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# Bonusofelectromagnetism

MinaBjelogrlicandChloWeber

Bonus of electromagnetism

Documentations

EquivalentCircuitModelofaLosslessTransmissionLineassuggestedintheexercise

From this electrical circuit model, the two important terms that characterize a transmission line
can be derived: the velocity of a signal ( ) and the characteristic impedance ( ).

and

## = inductance per length

= capacitance per length
So, we can calculate

and

Bonusofelectromagnetism

MinaBjelogrlicandChloWeber

and

length

picture3
Matricedechanetransmissionparametersforpicture3are

Bonusofelectromagnetism

MinaBjelogrlicandChloWeber

CodeMatLab:

FunctionLineImpedance:
% Function Line Impedance for "SERIE BONUS 21.12.2009"
% Mina Bjelogrlic & Chlo Weber

## function Zeq=LineImpedance(Zc, Vphi, d, N, f, ZL)

% Calculates the value of the equivalent impedance
% of a lossless line of characteristic impedance Zc,
% phase velocity Vphi and length d.
% N is the number of line segments, f the frequency
% and ZL the load impedance.

## % finds Ls' and Cp' by solving two following equations:

% 2.2.2 & 2.2.3 & 2.3.5:

Zc = sqrt(Ls/Cp)

## % 2.3.2 & 2.4.2 & 2.7.4:

Vphi = 1/sqrt(Ls*Cp)

Ls = Zc/Vphi;

% linductance linique

Cp = 1/(Zc*Vphi);

% capacit linique

dz = d/N;

## % delta z is the length of each segment [m]

omega = 2*pi*f;

Bonusofelectromagnetism

MinaBjelogrlicandChloWeber

Z = omega*Ls*dz*j;

## % Impedance per segment [ohm]

Y = omega*Cp*dz*j;

Cdz = [ 1
-Y

-Z

1+Y*Z];

Cd = Cdz^N;

% 3.6.3:

C(d) = C(dz)^N

## % Connect load and calculate equivalent impedance of line with

Zeq = (Cd(1,1)*ZL-Cd(1,2))/...
(Cd(2,2)-Cd(2,1)*ZL);

[ohm]

Principalcode:
% Serie Bonus

21.10.2009.

clear all;
close all;

% data
Zc = 50;

## % Line impedance in [ohm]

Bonusofelectromagnetism

MinaBjelogrlicandChloWeber

Vphi = 300000e3;

d = 0.15;

## f = [500e6 1e9 1e9 500e6]; % Frequencies [Hz]

ZL = [Zc 0 Zc 0];

N = 1000;

## % Calculate equivalent impedance

for i=1:4
figure(i);
%%%%%
Segmentation method approach
%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
Zeq = zeros(N:1);
for n=1:1:N

% Segmentation approach

## Zeq(n) = LineImpedance(Zc, Vphi, d, n, f(i), ZL(i));

end
%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
%%%%%%%%%%

%%%%%
Differential equation approach
%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%

omega = 2*pi*f(i);

Ls = Zc/Vphi;

% linductance linique

Cp = 1/(Zc*Vphi);

% capacit linique

Zp = omega*Ls*j;

## % Impedance linique [ohm/m]

Bonusofelectromagnetism

MinaBjelogrlicandChloWeber

Yp = omega*Cp*j;

## % Conductance linique [(ohm*m)^(-1)]

gamma = sqrt(Zp*Yp);

## % 2.3.2 : Exposant de propagation [m^(-

1)]
C = [cosh(gamma*d)
-sinh(gamma*d)/Zc

-Zc*sinh(gamma*d)

% 3.6.2

cosh(gamma*d)];

## % Connect load and calculate equivalent impedance of line

Zeq1 = (C(1,1)*ZL(i)-C(1,2))/...
(C(2,2)-C(2,1)*ZL(i));
Zeq=U2/I2 [ohm]

% Equivalent impedance

%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
%%%%%%%%%%

subplot(2, 1, 1);
semilogx(real(Zeq), 'r','LineWidth',2);
grid on;
hold on;
plot(N,real(Zeq1),'mo','LineWidth',2,'MarkerEdgeColor','k',...
'MarkerFaceColor',[.49 1
.63],'MarkerSize',8)
hold off;
xlabel('Number of segments');
ylabel('Real part [ \Omega]');

Bonusofelectromagnetism

MinaBjelogrlicandChloWeber

## title(['Equivalent Impedance for :

frequency = ',
num2str(f(i)/1e6), ' MHz and load = ', num2str(ZL(i)), '
\Omega']);

subplot(2, 1, 2);
semilogx(imag(Zeq), 'b','LineWidth',2);
grid on;
hold on;
plot(N,imag(Zeq1),'mo','LineWidth',2,'MarkerEdgeColor','k',...
'MarkerFaceColor',[.49 1
.63],'MarkerSize',8)
hold off;
xlabel('Number of segments');
ylabel('Imaginary part [ \Omega]');
end

Codeprovidingvalues:
% Serie Bonus

21.10.2009.

