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SMITHSONIAN CONTRIBUTIONS TO KNOWLEDGE,

GRAMMAR AND DICTIONARY


OF THE

TOEUBA LANauAaE
WITH AN

INTRODUCTORY DESCRIPTION
or

THE COUNTRY AND PEOPLE OF YORUBA.

BY THE

HEV.

T.
tl;c

J.

BOAVEN

^ntt'onars of

oull;crn l}aptiet Coitbcnliuii.

ACCEPTED FOR PUBLICATION,

BY THE SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION,


May, 1858.

PRINTER, STEREOTYPER,

CUAIGHKAD, AND ELECTROTTrER, Cation 33uili)ins,


E.
81, 88,

and

85 Cen'trt Strttt,

A'.

Y.

ADVERTISEMENT.

This work

is tlie

result of the labors of

one of the members of the Southern

Baptist Missionary Society,

who

resided several years in the

Yoruba

country, and

enjoyed a very favorable opportunity of becoming intimately ace[uainted with the manners, the customs, the mental character, and the language of the people.

The manuscript was


before
it

offered to the Smithsonian Institution for publication


it

but

was accepted,

was referred by the Secretary to Professor

W. W.
in.

Turner of

this city for critical examination,


scientific

and was subsequently placed


It

his

hands for general revision and

arrangement.
its

was next submitted to


and was
finally

the American Oriental Society for an opinion as to

character,

adopted for publication as one of the Smithsonian Contributions to Knowledge on


the receipt of the following report
;

Haven, May, 1858. The undersigned, having been appointed, by the American Oriental Society, at
its

Boston and

New

meeting held in Boston, May 19th, 1858, a Committee to examine and report upon the Grammar and Dictionary of the Yoruba Language presented to the
Smithsonian Institution for publication, have made examination of these works,

and declare that they are, in their opinion, true contributions to knowledge, interesting and valuable from the subject and the manner in which it is treated, and that they will be welcomed both by philologists and by those who have at
heart the success of philanthropic and Christian effort in Africa.

W.

JOSIAH "W. GlBBS, ^ D. Whitney, > Committee.


j

K. Andeeson,

The

Institution

is

much indebted

to Professor

Turner

for the labor

he has
it

bestowed upon the revision of the work,


in its passage through the press.

as well as for the

time he has given to

JOSEPH HENRY,
Washing tov, June, 1858.

Sechj S. I.

PREFACE.

task of reducing the Yoruba language to writing was "begun about twentyyears ago in Sierra Leone, by -a youthful Yoruba named Adi&ye, since widely known and much beloved under the title of the Rev. Samuel Crowther. His first Grammar

The

and Vocabulary exhibited a rude attempt


letters

to write the

Yoruba language

in English

without diacritical points or tone-marks. After the Church Missionary had agreed on a more appropriate alphabet for the Yoruba, Mr. Crowther Society prepared a revised edition of his work, which was published in London in 1852. This Vocabulary, which contains " nearly three thousand vocables," is the basis of
the present enlarged Dictionary.

The grammatical principles here presented have been deduced from a multitude of sentences taken chiefly from the lips of the natives. With the assistance of Professor W. "W. Turner, of Washington, to whom the work was referred by the Smithsonian Institution, the whole has been carefully revised the orthography of
;

the language has been somewhat modified for the purpose of reducing it to a more harmonious system ; and the entire Grammar has been re-arranged and re-written so as to present the phenomena of the language, in accordance with the require-

ments of modern philology,


It
is

as nearly as practicable
it

simply justice to say that whatever merits details, are due to that accomplished scholar.
Greenesboro\ Ga^ June, 1858.

from a native point of view. may possess, as to plan and


T. J. B.

CONTENTS.

INTRODUCTION.
Pago

The Yoruba Country

Geographical and Historical Description Natural Productions and Climate

The Yoruba People


Physical Characteristics and Origin

VIU

CONTENTS.

Participles

Substantive Verbs

mbfe
Mtra

ya.
si
ri
.
*.

'.

ni or

li

gbe
dl
.

se

dze
Pleonastic Uses of Verbs

Nouns

Gender
Case

Number

.... ....
.

Apposition
Adjectives

INTRODUCTION.

THE YORrBA COUNTRY.


GEOGRAPHICAL AND HISTORICAL DESCRIPTION.
The Yoruba
language.
It is

country includes all the territory which is inhabited by people who speak the Yoruba bounded on the East by Ibinig or Benin and the Niger, on the West by Dahonii and
:

Mahi, on the North by Barba (Borghoo) and Nufe, and on the South by the Bight of Benin. At the present time it is divided into eight independent kingdoms, as follows 1. Iketu, situated immediately east of Dahomi, of which the extent is two thousand square miles,
with a population of about one hundred thousand ;* capital, Iketu. The surface of the country is level ; timber and water are scarce, and the soil rather poor. Still this little kingdom has sufficient resources to repel the power of Dahomi, which it has done on two occasions.
or Lagos, situated immediately on the sea coast, has an area of about four hundred square and a population of thirty thousand. The greater part are in Lagos, the capital, which is situated on a small island in the lagoon or bay, called Osa by the natives, and Cradoo by the English.
2.

ko,

miles,

Lagos claims

all

population of the

the coast to a point some miles west of Badagry. If this claim be allowed, the area and kingdom are two or three times greater than above stated.

For many years Lagos was a stronghold of the slave trade. It was then nominally dependent on Benin but the turbulent chiefs and people seem to have paid little regard either to Benin or to their own kings, who were frequently deposed and banished. Lagos is now under the protection of the English, but they claim no jurisdiction over the soil or people. It is the residence of several European merchants and missionaries, and bids fair to become' one of the most towns in western Africa. The
;

flourishing

people speak the Yoruba language, which they frequently call the call it, after the name of their own tribes, the Iketu, the Egba, &c. the Aku language.

Eko

By

Europeans

just as the Iketus, Egbas, &c., it is generally called

3. Egba is a small kingdom on the south of Yoruba and east of Iketu, lying on both sides Ogui) river, but principally on the east. The whole area, including the fallen kingdom of Ota, is three thousand square miles, with a population of one hundred thousand ; the capital, Abeokuta, population of eighty thousand souls.' The surface of the country is generally hilly, especially east

of the

about
has a
of the

unusually fertile, and the whole region well supplied with streams of clear water. In ancient times, as the Egba people relate, their country was a province of the Yoruba kingdom. After obtaining their independence, they were governed by a king of their own but finally growing weary of monarchy, they determined that every town should be ruled by its own chiefs. This led to mutual jealousies and dissensions. About fifty years ago, these dissensions, stimulated by the slave trade and by the machinations of the Idzebus and Yorubas, resulted in civil war. The
river
;

the

soil is

Egba country then contained more than a hundred towns, some affirm nearly three hundred, several of which were very populous. In the course of twenty-five years, every one of these towns was swept out of about ten miles south-west of Abeokuta, existence, with the single exception of Oba, wliich is yet
standing,

probable that five hundred thousand people perished by sword and famine. sold to the slave ships, and the remnant of the tribe was scattered abroad.
It is

Many

thousands were

The city of Abeokuta immense masses of granite,

on the east bank of the Ogui) river, among twenty or thirty which rise to a height of two or three hundred feet. Forty years ago, a grotto or cave under one of these rocks, which surmounts an abrupt hill, was inhabited by a band
is

situated

several of

It is

scarcely necessary to

remark that these numbers are

conjectural.

X
of robbers.

INTKODUCTION.

After the Egba country was destroyed, the robbers withdrew, and their place was supplied by a few refugees from some of the desolated towns. Their number was increased from time to time by the arrival of other refugees, and this continued till the new settlement contained about fifty thousand In reference to the dwelling of the inhabitants, the remnants of about one hundred and thirty towns. first inhabitants under the great rock, the town was called Abe-okuta, The rock literally. Under-stone. itself is called Olumo, The Builder, and some of the Egbas honor it with a sort of woi'ship. The people of Il9rii), of Ibadai), of Idiebu, and of Ota made repeated attempts to destroy the new town

and sell the inhabitants for slaves. But the Egbas, now united under a skilful leader named Sodeke, were too strong for their assailants. After repelling several invasions, Sodeke began to take vengeance on his enemies, and conquered the kingdom of Ota. By this means he opened a road by which his people
could trade to the sea-coast.

In the meantime several recaptured Egbas returned home from Sierra Leone, where they had learned Sodeke and the Egbas generally were so much pleased with something of civilization and Christianity.
the accounts of the English furnished by the new comers, that he and the whole tribe invited missionaries to come and settle in Abeoknta. The consequence was that the English commenced a mission there in 1846. It is probable that there are now two thousand converts in that city.

On the 3d of March, 1851, the king of Dahomi attacked Abeokuta with a strong force, said to consist often thousand men and six thousand women for about one third of his army is composed of Amazons.*

The king expected


Both
parties

force at least equal to his own. were armed with guns. The battle raged for about four hours, and occasionally with such In fury that the combatants were scarcely visible through the smoke at a distance of one hundred yards. some cases they broke their empty guns over each other's heads. The king, though long accustomed to On the following day it was ascertained that he left twelve hundred and victory, was obliged to retreat. nine of his warriors dead on the battle-field. Although hotly pursued with continual volleys of musketry,

a rich booty of slaves and plunder ; regard to the real strength of the town. The Egbas

but he seems to have been greatly mistaken in

met him with a

the Dahomies retired in good order, and carried away all their wounded. Since this battle the Egbas have generally enjoyed peace, and have made considerable advances towards

They are now governed by a king, who is one of the ancient royal family of the nation. Idzebu, on the south-east of Egba, and extending to the sea-coast, may have an area of five thousand The surface is undulating, and, like all square miles, with a population of two hundred thousand souls. the adjacent territories, is covered with a mixture of forests and grass-fields or prairies. The Idiebus are
civilization.
4.

though perhaps unjustly, regarded as the most barbarous of all the Yoruba tribes. Idzesa, on the east of Yoruba, probably has an area of two thousand square miles, with a population of at least, two hundred thousand. The capital is Ilesa, and we hear of other considerable towns in the same vicinity. 6. Efog extends from the north-oastof Yoruba eastward to the Oya or Niger. Very little is known of this country, but it is understood to contain six thousand square miles, and a population of three hundred thousand souls. It is said to comprise several extensive towns, one of which, Ibodo or Kakanda, on the The Efoij people are skilful in working brass and copper, and it is affirmed that Niger, is the capital. have copper mines in operation, six days' journey, or one hundred and twenty miles, east of Ilorii). they
generally,
5.
7.

Ilorir), so called

from

its

capital

city,

is

a small

Mohammedan kingdom, composed

chiefly

of

about one thousand square miles, and its inhabitants number at least two hundred thousand, nearly one half of whom are in the This district revolted from capital. Yoruba and became independent about thirty years ago. For several years they waged continual war
Its area is

Yorubas, Fellatahs, and Hausas.

against the heathen population of Yoruba, and they succeeded in destroying the capital, old Oyo (Katanga or Eyeo), a great city, twenty miles in circuit. But finally they were defeated by the people of Ibadaq, since which time they have acted chiefly on the defensive. The king and most of the principal people of
Ilorir)

are Pulohs or Fellatahs

but the Yorubas and Hausas, both of

whom

are numerous, have

some

inferior officers of their


lloriq
is

own

tribes.

one of the great marts of Central Africa, and is much frequented by people from various beyond the Niger, and even by Moors and Arabs. The principal exports are fine cotton cloths of Nufe manufacture, and slaves or The prisoners captured in petty wars with the neighboring tribes. consist of Arabian and common horses, salt, trona or crude carbonate of soda from the Great imports
countries

* On the day after the battle, the writer saw several hundreds of these women lying dead on the fiehJ. So far as he has learned, Dahomi is the only country in Africa which employs female soldiers. They fought with great fury.

INTKODUCTION.

XI

Much of this traffic is carried on across Desert, kola or goorah nuts, guns, swords, and European goods. the Desert, although Ilorii) is not two hundred and fifty miles by the road from the Bight of Benin.
8. Yoruba, properly so called, lies immediately to the north of Iketu, Egba, and Idzebu, and approaches within sixty miles of the sea-coast. This division is by far the largest of the eight kingdoms which compose the Yoruba country. Its area may be estimated at thirty thousand square miles, and the population at about eight hundred thousaud souls. This estimate may seem but it must be observed that the
;

large There principal towns in this part of Africa are from ten to twelve miles in circuit, and densely peopled. are thousands of houses in such towns, and each house usually contains from twenty-five to sixty-five The large towns of the Yoruba kingdom are, -Ibadar), Ide, If 6, Iwo, Idiaye, Oyo or Ago-Odza persons.

the capital, Ogbomoso, Ofa, Ikisi, Isaki, Isehirj, Igana, and Isabe and besides these crowded cities there are a multitude of smaller towns containing each fi'om two to fifteen thousand The kingdom of people. Yoruba embraces the two former kingdoms of If and Isehii), which are now integral parts of the nation.
;

Another ancient
mountains.

line of hereditary kings resides at Itabo, a small village near Bi-ol9rui3-kpelu,

among the

The entire Yoruba country, comprising the eight kingdoms above mentioned, has an area of about fifty thousand square miles, with a population of nearly two millions. The extent of sea-coast claimed by the two kingdoms of Lagos and Idiebu is about two hundred miles. The Slave Coast, of which Lagos is nearly the immense drift, which left the coarser materials
by the sands of an and partly by the gradual upheaval of the land an action which is still going on, not only here, but at El Mina and Cape Coast Castle. For these reasons the sea grows deeper quite slowly from the sandy beach, which is always lashed by a violent and dangerous surf. The various little rivers which descend with a rapid current from Yoruba are compelled to creep along the coast within a mile or two of the surf, till they meet with
central point, has been formed partly

in the interior of the country,

the Ogui) at Lagos, where they spread out into a broad lagoon called Osa, and force a tumultuous passage into the sea. Hence the landing at Lagos is always dangerous, although there are about two fathoms water on the bar.

Between Abeokuta and the sea the country is nearly level, quite free from stones, and mostly covered with dense entangled forests. Beyond Abeokuta the surface is undulating or hilly, and is generally well This part of the countty is mostly open or supplied with gneiss, granite, claystone, and quartz rocks.
free

from

forests, therein

resembling some of the partially wooded prairies of North America.

It is

worthy

of remark that this whole region is entirely free from swamps. The streams arc clear, rapid, and rocky, and the soil is everywhere dry and firm. From the sea to the interior the surface of the country rises gradually and almost imperceptibly, and yet so rapidly, that the tides do not extend ten miles above the

mouth

of the Ogui),

and the plain

at the

Ogbomoso

is

one thousand three hundred and

five feet

above

the level of Lake Osa at Lagos. The chain of mountains formerly marked on the

maps

of

Yoruba has no
rugged

existence.

The only mountains


abruptly from the

in the country consist of isolated peaks, or little clusters of surrounding plains, sometimes to a height of a thousand feet.

hills,

which

rise

NATURAL PRODUCTIONS AND CLIMATE.


The only metal known to exist in the Yoruba country is iron, which in some places is quite abundant. The copper mines of Efoq are hypothetical but lead mines are known to exist beyond the Niger. The plants of Yoruba are similar to those of Western Africa generally. I observed, however, an unusual number of North American genera, together with many others not mentioned in Hooker's Niger Flora. Comparatively few of the somewhat numerous plants which are common to the interior of Africa
;

and the East Indies are noticed in that work. Pine-apples arc never found here in the forests, as they are in Liberia;* and there is but one species of Datura, whereas on the Gold Coast there are two, one of which has a double and sometimes a triple corolla. The Cactus, which at grows so

vigorously

Cape

Coast Castle,

is

never seen in Yoruba

but Euphorbias of various species are abundant.

Grape-vines of

In the Yoruba language the pine-apple is called okpaimbo (okpe ambo), the white maii'g palm. The orange also appears to have been received from the whites, as it is called orombo (oro ambo), the white man's manyo.

Xll

INTBODUCTION.
are

the interior plains. Some of them species produce large fruit, but too dry and insipid to be valuable. African travellers have erroneously reported that various plants, as the castor-oil bean, sesame, red The mistake has arisen from seeing such plants on deserted pepper, cotton, &c., are indigenous in Africa. farms, overgrown with bushes, and perhaps far away from 'any which is now inhabited. The
three or four distinct place
existence of indigenous coffee is doubtful. the leaves were certainly narrower and
Indies.

common on

But a

tree in the forest

have seen the so-called native coffee-trees in gardens, and yellower than those of the plants introduced from the West which was triumphantly pointed out as coffee happened to be in flower,
I

at once that it belonged to a totally different family. The probability is that the slavers of former days planted coffee-trees, which are now found occasionally growing in the woods. Among cultivated plants we may mention Indian corn of the variety grown in our Southern States, and yams similar to those of the West Indies, as staple articles of food. The yam is indigenous, and all

and inspection proved

the cultivated varieties have been reclaimed from the forests where they still grow. It is a traditional saying that yams were the primitive food of man. The first man made an attempt to eat a raw yam, but pronounced it unfit for human food. Afterwards one, accidentally lying near his fire, became roasted ; and this was the first discovery in the important art of cooking. Indian corn is said to have been brought from beyond the Niger by a. yellow monkey. It may not be irrelevant to remark that the natives

sometimes

call foreigners

monkeys by way of
out,

derision.
!

When

a white

man

appears in the streets of


!

Abeokuta, the children usually cry


called in the

Oibo

akiti

Yoruba language, agbado (agba


;

odo),

agba The white man is an old baboon what is beaten or cleansed in a mortar.

Maize

is

The other articles maiwa sugar cane


;

of food are, Guinea corn or sorghum, of four varieties, called baba, homo, gero, and several kinds of beans ; pea-nuts, both and oily and mealy ; sweet potatoes ; onions various herbs of little value. The fruits are, oranges, limes, pawpaws, plantains, bananas, and a few
;

pine-apples.

The

oro, or

mango, and a
little

fruit called osuij, are

almost the only wild

fruits that

can be eaten.
;

home consumption, and some attempt to raise tobacco but neither of these plants succeeds well. The cotton fails, to use a planter's phrase, by " running to weed," i. e. the joints of the branches where the pods appear are much too far apart, and the blooms are often fruitless. The defect of the tobacco is a want of strength and flavor. The weeds attendant on cultivation are similai' to those of our Southern States so much so, indeed, that a careless observer would
Most farmers plant a
cotton for
;

scarcely perceive a difference between a corn-field in Yoruba and one in Georgia or Alabama. As the inhabitants of Yoruba are all crowded together in towns, and derive their support from circum-

broad belt of country, jacent farms, at least two thirds of their fine region is given up to wild beasts. once populous but now totally desolated by war, extends from near the sea to the Niger, running to the eastward of Abeokuta, and to the westward of Idiaye, Oyo, and Ogbomoso. Between the towns there
are other desert regions, some of which are twenty miles in breadth. As these partially wooded prairies are covered with grass from eight to twelve feet in height, and the people are not addicted to hunting, the numerous population of the country has not greatly diminished the abundance of animal life. Hyenas

prowl around the walls of large towns, and people are sometimes attacked and killed by leopards in the Even the chase-loving Anglo-Saxon would find it impossible to extirpate the wild adjacent farms.
animals on the plains of Yoruba, so long as they remain covered with grass, which impedes the progress of the horseman.

The following brief sketch may give some idea of the animals known to exist in this part of Africa. The monkey tribe affords several interesting species, some of which I have not seen in the Zoological Gardens of London, or in any other collection. The most remarkable of these creatures is the well known Chimpanzee, which is found in several of the larger forests of Yoruba. The full-grown male is nearly
four feet in height. His weapons of defence are his tusks, which are truly formidable and his strength is so that the negroes consider him as more than a match for a man. He never defends himself with great, sticks or stones, never walks upright, and never builds a shelter or so much as a nest to defend himself or
;

young against the weather. He is generally seen on the trees, making prodigious leaps from branch to The face of the young Chimpanzee is branch, and exhibiting all the habits of other monkeys. human-like but after the appearance of the tusks, it becomes disgustingly prognathous. remarkably Hyenas are rather common, but I was not able to determine by examination whether or not they differ
his
;

from those of northern Africa.

is a noiseless creature which prowls in solitude. confirmed by Lander, lions are common in Barba According and northern Yoruba; but I have never hoard of one's being seen east of the Oguq river. Leopards are common everywhere. Though not so fierce here as in the forests of Liberia, they sometimes, as remarked above, seize men even on the farms. In 1855, an instance of this kind occurred within three

The adiako,

or wild dog,
is

to the statement of the natives,

which

INTRODUCTION".

XIU

There are several smaller miles of Ogbomoso, which is surrounded for miles by a well cultivated country. animals of the cat-tribe, some of which are spotted like Leopards. more numerous in the forests of Barba. Elephants are common on the prairies of Yoruba, and still
intrude into the farms, and are not regarded as mischievous animals but the people have The hippopotamus is confined to the deep waters considerable aversion to meeting them on the plains. of the Osa and the Niger. I believe the rhinoceros is never seen in this region ; but the people have heard of it as existing somewhere in the interior. There are two species of wild boar, the larger of which

They seldom

said to be very fierce the smaller kind is frequently killed and brought into market, A species of Hyrax, different occupation, similar shrill cry, is common among the mountains.
is
;

by men who make hunting their from that of the Cape, but uttering a

This country nourishes several species of Antelope, some of which are very small, while otliere are twice the size of the common American deer. species of Buffalo, called in Sierra Leone the "jack-ass

cow," is frequently seen in Yoruba, sometimes singly, but commonly in small droves of ten or twelve. Birds are very numerous. Among them may be mentioned, a large and a small eagle, both rare ; two species of vulture, several kinds of hawks and falcons, some of which are migratory ; a booted owl one quite large ; orioles red and parti-colored sparrows ; a blackish mocking-bird with an orange breast,
; ;

; swallows; several species of the whip-poor-will family, including the curious longshafted "goat-sucker" of Sierra Leone; larks; various creepers ; crows; sunbirds ; kingfishers, one small species of which feeds on buttei'flies ; horn-bills ; parrots ; two species of Guinea hen ; a large and a

a beautiful songster

small partridge ; quails ; several species of doves storks and adjutants. I have seen but one species of Tortoise, a small kind, eight or ten inches in length, which lives in the to the natives, there are two species of crocodiles. The several specimens which I prairies. According have seen appeared to be intermediate between the true crocodile and the alligator. One of them, seen
;

in the Ogui) river, was probably twelve feet or more in Lizards are very numerous some of length. I have Caught several Chameleons. them, analogous to the iguana, are two feet long. They creep along
;

very slowly, as

if

wounded and

in pain

but their form

is

not quite so ungainly as those of Arabia, and

their eyes are less prominent. Snakes are not numerous.

None of the lizards are thought to be poisonous by the natives. The largest is the python, which, I believe, never attains a greater

length

than about

There are no water-snakes. natives speak of another species nearly as large. green snake and a black viper are the only ones said to be poisonous. I have seen two kinds of Snails, one of which, the Achatina, is found seven or eight inches in length.
fifteen feet.
;

The

Good Oysters are found on the sea-coast in some localities they The principal mangrove trees, presenting a curious spectacle.

attach themselves to the roots of the


fresh

water

shell-fish

are a Muscle,

resembling that of the United States, and another, found in the rapids of the Oguig in appearance to the oyster. The taste is very unsavory.

river, precisely similar

But Insects, and especially flies, fleas, and mosquitoes, are not so numerous as might perhaps be expected. ants of several species are in abundance. One species, which the natives call ota, the stmger, is frequently useful as an enemy of the termes, which devours every dry vegetable substance within its reach. Another
species very like the ota
is

called
in

Yoruba, because utmost


fury.

it

moves

"the driver" in Liberia, and idzalo, the fighter which countless multitudes, and attacks every living thing in

makes one
its

go, in

way with

the

two species of Scorpion, the black, about seven inches in length, and the yellow or brown, After being stung three times by yellow smaller, but is said to be more dangerous. and knowing others to be stung by both species, I regard them as far less poisonous than some scorpions, have reported. Centipedes are seen in Yoruba, but I have never known a pereon to be stung by them.
Tliere are
is

which

much

The natives affirm that the Spiders of that country are entirely harmless, and I have never seen one of that hideous kind, resembling a tarantula, which is so much dreaded in the Mendi country, west of Gallinas.

As the Landers passed through the Iketu country, they saw innumerable swarms of Butterflies. I have once seen the same myself in the same region, and nowhere else. On one occasion, when descending the Ogui) river, we met millions of Dragonflies, about one-fourth of an inch in length, making their way up
the country by following the couree of the stream. In order to observe all the phases of animal life which this region exhibits, a man must reside there for several years, and visit the forests, mountains, and plains at different seasons. The same remark applies equally to the vegetation of the country. When we arrive at the highest lands between .the sea and the Niger, we enter a new climate, and a new,
or at least a modified, zoological and botanical region. The climate of the different sections of Yoruba extending from Lagos to Nufe, though similar in
its

XIV
main

INTRODUCTION.

The lower countries, from Lagos to Idiaye at Oyer, features, is quite difFereirt in some particulars. are remarkable for a rather strong breeze which blows incessantly from the sea, generally from the southThe course of this wind must be attributed cliiefly west, but varying occasionally to the west or south.
If it were occasioned by the heat of the Great Desert, I to the shape of this part of the continent. suppose it would continue to blow in, the same direction for several hundred miles into the interior of the

country.

In

point

of fact,

however, the winds at Ogbomoso, especially in the dry season, are

very variable. In consequence of the south-western breeze, the climate of the low country is quite damp, the dews very heavy, and the niglit air so chilly that we found it dangerous to go out after twilight. But during my stay at Il9rir), in April, 1855, the nights were so much warmer than any I had before experienced in

walk

Africa that, instead of being obliged to retire to my room immediately after sunset, I found it pleasant to in the yard of the house at or 10 o'clock in the evening, and sometimes without a coat.

swamps in this country, it is probable that all the interior regions of Yoruba, those of the northern watershed sloping towards the Niger, are as healthy as any other particularly country within the tropics. I believe that the natives at least enjoy as good health as those of any part
of the temperate zone. Yoruba has the advantage of two rainy seasons. The "former rains" commence about the first of March, and increase till the sun has reached the Tropic of Cancer. After the middle of July there is

As

there are no

months.

till about the first of October then the "latter rains" commence, and continue for about two During December, January, and February, there is no rain except an occasional shower produced by a chilly wind from the north-east, which is called Oye by the natives, and Ilarmattan by the whites. But the moisture produced by these showers is speedily evaporated by the excessive dryness of the Harmattan, which generally continues to blow for two or three days. The eff'ects of the dry season are very decided ; the grass on the prairies is withered and dried up, many kinds of trees cast their leaves, and most of the smaller streams cease to flow. During my stay in the country, the thennometer ranged from 60 (when the Harmattan was blowing) to 9l'S on one occasion at Ogbomoso. The highest reading at Idzaye was 93, and the lowest 68. The average for the dry season, both at Idiaye and Ogbomoso, wiis about the same, viz. within a The differences indicated by the wet and dry bulbs of the hygrometer during the dry fraction of 82, season varied from 0'2, one morning after rain had fallen, to 25 under the influence of the Harmattan ; and the averages for December, January, and February, were 5 at Idzaye, and 9 at Ogbomosg, fifty miles further in the interior. At the latter place, during the two rainy seasons, including the interval of delightful weather between them, the thermometer varied from V0 to 85, and the hygrometer from 0'6

little

rain

to 9.

THE YORUBA PEOPLE.


PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS AND ORIGIN.
The Yorubas
that, although
it

as light-colored as

arc black and have woolly hair, but we occasionally meet with individuals who are fully American Indians. Tliis color is hereditary in certain families ; and it is a curious fact may seem to be lost, it sometimes reappeai-s in subsequent generations. Individuals of this

color are found not only

even

among

the Kroomen.

among the Yorubas and other tribes of the interior, but among the Iboes, and They are called "red men" in Africa, though their color is not exactly that of
is

Indians, nor yet of mulattoes, and red men are found in the interior.

something wholly
of
Ilorir)

distinct

from albinism.

Several entire tribes of

spoke of a tribe of pastoral people called Alabawo, Hide-wearers, who are said to be decidedly light-colored. They build no towns, but live in leather tents, which they pitch in the form of a circular village, and remove from place to place for the sake of Their language is said to be the Fulfude or Fellatah ; but they have no political connexion pasturage.

The people

with the other Pulohs of Central Africa.

They are Mohammedans, acquainted with books, excellent horsemen, brave, and rapacious. Caille mentions a tribe of Fulahs who were heathens and quite distinct from other Fulahs in language and habits. In fact they were not Fulahs, although resembling them in color. The Mandingoes, also, and others in that region, are not true negroes, either in color or features. It seems reasonable to suppose that the red men among the Yorubas had the same origin as the red
Pulohs and other red
tribes of the interior.

On

the other hand,

it is

unnecessary to refer the light color

of these people to climate or to other that an extensive conjectural causes, when we have good evidence of the black and white races has taken in the countries where most of the mulattoes amalgamation place

INTRODUCTION.
are

XV
this

now

found.

We

may

admit in advance

tliat

some of the evidence of

amalgamation

may be

For instance, king Belo of Sokoto may be mistaken, wlien he asserts in his History spurious or doubtful. of Takroor* that Bornu was peopled by an Egyptian colony. Still it is undeniable that a strong Caucasian
intermixture extends from the

Red Sea through Nubia and Darfur

to the Shoas, south-west of lake

Tsad

just here, at the last named point, that we first meet with the red Pulohs, Ilausa, Bambara, &c., to the Senegal and the Atlantic Ocean.

and

it is

who

extend through

Again, the brown

men

of the Desert belong to the white race.

As

a natural consequence of continual

Intercourse in peace and war, they often intermix with the blacks of Negro-land, and their half-caste The color, however, is different, being, as before offspring are as light-colored as mulattoes in America.

observed, a more healthy and pleasing red, something between that of the mulatto and the North American Indian. When these African mulattoes intermarry with negroes, their children are more or

but their features and the texture of their skin afford unmistakable evidence that they are not pure negroes. They assume, in fact, the very appearance of the Mandingoes, whose peculiarities have been attributed to climate. Now, if there had been no amalgamation of races to the eastward of Lake Tsad, the intermixture constantly going on along the southern borders of the Desert is sufficient to account
less

black

for all the types of mankind found in Sudan. The red Pulohs, who are a numerous class, correspond exactly to the half-breed offspring of negroes and the people of the Desert, while the darker Pulohs and the Mandingoes correspond to the descendants of such mulattoes and negroes. It is a curious fact,

however, that some of the Pulohs at Iloriij are lighter colored and more of the white man in every respect than any half-blood mulatto I have ever seen either in America or Africa. But even in these cases the

and tie it under the chin. sufficiently long for the women to plait it overran Sndan in the tenth century, left many descendants and these, of In short, there is no want of evidence that the light color of many course, were not pure negroes. families and tribes in Sudan may have resulted from amalgamation. When we see that the children of a
hair

woolly, although Finally, the Saracens,

is

it

grows

who

brown Moor and a black woman of Yoruba or Nufc are red, we very naturally conclude that all the red people in the country are of mixed blood. On the whole, then, the origin of the red or mulatto-colored men whom we find in Africa is more easily accounted for than the origin of the blacks. But we return to the Yorubas, who are certainly negroes, if we except a few red men or mulattoes. They are not generally, however, such negroes as are frequently met with in the forests of Guinea and Many of the Yoruba people, like those again, it seems, on the Benue river, in the heart of the continent.f of Nufe and other countries, have kandsome liands and feet, pleasing features, and well developed foreheads, and are altogether noble-looking men. The traditions of the Yoruba people as to the origin of their tribe are obscure and contradictory. They generally affirm that mankind were created at IfS, a considerable town in the eastern part of the Yoruba country. Sometimes they speak of If5 as being four months' journey distant, as though the present town of that name were confounded with some other place of which the people retain an obscure The word If6 appears to be derived from fS, to enlarge ; in which case it signifies traditional recollection.
enlargement.

Notwithstanding the prevailing belief that men were created at If |, I have been informed by some They were driven from intelligent natives, that the Yoruba people once lived in Nufe beyond the Niger. After retreating this position by war, at a time when the river was much swollen and difficult to cross.

some time, they founded the present city of If |, whence colonies were afterwards sent, first to Igboh6, and then to Oyo,J; Lander's Bohoo and Katanga or Eyeo. Igboho finally became the capital of Yoruba as a kingdom independent of Ife. In subsequent times the seat of government was transferred to Oyo^ where it remained till the city was destroyed by the Pulohs, about the year 1835. The king then removed his residence to Ago-Odia, the Tent-Market, which at present is commonly called Oyo. It would seem that Yoruba proper was once divided into three provinces, Ibakpa in the west, Ibolo in the east, and Oyo (Eyeo or Ilio) in the north. At least the three principal dialects of the language are
for
still

called
is

which

by these names. The Dictionary contained in the present considered the standard by a majority of the natives.

work

is

chiefly in the

Oyo

dialect,

* See the extracts from Belo's Ilistory in tlie Appendix to Denham and Clapperton's Travels in Africa, vol. ii. f See Crowther's Journal of the Chadda Expedition in 1854. X Igho, forest ; \\\o, sho'Uing, clamor ; Ighoho, the clamorou/! or noisy forest, i.e. "the howling wilderness." probably escape, from yo, to escape. This might indicate that Oj-o was their first settlement west of the Niger.

Oyo,

XVi

INTRODUCTION.

EELIGIOUS BELIEF.
Yoniba is a curious mixture of pure theism and idolatry. All the people believe in one the creator and preserver of all things, whom they generally call Ol9rui) (6 li orui)), the universal God, Owner or Lord of Heaven, and sometimes by other names, as Olodumare, the Ever-Righteotis, Oga-Ogo, Glorious High One, Oluwa, Lord, &c. They hold the doctrines of the immortality of tlie soul and of

The

religion of

future rewards and punishments


orui),

Hades.

Oke-orui), the

but on these points their notions are obscure. All the dead are in Upper Hades, is the abode of the righteous, and Oruq-akpadi, the Crucible;

Hades, is the place of punishment. Their idols are never confounded with God, either in name or character. They are called ori^a, a name which appears to be derived fi'om asa, customs, or religious ceremonies. Among the numerous Obatal4 is thought to be the orisas worshipped there arc three great ones, called Obatala, Sapgo, and Ifa.
first

made and greatest of all created things. Others, however, affirm that he was nothing more than an His name Obatala appears to be ancient king of Yoruba, and they profess to tell the name of his father. a contraction of oba ti nlA, the king who is great, or of oba ti ala, the king of whiteness, i.e. purity.

A
;

white cloth (ala) is worn by his worshippers. Some of his other names are, Orisa nla, the great orisa Alamorere, he of the good clay, because he made the human body of clay and Orisa kpokpo, the orisa of the gate, because he is the guardian of the gates of cities. He is frequently represented as a warrior on a spear. His wife, lyaijgba, the receiving mother, is represented as nursing a child. horseback, holding
;

But Iyar)gba herself is Obatal4. The two are one, or in other words, Obatala is an androgyne, repreof nature as Obataja forms distinguished from the creative power of God. senting the productive energy the bodies of men ; but God himself imparts life and spirit, and God alone is styled Eledai or produces

The

The second great orisa is Saijgo, the thunder god, who is also called Dzakuta, the Stone-caster. In stones or thunderbolts which Sar)g6 casts down from heaven are preserved as sacred relics. are identical with the so-called stone-hatchets picked up in the fields of America ; but appearance they
Creator.
for battle-axes, or leather dressing implements, or emblematic thundernot easily determined. According to one account, Saijgo was born at If 5, and reigned at Ikoso, a town recently destroyed, which stood thirty or forty miles south of Isaki. He was much addicted to predatory wars, in commemoration
bolts, is

whether they were made originally

When a house is struck by lightning, of which his worshippers still carry a bag, as the emblem of booty. they have a right to pillage it, and also to steal as many goats and chickens as they can find at large in
any part of the town. They affirm that their master was translated alive to heaven, where he reigns in a palace with gates of brass, and ten thousand horses, and amusing himself with great state, having and war. hunting, fishing,

But the abstract Saqg6 is quite a diS'erent being. He is the son of Oruijgai), midday, and the grandson His mother is liemodia, the mother of fishes, a small river in Yoruba. His elder of Agaijdzu, the desert. brother is Dada, nature, one of the Yoruba idols his younger brother is the river Oguq, which bears the
;

name

of the god of war and smith's work.

Orisako, the

god of farms

his slave
Ifa,

The

third great idol

is

rivers Oya, Osur), and Oba his associate is darkness; and his priest is Magba, the receiver. the revealcr of future event, and the patron of marriage and childbirth.

His wives are the

is Biri,

He

Banga, the god of palm-nuts, because sixteen palm-nuts are employed in obtaining responses. The head-quarters of Ifa are at Ado, a village on the top of an immense rock near Awaye. There are several other idols of note, as Odudua, the universe, Xocai^d. at Ife; J) a.<ik, nature ; and These bars are obtained at a great cost Orisako, the god of farms, whose symbol is a large iron bar.
is

called

from the high priest of the idol, who dwells at Irawo. Many of the inferior idols are men and women who were distinguished in their day by some remarkable relation to the tribe. The doctrine of idolatry prevalent in Yoruba appears to be derived by analogy from the form and
customs of the
civil

government.

There

is

but one king in the nation, and one God over the universe.
;

Petitioners to the king approach him through the intervention of his servants, courtiers, and nobles and the petitioner conciliates the courtier whom he employs by good words and presents. In like manner

no man can
orisas,

directly

approach God

but the Almighty himself, they say, has appointed various kinds of

who

are mediators and intercessors between himself and mankind.

No

sacrifices are

made

to

God,

because he needs nothing ; but the orisas, being much like men, are pleased with offerings of sheep, They conciliate the orisa, or mediator, that he may bless them, not in his pigeons, and other things. own power, but in the power of God.

As

the people

make a

clear distinction

between God and

idols, so

an

idol,

which

is

a real spiritual being.

INTRODUCTION.
is is

XVU

not to be confounded with

thought to have

have.

A charm or amulet its symbol,* which may be an image, a tree, or a stone. much power, but it is not an orisa. It has no life and no intelligence as the ori^as White men are generally much mistaken in regard to the religion and superstition of the negroes.
is

They suppose

that the idols are looked upon as gods that the symbol is the idol ; and that a greegree, or all of which is incorrect. charm, " devils." The natives themselves speak of It is usual among Europeans to call the idols of the natives

an object of worship

in the existence of various other evil spirits. In the Yoruba language only one devil, though they believe the devil is called E^u, the Ejected, from su, to cast out ; and Elegbara, the Mighty, on account of his great The name Ebilisi has been borrowed from the Pulohs, and by them from the influence over mankind.

Arabs.

The

devil

is

not reckoned as one of the mediatorial orisas

but the Yorubas worship him with

sacrifices, to conciliate his favor

The

power of civil government deified most usual among the Egbas, who term the punishment of criminals " giving them to Oro.' On Oro day all women arc obliged to remain closely shut up in their houses. Egupguq, or the " Aku Devil," makes his appearance in the person of a tall fellow, fantastically clad and masked, and is declared and if to be a tenant of the grave. No one, not even the king, may dare to lay his hand on Egnqgug woman should say he is a man, she would be put to death. Even Mohammedans and Christians are any obliged to conceal their knowledge of the imposture under penalty of martyrdom.
latter is
;

Eguqgui), bones, and

injury. Oro, torment, are the executive or vindictive

and prevent his doing them

INDUSTRIAL PURSUITS.
of the people of interior Africa are more advanced in civilization than those on the coast. The barbarism of the coast people is attributable to the dense forests in which they live, to the sparsedeeper ness of the population, and to the vicious and idle habits which have naturally resulted from the slave

Most

trade.

The degree of civilization which exists in the interior is probably very ancient. King Belo, already quoted, may not be correct when he afiirms that the ancient Copts colonized Bornu ; but we have independent evidence of an early, if not extensive, intercourse between Central Africa and Egypt. The Popo beads which are dug from the earth in the south-eastern part of Yoruba, and in countries east of
the Niger, are identical in appearance with the beads found on the Egyptian mummies. Several of the arts and customs of Yoruba and other interior countries are Egyptian in their character ; and the use of cowries for money must have been introduced from the east, since none of these shells are found in the
Atlantic.

The most important industrial pursuits of the Yorubas are agriculture, blacksraithing, and the manufacture of clothing. Unoccupied land is common property, and free for any one to cultivate. But each man has an exclusive When a farm is sold, the fruit-trees to his own farm, whether in actual cultivation or in fallow.
right

remain the property of the former owner, unless they are specially mentioned in the contract. Except a few hedges of Jatropha, Curcans, and Euphorbia, in the immediate vicinity of towns, there are no fences in the country; because there are not many cattle, and these are always under the care of keepers. Disputes concerning the boundaries of farms or fallow lands are generally settled at once by the neighbors.

Although the Yorubas are an agricultural people, their implements The usual tools of the farmer are, an axe, three inches in or heavy pruning-knife, for cutting bushes; and an oval hoe, with a hook, Ploughs and carts are entirely imknown. Their oxen, though large and
description.

are few and of a very simple width, for felling trees ; a bill-

handle about two


strong, are never

feet in length.

employed for which are usually small, though well formed, are used exclusively for the saddle. Yams are planted in large hills in January and February, and are matured in August and September. The first crop of maize is planted between the middle of February and the first of April, and ripens in July
labor
;

and the

horses,

Some of these symbols, occasionally engraved on the temple doors of Obatala, deserve a more special notice. On Another has a female figure with one hand and several distinct panels are seen a fish, a land tortoise, and a serpent. one foot, probably a half Obatala, or the female principle of Nature. This figure is remarkable for having a queue of

paries genitales in coitu.

very long hair (which no negro can have) with a ball or globe at the end. Opposite to this are the male and female They are represented in the natural forms, and are never disguised by being formed into a handled cross, for instance, as they were in Egypt. Phallic worship is practised, but, I believe, without impurity.

XVm
;

INTRODUCTION.

and August tbe second crop is planted chiefly in August or the latter part of July. As the heavy rains May and June are not favorable to the growth of cotton, it is planted in July in December the crop is cut short by the dry season. Maize and yams are generally housed in the farms where they grow, and In case the town is large, some of the into town in small quantities to supply the daily market. brought farms may be ten or even twenty miles distant but all the produce is brought in on the heads of the owners. Pack-horses and asses, though employed east of the Niger, are never seen in Yoruba. I have travelled with a caravan of two or three thousand persons, all of whom carried their goods in packages on
of
; ;

their heads.

Some parts of the country are rich in ore, from which the people obtain a very good quality of iron. As the smelters are not communicative, I can only state what I have seen as to tlieir manner of working. The furnace is a pit in a house, and may be entered either by the door or by an underground passage which emerges twenty' or thirty feet from the building. The broken ore is placed in the furnace with a number of well dried clay tubes, about an inch in diameter and fifteen inches in layers of charcoal
;

length, are inserted into the mass of ore and coal, I think at the bottom. Although no bellows are the heat is so intense that the ends of these tubes are partially vitrified. The iron is sold to employed,

blacksmiths,

who manufacture

it

into various articles,

among which may be enumerated

axes, adzes, hoes,

chains and staples, all of rude workmanship. The smiths' bellows are identical in principle with those of the ancient Egyptians and Greeks. The large anvil is a stone, the smaller one a block of iron. Copper, brass, and silver are wrought by the same smith
sickles, bill-hooks, swords, knives, razors, scissors, needles,

with the same implements.

The Yoruba carpenter employs himself chiefly in the manufacture of bowls, mortars, and door shutters. His principal tools are wedges for splitting trees, an axe, and an adze. The carver who makes images of wood, or carves figures on doors and calabashes, works chiefly with knives. The ornamental engraving of calabashes appears to be a thrifty business. Considerable numbers of people are engaged in the production of clothing. Cotton is freed from the seeds by rolling it under a small iron cylinder on a smooth It is then whipped with a bow to piece of wood. prepare it for spinning, which is done with a distaff. The yarn is sold to the weavers every evening in market, and the cloth given to the tailors, who cut and make garments. Thread is warped on pins driven into the ground, and then fonned into a large ball instead of being wound upon a beam. With the exception of the thread beam, the parts of an African loom are the same as those of hand-looms in our own country but the implement is so small, that the
;

scarcely six inches in width. Among the other employments of the people we may mention the manufacture of earthen pots and vessels for cooking and eating; the dyeing of cloth with indigo, which grows abundantly on the farms; the dressing of black, red, yellow, and white morocco, and the making of it into shoes and saddles ; the
is

cloth

manufacture of various
tiful articles

oils,
;

chiefly

sesame and of watermelons


;

from the palm-nut, the fruit of the shea-butter tree, and the seeds of the manufacture of beads from broken palm-nuts and from jasper, both beau-

tobacco

So

the making of soap ; and the grinding of snuff, which is practised in every town. poor, it is always ground with carbonate of soda from the desert, to give it pungency. far as I could ascertain, the art of making glass is confined to three towns in Nnfe, one of
is

As

the

which

is

kept a profound secret. There is no legal or customary restraint as to the choice of occupations, except that it is not reputable for women to labor on the farms. In their favorite capacity of traders, however, they are constantly engaged in bringing the produce which they have purchased from the farms to the market. Many poor
art is

west of the Niger.

This

women also obtain a living by supplying the market with firewood, which they sometimes bring from a distance of six or eight miles. Others gather large leaves, which they sell by the basketful to the market women to be employed as wrapping paper. The other employments of females are housework, spinning,
washmg, soap-makmg, and the manufacture of earthenware. The cultivation of the soil, blacksmithing, wood work, weaving, tailoring, and the barber's trade, are performed by men. All the Africans, and none more so than the people of Yoruba, are addicted to traffic. Their trade
with the people nearer the coast consists in palm oil, ivory, cotton cloths, indigo, iron, horses, cattle, sheep, (fee; for which they receive cheap guns and powder, calicoes, velvet, salt, and other articles from Europe and America. Their inland trade embraces the foregoing and many other commodities, including large quantities of soda, and some fine horses, worth several hundred doUare each, from Hausa and Bornu. Uides, coffee, and a superior kind of indigo will be among the future exports.
thousands of people.
In the present condition of the countr}', without roads or vehicles, the traffic gives employment to Sometimes a single caravan consists of hundreds and even thousands of persons of

INTRODUCTION.

XIX

both sexes. Their only travelling equipment is a mat to sleep on, a coarse cotton sheet for a cover, a small bag containing provisions, and a little earthen pot to warm the sauce, which, with yams and preA carrier's burden varies in weight from forty to eighty pounds. parations of corn, is the universal diet. As there are neither weights nor standard measures in the country, such articles as salt, soda, and oil are sold from town to town by the load till they reach a consumer. of life, are held daily in all the towns Markets, for the sale of provisions and other common necessaries On these but the large market for the sale of general merchandise is usually held every fifth day. At Ilorii), the greatest market occasions we frequently see thousands of people busily engaged in traffic.
;

in the country,

which is held daily owing to the abundance of business, there are men from every part of Central Africa, and frequently from Tripoli and other countries of the North. The merchandise includes a great variety of articles, African, European, and Asiatic, from a slave to a ready-made pen and a bottle

of ink.

Owing to the frequent wars which afflict the country, and partly perhaps to the gregarious disposition Even the farmers, who are obliged to pass many of their of the people, they invariably reside in towns. All the towns in the in the distant fields, never erect a better dwelling than a hut in the country. nights interior are surrounded by rather strong mud walls five or six feet in height, with a deep ditch on the

The gates are closed at night with heavy shutters and guarded by keepers. All the streets, except the few which lead from African towns are never laid out in a regular manner. The broader the gates to the market, are very narrow, and intersect each other at every possible angle. are beautifully shaded with wide-spreading trees. Architecture streets, the markets, and other open spaces unknown. The houses, from the palace to the dwellings of the poorest people, are built of mud is
outside.

wholly

same form, that of a large square inclosed by a which is open to the sky, is entered Most of the rooms are scarcely six feet between the dirt floor a large gate with a heavy board shutter. by and the fire-proof ceiling of sticks and mortar overhead, and the usual dimensions are six or seven feet in width by twelve or fifteen feet in length. As there is only one low door and no windows, these rooms are always dark. During the day, the people sit in the piazza which extends in front of the rooms when they retire to rest at night, or enter a room by day, they use an earthen lamp supplied with oil. The Africans have no chairs, tables, or bedsteads their furniture consists of mats, earthen pots, bags, and gourds. Their food is taken with the fingers from a deep earthen dish. A sort of sauce comof meats and vegetables, or of vegetables and oil only, and highly seasoned with red pepper, is posed a universal article of diet. They never roast or boil joints of meat in Yoruba. Yams are prepared to be eaten with sauce, either by simply boiling, or by boiling and pounding with the addition of water to the Indian corn is first soaked till it becomes a little sour, then pounded or consistence of wheaten dough. on a flat stone with a small stone cylinder or rubber, and the starch, after being washed out in ground
and covered with a thatch of
grass.

They

are

all

of the

series of single rooms, after the

manner of a

fort.

The

interior court,

pure water, is boiled down to the consistence of thick paste. This food is much used, both diluted as a warm drink in the morning, and cold in the form of round dumplings, which are wrapped in leaves for When they make bread, it is fried, never baked. Very little milk is used except at Il9rii). sale.

Most of the laboring people take their breakfast at an early hour in the streets, around the pots of women At noon they eat in the farms or wherever they may happen to be, and their prepare food for sale. supper is taken just before they retire to sleep. The flesh of sheep, goats, and cows is sold daily in the market but the people use it sparingly. Fish is not plentiful in Yoruba except on the larger streams.

who

The

dress of the

men

and a sheet or wrapper, or

consists of trowsers or short breeches, a tunic or a kind of shirt without sleeves, The head, which in general is smoothly shaven, is else a large flowing gown.
is

covered with a tight cloth cap, to which

sometimes added a hat or turban.

woman's

dress

is

com-

posed of three wrappers, two around the waist and one over the shoulders, but the last is often laid aside. Women do not shave their heads except as a mark of mourning. Their usual headdress is a fillet of cloth. Horsemen wear a sort of shoes and sometimes boots. Travellers who go on foot frequently wear sandals ;
but most of the people of both sexes generally go barefoot. Boys are usually provided with breeches, or at least an apron, at the age of five or six ; but girls of ten or twelve years often appear in the streets, from Most of the Yorubas are cleanly in their habits, choice, wearing nothing but their beads and bracelets.

and rather fond of being

finely dressed.

Tlie older men meet principal amusement of the young people is dancing to the sound of drums. together under the shady trees to talk, and sometimes to play a sort of draughts and other games of a similar
nature.

The

greatest of which, called

Several times in a year the whole population enjoy tlie recreation of religious festivals, the On these occasions they 9d(ii), or new year, occurs about the first of October.

XVIU

INTRODUCTION.

and August the second crop is planted chiefly in August or the latter part of July. As the heavy rains May and June are not favorable to the growth of cotton, it is planted in July in December the crop is cut short by the dry season. Maize and yams are generally housed in the farms where they grow, and town is large, some of the brought into town in small quantities to supply the daily market. In case the farms may be ten or even twenty miles distant but all the produce is brought in on the heads of the owners. Pack-horses and asses, though employed east of the Niger, are never seen in Yoruba. I have travelled with a caravan of two or three thousand persons, all of whom carried their goods in packages on
;

of

their heads.

Some parts of the country are rich in ore, from which the people obtain a very good quality of iron. As the smelters are not communicative, I can only state what I have seen as to their manner of working. The furnace is a pit in a house, and may be entered either by the door or by an underground passage which emerges twent}' or thirty feet from the building. The broken ore is placed in the furnace with a number of well dried clay tubes, about an inch in diameter and fifteen inches in layers of charcoal
;

Although no bellows are length, are inserted into the mass of ore and coal, I think at the bottom. employed, the heat is so intense that the ends of these tubes are partially vitrified. The iron is sold to
axes, adzes, hoes, chains and staples, all of rude workmanship. The smiths' bellows are identical in principle with those of the ancient Egyptians and Greeks. The large anvil is a stone, the smaller one a block of iron. Copper, brass, and silver are wrought by the same smith

blacksmiths,

who manufacture

it

into various articles,

among which may be enumerated

sickles, bill-hooks, swords, knives, razors, scissors, needles,

with the same implements.

The Yoruba carpenter employs himself chiefly in the manufacture of bowls, mortars, and door shutters. His principal tools are wedges for splitting trees, an axe, and an adze. The carver who makes images of wood, or carves figures on doors and calabashes, works chiefly with knives. The ornamental engraving of calabashes appears to be a tlirifty business. Considerable numbers of people are engaged in the production of clothing. Cotton is freed from the seeds by rolling it under a small iron cylinder on a smooth
It is then whipped with a bow to prepare it for spinning, which is done with a distaflf. piece of wood. The yarn is sold to the weavers every evening in market, and the cloth given to the tailors, who cut and

make garments.

Thread is warped on pins driven into the grovind, and then formed into a large ball instead of being wound upon a beam. With the exception of the thread beam, the parts of an African loom are the same as those of hand-looms in our own country ; but the implement is so small, that the
scarcely six inches in width. the other emplojTnents of the people we may mention the manufacture of earthen pots and vessels for cooking and eating; the dyeing of cloth with indigo, which grows abundantly on the farms; the dressing of black, red, yellow, and white morocco, and the making of it into shoes and saddles ; the

cloth

is

Among

manufacture of various
tiful articles

oils,
;

chiefly

sesame and of watermelons


;

from the palm-nut, the fruit of the shea-butter tree, and the seeds of the manufacture of beads from broken palm-nuts and from jasper, both beau;

tobacco

As the snuff, which is practised in every town. with carbonate of soda from the desert, to give it pungency. poor, always ground So far as I could ascertain, the art of making glass is confined to three towns in Nufe, one of which is west of the Niger. This art is kept a profound secret.
the

making of soap

and the grinding of

is

it is

There
for

is

women

no legal oi' customary restraint as to the choice of occupations, except that it is not reputable to labor on the farms. In their favorite capacity of tradere, however, they are constantly
produce which they have purchased from the farms to the market.

engaged

in bringing the

Many poor

also obtain a living by supplying the market with firewood, which they sometimes bring from a distance of six or eight miles. Others gather large leaves, which they sell by the basketful to the market

women

women

to be employed as wrapping paper. The other employments of females are housework, spinning, washing, soap-makmg, and the manufacture of earthenware. The cultivation of the soil, blacksmithing, wood work, weaving, tailoring, and the barber's trade, are performed by men. All the Africans, and none more so than the people of Yoruba, are addicted to traffic. Their trade
oil, ivory, cotton cloths, indigo, iron, horses, cattle, sheep, &c.; for which they receive cheap guns and powder, calicoes, velvet, salt, and other articles from Europe and America. Their inland trade embraces the foregoing and many other commodities, including

with the people nearer the coast consists in palm

large quantities of soda, and some fine horses, worth several hundred dollars each, from Hausa and Bornu. Uides, coff'ee, and a superior kind of indigo will be among the future exports. In the present condition of the country, without roads or vehicles, the traffic gives employment to

thousands of people.

Sometimes a

single caravan consists of hundreds

and even thousands of persons of

IXTKODUCTION.

XIX

both sexes. Their only travelling equipment is a mat to sleep on, a coarse cotton sheet for a cover, a small bag containing provisions, and a little earthen pot to warm the sauce, which, with yams and precarrier's burden varies in weight from forty to eighty pounds. parations of corn, is the universal diet

there are neither weights nor standard measures in the country, such articles as sold from town to town by the load till they reach a consumer.

As

salt,

soda,

and

oil

are

Markets, for the sale of provisions and other common necessaries of life, are held daily in all the towns ; On these but the large market for the sale of general merchandise is usually held every fifth day. At Iloriq, the greatest market occasions we frequently see thousands of people busily engaged in traffic.

which is held daily owing to the abundance of business, there are men from every part of Central Africa, and frequently from Tripoli and other countries of the North. The merchandise includes a great variety of articles, African, European, and Asiatic, irom a slave to a ready-made pen and a bottle of ink.
in the country,

Owing to the frequent wars which afflict the country, and partly perhaps to the gregarious disposition Even the farmers, who are obliged to pass many of their of the people, they invariably reside in towns. a better dwelling than a hut in the country. All the towns in the nights in the distant fields, never erect interior are surrounded by rather strong mud walls five or six feet in height, with a deep ditch on the
outside.

The gates are closed at night with heavy shutters and guarded by keepers. All the streets, except the few which lead from African towns are never laid out in a regular manner. The broader
Architecture

the gates to the market, are very narrow, and intersect each other at every possible angle. streets, the markets, and other open spaces are beautifully shaded with wide-spreading trees.
is

wholly unknown. The houses, from the palace to the dwellings of the poorest people, are built of mud and covered with a thatch of grass. They are all of the same form, that of a large square inclosed by a The interior court, which is open to the sky, is entered series of single rooms, after the manner of a fort.

by a large gate with a heavy board shutter. Most of the rooms are scarcely six feet between the dirt floor and the fire-proof ceiling of sticks and mortar overhead, and the usual dimensions are six or seven feet in width by twelve or fifteen feet in length. As there is only one low door and no windows, these rooms are always dark. During the day, the people sit in the piazza which extends in front of the rooms
;

when they retire to rest The Africans have no

at night, or enter a

room by
:

chairs, tables, or bedsteads

and gourds. Their food is taken with the fingers from a deep earthen dish. A sort of sauce composed of meats and vegetables, or of vegetables and oil only, and highly seasoned with red pepper, is a universal article of diet. ITiey never roast or boil joints of meat in Yoruba. Yams are prepared to be eaten with sauce, either by simply boiling, or by boiling and pounding with the addition of water to the
Indian corn is first soaked till it become? a little sour, then pounded or consistence of wheaten dough. on a flat stone with a small stone cylinder or rubber, and the starch, after being washed out in ground pure water, is boiled down to the consistence of thick paste. This food is much used, both diluted as a

day, they use an earthen lamp supplied with oil. their furniture consists of mats, earthen pots, bags,

warm
sale.

drink in the morning, and cold in the form of round dumplings, which are wrapped in leaves for When they make bread, it is fried, never baked. Very little milk is used except at Il9rii).

who

Most of the laboring people take their breakfast at an early hour in the streets, around the pots of women prepare food for sale. At noon they eat in the farms or wherever they may happen to be, and their
is

supper

market

taken just before they retire to sleep. The flesh of sheep, goats, and cows is sold daily in the but the people use it sparingly. Fish is not plentiful in Yoruba except on the larger streams. ; The dress of the men consists of trowsers or short breeches, a tunic or a kind of shirt without sleeves,

else a large flowing gown. The head, which in general is smoothly shaven, is covered with a tight cloth cap, to which is sometimes added a hat or turban. woman's dress is composed of three wrappers, two around the waist and one over the shoulders, but the last is often laid aside.

and a sheet or wrapper, or

do not shave their heads except as a mark of mourning. Their usual headdress is a fillet of cloth. Travellers who go on foot frequently wear sandals sort of shoes and sometimes boots. but most of the people of both sexes generally go barefoot. Boys are usually provided with breeches, or but girls of ten or twelve years often appear in the streets, from at least an apron, at the age of five or six Most of the Yorubas are cleanly in their habits, choice, wearing nothing but their beads and bracelets. and rather fond of being finely dressed.

Women

Horsemen wear a

The principal amusement of the young people is dancing to the sound of drums. The older men meet together under the shady trees to talk, and sometimes to play a sort of draughts and other games of a similar nature. Several times in a year the whole population enjoy the recreation of religious festivals, the of which, called pddi), or new year, occurs about the first of October. On these occasions greatest
they

XX
offer sacrifices

INTKODUCTION.

to the temples

and make charms to promote the prosperity of the town, and have various noisy processions and sacred groves. Once a year, at the close of the dry season, they spend several days in On the chief's hunting day, hundreds of people of both sexes off the prairies and in hunting. burning The game is taken with dogs and clubs, as the use of guns would be dangerous. attend him. The government of the country is a monarchy engrafted on the ancient patriarchal rule. Every house
contains several families under the government of a bal6 or lord of the house, every towmhas its bal& or The adult males are also apportioned under rulers lord of the land, and the whole nation is under a king. who stand intermediate between them and the balS, or governor. The king, the governor, and the head Even the of the family has each his associate or lieutenant, and the elders under him are his counsellors.

king

The laws is bound by the laws of the land, of which the elders are the conservators and exponents. are rigidly are generally good, except in so far as they are connected with idolatry and polygamy. They executed, and sometimes with displeasing promptness ; but causes are always decided by the ruler and his
council according to testimony.

INTELLECTUAL AND MORAL CHARACTERISTICS.


In regard to intellect the Yorubas occupy a low position. All their arts are rude, and the people are wholly destitute both of literature and science. But they are by no means deficient either in natural shrewdness, or in that sort of common sense which is adapted to their condition. Their language also, which is surprisingly rich in abstract terms, is a proof that they are accustomed to think. Since their
acquaintance with white

men

they evidently begin to

feel

improve

is

leading to good results.

At Abeokuta

several

the aspirations of intellect, and their desire to hundred persons have learned to read their own

language. Like other rude people, the Yorubas are much addicted to the marvellous. In the opinion of many, the power of a white man is almost infinite. He can look around on all the passing events of the earth, he

can stop the clouds in their course,* and even create cowries whenever he may need them. They seize with avidity on every extravagant story they may hear. Marvellous things have been told me of the asori or igi nla, a tree somewhere in the interior, to which they attribute all the properties of the deadly upas ;

even birds that

The common people, old men, and grave chiefs have repeatedly fly near it fall dead. affirmed the existence of a unicorn, which they describe as a large antelope with a straight black horn in the middle of its forehead. When I visited Ibriq in 1855, this story was repeated ; and my host, Nasamu, an intelligent Bornese, added others still more wonderful. He assured me that somewhere eastward of
Nufe and Yakobu there was a tribe of men, called Alabiru, who had inflexible tails about six inches in The Alabiru were a very ingenious people, especially in working iron and all the fine swords in length. Sudan were made of iron from their furnaces. Beyond this tribe was another called Alabiwo, distinguished by a small goat-like horn projecting from the top of the head just above the margin of the hair. Somewhere
;

same region was a tribe called Alakere, the tallest of whom were scarcely three feet in height. Being a weak people, the Alakere surrounded their towns with walls of iron. Nasamu had never seen any person of these tribes; but he asserted that there was one of the horned women then in slavery at Ofa, about thirty miles east of Il9riij. She always wore a handkerchief around her head, because she was ashamed of her horn. In reply to my question, whether any of the tailed men were in slavery in or near " Who would have a slave with a tail ?" A few days after this I received a visit from an Ilorii), he replied, Arab trader, who confirmed all the statements of Nasamu, and added others of his own. Among the rest he told of a tribe of people south of Mandara who have four eyes. A Negro from beyond the Niger proceeded to inform me how these eyes are situated in the head, but the Arab corrected him and showed me exactly where each of them is placed. In short, it is manifest that all the floating stories of upas trees, unicorns, &c., have originated with the wandering Arab traders, who are equally distinguished by a In the simple Negroes they find ready listeners to all vivid imagination and a small regard for truth. their wonderful stories, and they were not at all pleased with the incredulity of an-Nasran, the Christian. The moral character of the Yorubas exhibits strong contrasts. On the one hand we are shocked at their occasional human sacrifices, their unlimited polygamy, and their custom of allowing the heir to inherit all
in the

his father's wives except his conscience, and their want of

own mother.
manly

self-respect disgust us.

Their universal covetousness, their deficiency in regard to On the other hand we see much to admire

At the

close of the

dry season
rt)

was observing the movements of a black thunder


fu ni
I

cloud,

when an

old farmer

said to

me

imploringly, Dzo, dze 6

Pleat*

let it

rain for vt

INTKODUCTION.

XXI

and to mitigate our judgment even in regard to the bad features of their character. Tliey are naturally kind and simple-hearted, remarkably courteous in their mutual intercourse, and strongly attached to their All the moral virtues, and especially gratitude and honesty, are inculcated country, friends, and kindred.
in their proverbs.
It is a remarkable fact, that although the missionaries have had hundreds of parcels of cowries and supplies brought by native carriers from the coast to their interior stations, there has scarcely been an instance of theft. Adultery and other crimes are much rarer than we could suppose. During my
six years' residence in

the country I never

knew a

case of an illegitimate child, although the

women do not

marry before they are eighteen or twenty years of age. When the first missionary entered the Iketu country in 1850, some regarded him as a spy, and others had superstitious fears that the presence of a white man would bring misfortune on the country. For these reasons they, in many instances, refused to admit him into their towns, but they never treated him with
violence.

The same thing occurred subsequently when he entered the kingdom

of Yoruba.

They obliged

him

On one occasion he to sleep without the walls, but they supplied him with food without charge. encamped under a tree near the gate of Awaye. Hundreds of friendly people came to look at him, and " next day the women were singing a newly made song commencing with, Oibo gui) sidi akpe, The white
man encamped
aries,

Now that the people understand the real object of the missionaft the foot of the akpe tree." are not only willing but anxious to receive them. they The gospel was first preached to the Yorubas in Sierra Leone, where there are thousands of them who

have been rescued from the slave ships. Most of them have embraced Christianity, and many have learned Some have accumulated considerable wealth, and others have made no mean attainments in to read. information if not in learning. The character of the Rev. Samuel Crowther, whose Yoruba name is Adiaye, struggling for life, is known to the public, and much admired both in Europe and America;

and yet Mr. Crowther

is only one among other Yoruba men, his equals in mind, moral character, and The people are found to be equally susceptible of improvement in their native respectable attainments. country. Although the missions have been so recently established, all the eight kingdoms of the Yoruba

country have
nations.

felt

more or

less

the stimulus of truth

produce their natural

results, it

cannot be

and if the social laws now at work among the people many generations before Yoruba will be reckoned among civilized
;

LIST OF
Within the
books and
last ten

YORUBA PUBLICATIONS.

years the Church Missionary Society of London has published the following Yoruba tracts, nearly all of them the work of the Kev. Samuel Crowther.

The Yoruba Primer.

Iwe Ekinni on

ni tu

awon ara Egba

ati

awon

ara Yoruba.

London, 1849.

Vocabulary of the Yoruba Language, compiled by the Rev. S. Crowther, Native Missionary of the C. M. Society, together with Introductory Remarks by Rev. O. E. Vidal, M. A., Bp. Designate of Sierra
Leone.

London, 1852.
the Yoruba Language, by the Rev. S. Crowther, Native Missionary of the C. M. Society.
of Moses,

A Grammar of
The
First

London, 1852.

Book

commonly

called Genesis.

Translated into Yoruba, for the use of the Native

Christians of that Nation, by the Rev. S. Crowther, Native Missionary. London, 1853. The Gospel according to St. Matthew. Translated into Yoruba for the use of the Native Christians of
S. Crowther, Native Missionary. London, 1853. of Moses, commonly called Exodus. Translated into Yoruba for the use of the Native Christians of that Nation, by the Rev. S. Crowther, Native Missionary. London, 1854. The Psalms of David. Translated into Yoruba for the use of the Native Christians of that Nation, by the Rev. S. Crowther, Native Missionary. London, 1854.

that Nation,

by the Rev.

The Second Book

Iwe

Owe

ati

ti ilu

nan.

Iwe Oniwasa. Li Ede Yoruba tu awon Kristian London, 1856. (Proverbs and Ecclesiastes.)

ti

ilu

nan nipa Rev.

S.

Crowther, Alafa

The Gospel according


Peter.

to St. Luke, The Acts of the Apostles, with the Epistles of St. James and St. Translated into Yoruba, for the use of the Native Christians of that Nation, by the Rev. S. CrowLondon, 1856. ther, Native Missionary. Katekismu Itan, ti Dr. Watts, Testamenti Lailar on Testamenti Titun. Watts's Catechism of the Old

and

New

Testament.

Translated into Yoruba, by the Rev. Samuel King, Native Missionary.

London,

1857.

Katekismu Ekeii,

ti

Watti.

Watts's Second

Catechism.

Translated into Yoruba, by the Rev. T. King,

Native Missionary. London, 1857. Iwe Orin Mimo. (Yoruba Hymns.) London, 1857.

GRAMMAR
OF THE

YORUBA LANGUAGE

K U B A

GRAMMAR.

PART FIRST.
OETHOEPY AND OETHOGRAPHY.
1. The system of orthography adopted in this work is essentially the same that has been widely employed for African languages. In it an endeavor has been made to give a true expression of all the well distinguished sounds of the language.

To each

simple fundamental sound there

compounded sound is represented by of such compound sound. 2. The reader should be reminded that the sound of each
other languages,
is

assigned a single character; and each the charactera which stand for the elements
is

letter, in this as in

subject to slight modifications from accent and connexion.

CHAPTER

.^.

I.

THE ALPHABET.
The
characters that represent the simple sounds of the
I,

Yoruba language

are,

a, a, b, d, e, e, f, g, h,

k,

1,

m,

n^

t),

o, o,

p,

r, s, s, t,

u,

w,

y, i.

VOWELS.
Simple Vowels.

4.

The simple vowels


is

are as follows

sounded

long,

as in the English
lati,

word fatlwr

and
:

short, as in fat.

Examples:

ha, to meet;

from.
tlie

a has the obscure sound of u in but, o in Ex. bani, in motlier, &c. e is sounded like a or ey in grey. Ex. de, to come. mfate, e is sounded like e in met. Ex. fe, to love.
: :

hand.

is

o o

is is

is

sounded long, like ee in fee, or i in ravine; and short, like i mfg. di, to bind ; igo, a bottle. sounded as in go, tone. Ex. f6, to fiy. sounded long, like a in ^oater, all; and short, like o in not. Ex.: wash ; oni, a crocodile. sounded long, like oo In fool, or u in rvle ; and short, like %i mftdl. lu, to -strilce ; bule, to lis dmcn.
:

Ex.:

fo, to

Ex.

4
5.

ORTHOEPY AND OKTHOGKAPHT,

1.

The vowels
;

are either pure or nasal.


deq>.

Nasalization

is

indicated

by

the

character q
6.

as, dai), to polish, ; siiq, to

We may here

observe
' '

That the sound of e after kp is more open and liquid than usual. 2. That 'a,' 'i,' and *o,' are short before a consonant; as in ate, a hat; ile, a house ; ofa, an arrow ; pronounced as if written atte, ille, offa. But to this rule
'

'

there
as,

is

one exception,

viz.

when the tone

is

grave, these vowels are always long

4bo,

shelter ; imo,

hnowledge ; 5ro,

a word.

In the Egba and some other dialects, 'o' long, when followed by 'q,' and occasionally when preceded by 'm' or 'n,' takes the sound of 'u' long; as, toq, ogam; mo, to drinh ; in6, within ; pronounced, and sometimes written, tui), mu, imi.

Y.

Diphthongs.

8.
ai,

The following
;

are the

pronounced like i Ex. bai, thus ; aim5, vmJcnown. Ex.: daudu, a prince, au, pronounced like ou in house., or ow in 7iow. is very short. Ex. ei-di, a ei, ei, oi, oi, in all of which the second vowel, i,' wart ; ei-ye, a bird ; oi-b6, a white man; koi-koi, timidly. ua, ue, ue, ui, uo, uo, are formed only by the union of two words, the former of which ends in ku as in akuale, good evening., from aku, a word of In all these cases the lettei*s ku have the salutation, and ale, evening.
' :
'

compound vowels, or diphthongs in phie, or y in fly^ only it is longer and more open.
:

'

'

'

force of

qu

in English.

Quantity of Yowels.

9. The vowels are either long or short, as exemplified in the following sentence ^lafi^ ki o wa fu gb6gb6 enia rere, peaxie he unto all good men.
:

it is not possible to lay down rules by which to determine the of vowels in all cases, yet there are several facts and general principles quantity a knowledge of which will be useful.

10.

Although

1.

In regard to long vowels:

a.

The diphthongs

'

ai

'

and au are always long


'

'

as,

aimS,

unhnown / daudu, a
;

prince.

Vowels having the grave tone (except i, 6, and 5, negative) are generally long as, ^bo, a shelter ; hve, gain ; ibi, evil ; odo, vmter ; 6ro, a wm'd. c. The vowels o and a,' when employed as auxiliary particles in conjugating the verb, are long as, emi 6 ri, I shall see^ emi li a ri, I am seen. These, for the sake of distinction, are marked with a circumflex accent. d. The final vowel of a noun is long when followed by a personal pronoun in the
h.
'
'

'

possessive case
e.

as,

iwe mi,

my

hook ; aso
is
;

r^,

his cloth.

When

a letter or syllable

diately preceded it becomes long lord of the land ; suru, ^Mtie nee, from se (often pronounced se), to do, and iru, the act of hearing a hurden (see 16, 3) aba for abara, a slap with tlie hand.
;

suppressed or elided, the vowel which immefrom oba ile, the as, bal^, a governor, contracted

2.

In regard to short vowels

THE ALPHABET.
a.
i

m6
b.

negatives i, 6, and 5, not^ are short ; as, emi o mo, / do not hioto / ete ete ni ik6 oraq ba ereke, lip not heqnng to lip brings trouble to tliejaws. The initial 'i' of the infinitive mood is very short and slight; as, iwo 1^ i^e,

The

tli(m
c.

canst do.

The

objective pronouns
2, i.)

a, G,

&c., are so short as to

be scarcely perceptible.

(See 88,

Tone of Vowels.
11. There are three primary tones, the Middle, the Acute, and the Grave; as, The middle is the ordinary tone of ba, to meet; bd, with', and b^, to bend.

the voice without inflexion the acute and grave tones are simply the rising and In the Yoruba language, however, they are falling inflexions of elocutionists. to distinguish words which are spelled alike, but have different meanings. employed Thus the two words obe, sauce^ and obe, a hnife^ are quite different to the ear,
;

when

difficult for

uttered with the proper tones. The tones, though simple in theory, are us to seize, and require close attention.

The acute and grave tones will be denoted throughout this work by the acute and grave accentual marks placed over the vowel, as in the examples just given.
Assimilation of Vowels.

12.

The
it

consists in

principle of t^ocalic assimilation exhibited in the Yoruba language changing a weak or unaccented 'o' into some other vowel, so as to

to the adjacent strongly accented vowel of a verb or preposition. In perfect assimilation, the 13. Assimilation is either Perfect or Imperfect. unaccented o becomes identical with the accented vowel of the word to which it
assimilate
' '

is

appended.

1. a. The vowel 'o,' the shortened or simplified form of the objective pronoun of the third person, is regularly exchanged for a vowel which is identical with that of the governing verb, so that this pronoun assumes all the following foi-ms
:

emi wo (3, / looked at him. emi m5 8, / Tenew him. emi lu ii, I struck him. emi ba S, / met him.
b.

emi kpe e, / called him. emi fe , / loved him. emi ri i, I saw him.*

the governing word is a preposition ; as, bd S, with him; si i, to him ; fii ii,./w him. In all these cases the unchanged full form or) may be used as, emi fe oi), Iloved him; fa or^, for him ; but the assimilation, if employed at all, must be perfect. o of nouns is perfectly assimilated, if at all, to the vowel 2. The preformative
principle applies equally
' '
;

The

when

'

'

(from ko, to gather); 6ro, a word (from r^, to uttet% relate., exptlmn); ata, pepper (from ta, to burn) ; ere, goodness (from re, to be good) ; ^6e, sin (from ^e, to sin). Frequently, however, no assimilation takes place. (See 40.) 14. To understand the rule of imperfect assimilation, it is necessary in the fii-st place to observe that the vowels are divided into three classes, which, in reference
of the root
;

as,

oko, a

farm

No

example of 'a'

is

given, ns no verb, nor indeed any otljev

word

in

Yoruha, ends

in

that

vowel.

ORTHOEPY AND OETIIOGRAPIIT.

to the general character of their sounds, may be called the close vowels, viz. e, i, and the neuter vowels, a and a. In the open or hroad vowels, e, o o, u assimilation the rule is that the vowel 'o' when occurring before a close imperfect
; ;

vowel, that
vowel,
it
it is

is,

a vowel of
'

its

changed into

its

remains unchanged but before an open corresponding open fonn o.' Before the neuter vowels,
class,
;
'

own
'

take either form, o or o.' This rule applies to the nominative pronouns, mo, // o, thm ; 6q or 6, auxiliary particle 6, slwU or will ; and k6 or 6, not ; in all of which the 'o

'

may

Tie
'

the

before

' an open vowel becomes o


'

as,

mo

fe,

Ilove.

yi 6

fe,

he will

love.

o fe, thou lovest. 6 or 6i) fe, lie loves.

nwoq ko fe, they do not d 6 fe, we do not love.

love.

The same change


speaking.

takes place before the other open vowel, 'o.' The reader, however, most be informed that the rule is one which is often disregarded in

Elision of Vowels.

15. All Yoruba verbs end in a vowel either pure or nasal as, ko, to build And most of the nouns begin with a vowel as, ile, a house; owu, raq, to spin. To avoid an inconvenient hiatus, it is customary in speaking to drop either cotton. the final vowel of the verb, or the initial one of the noun which follows it as,

; ;

k' ere for

a crop ; raq 'wu, for rag owu, to spin cotton. In this work, the vowels which are usually elided in speaking are designated by the inverted crescent ('^) as, k8 ere, raq 8wu (pronounced ke-re, raq-wu).
ko
ere, to gather
;

16.
1. fiso, to

The

principal rules of elision are as follows

When
buy

two vowels of the same name concur, one of them


is

is

dropped

as,

n\

cloth ; f e^e, to love sin.

2.

The

stronger of any two concurring vowels

retained in preference to the

weaker.

The

circumstances which
as follows
:

make

a vowel strong in the sense here contemplated

may be shown

Strong Vowels.

Weak

Vmcels.

Long. Grave. Accented.

Short.

Acute.

Unaccented.
Close.

Open.

But these elements of strength and weakness may be variously distributed. One of the vowels may be grave, and the other accented, long, or open. To give aU the combinations which may arise from the various quantities, tones, and accents of two concurring vowels, would be more tedious than profitable. It may sufiice then to specify a few cases, with examples, to verify the general rule that the weaker of the two concurring vowels is elided. a. When the fii-st vowel is grave, and the second vowel is weak, the latter is elided as, 6 r^ ewe, she bought leaves ;* dk se, to breah the foot ; bo fira, to cover the body ; k^ Groq, to behoarse. But if the second vowel should be long, the grave
;

* Leaves are

soM

to

market-women

to be used for wrappiiiE: ai'ticlos in.

THE ALPHABEl".
vowel
hriotc
b.

is

elided

as,

omori gbS, oru,


is

tlie

lid receives (gl>ji) the

steam

mo

anu, to

If the

(m^) mercy. fii-st vowel


is

open, and neither of the vowels


ebe, to

the second
to

elided

as,

ko

make a ymirhill ;

is long, grave, or accented, fo 5ru, to h^eak a jug ; fe ina,

Sometimes, however, the choice of the vowel to be retained is reversed, to prevent ambiguity and frequently both vowels are sounded, for the
fire.
;

blow the

same reason. 3. In a few cases neither vowel is dropped, but the two are exchanged for u as, wure (for wi ire), to bless; suru (for se ivn), patience ; sufe (for so to
' ' ;

ife)

whistle; sure (for sa ire), to

run; duro

(for

da

iro), to stamd,

<fec.

CONSONANTS.
Simple Consonants.
17.

The simple consonants,


is

b, d,

f,

k,

1,

m,

n,

r, s, t,

w, and

y, are

sounded as in

English, and are never quiescent.

always hard, as in

in

some

Ex. igi, go^ get. dialects is silent when it occurs


:

wood;
In

gele,
all

a liandherchief.
;

between two vowels

lohuq, yonder; pronounced be-e, lo-uq. same power as in the English word hat.
r)

as, behe, so ; other cases, 'h' has the

is

the sign of nasalization. At the end of a word or syllable it is equivalent to the French n in ban. Ex.: daq, to polish; suq, to sleep. Before a that is, at the beginning of a word or syllable, it has a consonant, stronger
:

sound, nearly equivalent to the English ng in song. Ex. qso, to proceed. The nasal pronoun q, 7, is pronounced as a part of the preceding word, when it follows a vowel as, ki g 16h? shall I got pron. kiq ]6h. But
;

not preceded by a vowel, it is attached in pronunciation to the following word; as, q kd mo, / do not hnow ; q 6 ri, I shall see; proif

'

'

is

nounced

p occurs only
8
is

r)k5 mc>, qo ri. in the compound

'kp.'

(See 18.)
:

sounded like English sh in shm. Ex. se, to do. has the sound of English z in azwe. It occurs only in the compound
(See 18.)

'

d^.'

Compound

Coiisoncmts.

18. Three compounds, of two consonants each, are of such


as to

common

occurrence

have been frequently regarded as simple letters, viz. dz, gb, and kp. dz is sounded like English as in jiig, or ; in gem. Ex.: di;o, to dance. sound was formerly represented by^'.) (This gb represents the sounds of g hard and b ; as, gb^, to receive ; ^gba, an
_;',

old man.

kp

is

equivalent to h and p^
'
'
'

as,

kpa,

to beat ;

akpa,

an arm. (Formerly

represented by p.') The sound of g and k in


'

these

compounds

is

very slight at the beginning of

words.

8 19,
1.

OBTHOEPi'

AND ORTHOGRAPHY.
:

Compounds of a nasal and another consonant occui' incidentally The nasal q,' as an auxiliary particle, may be prefixed to all the consonants
'

as,

emi qb5,
2.

I am

coming ;

emi qdd,

I am making^

&c.

Before the labial consonants, 'm' is frequently employed as an auxiliary of 'q'; as, emi mb5, X am, coming ; emi mfe, I ami loving. prefix, instead and 'q,' are occasionally prefixed to consonants in other cases; as in 3. 'M,' 'n,'
the words, mbfe,
qso, to proceed.
to ^e ;

mbi, or/ a-la-mgba, a

Z^2W*(^;

nde^ to arise ; vAk^tohelarge

INTERCHANGE OF LETTERS.
of words, as also in tracing 20. In consulting the Dictionary for the meaning out their roots, it is necessary to remember that letters ai-e frequently interchanged
;

as in the following examples


1.

Not a few words begin indififerently with 'a' nid^e, an injurer. 2. Some words begin indifferently with a or i
' '
'

or 'o';

as,

abanidze, or obd-

' ;

as, afidzi,

or

ifidi;i,

remission

(of sins).
3.
'

E E

'

and o are interchangeable


and o are interchangeable,
' '

'

'

as,

onia for enia, a person ; leni for

loni,

to-datj ;
4.
5.
'

eri for ori, the Tiead^ &c.


'

as,

In certain

cases, previously stated ( 7), 'u'


'

oni for eni, one^ any. is substituted for 'o';

as, diii)

for d6q, to 5e sweet. ' ' ' for k ; as, 6.

'

7.

H
'

'

for

'

f
k

'

;
'

as,

ge for ke, to cut. eho for efo, a valley.


'

8.

'

S and
ts.'

with

'

are frequently interchanged with each other, and in some dialects ' Thus, for ^e, to dx)^ the Ibakpa dialect has tse,' and the Ibolo has se
'
' ; '

and
9.

in other places s^, to

coo\
'

is is

pronounced

se.'
'

h6

frequently used for and aw6q, the tongue, instead of ah6q.

In the

Egba

dialect,

'

' ;

as,

w6,

to boil,

instead of

CHAPTER
SYLLABLES.
21.
1. 2.
b.

II.

A syllable

consists:
;

Of a single vowel, pure or nasal as, o, tliou ; 6q, he. a. Of a consonant and a vowel; is, da, to create ; daq, to polish. Of a consonant and a vowel, with the nasal q prefixed as, qdd,
;

is

creating ;

qdaq, is polishing.
3.

a.

Of two
mb|,

initial

consonants and a vowel


to arise ;

as,

die, to eat ; ghh, to receive ; kpfe,

to call ;
b.

Of two

'

22.
'
;

No

&c. gboq, with a nasal prefixed. (See 19.) consonants and a vowel, word or syllable ends in a consonant, except occasionally in the nasal
to

be; nde,

to be wise,

initial

as,

bam-bam, a beetle.

SYLLABLES.

23. As consonants do not occur at the end of syllables, they are not reduplicated in spelling. Thus we write ile, a hcnise^ and ofa, an arrow, instead of ille

and

offa.

(See

6, 2.)

ACCENT.
here meant that emphatic pronunciation of a This, when syllable which distinguishes it from other syllables of the same word. marked, is denoted in the present work by the sign ( ), commonly termed the
24.

By

the term accent

is

'

acute accent, placed after the accented syllable as, i-da', a swcyrd, e'-ni-a, a person. 25. In words of two or more syllables, the accent falls regularly on the e-le'-da, a creator. penult as, a'-ga, a chair
;

26. But since the accent of derivative words follows that of their primitives, this rule has several exceptions. 1. Nouns of two syllables dei-ived from verbs having the acute tone (11) are accented on the ultimate as, e-dd', a creature, from dd, to create.
;

a verb or preposition having the acute tone enters into the composition of a noun of three or more syllables, it usually takes the accent ; as, a-bd'-ni2.

When

d^e,
3.

an

injurer.

to

an accented vowel is elided or changed, as in the union of two words form one, the accent retains its place as, be'-ru (for ba' eru), to he afraid
;

When

ni'-no (for ni' in()), witliin / su'-re (for sa' ire), to run. 2Y. Primitive nouns, or those which cannot be r^erred to

Yoruba language, are generally irregular o'-ri-sa, an idol; a-lu-fa', a learned man.

in

regard to accent

as,

any root in the a'-da-ba, a dove /

28. In polysyllables, a lighter secondary accent usually falls on the second syllable before or after the primary; as, d'-la-tai)'-kpo-k6', a grasshopper;

a dealer in component words as,


d'-la-^a'-ra,
;

But many compounds retain the accents of their a-lai'-lo'-gboq, a foolish man ; o-ni'-ba'-ta, a slwemaTcer. 29. 1. It is proper to observe here, that all the Yoruba vowels (unless very short as to quantity) are sounded much more fally and distinctly than English vowels. Thus, a-la'-ra-da', a healthy man, which has two full accents, is prosnuff.

nounced with a strong emphasis on both the accented syllables, and with a considerable although slighter stress on the unaccented ones. 2. The distinctness with which Yoruba vowels are uttered is particularly observable in the monosyllabic verbs, prepositions, and adverbs, which are generally spoken as if accented as, d le' 6e' e, we can do it ; 161i' so' o nd', go^
;

throw

it

atvay.

PART SECOND.
ETYMOLOGY AND SYNTAX.

CHAPTEK
30. In
tlie

I.

FORMATION OF WORDS.
former part of this

Grammar we

to represent the sounds of the

Yoruba hmguage, the nature

described the characters employed of these sounds, and

the changes which they undergo. now proceed to the consideration of sounds as the representatives of ideas in doing which we will have to treat first of the foj-mation of words, and then of their inflexions and the mode of combining them
;

We

into sentences.

primitive words of the Yoruba language, amounting in five hundred, consist of the following classes

31.
1.

The

all

to about

Personal and other pronouns.

2.

3.

About one hundred and sixty verbs, several of which are obsolete. About two hundred and fifty nouns, including several which are

clearly

exotics.

few particles, as adverbs, prepositions, conjunctions, and interjections. The remainder of tlie language, amounting to at least fifteen thousand vocables, has been built up on this foundation, chiefly by prefixing personal pronouns to verbs to form nouns, and by the union of nouns with vei'bs and prepositions. 32. 1. The primitive verbs are all monosyllables, and most of them are of the simplest possible form, consisting of a single consonant simple or compound and a vowel either pure or nasal; as, dd, to create; daq, to j)olisli ; d^e, to eat ; kpoq, to
4.

he red.
2.

A few monosyllabic verbs begin with two consonants


&c.
:

as,

mbe, to^6/

nld, fo^e

These, however, are secondary forms large., mb^ is simply b^, to he., with the auxiliary prefix 'm,' which is the sign of continuance or permanence; nhi is a

Thus, sufe, to wlhistle., is composed of so, to eject wind., and ife, a blowing (from the root fe, to Fe is now pronounced fe but its original form is detected not only in sufe, hlow). bnt also in fere, astlima., ifere, a Tuba, to rqyent., is a recent flute and ifefe, a reed.
; ^

contraction of nild, to he great (lit. ni, to have., ila, greatness). 3. The verbs of two syllables are all either derivatives or exotics.

importation from the Arabic.


33.
1.

primitive nouns may be few are monosyllables as, Very


;

The

classified as follows

he, mali-gnant envy.

FOKMATION OF WORDS.
2.

11

which the following are examples aba, a hindred hy marriage ; anu, ^j>i7y ; ara, the lady ; crib, or barn ; al5, evening ; ana, wood ; odo, and babd, fatJier ; bote or ibote, silliness ; iha, fever ; irii), iron; igi,

Most of thetn'are

dissyllables, of

om\^ water; ovun, the sun ; qrxLT), Jieaven ; gmo, a child. 3. Some are of three syllables as, ^bata, a marsh; adaba, a violent lawless man. ahana,
;

a dove; akara, bread;

the primitive particles we have ni, in, on ; si, to, against ; ti, from; 6ugb6r), but ; and a number of adverbs, come to the Yoruba people through 35. Very few of the exotic words have the Arabic ; and it is remarkable that some words of undoubted Eastern origin
34.

Among

are

unknown among the tribes further in the interior. Having thus stated the general principles on which the words of this language, both primitive and derivative, are formed, we will now proceed to the special rules

for the formation of the several parts of speech.

DERIVATION OF VEEBS.
36. Verbs of more than one syllable are frequently compounded of a monoand evu,fear^ syllabic verb and a noun; as, beru, to be afraid (from ba, to meet, sauu, to pity (from se, t0 7nake, and anu, jjVy) bil^, to onahe room in a, crowd (from
; ;

bi, to

opening^. 37. There are three classes of transitive verbs, distinguished by the peculiarity that the objective case is placed between the component parts or members of the verb. Their foiination is as follows
il^,
:

push, and

an

1. a. Two verbs are used for one.* Tims, from fi, to make, and hflq, to appear, is formed fi... haq, to show ; as, 6 fi woq hai) mi (Jie made them appear to-me\ he showed them to me. From ba, to meet, and diie, to eat, is formed ba d^e, to spoil ; From te, to spread, as, mo ba iwe di;e {I met booh consimne), I spoiled the booh. and bere, to be flat, comes te to level ; as, te oke bSre (spread hill flat), to b^re, level a hill. h. Verbs of this class are often used intransitively, so as to be equivalent to a iwe badze, the booh spoils or is spoiled ; oke teberc, the hill levels or is passive; as,
. . .

levelled.
2. a.

The second member

of a

compound
.

transitive verb

is

sometimes composed

of a preposition and a noun. form the compound verb, be


as-to-tlis-hea<T),
lie

Thus,
.
.

be, to cut,

lori, to

in regard to, and ori, the head, li, beliead ; as, 6 be ole lori (7^6 cut Orthief
to gather,

beheaded a
. .

thief.

perty, goods, form ko

loru, to
'

rob

When to-goods\ they robbed me. in it, 'ni' is used instead of li';
ui,

in regard to, and eru, proli, ko nu leru {they gathered-iip me a^s-; as, nwoq the noun in the second meml)ur of the verb has n

Ko,

'

'

as, bi

nino, to vex (from

l>i,

to affect

or afflict;

in regard to
b.

An

; in6, the mind). intransitive verb, composed of a verl)

into a transitive verb

by

'

'

inserting

li

or

'

ni

'

and a noun ( 3G) may be converted between the verb and noun. Thus,

* These so-called coinpouiul transitive verbs are, it is true, ratlu!!* phrases than words; but they are considered as words, because their parts acquire a new meaning by composition, and because they are actually united into one word when used in a passive sense, and also in forming nouns ; as,
ibadie, a r,poiling, from ba
.
.

dze, to xjwil.

12

ETYMOLOGY AND SYNTAX.


. . .

beru (ba eru), to be afraid^ becomes ba leru, to frighten ; as, 6 ba mi leru, lie me. frightened 3. Sometimes the formation of compound transitive verbs is still more comBa as may be seen in the following example. d:^e, as above stated, I^licatecl, means to spoil j and ni in6, or nino, means in regard to tlie mind; the entire expression, ba. .nino d;&e, means to grieve; as, 6 ba mi nino d^e, he grieves me. The compound here consists of three members, the first and last of which are verbs, and the middle one is composed of a preposition and noun.
.

DERIVATION OF NOUN'S.
With

Vowd

Prefixes.

38. Nouns are formed from verbs, both primitive and derivative, by prefixing the pure or nasalized vowels, a, e, e, i, o, o, and oq.* These prefixes (excepting

perhaps the vowel i ') are simply variations of the pronoun of the third person, in accordance with the principle of vocalic assimilation already noticed ( 13). 39. The primary use of these prefixes appeare to have been to form concrete noims denoting the actor or agent as, ofe, a parrot (lit. a whistler, from fe, to
;

'

akpedia, a fisliermxin (from kped^a, to hill fish) esiq, a horse (from siq, whistle) But at present, nouns formed by these prefixes have various to run rapidly).
;

meanings, being frequently employed to denote 1, the doer of the action, or agent or patient 3, the action or state of being as, aba 2, the receiver of the action, to meet), lie who meets, he who is met, or, a meeting ; e^e, sin ; a&e, tJie state (from ba, of sin (from ^e, to sin). further that regularly, in accordance with the law of 40. It is to be observed
:

euphonic concord (13, 2), the vowel prefixed to the verb should be identical with that of the verb itself; as, aba, a meeting ; ese, sin ; ofo, loss ; oro, a word. But if this principle had been adhered to exclusively, only one noun could be derived from each verb; whereas by prefixing different vowels, there may be several. Thus, from we, to fold, are derived ewe, a leaf ; iwe, a booJc ; owe, a proverb. now stands, 41. The facts in regard to these preformatives, as the practice

may be summed up

as follows

1. Concrete nouns are formed from all verbs by prefixing 'a'; as, aba, a meeter, from ba, to meet. But nouns of this form have various other meanings, as shown above ( 39). 2. Nouns denoting an action are formed from all verbs by prefixing i as, iba, But sometimes this form has a concrete signification the act of meeting / ife, love. as, iMd^a, a peace-maher. 3. The other vowel prefixes, although of frequent occurrence, are not employed before every verb. They generally form nouns denoting either the doer, the the result of an action as, ofi, a loom, from fi, to swing ; esir), a horse, receiver, or from siq, to rtm ; edd, a creature, from dd, to create ; oro, a word, from ro, to utter,
'

'

to relate.

42.

The

'

prefix 'oq
*

is

not much used, but

is

met with

occasionally;

as,

oqgbo,

The vowels

ami u arc never employed

as formative prefixes.

FORMATION OF WORDS.
' '

13

from gbe, to he dry. Before a dental consonant, the nasal i) is changed to n In one case or) becomes am in the as, onde, a priaoyiei\ from de, to hind. Iketu dialect, and oi in Yoruba viz. ambo, oib6, a tvliite man.^ from b6, to peel*
thirsty
' '
; '

'

'

'

'

'

Hence, oi-ombo (oro amb6), tlie tvMte matiUs fruity the usual name of tlie orange ; and okpaimbo (okpe ambo), tliexoliite mavUs palm.^ that is, a pine-apple. 43. The prefix ai (composed of a and i,' not)., and its equivalent e,' are attached to verbs to form nouns of a negative meaning; as, aim5, or emo, tlmt vjliich is unTcnown or unusual.^ a monster aidze, that which is not eaten or must
' '
'

'

'

'

not he eaten.
speak.,

Roots

vs^ith

this prefix are also


'

used imperatively

as, aiwi,

do not

heep silence !

With SyllabiG

Prefixes.

44. Aba (composed of the prefix 'a' and ba, to meet) is prefixed to verbs to torm nouns implying union as, abata, a marTcetrpUice (lit. aba ita, the meeting of Aba is abase, a helper (lit. aba ^e, Iw who meets one to do something). streets') sometimes changed into eba; as, ebado, a shore (lit. eba odo, tlie meeting of tJte
;
;

water).

45. Abi, which signifies heirig in a state of., haviiuj^ is prefixed to nouns, to form nouns expressing a quality, endowment, or condition as, abiye (abi iye), that tvhich has feathers ; abara (abi ara), that which has a hody., e. g. agaliti abara yiyi, the lizard which has a hody of roughness., i. e. a rough hody. 46. Abu is sometimes a derivative from bu, to give j as, abuso, a falsehood (lit. abu iso, tJie giving of taW). In other cases abu is equivalent to abi as, aburo, that
; ;

which stands

erect

(lit.

abi

iro,

heing in a standing posture).

For the vowel change,

see 16, 3. 47. 1. Ada (from dd, to mdke) is prefixed to nouns, to form others implying the cause or result of an action as, adalu, a mixture., adulteration (from ada, a
;

making., and
elision
;

ilu,

a mixing)
'

adakpe (ikpe, a

calling).,

contraction of words.,
'

by
' ;

adado (odo, water)., an island. 2. Sometimes the final a '/of ada is elided, thus shortening the prefix to ad as, adete, a leper., from ete, leprosy ; adogui) (oguq, war)., that which causes xoar

adote (ote, enmity)., that tvhich causes enmity. 48. 'Afi' or 'af (from fi, to make) is prefixed to verbs; as, afih^q, *Acw, display (lit. afi, a making., h^q, to appeal"). It is also prefixed to nouns when they are followed by verbs as, af onahAq, a guide (lit. a, lie., fi, makes., 5na, a road.,
;

h^r), to appear.,

i.

e.

one

who shows

the roaxT).
;

who knmvs., is prefixed to nouns amero (ero, co7isideration)., a discreet person., discretion; amoye (oye, intelas, ligence)., an intelligent man. 50. Ati (probably composed of a and ti,' from) is prefixed to verbs to form nouns expressing the abstract idea of the verb as, atiri, seeing. 51. Bu and ibu are formed from ibi, a place ; the final 'i' being changed into u ( 16, 3). They are prefixed to nouns as, Trado, or ibudo, a camp (lit. ibi ido, tlie place of camping) budzoko or ibudi:oko, a seat (ibi id^oko, the place of sitting).
49.

Am,

a contraction of amy, a knowing., he

'

'

'

'

'

skiu of a white man.

* "When the skin of a negro peels off, especially after a burn, the surface becomes white like the Ambo or oibo means, literally, loho is peeled.

14
52.
1.

ETYMOLOGY ANB SYNTAX.


vowels,
a, e,

The

&c., prefixed to

li

or

ni, to

have^ form the prefixes


;

al,

which form nouns of possession from other nouns as, alaso, the el, el, ol, ol, &c., owner of doth, a dealer in cloth (from a^o, cloth^ elesiq, the owner of a liorse, a horseman (from c^ii), a horse) oloti, the oioner of ale, a dealer in ale (from
;
;

oti, ale).

Since the performer of an action may be regarded as its possessor, nouns of this form frequently denote the actor or agent ; as, al^bo, a defender (from abo,
2.

el^se, a sinner (from ^se, sin) olore, elegbe, a helper (from egbe, help) defence) a benefactor (from ore, a favor) olore, a giver (from ore, a gift). 3. Occasionally we have the form olu, by 16,3 as, oluwa (oil iw&, he who lias a lord i olusc (ise, tvovTc), a lahorer. life), 4. a. The vowel prefixed to '1' must be the same as the initial vowel of the noun which takes the prefix, according to the principle of euphonic concord
;

( 13, 2), as seen in the examples given above. But the jirefix '11' is never used; and hence, when a prefix is required for a jioun beginning with i,' it is customary to employ on as, onibu, that which has breadth, which is broad (fi-om ibu, breadth) a believer (from igb^gbo, belief). onigb^gbo, ol for on b. Sometimes it is more agreeable to the ear to substitute as, olifa, But in such cases it is usual for the final tJiat which is profitcd)le (from \i'A,profii). u.' 'i of oli, and the initial i' of the noun to be changed into (See 52, 3.) 5. a. By exchanging the initial vowel of these prefixes for 'ai,' they become Thus, elese, a sinner, becomes ailese, one wlio is sinless ; olomo, one wlw negative. lias a child, ailomo, tvJw is childless ; aMgbdra, %olio is strong, aiMgbdra, who is not
'
'

'

'

'

'

'

'

'

'

strong.

Frequently the prefix al of being ^mlearned (from ko,


b.

'

'

is

employed before negative nouns


Uarn),
alaiko, o^ie
aidd, wicreatedness, alaid^

as, aiko, the state

to

xoho is unlearned;

aise, shv-

hssness, alaise, he wlw is sinless; ated, tohich has no existence.

which

is not cre-

Nouns formed hy

Reduplication.

the first syllable of the 53. Nouns are formed from verbs by reduplicating to be good)', kpikp6, duration (from kp^, to verb; as, didara, goodness (from dara, The vowel of the reduplicated syllable is changed into i,' as in stay, to continue). the above examples, except that occasionally 'u' is not changed; as, giguq or
'

gugur), length (from guq, to be long). 54. Nouns formed by reduplication

active

and a passive

signification
:

as,

from active transitive verbs have both an which is sold or to be tit^, a selling, also, that

sold (from t^, to sell)

55.

kpedzakpedza,
is

ki ise bibu, selling is not giving ; aso tita, cloth to sell. few inelegant nouns are formed by reduplicating the entire vei-b ; as, Either akped^a or onito Mil fish). a
e.

g. tit^

fisherman (from kpedi;a,

preferable to the reduplicated form. kpedza 56. Nouns are formed by redupHcating a noun and inserting ki, follows usually with an elision of the final vowel of the particle, as
1. a.

li, ri,
:

de, or iyi,

Ki has the
:

sense of
ri

any

or wlmtever

v^,

eiyekoiyo,

(from eiye)

e. g.

d 6

eiyekeiye,

we

saio

no birds whatever ;

any bird wlmtever eiyokoiyc a to, any

bird will do (a

to, icill sufiice).

FORMATION OF WORDS.
h.

15

this form are sometimes employed to express contempt as, eiiiatlwu art a contemptible person ; oLirikobiri, a trifling woman. iwo, it is converted after the particle c. When tlie reduplicated noun begins with i,' into 'u' ( 16, 3) thus, from isiq, service^ we have isiqkusiq, superstition. d. Observe that the vowel following 'k' invariably has a strong accent, as,
;

Nonns of
li

kenia

'

eniake'nia.

inserted in a reduplicated noun, implies ownership in reference to a .third pereon as, omolomo, another persoiUs child : e. g. &mk omolomo, roe must not whip anotlier person! s cliild (lit. omo olomo, tlie child of tlie cJiild-otvner').
,

2.

Li, to have,

when

(from ^ye, the state of heing alive) med^i and ed^i, two). medi:ired^i, only two (from 4. De, to ; as, owodowo, tradition (lit. owo de owo, hand to Imnd). x\ti, from, to nouns of this form as, atiraqdiraq, genealogy (lit. ati iraq is sometimes prefixed de iraq, from generatimi to generation). 5. lyi (perhaps i. q. eyi, this) makes a noun emphatic as, ekuru-iyekuru, the
3.

Ri, ever, only ; as, ^yer^ye, ever living

dnst, this dust,

i.

e.

the

very dust.

Nouns formed hy
57.

Composition.

nouns are occasionally compounded together, the qualifying term or order as, omo ohii), possessoi' being placed last, which is the reverse of the English a follower, a disciple (from omo, a cliild or servant, and ehiq, tlie haclc) odzii ona (eye road), a gate ; oluso dgutaq (toatclier sheep), a shepherd ; ile tubu (liouse prisoti), a jail. whole phrase is frequently united to form a noun as, afibikpore, an 58.
; ;

Two

ungrateftd person (from

a, lie,

% put,
a,

ibi,

evU, kpe,

to call, dre,
tlie

good)

a dovUe-dealer, a hypocrite (from


climbs, ebe, the yamdiiU). 59. Many nouns in 'a' are

he,

guq, clhnbs, aba,

crib or

agabagcbe, lam, guq,

nouns
love

as,

asdM, escape
afe love,

compounded with verbs to form new abstract (from asd, a running, and \k, to he safe) afetdq, perfect
;

and tdq, to (from ase a doing, an action, and dzu,


60. Adverbs

be completed)
to

ased:iu, excess, as to conduct

(from
;

surpass). also are attached to this class of nouns in the same


;

manner

as,

agbesoke, a akpedz;o, a congregation (from akpe, a calling, and d^o, together) e. g. gbe e li agbes6ke, lift it as lifting up (from agbe, a lifting, and soke, up) to a lifting tip, for gbe e soke, it up. lift 61. To exhibit the various regular methods of forming nouns and verbs from a verbal root, we subjoin the following list of words regularly derived from g^q,
:

to despise
1.

Nouns formed by attaching a


tlie

root or single prefix to the


tlie

by

reduplicating

It

ag^q, one wlio despises or tolw is despised;


ig^q,
tlie

state

of being despised, contempt ;

act of despising. act of despising ; a despise^\

a despiser. atigiiq, a desprising ; as an infinitive, to despise, to he despised. gig^q, a despising, that whieh is despised; as an infiniti\'p,
oqgj^q,

to desjyise

or be

despised.

1&
gkrjgkr),

ETYMOLOGY AND SYNTAX.


a despieer. the state of not being despised. aigaq,

2.

Verbs formed from


he;
]i,

die, to

to

dag^r), to

and aig^i), by prefixing the verb dd, to Tcnow or experience ; or ^e, to do., to act: Imve; m6, cause contempt or liatred.
agflq, igt^q,
to

make ;

diag^q,
if^,

fo ^6 despised.

^'

> to

he despised.

mag^q,

to he

despised; to experience Imtred or contempt.

sagfiq, to he

laig^q, to he
3.

despised; to despise. not despised.


prefixes a/ i,' and but observe that instead of aligilq,
' ' '

saig^q, to he not despised., to despise not.

Nouns formed from these verbs by the


;

ati.'

It

seems

unnecessary to write these nouns

despiser^ one
' '

who

is despised.,

causes

we frequently hear oligaq, olug&q, and and contempt^ may be changed into onidag&q
; '

onigaq.
in like

Adagiq, one wlix) manner oni may

be prefixed to diag^q, sagfiq, and saig^q, instead of

a.'

DERIVATION OF ADVERBS.
62. In the Yoruba language many abstract relations, as those of time and place, are expressed by nouns as, oni, this day ; ana, the day hefore to-day., yesterday; These nouns ola, the day after to-day^ to-morrow ; ibi, this place ; ibe, that place. are formed into adverbs by prefixing 11 or ni, in ; as, li oni or loni, to-day ; li ola or lola, to-morrow ; ni ibe or nibe, there, &c.
;

63. Adverbs of time expressing the idea of recurrence or repetition are first syllable of a noun expressing time, and then prefixing li or ni, in ; as, odio, a day ; odiodio, day after day ; lodiodio, daily.

formed by reduplicating the

So from
64.

A few adverbs are formed by combining several words


ni, i)i,

osu,

month.,

we have ososu and


igba,
ti?ne,

lo^osu, montldy., &c.


all or every)

as,

nigbagbogbo,
?

alioays (from

gbogbo,

nitorikini

xoherefore ?
bi,

(from

niti, in.,

as

to ; ori,

reason or cau4e ; kini, %olmf)

boyi, perhaps (from

65.

Many
all

adverbs consist of a reduplicated syllable or word;


such adverbs were originally nouns, formed

as, goge., alihe ;

gldigidi, w;'?/ / gmgoi., sluggishly ; 'kiiT)'kai),quicMy ; fiofio, w?'^/ (high).

It is pro-

bable that

by

reduplicating the

entire verbal root.

66. Although the adverbs are quite numerous, there are some relations which none of them definitely express and hence both verbs and nouns are frequently used adverbially, as in the following cases 1. For want of an adverb to express the idea of more, the verb diu, to surpass,
;
:

is

employed in that sense as, dara dih {good s-mpassing), more good or hetter ; iwo dzu mi, ymt worh more than I. Sometimes loli, to go, is added as, iwo kihe (Mvl mi loh but it makes no perceptible addition to the sense. 2. The adverb sokaq, togetlier, exjiresses the idea of unison or congrulty, rather than that of being or acting in common and hence to denote the latter idea, the
;

sise

IITFLEXION

AND CONSTRUCTION OF WORDS.


;

lY
as,

verbs dio, to asseirible^ and kp5, to he common^ are employed togetlier ; soro kpo, to talk togetJier.
3.

k6

d^o, to collect

place with the idea of motion, as, loke, vp^ and nisale, doion^ correspond very nearly to the English words iiinvcirds and downwards ; and hence to express the precise idea of iip and dxnon^ the Yorubas employ the verbs, dide,
to rise,

The adverbs of

and ^ubu,

to

fall;

as, ih dide,

to raise

(one)

up ;

bi ^ubu,

to

push (one)

down.
4. Finally,

to mention one

meaning

mxicli refer to

express this last idea, onucJh or greatly.

more example among many, the Yoruba adverbs number and quantity rather than to degree and hence to the noun kpikp5, oLundaTwe, is used as, fe kpikp6, to love
; ;

adverbs are restricted in their use to a single word, or at very or mvoh, which is applied to nothing except the idea of height; scqseq, (standing) uprigld ; buruburu, (hiding) closely ; biribiri, Ex: igi ga fiofio, the tree is very tall; li duro seqseq, toe stand intensely (dark). erect ; ole kpamo buruburu, the thief hid closely ; il^ ^li biribiri (tlie-ground is-darh
67.

