o t h e r
c re a t u re s . "
Wi t h t h e c l u e , h o w e v e r, a l re a d y a f f o rd e d , w e n e e d
n o t b e d e t e rre d f ro m a p p ro a c h i n g h e rf a n e
. Th e
a l l e g o ri c a l n a m e , u n d e rw h i c h t h e y d i s g u i s e d h e r,
w a s t h a t o f
P ro s e rp i n e : w h o m t h e y re p re s e n t
s o
b e a u t i f u l t h a t
t h e f a t h e ro f t h e g o d s h i m s e l f b e c a m e
e n a m o u re d o f h e r, a n d d e c e i v e d h e rb y c h a n g i n g h i m -
s e l f i n t o a s e rp e n t , a n d f o l d i n g h e ri n h i s w re a t h s
i ' . "
Th i s w a s t h e
G re e k p e rv e rs i o n o f t h e n a rra t i v e .
Th e y h a d re c e i v e d i t f ro m t h e P e l a s g i , u n d e rt h e
g a rb o f a c o n c e p t i o n , b y
s e rp e n t i n e i n s i n u a t i o n , i n a
v i rg i n w o m b :
a n d , t h e g ro s s n e s s o f t h e i ri n t e l l e c t s
n o t a l l o w i n g t h e m t o c o m p re h e n d t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f
a n e m a n a t i o n , y e t g i v i n g u n q u a l i f i e d c re d e n c e t o
t h e re c o rd , t h e y d e g ra d e d a l t o g e t h e rt h e
re l i g i o u s -
n e s s o f
t h e t h o u g h t , a n d s u p p o s e d t h a t t h e A l m i g h t y ,
t o e f f e c t u a t e h i s d e s i g n , h a d a c t u a l l y a s s u m e d t h e
c o b ra d i c a p e l l o f o rm !
So a u s t e re w a s t h e ru l e , b y w h i c h t h o s e m y s t e ri e s
w e re p ro t e c t e d , t h a t . / Es c h y l u s b u t
b a re l y e s c a p e d d i s -
c e rp t i o n w i t h i n t h e t h e a t re ,
f o ra n i m a g i n e d d i s re s p e c t
t o t h e i rt e n d e n c y .
No rw a s i t b u t o n t h e p l e a o f
i g n o ra n c e a n d u n - i n i t i a t i o n , t h a t h e d i d u l t i m a t e l y
o b t a i n p a rd o n 1 .
Th i s i n s u p e ra b l e b a rri e rt o t h e c u ri o s i t y o f t h e
p ro f a n e , e n g e n d e re d i n t h e i rc o n d u c t a c o rre s p o n d -
* u ; Tn v I I o x n r. I I x s r. p . 3 8 0 .
i Se e t h e a rt i c l e u n d e rh e rn a m e i n t h e C l a s s i c a l Di c t i o n a ry , w i t h a l l
t h e a u t h o ri t i e s t h e re a d d u c e d
.
* C l e m . A l e x . St ro m . i i .
3 0 4

THEROUNDTOWERS.
i n g re - a c t i o n , a n d , a s t h e f o x d i d t o t h e g ra p e s ,
w h a t
t h e y c o u l d n o t t h e m s e l v e s c o m p a s s , t h e y s t ro v e a l l
t h e y c o u l d t o v i t u p e ra t e
!
" V i rt u e , h o w e v e r, i s i t s o w n re w a rd ; " a n d , a s
t h e a u t h o ri t y o f C i c e ro , h a v i n g b e e n h i m s e l f a
p ri e s t , o u g h t t o h a v e s o m e w e i g h t i n t h i s d i s c u s -
s i o n , i t i s n o s m a l l i m p e t u s t o t h e c a u s e o f t ru t h , t o
h e a rt h i s p re - e m i n e n t m a n a s s i g n t o t h e e f f i c a c y
o f t h e p re c e p t s , i n c u l c a t e d i n t h o s e m y s t e ri e s , - " t h e
k n o w l e d g e o f t h e G o d o f n a t u re ; t h e f i rs t , t h e
s u p re m e , t h e i n t e l l e c t u a l ;
b y w h i c h m e n h a d b e e n
re c l a i m e d f ro m ru d e n e s s a n d b a rb a ri s m , t o e l e g a n c e
a n d re f i n e m e n t ; a n d b e e n t a u g h t , n o t o n l y t o l i v e
w i t h m o re c o m f o rt , b u t t o d i e w i t h b e t t e rh o p e s ' . "
Sl a v e t o n o s e c t , w h o t a k e s n o p ri v a t e ro a d ,
B u t l o o k s t h ro u g h Na t u re u p t o Na t u re 's G o d ;
P u rs u e s t h a t c h a i n w h i c h l i n k s t h e i m m e n s e d e s i g n ,
J o i n s h e a v e n a n d e a rt h , a n d m o rt a l a n d d i v i n e ,
Se e s t h a t n o b e i n g a n y b l i s s c a n k n o w ,
B u t t o u c h e s s o m e a b o v e , a n d s o m e b e l o w ;
L e a rn s f ro m t h i s u n i o n o f t h e ri s i n g w h o l e ,
Th e f i rs t , l a s t p u rp o s e o f t h e h u m a n s o u l ;
A n d k n o w s w h e re f a i t h , l a w , m o ra l s , a l l b e g a n ,
A l l e n d i n l o v e o f G o d a n d l o v e o f m a n t .
* Mi h i c u m m u l t a e x i m i a d i v i n a q u e v i d e n t u rA t h e n a t u m p e p e -
ri s s e - t u m n i h i l m e l i u s i l l i s m y s t e ri e s q u i b u s a g re s t i i m m a n i q u e v i t a
e x c u l t i a d h u m a n i t a t e m m i t i g a t i s u m u s : i n i t i a q u e , u t a p p e l l a n t u r, i t a
re v e ra p ri n c i p i a v i t a e c o g n o v i m u s : n e q u e s o l u m c u m h e t i t i a v i v e n d i
ra t i o n e m a c c e p i m u s , s e d e t i a m c u m s p e m e l i o ri m o ri e n d i . - De L e g i b u s ,
1 . i . c . 2 4 .
'l P o p e
.
3 0 5
C HA P TERXXI I
.
I WOUL D
h a v e m y re a d e rp a u s e u p o n
. t h e s u b s t a n c e
o f t h e t e rm s w i t h w h i c h t h e l a s t s e c t i o n
, c o n c l u d e d -
"
No t o n l y t o l i v e w i t h m o re c o m f o rt , b u t t o d i e w i t h
b e t t e rh o p e s ! "
Ha v e y o u re a d t h e m ? Ha v e y o u d i g e s t e d t h e m ?
A n d a re y o u n o t a s h a m e d o f y o u ri l l i b e ra l i t y
?
F ro m w h a t p u l p i t i n C h ri s t e n d o m w i l l y o u h e a r
b e t t e ro rm o re o rt h o d o x t ru t h s
? Wh e re w i l l y o u
f i n d t h e G o s p e l m o re
e n e rg e t i c a l l y e n u n c i a t e d ?
A n d , w i t h t h i s t e s t i m o n y s t a ri n g y o u i n t h e f a c e -
i n d e f i a n c e o f i n n e rl i g h t - a n d i m p e ri o u s l y s u b ju -
g a t i n g t h e a l l e g i a n c e o f ra t i o n a l i t y - w i l l y o u s t i l l
p e rs i s t i n l i m i t i n g t h e b e n e v o l e n c e o f y o u r" F a t h e r? "
a n d i n w i t h h o l d i n g e v e ry s y m p t o m o f p a t e rn a l
re g a rd f ro m h i s o w n h a n d y w o rk , u n t i l t h e b e g i n -
n i n g o f t h e l a s t t w o t h o u s a n d y e a rs ?
t h a t i s , a s i t
w e re , t i l l y e s t e rd a y ?
" I t e l l y o u , t h a t i f t h e s e s h o u l d h o l d t h e i rp e a c e ,
t h e
s t o n e s
w o u l d i m m e d i a t e l y c ry o u t *
. "
4 9
On a b a n k n e a rt h e s h o re , " s a y s C o rd i n e r, i n
h i s A n t i q u i t i e s o f Sc o t l a n d ,
"
o p p o s i t e t o t h e ru i n s o f
a c a s t e l l a t e d h o u s e , c a l l e d Sa n d w i c k ( i n Ro s s - s h i re ) ,
a n d a b o u t t h re e m i l e s e a s t f ro m F e rn s , a v e ry s p l e n -
d i d o b e l i s k i s e re c t e d , s u rro u n d e d a t t h e b a s e w i t h
* L u k e x i x
. 2 0 .
x
'SHa A i O, L d 4 I l O2 [A HI
9 0 C
THEROUNDTOWERS.

3 0 7
l a rg e , w e l l - c u t f l a g s t o n e s , f o rm e d l i k e s t e p s . B o t h
s i d e s o f t h i s c o l u m n a re e l a b o ra t e l y c o v e re d w i t h
v a ri o u s e n ri c h m e n t s , i n w e l l f i n i s h e d c a rv e d
w o rk .
Th e o n e f a c e p re s e n t s a s u m p t u o u s c ro s s , w i t h a
f i g u re o f St . A n d re w o n e a c h h a n d , a n d s o m e
u n c o u t h a n i m a l s a n d f l o w e ri n g s u n d e rn e a t h . Th e
c e n t ra l d i v i s i o n , o n t h e re v e rs e , re n d e rs i t a p i e c e o f
a n t i q u i t y w e l l w o rt h y o f p re s e rv a t i o n ; t h e re i s e x h i -
b i t e d o n t h a t s u c h a v a ri e t y o f f i g u re s , b i rd s , a n d
a n i m a l s , a s s e e m e d w h a t m i g h t p ro v e a c u ri o u s s u b -
je c t o f i n v e s t i g a t i o n
; I h a v e , t h e re f o re , g i v e n a d i s -
t i n c t d e l i n e a t i o n o f t h e m a t t h e f o o t o f t h e c o l u m n ,
o n a l a rg e rs c a l e , t h a t t h e i rs h a p e s m i g h t b e d i s -
t i n c t l y a s c e rt a i n e d , a n d t h e m o re p ro b a b l e c o n je c t u re s
f o rm e d o f t h e i ra l l u s i o n . "
Wh a t , o n e a rt h , - b u s i n e s s w o u l d St
. A n d re w h a v e
i n c o m p a n y w i t h "
u n c o u t h 'a n i m a l s ? " Wh a t h a v e
b i rd s , " " f i g u re s , " a n d " f l o w e ri n g s " t o d o w i t h
C h ri s t i a n i t y ? I f t h i s " o b e l i s k " h a d n o t b e e n e re c t e d
h e re , i n c o m m e m o ra t i v e d e i f i c a t i o n , c e n t u ri e s u p o n
c e n t u ri e s b e f o re t h e e ra o f h i s Sa i n t s h i p 's b i rt h , w h y
s h o u l d t h e 0 c ro s s , " w h i c h "
o n e f a c e p re s e n t s , " b e
d e c o ra t e d w i t h " e n ri c h m e n t s " b ro u g h t a l l t h e w a y
f ro m Eg y p t ?
L o o k a t t h e s e h i e ro g l y p h i c s : a n d w h e re w i l l y o u
f i n d a n y t h i n g c o n g e n i a l t o t h e m w i t h i n t h e e m p i re o f
t h e Ro m a n s ? He re i s t h e B u l b u l o f I ra n * , t h e
b o a ro f
V i s h n u , t h e e l k , t h e f o x , t h e l a m b , a n d t h e d a n c e rs
.
A l l t h e o t h e rc o n f i g u ra t i o n s , w i t h o u t g o i n g t h ro u g h
t h e m i n d e t a i l , a re n o t o n l y , i n t h e i rn a t u re a n d i m -
* B u l b u l o f I ra n h a s a p a s s i o n f o rt h e ro s e , a n d w h e n h e s e e s
a n y p e rs o n p u l l a ro s e f ro m t h e t re e h e l a m e n t s a n d c ri e s . " - P e rs i a n
P o e m ,
q u o t e d i n Ou s e l e y 's Ori e n t a l C o l l e c t i o n s .
x 2
3 0 8

THEROUNDTOWERS.
p o rt , e s s e n t i a l l y e a s t e rn , b u t a re a c t u a l l y t h e
s y m b o l s
o f t h e v a ri o u s a n i m a l f o rm s u n d e r w h i c h t h e y c o n -
t e m p l a t e d t h e p ro p e rt i e s o f t h e G o d h e a d .
A s t h e c ro s s ,
h o w e v e r, i s t h a t t o w h i c h w e a re m o re i m m e d i a t e l y
d i re c t e d , I s h a l l c o n f i n e m y s e l f , f o rt h e p re s e n t , t o
t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f i t s a n t i q u i t y .
No o n e w i l l q u e s t i o n b u t t h a t V e n u s w a s a n t e c e -
d e n t t o t h e d a y s '
o f
St
. A n d re w ; a n d s h e i s re p re -
s e n t e d w i t h a c ro s s a n d a c i rc l e * ! J u p i t e ra l s o ,
i t
w i l l b e a d m i t t e d , w a s a n t e ri o rt o h i s t i m e ;
a n d w e
f i n d h i m d e l i n e a t e d w i t h a c ro s s a n d a h o rn
! Sa t u rn
i s s a i d t o h a v e b e e n s i re t o t h e l a s t - m e n t i o n e d g o d ,
a n d , b y t h e l a w s o f p ri m o g e n i t u re , m u s t h a v e b e e n
s e n i o rt o h i m ; y e t w e f i n d h i m a l s o p i c t u re d w i t h a
c ro s s
a n d h o rn ! Th e m o n o g ra m o f Os i ri s i s a c ro s s !
On a m e d a l o f o n e o f t h e P t o l e m i e s i s t o b e s e e n a n
e a g l e c o n v e y i n g a t h u n d e rb o l t w i t h t h e c ro s s !
I n
s h o rt , a l l t h ro u g h t h e a n c i e n t w o rl d t h i s s y m b o l w a s
t o b e e n c o u n t e re d , a n d w h e re v e ri t p re s e n t e d i t s e l f ,
i t w a s a l w a y s t h e h a rb i n g e ro f s a n c t i t y a n d o f p e a c e .
C a n w e g l e a n f ro m t h e i rw ri t i n g s a n y c o n f i rm a -
t i o n t o m y d e v e l o p m e n t a s t o t h e o ri g i n o f t h e ri t e ?
P l a t o a s s e rt s , t h a t t h e f o rm o f t h e l e t t e r_ Xw a s i m -
p ri n t e d u p o n t h e u n i v e rs e f i . 1 k n o w h o w t h i s h a s
b e e n i n t e rp re t e d a s a re f e re n c e t o t h e So n o f G o d ,
* B a s n a g e , b . i i i . c . x i x . s . x i x .
t Th a t p h e n o m e n o n i n t h e h e a v e n s , c a l l e d t h e " So u t h e rn C ro s s
; '
a p p e a rs t o m e s o a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e m y s t e ry o f re d e m p t i o n , i n a l l a g e s ,
t h a t I c a n n o t f o rb e a rd ra w i n g a t t e n t i o n t o t h e s i g n . Th e f o l l o w i n g i s
C a p t a i n B a s i l Ha l l 's d e s c ri p t i o n o f t h i s c u ri o u s c o n s t e l l a t i o n .
"
Of a l l t h e a n t a rc t i c c o n s t e l l a t i o n s , t h e c e l e b ra t e d
So u t h e rn C ro s s , i s
b y f a rt h e m o s t re m a rk a b l e ; a n d m u s t i n e v e ry a g e c o n t i n u e t o a rre s t
t h e a t t e n t i o n o f a l l v o y a g e rs a n d t ra v e l l e rs w h o a re f o rt u n a t e e n o u g h t o
s e e i t . I t h i n k i t w o u l d s t ri k e t h e i m a g i n a t i o n e v e n o f a p e rs o n w h o
h a d n e v e rh e a rd o f t h e C h ri s t i a n re l i g i o n ; b u t o f t h i s i t i s d i f f i c u l t t o
THEROUNDTOWERS
.

3 0 9
a n d t h e s e c o n d p o w e ro f t h e Di v i n i t y . I w i l l n o t
m a k e u s e o f i t i n a n y s u c h l i g h t , p re f e rri n g t o a v o i d
e v e ry t h i n g t h a t m a y s e e m e q u i v o c a l , y e t a m I w e l l
c o n v i n c e d t h a t , u n d e rt h e p h i l o s o p h e r's ra t i o c i n a t i o n ,
m a y b e s e e n t h e t w i n k l i n g t ra c e o f a p re v i o u s i n -
c a rn a t i o n o f t h e %o y o g , a n d a c ru c i f i x i o n , l i k e w i s e , a s
a n a t o n e m e n t f o rt h e s i n s o f h u m a n i t y .
1
Su re l y h e h a t h b o rn e o u rg ri e f s a n d c a rri e d o u r
s o rro w s : y e t w e d i d - e s t e e m h i m s t ri c k e n , s m i t t e n o f
G o d , a n d a f f l i c t e d .
B u t h e w a s w o u n d e d f o ro u rt ra n s g re s s i o n s , h e
w a s b ru i s e d f o ro u ri n i q u i t i e s : t h e c h a s t i s e m e n t o f
ju d g e , s e e i n g h o w i n e x t ri c a b l y o u ro w n i d e a s a re m i n g l e d u p w i t h a s s o -
c i a t i o n s l i n k i n g t h i s s a c re d s y m b o l w i t h a l m o s t e v e ry t h o u g h t , w o rd , a n d
d e e d o f o u rl i v e s .
Th e t h re e g re a t s t a rs w h i c h f o rm t h e C ro s s , o n e a t t h e t o p , o n e a t
t h e l e f t a rm , a n d o n e , w h i c h i s t h e c h i e f s t a r, c a l l e d A l p h a , a t t h e f o o t ,
a re s o p l a c e d a 's t o s u g g e s t t h e i d e a o f a c ru c i f i x , e v e n w i t h o u t t h e h e l p
o f a s m a l l s t a r, w h i c h c o m p l e t e s t h e h o ri z o n t a l b e a m . Wh e n o n t h e
m e ri d i a n , i t s t a n d s n e a rl y u p ri g h t ; a n d a s i t s e t s , w e o b s e rv e i t l e a n o v e r
t o t h e w e s t w a rd . I a m n o t s u re w h e t h e r, u p o n t h e w h o l e , t h i s i s n o t
m o re s t ri k i n g t h a n i t s g ra d u a l l y b e c o m i n g m o re a n d m o re e re c t , a s i t
ri s e s f ro m t h e e a s t . I n e v e ry p o s i t i o n , h o w e v e r, i t i s b e a u t i f u l t o l o o k
a t , a n d - w e l l c a l c u l a t e d , w i t h a l i t t l e p ro m p t i n g f ro m t h e f a n c y , t o s t i r
u p o u rt h o u g h t s t o s o l e m n p u rp o s e s
.

I k n o w n o t h o w o t h e rs a re a f f e c t e d b y s u c h t h i n g s , b u t f o rm y s e l f
I c a n s a y w i t h t ru t h , t h a t d u ri n g t h e m a n y n i g h t s I h a v e w a t c h e d t h e
So u t h e rn C ro s s , I re m e m b e ro n t w o o c c a s i o n s , w h e n t h e s p e c t a c l e
i n t e re s t e d m e e x a c t l y i n t h e s a m e w a y , n o ra n y o n e u p o n w h i c h I . d i d
n o t d i s c o v e rt h e re s u l t t o b e s o m e w h a t d i f f e re n t , a n d a l w a y s m o re
i m p re s s i v e t h a n w h a t I h a d l o o k e d f o r. Th i s c o n s t e l l a t i o n , b e i n g a b o u t
t h i rt y d e g re e s f ro m t h e So u t h P o l e , i s s e e n i n i t s w h o l e re v o l u t i o n , a n d
a c c o rd i n g l y , w h e n o f f t h e C a p e o f G o o d Ho p e , I h a v e o b s e rv e d i t i n
e v e ry s t a g e ; f ro m i t s t ri u m p h a n t e re c t p o s i t i o n , b e t w e e n s i x t y a n d
s e v e n t y d e g re e s a b o v e t h e h o ri z o n , t o t h a t o f c o m p l e t e i m m e rs i o n , w i t h
t h e t o p b e n e a t h , a n d a l m o s t t o u c h i n g t h e w a t e r. Th i s p o s i t i o n , b y t h e
w a y , a l w a y s re m i n d e d m e o f t h e d e a t h o f St . P e t e r, w h o i s s a i d t o h a v e
d e e m e d i t t o o g re a t a n h o n o u rt o b e c ru c i f i e d w i t h h i s h e a d u p w a rd s .
I n s h o rt , I d e f y t h e s t u p i d e s t m o rt a l t h a t e v e rl i v e d , t o w a t c h t h e s e
c h a n g e s i n t h e a s p e c t o f t h i s s p l e n d i d c o n s t e l l a t i o n , a n d n o t t o b e , i n
s o m e d e g re e , s t ru c k b y t h e m . " - F ra g m e n t s o f V o y a g e s .
3 1 0 ,

THEROUNDTOWERS.
o u rp e a c e w a s u p o n - h i m
; a n d w i t h h i s s t ri p e s w e
a re h e a l e d * . "
Th i s : i s a l l i n t h e p a s t t e n s e ; b e a ri n g re f e re n c e ,
i rre f u t a b l y , t o a f o rm e ro c c u rre n c e , b u t i n c l u d i n g ,
a l s o , i n t h e s e q u e l , t h e i d e a o f a
f u t u re re a p p e a ra n c e .
A n d i f y o u l o o k b a c k a t t h e e f f i g y , p a g e 2 9 6 , w i l l i t
n o t s e n s i t i v e l y p ro v e h i m t o h a v e b e e n G a m a n o f
s o rro w s a n d a c q u a i n t e d w i t h g ri e f t ? "
1 1 Th e d e i t y Ha ri , " s a y s a n i n s c ri p t i o n a t B u d d a -
g a y a , i n I n d i a , "
t h e l o rd a n d p o s s e s s o ro f a l l , a p -
p e a re d i n t h i s o c e a n o f n a t u ra l b e i n g s a t t h e c l o s e o f
t h e De v a p a ra a n d b e g i n n i n g o f t h e C a l i Yu g . He
w h o i s o m n i p re s e n t a n d e v e rl a s t i n g l y t o b e c o n t e m -
p l a t e d , t h e Su p re m e B e i n g , t h e Et e rn a l On e , t h e
Di v i n i t y w o rt h y o f m a n k i n d , a p p e a re d h e re , w i t h a
p o rt i o n o f h i s d i v i n e n a t u re i
. "
Th e re i s n o t e rm s o v e rn a c u l a ri n t h e I ri s h l a n -
g u a g e a s t h a t o f B u d h - g a y e . I t i s f a m i l i a rt o t h e
e a rs
o f e v e ry s m a t t e re ri n
l e t t e rs ; a n d i s i n t h e m o u t h
o f e v e ry c o w h e rd , f ro m C a p e C l e a rt o t h e G i a n t s '
C a u s e w a y . Ne i t h e rc l a s s h a s , h o w e v e r, h a d s o
m u c h a s a g l i m p s e
o f w h a t i t m e a n s : n o rd i d t h e y
b u s y t h e m s e l v e s m u c h i n t h e p u rs u i t , b u t a c q u i e s c e d
i n t h a t e x a m p l e o f c o m m e n d a b l e re s i g n a t i o n o n c e p ra c -
t i s e d b y St ra b o - w h e n h e f a i l e d t o a s c e rt a i n a n y -
t h i n g a b o u t t h e
C a b i ri - b y d e c l a ri n g t h a t " t h e n a m e
w a s m y s t e ri o u s
! "
A g re a t p e rs o n a g e , h o w e v e r, w h o w a s n o t o n l y i n
h i s h a b i t s w i s e , b u t w a s i n h i m s e l f
w i s d o m , h a s
a f f i rm e d , t h a t
"
t h e re i s n o t h i n g c o v e re d t h a t s h a l l
n o t b e re v e a l e d ;
n o rh i d t h a t s h a l l n o t b e k n o w n . "
A n d a s e v e ry s e n t e n c e re c o rd e d a s e m a n a t i n g f ro m
I s a i a h l i i i . 4 , 5 .

{
I s a i a h l i i i . 3 .
A s i a t i c Re s e a rc h e s .

Ma t t h e w x . 2 6 .
THEROUNDTOWERS.

3 1 l
h i s l i p s h a s w i t h . m e a v a l u e m o re t h a n w h a t c o u l d
s e rv e t o i l l u s t ra t e a m o m e n t a ry t o p i c , I f l a t t e rm y s e l f
t h a t t h e re s u l t o f t h e . c o n f i d e n c e , t h u s h u m b l y i n -
s p i re d , w i l l b e a d d i t i o n a l l y v e ri f i e d i n t h e i n s t a n c e
b e f o re u s .
B u d h - g a y e , t h e n o f t h e I ri s h , o rB u d h a - g a y a o f t h e
Hi n d o o s , m e a n s
P h a l l u s *
t e l l u ri s , i . e . , t h e g e n e ra t i v e -
n e s s o f t h e e a rt h , o rt h e e a rt h 's p ro l i f i c p ri n c i p l e . Th i s
I h a v e b e f o re d e m o n s t ra t e d t o h a v e b e e n t h e o b je c t o f
a d o ra t i o n t o t h e a n c i e n t s ; a n d h a v e f u rt h e rm o re
s h o w n , t h a t o n e o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l s , i n w h o m t h i s i d e a
w a s p e rs o n i f i e d , h a d s u f f e re d c ru c i f i x i o n a s a m e d i a t o r
f o rs i n .
A n e w ' d i s c l o s u re s u g g e s t s i t s e l f f ro m t h i s . B u d h
a n d P h a l l u s b e i n g s y n o n i m o u s , i f y o u a d d G a y e t o
e a c h , t h e n
B u d h - g a y e a n d G a y e p h a l l u s w i l l
b e i d e n -
t i c a l . B u t , a s t h e c h a ra c t e r, w h o e m b o d i e d t h e a b -
s t ra c t v i rt u e o f t h e f o rm e r, h a d b e e n c ru c i f i e d ; ': h i s
n a m e c a m e t o s t a n d , n o t o n l y f o rt h a t a b s t ra c t v i rt u e ,
b u t a l s o ,
f o ra c ro s s t , o ra c ru c i f i e d m a n ; a n d o f c o u rs e ,
G a y e - p h a l l u s , i t s
e q u i v a l e n t , re p re s e n t e d t h e s a m e i d e a s
.
No w , a s w e l l t h e p ri m a ry a s s e c o n d a ry m e a n i n g o f
t h o s e t w o w o rd s w a s l i a b l e t o m i s c o n s t ru c t i o n ; a n d
t h e y w e re s u re t o o b t a i n s u c h f ro m i g n o ra n c e a n d
f ro m d e p ra v i t y . Th e p u re a n d t h e s u b l i m e e m o t i o n s ,
w h i c h t h e re l i g i o u s n e s s o f t h e p ro l i f i c p ri n c i p l e h a d
* Th i s w i l l e x p l a i n a t e x t i n Sc ri p t u re n e v e rb e f o re u n d e rs t o o d , v i z
. ,
'So n o f m a n , w h e n t h e l a n d s i n n e t h a g a i n s t m e b y t re s p a s s i n g
g ri e v o u s l y , t h e n w i l l I s t re t c h o u t m i n e h a n d u p o n i t , a n d w i l l b re a k
t h e s t a f o f t h e b re a d t h e re o f , a n d w i l l s e n d f a m i n e u p o n i t , a n d w i l l c u t
o f f m a n a n d b e a s t f ro m i t . " Ez e k i e l
x i v . 1 3 . F o g h i s a n o t h e rt e rm
e q u i v a l e n t t o t h i s .
Th i s w i l l a t o n c e a p p e a rf ro m V a rro , w h o , i n No n u s Ma rc e l l i n u s , i s
m a d e t o
s a y , " We a re b a rb a ri a n s , b e c a u s e t h a t w e c ru c i f y ( i n g a b a l u m
s u f f i g i m u s ) t h e i n n o c e n t ; a re y o u
n o t b a rb a ri a n s , w h e n y o u a c q u i t t h e
g u i l t y ? " C o m p a re a l s o Se l d e n , Sy n t a g m
. i i . c
. L
3 1 Z

THEROUNDTOWERS.
c o m p re h e n d e d ,
w e re p e rv e rt e d b y m a l i c e i n t o
s e n -
s u a l i t y a n d d e b a u c h e ry ; w h i l e
t h e i d e a o f a m a n c ru -
c i f i e d ,
h o w e v e ri n n o c e n t o f - - c h a rg e , c o u l d n o t b e
s e p a ra t e d , b y g ro v e l l i n g a n d s e rv i l e d i s p o s i t i o n s , f ro m
t h e o rd i n a ry a c c o m p a n i m e n t s o f
c o n t e m p t a n d o f
c ri m e .
He n c e B u d h - g a y e a n d G a y e - p h a l l u s , a f t e r
a s u c -
c e s s i o n o f a g e s , w h e n t h e i r
p ro p e ra c c e p t a t i o n w a s
f o rg o t t e n , w e re re m e m b e re d o n l y i n t h e i r
p e rv e rt e d
s e n s e . A n d a c c o rd i n g l y w e o b s e rv e , t h a t , w h e n a
Ro m a n Em p e ro r
w h o h a d b e e n b ro u g h t u p a p ri e s t
i n t h e Ea s t , a s s u m e d , o n h i s b e i n g a p p o i n t e d t o t h e
Ro m a n s c e p t re , t h e t i t l e o f
He l i o - g a - b a l u s , a n d t h e re b y
i n v e s t e d h i m s e l f i n a l l t h e a t t ri b u t e s o f
G a y e - p h a l l u s ,
o rB u d h - g a y e ,
t h a t i s , i n o t h e rw o rd s , a s t h e V i c e g e re n t
o f t h e Su n , t h e l i c e n t i o u s n e s s o f h i s l i f e , a n d t h e
p ro f l i g a c y o f h i s d e m e a n o u r, h a v i n g re n d e re d h i m o b -
n o x i o u s t o h i s s u b je c t s , t h e y a m p u t a t e d t h e
p re f i x o f
h i s
So l a rm a je s t y , a n d b ra n d e d h i m w i t h t h e s c o rn
o f
G a - b a l u s .
Th e d i s d a i n
i n t e n d e d i n t h i s l a t t e ra b b re v i a t i o n i s
n o w , t h e re f o re , a l re a d y s o l v e d . G a y e - p h a l l u s ,
f o rs o u n d -
s a k e , h a v i n g b e e n m a d e
G a - p h a l l u s , t h i s l a t t e rw a s
s t i l l f u rt h e r- b y re a s o n o f t h e c o m m u t a b i l i t y o f t h e
l e t t e rs p h a n d b - re d u c e d i n t o
G a - b a l u s .
Wh e n t h e t e m p l e o f Se ra p i s , a t A l e x a n d ri a , w a s
d e s t ro y e d , w e a re t o l d b y So z o m o n , t h a t t h e m o n o -
g ra m o f C h ri s t w a s d i s c o v e re d b e n e a t h t h e f o u n d a -
t i o n
. A n d , t h o u g h n e i t h e rp a rt y k n e w h o w t o a c c o u n t
f o rt h e s i g n , y e t w a s i t p l e a d e d a l i k e , b y t h e G e n t i l e s
a s b y t h e C h ri s t i a n s , i n s u p p o rt o f t h e h e a v e n l i n e s s
o f t h e i rre s p e c t i v e re l i g i o n s .
Th e e a rl y Ro m a n
f a t h e rs , v e ry p i o u s b u t v e ry i l l i t e -
ra t e m e n , u n a b l e t o c l o s e t h e i re y e s a g a i n s t t h e p ro o f s
o f t h e p ri o ri t y o f t h e c ro s s t o t h e e ra o f t h e a d v e n t ,
THEROUNDTOWERS
.

3
1
3
d i d n o t s c ru p l e t o a s s i g n i t t o t h e m a l i c i o u s f o re -
k n o w l e d g e
o f , t h e p ri n c e o f t h e l o w e rw o rl d .
B u t i f . t h i s g e n t l e m a n h a d b e e n t h e a u t h o ro f t h e
e a rl y c ro s s ,
i s i t l i k e l y t h a t G o d w o u l d h a v e e m -
b ra c e d i t , a s t h e s i g n a l o f h i s p ro t e c t i o n , w h e n d e a l i n g
d e s t ru c t i o n t o t h e o b je c t s o f h i s d i v i n e v e n g e a n c e
?
"
A n d t h e L o rd s a i d u n t o h i m , g o t h ro u g h t h e
m i d s t . o f t h e c i t y , t h ro u g h t h e m i d s t o f J e ru s a l e m ,
a n d p u t a m a rk
u p o n t h e f o re h e a d s o f t h e m e n t h a t
s i g h a n d t h a t c ry f o ra l l t h e a b o m i n a t i o n s - t h a t b e
d o n e i n t h e m i d s t t h e re o f
" A n d t o
t h e o t h e rs h e s a i d , i n m y h e a ri n g , g o
y e
a f t e rh i m t h ro u g h t h e c i t y , a n d s m i t e ; l e t n o t y o u r
e y e s p a re , n e i t h e rh a v e y e p i t y .
Sl a y u t t e rl y o l d a n d y o u n g , b o t h m a i d s a n d l i t t l e
c h i l d re n , a n d w o m e n ; b u t c o m e n o t n e a ra n y m a n
u p o n w h o m i s t h e m a rk ;
a n d b e g i n a t m y s a n c t u a ry
f . "
No w t h i s
. " m a rk , " i n t h e a n c i e n t He b re w o ri g i n a l ,
w a s t h e c ro s s X
. St . J e ro m , t h e m o s t l e a rn e d b y f a r
o f t h o s e " f a t h e rs , "
h a s a d m i t t e d t h e c i rc u m s t a n c e
.
A n d i f t h i s h a d b e e n t h e d e v i c e o f t h e e n e m y o f m a n ,
w o u l d t h e A u t h o ro f a l l g o o d n e s s s o s a n c t i o n h i s i m -
p o s t u re , a s t o a d o p t i t a s t h e i n d e x o f h i s s a v i n g l o v e ?
"
A rt t h o u a m a s t e ro f I s ra e l , a n d k n o w e s t n o t t h e s e
t h i n g s TV '
B u t t h i s w a s n o t t h e o n l y i n v e n t i o n w h i c h t h e y
a t t ri b u t e d t o t h e d e v i l
. Te rt u l l i a n g ra v e l y a s s u re s
u s t h a t h e w a s t h e a u t h o ro f
b u s k i n s a l s o ! A n d w h y ,
* Mi t h ra s i g n a t i l l i c i n f ro n t i b u s m i l i t e s s u n s . - Te rt u l l i a n , d e P rw -
s c ri p . c a p
. x i .
t Ez e k i e l i x . 4 , 5, 6
.
~ J o h n i i i
. 1 0 . Th e o m i s s i o n o f t h i s c ro s s f ro m t h e t e x t o f o u rt ra n s -
l a t i o n m a y a f f o rd s o m e h a n d l e t o t h e e n e m i e s o f re l i g i o n
.
3 1 4

THEROUNDTOWERS.
g o o d re a d e r, w o u l d y o u s u p p o s e ? - i n s o o t h , f o rn o
o t h e rre a s o n t h a n b e c a u s e t h a t o u rSa v i o u rs a i d , i n
h i s s e rm o n u p o n
'
t h e m o u n t a i n , " Wh i c h o f y o u , b y
t a k i n g t h o u g h t , c a n
a d d o n e c u b i t u n t o h i s s t a t u re * ? "
.
I n h i m , a l s o , d i d t h e y f i n d a n a d e q u a t e e x c u s e f o r
t h o s e a p e rt u re s , w h i c h I s h a l l b y a n d b y n o t i c e , a s
e x c a v a t e d i n ro c k s a n d m o u n d s o f c l a y ,
c a l l i n g t h e m ,
w i t h s o m e c o m p l i m e n t , : i t . 'm u s t b e a d m i t t e d , t o h i s
g a l l a n t ry , b y
t h e m a ri o p o l i z i n g
a p p e l l a t i o n o f t h e
De v i l 's Yo n i e s f
.

1
B u t o f a l l t h e
p u e ri l i t i e s
w h i c h
s u l l y t h e i rz e a l ,
t h e re i s n o o n e h a l f s o c a l c u l a t e d t o i n ju re v i t a l
re l i g i o n ,
a s t h e l o w q u i b b l e s a n d
d i s h o n e s t q u o t a t i o n s
w h i c h J u s t i n Ma rt y rh a d re c o u rs e t o , a s a p o l o g i e s f o r
t h e c ro s s !
Wh y , Si r, t h e g re a t e s t p e rs e c u t o rw i t h w h i c h t h e
C h ri s t i a n s h a d e v e rb e e n c u rs e d , n a m e l y , t h e e m p e ro r
De c i u s , h a d i m p ri n t e d t h e
c ro s s
u p o n - - s o m e o f h i s
c o i n s !
He re , a g a i n , i t i s u p o n a m e d a l , f o u n d i n t h e ru i n s o f
C i t i u m , a n d p ro v e d , b y Dr. C l a rk e , i n h i s " Tra v e l s , "
* Ma t t h e w V i . 2 7 .
+C u n n i Di a b o l i .
THEROUNDTOWERS
.
t o h a v e b e e n P h o e n i c i a n ! I t e x h i b i t s t h e l a m b ,
t h e
c ro s s , a n d t h e ro s a ry 1 !
Wh e n J o h n t h e B a p t i s t f i rs t s a w J e s u s b e y o n d t h e
J o rd a n , i n B e t h a b a ra , h e e x c l a i m e d ; " B e h o l d t h e
L a m b o f G o d , w h i c h t a k e t h a w a y t h e s i n s o f t h e
w o rl d t . "
Th i s h e d i d n o t a p p l y a s a n o v e l d e s i g n a t i o n ; b u t
a s t h e f a m i l i a re p i t h e t , a n d t h e re c o g n i s e d d e n o m i n a -
t i o n o f t h e So n o f G o d , w h o s e p re s c ri b e d o f f i c e i t
w a s , i n a l l t h e c h a n g e s o f p a s t w o rl d s , a s i t - w a s n o w
i n t h i s p re s e n t , t o re d re s s t h e b ro k e n - h e a rt e d , b y
t a k i n g a w a y s i n
.
He a d d s , G 0
Th i s i s h e o f w h o m I s a i d , a f t e rm e
c o m e t h a m a n w h i c h i s p re f e rre d b e f o re m e ; f o r
h e w a s b e f o re m e t , "
n o t o n l y i n e t e rn i t y , b u t o n t h i s
e a rt h .
1 1 A n d I k n e w h i m n o t ;
b u t t h a t h e s h o u l d b e m a d e
m a n i f e s t t o I s ra e l , "
a s h e w a s b e f o re t o o t h e r
n a t i o n s , - a n e v e n t , w h i c h w a s b u t t h e f u l f i l m e n t o f
a p ro p h e c y , u s h e re d i n , m a n y y e a rs b e f o re , i n t h e s e
re m a rk a b l e w o rd s -
"
B e h o l d , t h e f o rm e rt h i n g s a re c o m e t o p a s s I I : "
n o t t h a t t h e p re d i c t i o n s
f o rm e rl y d e l i v e re d h a d t a k e n
p l a c e , b u t t h e t h i n g s ,
t h e e v e n t s , t h e o c c u rre n c e s ,
w h i c h h a d b e e n e n a c t e d b e f o re , w e re n o w re - e n a c t e d
!
t h a t a
re n o v a t i o n o f
t h e w o rl d w a s a t h a n d , w h i c h
t h e
m o u t h - p i e c e o f
t h e L o rd c o m m e n c e s b y s a y i n g -

Ne w t h i n g s d o I d e c l a re ; b e f o re t h e y s p ri n g f o rt h
I t e l l y o u o f t h e m . "
On t u rn i n g t h e l e a f , y o u w i l l s e e a n o t h e ro f t h o s e
* Th e ro s a ry w a s a l s o a n t e ri o rt o C h ri s t i a n i t y
.
t J o h n i . 2 9 .
T J o h n i . 3 0 .
$J o h n i . 3 1 .

1 1 I s a i a h x 1 i i . 9 .
3 1 5
3 1 6 THEROUNDTOWERS.
THEROUNDTOWERS.

3 1 7
p i l l a rs w h i c h g ra c e a l a n d o f h e ro e s , " w h e re s t o n e s
w e re ra i s e d o n h i g h t o s p e a k t o f u t u re t i m e s , w i t h
t h e i rg re y h e a d s o f m o s s * ; " a . n d d w h o s e s t o ry , t h o u g h
" l o s t i n t h e m i s t o f y e a rs , " m a y y e t b e d e c i p h e re d
f ro m o f f t h e m s e l v e s
.
Th i s c o s t l y re l i c o f re l i g i o n , e re c t e d s o l e l y i n
h o n o u ro f t h e c ro s s , i s t o b e s e e n a t F o rre s , i n Sc o t -
l a n d , a n d i s t h u s d e s c ri b e d b y C o rd i n e r: -
On t h e f i rs t d i v i s i o n , u n d e rt h e G o t h i c o rn a m e n t s
a t t h e t o p , a re n i n e h o rs e s w i t h t h e i rri d e rs , m a rc h -
i n g i n o rd e r; i n t h e n e x t d i v i s i o n i s a l i n e o f w a rri o rs
o n f o o t , b ra n d i s h i n g t h e i rw e a p o n s , a n d a p p e a rt o b e
s h o u t i n g f o rt h e b a t t l e . Th e i m p o rt o f t h e a t t i t u d e s
i n t h e t h i rd d i v i s i o n v e ry d u b i o u s , t h e i re x p re s s i o n
i n d e f i n i t e .
"
Th e f i g u re s w h i c h f o rm a s q u a re i n t h e m i d d l e
o f t h e c o l u m n , a re p re t t y c o m p l e x , b u t d i s t i n c t
; f o u r
s e rje a n t s ; w i t h t h e i rh a l b e rt s , g u a rd a c a n o p y , u n d e r
w h i c h a re p l a c e d s e v e ra l h u m a n h e a d s , w h i c h h a v e
b e l o n g e d t o t h e d e a d b o d i e s p i l e d u p a t t h e l e f t o f
t h e d i v i s i o n : o n e a p p e a rs i n t h e c h a ra c t e ro f e x e c u -
t i o n e r, s e v e ri n g t h e h e a d f ro m a n o t h e rb o d y ;
b e h i n d
h i m _ a re t h re e t ru m p e t e rs s o u n d i n g t h e i rt ru m p e t s
;
a n d b e f o re h i m t w o p a i ro f c o m b a t a n t s f i g h t i n g w i t h ,
s w o rd a n d t a rg e t .
" A t ro o p o f h o rs e n e x t a p p e a rs , p u t t o f l i g h t b y
i n f a n t ry , w h o s e f i rs t l i n e h a v e b o w s a n d a rro w s
; t h e
t h re e f o l l o w i n g , s w o rd s a n d t a rg e t s .
I n t h e l o w e r-
m o s t d i v i s i o n n o w v i s i b l e , t h e h o rs e s s e e m t o b e
s e i z e d b y t h e v i c t o ri o u s p a rt y , t h e i rri d e rs b e h e a d e d ,
a n d t h e h e a d o f t h e i rc h i e f h u n g i n c h a i n s , o rp l a c e d
i n a f ra m e : t h e o t h e rs b e i n g t h ro w n t o g e t h e rb e s i d e
t h e d e a d b o d i e s , u n d e ra n a rc h e d c o v e r. "
* Te m o ra .
St s

THEROUNDTOWERS.
Wi t h t h i s c o m p a re t h e d e s c ri p t i o n g i v e n b y C a p -
t a i n He a d , o f t h e d e v i c e s s c u l p t u re d u p o n o n e o f t h e
Eg y p t i a n a n t i q u i t i e s .
1 1 4 I t w o u l d , " s a y s h e , " f a re x c e e d t h e " l i m i t s o f
t h i s w o rk , t o a t t e m p t a d e s c ri p t i o n o f t h e o rn a m e n t s
o f s c u l p t u re i n t h i s t e m p l e . Th e m o s t i n t e re s t i n g a re
o n t h e n o rt h w a l l , w h e re t h e re a re b a t t l e - s c e n e s , w i t h
i n n u m e ra b l e f i g u re s o f m i l i t a ry c o m b a t a n t s , u s i n g
t h e i ra rm s , c o n s i s t i n g o f b o w s a n d a rro w s , s p e a rs
a n d b u c k l e rs - o f p ro s t ra t e e n e m i e s , o f w a r- c h a ri o t s
a n d h o rs e s . Th e f i e ry a c t i o n a n d e l e g a n t s h a p e o f
t h e s t e e d s a re re m a rk a b l e . I t w o u l d re q u i re a f i rs t -
ra t e l i v i n g g e n i u s t o ri v a l t h e v a ri e t y o f p o s i t i o n , t h e
p o w e ro f e f f e c t , a n d f i d e l i t y o f e x e c u t i o n , i n w h i c h
m e n a n d h o rs e s a re e x h i b i t e d i n t h e d i s m a y - o f t h e
f l i g h t , t h e a g o n y o f t h e d e a t h - : s t ru g g l e , 'a n d t h e
e x u l t a t i o n o f t h e t ri u m p h . "
L e t u s t a k e a v i e w , n o w , o f t h e o t h e rs i d e o f t h i s
o b e l i s k . Th e g re a t e s t p a rt o f i t , " s a y s C o rd i n e r,
" i s o c c u p i e d b y a s u m p t u o u s c ro s s , a n d c o v e re d o v e r
w i t h a n u n i f o rm f i g u re , e l a b o ra t e l y ra i s e d , a n d i n t e r-
w o v e n w i t h g re a t m a t h e m a t i c a l e x a c t n e s s ; - .
o f t h i s ,
o n a c c o u n t o f i t s s i n g u l a ri t y , t h e re i s g i v e n a re p re -
s e n t a t i o n a t t h e f o o t o f t h e c o l u m n . Un d e rt h e c ro s s
a re t w o a u g u s t p e rs o n a g e s w i t h s o m e a t t e n d a n t s ,
m u c h o b l i t e ra t e d , b u t e v i d e n t l y i n a n a t t i t u d e o f
re c o n c i l i a t i o n ; a n d i f t h e m o n u m e n t w a s e re c t e d
i n
m e m o ry o f t h e p e a c e c o n c l u d e d b e t w e e n Ma l c v l m a n d
C a n u t e , u p o n t h e f i n a l re t re a t o f t h e Da n e s , t h e s e
l a rg e rf i g u re s m a y re p re s e n t t h e re c o n c i l e d m o n a rc h s .
On t h e e d g e , b e l o w t h e f re t w o rk , a re s o m e ro w s
o f f i g u re s , jo i n e d h a n d - i n - h a n d , w h i c h m a y a l s o
i m p l y t h e n e w d e g re e o f c o n f i d e n c e a n d s e c u ri t y
w h i c h t o o k p l a c e , a f t e rt h e f e u d s w e re c o m p o s e d ,
THEROUNDTOWERS.
3 1 9
3 2 0

THEROUNDTOWERS.
w h i c h a re c h a ra c t e ri s e d o n t h e f ro n t o f t h e p i l l a r
.
B u t t o w h a t e v e rp a rt i c u l a rt ra n s a c t i o n i t m a y a l l u d e ,
i t c a n h a rd l y b e i m a g i n e d , t h a t i n s o e a rl y a n a g e o f
t h e , a rt s i n Sc o t l a n d a s i t m u s t h a v e b e e n ra i s e d , s o e l a -
b o ra t e a p e rf o rm a n c e w o u l d h a v e b e e n u n d e rt a k e n
b u t i n c o n s e q u e n c e o f a n e v e n t o f t h e m o s t g e n e ra l
i m p o rt a n c e
: i t i s , t h e re f o re , s u rp ri s i n g , t h a t n o d i s -
t i n c t e rt ra d i t i o n s o f i t a rri v e d a t t h e e ra w h e n l e t t e rs
w e re k n o w n
. "
A s t o " t h e e ra w h e n l e t t e rs w e re k n o w n , " I s h a l l '
b e s t o w u p o n t h a t a s e n t e n c e o rt w o b y a n d b y
.
F o rt h e p re s e n t I c o n f i n e m y s e l f t o t h e " s u rp ri s e
t h a t n o d i s t i n c t e rt ra d i t i o n s " o f t h i s m o n o l i t h t e m p l e
h a s b e e n h a n d e d d o w n t o u s .
I t w a s e re c t e d b y t h e Tu a t h - d e - d a n a a n s o n t h e i r
e x p u l s i o n f ro m I re l a n d
. Th e i n s c ri p t i o n s u p o n i t
a re t h e i rre s i s t i b l e e v i d e n c e o f t h e i re m b l e m a t i c re l i -
g i o n
. A f t e ra n i n t e rv a l o f s o m e c e n t u ri e s , t h e P i c t s
p o u re d i n u p o n t h e i rq u i e t u d e
; a n d t h e b a rb a ro u s
h a b i t s o f t h o s e m a ra u d e rs , b e i n g a v e rs e a s m u c h t o t h e
ri t u a l a s t o t h e a v o c a t i o n s o f t h e Tu a t h - d e - d a n a a n s ,
t h e y e f f a c e d e v e ry v e s t i g e o f t h e d o m i n i o n o f t h a t
p e o p l e , a n d m a d e t h e m f l y f o rs h e l t e rt o t h e Hi g h -
l a n d s .
I n t h e d a y s o f Ma l c o l m , t h e re f o re , a n d o f C a n u t e ,
t h e h i s t o ry o f t h i s p y ra m i d w a s a s d i f f i c u l t o f s o l u -
t i o n , a s i t w a s i n t h o s e o f P e n n a n t a n d o f C o rd i n e r
.
A n d t h e re i s n o q u e s t i o n b u t t h a t t h e t w o m o n a rc h s
l o o k e d , w i t h a s m u c h w o n d e r, u p o n t h e h i e ro g l y p h i c s
a l o n g i t s s i d e s , a s d i d t h e t w o a n t i q u a ri a n s , w h o w o u l d
f a i n a s s o c i a t e t h e m w i t h t h e m
.
I t i s t o m e m a rv e l l o u s , h o w p e rs o n s , i n t h e p o s s e s -
* A n d t h i s s t o n e , w h i c h I h a v e s e t f o ra p i l l a r, s h a l l b e G o d 's h o u s e
.
- G e n e s i s x x v i i i
. 2 2 .
.
THE ROUND TOWERS.

3 2 1
s i o n o f c o m m o n re a s o n c o u l d , c o n t ra ry t o a l l t h e e v i -
d e n c e o f o b s e rv a t i o n a n d h i s t o ry , l o o k u p o n t h e Da n i s h
i n v a s i o n a s t h e e p o c h o f a l l e n l i g h t e n m e n t ! a n d t h e
Da n e s , t h e m s e l v e s , a s t h e h e a v e n - s e n t i m p o rt e rs o f
i t s b l e s s i n g s ! Ye t , w h a t e v e rm a y h a v e b e e n t h e
c a s e w i t h s o m e h o p e f u l s c i o n s o f t h i s o rd e r, Mr
. C o r-
d i n e r, a t a l l e v e n t s , a p p e a rs t o h a v e b e e n h o n e s t , a n d
i f h e m i s s e d t h e d i re c t i o n o f h i s t o ri c a l v e ri t y , i t w a s
l e s s h i s f a u l t t h a n h i s m i s f o rt u n e .
Wh o c a n s a y s o m u c h f o rL e d w i c h ?
Th e f o l l o w i n g e x t ra c t w i l l ju s t i f y t h e t ri b u t e h e re
p a i d t o t h e s i n c e ri t y o f Mr. C o rd i n e r's i n v e s t i g a t i o n s -
" Th e s e m o n u m e n t s , " s a y s h e ,
"
a re a l l s a i d t o h a v e
b e e n e re c t e d i n m e m o ry o f d e f e a t s o f t h e Da n e s , b u t
t h e re d o e s n o t a p p e a ra n y re f e re n c e t h a t t h e h i e ro g l y -
p h i c s o n t h e m c a n h a v e t o , s u c h e v e n t s .
Th a t t h e y h a v e
b e e n ra i s e d o n i n t e re s t i n g o c c a s i o n s t h e re c a n b e
l i t t l e d o u b t , p e rh a p s i n m e m o ry o f t h e m o s t re -
n o w n e d c h i e f t a i n s a n d t h e i re x p l o i t s w h o f i rs t e m -
b ra c e d C h ri s t i a n i t y . "
Th e y w h o f i rs t
"
e m b ra c e d C h ri s t i a n i t y " w e re n o
c h i e f t a i n s
; " o rs u c h a s w e re , h a d n o " e x p l o i t s " t o
re c o rd .
B u t i t w a s n o t s o w i t h t h e p ro f e s s o rs o f t h e
p ri m e v a l "
c ro s s , " i n t h e re v e l a t i o n o f B u d h i s m , t h e
t ra n s m i g ra t i o n s o f w h i c h w e re b u t t y p i c a l l y p o u r-
t ra y e d o n t h i s e n d u ri n g c o l u m n
. A n d i n c o n f i rm a -
t i o n h e re o f , Mr. G o rd o n a f f i rm s t h a t h e h a s "
d i s -
t i n g u i s h e d u p o n i t s e v e ra l f i g u re s o f a m o n s t ro u s f o rm ,
re s e m b l i n g
f o u r- f o o t e d b e a s t s
w i t h h u m a n h e a d s ! "
`
C a rn a c , i n Up p e rEg y p t , re t a i n s a m o n o l i t h o f
t h e
s a m e s y m b o l i c c h a ra c t e r.
I t i s e i g h t y f e e t h i g h ,
c o m p o s e d o f a s i n g l e b l o c k o f
b l a c k g ra n i t e , p re s e n t -
i n g a b e a u t i f u l l y p o l i s h e d s u rf a c e o n e a c h
o f i t s f o u r
s i d e s . Th e h i e ro g l y p h i c s u p o n i t re p re s e n t t h e l i f e -
Y
3 2 2
THEROUNDTOWERS
.
THEROUNDTOWERS
.
t i m e o f Th o t , o rB u d d a , u n t i l y o u a t l a s t s e e h i m
e n t h ro n e d i n , h e a v e n , a t t h e t o p
.
" He s e e m s , i n d e e d , " s a y s Ha m i l t o n , " t o h a v e
b e e n c o n s i d e re d e i t h e rb y h i m s e l f , h i s s u b je c t s , o rh i s
s u c c e s s o rs , a s a p e c u l i a rf a v o u ri t e o f h e a v e n
. He - i s
f re q u e n t l y o n h i s k n e e s , re c e i v i n g f ro m I s i s a n d Os i ri s ,
t o g e t h e rw i t h t h e i rb l e s s i n g , t h e i n s i g n i a o f ro y a l t y
a n d e v e n o f d i v i n i t y . Th e h a w k i s a l w a y s f l y i n g
a b o v e h i m
. Tw o p ri e s t s a re
: p e rf o rm i n g - u p o n h i m
t h e m y s t e ri o u s c e re m o n y o f p o u ri n g t h e c ru c e s a n s a t a s ,
o rc ro s s e s w i t h ri n g s , o v e rh i s h e a d
; a t w h i c h t i m e h e
w e a rs a c o m m o n d re s s a n d c l o s e c a p
. He rm e s a n d
Os i ri s a re p o i n t i n g o u t t o h i m a p a rt i c u l a rl i n e i n - a
g ra d u a t e d s c a l e , a l l u s i v e i t m a y b e t o t h e p e ri o d i c a l
i n u n d a t i o n o f t h e Ni l e , o rt h e a d m i n i s t ra t i o n o f s t ri c t
ju s t i c e
: o r, ( c o m b i n e d 'w i t h ` t h e p re c e d i n g s c e n e ) t o
t h e c e re m o n y o f ` i n i t i a t i o n i n t o t h e re l i g i o u s m y s t e -
ri e s
Th e n u m b e ro f f e e t i n t h e p i l l a rc o rre s p o n d s t o o ,
i f I m i s t a k e n o t , w i t h t h a t o f t h e y e a rs o f h i s re c o rd e d
p i l g ri m a g e
.
C a p t a i n He a d d e s c ri b e s - , i n h i s s p l e n d i d w o rk , t h e
a v e n u e w h i c h l e a d s t o , t h e =t e m p ) - - t o w h i c h t h i s
b e l o n g s , i n t h e f o l l o w i n g t e rm s
: - F ra g m e n t s o f
s p h i n x e s l i n e t h e s i d e s o f t h e ro a d a t i n t e rv a l s o f t e n
o rt w e l v e f e e t , a n d u s h e rt h e v i s i t e rt o t h e m a g n i -
f i c e n t g ra n i t e p ro p y l o n , o rg a t e w a y , w h o s e g ra n d e u r
f o ra t i m e m o n o p o l i z e s t h e a t t e n t i o n , a n d m a k e s h i m
w h o g a z e s o n i t a t a l o s s t o d e c i d e w h e t h e rh e s h a l l
re t f l a i n a d o ri n g i t s f i n e p ro p o rt i o n s , o ra d v a n c e a n d
e x a m i n e t h e c a rv i n g s w h i c h e m b e l l i s h i t s f ro n t . I s
* I t i s f i t I s h o u l d a d v e rt i s e t h a t Mr
. Ha m i l t o n s p o k e o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l
m e re l y a s a f i g u re , w i t h o u t p ro f e s s i n g t o i d e n t i f y h i m i n n a m e o rh i s t o ry
e i t h e rw i t h Th o t , B u d l e a , o ra n y b o d y e l s e
.
3 2 3
F 2
3 2 4

THEROUNDTOWERS.
t h i s ` t h e l a n d m a d e w a s t e b y t h e h a n d o f s t ra n g e rs ,
w h o d e s t ro y t h e w a l l s , a n d c a u s e t h e i m a g e s t o c e a s e ? '
Th e f ra g m e n t s o f d e s o l a t i o n t h a t l i e s c a t t e re d a ro u n d
a re i d e n t i f i e d w i t h t h e p re d i c t i o n s o f t h e i n s p i re d
h i s t o ri a n s , b y w h o m w e a re e n a b l e d t o e s t i m a t e t h e
p a l m y s t a t e 'o f t h i s o n c e m i g h t y k i n g d o m , w h o s e
g i g a n t i c m o n u m e n t s f u l l y - v e ri f y a l l t h a t h a s b e e n
s a i d o rs u n g o f i t s p ri s t i n e s p l e n d o u r. "
A f t e rw h a t h a s b e e n s a i d a b o v e , t h e n , a l o n g w i t h
w h a t
m a y b e a d d e d b y a n d b y , m a y I n o t s a f e l y p ro -
c l a i m t h a t M'P h e rs o n 's p re d i c t i o n , t h a t " t h e h i s t o ry
o f C a l e d o n i a , b e f o re t h e Ro m a n e a g l e s w e re d i s -
p l a y e d b e y o n d t h e f ri t h s , m u s t e v e rre m a i n i n i m -
p e n e t ra b l e d a rk n e s s
'k , " h a s n o w b e e n f a l s i f i e d ?
Wh a t a re a g e s a n d t h e l a p s e o f t i m e ,
Ma t c h e d a g a i n s t t ru t h s a s l a s t i n g a s s u b l i m e ?
C a n l e n g t h o f y e a rs o n G o d h i m s e l f e x a c t ?
Orm a k e t h a t f i c t i o n w h i c h w a s o n c e a f a c t P
No - m a rb l e a n d re c o rd i n g b ra s s d e c a y ,
A n d l i k e t h e g ra v e r's m e m o ry p a s s a w a y
Th e w o rk s o f m a n i n h e ri t , a s i s ju s t ,
Th e i ra u t h o r's f ra i l t y , a n d re t u rn t o d u s t ;
B u t t ru t h d i v i n e f o re v e rs t a n d s s e c u re ,
I t s h e a d i s g u a rd e d , a s i t s b a s e i s s u re ;
F i x e d i n t h e ro l l i n g f l o o d o f e n d l e s s y e a rs ,
Th e p i l l a ro f t h e e t e rn a l p l a n a p p e a rs ,
Th e ra v i n g s t o rm a n d d a s h i n g w a v e d e f i e s ,
B u i l t b y t h a t A rc h i t e c t w h o b u i l t t h e s k i e s
P .
* I n t ro d u c t i o n , p a g e x c i i i .
'h C OWP ER.
r
3 2 5
C HA P TERXXI I I .
A V ERY i n d u s t ri o u s c o n t ri b u t o rt o t h e " A s i a t i c Re -
s e a rc h e s " h a s a f f o rd e d s c o p e f o rs o m e je s t s
a t h i s
e x p e n s e , b e c a u s e o f t h e a t t e m p t w h i c h h e h a s m a d e
t o i d e n t i f y t h e B ri t i s h i s l a n d s w i t h c e rt a i n We s t e rn
l o c a l i t i e s c o m m e m o ra t e d i n t h e w ri t i n g s o f t h e Hi n -
d o o s .
Ha d h e b u t k n o w n , h o w e v e r, t h e c o i n c i d e n c e
o f o u rm o n u m e n t s w i t h t h o s e m y s t e ri e s w h i c h t h e
P u ra n a s re c o rd ; h o w t h e y - m u t u a l l y - s u p p o rt a n d
d o v e t a i l i n t o e a c h o t h e r, h e c o u l d n o t o n l y h a v e
l a u g h e d t o s c o rn t h e t ra d u c e rs o f h i s s e rv i c e s , b u t
f i x e d h i s f a m e u p o n a p i n n a c l e o f l i t e ra ry p ri d e , w h i c h
n o u n d e rg ro w l o f e n v y c o u l d h a v e s u b v e rt e d .
B u t a s i t i s , u n a c q u a i n t e d w i t h t h e h i s t o ry o f t h e
p l a c e s w h i c h h e l e f t b e h i n d h i m , a n d w a d i n g , t h e re -
f o re , t h ro u g h a n o c e a n , i n w h i c h h e h a d n o c o m p a s s
f o rh i s g u i d e , h e h a s , i n h i s p u e ri l e 'e n d e a v o u rs t o
w re s t t h e t e x t o f t h e P u ra n a s t o e x t e rn a l p re ju -
d i c e s , e f f e c t e d m o re h i m s e l f t o w a rd s t h e d i s p a ra g e -
m e n t o f ` h i s re p u t a t i o n , t h a n w h a t t h e c o m b i n e d
i n f l u e n c e o f i n t e re s t a n d o f s c e p t i c i s m c o u l d o t h e rw i s e
a c c o m p l i s h .
" Th e re a re , " s a y t h e P u ra n a s , " m a n y m a n i f e s t a -
t i o n s a n d f o rm s o f B h a g a v a n , 0 Mu n i , b u t t h e f o rm
w h i c h re s i d e s i n t h e Wh i t e I s l a n d i s
t h e p ri m i t i v e
o n e . V i s h n u , " s a y s t h e a u t h o r,
" re c a l l i n g a l l h i s
e m a n a t i o n s i n t o t h e Wh i t e I s l a n d ,
w e n t i n t o t h e w o m b ,
3 2 8

THEROUNDTOWERS.
Th e s t i n g , t h e re f o re , o f t h e a b o v e , i f a n y i t c o n -
v e y , m u s t - b e d i re c t e d e x c l u s i v e l y t o t h e
ro m a n c e rs ; o f
m y o w n c o u n t ry : a s p e c i m e n o f w h o m I s h a l l g i v e
y o u i n t h e Re v . Dr
. Ke a t i n g , w h o , v e n t u ri n g t o u n -
v e i l t h e m y s t e ry o f t h e n a m e Mu c - I n i s , a n d a c c o u n t
f o ri t s o ri g i n , t e l l s u s , w i t h a s e ri o u s f a c e , t h a t
L Q
w h e n
t h e Da n a a n s f o u n d t h e Mi l e s i a n s a t t e m p t e d t o l a n d ,
b y t h e i rm a g i c a l e n c h a n t m e n t s t h e y t h re w a c l o u d - o n
t h e i s l a n d , b y w h i c h i t a p p e a re d n o b i g g e rt h a n a
h o g 's b a c k ! ! ! "
B u t I re l a n d , t h a n k G o d , i s re s c u e d f ro m t h e d ri -
v e l l i n g o f s u c h d o t a rd s
. I t w i l l h o l d i t s p l a c e , n o w ,
a m o n g s t t h e n a t i o n s o f t h e e a rt h ;
a n d t h e re s u l t i s
i n e v i t a b l e , h o w e v e rt a rd y y o u rc o m p l i a n c e , b u t t h a t t h e
t ru t h w i l l b e re v i v e d f ro m o n e p o l e o f
t h e u n i v e rs e t o
t h e o t h e r, t h a t , i n t h e p ri m e v a l w o rl d ,
a l l s a n c t i t y
a n d a l l h a p p i n e s s h a d h e re f i x e d t h e i ra b o d e , - t h a t
h e a v e n w a s h e re p e rs o n i f i e d , - a n d t h a t t h e i rra -
d i a t i n g f o c u s o f a l l m o ra l e n l i g h t e n m e n t w a s h e re
a l o n e t o b e f o u n d *
.
L o o k , Si r, w h a t d o y o u s e e b e f o re y o u
? Th e s o l u -
t i o n o f t h a t a l l - h e a l i n g
a rro w w h i c h A b a ri s w a s
s a i d t o h a v e b ro u g h t w i t h h i m f ro m t h e 'i s l a n d o f t h e
Hy p e rb o re a n s , o n h i s v i s i t o f re l i g i o n t o G re e c e
!
Sh o u l d y o u e v e rc h a n c e t o t ra v e l a s f a ra s t h e
c o u n t y o f G a l w a y , i n q u i re f o rt h e d e s e rt e d v i l l a g e
o f Kn o c k m o y .
Th o u g h n o w d re a ry , i n c o n s i d e ra b l e ,
a n d f o rg o t t e n , i t w a s o n c e t h e t h e a t re o f s o u l - s t i rri n g
i m p re s s i o n s
Th e re , i n t h e re m n a n t o f a n a n c i e n t Tu a t h - d e - d a -
n a a n Te m p l e , v a u l t e d w i t h s t o n e , a n d t ra n s f o rm e d , i n
* Th e l o c a l e o f t h a t b o a r, a s w e l l a s t h e m y s t e ry o f i t s m e a n i n g , w h i c h
P l u t a rc h t ra n s m i t t e d i n h i s a l l e g o ri c a l
w a rb e t w e e n Os i ri s a n d Ty p h o n ,
i s n o w , n o l o n g e r, a m b i g u o u s . - Se e p a g e 3 2 7
.
THE
ROUND TOWERS. 3 2 9
3
3 0

THEROUNDTOWERS.
a f t e ra g e s , t o a C h ri s t i a n A b b e y , y o u w i l l f i n d , a f t e r
a s u c c e s s i o n o f , a t l e a s t , t h re e t h o u s a n d re v o l v i n g
y e a rs , t h i s p a t h e t i c re p re s e n t a t i o n o f t h e
y o u t h A p o l l o
s l a y i n g w i t h h i s a rro w t h e s e rp e n t P y t h o n * - i n o t h e r
w o rd s , o v e rt h ro w i n g , b y s e l f - e n d u ra n c e , t h e d o m i n i o n o f
s i n
! a n d , f i n a l l y , b y i m m o l a t i o n u p o n a t re e , t o w h i c h
y o u p e rc e i v e h i m p i n i o n e d , e s t a b l i s h i n g a s c e n d a n c y
o v e rt h e s e rp e n t a n d h i s
w i l e s ,
a n d p o i n t i n g 'o u t t h e
ro a d t o e t e rn i t y b e y o n d t h e g ra v e
!
I n a n u p p e rra n g e , o n t h e s a m e c o m p a rt m e n t , y o u
c a n t ra c e t h i s o t h e rl i n e , c o n s i s t i n g o f t h re e k i n g s w i t h
* I h a v e b e f o re e x p l a i n e d t h a t t h e s e rp e n t P y t h - o n
m e a n s t h e s e d u c -
t i o n
o f s e n s u a l i t y - P i t h i t s e l f s i g n i f y i n g y o n i , t h e
b o a t , o rs e rp e n t , t h e
f i n a l o n b e i n g n o t h i n g b u t a G re e k t e rm i n a t i o n
.
THEROUNDTOWERS.

3 3 1
t h e i re a s t e rn c ro w n s , t h e i re a s t e rn
c o s t u m e , a n d t h e d o v e
o f a m i t y e n t w i n i n g a l l o f t h e m a s t h e y s u p e ri n t e n d
t h e s p e c t a c l e , w h i l e t h e s o l e m n i t y o f t h e w h o l e i s
e n h a n c e d b y t h e c o m p o s u re w i t h w h i c h a B re h o n
s i t s b y , i n h i s t u rb a n o f s t a t e , a f t e rre a d i n g f ro m , t h e
. B a n s , o rt h e B u d h i s t g o s p e l , t h e s e n t e n c e o f c o n -
d e m n a t i o n
a n d :
o f
m y s t e ri o u s e x p i a t i o n , i n o n e a n d t h e
s a m e b re a t h . .
He w a s o p p re s s e d a n d h e w a s a f f l i c t e d
; y e t h e
o p e n e d n o t h i s m o u t h :
h e i s b ro u g h t a s a l a m b . t o
t h e s l a u g h t e r, a n d a s a s h e e p b e f o re h i s s h e a re rs i s
d u m b , s o h e o p e n e t h n o t h i s m o u t h *
. "
B u t t h i s i s n o t t h e o n l y i n c i d e n t w h i c h t h i s t re a -
s u re o f a n t i q u i t y p o u rt ra y s . B e s i d e t h e t h re e m o -
n a rc h s a re s k e l e t o n d e l i n e a t i o n s o f t h e
t h re e o t h e r
d i v i n i t i e s , . : w h o , b e f o re t h i s f o u rt h , a s s u m e d '- t h e
f o rm
o f h u m a n i t y ;" a n d w e n t t h ro u g h t h e s a m e
o rd e a l o f
a t o n i n g p a s s i o n t o re c l a i m o u rs p e c i e s , t h ro u g h a g e s
b a c k i n t h e d i s t a n c e f !
I t w i l l re a d i l y b e b e l i e v e d , t h a t d e s c ri p t i o n s s o
m y s t e ri o u s , re l a t i n g t o e v e n t s s o m o m e n t o u s , m u s t
h a v e a t t ra c t e d t h e o b s e rv a t i o n o f s u b s e q u e n t y e a rs
.
G e n e ra t i o n a f t e rg e n e ra t i o n g a z e d u p o n t h e m w i t h
w o n d e r! G e n e ra t i o n a f t e rg e n e ra t i o n s p o k e t h e i r
i g n o ra n c e i n w o n d e r! Mr
. L e d w i c h , o f c o u rs e , m u s t
h a v e a s n a p a t t h e m :
a n d i t w o u l d m a k e a c a t l a u g h ,
o rP l u t a rc h 's b o a rd a n c e a h o rn p i p e , t o h e a rt h e
c o n t o rt i o n s o f h i s t o ry , t h e v i o l a t i o n s o f n a t u re , t h e
p e rv e rs i o n s o f f a c t , o f d a t e , a n d o f p h i l o s o p h y ,
* I s a i a h l i i i . 7 .
t 0
Th e g o d s , " s a i d t h e B u d h i s t p ri e s t t o t h e C a t h o l i c b i s h o p b e f o re
a l l u d e d t o , " w h o h a v e a p p e a re d i n t h e p re s e n t w o rl d , a n d w h o h a v e
o b t a i n e d t h e p e rf e c t s t a t e , n i e b a u ,
o rd e l i v e ra n c e f ro m a l l t h e e v i l s o f
l i f e ,
a re f o u r, C h a n c h a s a m , G o n a g o m , G a s p a , a n d G o d a m a
. " - Sy m e 's
Em b a s s y t o t h e C o u rt o f A v a .
3 3 2

THEROUNDTOWERS
.
w h i c h t h i s b l o t u p o n l e t t e rs h a s s t ru n g t o g e t h e r
i n t o a m e l a n g e , a s i f a n e x p o s i t i o n o f t h e a b o v e
h i e ro g l y p h i c s !
A n d y e t , t h i s i s h e w h o b o a s t s o f h i s h a v i n g
b e e n " n o t s p a ri n g o f ri d i c u l e "
i n t h o s e m o m e n t s
w h i c h h e t e l l s u s , "
h e c o u l d s t e a l f ro m c l e ri c a l a n d
d o m e s t i c a v o c a t i o n s , " - t o t e l l l i e s o f h i s c o u n t ry !
Th e s p e c u l a t i o n t o o k , h o w e v e r, a n d h e w a s f o s -
t e re d i n h i s m a l i c e - ri c h e s
a n d h o n o u rs w e re
s h o w e re d u p o n h i m !
We l l , h e d i e d - a m o n i t o ry p a u s e a c c o m p a n i e s t h e
s o u n d - b u t t h e p a rt y m u s t h a v e a s u c c e s s o r!
Th e y " h a v e f o u n d h i m " a m o n g s t t h e m s e l v e s ! -
t h e a u t h o ro f t h e ` ` F i n e A rt s i n I re l a n d
! "
Th i s
f i n e g e n t l e m a n h a s re a l l y e x h i b i t e d s o m e
d e g re e o f
t a c t , w h i c h s h o w s h i m n o t u n w o rt h y o f h i s
.
a p p o i n t m e n t
. He b e g i n s b y d e n o u n c i n g , h o o f a n d
h o rn , e v e ry p o s i t i o n o f h i s p re d e c e s s o r!
C a l l s h i m ,
a s a s a l v o , a ` 1
l e a rn e d m a n ! " b u t i n s i s t s u p o n h i s
b e i n g a
` 1 m o s t u n s k i l f u l a n t i q u a ry ; " a n d t h o u g h
d o g m a t i c , " " a l t o g e t h e ra v i s i o n a ry . "
Th e s e , y o u w o u l d s u p p o s e , w e re g re a t l i b e rt i e s t o
t a k e w i t h t h e f o s t e r- c h i l d o f p a t ro n a g e
. Th e y w e re
s o , i n
a p p e a ra n c e ;
n o t i n re a l i t y : f o r
" Mu t a t o n o m i n e , d e t o f a b u l a n a rra t u r- "
h e i s a m o d e rn * , a n d t h o u g h o f a d i f f e re n t
s c h o o l ,
i t
s u i t s t h e i rp u rp o s e a s w e l l
.
B u t l e t u s s e e h o w h e w o u l d d e c y p h e r
" t h e w ri t -
i n g u p o n t h e w a l l . "
" I f w e m i g h t v e n t u re
a c o n je c t u re , " h e s a y s , "
i t
w o u l d b e t h a t t h e l i v i n g f i g u re s re p re s e n t t h e m o s t
d i s t i n g u i s h e d n a t i v e p ri n c e s , w h o w a rre d w i t h t h e
* I s h a l l g i v e y o u m y d e f i n i t i o n
f o rt h i s w o rd b y a n d b y .
THE ROUND TOWERS.

3 3 3
a d v e n t u re rs
i n d e f e n c e o f t h e i rc o u n t ry ;
a n d t h a t
t h o s e o f t h e d e c e a s e d k i n g s w e re t h e p a t ri o t m o n a rc h s
o f e a rl i e rt i m e s ! "
P ra y , w h a t a d v e n t u re rs ? w h a t ? - B u t t h e f a rc e i s
t o o a b s u rd t o b e s t o w d i s c u s s i o n u p o n i t .
C o m e , h o w e v e r, t o t h e e ru c t i o n s c e n e ,
w h a t w o u l d
P - " m a k e o f t h i s ?
1 Th i s a p p e a rs , " h e s a y s , t o re p re s e n t t h e d e a t h
o f
t h e y o u n g s o n o f De rm o d Ma c Mu rro u g h , w h o w a s
d e l i v e re d u p t o Ro d e ri c k O'C o n n o r, a s a h o s t a g e f o r
h i s f a t h e r's f i d e l i t y , a n d w h o , a c c o rd i n g t o C a m -
b re n s i s , a n d , w e b e l i e v e ,
t o o u ro w n a n n a l i s t s , w a s
a b a n d o n e d b y t h a t i n h u m a n a n d a m b i t i o u s p a re n t t o
h i s f a t e ! "
A f t e rt h e f l o u ri s h o f t ru m p e t s , w i t h w h i c h Mr. P -
h a d p ro c l a i m e d i n d e p e n d e n c e o f Dr. L e d w i c h , o n e
w o u l d h a v e e x p e c t e d a n e w a s c ri p t i o n , o r, a t l e a s t , a
d i f f e re n t o n e , f ro m h i m
. Th i s , h o w e v e r, i s b u t a
s e rv i l e
t ra n s c ri p t f ro m h i s p re d e c e s s o r's w o rk , a n d t h a t t o o ,
w i t h o u t h a v i n g t h e c a n d o u rt o q u o t e h i m a s h i s
a u t h o ri t y !
' B u t l e t u s v i e w t h o s e t h i n g s w i t h c l o s e re y e s
. "
Ha d Ma c Mu rro u g h 's s o n b e e n p u t t o d e a t h b y
O'C o n n o r, i n t h a t a w f u l m a n n e ra b o v e d e l i n e a t e d ,
w i t h s u c h e x t e rn a l p a ra d e , a n d s u c h m y s t e ri o u s
p o m p , t h i n k y o u t h a t C a m b re n s i s , w h o n e v e ro m i t t e d
e v e n t h e m o s t t ri v i a l f e a t u re o f a n a rra t i v e , w o u l d h a v e
b e e n b l i n d t o a p a rt i c u l a r, w h i c h m u s t h a v e i n t e -
re s t e d a l l h i s re a d e rs ?
Ye t , a s t o t h e re a l i t y o f t h i s
- Mr. P - 's i n s i n u a t i o n n o t w i t h s t a n d i n g - C a m -
b re n s i s
i s s i l e n t a n d m u t e a s t h e g ra v e !
A f a c t w h i c h w a s t h o u g h t w o rt h y t o b e c o m m e m o -
ra t e d i n f re s c o m u s t h a v e b e e n e q u a l l y e l i g i b l e a s a
p h e n o m e n o n i n
w ri t i n g . Th e O'C o n n o rs , t h e re f o re ,
3 3
4

THEROUNDTOWERS.
w h o m Mr. . P w o u l d i n s t a l l a s t h e a u t h o rs o f t h i s
d e v i c e , m u s t h a v e re t a i n e d s o m e d o c u m e n t a ry re g i s t e r
t h e re o f : a n d , t h o u g h i t i s w e l l k n o w n - , t h a t t h e re i s
n o t a f a m i l y i n t h e k i n g d o m , w h o h a v e p re s e rv e d t h e
re c o rd s o f t h e i rh o u s e w i t h s u c h i n d u s t ry o rm i n u t e -
n e s s a s t h e y h a v e , y e t i s t h e re n o t s o m u c h a s t h e
s e m b l a n c e
o f a n a l l u s i o n t o b e t ra c e d a m o n g s t t h e m ,
t o t h i s
m y s t e ri o u s re p re s e n t a t i o n t
Na y , i f 'O'C o n n o r'h a d p u t t o . d e a t h Ma c Mu r-
ro u g h 's s o n , w i t h s u c h c i rc u m s t a n c e s o f t o rt u re a n d
s a v a g e i n s e n s i b i l i t y , i s i t p ro b a b l e t h a t h e w o u l d h i m -
s e l f b e t h e p e rs o n t o i m m o rt a l i z e h i s d i s g ra c e , b y
d e p i c t i n g i t u p o n s u c h a c h ro n i c l e ? A n d i f t h e v i r-
t u e o f t h e n a t i o n w e re n o t p re v i o u s l y o u t ra g e d b y
t h e h e l l i s h n e s s o f t h e c ri m e i t s e l f , w o u l d i t n o t n o w
b l a z e 'f o rt h - i n h o l y i n d i g n a t i o n
a t t h e i n f a t u a t e d v a n i t y
o f t h e m o n s t e r, w h o , n o t s a t i s f i e d w i t h t h e m u rd e ro f
h i s i n n o c e n t v i c t i m , m u s t d e l u g e h i s
c o u n t ry a l s o i n
g o re , b y a s s o c i a t i n g i t , t o f o rt h c o m i n g a g e s , w i t h t h i s
o u t l i n e o f h i s b a rb a ri t y ?
Ye s , Si r, i f t h e y w e re
s i l e n t a s t o t h e c ri m e , t h e y
w o u l d b e e l o q u e n t a s t o t h e
p a i n t i n g ! - - A n d i t i s n o t
o n l y t h a t t h e y w o u l d '
d e m o l i s h t h e s t ru c t u re w i t h i n
w h i c h i t w a s
i n s c ri b e d ,
b u t e v e ry
q u i l l w i t h i n t h e
re a l m w o u l d b e c o m e a p e n , e v e ry l i q u i d b e c o n v e rt e d
i n t o
i n l c , a n d e v e ry h a n d b e m a d e t h a t o f a
w ri t e r, t o
re s c u e t h e i s l a n d 's f a m e f ro m i d e n t i t y w i t h t h e t ra i -
t o r's c a u s e ; a n d c o n f i n e t o h i s o w n a n d h i s l o a t h e d
h e a d t h e w i t h e ri n g e x e c ra t i o n s o f p o s t e ri t y !
I n s t e a d o f
w h i c h , h o w e v e r, n o t a s y l l a b l e i s
u t t e re d , o n p a p e ro ro n p a rc h m e n t , a l l u s i v e t o t h e
t ra g e d y !
No t
a
p re s a g e i s i m p a rt e d b y m o u rn f u l
b a n s h e e ! n o r e l e g y s u n g b y f a m i l i a r
m n a - c a o i n t h a '!
No h i s t o ri a n re c o rd s t h e h e a rt - re n d i n g
t a l e ! n o rd o e s
THEROUNDTOWERS.
3 3 5
g i p s y re t a i l i t i n i t i n e ra n t d i t t y ! B u t t h e
m y s t e ry
o f s o rro w , a n d t h e
s a n c t i t y o f t ru t h , t h a t h a l l o w e d t h e
s c e n e w h i c h t h i s t e m p l e c o m m e m o ra t e s , h a s , s t i l l f u rt h e r,
e x e rt e d i t s p ro t e c t i n g i n s t ru m e n t a l i t y , a n d b e s i d e s t h e
m o v i n g e v i d e n c e s i m p ri n t e d u p o n i t s
i n t e ri o r, h a s a d d e d
t h o s e a l s o o f e x c l u s i o n f ro m w i t h o u t ,
a n d p re v e n t e d
t h e i n i q u i t y o f p ro f a n e a p p ro p ri a t i o n , b y t h e o c c u r-
re n c e o f a n y e q u i v o c a l re c o rd !
Th e d e v i c e s u p o n p l a c e s o f w o rs h i p a re a l w a y s o f
a re l i g i o u s k i n d . - Wo u l d t h e p e rp e t ra t i o n o f
a f a i t h -
l e s s i n f a n t i c i d e b e c o n s i d e re d a n a c t o f re l i g i o n ? A n d
i f n o t , w h y e m b l a z o n i t w i t h i n t h e t a b e rn a c l e o f
p ra y e r, w i t h a l l t h e c i rc u m s t a n c e s o f g ra c e a n d o f
g ra n d e u ra ro u n d i t ? - s o l e m n i z e d b y k i n g s
! s u p e ri n -
t e n d e d b y g o d s !
a n d e x e c u t e d b y ju d g e s !
Oh
!
Si r, a d i re p l a g u e o f a s t ri n g e n t b e n i g h t -
m e n t h a s l a i n b ro o d i n g o v e rh i s t o ry
! a n d s p re a d ,
l i k e t h e u p a s , i t s b a n e f u l e m a c i a t i o n o v e re v e ry t h i n g
o f c u l t u re t h a t f e l l w i t h i n i t s s h a d o w
! B u t
t ru t h i s
i m m o rt a l : a n d , h o w e v e r
m o m e n t a ri l y s u p p re s s e d , w i l l
u l t i m a t e l y re c o v e r.
I t i s a p l e a s u re , " s a y s B a c o n , "
t o s t a n d o n t h e
s h o re , a n d t o s e e s h i p s t o s s e d u p o n t h e s e a
; a p l e a -
s u re t o s t a n d i n t h e w i n d o w o f a c a s t l e , a n d t o s e e a
b a t t l e , a n d t h e a d v e n t u re s t h e re o f b e l o w ;
b u t n o p l e a -
s u re i s c o m p a ra b l e t o t h e s t a n d i n g o n t h e v a n t a g e - g ro u n d
o f t ru t h , ( a h i l l n o t t o b e c o m m a n d e d , a n d w h e re t h e
a i ri s a l w a y s c l e a ra n d s e re n e , )
a n d t o s e e t h e e rro rs ,
a n d w a n d e ri n g s , a n d m i s t s , a n d t e m p e s t s ,
i n t h e v a l e
b e l o w
; s o a l w a y s t h a t t h i s p ro s p e c t b e w i t h p i t y , a n d n o t
w i t h s w e l l i n g o rp ri d e .
C e rt a i n l y i t i s h e a v e n u p o n
e a rt h t o h a v e a m a n 's m i n d m o v e i n c h a ri t y , re s t i n
P ro v i d e n c e , a n d t u rn u p o n t h e p o l e s o f t ru t h
. " .
Th e v e ry d re s s e s , w h i c h a d o rn t h e s e v e n e ra b l e
3
3
6

THEROUNDTOWERS.
d e l i n e a t i o n s , a re e n o u g h t o
. o re d e e m : t h e m f ro m t h e
t u rp i t u d e r* h i c h rMr
. P - - =w o u l d
: i m p u t e . t o
t h e m
.
O'C o n i i a . ra n d
: Ma c
: Mu rro u g h w e re
: n e i t h e r'o f t h e m ,
o n t h i s f m rt h , f o r. - a t l e a s t t w o t h o u s a n d y e a rs a f t e rt h e s e
w e re i n , v o g u e ! n e i t h e ra re t h e y b y a n y n a p s t h e
h a b i t s , w h i c h P w o u l d p e rs u a d e u s
. t h a t " l a w s
w e re s u b s e q u e n t l y e n a c t e d t o a b o l i s h a s
: b a rb a ro u s ! "
B e h o l d ! I s h o w y o u 'a m y s t e ry !
Wh a t d o y o u s e e h e re t ? Wh a t d o y o u m a k e 'o f
* I C o ri n t h i a n s x v
. 51 .
t I t w i l l b e p e rc e i v e d , t h a t I d o n o t m e a n t h i s t o b e a n - e x a c t c o p y o f
t h e Kn o c k m o y C ru c i f i x i o n - o rv i c e v e rs d
. - Th e g e n e ra l i d e a i s , w h a t I
m e a n t o s u b s t a n t i a t e , a n d t h e i d e n t i t y o f d e s i g n c a n n o t w e l l b e g a i n -
s a i d . Th i s re m a rk a p p l i e s a l s o t o t h e k i n g s a b o u t t o b e i n t ro d u c e d b y
a n d b y .
THE ROUND TOWERS.

3 3 7
t h i s Mr. P - . Ord o y o u t h i n k t h a t O'C o n n o rw e n t
o v e ri n t o Nu b i a , a n d g o t t h e i m p re s s o f h i s e n o rm i t y
c a n o n i z e d t h e re a l s o , i n t h e f o rm o f a c ro s s , w i t h i n t h e
t e m p l e s a n d s a n c t u a ri e s o f t h e a d o ri n g Eg y p t i a n s ?
I c o p y t h i s i m a g e f ro m a w o rk o f g re a t v a l u e , l a t e l y
p u b l i s h e d i n P a ri s b y Mo n s i e u rRi f a u d ; w h i c h h e
d e s i g n a t e s b y t h e t i t l e o f C V o y a g e e n Eg y p t e e t e n
Nu b i e , e t l i e u x c i rc o n v o i s i n s
. " Th e p l a t e u n d e rn o t i c e
i s b u t p a rt o f a l a rg e ro n e , w h i c h h e d e s c ri b e s a s
" F a c a d e d u p e t i t t e m p l e d e Ka l a b c h e ( e n Nu b i e ) e t
s e s d e t a i l s - i n t e ri e u rs , " a n d o f w h i c h I s h a l l , b y a n d
b y , t re a t y o u t o t w o m o re c o m p a rt m e n t s , a s t h e
e x a c t c o rre s p o n d e n t s o f t h e s i x c ro w n e d f i g u re s a t
Kn o c k m o y
.
Me a n w h i l e I b e g l e a v e t o i n t ro d u c e t o y o u o n t h e
n e x t p a g e , s o m e o f t h e s c u l p t u re s o n t h e Tu a t h - d e -
d a n a a n c ro s s , a t o l d Ki l l c u l l e n , i n t h e c o u n t y o f Ki l -
d a re , I re l a n d . He re y o u d i s t i n g u i s h n i n e B u d h i s t
p ri e s t s i n t h e Ea s t e rn u n i f o rm , w i t h b o n n e t , t u n i c ,
a n d
t ro w s e r- n a y ,
w i t h t h e i rv e ry
b e a rd s
d re s s e d
a f t e rt h e Eg y p t i a n f a s h i o n !
Ot h e rf i g u re s I s h a l l l e a v e t o y o u ro w n re s e a rc h t o
u n f o l d . B u t l e t m e p a rt i c u l a rl y f a s t e n
u p o n y o u r
f a c u l t y o f c o m p a ri n g , t h e h e a d - g e a ro f t h e s t a n d i n g
f i g u re , i n t h e s e c o n d
d i v i s i o n , a n d t h a t o f t h e c ru c i -
f i x i o n u p o n t h e Nu b i a n t e m p l e .
A re t h e y n o t c ri t i -
c a l l y , a c c u ra t e l y , a n d i d e n t i c a l l y t h e s a m e ?
L o o k n e x t a t t h e b ru t e a n i m a l s t h a t t a k e p a rt i n
t h i s g ro u p ! Mi n d t h e g ro t e s q u e n e s s o f t h e i r'p o s i -
t i o n s , a n d t h e c o m b i n a t i o n
o f t h e i rc h a ra c t e rw i t h t h a t
o f m a n ! t h e n l a y y o u rh a n d u p o n y o u rb re a s t , a n d ,
w i t h t h e l i g h t n o w s t re a m i n g i n u p o n y o u , c a n y o u
c o n s c i e n t i o u s l y b e l i e v e t h a t t h e
c ro s s w h i c h e x h i b i t s
z
3
3 8
i t s e l f a t t h e o t h e rs i d e , w a s e v e rt h e w o rk o f C h ri s -
t i a n i t y * ?
THE ROUNDTOWERS
.
B u t a s y o u c a n n o t i m a g i n e t h a t O'C o n n o rh a d g o n e
o v e rt o Nu b i a , i n t h e t w e l f t h c e n t u ry o f t h e C h ri s t i a n
e ra , t o g e t h i s m u rd e re d h o s t a g e d e i f i e d i n a p a g a n
t e m p l e , b u i l t , p e rh a p s , a t t h e v e ry l o w e s t , t h re e t h o u -
* " We s a w , " s a y s C o l o n e l Sy m e s , a l l u d i n g t o t h e i m p e rf e c t s h e l l o f
a B u d h i s t t e m p l e , i n t h e B u rm a n e m p i re ,
` 's e v e ra l u n f i n i s h e d f i g u re s
o f a n i m a l s a n d m e n
i n g ro t e s q u e a t t i t u d e s , w h i c h w e re d e s i g n e d a s
o rn a m e n t s f o rd i f f e re n t p a rt s o f t h e b u i l d i n g . " - Em b a s s y t o
t h e C o u rt o f
A v a .
THE ROUNDTOWERS.
3 , 1 0
s a t e d y e a rs b e f o re h i s t i m e , s o n e i t h e rc a n y o u i m p o s e
u p o n u s , t h a t t h e B u d h i s t s s t o l e a m a rc h u p o n o u r
C h ri s t i a n
s u p i n e n e s s ,
a n d , w h i l e o u rd i f f e re n t s e c t s
w e re f i g h t i n g f o r
w h o s h o u l d h a v e m o s t , a n d p ro c l a i m -
i n g , I a m o f P a u l , a n d I o f A p o l l o s , a n d I o f C e -
p h a s , a n d I o f C h ri s t * , " i m p ri n t e d t h e i rc o m p l e x i t y
u p o n o u rb o a s t e d s i m p l i c i t y , a n d t h e n s u d d e n l y a g a i n
v a n i s h e d
w i t h o u t h a v i n g b e e n o n c e s e e n , f e l t , h e a rd ,
d i s c o v e re d , o ru n d e rs t o o d ! ! !
Wh a t e n t a n g l e m e n t s w i l l n o t p e o p l e p l u n g e t h e m -
s e l v e s i n t o w h e n s u p p o rt i n g
a b a d c a l s e ! A n d h o w
e a s y i s t h e ro a d w h i c h re c t i t u d e f o l l o w s !
Th e Hi n d o o P u ra n a s c o rro b o ra t e , t o a n i o t a , t h i s
o u rKn o c k m o y c ru c i f i x i o n f i .
Su l i v a h a n a i s t h e n a m e
w h i c h t h e y g i v e t o t h e d e i t y t h e re re p re s e n t e d .
Th e
m e a n i n g o f t h e w o rd i s
t re e - b o rn e , o r, w h o . s u f f e re d
d e a t h u p o n a t re e .
. He w a s o t h e rw i s e c a l l e d
Dh a n -
a n d h a ra , t h a t i s , t h e s a c re d a l m o n e r. A n d h i s f a m e ,
s a y t h e P u ra n a s , re a c h e d e v e n t o t h e Sa c re d I s l a n d ,
i n t h e s e a o f m i l k , t h a t i s , o f Do g h d a ,
w h i c h s i g n i f i e s
m i l k , a n d w h i c h w a s t h e t i t l e o f t h e t u t e l a rg o d d e s s
o f I re l a n d 1 .
A v a u n t , t h e n , e v e rm o re t o t h e h u m b u g o f b a c k -
re c k o n i n g , a n d t h e c h a rg e o f
i m p o s t u re u p o n t h e
* 1 C o ri n t h i a n s i . 1 2 .
h
A s i a t i c Re s e a rc h e s
.
TTh e n a m e o f Su l i v a n
i n I re l a n d , t h a n w h i c h t h e re i s n o o n e
m o re c o m m o n , i s u n q u e s t i o n a b l y b u t t h e p e rp e t u a t i o n o f t h e a b o v e Su l i -
v a h a n a .
A n d I c a n g i v e a p ro o f o f t h e f a c t , i n d e p e n d e n t l y o f i t s d e ri -
v a t i o n ,
w h i c h w i l l s c a re ri d i c u l e i n t o d e f i a n c e . I t i s t h a t a p a rt i c u l a r
b ra n c h o f t h a t f a m i l y c a l l e d t h e O'Su l i v a n s , o f To m i e s , h a v e b e e n e v e r
l o o k e d u p o n w i t h a f e e l i n g o f
re v e re n c e b y t h e n a t i v e s , a l m o s t a p p ro a c h i n g
t o v e n e ra t i o n .
I h a v e i n v a i n s t ro v e t o a s c e rt a i n f ro m t h e m t h e o ri g i n o f
t h i s i n d e f i n a b l e s e n s e o f s a n c t i t y . I t w a s l i k e m a g i c u p o n t h e i rm i n d s
t h e y h a l f w o rs h i p p e d t h e m , a n d k n e w n o t w h y . Th e re w e re b u t t w o
i n d i v i d u a l s o f
t h i s s t o c k re m a i n i n g w h e n I w a s a s c h o o l b o y , a f e w y e a rs
a g o , a t Ki l l a rn e y
.
z 2
3
4 0

THEROUNDTOWERS.
B ra h m i n s ! I f l a t t e rm y s e l f , I h a v e l a i d a n e x t i n -
g u i s h e r, f o re v e r, u p o n t h a t p re t e x t .
A s I h a v e b e f o re p re s u m e d t o o f f e ra s u g g e s t i o n t o
t h e t ra n s l a t o rs o f o ri e n t a l
m i n u s e ri p t s , I
s h a l l t a k e t h e
a d d i t i o n a l l i b e rt y o f i n t i m a t i n g , w h i c h I d o
w i t h p ro -
f o u n d s u b m i s s i o n a n d re s p e c t , t o t h e d e c y p h e re rs o f
a l l h i e ro g l y p h i c s , w h e t h e ri n I re l a n d o ri n
t h e , Ea s t ,
t h a t t h o s e a rro w - h e a d e d c h a ra c t e rs , t o b e m e t w i t h a t
P e rs e p o l i s , a n d re s e m b l i n g i n t h e i r f o rm a t i o n
o u r
I ri s h Og h a m s , b e a rrf e re n c e , b o t h o f t h e m , t o t h i s
m y s t e ri o u s c ru c i f i x i o n ! A n d t h a t i f Mr.
C h a m p o l l i o n ,
a n d o t h e rg e n t l e m e n i n t e re s t e d i n t h e p ro s e c u t i o n
o f t h o s e u s e f u l p o i n t s , w i l l a t t e n d t o t h i s m y a d v i c e ,
t h e y w i l l f i n d i t a m o re c e rt a i n k e y t o t h e a t t a i n m e n t o f
t h e i rd e s i re d - o b je c t , Na n . a l l
t h e l a b o u ra n d
o u t l a y o f
c e n t u ri e s h e re t o f o 0 E !
" Kn o w i n g t h a t Na t u re n e v e rd i d b e t ra y
Th e h e a rt t h a t l o v e d h e r; 't i s h e rp ri v i l e g e ,
Th ro u g h a l l t h e y e a rs o f t h i s o u rl i f e , t o l e a d
F ro m jo y t o jo y
: f o r
s h e c a n s o i n f o rm
Th e h e a rt t h a t i s w i t h i n u s , s o i m p re s s
Wi t h q u i e t n e s s a n d b e a u t y , a n d s o f e e d
Wi t h l o f t y t h o u g h t s , t h a t n e i t h e re v i l t o n g u e s ,
Ra s h ju d g m e n t s , n o rt h e s n e e rs o f s e l f i s h m e n ,
No rg re e t i n g s w h e re n o k i n d n e s s i s , n o ra l l
Th e d re a ry i n t e rc o u rs e o f d a i l y l i f e ,
Sh a l l e 'e rp re v a i l a g a i n s t u s , o rd i s t u rb
Ou rc h e e rf u l f a i t h , t h a t a l l w h i c h w e b e h o l d
I s f u l l o f b l e s s i n g s . " - WORDSw ORTH.
3 4 1
C HA P TERXXI V .
THE
re g a l f i g u re s , w h i c h I p ro m i s e d , a s b e l o n g i n g
t o t h e Nu b i a n
t e m p l e , a n d c o rre s p o n d i n g t o t h e
Kn o c k m o y f re s c o e s , a re t h e f o l l o w i n g : -
Yo u w i l l , f u rt h e rm o re , o b s e rv e , h o w t h a t t h e y a l l
w e a rt h e p h i l i b e g , l i k e o u rc ru c i f i e d e f f i g y a t p a g e
2 9 6 , a n d o u rw a r- g o d , P h e a ra g h , a t p a g e 1 3 8 . Ea c h
3 4 2

THEROUNDTOWERS.
o f t h e m , a l s o , i s a d o rn e d w i t h t h e c ro s s , a s t h e p a s s -
p o rt o f t h e i rre d e m p t i o n : w h i l e t h e , t h re e d i v i n i t i e s ,
d e l i n e a t e d i n t h e I ri s h s c e n e s , h a v e t h e s e a s t h e i r
c o u n t e rp a rt s i n t h e t e m p l e o f Nu b i a
.
I n
1 1 U) W1 1 J T~ ! ! T1 1 t 1 M1 % w
i
1 1
A b b e P l u c h e s t a t e s , t h a t 1 1 t h e 'f i g u re s o f t h o s e g o d s
b ro u g h t f ro m Eg y p t i n t o P h o e n i c i a , w o re o n t h e i r
h e a d s l e a v e s a n d b ra n c h e s , w i n g s a n d g l o b e s , w h i c h , "
h e a d d s , " a p p e a re d ri d i c u l o u s t o t h o s e w h o d i d n o t
c o m p re h e n d t h e s i g n i f i c a t i o n o f t h e s e s y m b o l s , a s
h a p p e n e d t o C a m b y s e s , k i n g o f P e rs i a , b u t t h e s e
re p re s e n t e d I s i s , Os i ri s , a n d Ho ru s . "
I n t h e G e n t l e m a n 's Ma g a z i n e 'f o rNo v e m b e r,
1 7 4 2 , i s a n a c c o u n t , " s a y s V a l l a n c e y ,
o f t w o s i l v e r
i m a g e s , f o u n d u n d e rt h e ru i n s o f a n o l d t o w e r,
w h i c h
THEROUNDTOWERS.

3 4 3
h a d ra i s e d v a ri o u s c o n je c t u re s
a n d
s p e c u l a t i o n s
a m o n g s t t h e a n t i q u a ri e s ; t h e y w e re a b o u t t h re e
i n c h e s i n h e i g h t , re p re s e n t i n g m e n i n a rm o u r, w i t h
v e ry h i g h h e l m e t s o n t h e i rh e a d s , ru f f s ro u n d t h e i r
n e c k s ,
a n d s t a n d i n g o n a p e d e s t a l o f s i l v e r, h o l d i n g a
s m a l l g o l d e n s p e a ri n t h e i rh a n d s
.
Th e a c c o u n t
i s
t a k e n f ro m t h e Du b l i n p a p e rs . Th e w ri t e rre f e rs t o
Me rri c k 's t ra n s l a t i o n o f
Try p h i o d o ru s , a n Eg y p t i a n ,
t h a t c o m p o s e d a G re e k p o e m o n t h e d e l t ru c t i o n o f
Tro y , a s e q u e l t o 'Ho m e r's I l i a d , 't o s h o w t h a t i t
w a s c u s t o m a ry w i t h t h e a n c i e n t s , a t t h e f o u n d a t i o n
o f a f o rt o rc i t y , t o c o n s e c ra t e s u c h i m a g e s t o s o m e
t i t u l a rg u a rd i a n s , a n d d e p o s i t t h e m i n a s e c re t p a rt
o f t h e b u i l d i n g ; w h e re h e a l s o i n s e rt s a ju d i c i o u s
e x p o s i t i o n o f a d i f f i c u l t t e x t
o f Sc ri p t u re o n t h a t
s u b je c t . "
Th e a b o v e e x t ra c t w a s i n d i t e d l o n g b e f o re t h e
p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h o s e Nu b i a n a n t i q u i t i e s ; a n d , c o n s e -
q u e n t l y , w h e n n e i t h e rt h e c o n t ri b u t o rt o t h e Ma g a -
z i n e , n o rt h e q u o t e rf ro m i t s c o l u m n s , h a d a n y k n o w -
l e d g e o f t h e i re x i s t e n c e . I t s p ro d u c t i o n , t h e re f o re ,
m u s t b e v a l u a b l e 'h e re , a s s h o w i n g n o t o n l y t h e c o n -
n e x i o n o f t h e
i d o l s w i t h t h e Ro u n d To w e rc e re m o n i a l ,
b u t a l s o t h a t t h e h e l m e t s o f t h e
Nu b i a n g o d s h a d
b e e n a d o p t e d i n t h e e f f i g i e s o f s o m e o f t h o s e
a m o n g s t u s .
I t e rm i n a t e m y p ro o f s o f t h e p ri m e v a l
c ru c i f i x i o n ,
b y t h e u n i t e d
t e s t i m o n i e s o f t h e B u d h i s t s
a n d t h e
F re e -
Ma s o n s .
Th o u g h t h e p u n i s h m e n t o f t h e c ro s s , " s a y t h e
A s i a t i c Re s e a rc h e s , "
b e u n k n o w n t o t h e Hi n d u s , y e t
t h e f o l l o w e rs o f B u d d h a h a v e s o m e k n o w l e d g e o f i t ,
w h e n t h e y re p re s e n t De v a Th o t
( t h a t i s , t h e g o d
Th o t )
c ru c i f i e d u p o n a n i n s t ru m e n t re s e m b l i n g a
3 4 4

THE ROUND TOWERS.


c ro s s , a c c o rd i n g t o t h e a c c o u n t s o f
s o m e t ra v e l l e rs t o
Si a m
. "
" C h ri s t i a n i t y , " s a y s Ol i v e r, "
o rt h e s y s t e m o f
s a l v a t i o n t h ro u g h t h e a t o n e m e n t o f a c ru c i f i e d Me d i -
a t o r, w a s t h e m a i n p i l l a ro f F re e m a s o n ry e v e rs i n c e
t h e f a l l . "
L e t m e p o i n t y o u rn o t i c e n o w t o s o m e c o n s e q u e n c e s
o f t h a t m y s t e ri o u s f a c t . I b e g i n b y 'a s k i n g -
,
Ho w h a p p e n e d i t , t h a t , o f a l l p l a c e s i n t h e w o rl d ,
I re l a n d w a s t h a t w h i c h g a v e t h e re a d i e s t c o u n t e -
n a n c e , a n d t h e m o s t c h e e ri n g s u p p o rt , t o t h e G o s p e l
o f C h ri s t , o n i t s f i rs t p ro m u l g a t i o n ?
Th i s q u e s t i o n y o u w i l l c o n s i d e ro f n o t ri v i a l t e n -
d e n c y . I t i s , i n i t s e l f , w o rt h a t h o u s a n d o t h e r
a rg u m e n t s . To s o l v e i t , I m u s t p re m i s e , t h a t , b e s i d e s
t h e m a n y a n c i e n t a p p e l l a t i v e s , a l re a d y g i v e n y o u , f o r
t h i s c o u n t ry , t h e re w a s o n e , w h i c h c h a ra c t e ri s e d i t , a s
a n t i c i p a t i n g t h a t e v e n t !
C ri o c h - n a - F u i n e a d h a c h * w a s t h i s n a m e . I t s m e a n -
i n g
i s , t h e a s y l u m o f t h e e x p e c t a n t s : o r, t h e re t re a t o f
t h o s e l o o k i n g f o rw a rd .
To w h a t , y o u a s k ? - To t h e c o n s u m m a t i o n , I re p l y ,
o f t h a t p ro p h e c y , w h i c h w a s i m p a rt e d t o I s ra e l
t h ro u g h a n o t h e rs o u rc e , s a y i n g , 1 1 t h e s c e p t re s h a l l
n o t d e p a rt f ro m J u d a h , n o ra l a w g i v e rf ro m b e t w e e n
h i s f e e t , u n t i l
Sh i l o h c o m e t . "
'" Th a t i s , " s a y s Ke a t i n g , " t h e
n e i g h b b u s i h g e o u n t x y ! 1 ! " a s i f a
c o u n t ry w o u l d c a l l i t s e l f b y s u c h a n a m e !
V a l l a n c e y ri d i c u l e s , b u t
b u n g l e s h i m s e l f s t i l l m o re . A n d w h i l e re m i n d e d b y t h i s c i rc u m s t a n c e ,
I h a d b e s t n o t e , t h a t w h a t t h i s l a s t - m e n t i o n e d w ri t e r, e l s e w h e re , t ra n s -
l a t e s a s " t h e t o p o g ra p h i c a l n a m e s o f I re l a n d , "
( A i n i m a b b e rt e a c h a n n '
Ei re a n ) s h o u l d h a v e b e e n " t h e a p p e l l a t i v e
n a m e s o f I re l a n d : ' t h e y
a re t h e t i t l e s o f t h e i s l a n d i t s e l f , _ n o t d e s c ri p t i o n s o f
t h e s e v e ra l l o c a l i t i e s
w i t h i n i t .
'h G e n e s i s x l i x . 1 0 .
THEROUNDTOWERS.

3 4 5
Nu m e ro u s i n t i m a t i o n s h a v e , f ro m t i m e t o t i m e ,
b e e n c o n v e y e d t o m a n , a s h a rb i n g e rs o f a n e v e n t
w h i c h w a s t o c ro w n t h e i rs p e c i e s w i t h u n i v e rs a l
b l e s s i n g s .
I n t h e P u ra n a s i t w a s p ro p h e s i e d , t h a t
" a f t e rt h re e t h o u s a n d a n d o n e h u n d re d y e a rs o f t h e
C a l i y u g a a re e l a p s e d , w i l l a p p e a rKi n g
Sa c a , t o
re m o v e w re t c h e d n e s s f ro m t h e w o rl d
'` . "
I h a v e g i v e n a n a b s t ra c t o f t h e h i s t o ry o f t h i s
re m a rk a b l e p e rs o n a g e a t p a g e s " 2 9 3 a n d 2 9 4 ; a n d ,
s h o rt l y a f t e r, a t p a g e 2 9 6 , I p re s e n t e d y o u w i t h t h e
e f f i g y o f h i s c ru c i f i x i o n . A s t o t h e e ra o f h i s a p p e a r-
a n c e a s d e d u c i b l e f ro m t h e Yu g a s , I s h a l l c o n f i n e
m y s e l f t o t h e o p i n i o n a d v a n c e d b y Mr. Da v i s , i n t h e
" A s i a t i c Re s e a rc h e s , " v o l
. i x
. p a g e 2 4 3 , w h e re h e
, s t a t e s , I t m a y f u rt h e rw i t h c o n f i d e n c e b e i n f e rre d ,
t h a t Mo m . A n q u e t i l d u P e rro n 's c o n c l u s i o n , w i t h
re s p e c t t o t h e l a t e i n t ro d u c t i o n o f Yu g a s , w h i c h a re
t h e c o m p o n e n t p a rt s o f t h e C a l p a i n t o t h e Hi n d u
a s t ro n o m y , i s u n f o u n d e d ; a n d t h a t t h e i n v e n t i o n o f ,
t h o s e p e ri o d s , a n d t h e a p p l i c a t i o n o f t h e m t o c o m p u t a -
t i o n s b y t h e Hi n d u s , m u s t b e re f e rre d t o a n a n t i q u i t y
w h i c h h a s n o t y e t b e e n a s c e rt a i n e d . "
I n a n o t h e r,
a g e w a s p ro m i s e d a n o t h e rRe d e e m e r
;
a n d , o f h i m I c o p y w h a t Mr. Wi l f o rd t ra n s m i t s , a s
f o l l o w s , v i z . - -
A t h o u s a n d y e a rs b e f o re t h a t e v e n t t h e g o d d e s s
C a l i b a d f o re t o l d h i m , t h a t h e w o u l d re i g n , o rra t h e r
h i s p o s t e ri t y , a c c o rd i n g t o s e v e ra l l e a rn e d c o m m e n t a -
t o rs i n t h e Do k h i n ; a s m e n t i o n e d b y Ma jo rMa c -
k e n z i e , t i l l
a d i v i n e c h i l d , b o rn o f a v i rg i n , s h o u l d
g u t a n e n d b o t h t o h i s l i f e a n d k i n g d o m , o rt o h i s
d y n a s t y , n e a rl y i n t h e w o rd s o f J a c o b , i n G e n e s i s ,
* A s i a t i c Re s e a rc h e s .
3 4 6

THEROUNDTOWERS.
c h a p . x l i x . v e r. 1 0 . Th e Hi n d u t ra d i t i o n s c o n c e rn i n g
t h i s w o n d e rf u l c h i l d , a re c o l l e c t e d i n a t re a t i s e , c a l l e d
t h e ` V i c ra m a C h a s t ra ; o r, Hi s t o ry o f V i c ra m a Di t y a . '
Th i s I h a v e n o t b e e n a b l e t o p ro c u re , t h o u g h m a n y
l e a rn e d p u n d i t s h a v e re p e a t e d t o m e b y h e a rt w h o l e
p a g e s f ro m t h e m
. Ye t I w a s u n w i l l i n g t o m a k e u s e
o f t h e i rt ra d i t i o n s t i l l I f o u n d t h e m i n t h e l a rg e
e x t ra c t s m a d e b y t h e i n g e n i o u s a n d i n d e f a t i g a b l e
Ma jo rC
. Ma c k e n z i e , o f t h e Ma d ra s e s t a b l i s h m e n t ,
a n d b y h i m c o m m u n i c a t e d t o t h e A s i a t i c So c i e t y . "
I n t ru t h , i t w a s t o t h e c e rt a i n t y o f t h i s m a n i f e s t a -
t i o n , t h a t t h e f i rs t c o u p l e t o f a n A ra b i c e l e g y , p re -
s e rv e d b y Mo n s
. d 'He rb e l o t , i n h i s a c c o u n t o f I b n u -
z a i d u n , a c e l e b ra t e d A n d a l u s i a n p o e t , re f e rs . I n
Ro m a n l e t t e rs , t h e l i n e s ru n t h u s -
. E
J e k a d h e i n t e n a g i k o m d h a rm a i rn a
J a c d h a a l a i n a a l a s s a l a u l a t a s s i n a . "
Th a t i s ,
" Th e t i m e w i l l s o o n c o m e w h e n y o u w i l l
d e l i v e ru s f ro m a l l o u rc a re s ; t h e re m e d y i s a s s u re d ,
p ro v i d e d w e h a v e a l i t t l e p a t i e n c e . "
Th e l e a rn e d P re s i d e n t o f t h e So c i e t y o f B e n g a l ,
u n a w a re o f t h e
d ri f t o f t h i s b e a u t i f u l , s t a n z a , a n d
w i t h o u t e v e rh a v i n g s o m u c h a s
s e e n t h e o ri g i n a l ,
w h e n c e i t w a s q u o t e d , o f f e rs t o a l t e ri t s i m p o rt t o
t h e f o l l o w i n g , v i . - . , "
Wh e n o u rb o s o m s i m p a rt t h e i r
s e c re t s t o y o u , a n g u i s h w o u l d a l m o s t f i x o u rd o o m , i f
w e w e re n o t m u t u a l l y t o c o n s o l e o u rs e l v e s ! " A n d
t h e o n l y re a s o n h e a s s i g n s f o rt h i s n o v e l i n t e rp re t a -
t i o n i s , t h a t
t w o i n d i v i d u a l s , n e i t h e ro f w h o m , h e h i m -
s e l f a d m i t s , k n e w a n y t h i n g a b o u t i t s m e a n i n g , h a p -
p e n e d , o rra t h e rp re t e n d e d , t o p u t i t f o rh i m , d i f -
f e re n t l y ,
i n t o A ra b i c w o rd s !
On t h e p i l l a ra t B u d d a l , t h i s e m a n a t i o n o f t h e
g o d h e a d i s t h u s c h a ra c t e ri s e d - " He d i d n o t e x u l t
THEROUNDTOWERS.

3 4 7
o v e r t h e i g n o ra n t a n d i l l - f a v o u re d
: b u t s p e n t h i s
ri c h e s a m o n g t h e n e e d y :
i n s h o rt , h e w a s t h e w o n d e r
o f a l l g o o d m e n *
. " I s a i a h 's p ro p h e c y o f t h e f u t u re
Me s s i a h w o u l d a p p e a ra v e rb a t i m ,
t h o u g h m o re
p o e t i -
c a l
t ra n s c ri p t o f t h i s i n s c ri p t i o n , v i z . , " He s h a l l n o t
c ry , n o rl i f t , , u p
; n o rc a u s e h i s v o i c e t o b e h e a rd i n
t h e s t re e t : a b ru i s e d re e d s h a l l h e n o t b re a k , a n d t h e
s m o k i n g f l a x s h a l l h e n o t q u e n c h
: h e s h a l l b ri n g
f o rt h ju d g m e n t u n t o t ru t h - . "
A t p a g e 1 1 0 o f t h i s v o l u m e , I h a v e p ro m i s e d t o
e x p l a i n t h e o ri g i n o f t h e w o rd El e u s i n i a n , a s a p p l i e d t o
t h e c e l e b ra t i o n o f c e rt a i n re l i g i o u s ri t e s
. I h a v e v e ry
l i t t l e d o u b t b u t t h a t , w h e n re a d i n g t h a t d e c l a ra t i o n ,
t h e re a d e rl o o k e d u p o n i t s o f f e ra s , t o s a y t h e l e a s t ,
g ra t u i t o u s - s a t i s f i e d t h a t t h e t e rm c o u l d h a v e n o
p o s s i b l e o t h e rm e a n i n g , t h a n a s a n a d je c t i v e f o rm e d
f ro m t h e s u b s t a n t i v e El e u s i s !
We l l , t h e ra s h n e s s o f t h a t ju d g m e n t I v e ry
-
f re e l y
f o rg i v e ;
a n d re p a y i t n o w b y t h e v e ri f i c a t i o n o f m y
c o n t ra c t .
El e u s i s , t h e p l a c e ,
a n d
El e u s i n i a n ,
a s d e s c ri p t i v e o f
t h e m y s t e ri e s
t h e re i n s o l e m n i z e d , w e re b o t h d e n o m i -
n a t e d i n h o n o u ro f t h a t
A d v e n t , w h i c h a l l n a t i o n s
a w a i t e d
; a n d t h e f u l f i l m e n t o f w h i c h i n t h e p e rs o n
o f o n e o f t h e B u d h a s ,
m a d e h i m t o b e re c o g n i s e d ,
o n o n e o c c a s i o n , a s t h e
s o u rc e o f t h e f a i t h o f
t h e
t h re e e p o c h s o f t h e w o rl d
I . "
* A s i a t i c Re s e a rc h e s .
t C h a p t e rx l i i
. v e rs e s 2 , 3 .
* Re t i ri n g i n t o a s t i l l m o re s o l i t a ry p l a c e ,
G a u t a m a a n d h i s d i s c i p l e s
s u s t a i n e d t ri u m p h a n t l y a n a rg u m e n t w i t h t w o o f t h e i rb i t t e re s t e n e -
m i e s .
B u t a s e v e re rt ri a l e x h i b i t e d h i s ri g h t e o u s n e s s i n a y e t c l e a re r
l i g h t
. F o u ry o u n g a n d b e a u t i f u l s i s t e rs , b u rn i n g w i t h u n h o l y l o v e , p re -
s e n t e d t h e m s e l v e s n a k e d b e f o re h i m , a n d b e s o u g h t h i m t o c o m p l y w i t h
t h e i rd e s i re s . "
Wh o , 0 G a u t a m e ! " s a i d t h e y , i n t h e ra g e o f t h e i r
3 4 8

THEROUNDTOWERS.
I h a v e a l re a d y
re d e e m e d - t h e c ~ h a a s t e ro f t h o s e
c e re m o n i e s f ro m t h e - s i n i s t e ri m p u t a t i o n s w h i c h
a t t a c h e d t o t h e i rs e c re c y . A n a p p re h e n i
t h a t t h e i r
p u b l i c a t i o n w o u l d s u b v e rt t h e p o p u l a r- b e l i e f , . o ra
s u p p o s e d i n d e l i c a c y i n t h e i rt e n o u r, w e re t h e
n } jl 4 t
c o n s t ru c t i o n s w h i c h t h e
u n i t i a t e d - w o u l d - a f o { d . - t h e m .
Th o u g h s e c u re i n t h e s u f f i c i e n c y o f MY f i rm e rp ro o f s ,
I c a n n o t a v o i d t a k i n g s u p p o rt f Rp n x . . a n
. - a rt i c l e i n a
v e ry t a l e n t e d p u b l i c a t i o n o f o u r~ d a
y i n w h i c h t h e
w ri t e r, w h o l l y u n i n s t ru c t e d , w h i l e h e e v i d e n t l y i s , a s t o
t h e n a t u re o f t h o s e c e l e b ra t i o n s , y e t c o n f i rm s t h e f a c t
o f t h e i rw o rt h a n d t h e i rp u ri t y .
1 F ro m t h e w h o l e c o n c u rre n t t e s t i m o n y o f a n c i e n t
h i s t o ry , " s a y s h e , " w e m u s t b e l i e v e t h a t t h e El e u s i -
n i a n m y s t e ri e s w e re u s e d f o r
g o o d p u rp o s e s , f o rt h e re
i s n o t a n i n s t a n c e - o n re c o rd , t h a t t h e h o n o u ro f a n
i n i t i a t i o n w a s e v e ro b t a i n e d b y a v e ry b a d m a n
.
Th e h i e ro p h a n t s - t h e h i g h e rp ri e s t s o f t h e o rd e r-
w e re a l w a y s e x e m p l a ry i n t h e i rm o ra l s , a n d b e c a m e
s a n c t i f i e d i n t h e e y e s o f t h e p e o p l e . Th e h i g h - p ri e s t -
h o o d o f t h i s , o rd e ri n G re e c e w a s
c o n t i n u e d . i n o n e
f a m i l y , t h e Eu m o l p i d a e ,
f o ra g e s . I n
t h i s ` t h e y re -
s e m b l e d b o t h t h e Eg y p t i a n s a n d t h e J e w s
.
~ Th e El e u s i n i a n m y s t e ri e s i n Ro m e t o o k a n o t h e r
f o rm , a n d w e re c a l l e d t h e ri t e s o f B o n a De a
; b u t s h e
w a s t h e s a m e C e re s t h a t w a s w o rs h i p p e d i n G re e c e
.
d i s a p p o i n t m e n t , "
w h o i s t h e l y i n g w i t n e s s w h o d a re s a t t e s t t h a t t h e
v i rt u e s o f a l l t h e f o rm e rs a i n t s a re c o n c e n t ra t e d i n t h e e
? " B e h o l d
m y w i t n e s s , " s a i d t h e s a g e , s t ri k i n g t h e g ro u n d w i t h h i s h a n d
; . _ a n d a t
t h e m o m e n t Ok i n t o n g u , t h e t u t e l a rg e n i u s o f t h e e a rt h , a p p e a re d , p ro -
c l a i m i n g w i t h a l o u d v o i c e - " I t i s I w h o a m t h e w i t n e s s o f t h e t ru t h ! "
Th e y o u n g w o m e n t h e n f e l l u p o n t h e i rf a c e s , a n d a d o re d G a u t a m a , s a y -
i n g , " O p u re
a n d
p e rf e c t c o u n t e n a n c e , w i s d o m m o re p re c i o u s t h a n g o l d I
m a je s t y i m p e n e t ra b l e !
h o n o u ra n d a d o ra t i o n t o t h e e ,
t h o u s o u rc e o f
t h e f a i t h o f t h e t h re e e p o c h s o f t h e w o rl d !
" - A b ri d g e d f ro m Kl a p -
ro t h .
THEROUNDTOWERS.

3 4 9
A l l t h e d i s t i n g u i s h e d Ro m a n a u t h o rs s p e a k o f t h e s e
ri t e s a n d i n t e rm s o f p ro f o u n d re s p e c t . Ho ra c e
d e n o u n c e s t h e w re t c h w h o s h o u l d a t t e m p t t o re v e a l
t h e s e c re t s o f t h e s e ri t e s ; V i rg i l m e n t i o n s t h e s e m y s -
t e ri e s w i t h g re a t re s p e c t ; a n d C i c e ro a l l u d e s t o t h e m
w i t h a g re a t e rre v e re n c e t h a n e i t h e ro f t h e p o e t s w e
h a v e n a m e d . B o t h t h e G re e k s a n d Ro m a n s p u n i s h e d
a n y i n s u l t o f f e re d t o t h e s e m y s t e ri e s w i t h t h e m o s t
p e rs e v e ri n g v i n d i c t i v e n e s s .
A l c i b i a d e s w a s c h a rg e d
w i t h i n s u l t i n g t h e s e re l i g i o u s ri t e s ; . a n d a l t h o u g h
t h e p ro o f o f h i s o f f e n c e w a s q u i t e d o u b t f u l , y e t h e
s u f f e re d f o ri t f o ry e a rs i n e x i l e a n d m i s e ry
a n d i t
m u s t b e a l l o w e d t h a t h e w a s t h e m o s t p o p u l a rm a n o f
h i s a g e k . "
A n a l o g o u s t o t h e s e w e re t h e s o l e m n i t i e s a t C a r-
t h a g e , d e s i g n a t e d b y t h e n a m e o f
P - h i d i t i a ; a n d t h e
i m p o rt o f w h i c h , a s w e l l i n t e rra a s i n s u b s t a n c e , h a s
b e e n n o l e s s a ri d d l e t o a n t i q u a ri a n s , t h a n w a s
t h e s a n c t i f i e d c o m m e m o ra t i o n w h i c h i t d i s g u i s e s
.
Du ri n g - t h e 'i n t e rv a l o f t h e i rc e l e b ra t i o n , t h e y o u t h s
re c e i v e d l e s s o n s f ro m t h e e l d e rs o f t h e s t a t e , a s t o
t h e re g u l a t i o n o f t h e i rc o n d u c t i n a f t e rl i f e
; a n d t h e
l u s t re o f t ru t h , a n d t h e c o m e l i n e s s o f v i rt u e , a s t h e y
s h o n e f o rt h i n P u d h a , ( w h i c h s o l v e s t h e m y s t e ry o f t h e
n a m e , )
w e re t h e i n v a ri a b l e e t h i c s
t h e y p ro p o u n d e d
.
P u b l i c f e a s t s w e re t h e s c e n e f o rt h e d e l i v e ry o f
t h o s e d i s c o u rs e s .
Th e y f o u n d t h e i rw a y a l s o t o
Ro m e , 'b u t t h e s p i ri t u a l i P y
o f Re d e m p t i o n n o t g o i n g
h a n d - i n - h a n d w i t h i t s d o c t ri n e ,
o rn o t d u l y c o m p re -
h e n d e d , i f a c c o m p a n y i n g , t h e
jo y o u s n e s s o f h o p e ,
w a s
t h e re
s t i n k - i n t o t h e l i c e n t i o u s n e s s o f - e n jo y m e n t ,
a n d
t h e i n n o c e n c e o f m i rt h a n d o f m o ra l h i l a ri t y w a s
* C h a m b e rs
's Ed i n b u rg h J o u rn a l , Oc t o b e r1 2 , 1 8 3 3 .
3 50

THEROUNDTOWERS.
s u p e rs e d e d b y t h e u p ro a ro f ri o t a n d o f v i c e ! Su c h
w e re t h e Sa t u rn a l i a .
Ho w d i f f e re n t w a s
t h e i rc e l e b ra t i o n i n o u r Sa c re d
I re l a n d ! " Th e v e ry l e t t e rs : o f t h e e p i t h e t , b y w h i c h
o u rf o re f a t h e rs h a d s o l e m n i z e d t h e m , s h o w t h e
s p i ri t u a l i t y o f p u rp o s e w h i c h a c t u a t e d t h e i rz e a l .
Nu l l o g w a s t h a t e p i t h e t - i t i s c o m p o u n d e d o f n u a ,
n e w ; a n d l o g ( f o rb u l l o g ) , a b e l l y , m e a n i n g re g e -
n e ra t i o n ,
o rt h e p u t t i n g a s i d e t h e o l d l e a v e n o f s i n ,
a n d t h e - a s s u m p t i o n o f t h e n e w i n v e s t i t u re o f ri g h t -
e o u s n e s s , b y ju s t i f i c a t i o n .
A s e v e ry t h i n g , h o w e v e r, i n t h e i rre l i g i o u s p ro c e -
d u re w a s t ra n s a c t e d b y s y m b o l s , s o , i n t h i s i n s t a n c e ,
t h e y d i d n o t c o n t e n t t h e m s e l v e s w i t h t h e i n n e rc o n -
s c i o u s n e s s o f a n e w b i rt h * ,
b u t t h e y m u s t g o t h ro u g h
t h e o u t e rf o rm o f i t b y t y p i f i c a t i o n ; a n d f o rt h i s e n d
i t w a s t h a t t h e y e x c a v a t e d t h o s e
a p e rt u re s
i n t h e
b o d i e s o f ro c k s , w h i c h I h a v e n o t i c e d i n p a g e 3 1 4 ,
a s c a l l i n g f o rt h , f ro m i g n o ra n c e , t h e a n i m a d v e rs i o n o f
t h e d e v i l 's y o n i e s , i n o rd e rt h a t , b y p a s s i n g
t h e m s e l v e s
t h ro u g h t h e m , t h e y m i g h t re p re s e n t t h e c o n d i t i o n o f o n e
i s s u i n g , t h ro u g h t h e w o m b , t o a n e w s c o p e o f We t .
A n o b l e rm e t h o d o f s y m b o l i s a t i o n , a n d c o n f i n e d
s o l e l y t o t h e i n i t i a t e d ,
w a s t h a t w h i c h c h a ra c t e ri s e d
t h e c o n s t ru c t i o n o f t h e i rs u b t e rra n e a n t e m p l e s . He re
t h e s u b l i m i t y o f t h e i rw o rs h i p b re a k s o u t 'i n a l l t h e
* Th i s i s t h e e x a c t re n d e ri n g o f t h e n a m e b y w h i c h t h e y c a l l e d i t
v i z
. n u a v re i t h , o rt h e b e i n g b o rn a n e w b y t h e o p e ra t i o n o f g ra c e ,
f i I t i s s t i l l p ra c t i s e d i n t h e Ea s t
. - " F o rt h e p u rp o s e o f re g e n e ra t i o n
i t i s d i re c t e d t o m a k e a n i m a g e o f p u re g o l d o f t h e
f e m a l e p o w e ro f
n a t u re ,
i n t h e s h a p e e i t h e ro f a w o m a n o ro f a c o w . I n t h i s s t a t u e t h e
p e rs o n t o b e re g e n e ra t e d i s i n c l o s e d , a n d d ra g g e d o u t t h ro u g h t h e u s u a l
c h a n n e l . A s a s t a t u e o f p u re g o l d , a n d o f p ro p e rd i m e n s i o n s , w o u l d b e
t o o e x p e n s i v e , i t i s s u f f i c i e n t t o m a k e a n i m a g e o f t h e s a c re d
Yo n i ,
t h ro u g h w h i c h t h e p e rs o n t o b e re g e n e ra t e d i s t o p a s s
. " - WI L F ORD.
THEROUNDTOWERS. 3 51
g ra n d e u ra n d t h e m a je s t y o f a w e * . Th e n a rro w n e s s
o f t h e e n t ra n c e , n e v e rl a rg e rt h a n t h e g i rt h o f t h e
o rd i n a ry h u m a n b o d y , p o rt ra y e d , a s w e l l t h e
c i rc u l a r
p a s s a g e i n t h e i rre g e n e ra t i n g t y p e t ,
a s t h e
c i rc u m v e n -
t i o n
o f t e m p t a t i o n b y w h i c h t h e f a i t h f u l a re e v e r
b e s e t
1
; w h i l e t h e m o d e l o f t h e c ro s s , w h i c h re g u l a t e s
t h e i ra rc h i t e c t u re w i t h i n s i d e , a t t e s t s t h e m y s t e ry a n d t h e
f o rm o f t h e i rm a s t e r's d e a t h .
Th e Mi t h ra t i c t e m p l e , a t Ne w G ra n g e , i s e x a c t l y
s o c o n s t ru c t e d .
A f t e rs q u e e z i n g y o u rs e l f , w i t h m u c h
l a b o u r, t h ro u g h a l o n g e m b l e m a t i c
g a l l e ry , y o u a rri v e
a t a c i rc u l a rro o m , o rra t h e ra n i rre g u l a rp o l y g o n , o r
o c t a g o n s ;
w h e n c e , a t m e a s u re d i n t e rv a l s , t h re e o t h e r
* Se e p a g e 3 - 7 8 , a n d 1 6 2
.
+
B e
i t re m e m b e re d , t h a t i t w a s i n c o n s e q u e n c e o f h i s i g n o ra n c e o f
t h e p ri n c i p l e o f re g e n e ra t i o n t h a t o u rSa v i o u ra d d re s s e d Ni c o d e m u s i n
t h e s e c u t t i n g w o rd s , v i z . " A rt t h o u a m a s t e ro f I s ra e l , a n d k n o w e s t n o t
t h e s e t h i n g s ? " t h e re b y re c o g n i s i n g t h e e x i s t e n c e o f t h e d o c t ri n e b e f o re
h i s o w n m a n i f e s t a t i o n t o t h a t p e o p l e .
* En t e ry e i n a t t h e
s t ra i t g a t e : f o rw i d e i s t h e g a t e a n d b ro a d i s
t h e w a y t h a t l e a d e t h t o d e s t ru c t i o n , a n d m a n y t h e re b e w h i c h g o i n
t h e re a t :
b e c a u s e s t ra i t i s t h e g a t e a n d n a rro w i s t h e w a y w h i c h l e a d e t h
u n t o
l i f e ;
a n d f e w t h e re b e t h a t f i n d i t . - Ma t t h e w v i i . 1 3 , 1 4 .
" Th e d o m e ( o f t h i s , w h a t h e c a l l s a c e m e t e ry ) s p ri n g s a t v a ri o u s
u n e q u a l h e i g h t s , f ro m e i g h t t o n i n e a n d t e n f e e t o n d i f f e re n t s i d e s , f o rm -
i n g a t f i rs t a c o v i n g o f e i g h t s i d e s . A t t h e h e i g h t o f f i f t e e n o rs i x -
t e e n f e e t , t h e n o rt h a n d s o u t h s i d e s o f t h i s c o v i n g ru n s t o a p o i n t l i k e
a g o re , a n d t h e c o v i n g c o n t i n u e s i t s s p ri n g w i t h s i x s i d e s ; t h e e a s t
s i d e c o m i n g t o a p o i n t n e x t , i t i s re d u c e d t o f i v e s i d e s , t h e w e s t n e x t
;
a n d t h e d o m e e n d s a n d c l o s e s w i t h f o u rs i d e s ; n o t t i e d w i t h a k e y -
s t o n e , b u t c a p p e d w i t h a f l a g - s t o n e o f t h re e f e e t t e n i n c h e s , b y t h re e
f e e t f i v e . Th e c o n s t ru c t i o n o f t h i s d o m e i s n o t f o rm e d b y k e y - s t o n e s ,
w h o s e s i d e s a re t h e ra d i i o f a c i rc l e , o ro f a n e l l i p s i s c o n v e rg i n g t o a
c e n t re
. I t i s c o m b i n e d w i t h g re a t l o n g f l a t s t o n e s , e a c h o f t h e u p p e r
s t o n e s p ro je c t i n g a l i t t l e b e y o n d t h e e n d o f t h a t i m m e d i a t e l y b e n e a t h i t ;
t h e p a rt p ro je c t i n g , a n d w e i g h t s u p p o rt e d b y i t , b e a ri n g s o s m a l l a p ro -
p o rt i o n t o t h e w e i g h t w h i c h p re s s e s d o w n t h e p a rt s u p p o rt e d ; t h e
g re a t e rt h e g e n e ra l w e i g h t i s w h i c h i s l a i d u p o n s u c h a c o v e , t h e f i rm e r
i t i s c o m p a c t e d i n a l l i t s p a rt s . " - P OWNA L L .
3 52

THEROUNDTOWERS.
a p a rt m e n t s d i v e rg e , f o rm i n g , w i t h t h e i n - l e a d i n g g u t ,
a p e rf e c t c ro s s
; a n d p re s e n t i n g , a l t o g e t h e r, t o a s u s -
c e p t i b l e m i n d , t h e m o s t s o l e m n c o ro n a t i o n
o f s y m b o l i -
c a l m y s t e ri e s *
!
I w o n d e rw h y d o n o t o u rm o d e rn s
c o n f e rt h e s e
s u b t e rra n e o u s c ru c i f o rm
e d i f i c e s n p o n t h e i n d u s t ry o f
t h e e a rl y C h ri s t i a n s , a s t h e y h a v e s t ro v e '
. t e a , c l a i m f o r
t h e m t h e
c o rre s p o n d i n g
s t ri A o t u re s 'o
- g t a n d !
a n d
w i t h o u t h a l f t h e
: p ro h a b i l i t y o f - s u c c e s s ! . V g i r, i f
i t m a y
b e s t a t e d , t h a t t h e c ru c i f i x i o n s
u p o n t h e t o w e rs w e re
a n i n t e rp o l a t i o n ,
w i t h a v i e w t o C h ri s t i a n i s e
w h a t
b e f o re w a s d e v o t e d t o
P a g a n i s m , n o o n e , a t a l l e v e n t s ,
w o u l d m a i n t a i n t h a t t h e m o n k s
h a d g o n e d o w n i n t o
t h e b o w e l s o f t h e e a rt h , a n d a f t e re je c t i n g t h e i n m a t e s
o f o l d A l m a Ma t e r,
c o n v e rt e d t h e i r, t a b e rn a c l e s i n t o a
m a g i c a l c ro s s
!
Na y , a g re a t e rd i f f i c u l t y w o u l d s t i l l a t t a c h t o t h i s
a d v e n t u re .
Th e
P a g o d a s j'
o f B e n a re s a n d Ma t h u ra ,
t h e t w o p ri n c i p a l o n e s i n a l l I n d i a , a re c ru c i f o rm l y
b u i l t !
a n d , i n o rd e rt o m a k e b o t h w o rl d s h a rm o n i z e ,
t h e
a d v o c a t e s
f o rt h e m o n k s , o rra t h e rt h e i r
b e l i e rs ,
w o u l d h a v e t o t ra n s p o rt t h e i rm e c h a n i c s t o t h o s e
re g i o n s a l s o , a n d t u rn u p s i d e - d o w n , a n d s i d e w a y s ,
a n d e v e ry w a y , w h a t e v e rw a s t h e
s 4 p e o f t h e o ri -
* " Th e e i g h t s i d e s o f t h i s p o l y g o n
a re t h u s
f u m e d :
t h e a p e rt u re
w h i c h f o rm s
t h e e n t ra n c e , a n d t h e t h re e n i c h e s , o rt a b e rn a c l e s , . m a k e
f o u rs i d e s ,
a n d t h e f o u ri m p o s t s t h e o t h e rf o u r. " P o w w s L L .
f i Th i s
w o rd I . h a v e a l re a d y d e ri v e d , a f t e rt h e e x a m p l e . o f o t h e rw ri t e rs ,
f ro m
; p e u t g e d a , - o r, h o u s e o f i d o l s , s o m i s n a m e d b y Eu ro p e a n s . I m u s t
s t a t e , h o w e v e r, ,
t h a t , a n o t h e re x p l i c a t i o n i s a l s o a s s i g n e d t h e re t o , a n d
t h a t i s , a . p e rv e rs i o n o f t h e t e rm
b h a g a - v a t i , o rh o l y h o u s e . B u t w i t h
g re a t re s p e c t t o t h e g e n t l e m e n w h o i n c l i n e t o t h e l a t t e ro p i n i o n , I h a v e
t o o b s e rv e t h a t
. b h a g a - v a t i , p ro p e rl y s i g n i f i e s t h e s a c re d Yo n i .. ; a n d ,
t h e re f o re , t h a t , h o w e v e r
. a p p l i c a b l e t o , a s u b t e rra n e o u s t e m p l e , o r
c a v e ,
i t c o u l d b y n o m e a n s re p re s e n t a n
e re c t b u i l d i n g .
THEROUNDTOWERS.

3 53
g i n a l s t ru c t u re s , u n t i l t h e y m o u l d e d t h e m , a t l a s t ,
i n t o t h i s m y s t e ri o u s c ro s s
!
So m e b l a m e , h o w e v e r, w o u l d s e e m a t t a c h a b l e t o
t h e
s u p e ri n t e n d e n t s o f
t h i s v i s i o n : a n d i t i s , t h a t , w h i l e
i m p ri n t i n g t h i s
m a rk
o v e rt h e h e a d o f t h e p ri n c i p a l
f i g u re , i n t h e c a v e , o rMi t h ra t i c t e m p l e , a t El e -
p h a n t a * , t h e y n e g l e c t e d t o d e m o l i s h t h e
L i n g a m ,
a p p e rt a i n i n g t o t h e p re v i o u s w o rs h i p
; a n d w h i c h
a c t u a l l y p re s e n t s i t s e l f b u t a l i t t l e f ro m i t i n t h e
f ro n t ! ! !
Ta b e g ra v e - Th e re w a s n o t h i n g m o re n a t u ra l
t h a n t h a t t h o s e d i f f e re n t s y m b o l s s h o u l d b e t h u s
u n i t e d . I h a v e s h o w n , t h a t i n t h e v a ri o u s c o p i e s o f
o u ra n n a l s , t h e Ro u n d To w e rs ,
o ro v e r- g ro u n d t e m p l e s ,
a re d e s i g n a t e d b y t h e n a m e o f
F i d h - n e m e a d , t h e
m e a n i n g o f w h i c h I h a v e e l u c i d a t e d t o b e , t h e c o n s e -
c ra t e d L i n g a rn s : t h e Mi t h ra t i c c a v e s ,
o ru n d e r- g ro u n d
t e m p l e s , t h e i r c o rre s p o n d e n t s , i t
w a s t o b e e x p e c t e d ,
s h o u l d b e k n o w n b y a s u i t a b l e
d e n o m i n a t i o n ;
a n d ,
a c c o rd i n g l y , y o u w i l l f i n d t h i s v e ry o n e a t Ne w
G ra n g e , m e n t i o n e d i n t h e "
C h ro n i c o n Sc o t o ru m , "
b y t h e t i t l e o f F i o d h A o n g u s a
;
t h a t i s , t h e My s t e -
* " Th e e n t ra n c e i n t o t h i s t e m p l e , w h i c h i s e n t i re l y h e w n o u t o f a
s t o n e re s e m b l i n g p o rp h y ry , i s b y a s p a c i o u s f ro n t s u p p o rt e d b y t w o
m a s s y p i l l a rs a n d t w o p i l a s t e rs f o rm i n g t h re e o p e n i n g s , u n d e ra t h i c k
a n d s t e e p ro c k , o v e rh u n g b y b ru s h w o o d a n d w i l d s h ru b s
. Th e l o n g
ra n g e s o f c o l u m n s t h a t a p p e a rc l o s i n g i n p e rs p e c t i v e o n e v e ry s i d e
; t h e
f l a t ro o f o f s o l i d ro c k t h a t s e e m s t o b e p re v e n t e d f ro m f a l l i n g o n l y b y t h e
m a s s y p i l l a rs , w h o s e c a p i t a l s a re p re s s e d d o w n a n d f l a t t e n e d a s i f b y t h e
s u p e ri n c u m b e n t w e i g h t ;
t h e d a rk n e s s t h a t o b s c u re s t h e i n t e ri o ro f t h e
t e m p l e , w h i c h i s d i m l y l i g h t e d o n l y b y t h e e n t ra n c e s
; a n d t h e g l o o m y
a p p e a ra n c e o f t h e g i g a n t i c s t o n e f i g u re s ra n g e d a l o n g t h e w a l l , a n d
h e w n , l i k e t h e w h o l e t e m p l e , o u t o f t h e l i v i n g ro c k , jo i n e d t o t h e s t ra n g e
u n c e rt a i n t y t h a t h a n g s o v e rt h e h i s t o ry o f t h i s p l a c e , - c a rry t h e m i n d
b a c k t o d i s t a n t p e ri o d s , a n d i m p re s s i t w i t h t h a t k i n d o f u n c e rt a i n a n d
re l i g i o u s a w e w i t h w h i c h t h e g ra n d e rw o rk s o f a g e s o f d a rk n e s s a re
g e n e ra l l y c o n t e m p l a t e d , "
- ERSKI NE
.
2 A
3 54

THEROUNDTOWERS.
ri o u s C a v e rn o f B u d h ;
w h i l e t h e c ru c i i o n s u p o n t h e
f o rm e r, a n d t h e
c ru c i f o rm s h a p e o f t h e l a t t e r, a re t h e
re v e re n t i a l m e m o ri a l s
o f h i s a t o n i n g d i s s o l u t i o n .
Th e m y s t e ri e s c e l e b ra t e d w i t h i n t h e re c e s s e s o f
t h o s e c a v e rn s w e re p re c i s e l y o f t h a t c h a ra c t e rw h i c h
a re c a l l e d
F re e - m a s o n i c , o r C a b i ri c . Th e s i g n i f i c a -
t i o n
o f
t h i s l a t t e re p i t h e t i s , a s t o w ri t t e n l e t t e rs , a d e -
s i d e ra t u m .
Se l d e n h a s m i s s e d i t ; s o h a s Ori g e n , a n d
So p h o c l e s .
St ra b o t o o , a n d Mo n t f a u c o n , h a v e b e e n
e q u a l l y a s t ra y .
Hy d e w a s t h e o n l y o n e w h o h a d a n y
i d e a o f
i t s c o m p o s i t i o n , w h e n h e d e c l a re d
" i t w a s a
P e rs i a n w o rd ,
s o m e w h a t a l t e re d f ro m G a b ri , o rG u e b ri ,
a n d s i g n i f y i n g f i re - w o rs h i p p e rs
. "
I t i s t ru e t h a t G a b ri
n o w s t a n d s f o rf i re - w o rs h i p p e rs ,
b u t t h a t i s o n l y b e c a u s e t h a t t h e y a s s u m e d t o t h e m -
s e l v e s t h i s t i t l e , w h i c h b e l o n g e d t o a n o t h e ro rd e r
o f
t h e i ra n c e s t o rs .
Th e w o rd i s d e ri v e d f ro m g a b h , a
s m i t h , a n d
i r, s a c re d , m e a n i n g t h e
s a c re d s m i t h s ;
a n d
C a b i ri , b e i n g o n l y a p e rv e rs i o n
o f i t , i s , o f c o u rs e ,
i n s u b s t a n c e ,
o f t h e v e ry s a m e i m p o rt
.
Mo u n t C a u c a s u s * ,
a l s o , w h i c h s t i l l , i n o u rl a n g u a g e ,
re t a i n s i t s o ri g i n a l p ro n u n c i a t i o n , o f
G a b a - c a s a n ,
o rt h e
Sm i t h 's P a t h , w a s n a m e d f ro m t h e s a m e ro o t
; n o ri s
t h e t ra d i t i o n
o f t h e re a s o n
a l t o g e t h e ro b l i t e ra t e d f ro m
t h o s e w h o d w e l l b e s i d e i t ,
i f w e m a y ju d g e f ro m a
c e re m o n y d e s c ri b e d b y a re c e n t t ra v e l l e r, a s p e rf o rm e d
b y t h e m , a s f o l l o w s : -
"
o ri g i n a l f o u n d e rs o f t h e Ta rt a ri a n Mu n g a -
l i a n Sc y t h i a n s , c a l l e d C a ja n a n d Do c o s , g o t e m b a r-
ra s s e d a m o n g s t t h o s e m o u n t a i n s , t h e n u n i n h a b i t e d .
* "
Th i s a p p e l l a t i o n , C a u c a s u s , a t l e a s t i n i t s p re s e n t s t a t e , i s n o t
Sa n s c ri t
; a n d a s i t i s n o t o f G re c i a n o ri g i n , i t i s p ro b a b l e t h a t t h e
G re e k s re c e i v e d i t t h ro u g h t h e i ri n t e rc o u rs e w i t h t h e P e rs i a n s . " -
WI L F ORD.
THEROUNDTOWERS.

3 55
A f t e ra s o jo u rn t h e re o f 4 50 y e a rs , h a v i n g b e c o m e
s o n u m e ro u s a s t o re q u i re o t h e rs e t t l e m e n t s , t h e y
w e re a t a l o s s t o f i n d a p a s s a g e t h ro u g h t h e m o u n -
t a i n s , w h e n a s m i t h ,
p o i n t i n g o u t t o t h e m a p l a c e
v e ry ri c h i n i ro n o re , a d v i s e d t h e m t o m a k e g re a t
f i re s t h e re , b y w h i c h m e a n s t h e o re m e l t e d , a n d a
b ro a d p a s s a g e w a s o p e n e d f o rt h e m
. I n c o m m e m o -
ra t i o n o f w h i c h f a m o u s m a rc h , t h e Mo n g u l s , t o t h i s
d a y , c e l e b ra t e a n a n n u a l f e a s t , a n d o b s e rv e t h e c e re -
m o n y o f h e a t i n g a p i e c e o f i ro n re d h o t , o n w h i c h
t h e C e a n n ( t h a t i s t h e c h i e f ) s t ri k e s o n e b l o w w i t h a
h a m m e r, a n d a l l t h e p e rs o n s o f q u a l i t y d o t h e s a m e
a f t e rh i m . "
I s h a l l c l o s e t h i s c h a p t e rb y t h e d e s c ri p t i o n g i v e n
o f t h e d e s t ru c t i o n o f C a m b y s e s 's a rm y i n t h e Nu b i a n
d e s e rt , a f t e r t h e i n s u l t s o f
f e re d b y h i m t o t h e C a b i ri
p ri e s t s .
1 1
G n o m e s , o 'e rt h e w a s t e , y o u l e d y o u rm y ri a d p o w e rs ,
C l i m b 'd o n t h e w h i rl s , a n d a i m 'd t h e f l i n t y s h o w e rs
;
On w a rd re s i s t l e s s ro l l s t h e i n f u ri a t e s u rg e ,
C l o u d s f o l l o w c l o u d s , a n d m o u n t a i n s m o u n t a i n s u rg e ;
Wa v e o v e rw a v e t h e d ri v i n g d e s e rt s w i m s ,
B u rs t o 'e rt h e i rh e a d s , i n h u m e s t h e i rs t ru g g l i n g l i m b s ;
Ma n m o u n t s o n m a n , o n c a m e l s c a m e l s ru s h ,
Ho s t s m a rc h o 'e rh o s t s , a n d n a t i o n s n a t i o n s c ru s h
Wh e e l i n g i n a i r, t h e w i n g e d i s l a n d s f a l l -
A n d o n e g re a t s a n d y o c e a n c o v e rs a l l * . "
* Da rw i n .
2 A 2
3 5 6
C HA P TERXXV .
ON t h e e a s t s i d e o f t h e ri v e rSh a n n o n , a b o u t t e n
m i l e s d i s t a n t f ro m A t h l o n e , i n t h e b a ro n y o f G a rry -
c a s t l e , a n d Ki n g 's c o u n t y , i s s i t u a t e d t h e Sa n c t u a ry
o f C l o n m a c n o i s e . Wi t h i n t h e n a rro w l i m i t s o f t w o
I ri s h a c re s , a re h e re c o n d e n s e d m o re re l i g i o u s ru i n s ,
o f a n t i q u a ri a n v a l u e , t h a n a re t o b e f o u n d , p e rh a p s ,
i n a s i m i l a rs p a c e i n a n y o t h e rq u a rt e ro f t h e h a b i t -
a b l e w o rl d .
Ni n e c h u rc h e s , b u i l t re s p e c t i v e l y b y t h e i n d i v i -
d u a l s w h o s e n a m e s t h e y b e a r, v i z
. , 1 . t h a t o f Ma -
e a rt h y Mo re ; 2
. t h a t o f Me l a g h l i n ; 3 . t h a t o f Ma c
De rm o t t ; 4
. t h a t o f Hi o rp h a n ; 5 . t h a t o f Ki e ra n ;
6 . t h a t o f G a w n e y
; 7 . t h a t o f O'Ke l l y ; a n d 8
. t h a t
o f O'C o n n o r
; - i n d e p e n d e n t l y o f t h e
c a t h e d ra l , - - - -
h e re m o u l d e r, i n k i n d re d m o rt a l i t y , w i t h t h e a s h e s
o f n o b l e s , o f p ri n c e s , a n d o f k i n g s , e n t o m b e d b e -
n e a t h t h e i rw a l l s ;
a n d w h o , a t f e u d , m a y h a p , i n
l i f e , a re n o w c o n t e n t t o s l e e p , b e s i d e e a c h o t h e r,
t h e i rw a rf a re o 'e r, " i n t h e l e v e l l i n g i n d i s t i n c t i o n o f
d e a t h ?
Yo u rc u ri o s i t y i s , n o d o u b t , e x c i t e d t o k n o w , h o w
s o c i rc u m s c ri b e d a l i t t l e s p o t c o u l d h a v e b e e n c h o s e n
a s t h e n u c l e u s o f s u c h e c c l e s i a s t i c a l a m b i t i o n ?
Th e
a n s w e ri s f o u n d i n t h e c i rc u m s t a n c e o f t h i s h a v i n g
THEROUNDTOWERS.

3 57
b e e n o n e o f t h e s t ro n g h o l d s o f B u d h i s m , i n t h e d a y s
o f i t s c o rru s c a t i o n s , w h i c h m a d e i t n o w b e s i n g l e d
o u t , i n c o m m o n w i t h o t h e rp l a c e s m e m o ra b l e f o rt h a t
c re e d , a s t h e a p p ro p ri a t e l o c a l i t y f o rC h ri s t i a n s u p e r-
i n c u m b e n c y .
Tw o Ro u n d To w e rs , t h e c h i e f o b je c t o f e m u l a t i o n ,
a re , a s y o u m a y h a v e s u p p o s e d , h e re t o b e e n c o u n t -
e re d : a n d
t h e s e a re
t h e v e ry o n e s ,
w h i c h t h e re a d e rm a y
re c o l l e c t h a v e b e e n a l l u d e d t o a t p a g e 3 8 , a s ri d i c u -
l o u s l y c l a i m e d b y Mo n t m o re n c y f o r
C h ri s t i a n - b e -
c a u s e , f o rs o o t h , i n t h e v a g u e n e s s o f p o p u l a rt i t l e s ,
t h e y a re re c e n t l y d i s t i n g u i s h e d b y t h e n a m e s o f
Ma c
C a rt h y a n d O'Ro u rk e !
Th e e a s t e rn c o l u m n s , d e n o m i n a t e d a f t e r
P o m p e y
a n d C l e o p a t ra f i , h a v e b e e n e q u a l l y p ro d u c t i v e o f h i s -
t o ri c a l m i s t a k e s ; u n t i l , a t l a s t , i t h a s a p p e a re d , t h a t
t h o s e c e l e b ra t e d l o v e rs h a v e h a d n o m o re t o d o w i t h
s u c h e re c t i o n s , t h a n h a v e h a d t h e O'Ro u rk e s
o rMa c -
C a rt h y s w i t h o u rRo u n d To w e rs
!
He re a l s o a re t h re e c ro s s e s , b e l o n g i n g t o t h e s a m e
re l i g i o n , t o o n e
o f w h i c h o n l y s h a l l I n o w d i re c t y o u r
o b s e rv a t i o n . I t i s f i f t e e n f e e t h i g h , c o m p o s e d o f a
s i n g l e s t o n e , a n d s c u l p t u re d w i t h i m a g e ry o f t h e m o s t
e l e g a n t e x e c u t i o n .
Th e d e v i c e s u p o n t h i s s c u l p t u re a re s u c h a s y o u
w o u l d h a v e e x p e c t e d f ro m t h e
a u t h o rs o f t h e
A l l e -
* " I f p e rf e c t i o n i n a rt c o n s i s t i n a f f o rd i n g c o n t i n u e d p l e a s u re , i t s
a c h i e v e m e n t s , w h e n c o n t e m p l a t i n g t h i s c o l u m n , m u s t b e d e e m e d i n s u r-
p a s s a b l e
. A C o ri n t h i a n c a p i t a l o f 1 0 f e e t i s p o i s e d o n a s h a f t o f 6 7
: 1
f e e t , t h e l a t t e rre s t i n g o n a b a s e o f 2 1 -
.
1 f e e t ; t h e w h o l e ri s e s t o a h e i g h t
o f n e a rl y 1 0 0 f e e t
. " - HEA D.
f i "
Of t h e o b e l i s k s , c o m m o n l y c a l l e d C l e o p a t ra 's Ne e d l e s , o n e a l o n e i s
n o w s t a n d i n g ; t h e o t h e r, l y i n g d o w n , m e a s u re s s e v e n f e e t s q u a re a t t h e
b a s e , a n d 6 6 f e e t i n l e n g t h
. Th e y a re s o w e l l k n o w n , t h a t i t i s n o t
n e c e s s a ry t o g i v e a v e ry p a rt i c u l a rd e s c ri p t i o n o f t h e m . " - C L A RSE.
3 58 THEROUNDTOWERS.
g o ry o f t h e P a ra d i s i a c a l F a l l : a n d h e re , a c c o rd -
i n g l y , i t p re s e n t s i t s e l f , ju s t a s i n
l a n g u a g e t h e y h a d
c l o t h e d i t , i n a l l t h e m y s t e ri o u s n e s s o f t h e f i g u ra -
t i v e
t re e .
I m m e d i a t e l y o v e rt h e e q u e s t ri a n a n d c h a ri o t s p o rt s ,
w h i c h d e c o ra t e t h e p e d e s t a l , y o u s e e A d a m a n d Ev e
/ ` 4 A
J
ML I
i t
i
i ^d b b
"

i l l I 'l l l l

I 'I '
%I ~ I I I

! ! I ) i ! I ! e i ~ i l ~ r

i
c o n v e rs i n g a t e a c h s i d e o f t h i s s y m b o l o f t h e i rd e a rl y -
b o u g h t
k n o w l e d g e ! F a rt h e ru p a re o t h e re m b l e m s o f .
m y t h o l o g i c a l a l l u s i o n : w h i l e , i n t h e c e n t re a b o v e ,
y o u o b s e rv e a C a b i rp ri e s t , a l i a s , a F re e - m a s o n , h o l d -
i n g t h e i m p l e m e n t s o f h i s c ra f t - a h i g h h o n o u r- i n
THEROUNDTOWERS
.

3 59
h i s h a n d * ; a n d e n c o m p a s s e d b y a re t i n u e o f s e v e ra l
m o re p e rs o n s , a l l i n t h e g l o w o f jo y
Th e o t h e rs i d e s , t h o u g h l e s s c o m p l e x , a re n o t l e s s
g ra c e f u l , n o rl e s s s i g n i f i c a n t , t h a n t h e t w o w h i c h I
h a v e i n t ro d u c e d . I n t h e m , a l s o , e v e ry t h i n g b e a rs
re f e re n c e t o t h e B u d h i s t c e re m o n i a l
. No ra re t h e
m o u l d i n g s a n d t h e f l o w e ri n g s , t h e n e t - w o rk s ,
a n d o t h e r
o rn a m e n t s w h i c h f i g u re u p o n t h e m , t h e l e a s t e s s e n t i a l
c o n s t i t u e n t o f t h a t f ru i t f u l c o d e 1 - , - w h i l e t h e p e rs o -
n a t i o n o f a d o g , - a n i n v a ri a b l e a c c o m p a n i m e n t , a s
i t i s a l s o a m o n g s t t h e s c u l p t u re s a t P e rs e p o l i s , a n d
o t h e rp l a c e s i n t h e e a s t , - w o u l d , i n i t s e l f , b e s u f f i c i e n t
t o f i x t h e a p p ro p ri a t i o n o f t h o s e c ro s s e s ,
a s t h a t a n i -
m a l c a n h a v e n o p o s s i b l e re l a t i o n t o C h ri s t i a n i t y ,
w h e re a s , b y t h e Tu a t h - d e - d a n a a n s , i t w a s a c c o u n t e d
s a c re d , a n d i t s m a i n t e n a n c e e n jo i n e d b y t h e o rd i n a n c e s
o f t h e s t a t e , a s i t i s s t i l l i n t h e Ze n d b o o k s , w h i c h
re m a i n a f t e rZo ro a s t e r.
To C l o n d a l k i n To w e r, re p re s e n t e d a t p a g e 1 0 1 ,
t h e re b e l o n g s a l s o a s t o n e c ro s s , a n d b e a ri n g i t s o w n
h i s t o ry u p o n i t s Tu a t h - d e - d a n a a n
c o u n t e n a n c e
. I n
A rm a g h i s a n o t h e r. I c a n n o t a f f o rd t i m e t o p o i n t o u t
a n y m o re , b u t t h a t a t F i n g l a s
i s t o o re m a rk a b l e t o b e
q u i t e n e g l e c t e d .
Ev e ry b o d y i s a c q u a i n t e d w i t h t h e l e g e n d a ry t a l e
* I n c o n f i rm a t i o n o f t h i s , y o u w i l l f i n d a t p a g e 1 4 o f Se g u i n 's " Th e s -
s a l o n i a n C o i n s , " t h e i m p re s s i o n o f
g
m a n w i t h a h a m m e r, a s a b o v e , i n
o n e h a n d , a n d a k e y i n t h e o t h e r, a n d t h e w o rd C a b e i ro s a s t h e i n -
s c ri p t i o n
.
P On a l l p u b l i c o c c a s i o n s d i s p l a y s o f t h i s k i n d a re s t i l l i n d u l g e d i n
t h e e a s t . Th e f l o ra l i a o f t h e Ro m a n s w e re a d o p t e d f ro m t h e e a s t e rn s .
" Ev e ry p e rs o n , m a l e a n d f e m a l e , h a d
f e s t o o n s
d e p e n d i n g f ro m t h e t o p o f
t h e c a p d o w n o n e s i d e o f t h e h e a d . Th e s e w e re c o m p o s e d o f t h e f l o w e rs
o f t h e
w i l d ro s e a n d h a w t h o rn , a n d o t h e rb e a u t i f u l k i n d s , w h i c h , w h i l e
t h e y s e t o f f t h e h e a d - p i e c e o f t h e l i e g e s , l i t e ra l l y p e rf u m e d t h e a i r
w h e re v e rt h e y w e n t
. '- A Rc i i R.
3 6 0

THEROUNDTOWERS.
o f St . P a t ri c k h a v i n g b a n i s h e d a l l v e n o m o u s re p t i l e s
f ro m t h i s i s l a n d . No w , I a m v e ry w i l l i n g , a s h a s
b e e n s h o w n , t o g i v e t h i s a p o s t l e a l l t h e c re d i t w h i c h
h e d e s e rv e s ; b u t I a m a c h ro n i c l e ro f t ru t h ,
a n d
f ro m m e h e s h a l l h a v e n o ro m a n c e s .
So l i n u s , w h o
f l o u ri s h e d A . D. 1 9 0 , t h a t i s , a b o v e t w o c e n t u ri e s
b e f o re St . P a t ri c k w a s b o rn , h a s n o t i c e d t h e p h e n o -
m e n o n o f t h e re b e i n g n o v i p e rs h e re . I s i d o re h a s
re p e a t e d i t i n t h e s e v e n t h c e n t u ry
; a s h a s B e d e i n
t h e e i g h t h ; a n d , i n t h e n i n t h , Do n a t u s , t h e f a m o u s
B i s h o p o f F e s u l a . Th i s e x e m p t i o n , t h e re f o re , c a n n o t
b e a t t ri b u t a b l e t o St . P a t ri c k , w h o s e h o n o u rw o u l d b e
b e t t e rc o n s u l t e d b y h i s re l i g i o u s a d m i re rs , i n c o n f i n -
i n g t h e m s e l v e s t o f a c t s , w h i c h a re n u m e ro u s e n o u g h ,
t h a n i n s h o c k i n g c re d i b i l i t y b y t h e i rp i o u s f ra u d s .
A s t o t h e l o c a l p h e n o m e n o n , t o w h i c h y o u p e rc e i v e
h e c a n h a v e n o p re t e n s i o n s , I c a n n o t re s i s t b e s t o w i n g
u p o n i t a p a s s i n g o b s e rv a t i o n . B e d e , I t h i n k , h a s g o n e
s o f a ra s t o s a y , t h a t n o t o n l y a re t h e re n o s n a k e s t o
b e f o u n d i n I re l a n d , b u t t h a t t h e y w o u l d n o t l i v e , i f
i m p o rt e d : n a y , t h a t , w h e n b ro u g h t w i t h i n s i g h t o f
t h e s h o re , t h e y e x p i re ! I s h o u l d l i k e t o s e e t h i s
a s c e rt a i n e d ; i f t h e f a c t b e s u c h , t h e n t h e q u e s t i o n
i s s o l v e d , t h e a i ro rt h e s o i l i s t h e c a u s e .
B u t i f t h e c a s e b e o t h e rw i s e , t h e n m u s t w e a s c ri b e
i t t o s o m e h u m a n i n s t ru m e n t a l i t y ; a n d , a s t h e re o c c u r
v a ri o u s t e x t s i n Sc ri p t u re , a l l u s i v e , i t w o u l d s e e m ,
t o a v e ry p re v a i l i n g o p i n i o n i n t h e
e a s t ,
a s t o t h e
m a n a g e a b l e n e s s o f t h a t s p e c i e s , b y t h e p o w e r
o f
c h a rm s , - s u c h a s , " I w i l l s e n d s e rp e n t s , c o c k a t ri c e s ,
a m o n g y o u , w h i c h w i l l n o t b e c h a rm e d " - ( J e re m i a h
v i i i . 1 7 ) ;
a n d C
t h e d e a f a d d e rt h a t s t o p p e t h h e r
e a r, w h i c h w i l l n o t h e a rk e n t o t h e v o i c e o f c h a rm e rs ,
c h a rm i n g n e v e rs o w i s e l y " - ( P s a l m l v i i . 4 , 5) ; - a n d
THEROUNDTOWERS.

3 C 1
a s o u r
Tu a t h - d e - d a n a a n s , w h o w e re a n e a s t e rn
p e o p l e , a re re c o rd e d b y a l l o u re a rl y e c c l e s i a s t i c a l
w ri t e rs , a n d w i t h n o v i e w t o e n c o m i u m , a s s o e m i -
n e n t f o ri n c a n t a t i o n s , t h a t t h e i s l a n d s e e m e d , d u ri n g
t h e i rs w a y , t o h a v e b e e n o n e c o n t i n u a t i o n o f e n c h a n t -
m e n t , i t i s p a s t d o u b t , t h a t , i f p ra c t i c a b l e b y m a n 's
e f f i c a c y a t a l l , t h e m e ri t o f e x t i n c t i o n b e l o n g s s o l e l y
t o t h e m
. - A n d i t i s w e l l w o rt h n o t i c e , t h a t t h e i s l a n d
o f C re t e , w h e re a c o l o n y o f t h e m a l s o h a d s e t t l e d , i s
s a i d t o b e g i f t e d w i t h a s i m i l a re x e m p t i o n . 1 1 Th e
p ro f e s s e d s n a k e - c a t c h e rs i n I n d i a , " s a y s J o h n s o n ,
a re a l o w c a s t e o f Hi n d o o s , w o n d e rf u l l y c l e v e ri n
c a t c h i n g s n a k e s , a s w e l l a s i n p ra c t i s i n g t h e a rt o f
l e g e rd e m a i n ; t h e y p re t e n d t o d ra w t h e m f ro m t h e i r
h o l e s b y a s o n g , a n d b y a n i n s t ru m e n t re s e m b l i n g a n
I ri s h b a g p i p e , o n w h i c h t h e y p l a y a p l a i n t i v e t u n e * . "
Ev e ry l e g e n d , h o w e v e r, i s f o u n d e d u p o n re a l i t y ,
a n d I w i l l u n f o l d t o y o u f ro m w h a t h a s J o c e l i n e c o n -
c o c t e d t h i s a b o u t St . P a t ri c k . A l l t h e c ro s s e s o f t h e
Tu a t h - d e - d a n a a n s h a d s n a k e s e n g ra v e d u p o n t h e m .
L o o k b a c k a t t h a t a t Ki l l c u l l e n t , a n d y o u w i l l s e e
t h e m t h e re s t i l l , a n d m o re p l a i n l y , b y a n d b y , u p o n
t h a t a t Ke l l s
. Th e s e t o t h e I ri s h w e re o b je c t s o f
re v e re n c e , b e c a u s e o f t h e p a s s i o n s w h i c h t h e y s y m b o -
l i z e d
; a n d a c c o rd i n g l y t h e Sa i n t , i n o rd e rt o o b v i a t e
t h e re c u rre n c e o f s u c h c o n t e m p l a t i o n s , e f f a c e d t h e m ,
w h e n p ra c t i c a b l e , f ro m o f f t h e s t o n e s I .
* Sk e t c h e s o f I n d i a F i e l d - s p o rt s . Dr. Sh a w a n d Mr. F o rb e s a re e v e n
m o re c o n c l u s i v e .
t P a g e 3 3 8 .
I f y o u e x a m i n e t h e Tu a t h - d e - d a n a a n c ro s s e s w i t h a m i n u t e e y e ,
y o u w i l l f i n d t h i s e x p o s i t i o n i rre f u t a b l y v e ri f i e d
.
Th o u g h t h e y a l l h a v e
t h e t ra c e s o f t h e B u d h i s t s c u l p t u re , t h e y h a v e a l s o t h e m a rk s o f o b l i t e -
ra t i o n ;
a n d n o o n e o f t h e m t o a g re a t e re x t e n t t h a n t h i s a t F i n g l a s ,
3 6 2

THEROUNDTOWERS
.
Th e s a m e p re c i s e l y w a s t h e c o u rs e , b u t w i t h a l e s s
h a l l o w e d i n t e n t i o n , w h i c h t h e Mo s l e m s h a d p u rs u e d
i n t h e d i s s e m i n a t i o n o f t h e i rc re e d . L
Wh e n e v e r, "
s a y s A rc h e r, 1 1 t h e s e f i g u re s w e re i n t ro d u c e d , t h e
f a n a t i c Mo s l e m h a d h a m m e re d a w a y a l l t h o s e w i t h i n
h i s re a c h ;
a n d w h e n t h i s p ro c e s s w a s t o o s l o w f o r
t h e w o rk o f d e m o l i t i o n , a n o t h e rm o d e o f o b l i t e ra t i o n
w a s re q u i s i t e . Wh o l e c o m p a rt m e n t s o f s c u l p t u re
w e re p l a s t e re d o v e rt o h i d e t h e p ro f a n e i m a g e ry ! I n
c l e a ri n g a w a y t h e ru b b i s h , t o b ri n g t h e s e b e a u t i f u l
re m a i n s t o l i g h t , t h e e n g i n e e rs t u m b l e d o n a l o n g
f ri e z e , p a rt o f w h i c h h a d h a d t h e d e s t ro y i n g m a l l e t
p a s s e d o v e ri t
; b u t t h i s m e t h o d o f d e s p a t c h w a s n o t
a c t i v e e n o u g h , a n d t h a t p o rt i o n w h i c h h a d e s c a p e d
v i o l e n c e , h a d b e e n p l a s t e re d o v e rw i t h a c o m p o s i t i o n
o f t h e c o l o u ro f t h e s t o n e ' . "
We re a d a l s o i n t h e P u ra n a s , a s a n h i s t o ri c a l
c i rc u m s t a n c e , t h a t t h e w h o l e
s e rp e n t ra c e h a d b e e n
d e s t ro y e d b y J a n a m i ja y a , t h e s o n o f P a ri e s h i t , w h i c h ,
i n t ru t h , o n l y i m p l i e s , a s t h e t a l e n t e d p ro f e s s o ro f
Sa n s c ri t i n Ox f o rd Un i v e rs i t y h a s a l re a d y re m a rk e d ,
1 1
t h e s u b v e rs i o n o f t h e l o c a l a n d o ri g i n a l s u p e rs t i -
w h e re i t i s k n o w n t h a t St . P a t ri c k p ri n c i p a l l y re s i d e d
. Ye t e v e n t h i s
re t a i n s i n d i s t i n c t e v i d e n c e o f s n a k e s , & c . & c . & c .
" Th e b o d y o f t h e s n a k e i s n o t o n l y c a p a b l e o f f l e x i o n , b u t o f c l o s e
a n d i n t i m a t e
. a p p l i c a t i o n t o e v e ry ru g g e d i n e q u a l i t y o f a t re e o n t h e
e a rt h
; a n d t h i s f a c u l t y i s t h e re s u l t o f i t s m i n u t e s u b d i v i s i o n s
. Th e
b o d y o f t h e s n a k e i s n e v e rb e n t i n a c u t e a n g l e s , b u t a l w a y s i n f l o w i n g
e a s y c u rv e s o rc i rc l e s
. F ro m e a c h o f t h o s e d i s t a n t b o n e s , s o m u l t i t u -
d i n o u s i n t h e i rn u m b e r, w h i c h f o rm t h e v e rt e b ra l c o l u m n , ( a n d i n o n e
s p e c i e s o f P y t h ra w e h a v e c o u n t e d 2 56 , e x c l u s i v e o f t h o s e c o m p o s i n g t h e
t a i l , ) a ri b a ri s e s f ro m e a c h s i d e , a n d b o t h t o g e t h e rf o rm a g re a t p o rt i o n
o f a c i rc l e , s o a s t o e m b ra c e n e a rl y t h e w h o l e c i rc u m f e re n c e o f t h e b o d y
.
Th e s e ri b s a re re s t ri c t e d t o t h e v e rt e b ra e o f t h e b o d y o n l y
;
t h e y d o n o t
a ri s e f ro m t h o s e o f t h e t a i l . "
* Tra v e l s i n No rt h e rn I n d i a
.
THEROUNDTOWERS.

3 6 3
t i o n , a n d t h e e re c t i o n o f t h e s y s t e m o f t h e V e d a s u p o n
i t s ru i n s . "
St . P a t ri c k , i n l i k e m a n n e r, h a v i n g e s t a b l i s h e d
C h ri s t i a n i t y h e re , i n s u p e rc e d e n c e o f a re l i g i o n , t h e
m o s t p ro m i n e n t s y m b o l s o f w h i c h w e re
s n a k e s , c o c k a -
t ri c e s , a n d s e rp e n t s , m a y b e t ru l y s a i d t o h a v e e x t i r-
p a t e d
t h e i rra c e f ro m t h e c o u n t ry , b u t , a s y o u s e e , i n
a n a c c e p t a t i o n h e re t o f o re u n e x p l a i n e d .
Th e s t a t e m e n t g i v e n b y Ma jo rA rc h e ro f t h e s y m -
b o l i c re p re s e n t a t i o n s u p o n o n e o f t h e I n d i a n t e m p l e s ,
a s w e l l a s t h e p a rt i c u l a rs o f i t s f a t e , a re s o p e rf e c t l y
i n u n i s o n w i t h w h a t I h a v e b e e n d e s c ri b i n g , t h a t I
m u s t b e e x c u s e d i f I g i v e i t a p l a c e h e re .
Re a c h e d "
B u rw a h - Sa u g o r, " s a y s
h e . - " I m m e -
d i a t e l y o n t h e ri g h t i s a Hi n d o o t e m p l e , w h i c h I t h i n k
o n e o f t h e ra re s t s i g h t s , o n t h e s c o re o f a rc h i t e c t u re
a n d s c u l p t u re , w h i c h h a v e g ra t i f i e d o u rc u ri o s i t y .
Th e w o rk o f t h e c h i s e l w o u l d h a v e i m m o rt a l i s e d t h e
a rt i s t h a d h e l i v e d i n t h e p re s e n t d a y . I h a v e n e v e r
s e e n i t s e x e c u t i o n ri v a l l e d , a l t h o u g h t o l e ra b l y c o n v e r-
s a n t w i t h s i m i l a ro b je c t s o f a rt
.
Th e e l e g a n c e o f
d e s i g n - t h e a rra n g e m e n t o f t h e f i g u re s , w h i c h w e re
t o o n u m e ro u s t o b e c o m p u t e d - t h e p o s i t i o n o f t h e m
- t h e s h a rp a n d b o l d re l i e f - a n d t h e e l a b o ra t e o rn a -
m e n t s o f f o l i a g e a n d a n i m a l s , re n d e ri t o n e o f t h e
m o s t re m a rk a b l e m o n u m e n t s
o f a rt i t i s p o s s i b l e t o
c o n c e i v e . Th e re a re c o m p a rt m e n t s o n t h e l i n t e l s o f
t h e d o o rs a n d t h e e n t a b l a t u re , f o u rd e e p ; f i g u re s o f
t h e s u b o rd i n a t e d e i t i e s i n t h e v o l u m i n o u s c o d e o f B ra -
m a h , s y m b o l s o f t h e i ra t t ri b u t e s , s a c re d u t e n s i l s ,
a n d
a n i m a l s .
Tw o v a s e s a re o n t h e t h re s h o l d , w h i c h , f o r
s h a p e a n d e x e c u t i o n , w o u l d c o m p e t e t h e p a l m o f
e x c e l l e n c e w i t h G re c i a n a rt . Wre a t h s o f s n a k e s ,
a n d g ro u p s o f
m e n a n d w o m e n , a re o n t h e c o l u m n s ,
3 6 4

THEROUNDTOWERS
.
w h i c h a l s o h a v e
t h e i ro rn a m e n t s , a n d a re w e l l p ro -
p o rt i o n e d .
1 1 I c o u l d n o t re s i s t a s e c o n d v i s i t t o t h i s e d i f i c e ,
w h i c h , a t t h e ri s k o f a p p e a ri n g o p i n i o n a t i v e , I c a n
s e ri o u s l y a v e r, I n e v e rs a w e q u a l l e d f o rri c h n e s s a n d
t a s t e ; b u t t h e h a n d o f i n t o l e ra n t b i g o t ry h a s m a rre d
t h e w o rk o f f a i rp ro p o rt i o n .
Th e f a n a t i c a l Mo s l e m s ,
w h o o v e r- ra n t h e c o u n t ry i n t h e t i m e o f A c b a r, b ro k e
a n d d e f a c e d e v e ry i m a g e t h e y s a w
; a n d , w i t h f e w
e x c e p t i o n s , t h e h e a d o f e v e ry f i g u re , o f a n y s i z e o r
i m p o rt a n c e , h a s b e e n d e m o l i s h e d ;
a n d n o t h i n g re -
m a i n s b u t re l i c s , w h i c h a t t e s t t h e a d v a n c e o f t h e a rt s
a t t h e t i m e t h e s t ru c t u re w a s re a re d
. "
Th e e f f e c t s o f f a n a t i c i s m a re t h e s a m e i n a l l a g e s
.
I t d e s e c ra t e s a l i k e h u m a n a n d d i v i n e l a w s
. St . P a -
t ri c k w a s n o f a n a t i c
;
a n d a c c o rd i n g l y , i n h i s c o u rs e ,
w h a t h e c o u l d n o t h i m s e l f c o m p re h e n d , h e w a s
re s o l v e d , a t a l l e v e n t s , t o h a v e re s p e c t e d . Th o s e
c ro s s e s , t h e re f o re , w h i c h h a d p re v i o u s l y b e e n l o o k e d
u p o n w i t h a n e y e o f v e n e ra t i o n ,
t h o u g h , t h e c a u s e h a d
l o n g c e a s e d t o b e t ra n s m i t t e d , h e l i t e ra l l y
C h ri s t i a n i s e d ,
b y re m o v i n g t h e s c u l p t u re ; a n d t h u s w e re t h e y m a d e ,
i n t h e ri t u a l o f t h e n e w re l i g i o n , a s h a l l o w e d l y
e x p re s s i v e a s t h e y w e re e v e rb e f o re .
P re c i s e l y s i m i l a rw a s t h e s y s t e m p u rs u e d b y t h e
m i s s i o n a ri e s i n I n d i a .
Th e i s l a n d o f Sa l s e t t e , " s a y s C a p t a i n He a d ,
1 6
a b o u n d s i n m y t h o l o g i c a l a n t i q u i t i e s a n d p a g a n
t e m p l e s - t w o g i g a n t i c f i g u re s o f B u d d h a , n e a rt w e n t y
f e e t h i g h , o f c o m p l e t e p re s e rv a t i o n , w h i c h t h e y o w e
t o t h e z e a l o f t h e P o rt u g u e s e , w h o p a i n t e d t h e m re d ,
a n d c o n v e rt e d t h e p l a c e t h e y o rn a m e n t e d t o a C a t h o l i c
c h a p e l
. "
Th e P a n t h e o n a t Ro m e w a s n e w m o d e l l e d i n t h e
samemanner . I naw o rd , asG ro t i u sh asb ef o re
af f i rmed , "
i nf i ni t eap p ro p ri at i o nsh av eb eenmad e . "
B u t , i nd ep end ent l y o f t h i sc o nv ersi o n, t h ec o n-
f o rmi t y i t sel f b et w eent h eC h ri st i anand t h eB u d h i st
rel i g i o nw asso g reat , t h at t h eC h ri st i ans, w h o
ro u nd ed t h eC ap eo f G o o d Ho p ew i t h Vasc o d e
G ama, p erf o rmed t h ei rd ev o t i o nsi nanI nd i ant emp l e,
o nt h esh o reso f Hi nd o st an ! Nay ,
"i nmany p art s
o f t h eP eni nsu l a, "say t h eA si at i c R esearc h es, " C h ri s-
t i ansarec al l ed , and c o nsi d ered asf o l l o w erso f
B u d d h a, and t h ei rd i v i nel eg i sl at o r, w h o mt h ey
c o nf o u nd w i t h t h eap o st l eo f I nd i a, i sd ec l ared t o b e
af o rmo f B u d d h a, b o t h b y t h ef o l l o w erso f B rah ma
and t h o seo f S i v a ; and t h ei nf o rmat i o nI h ad rec ei v ed
o nt h at su b j ec t i sc o nf i rmed b y F
. P au l i no . "
I t w asno t - so w i t h t h o sew h o mad erel i g i o na
t rad e, and o nl y t h eau x i l i ary p ass- w o rd t o t h ei r
sel f i sh ag g rand i sement !
Wh ent h e
1 1
ab o mi nat i o no f
d eso l at i o n* "sw ep t o v ert h i sc o u nt ry , and st rew ed
t h ev erd u reo f i t ssu rf ac ew i t h t h ei nd i sc ri mi nat e
f rag ment so f c at h ed ral s, o f c ast l es, and o f t o w ers, t h e
c ro ssesb u t asl i t t l eesc ap ed t h esc o u rg e !
Hav i ng h ad o c c asi o nt o p asst h ro u g h F i ng l as, o n
t h ei rmarc h t o t h esi eg eo f D ro g h ed a, and f anc y i ng
t h ec ro ss, w h i c h st o o d t h ere, t o h av eb een nec essari l y
t h eerec t i o no f o b no x i o u s R o mani sm, t h ey g av ei t an
i c o no c l ast
b l o w , w h i c h b ro k ei t ssh af t i nt o t w o
!
Th u s
d ec ap i t at ed , i t f el l . B u t t h ec i t i z ens, w i sh i ng t o
av o i d f u rt h erp ro f anat i o n, so o nasev ert h earmy ev a-
c u at ed t h et o w n, t o o k t h ed i sj o i nt ed rel i c , and b u ri ed
i t , v ery d ec o ro u sl y , w i t h i nt h ec o nf i neso f t h ec h u rc h -
y ard
Herei t remai ned , i nc o nsec rat ed i nt erment , u nt i l
THER OUND TOWER S .

3 6 5
* Ol i v erC ro mw el l w i t h h i sarmy o f l o c u st s .
3 6 6

THE R OUND TOWER S .


t h eb eg i nni ng o f t h ey ear1 8 1 6 , w h enano l d mano f
t h ep ari sh , rec o u nt i ng anec d o t eso f b y - g o net i mes,
ment i o ned , amo ng st o t h ers, t h ep art i c u l arso f t h i s
t rad i t i o n, and ex c i t ed so mec u ri o si t y b y t h enarrat i v e
.
Th eR ev
. R o b ert Wal sh w ast h enc u rat eo f F i ng l as,
and t h i smy st eri o u sh i st o ry h av i ng reac h ed h i sears,
h ed et ermi ned f o rt h w i t h t o asc ert ai ni t sev i d enc es
.
Hi sf i rst st ep w ast o seet h ec h ro ni c l erh i msel f
. -
Th i sp erso nag e' snamew asJ ac k Wh i t e . J ac k , w h o
w ash i msel f w el l st ri c k eni ny ears, t o l d h i m, t h at h e
THER OUND TOWER S .

3 6 7
h ad l earned , al o ng w h i l eag o , f ro mh i sf at h er, w h o w as
t h enh i msel f rat h erel d erl y , t h at h eh ad b eensh o w n,
b y h i sst i l l o l d erg rand f at h er, t h ei d ent i c al sp o t w h ere
t h ec ro ssh ad b eenc o nc eal ed , and c o u l d p o i nt i t o u t
no w t o any o new i t h c ert ai nt y and p rec i seness .
Th ep ro p o sal w asac c ep t ed
; w o rk menw ereem-
p l o y ed ;
and , af t erc o nsi d erab l ep ersev eranc e, t h e
c ro ssw as ex h u med ! i t sp art s
re- u ni t ed b y i ro nc ramp s !
and re- erec t ed ,
aso p p o si t e, w i t h i nash o rt d i st anc eo f
t h esc eneo f i t ssu b t erraneansl u mb ers! asi f i n
renasc ent t ri u mp h o v ert h ed est ro y er!
L et su c h ap p ro ac h t h i sc o nsec rat ed l and
A nd p assi np eac eal o ng t h emag i c w ast e
B u t sp arei t srel i c s- l et no b u sy h and
D ef ac et h esc ene, al read y h o w d ef ac ed
No t f o rsu c h p u rp o sew eret h o seal t arsp l ac ed
R ev eret h eremnant snat i o nso nc erev ered ;
S o may o u rc o u nt ry ' snameb eu nd i sg rac ed ,
S o may st t h o u p ro sp erw h eret h y y o u t h w asreared ,
B y ev ery h o nest j o y o f l o v eand l i f eend eared * .
* B y ro n
.
3 6 8
C HA P TER XXVI .
I T w i l l b eb o rnei nmi nd , t h at ev ery t h i ng h i t h ert o
ad v anc ed , o nt h ev ari o u st o p i c s, w h i c h w eh av eb een
d i sc u ssi ng , w ast h esh eerresu l t o f i nt ernal reaso ni ng ,
and o f p erso nal c i rc u msp ec t i o n- t h at , w h erev erex -
t ri nsi c ai d w asb ro u g h t f o rw ard i nsu p p o rt o f t h i s
u nb eat ent rac k , i t w asu ni f o rml y i nt h esh ap eo f c o n-
c l u si o ns, d ed u c ed f ro mt h ep remi seso f rel u c t ant w i t -
nesses . I rej o i c e, w i t h d el i g h t u nsp eak ab l e, t h at I
h av ei t , at l ast , i n my p o w er, t o rang emy sel f , si d eb y
si d e, w i t h anau t h o r, w h o set est i mo ny i nt h i smat t er
mu st b ec o nsi d ered d ec i si v e, b u t w h i c h , h o w ev er, b y
so mest rang eab errat i o no f i nt el l ec t , h asnev erb ef o re
b eenu nd erst o o d !
C o rmac * , t h ec el eb rat ed b i sh o p o f C ash el , and
o neo f t h ef i rst sc h o l arsw h o ev erf l o u ri sh ed i nany
c o u nt ry , w h end ef i ni ng t h eR o u nd To w ers, i nh i s
G l o ssary o f t h eI ri sh L ang u ag e, u nd ert h enameo f
G ai l l t , say s, t h at t h ey w ere " C art h ac l o ac h ai sai re
b earo rg al l d esu c d erF o b i t h ro c eat asu i g h ed seat en
Ei re, ' ' - t h at i s, st o ne- b u i l t mo nu ment s, w i t h i nw h i c h
no b l ej u d g esu sed t o i nc l o sev asesc o nt ai ni ng t h e
rel i c so f F o ( i . e . B u d h ) , and o f w h i c h t h ey h ad erec t ed
h u nd red st h ro u g h o u t I rel and !
* S o mesay h eb el o ng ed t o t h e
f i f t h
c ent u ry . A l l ag reet h at i t w as
no t l at ert h ant h e ni nt h .
` i ' S eep ag e 6 1 .
THER OUND TOWER S .

3 6 9
K no w i ng t h at t h eC ey l o nese D ag o b s, a namew h i c h
l i t eral l y si g ni f i es h o u seso f rel i c s, w ereap p u rt enanc eso f
B u d h i sm, I i nt reat ed o f av ery i nt el l i g ent nat i v eo f t h at
i sl and , w h o at t end ed t h eVi h ara, at Ex et erHal l , so me
t i meag o , t h at h ew o u l d f av o u rmew i t h aw ri t t en
o u t l i neo f h i sv i ew so f t h o sest ru c t u res . A f t eraf ew
d ay sh ev ery c i v i l l y o b l i g ed mew i t h t h ef o l l o w i ng :-
" t o t h eeast ernc o u nt ri eso f t enh av e
t h ei rno t i c eat t rac t ed b y nu mero u sb u i l d i ng so f a
si ng u l arf o rmand o f eno rmo u ssi z es, b o t h ' i nru i ns
and i np reserv ed st at es, ab o u t t h eo ri g i nand o b j ec t s
o f w h i c h , many i nq u i ri esh av eb eenmad e, and v ari o u s
c o nc l u si o nsd raw n . Th esearemo nu ment srai sed i n
anc i ent t i mest o t h ememo ry o f d ei f i ed p erso ns, and
c al l ed C h ai t y as,
t o w h i c h p l ac esd ev o t eesu sed t o reso rt
f o rmed i t at i o n, esp ec i al l y t h o sew h o h ad any p art i c u l ar
v enerat i o nf o rt h ed ec eased , w h o serel i c s' aresu p p o sed
t o b ed ep o si t ed w i t h i n, and o nw h o sev i rt u est h ey
q u i et l y ref l ec t , av ai l i ng t h emsel v eso f t h eso l i t u d e
o f su c h p l ac es
; and i f i nt h ei ro w ni mag i nat i o nst h e
p erso nag esared ei f i ed , t h ey mak eo f f eri ng so f l amp -
l i g h t , & c .
" I n' ex p l o ri ng t h eru i nso f t h esep y rami d s, t h e
i nsi d eo f t h eg l o b esaref o u nd t o c o nt ai nl o o seeart h ,
merel y f i l l ed u p af t ert h earc h esh ad b eenrai sed ; i n
su c h l o o seeart h aref o u nd anc i ent c o i nso f v ari o u s
met al s, su p p o sed t o b et h ro w ni n, i nt o k eno f resp ec t
o rv enerat i o n, w h i l st b u i l d i ng ; b u t i nt h ev ery c ent re
o f t h eg l o b e
i s
al w ay sf o u nd asq u are w el l ,
p av ed
w i t h b ri c k s, and t h emo u t h sc o v ered b y h ew ng rani t e,
b o rneo ng rani t esu p p o rt ers, st and i ng i nt h ef o u r
c o rnerso f t h esq u are( so met i mest ri ang u l ar) .
I nt h i s
w el l , i f t h emo nu ment o f ak i ng , ( and i f no t ro b b ed b y
2 B
3 7 0

THER OUND TOWER S .


anc i ent i nv ad ers, ) w i l l b ef o u nd t h eu rn, c o nt ai ni ng
t h erel i c so f t h ed ec eased , and t reasu ret o ac o nsi d er-
ab l ew o rt h . S o met i mest h eremay b ed i sc o v ered a
p i ec eo f b eat eng o l d , o ro t h ermet al , w i t h eng rav i ng s,
ment i o ni ng t h enameand o t h erc i rc u mst anc eso f t h e
d ec eased . I f aB u d d h i st k i ng , i d o l so f B u d d h a
mi g h t b ef o u nd i ni t - b u t i n o t h ers, so met i mes
eart h eno rmet al l i c l amp s, and h ead so f
c o b ra
d e
c ap el l as
.
1 1 I n
si mi l armo nu ment s, erec t ed f o rt h erel i c so f
B u d d h a, aret h reed i f f erent c o mp art ment so rd ep o -
si t o ri es ; o nei nt h eb o t t o mo f t h ef o u nd at i o n, o nei n
t h eh eart o f t h eg l o b e, and o neat t h et o p o f t h e
g l o b ew i t h i nt h ec o l u mn . Th i sc o l u mnal w ay sh as
i t sb asi su p o nt h eg rani t ec o v eri ng o f t h ew el l . I n
mo nu ment so f t h i sd esc ri p t i o nare, su p p o sed t o b e
mu c h b u ri ed t reasu re, esp ec i al l y i nt h ef o u nd at i o ns .
Th eP al y b o o k , To o p ah w anse,
g i v esac c o u nt o f t h e
d i st ri b u t i o no f t h eB u d d h a' srel i c st o t h ed i f f erent
p art so f t h ew o rl d , and t h eerec t i o no f su c h mo nu -
ment so v ert h em
.
M o nu ment so f emi nent B u d d h i st h i g h p ri est sare
so met i meserec t ed v ery h i g h , b u t no t reasu rei st o b e
ex p ec t ed i nt h em, ex c ep t i ng so met i mesb o o k sen-
g rav ed
o n -
met al ; b u t t h et o mb o f t h ep o o rest p ri nc e
i snev erw i t h o u t ( at l east i nmo d el s) ag o l d enc ro w n,
asw o rd o f t h esamemet al , ap ai ro f met al l i c sh o es,
and asi mi l arp araso l .
' B esi d esh av i ng l earnt f ro mt rad i t i o nand anc i ent
d o c u ment s, t h ew ri t erh asseent h ed i sc o v ery o f t h e
t o mb o f ap ri nc e, i nw h i c h t h eseart i c l esw eref o u nd ,
w i t h ap l at eo f g o l d , st at i ng t h enameo f t h ep ri nc e,
h i sag e, d eat h , & c
. , w h i c h h eh ad t h ep l easu ret o
THE R OUND TOWER S .

3 7 1
t ransc ri b e ; t h e c h arac t ers w ere i n a d i f f erent f o rm
f ro m t h o se no w u sed i nt h e same l ang u ag e, and
h ard l y i nt el l i g i b l e .
" Th e w ri t eral so h ad t h ep l easu reo f ex p l o ri ng t h e
ru i nso f av ery l o f t y D ag o b t h at st o o d o p p o si t et o t h e
est ab l i sh ment o f t h eC h u rc h M i ssi o nari esi nC ey l o n
.
I t . w asf o u nd t o h av eb eent h et o mb o f amo narc h ,
and h ad t h e . ap p earanc eo f h av i ng b eenro b b ed o f t h e
w eal t h i t v ery l i k el y c o nt ai ned , u p w ard so f ac ent u ry
ag o , ast h et reest h at w ereg ro w i ng o ni t i nd i c at ed .
A l arg eq u ant i t y o f anc i ent c o i ns, and met al o f d i f -
f erent k i nd s, mel t ed i nt o v ari o u ssh ap es, ( p erh ap s
w i t h b u rni ng o f t h ec o rp se, ) w ereh o w ev erc o l l ec t ed .
"
C ey l o nc o nt ai nsmany anc i ent p y rami d so f t h e
k i nd i nap reserv ed st at e, and p ro t ec t ed b y t h ep eo p l e,
w h i c h aresu p p o sed t o c o nt ai nmu c h w eal t h , b u t t h e
su p erst i t i o u sd o no t d aret o ex p l o re, and o t h ersf ear
t h el aw s, w h i c h w i l l p ermi t v i o l enc et o no man' s
f eel i ng s* . "
Hav i ng b ef o resh o w nh o w t h at t h erel i g i o no f
t h eanc i ent sw asi nt erw o v enw i t h t h ei rf u neral o b -
serv anc es, t h i so c u l art est i mo ny w asal o nereq u i si t e
t o g ai nc red enc ef o rmy p ro o f s . I c anst i l l f u rt h er
ad d u c et h eau t h o ri t y o f D r . Hu rd t , t o sh o w t h at
t h eG au rso f I nd i a, t o t h i sd ay , mak eu seo f t h e
R o u nd To w ers
I
i nt h ei rnei g h b o u rh o o d , asp l ac eso f
b u ri al , l i f t i ng u p t h ed ead b o d i est o t h eel ev at ed d o o r
b y meanso f l ad d ersand p u l l i es .
No neo f t h o se
t h reew ri t ersh av eat t emp t ed any t h i ng mo ret h ana
* " J u l y , 1 8 3 3 . "- Th i sg ent l eman' snamew asP arei ra .
f i R el i g i o u sR i t esand C eremo ni es .
$ Th e
G au rst h emsel v esd i d no t b u i l d t h o set o w ers, b u t f i nd i ng t h em
t o t h ei rh and , and k no w i ng t h emt o h av eb eenf o rmerl y rev erenc ed , t h ey
c o nv ert ed t h emt o t h i sp u rp o se .
21 , 2
3 7 2

THER OUND TOWER S .


st at ement o f t h e ac t u al i t i es, t h eref o re w i l l I b e
ex c u sed i f , i n ad d i t i o n t o w h at h asb eenal read y
d et ai l ed , I o b serv et h at , su b l i meand p h i l o so p h i c as
w ast h ei nt ent o f t h e p h al l i c c o nf i g u rat i o no f t h o se
ed i f i c es, ap p l i ed t o rel i g i o n,
i t w asi nc o mp arab l y mo re
so , c o nsi d ered i nref erenc et o
sep u l t u re
;
f o rw h i l e,
i nt h ef o rmer, i t merel y t y p i f i ed t h ep ro g resso f
g enerat i o n and v i t al i t y , i nt h el at t eri t su g g est ed t h e
mo reenno b l i ng h o p eo f af u t u re renasc c nc e
and a ,
resu rrec t i o n .
Th at t h eread er, no w aw areo f t h e 1 1 sec ret " w h i c h
d i rec t ed t h ef o rmand el ev at i o no f o u rS ab i anTo w ers,
sh o u l d no t b esu rp ri sed at t h eaf f i ni t y w h i c h I h av e
b ef o rep o i nt ed o u t b et w eent h emand t h et w o "p i l l ars"
w h i c h st o o d at t h ed o o ro f S o l o mo n' sTemp l e* , I
sh al l t el l h i mt h at t h ew h o l ei nt ernal c o nst ru c t i o no f
t h i sl at t ered i f i c e, asw el l ast h o seo u t erand p art i al
o rnament s, b o red i rec t rel at i o nt o t h eanat o mi c al
o rg ani smo f manh i msel f .
* Onec al l ed J ac h en, t h at i s, h esh al l est ab l i sh
; and t h eo t h er B o az ,
o ri ni t i sst reng t h . Th i sw asal l emb l emat i c al , w h i c h , ' w i t h o u t g i v i ng
S o l o mo nany p art i c i p at i o nt h erei n, may b eac c o u nt ed f o ro nt h ep ri n-
c i p l e, t h at t h eb u i l d i ng w asc o nd u c t ed u nd ert h esu p eri nt end enc eo f
Hi ram, aS i d o ni an, w h o nat u ral l y h ad ex erc i sed t h et ast eo f h i so w n
c o u nt ry i nt h ed i sc ret i o nh ereal l o w ed h i m . No rw i l l t h ec i rc u mst anc e
o f t h o sep i l l arsh av i ng b eenmad eo f met al o p p o seany b arri er- t h e
d esi g ni s
t h et h i ng t o b ec o nsi d ered , no t t h e
mat eri al . A nd b esi d es, w e
f i nd t h emo f met al el sew h ereal so
.
1 1
A ni ro np i l l ar, "say sA rc h er, "
st and si naso rt o f c o u rt - y ard , h av i ng
t h eremai nso f c l o i st erso nt h ef o u rsi d es . I t sh i st o ry i s v ei l ed i nd ark est
ni g h t
.
Th erei sani nsc ri p t i o no ni t , w h i c h no b o d y c and ec i p h er :no r
i st h ereany ac c o u nt , h i st o ri c al o rt rad i t i o nal , ex c ep t w emay ref ert o t h e
l at t erc l ass, ap rev al ent i d eao f al l p eo p l e, t h at t h ep i l l ari so nt h e
mo st sac red sp o t o f t h eo l d c i t y , w h i c h sp o t w asal so i t sc ent re . I t i s
al so sai d , t h at asl o ng ast h ep i l l arst o o d , so l o ng w o u l d Hi nd o st an
f l o u ri sh . Th i sw ast h eu ni t ed d i c t u mo f t h eB rami nsand ast ro l o g erso f
t h ed ay . Th ep i l l ari sf i f t eeno rsi x t eeni nc h esi nd i amet er. "
TI L ER OUND TOWER S .

3 7 3
To i nst anc eo nl y t h emo st p ro mi nent o f t h o seana-
.
l o g i es, y o u w i l l f i nd t h e " h o l y "and t h e mo st
h o l y "b eart h esamerel at i o nt o eac h o t h er, ast h e
c ereb ru mand c ereb el l u mo f t h eh u manmec h ani sm .
No rneed t h i sat al l b ew o nd ered at , seei ng t h at ,
f ro mt h ev ery f ai nt est ref l ec t i o n, i t mu st su g g est i t sel f
t o t h emo st i nd o l ent , t h at t h ed i v i nei ng enu i t y mo st
p ro mi nent l y _ sh i nesf o rt h i nt h eh u mananat o my
; and
t h at , t h eref o re, f ro mt h eex al t ed sent i ment sw h i c h t h i s
i sc al c u l at ed t o i nsp i reo f t h eG o d h ead , t h eno b l est
st u d y o f mank i nd i sman* . "
Vi ew i ng i t i nt h i sl i g h t , and c o u p l i ng i t w i t h t h at
p i et y w h i c h i sk no w nt o h av eani mat ed t h eb o so m
o f D av i d ' sano i nt ed so n, I c anno t p asso nw i t h o u t
p art i c i p at i ng i nt h at su b l i meex c l amat i o n, w h i c h
b esp o k eat o nc eh i sg rat i t u d eand h i s .
h u mi l i t y ,
af t ert h ec o nsu mmat i o no f h i smi g h t y t ask
. 1 1 B u t
w i l l G o d , "sai d h e, "i nd eed d w el l o neart h ? B e-
h o l d ! t h eh eav enand t h eh eav eno f h eav ensc anno t
c o nt ai nt h ee, h o w mu c h l esst h i sh o u set h at I h av e
b u i l d ed f ' ! "
No w . : t o :t h e era f o rt h eerec t i o no f o u rR o u nd
To w ers . . A st h ey h av enei t h erd at esno ri nsc ri p -
t i o ns, "say sS i rJ o h nWare,
" and ash i st o ry i ssi l ent
o nt h at h ead , i t c anno t b eex p ec t ed t h at I sh o u l d
p o i nt o u t t h et i mew h ent h ey w ereerec t ed i nt h i s
c o u nt ry J
. "- A
v ery c h eap w ay , c ert ai nl y , o f g et t i ng
o v erad i f f i c u l t y
!
Th esamew ast h emo d ead o p t ed
b y h i m, and w i t h eq u al c and o u r, af ew p ag esearl i er,
ast o t h ed ev el o p ment o f t h ei r
d est i nat i o n, w h enh e
say s- "I c o nf essi t i smu c h easi ert o c o mb at and
* ay d ew v ro s av Ti T. , v rav Tw v
p c sTef f . - P HOTA G Ol 2A S .
h I K i ng sv i i i
. 27 .
A nt i q u i t i eso f I rel and , v o l . i i . p . 1 3 . 3 .
3 7 4

THER OUND TOWER S .


o v ert h ro w
ev ery t h i ng t h at h asb eenh i t h ert o ad v anc ed
b y w ri t ersi nf av o u ro f t h e D ani sh c l ai m t o t h ese
mo nu ment so f ant i q u i t y and t h e
u ses o f t h em, - t h an
t o su b st i t u t e
ant h i ng so l i d and sat i sf ac t o ry i nt h ei r
ro o m' . "
B u t i nasmu c h ast h el at t erp ro b l emh as
b eenso l v ed , o nei sl ed t o c o nc l u d e, t h at t h eo b st ac l es
t o
t h ef o rmerareb u t i mag i nary al so .
To b eg i nt h en- C amd en, sp eak i ng o f t h em, i nt h e
t h i rt eent h c ent u ry , say s, h eb el i ev est h emt o h av e
b een
erec t ed i nt h esev ent h , b u t d o esno t k no w b y
w h o m !
B u t I p u t i t t o any rat i o nal t h i nk ert o say ,
w h et h er, i f t h ey h ad b eenac reat i o no f t h esev ent h
c ent u ry , i t w o u l d b ep o ssi b l ef o raw ri t ero f t h et h i r-
t eent h t o h av eb eeni g no rant o f t h ei ro ri g i n, and t h at
t o o at at i mew h en t rad i t i o nw as u ni v ersal ? and
ev ery f at h er
- mad ei t ap o i nt t o i nst i l i nt o h i sso n
t h eev ent sand c i rc u mst anc est h at h ap p ened i nh i s
o w nd ay ? Th i sw ri t er' st est i mo ny i ssu f f i c i ent , at
al l ev ent s, t o sh o w t h at t h ey ex i st ed i nt h esev ent h
c ent u ry .
B i sh o p C o rmac , w eh av eseenb ef o re, h asrec o rd ed
t h emaso b j ec t so f ant i q u i t y
i n
h i so w nt i me ; and
t h i sb ei ng , at t h el at est , w i t h i nt h eni nt h c ent u ry ,
t h ey mu st h av eh ad ex i st enc eb ef o ret h esev ent h ;
el se
t h ey c o u l d no t w el l b ed eemed anc i ent
t w o c ent u -
ri esaf t er .
Th eUl st erA nnal srec o rd t h ed est ru c t i o no f f i f t y -
sev eno f t h emb y aneart h q u ak e, A . D . 4 4 8 ; t h ey
mu st , t h eref o re, h av eex i st ed b ef o ret h at c ent u ry
al so .
B u t t h eR o y al I ri sh A c ad emy say
no
; b ec au se
t h at t rad i t i o nc o nnec t sap erso nc al l ed t h e G o b an
S aer,
and " t h eh i st o ri c al no t i c esrel at i v et o w h o m
* A nt i q u i t i eso f I rel and , v o l . i i . p . 1 29 .
THER OUND TOWER S .

3
7
5
h av eb eenc o l l ec t ed i nt o M r . P et ri e' sEssay
w i t h
t h eerec t i o no f t h i s( t h eA nt ri mTo w er) , asw el l as
o t h ersi n t h e - no rt h o f I rel and * ! " A sev ery no t i c e,
t h eref o re, resp ec t i ng so i mp o rt ant ac h arac t er, mu st
b eeag erl y so u g h t af t er, I sh al l t ak el eav et o t ran-
sc ri b ew h at t h esameh i g h au t h o ri t y t el l su so f h i m,
i nt h ef o l l o w i ng w o rd s, v i z . - -
" I h av eno t l earned t h ep art i c u l arp eri o d at w h i c h
h ef l o u ri sh ed , b u t t rad i t i o nsay s, t h at h ew assu p eri o r
t o al l h i s' c o nt emp o rari esi nt h eart o f b u i l d i ng ; -
ev en
i nt h at d ark ag ew h enso l i t t l ec o mmu ni c at i o nex i st ed .
b et w eenc o u nt ri esno t so remo t el y si t u at ed , h i sf ame
ex t end ed t o d i st ant l and s
. A B ri t i sh p ri nc e, w h o se
p o ssessi o nsw erev ery ex t ensi v e, and w h o f el t amb i -
t i o u so f erec t i ng asp l end i d p al ac et o b eh i sreg al resi -
d enc e, h eari ng o f t h eh i g h at t ai nment so f t h eG o b an
S aer, i nh i ssu b l i mesc i enc e, i nv i t ed h i mt o c o u rt ;
) and
b y p ri nc el y g i f t s, and mag ni f i c ent p ro mi ses, i nd u c ed
h i mt o b u i l d ast ru c t u re, t h esp l end o u ro f w h i c h ex -
c el l ed t h at o f al l t h ep al ac esi nt h ew o rl d .
B u t t h e
c o nsu mmat esk i l l o f t h eart i st h ad nearl y c o st h i mh i s
l i f e, f o rt h e- p ri nc e, st ru c k w i t h t h emat c h l essb eau t y
o f t h ep al ac e, w asd et ermi ned t h at i t sh o u l d st and
u nri v al l ed o nt h eeart h , b y p u t t i ng t h earc h i t ec t t o
d eat h , w h o al o new asc ap ab l eo f c o nst ru c t i ng su c h
ano t h er, af t ert h emo ment t h eb u i l d i ng rec ei v ed t h e
f i ni sh i ng t o u c h eso f h i ssk i l f u l h and .
"Th i sc el eb rat ed i nd i v i d u al h ad aso n, w h o w as
g ro w n u p . t o man' sest at e ; and anx i o u st h at t h i so nl y
c h i l d sh o u l d p o ssess, i nmarri ag e, ay o u ng w o mano f
so u nd senseand read y w i t , h ec ared l i t t l ef o rt h ef ac -
t i t i o u sd i st i nc t i o nso f b i rt h o rf o rt u ne, i f h ef o u nd h er
* D u b l i nP enny J o u rnal , J u l y 20, 1 8 3 3 .
3 7 6

THE R OUND TOWER S .


ri c h i nt h eg i f t so f h eav en, . Hav i ng k i l l ed ash eep , h e
sent t h ey o u ng mant o sel l t h e sk i n at t h enex t mark et
t o w n, w i t h t h i ssi ng u l ari nj u nc t i o n, t h at h esh o u l d
b ri ng h o me t h esk i nand i t sp ri c e at h i sret u rn . Th e
l ad w asal w ay s' ac c u st o med t o
b o w t o h i sf at h er' s
su p eri o rw i sd o m, and o nt h i so c c asi o nd i d no t st o p t o
q u est i o nt h eg o o d senseo f h i sc o mmand s, b u t b ent
h i sw ay t o t o w n . I nt h esep ri mi t i v e
- t i mes, i t w as
no t u nu su al t o seep erso nso f t h eh i g h est rank en-
g ag ed i nmeni al emp l o y ment s, so t h et o w n- f o l k w ere
l esssu rp ri sed t o seet h ey o u ng G o b anex p o sea
sh eep - sk i nf o rsal e, t h anat t h eab su rd i t y o f t h et erm,
t h esk i nand t h ep ri c eo f i t . ' Hec o u l d f i nd no c h ap -
man, o rrat h erc h ap w o man( t o c o i nat erm) , f o ri t w as
w o meneng ag ed i nd o mest i c b u si nesst h at u su al l y
p u rc h ased su c h sk i ns
f o r t h ew o o l . A y o u ng w o man
at l ast ac c o st ed h i m, and u p o nh eari ng t h et ermso f
sal e, af t erp o nd eri ng amo ment ag reed t o t h eb arg ai n .
S h et o o k h i mt o h erh o u se, and h av i ng st ri p p ed o f f
al l t h ew o o l , ret u rned h i mt h eb aresk i n, and t h ep ri c e
f o rw h i c h t h ey o u ng manst i p u l at ed
. Up o nreac h -
i ng h o me, h eret u rned
t h e sk i nand
i t sv al u e' ' t o h i s
f at h er, w h o l earni ng , t h at a y o u ng w o manb ec amet h e
p u rc h aser, ent ert ai ned so h i g h ano p i ni o no f h er
t al ent s, t h at i naf ew d ay ssh eb ec amet h ew i f eo f h i s
so n, and so l emi st resso f R at h G o b an
.
"
S o met i meaf t ert h i smarri ag e, and t o w ard st h e
p eri o d t o w h i c h w eb ef o reref erred , w h ent h eG o b an
S aerand h i sso nw ereset t i ng o f f , at t h ei nv i t at i o no f
t h eB ri t i sh p ri nc e, t o erec t h i ssu p erb p al ac e, t h i s
y o u ng w o manex h i b i t ed c o nsi d erab l eab i l i t i es, and
t h ek eennesso f h erex p ressi o ns, and t h eb ri l l i anc y o f
h erw i t , f aro u t d i d , o nmany o c c asi o ns, t h eac u men
o f t h eG o b anS aerh i msel f ; sh eno w c au t i o ned h i m,
THER OUND TOWER S
.

3 7 7
w h enh i so l d f at h er, w h o d i d no t , l i k emo d ernarc h i -
t ec t s, B i anc o ni i t al o ng M ac ad ami z ed ro ad s, g o t t i red
f ro mt h el eng t h o f t h ej o u rney , t o sh o rt ent h e ro ad
;
and sec o nd l y , no t t o sl eep at h i rd ni g h t i nany h o u se
w i t h o u t sec u ri ng t h ei nt erest o f a d o mest i c f emal e
f ri end .
Th et rav el l ersp u rsu ed t h ei rw ay , and af t er
so mew eary w al k i ng o v erf l i nt y ro ad s, and t h ro u g h
i nt ri c at ep assag es, t h est reng t h o f t h eel d erG o b an
y i el d ed t o t h ef at i g u eo f t h ej o u rney
. Th ed u t i f u l
so nw o u l d g l ad l y sh o rt ent h ero ad
f o rt h ew ay - w o rn
seni o r, b u t f el t h i msel f u neq u al t o t h et ask
.
On
ac q u ai nt i ng h i sf at h erw i t h t h ec o nj u g al p rec ep t , t h e
o l d manu nrav el l ed t h emy st ery , b y b i d d i ng h i mc o m-
menc eso mest rang el eg end o f ro manc e, w h o sed el i g h t -
f u l p eri o d sw o u l d b eg u i l ef at i g u eand p ai ni nt o
c h armed at t ent i o n .
. I ri sh men, I b el i ev e, - aret h e
c l ev erest i nEu ro p eat `
t h ro w i ng i t o v er' f emal esi n
f o rei g np l ac es, and i t i sp ret t y l i k el y t h at t h ey o u ng er
G o b and i d no t d i so b ey t h esec o nd p rec ep t o f h i sb e-
l o v ed w i f e .
Ont h esec o nd ni g h t at t h ei rarri v al at
t h ek i ng ' sc o u rt , h ef o u nd i nt h ep erso no f af emal e
o f v ery h i g h rank ( so mesay sh ew ast h ek i ng ' sd au g h -
t er) , a
f ri end w h o g av eh erc o nf i d i ng h eart
t o al l = t h e
d eard el i g h t st h at l o v eand t h i sI ri sh ex p eri ment al i st
c o u l d b est o w
. A st h eb u i l d i ng p ro c eed ed u nd ert h e
sk i l f u l su p eri nt end enc eo f t h eel d erG o b an, t h eso n
ac q u ai nt sh i mw i t h t h ep ro g resso f h i sl o v e, and t h e
ard ent at t ac h ment o f t h el ad y
. Th ec au t i o u so l d man
b ad eh i mb ew areo f o nec ap ab l eo f su c h v i o l ent p assi o n,
and t ak ec arel est h erj eal o u sy o rc ap ri c emi g h t no t
b eeq u al l y u ng o v ernab l e, and d i sp l ay mo ref earf u l
ef f ec t s .
To d i sc o v erh ert emp er, t h ef at h ero rd ered
h i mt o sp ri nk l eh erf ac ew i t h w at erash ew ash ed
h i msel f i nt h emo rni ng - t h at i f sh erec ei v ed t h e
3 7
8

THE
R OUND TOWER S .
asp ersi o nw i t h asmi l e, h erl o v ew asd i si nt erest ed , and
h ert emp ermi l d
; b u t i f sh ef ro w ned d ark l y , h erl o v e
w asl u st , and h erang erf o rmi d ab l e
.
Th ey o u ng man
p l ay f u l l y sp ri nk l ed t h ec ry st al d ro p so nt h ef ac eo f
h i sl o v er- sh esmi l ed g ent l y - and t h ey o u ng G o b an
rest ed c al ml y o nt h at t end erb o so m, w h eret ru el o v e
and p i t y i ng mi l d nessb o reeq u al sw ay .
Th ew i sd o mo f t h eG o b anS aerand . h i ssap i ent
d au g h t er- i n- l aw w asso o nmani f est ed ; f o r, ast h e
b u i l d i ng ap p ro ac h ed i t sc o mp l et i o n, h i sl ad y - l o v ec o m-
mu ni c at ed t o t h ey o u ng mant h ef earf u l i nt el l i g enc e,
t h at t h ek i ng w asreso l v ed , b y p u t t i ng t h emt o d eat h
w h ent h ew o rk w asc o nc l u d ed , t h at t h ey sh o u l d erec t
no o t h ersu c h b u i l d i ng , and , b y t h at means, t o enj o y t h e
u nri v al l ed f ameo f p o ssessi ng t h emo st sp l end i d p al ac e
i nt h ew o rl d . Th eset i d i ng sf el l h eav i l y o nt h eear
o f t h eG o b anS aer, w h o saw t h est ro ng nec essi t y o f
c i rc u mv ent i ng t h i sb aset reac h ery w i t h al l h i ssk i l l
.
I nani nt erv i ew w i t h h i smaj est y , h eac q u ai nt sh i m
t h at t h eb u i l d i ng w asb ei ng c o mp l et ed ;
and t h at i t s
b eau t y ex c eed ed ev ery t h i ng o f t h ek i nd h eh ad d o ne
b ef o re ; b u t t h at i t c o u l d , no t b ef i ni sh ed w i t h o u t ac er-
t ai n, i nst ru ment w h i c h h eu nf o rt u nat el y l ef t at h o me,
and h ereq u est ed h i sro y al p ermi ssi o nt o ret u rnf o r
i t . Th ek i ng w o u l d , b y no means, c o nsent t o t h e
G o b anS aer' sd ep art u re ; b u t anx i o u st o h av et h eed i -
f i c ec o mp l et ed , h ew asw i l l i ng t o send a . t ru st y mes-
seng eri nt o I rel and f o rt h at i nst ru ment u p o nw h i c h
t h ef i ni sh i ng :o f t h ero
y
al ; ed i f i c ed ep end ed . Th e
o t h erassu red h i smaj est y , t h at i t w aso f so mu c h
i mp o rt anc et h at h ew o u l d no t ent ru st i t i nt o t h e
h and so f t h eg reat est o f h i smaj est y ' ssu b j ec t s . I t
w asf i nal l y arrang ed t h at t h ek i ng ' sel d est so nsh o u l d
p ro c eed t o R at h G o b an, and , u p o np ro d u c i ng h i sc re-
THER OUND TOWER S .