## % Mina Bjelogrlic & Chlo Weber

clear all;
close all;

Bonusofelectromagnetism

MinaBjelogrlicandChloWeber

% data
Zc = 50;

Vphi = 300000e3;

d = 0.15;

## f = [500e6 1e9 1e9 500e6]; % Frequencies [Hz]

ZL = [Zc 0 Zc 0];

N = 1000;

## % Calculate equivalent impedance

for i=1:4
%%%%%
Segmentation method approach
%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
f(i), ZL(i)
Zeq1 = LineImpedance(Zc, Vphi, d, 1, f(i), ZL(i))
Zeq2 = LineImpedance(Zc, Vphi, d, 2, f(i), ZL(i))
Zeq10 = LineImpedance(Zc, Vphi, d, 10, f(i), ZL(i))
Zeq100 = LineImpedance(Zc, Vphi, d, 100, f(i), ZL(i))
Zeq10000 = LineImpedance(Zc, Vphi, d, 10000, f(i), ZL(i))
%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
%%%%%%%%%%

%%%%%
Differential equation approach
%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
omega = 2*pi*f(i);

Bonusofelectromagnetism

MinaBjelogrlicandChloWeber

Ls = Zc/Vphi;

% linductance linique

Cp = 1/(Zc*Vphi);

% capacit linique

Zp = omega*Ls*j;

Yp = omega*Cp*j;

## % Conductance linique [(ohm*m)^(-1)]

gamma = sqrt(Zp*Yp);

## % 2.3.2 : Exposant de propagation [m^(-

1)]
C = [cosh(gamma*d)
-sinh(gamma*d)/Zc

-Zc*sinh(gamma*d)

% 3.6.2

cosh(gamma*d)];

## % Connect load and calculate equivalent impedance of line

Zeq = (C(1,1)*ZL(i)-C(1,2))/...
(C(2,2)-C(2,1)*ZL(i))
Zeq=U2/I2 [ohm]

% Equivalent impedance

%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
%%%%%%%%%%

end

Results:
Value:
Thisisthesolutionofourproblem:
Thereisthenumericalsolutionsfollowedbytheexactvalue(greenpoint)foundwiththe
differentialequations3.6.2inthelectures.

Bonusofelectromagnetism

MinaBjelogrlicandChloWeber

N=1
N=2
N=10
N=100
f = 500 Mhz 10.82141.940i 35.68833.077i 49.3757.804i 49.9940.785i
et Z L = Z C
017.710i
0+1.169*102i
0+0.663i
0+0.0065i
f = 1000 Mhz
et Z L = 0
053.523i
01,1555*102i
06.238*102i
06.353*103i
f = 500 Mhz
et Z L = 0
f = 1000 Mhz 0.56517.510i 78.40566.387i 50.2080.0028i 50.000+0.000i
et Z L = Z C

N=
50.000.0079i
0+6.460*107i
06.366*105i
50.000+0.000i

500MHz50ohm

Zeq1=10.8209,41.9397i

Zeq2=35.6877,33.0771i

Zeq10=49.3745,7.8038i

Zeq100=49.9938,0.7853i

Zeq10000=50.0000,0.0079i

Zeq=50,:exactvaluewiththedifferentialequation3.6.2

10

Bonusofelectromagnetism

MinaBjelogrlicandChloWeber

___________________________________________________________

1000MHz0ohm

Zeq1=0,17.7099i

Zeq2=0,+1.1686e+002i

Zeq10=0,+0.6629i

Zeq100=0,+0.0065i

Zeq10000=0,+6.4596e007i

Zeq=0,6.1232e015i:exactvaluewiththedifferentialequation3.6.2

___________________________________________________________

1000MHz50ohm

Zeq1=0.5647,17.5099i

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Bonusofelectromagnetism

MinaBjelogrlicandChloWeber

Zeq2=78.4045,66.3865i

Zeq10=50.2082,0.0028i

Zeq100=50.0002,0.0000i

Zeq10000=50.0000,+0.0000i

Zeq=50,:exactvaluewiththedifferentialequation3.6.2
___________________________________________________________

500MHz0ohm

Zeq1=0,53.5231i

Zeq2=0,1.1555e+002i

Zeq10=0,6.2380e+002i

Zeq100=0,6.3531e+003i

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Bonusofelectromagnetism

MinaBjelogrlicandChloWeber

Zeq10000=0,6.3661e+005i

Zeq=0,+8.1656e+017i:exactvaluewiththedifferentialequation3.6.2

___________________________________________________________

## For f = 500 Mhz et Z L = Z C and N = (10000) :

Becarefulthenumericalvalueisn'tthesameastheexactvalue!
Withthedifferentialequationswefindtheoppositesign!
(Thegraphissqueezed,falseimpressionthatitconvergein0!)

WecanseethattheImaginarypartofthecase500Hz,0ohm,hasasignproblem.
Thenumericaliterationsgivesuse+005i(infinitydivergence),whenNgoestoinfinity(here
N=10000),andtheexactvaluewiththedifferentialequation3.6.2givesuse+017i(+infinity
divergence).

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Bonusofelectromagnetism

MinaBjelogrlicandChloWeber

Graphicsoftheresults: