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2012

Projectile Motion Lab Report


How does the range, in a projectile motion, depend on the initial velocity and the height?

Syeed Hasan HECTIX Group 3/7/2012

Projectile Motion Lab Report

Table of Contents
Abstract ........................................................................................................................................... 2 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Introduction ............................................................................................................................. 2 Theory ...................................................................................................................................... 2 Experiment .............................................................................................................................. 4 Data.......................................................................................................................................... 5 Conclusions .............................................................................................................................. 7 Acknowledgments ................................................................................................................... 7 References ............................................................................................................................... 7

Projectile Motion Lab Report

Abstract
We investigated how the range would be affected if one was to change the height at which a ball bearing was released and its initial velocity. In order to do this, we used a launcher attached at the very end of a table, which launched a small ball bearing. We then measured the range using a metre ruler while altering the height and the velocity. It is found that the range is definitely affected by the initial velocity and the height at which the ball bearing is released. In both cases, as the independent variable increased the range (dependent variable) increased.

Introduction

The purpose of this lab is to find out how changing the height and the initial velocity of a ball bearing changes the range. Projectile motion is used everywhere on earth on a daily basis to aid in different situations. Situations like dropping aid from a plane or in worst case scenarios, dropping a nuclear bomb from a B-2 bomber where the pilot would need to do know how their horizontal velocity and height will affect the drop zone. We will only be using metre sticks for any sort of data collection. The rest will be done using different equations. Our first hypothesis is that increasing the height at which the ball bearing is released will increase the range of the ball bearing. Our second hypothesis is that increasing the velocity at which the ball bearing is launched will increase the range of the ball bearing.

Theory

Our first experiment will not require any equation as it only consists of taking experimental data. We will keep the velocity constant by launching the ball bearing from the same position for every trial. However, for the second experiment, we will need to use an equation to figure out our velocity. We will be changing the position from which the ball bearing will launch to give it different initial velocities as it launches off the table. However, in order to have numerical data, we would need to work backwards by measuring the range and the height using an equation that is derived below. In this case, our height will be constant.

Deriving the equation for finding the velocity: (1)

Projectile Motion Lab Report

(2) (3) Since is zero: (4) Now we solve for t: (5)

Now we substitute equation 5 into equation 1 to get the final equation: (6)

To make sure this equation is valid, we used dimensional analysis

All units will be in SI units, length in metres, time in seconds and the gravitational acceleration in metres per second squared.

Projectile Motion Lab Report

Experiment

Figure 1: Diagram to show how the apparatus was used As you can see from figure 1, the apparatus we used are as follows: 2 meter rulers Ball bearing 2 Physics text book (for changing the height) A white sheet of paper A carbon paper A launcher

During this lab, there will be two experiments one to prove our first hypothesis and the other to prove our second hypothesis. For the first hypothesis, we will launch the ball bearing from the same position on the launcher while changing the height of the launcher. This will ensure that the velocity stays constant. We have decided to use physics textbooks to change the height as this would mean the height will change at constant intervals. We set up a ruler on the floor right below the end of the launcher and in front of it. Then we will set up a paper under the ruler with a carbon paper on top of it so that when the ball bearing lands on the carbon paper, it would make a dot on the paper. We measured the distance from the table to the dot using the metre ruler. We did this three times for each height; we did this to get the

Projectile Motion Lab Report

most reliable results. We then took the average of the three which is being used as the final range. For the second experiment, we had to change the initial velocity at which the ball bearing left the table. Since we could not measure the initial velocity, we used the equation, which was derived in the theory section, to calculate at exactly what velocity the ball launched. We changed the velocity by changing the position from which the ball bearing was launched on the launcher. We divided the launcher in three sections and launched it from the end, middle and top, and three times for each to obtain reliable data. In this case, our height at which the ball bearing was released is the constant.

Data
( constant)
(m) 1 0.726 0.773 0.809 2 0.708 0.716 0.800 3 0.766 0.708 0.788 avg 0.714 0.767 0.799

Experiment 1- changing
(m) 0.925 0.962 0.999

Table 1: Table showing the results collected when changing the height at which the ball bearing was released.

Experiment 2 changing
(m)

constant at 0.925m)
(m)

1 0.726 0.440 0.082

2 0.708 0.443 0.081

3 0.708 0.444 0.082

avg 0.714 0.442 0.082

1.944 1.018 0.189

Table 2: Table showing the results collected when changing the velocity at which the ball bearing was released.

Projectile Motion Lab Report

How changing the height changes the range


0 -0.04 -0.035 -0.03 -0.025 -0.02 -0.015 -0.01 -0.005 -0.02 -0.04 -0.06 Log of delta X -0.08 -0.1 -0.12 -0.14 -0.16 Log of DeltaY -0.18 0

Graph 1: Graph showing how log of delta y affects the log of delta x

How changing velocity changes the range


0.4 0.2 0 -0.8 -0.6 -0.4 -0.2 -0.2 -0.4 -0.6 -0.8 -1 -1.2 -1.4 Log of V -1.6 0 0.2 0.4

Graph 2: Graph showing how log of v affects log of delta x

Log of delta x

Projectile Motion Lab Report

As it can be seen from graph 1 and graph 2, in both cases, as the independent variable is increased the dependent variable is increased as well. In both graphs, the line of best fit goes through the error bars giving the indication that this was a fairly good lab. However, I think that the data is inaccurate. There could also be other factors that affected the results, such as air resistance and human errors that could have occurred during the experiments.

Conclusions

As we have observed from the experiment and the data collected, both of our hypothesises are correct. As we increased the height at which the ball bearing was launched, the range increased. As we increased the velocity at which the ball bearing was launched, the range increased. While our experiment showed a clear trend, the data was probably not accurate enough. If the experiment was to be done again, I would make sure the number of repeats were more than 3, if possible, I would use a camera tracker to track the ball bearing as it fell and measured the distance more accurately. However, with the availability of time and apparatus, I would say this experiment was well prepared for and well executed.

Acknowledgments

Thanks to Asad Baig, Habib Sajid and Saher Gill for helping with the experiment.

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References