3 7 9
d ent i al st o t h el ad y o f t h ec ast l e, rec ei v et h ei nst ru -
ment o f w h i c h sh eh ad t h ek eep i ng , and w h i c h t h e
G o b anS aernamed
'
C u r- an- ai g h ;
an- c u i rm'
Up o n h i s
arri v al _
i n I rel and , t h ey o u ng p ri nc ep ro c eed ed t o
f u l f i l h i serrand ; b u t t h ek no w i ng mi st resso f R at h
G o b an, j u d g i ng _ f ro mt h et eno ro f t h emessag e, and
t h eamb i g u o u sex p ressi o nsc o u c h ed u nd ert h ename
o f t h ep ret end ed i nst ru ment , t h at h erh u sb and and
f at h er- i n- l aw w eret h ev i c t i mso f so med eep t rea-
c h ery , sh eb ad eh i mw el c o me, i nq u i red
c l o sel y - af t er
h erab sent f ri end s, and t o l d h i m* h esh o u l d h av et h e
o b j ec t o f h i smi ssi o nw h enh eh ad ref resh ed h i msel f
af t ert h ef at i g u eso f h i sl o ng j o u rney . B eg u i l ed b y
t h esu av i t y o f h ermannersand t h ew i sd o mo f h er
w o rd s, t h ep ri nc ec o mp l i ed w i t h h eri nv i t at i o nt o
remai nal l mi g h t at R at h G o b an .
- . :B u t i n
t h emi d st
o f h i s
sec u ri t y , t h ed o mest i c s, f ai t h f u l t o t h e c al l
o f t h ei rmi st ress, h ad h i mb o u nd i nc h ai ns, and l ed
t o t h ed u ng eo no f t h ec ast l e
. Th u st h ew i sd o mo f
t h eG o b anS aer, and t h ed i sc ri mi nat i o no f h i sd au g h -
t er, c o mp l et el y b af f l ed t h ew i c k ed d esi g nso f t h e
k i ng , . w h o rec ei v ed
i nt i mat i o nt h at h i s - so n' s- l i f e
w o u l d su rel y at o nef o rt h eb l o o d o f t h e' arc h i t ec t :; .
Hed i smi ssed t h emt o t h ei rnat i v ec o u nt ry l ad en- w i t h
sp l end i d p resent s
; and , o nt h ei rsaf earri v al at R at h
G o b an, t h ep ri nc ew asrest o red t o l i b ert y *
. "
G ent l emeno f Eng l and , w h erei sy o u rk no w l ed g eo f
h i st o ry ? - w h i c h o f y o u rf amed mo narc h sw asi t t h at
w asg o i ng t o p l ay t h i ssc u rv y t ri c k u p o no u r G o b an,
and earnf o rh i msel f t h ei nf amo u sno t o ri et y o f a
sec o nd
L ao rned o n, b y
d ef rau d i ng - t h i s arc h i t ec t , w h o
no d o u b t w as aHerc u l es, o f
h i sst i p u l at ed sal ary ?
* D u b l i nP enny J o u rnal , J u ne1 0, 1 8 3 3 .
3 8 0

THER OUND TOWER S .


Y esh ad eso f A l f red and o f Et h el b ert , I p au sef o ra
rep l y !
B u t t h i si nd i g ni t y , i f o f f ered t o G o b an, w o u l d b e
ev eng reat ert h ant h at o f f ered b y L ao med o nt o Her-
c u l es ;
f o ri nt h el at t erc aset h ec ri mew aso nl y t h at
o f
d i sh o nest y - w h i c h
i sno t u nc o mmo ni nany ag e-
su p erad d ed t o asp i c e o f i mp i et y , i n c h eat i ng ag o d ;
b u t i nt h ef o rmerc ase, o v erand ab o v eal l t h ese,
w o u l d w ei g h ac o nsi d erat i o nw h i c h o u rp eo p l ew o u l d
nev erf o rg i v e- namel y , av i o l at i o no f t h el aw so f
g al l ant ry ,
t h i ssameG o b an "h av i ng b eenb el i ev ed i n
t h i sp art o f t h i sc o u nt ry t o h av eb een
aw o man* ! "
A nd y et t h esamev eh i c l et h at p u t sf o rt h t h i s
t rash h ast o l d u s, i nt h ep rec ed i ng ex t rac t , t h at h e
w as a f at h er and a h u sb and ! ( I d o no t b el i ev ei n
h ermap h ro d i t es, ) and , t o c ro w nt h ec l i max o f ab su r-
d i t y , g i v esu st h ef o l l o w i ng sp ec i meno f t h e h ero i sm
o f
h i s w i f e : v i z
. -
" Th eG o b anS aerh av i ng b eenb arb aro u sl y mu r-
d ered , t o g et h erw i t h h i sj o u rney men, b y t w el v eh i g h -
w ay men, t h emu rd erersp ro c eed ed t o h i sh o u se, and
t o l d t h eG o b an' sw i f e, w i t h an ai r
o f t ri u mp h , t h at
t h ey h ad k i l l ed h erh u sb and . S h eap p eari ng no w i se
c o nc erned , ask ed t h emt o assi st h eri nd raw i ng o p en
t h et ru nk o f at ree, w h i c h t h eG o b anh ad b eenc u t t i ng
u p i nt o p l ank s . Th ey p u t i nt h ei rh and sf o rt h e
p u rp o se, w h en, d raw i ng o u t aw ed g e, sh el ef t t h em
l i t eral l y i nac l ef t st i c k , and t ak i ng u p anax e, c u t o f f
al l t h ei rh ead sat a b l o w
f i
! "
B u t t h i si sl u d i c ro u sl y t ri f l i ng w i t h t h et i meo f my
read ers
. I amal i v et o t h ef ac t , and I mo st su b mi s-
D u b l i nP enny J o u rnal , J u l y 20, 1 8 3 3 .
i I b i d . Oc t o b er5 , 1 8 3 3 .
THER OUND TOWER S .

3 8 1
si v el y c rav ef o rg i v eness, w h i c h I d o u b t no t I sh al l
rec ei v e, w h enI st at et h at my so l eo b j ec t w ast o ex -
p o set h e f l i msi nesso f
t h at su b t erf u g e, b y w h i c h t h e
R o y al I ri sh A c ad emy , o rrat h ert h ei rc o u nc i l ! h ad
h o p ed t h at t h ey c o u l d b l i nd f o l d t h ep u b l i c , asw el l
ast h ey h ad su c c eed ed i nseq u est rat i ng my p ri z e
!
I d o no t d eny i nd eed b u t t h at t h eremay h av eb een
i nI rel and , at o net i me, su c h ap erso nast h eG o b an
S aer : b u t i f ev erh ed i d b el o ng t h eret o , i t mu st h av e
b eenat l east si x t eenh u nd red y earsb ef o ret h eep o c h
w h i c h t h eA c ad emy sanc t i o n- and so sanc t i o n, b ei t
o b serv ed , b ec au set h at aw eak - mi nd ed p o o rmo nk ,
w h enw ri t i ng t h eb i o g rap h y o f S t . A b h an, and t o r-
t u ri ng h i si nv ent i o n, i n
al l q u art ers, f o rt h ep u rp o se
o f c o nj u ri ng u p mi rac l est o l ay t o h i ssc o re, t h o u g h t
t h esi mi l ari t y o f so u nd b et w een
A b h an and G o b h anso
i nv i t i ng , t h at h emu st c o nt ri v eani nt erv i ew _ b et w een
t h ep art i es
; and so , w i t h "o nef el l sw o o p , "al i as, d ash
o f t h ep en,
c u t t i ng o f f t h ec ent u ri es o f sep arat i o n, h e
t reat sh i msel f and h i sp u p i l st o t h ef o l l o w i ng b u r-
l esq u e :-
" Qu i d am
f amo ssi ssi mu si no mni art el i g no ru met
l ap i d u m erat
i nHi b erni ano mi neG o b b anu s, c u j u s
art i sf amau sq u e
i nf i nem saw u l i eri t i nea . I p sej am
p o st q u am, al i i ssanat i s, i nsu p erf l u aart i ssu eemerc ed e
l u meno c u l o ru mami si t , et erat c ac t u s .
Hi c v o c at u s
est ad S
. A b b anu met d i x i t ei : Vo l o aed i f i c i u mi n
h o no remD ei aed i f i c are, et t o ag ei l l u d . Et i l l eai t
Qu o mo d o p o ssu mag erec u msi mc rec u s
? d i x i t ei
S anc t u s, Qu amd i u i l l u d o p erab eri sl u meno c u l o ru m
h ab eb i s, sed t i b i p o st eano np ro mi t t o
. Et i t af ac t u m
est , nami l l eart i f ex ap u d sanc t u mD ei i nl u mi nesu o
o p erat u sest , et c u messet i l l u d p erf ec t u ml u meno c u -
3 8 2

THE R OUND TOWER S .


l o ru m ami si t
0
"- - t h at i s- i nt h et ru esp i ri t o f w h at
my c o u nt ry menc al l aS t eal ' F eeneec h t h a, o r P h c rni c i an
st o ry , i
. e . ,
an
ent ert ai ni ng l i e, ( a p ro o f , b y t h ew ay ,
t h at t h ey c l ai mno k i nd red w i t h t h eP h o eni c i ans, el se
t h ey w o u l d no t t h u sc o nf i rmt h ew el l - k no w nep i t h et
o f P u n . i c af i d es) ; h o w ev ert o p u t t h i s st eal F eeneec h -
t h a
i nt o Eng l i sh , i t ru nst h u s :- " Onc eu p o nat i me,
t h erel i v ed i nEri n, amanmo st - c el eb rat ed f o rh i su ni -
v ersal mast ery o v erw o o d and st o ne ; and w h o sef ame,
ac c o rd i ng l y , w i l l l i v e t h erei n, asl o ng as g rasssh al l
g ro w o r p u rl i ng st reamsf l o w i ni t senc h ant i ng sc enery .
Th i sg o o d man' snamew as G o b h an, w h o , w al l o w -
i ng i nw eal t h f ro mt h emeri t o ri o u sex ert i o nso f h i s
ab i l i t i es, y et i nc ap ac i t at ed f ro menj o y i ng i t b y t h e
d ep ri v at i o no f h i ssi g h t , w assu mmo ned b ef o reS t .
A b h an, w h o h ad al read y h eal ed t h erest o f t h ew o rl d
b y h i smi rac u l o u sg i f t s, and w h o t h u sad d resses
h i m := I w i sh t o b u i l d ah o u set o t h eh o no u r o f G o d ;
and set y o u ab o u t i t . ` Ho w c anI , ' say s
G o b l i an,
seei ng t h at I am b l i nd ? ' ` O
v ery w el l , ' say s
A b h an,
I w i l l set t l et h at ; l o ng asev ery o u areeng ag ed i n
t h eb u si ness, y o u sh al l h av et h e
u se
o f , y o u rey es ;
b u t I mak eno p ro mi sesaf t erw ard s! ' A nd v eri l y i t
w asso , f o rl o ng asev erh ed i d w o rk w i t h t h esai nt , h e
h ad t h e - u seo f h i ssi g h t , b u t so o nasev ert h ew o rk
w asd o ne, h erel ap sed i nt o h i sf o rmerb l i nd ness! "
Wel l , y o u may l au g h i f y o u c h u se, i nf u t u re, at t h e
si mp l i c i t y o f t h e mo nk s ;
b u t h erei s o ne
f o ry o u ,
w h o , i nt h ev ery ex t rav ag anc eo f h i ssi mp l i c i t y , and
t h at w h i l eb u rst i ng , al mo st , w i t h ri si b i l i t y , h i msel f , at
t h esp ec i o u sness o f h i s
c o nc ei t , h asc o nt ri v ed t o
b amb o o z l eaj u ry o f u mp i res, w h o p i q u et h emsel v es
* C o l g an.
THE R OUND TOWER S .

3 8 3
u p o nt h ei rc o nt emp t f o rev ery t h i ng mo nk i sh , and w h o ,
ac t u al l y , i nany o t h erc ase, h ad t h ey t h e
sw o rn ev i -
d enc eo f amo nk , w o u l d g o c o u nt ert h eret o ; b u t h ere,
w h ereano l d d o t i ng f ri ari sd raw i ng u p o nh i si ng e-
nu i t y , ev ery sy l l ab l et h at esc ap esh i mi st ak enf o r
g o sp el !
No w , I 1 asread i l y b el i ev e, ast h ey w o u l d f ai np er-
su ad e me,
t h at l o ng as ' G o b h an
d i d w o rk w i t h
A b -
h aab e . h ad :
t h eu seo f h i ssi g h t , "and t h at
"
so o nas
ev er t h ew o rk w asd o ne, h erel ap sed i nt o h i sf o rmer
b l i nd ness . " A nd w h y ? b ec au set h et w o men, l i v i ng
i n
d i f f erent ag es, nev erl ai d ey esu p o neac h o t h erat
al l , and t h u sw eret h ey b o t h , mo ral l y and l i t eral l y , b l i nd
t o eac h o t h er
!
Th eS c y t h i ans, w h o w eremast erso f t h i sc o u nt ry
at t h eC h ri st i an_ era, and f o rmany c ent u ri esp re-
c ed i ng , h ad aso v erei g nc o nt emp t f o rev ery t h i ng l i k e
arc h i t ec t u re . "
Th ey h av eno t o w ns, "say sHero d o -
t u s, "
no f o rt i f i c at i o ns ; t h ei rh ab i t at i o nst h ey al w ay s
c arry w i t h t h em*
. Th ep ri nc i p l ew h i c h ac t u at ed
t h em, i nt h i si nd i f f erenc et o
h o u ses, w asp rec i sel y t h at
w h i c h g o v erned t h eB ri t o nsi nasi mi l art ast e- t h ey
w erearac e' o f w arri o rs,
and d read ed t h ei mp u t at i o n
o f c o w ard i c e
mo ret h ant h ey d i d t h ei nc l emenc y o f t h e
w eat h er .
I t i sno t w i t h o u t reaso n, t h eref o re, t h at w e
f i nd Ho l l i ng sh ed , w h o w ro t eh i sC h ro ni c l esi nQu een
El i z ab et h ' srei g n, c o mp l ai ni ng t h at
1 1 t h reet h i ng s
w ereal t ered f o rt h ew o rsei nEng l and - t h emu l t i -
t u d eo f c h i mney sl at el y erec t ed , t h eg reat i nc reaseo f
l o d g i ng s, and t h eex c h ang eo f t reenp l at t ersi nt o
p ew t er, and w o o d ensp o o nsi nt o si l v erand t i n .
No t h i ng b u t o ak f o rb u i l d i ng h o u sesi sno w reg ard ed
w h enh o u sesw ereb u i l t w i t h w i l l o w , t h enh ad w e
* M el p o mene, c h . 4 6 .
3 8 4

THER OUND TOWER S .


o ak enmen ;
b u t no w o u rh o u sesarec o met o b eb u i l t
o f o ak , o u rmenareno t o nl y b ec o mew i l l o w , b u t a
g reat many al t o g et h ero f st raw * . "
S t
. B ernard , al so , i nref erenc et o t h eI ri sh , h av i ng
ment i o ned t h at M al ac h y O' M o rg an, arc h b i sh o p o f
A rmag h , w ast h ef i rst ( o f t h eS c y t h i anrac e) w h o h ad
erec t ed ast o neh o u sei nt h ei sl and , i nt ro d u c esa
nat i v eu p b rai d i ng h i mw i t h i t , i nt h eset erms
:-
"
w o nd erf u l w o rk i st h i s? w h y t h i si nno v at i o n
i no u rc o u nt ry ? w eareS c o t s, and no t G au l s, w h at
nec essi t y h av ew ef o rsu c h d u rab l eed i f i c es? "
S t . A b h an,
t h eref o re, w h o b el o ng ed t o t h esi x t h
c ent u ry , at w h i c h t i met h eS c y t h i ansh ad h ereab so -
l u t esw ay , nev ero nc ed reamt o f erec t i ng ast o need i -
f i c e, o ro f ev o k i ng f ro mt h eg rav et h emaneso f
G o b h an, w h o , i f h eev erex i st ed , mu st h av eb eena
memb ero f t h ef o rmerd y nast y
.
Th o se p i o u s
f ab ri c at i o nsw h i c h t h eb i o g rap h erso f
earl y sai nt sh ad c o nc o c t ed , w i t h av i ew t o mag ni f y
t h erev erenc ed u et o t h ei rsu b j ec t s, remi nd meo f
o new h i c h w asi nv ent ed f o rt h eb enef i t ( b u t i nreal i t y
t o t h ed et ri ment ) o f S t
. P at ri c k , and w h i c h , ev enat
t h eri sk o f ap p eari ng t ed i o u s, I mu st d et ai l
.
1 1 Wh ereas, "- - y o u p erc ei v et h erec o rd b eg i nsw i t h
al l t h ef o rmal i t i eso f o f f i c e, - "i nt h ey earo f t h e
w o rl d 1 5 25 , No ah b eg ant o ad mo ni sh t h ep eo p l eo f
v eng eanc et o c o meb y ag eneral l d el u g ef o rt h e
w i c k ed nesseand d et est ab l esi nneo f man, and c o n-
t i nu ed h i sad mo ni t i o nf o r1 20y ears, b u i l d i ng anark e
f o rt h esaf eg u ard o f h i msel f and h i sf ami l y
;
o ne
C l esarea( say t h ey ) , ac c o rd i ng u nt o o t h ers, C ai sarea, a
* Op p i d u mv o c ant B ri t anni c u msi l v asi mp ed i t asv al l o at q u e
f o ssa
mu ni eru nt
. Th eB ri t o nsc al l at o w nanenc u mb ered w o o d , f enc ed i nw i t h
aramp art and ad i t c h . - C aesar' sC o mment . l i b . 5 .
THER OUND TOWER S .

3 8 5 -
ani ec eo f No ah , ( w h eno t h ersseemed t o neg l ec t t h i s
w arni ng , ) ri g g i ng anav y , c o mmi t t ed h ersel f , w i t h
h erad h erent s, t o t h eseas, t o seek ead v ent u resand
l eav et h ep l ag u est h at w eret o b ef al l . Th erearri v ed
i nI rel and w i t h h ert h reemen,
B i t h i , L arg ri a, and
F i nt an, and f i f t y w o men . Wi t h i nf o rt y d ay saf t er
h erarri v al l t h eu ni v ersal f l o o d c ameu p o nt h em, and
t h o sep art s, asw el l asu p o nt h erest o f t h ew o rl d , and
d ro w ned t h emal l ; i nw h i c h p erp l ex i t y o f mi nd and
i mmi nent d ang er, b eh o l d i ng t h ew av eso v erf l o w i ng
al l t h i ng sb ef o ret h ei rey es, F i nt ani s sai d t o h av e
b een t ransf o rmed i nt o asal mo n, and t o h av esw o o me
al l t h et i meo f t h ed el u g eab o u t Ul st er ; and af t ert h e
f al l o f t h ew at er, rec o v eri ng h i sf o rmersh ap e, t o h av e
l i v ed l o ng ert h an A d am, and t o h av ed el i v ered st rang e
t h i ng st o p o st eri t y , so t h at o f h i mt h ec o mmo nsp eec h
ri set h , ' I f I h ad l i v ed F i nt an' sy earsI c o u l d say
mu c h
. ' "
Wel l , t o mak eal o ng st o ry sh o rt , "t h i ssame
F i nt an, w h o w asc o nv ert ed i nt o a sal mo n, f o rt h eso l e
p u rp o seo f ac c o u nt i ng f o rh i sap p earanc eo nt h esame
t h eat rew i t h S t . P at ri c k , i si nt ro d u c ed t o t h esai nt ,
w h en, af t erav ery d i v ert i ng ep i so d eu p o nh i s
su b -
mari ne ad v ent u res, ami rac l e, o f c o u rse, i st o b e
w ro u g h t , and , ano n, w eh av et h ec o nt emp o rary o f
No ah , and o f P at ri c k , at o nc e a sal mo n, a d o l p h i n, and
aman,
reno u nc i ng h i sat t ac h ment t o t h e w at ers and t o
t h e b o at ,
and d ev o u t l y emb rac i ng C h ri st i ani t y ! !
Th eanac h ro ni smc o mmi t t ed i nt h ei nst anc eo f t h e
G o b anS aerw as p rec i sel y o f t h esamec h arac t er ! and
t h ev ery nameassi g ned h i m, w h i c h i st h at o f a c l ass,
no t o f ani nd i v i d u al , ex p o sest h ec o u nt erf ei t
!
G o b h anS aer means, t h e S ac red P o et , o r t h e F ree-
2c
3 8 6

THER OUND TOWER S .


maso nS ag e,
o neo f t h e
G u ab h res,
o r C ab i ri , su c h as
y o u h av eseenh i mrep resent ed u p o nt h eTu at h - d e-
d anaanc ro ssat C l o nmac no i se . To t h i sc o l o ny , t h ere-
f o re, mu st h eh av eb el o ng ed , and t h eref o ret h e
To w ers,
t rad i t i o nal l y asso c i at ed w i t h h i serec t i o n, mu st h av eb een
c o nst ru c t ed ant eri o rt o t h eS c y t h i ani nf l u x .
B u t w eareno t l ef t t o su c h i nf erenc est o d et ermi ne
t h ep o i nt .
A mo resu b st ant i al al l y , t h ei mp eri sh ab l e
l and mark so f h i st o ry st and f o rw ard asmy v o u c h ers .
To t h i sh o u rt h et w o l o c al i t i es- w h ereo nt h e
Tu at h - d e- d anaansh ad f o u g h t t h ei rt w o d ec i si v e
b at t l esw i t h t h e F i r- B o l g s, t h ei ri mmed i at ep red e-
c e9 so rsi nt h eo c c u p at i o no f t h i si sl and - o nenear
L o u g h M ask , i nt h ec o u nt y G al w ay , and t h eo t h er
nearL o u g h A rran, i nt h ec o u nt y R o sc o mmo n, are
c al l ed b y t h enameo f M o y - t u ra, o rmo rec o rrec t l y , i n
I ri sh , M o y e- t u read h !
Th emeani ng o f t h i sc o mp o u nd , b ey o nd t h ep o s-
si b i l i t y o f d i sp u t at i o n, i s Th ef i el d o f t h eTo w ers !
A nd w h en, i nb o t h t h o sep l ac es, arest i l l t rac ed t h e
ru i nso f su c h ed i f i c es, arew eno t i nev i t ab l y f o rc ed t o
c o nnec t , asw el l t h ei r erec t i o n ast h ei mp o si t i o no f t h e
name, w i t h t h ef o rt u neso rw i t h t h ef eel i ng so f so me
si d eo f t h eab o v ec o mb at ant s?
Y o u w i l l say , t h en, t h at t h e F i r- B o l g s w ereasl i k el y
t o h av eo ri g i nat ed t h ename, and b u i l t t h o sest ru c -
t u resu p o nt h esi t e, i n rel i anc e u p o n t h ei r
d i v i ni t i es,
ast h at t h e
Tu at h - d e- d anaans
sh o u l d h av eb eent h e
au t h o rsi n g rat i t u d e t o t h ei rs?
Ou ro nl y mo d e, t h eref o re, i st o c o nsi d ert h ev est i g es
o f t h ei rresp ec t i v erel i g i o ns
:and w h enw ep erc ei v e
t h at , i nt h ei sl eso f A ran, w h i t h ert h eF i r- B o l g sb et o o k
t h emsel v esaf t ert h ei r f i rst d ef eat , f o rt h ep eri o d i n-
THER OUND TOWER S .

3 8 7
t erv eni ng b et w een
t h o se t w o b at t l es, c o mmemo rat ed
b y t h eab o v ename, t h ereap p earsno t a
v est i g eo f
arc h i t ec t u ral maso nry , ap p ro ac h i ng i nc h arac t ert o a
C o l u mnart emp l e, w h i l e, o nt h ec o nt rary , t h ey ab o u nd
i nsp ec i mens
o f D ru i d i c al v enerat i o n, i si t no t ev i d ent ,
t h at t h ey , at al l ev ent s, h av eno c l ai mt h eret o ?
Th ew o rsh i p , t h eref o re, o f t h eF i r- B o l u sd i f f ered
al t o g et h erf ro mt h at o f t h eTu at h - d e- d anaans, and
so t h ey
areex c l u d ed f ro mt h o sei mmo rt al memo -
ri al s
. I nd eed t h eav i d i t y w i t h w h i c h -
t h ey h ai l ed t h e
ap p ro ac h o f anew c o nq u ero r, and t end ered h i mt h ei r
assi st anc ef o rt h ered u c t i o no f t h ei sl and , aro seno t
so mu c h f ro many f o nd l y - c h eri sh ed h o p eo f t h ei r
b ei ng t h emsel v esrest o red t o t h et h ro net h ey h ad
l o st , o rev enal l o w ed t h erei nap art i c i p at i o n, asf ro m
ani l l i b eral av ersi o nt o t h e emb l emat i c
ri t u al o f t h ei r
t emp l e- serv i ng su p eri o rs, w h i c h t h ei ri g no rant p re-
j u d i c esc o u l d no t al l o w t h emt o ap p rec i at e !
Wearew arrant ed , t h en, I p resu me, i nassi g ni ng
so l el y t o t h eTu at h - d e- d anaanst h eaf f i x i ng o f t h e
name M o y - t u read h t o t h o se t w o sc eneso f t h ei rsu c c ess
.
A nd d i d t h ereev en
a , d o u b t remai no nt h emi nd o f t h e
mo st i nc red u l o u s, ast o t h eac c u rac y o f t h ei nf erenc e,
o rt h ec o rrec t nesso f t h at reaso ni ng , w h i c h w o u l d
i d ent i f y t h i sp eo p l ew i t h t h eerec t i o ns i n
g eneral o f
t h o sero t u nd i t i es, i t w i l l h i d ei t sd i mi ni sh ed h ead ,
and v ani sh w i t h sel f - ab asement , w h enI b ri ng f o rw ard
t h et est i mo ny
o f A merg i n, b ro t h ert o Heremo nand
Heb er, - t h ei mmed i at ev i c t o rso f t h i srel i g i o u so rd er,
- i nt h ef o l l o w i ng g rap h i c and p i c t o ri al t reasu re, as
st i l l rel i g i o u sl y p reserv ed i n t h e B o o k o f L ec c an, v i z .
A o no c h ri g h Teamb rac h
Teamo rTu r Tu at ac h
Tu at h M ac M i l ed h
M i l ed h L o ng L i b earne . '
2c 2
3 8 8
Th at i s,
" No b l ei st h ek i ng o f Teamo r,
Teamo rt h e Tu at h anTo w er,
Tu at h sw eret h eso nso f M i l ed h ,
M i l ed h o f t h eL i b earnv essel s. "
Here, t h en, - a c i rc u mst anc ew h i c h I c anno t i mag i ne
h o w i t c o u l d h av eesc ap ed al l b ef o reme! - w e
h av et h i s
d i sp u t ed q u est i o nat l eng t h set t l ed , and i nc o nt ro -
v ert i b l y ad j u d i c at ed b y t h ev ery h ead o f t h at b o d y ,
w h i c h M o nt mo renc y b ad assu red u s, nev eral l u d ed t o
t h o seed i f i c esasasu b j ec t o f nat i o nal b o ast - I mean
t h e B ard s . F o r, w h et h erw ead mi t t h i sA merg i nt o
h av eb eent h ep erso nab o v ed esc ri b ed * , t h eac t u al
c o nt emp o rary and su c c esso ro f t h eTu at h a- d e- d a-
naans, o rast h eo t h er, o f t h at name, w h o b el o ng st o t h e
C h ri st i anag e, and t h et i meo f S t . P at ri c k , t h esu p -
p o si t i o ni seq u al l y v al i d , t o p ro v et h eex i st enc eo f
t h o sest ru c t u resant eri o rt o t h ei r resp ec t i v eeras ! and
t h easc ri p t i o n, i nei t h erc ase, remai nsu nsh ak en, and
i rref rag ab l e, w h i c h , i nt h ew o rd Tu at h anTo w er, u ni t es
t h e
To w er
erec t o rsw i t h t h ec o l o ny o f t h e Tu at h a!
* Of w h o mO' F l ah ert y g i v est h i sc h arac t erf ro manI ri sh p o em, w ri t
b y o neG
. C o md eu s0' C o rmai c , w h i c h h et h u st ransl at esi nt o L at i n
.
g ri mu sA merg i nu sg enu c and i d u sant h erJ ern
Hi st o ri c u s, j u d ex l eg e, p o et a, so p h u s .
Th at i s,
F ai r- l i mb ed A merg i n, v enerab l esag e,
F i rst g rac ed l erne' so l d h i st o ri c p ag e ;
J u d g eo f t h el aw s, f o rj u st i c eh i g h ap p ro v ed ,
A nd l o v i ng w i sd o mb y t h emu seb el o v ed .
A nd h eq u o t est h i sh emi st i c h asano t h erf rag ment o f h i sp o et ry ,
Eag nal ah eag l u i sai d i r
A g u sf eab t h a l a f l ai t h i b h .
Th at i s,
L et t h o se, w h o o ' ert h esac red ri t esp resi d e,
Tak ew i sd o mf o rt h ei rg u ard i anand t h ei rg u i d e
;
L et t h o se, w h o sep o w ert h emu l t i t u d eo b ey ,
S u p p o rt b y c o nd u c t t h ei ri mp eri al sw ay .
THER OUND TOWER S .
THER OUND TOWER S .
3 8 9
M y o p p o nent smay no w d emo l i sh , i f t h ey c an, al l
my f o reg o i ng d ed u c t i o ns, assp eed i l y ast h ey p l ease, -
nay , d i d t h ed est ru c t i v enesso f f i reo ro t h eru nt o w ard
ac c i d ent , d ep ri v emeo f t h ed ed u c t i o nso f my p re-
c ed i ng l ab o u rs, t o
t h i so nest anz a w o u l d I c l i ng , ast h e
p al l ad i u mo f my t ru t h ; t o t h i sl and mark w o u l d I
ad h ereasmy nep l u su l t ra"ag ai nst erro r, i ni t s
enc ro ac h ment su p o nh i st o ry * !
I n
t h ew h o l ec at al o g u eo f I ri sh d ep o si t s, t h ere
ex i st sno t o neo f mo rei nt ri nsi c v al u et o t h el o v ero f
ant i q u i t i es, so f arast h eri g h t set t l ement o f h i st o ry i s
c o nc erned , t h anw h at t h o sef o u rl i nesp resent
. F o r,
i nt h ef i rst p l ac e, w el earnt h at t h ec el eb ri t y o f
Teamo r
-
aro seno t f ro many g o rg eo u ssu i t o f p al ac es
o f ac ast el l at ed o u t l i ne . I t sreno w nc o nsi st ed i n
b ei ng t h ec ent ral c o nv ent i o nf o rrel i g i o u sc el eb rat i o n
t o al l t h ed i st ant p ro v i nc i al so nc ei nev ery y ear ; w h o ,
af t erat t end i ng t h eg amesi nt h ead j o i ni ng d i st ri c t o f
Tai l t i ne,
no w Tel i t o w n, ad j o u rned , f o rl eg i sl at i v e
d el i b erat i o ns, t o t h eHi l l o f Tarah , w h eret h ey p ro -
p o u nd ed t h ei rp l ans, no t w i t h i nt h ec o nf i ned enc l o -
su reso f any measu red d o me, b u t u nd ert h eo p en
c ano p y o f t h eex p and