Many Yoruba
;

most to a single idea

as, fiofio,

intensely^, it is very darTc.

DERIVATION OF PREPOSITIONS.
few of the prepositions are verbs as, ba, iDith, along with (prop, to means of (prop, to make) de, for (prop, to he ready, prqxired). fi, with, hy ineet) But most of the Yoruba prepositions are composed of a noun and one of the primitive particles ni, in ; si, to ; or ti, from ; as, nin6, in, within (from ni and ino, the
68.
; ; ;

inside^.

(See Prepositions.)

DERIVATION OF CONJUNCTIONS.
69.
to refer

'

A few of
them

the conjunctions
;

may be

as, bi, if ; retained in composition, e. g. abi, the state of existence. 70. Most of the remaining conjunctions are compound words; as, ndiie, then and d^e, to he) nitori, hecause (from niti, in, and ori, (from 6q, it, reason). Yl. The origin of others is more doubtful. Thus, adi, notwithstanding, may be derived from di, to suhtract ; oq, and, appeai-s to be the pronoun 6ij, he ; ki, that, is a primitive. (See Conjunctions.)

to verbal roots

primitive words.; but it is not difficult probably from the obsolete verb bi, to he,

which

is still

CHAPTEE
72.

II.

INFLEXION AND CONSTRUCTION OF WORDS.


words are combined together to form propositions, the relations which they bear to each other are indicated partly by their position with regard to each other, or collocation, pai-tly by certain subordinate words or particles employed for this purpose, and partly by changes in the form of words, called In the Yoruba language the first and second of these methods are inflexions.
3

When

18

ETYMOLOGY AND SYNTAX.

mostly employed.
faint traces.

Of
is

inflexion,

properly so called, the language exhibits but

the most important part of speech, and that from which most, Yoruba may be considered as derived. It would all, therefore be proper to commence this division of the Grammar with the verb. But the verb cannot be conjugated except by means of the pei-sonal pronouns ; and hence it is most convenient to begin with the pronouns.
Y3.

The verb

if

not

the other words in

PRONOUNS.
Personal Pronomns.
NOMINATIVES.

Y4. The primary forms of the personal pronouns are emi, /; iwo, thou ; oq, Each of these pronouns is inflected, or varied in form, to distinguish he, she, or it. from the singular number as, emi, I ; awa, we ; but there is no variation the plural
: ;

of form to express gender. 75. Besides the primary forms just mentioned, each of the singular personal pronouns, when employed as the subject of a proposition, has two contracted or secondary forms, the use of which depends on the principle of euphonic concord
a previous section ( 13) and the pronouns of the first and third persons have each two additional contracted forms, founded on other considerations, which will presently be explained. The plurals are likewise subject to contraction.
laid
;

down in

76. follows
1.

The contracted
:

or secondary forms of these pronouns

may be

classified as

a.
b.

2.

The euphonic forms, which are divided into, The close form ending in o,' which is used before the close vowels. The open form, ending in o,' which is used before the open vowels. The citatvve form, the pronouns of which, mi, I, and i, lie, slie, it, appear
' ' ' '

to

be

contractions of emi
3.

and

'

yi.'

form, so called because employed chiefly in the future tense. 4. All the plural nominatives are sometimes abridged in form by the suppression of the entire second syllable, to allow of their being more closely connected with

The future

the following verb. 77. The various forms of the personal pronouns, nominative case, are then as follows
:

what may be

called the

SINGULAR.

INFLEXION AND CONSTKUOTION OF WORDS.

X9

Remarks on the Nominatives.

78. The primary forms of these pronouns may be employed on all occasions, the use of the contracted forms being optional. 79. The close and open forms are employed instead of the primary forms merely for the sake of euphony. 1. The rules to be observed in their use are as follows; a. When the first vowel of the following verb is a close vowel, viz. e, i, o, or u, the close form of the pronoun must be employed as, mo se, I did ; o ri, tlioit seest. b. "When the first vowel of the verb is an open vowel, viz. e or o, the open form of the nominative pronoun is employed as, mo fe, Ilove ; o mo, lie hnmos. This
; ;

rule,
c.

however, is often neglected in practice. Before the neuter vowel a,' the open or close form of the pronoun
'

is

used

t^, indifferently; as, 2. There are two peculiarities to

mo

tk or

mo

I sell.
be noted
in reference to the use of the close

and

open forms. a. None of

them can be employed


is

as nominatives to verbs in the future tense.


ri,

For
is

instance, it inadmissible.
i.

correct to say either,'emi 6

or

i)

ri,

I slmll see j

but
:

mo

ri

Before the particle k6 or k6, Twt^ 6 or 6, A^, is uniformly omitted as, k6 ri, not Tcnow. But 6r) or 6q is used with that parJie does not see ; k5 mb, he does ticle kd m6, lie does not hnow. as, 6r]
;

80.

1.

sometimes verb of saying, asking, or replying; as, mi, nibo, Z (enquired) cohere? i, lohuq, lie (replied) yonder ; mi, ho, /(answered) 6 ; this word '6' being the usual reply to a salutation, which is aspirated in the above example for the sake of euphony. 2. The pronouns of this form are never employed in negative or interrogative sentences neither is there any analogous contracted form for the second person
;

citative forms, mi, 7", and i, he^ are rarely used; but they are emploj^ed in repeating what has been said, with the suppression of the

The

singular or for the plural.

pereonal pronoun 'q' appeai-s to be a modification of 'emi.' The manner in which it is formed is seen in the subjunctive phrase, ki emi ri, that see^ which is frequently contracted to ki em' ri, and ki 'm' ri and is still more fre-

81.

The

quently pronounced ki q ri. Although we have classed q along with yi in the It is employed as follows future form, its use is not confined to the future tense. 1. In the future tense, instead of emi 6 ri, I shall see. as, q 2. In negative propositions, before k6 or I do not k5, 7wt ; as, q ko ri {I not
'

'

'

'

'

'

do or will not go. It is especially employed to express see ; q k() 16h (^I not go), refusal ; as, q ko 6e e, 'will not do it; emi ko se 6, suggests the idea of denial,

see),

did not do
82.
person,
1.
is

it.

The
is

use of the demonstrative

yi,

this or that, as

a pronoun of the third

confined to the future tense.

ri

6q, lie, she, it; as, yi 6 de, lie will come. often used pleonastically after other nominatives, either singular or plural. a. In affirmative sentences it is to he ; as, babd ni generally preceded by ni, yi 6 {father it-is tJiat will see), father will see ; awa ni yi 6 mh {we it-is that toill
2. It is
toill

It

employed instead of

hnow), we

hnmn.

20

ETYMOLOGY AND SYNTAX.


'

In these examples we have probably the full original construction of yi in the awa 6 ri, and awa 6 m^ future, from which the briefer modes of expression are formed by ellipsis. h. In negative future propositions, yi is always placed betweeii ki, Twi^ and the emi ki yi 6 ri {I not iluxt shall see), I sJudl not see ; nwoq ki auxiliary 6 or 6 as,
'

'

'

yi 6 mo, tJiei/ will not Tcnow. 83. The pronoun d is employed before verbs in the future tense, as a substitute both for yi, he, and 6 or o, will ; as, d, lu mi, lie will strike me ; k fo 6, lie will
' '

break

it.

not employed as the direct subject of a proposition, except Its use is restricted to two cases, in both of which occasionally in the Egba dialect.
84.

Awoq,

they, is

nwoq
1.

is

inadmissible

Before ti, tvho or which, it is employed as the subject of a proposition awoq ti o de {they wlw he came), tliey xolio came ; awoq ti eba 6na, tliey which

as,

(fell

12). 2. Before nouns, to indicate plurahty ; as, awoq agba kp^d^o {tliey elder met), tlie elders were assembled ; ona awoi) elese, tlie toay of sinners.

by)

tlie

road side (Luke

8.

85.

The use

respect from that of the

of the contracted plural forms, d, 6, d, is oj)tional, and differs in no full forms, except that d, they, is used imj)ersonally to form

a substitute for passive verbs. ( 147.)


OBJECTIVES.

86. The personal pronouns when employed as the object of a proposition, whether governed by verbs or prepositions, take the following forms
:

SINGULAK.

INFLEXION AND CONSTRUCTION OF WOKDS.


4.

21

mo

ri

Wlien. the objective pronoun is followed by the relative ti, tvlu) or which / as, saw him xolio came ; mo fe awoq ti o oq ti o de (I smo himioho he came),

fe emi,
5.

I love

tlwm who love me.

Nwoi)

is

not used in this case.


is

The
fe

full

form
ti

is

as,

mo

awoq

fe emi,

frequently employed because it I love them tvho love me.

more agreeable

to the ear

88. As the objective pronouns are generally governed by a preceding word to which they are closely attached in pronunciation, the contracted forms are, for the most part, made by eliding the initial vowel of the pronoun, so that it may be more
closely joined to the governing word. are to be made
:

On

these forms the following observations

"We occasionally hear e for o, tliee ; as, mo ri e, I see you. traction of the pronoun of the second person plural, which, as with
1.

This
us, is

is

a con-

often used

instead of the singular

by way

of politeness.

2. a. Reasoning from analogy, we may assume that the original contracted form of the third person singular, was 'o,' like the nominative; but as this vowel becomes perfectly assimilated to the final vowel of the governing verb or pre-

mo

position, it assumes in turn all the forms of these vowels ri i, se e, did it / saw it fu u, to it, &g.

as,

mo

r^

a,

I bought it

mo

'

b.

The

objectives,

S,

e, 6, i, o, 8,

and

u,

have no accent, and scarcely any per-

The practised ear ceptible quantity, especially when they follow a sharp vowel. can discover, however, that they slightly sharpen the preceding vowel. Thus, mo
ri
i,

J see

it,

is

pronounced

mo
it,

ri

and
m6'.

mo m6

6,

/ know

him,

is

pronounced, as

nearly as signs can represent

mo

POSSESSIVES.

89. As the pronouns when used to indicate possession are closely attached to a preceding noun, they assume the same contracted forms as the objectives the only difference is that r^ is employed as the possessive of the second and third
; ' '

persons singular.

SINGULAK.

22
2.

ETYMOLOGY AITO SYNTAX.

The same forms


36),
it

are used after a so-called

compound
is

and a noun (
objective, fear liim ;

when, although the pronoun

verb, consisting of a verb rendered into English as an


;.

really stands in the relation of possessor to the noun or Jiis fear. lit. mo ba eru r^, meet tlie fear of

Mm

as,

mo

beru

r^,

EMPHATIC AND REFLEXIVE PRONOUNS.

The personal pronouns are augmented by the addition equivalent to the English word self^ selves^ &c., as follows
92.
:

of several words

1.

Nd,
nd,

tliat^

added to a pronoun makes


hook.

it

emphatic;

as,

ami

nd,

I myself ;

iwe

ti

emi
2.

my own

Ara, body or self^ is used only before possessives, and performs two offices: Before a singular possessive it makes the pronoun reflexive as, 6 fe ara r^, lie loves Mmself. h. Before a plural, it often makes the pronoun reciprocal as, nwoq fe ara woq,
a.
; ;

tliey love eaxih other.

sometimes pronounced as, emi tikara tikala, is employed before possessives, and forms emphatic pronouns mi mo (/ and-only-self my hnow)^ 1 myself hnow / eqyiq tikara nyiq ri, ye your3.

Tikara (composed of

ati, amd., eki, ovUy.^

and

ara, sdf^.,

selves see.

added either to a nominative or objective pronoun, and renemphatic as, iwo kpakpa, tliee thyself. Kpakpa is more definite than nd, being equivalent to very self. Sometimes tikara with its possessive pronoun is followed by kpakpa; as, iwo tikara r^ kpakpa, tTiee thyself or thy very self. But the expression iwo kpakpa appears to be equally strong without the addition
4.

Kpakpa,

self
;

is

ders

it

'

'

of tikara

'

r^.'

Each of the foregoing expressions may be used in conjunction with nouns, as follows babd nd ri babd tikara r^ ri babd kpakpa ri ^babd ^babd ara vh ri tikara r^ kpakpa ri each of which sentences signifies, failier Mmself sees.
93.
:

PLEONASTIC USE OF PRONOUNS.

94. Personal pronouns which would be superfluous in English are frequently employed in Yoruba, as in the following cases 95. 1. When a verb is separated from its nominative by intervening words ; as, okoqri kaq ol9ro 6 ni iridiid kag (man oTie rich lie Iwd steward one)., a richmnn
:

had a steward.
2.

When

the objective noun

clause,

an objective pronoun is verb or a preposition as, omo,


;

separated from the governing word by a relative supplied after the governing word, whether it be a
is ti

o 16h oko, ekuq

mu u
tlie

(the cMld^ wlio

lie

tvent

to-

thefarm^ a leopard
alagbe,
ti

catight hmi)^
li

a leopard caught
fi i

child

who went
sa/ng at

to tlie

farm,
it4s,

o koqriq

ode

ni,

mo

fu

{tlie beggar., lolio lie

tlie

door

gave
1.

it

to),

I gave

it to

the beggar

who sang

at the door.
:

96. Pleonastic 6 or 6, he, she,

person who
ti
;

ti o de (tlie ti, tolio, which, is he came), tlie person who came; eqyiq ti o m5, ye who hnow. 2. After ni or for the relative li, this one, tlmt one, when employed as a substitute as, enia li o sin a, a people who err.
;

When

frequently occurs before verbs the subject of a relative clause as, enia
it,

INFLEXION AND OONSTEUCTION OF WORDS.


3.

23

After ni or li, when this word is used pleonastically in the sense of to he ; as, o se e (thou it-is that did it)^ tJwu didst it ; iya li o kp6 o, inother called tliee. 97. pleonastic pronoun of the third person singular follows verbs of saying, writing, tfec, in connexion with kpe, tlmt, to wit ; as, 6 t6nunio 8 kpe 6q ko ^e G tlmt he not did it'), lie affinned tliat he did Twt do it / mo kowe r^ kpe (]i6 affirmed it

iwo

li

emi

mbo

{Ihmlt-hook of-it that


;

I was-coming), I to rote that Itvas coming.

98. Yi, he, she, it, is frequently employed pleonastically before verbs in the future tense as, oba yi o kpa S, tlie hing lie will kill him.
OMISSION OF PRONOUNS.

99. The personal pronoun 6 or or ki, not- as, ko ri, he does not see j

6, he, she, it, is

always omitted before k6, k6,

is person goodness), he is omitted and hence, instead of the above expressions, we may use their precise 6q ki ise enia equivalents, or) ko ri, he does not see ; 6q k6 m6, he does not know
;

ko m5, lie does not hioiv ; ki ise enia rere (iwt not a good man. But the full form 6q or oq, he, is not

rere, he is not

a good man,
;

100. Possessives are sometimes omitted for the sake of brevity odi;u, go wash (your) face; iya de, (my) mother has come.
Demonstrative Pronouns.

as,

16h bo

101.

The demonstrative pronouns

with their plurals woqyi,

are yi, this ; nd, that; m,this one, that one; these, woni, tlwse, formed by prefixing awoi), they, to 'yi'

and

'

ni.'

are placed immediately after the nouns which they Iwuse ; ile woni, those Jiouses. When the noun is followed ; by a descriptive word, the demonstrative is placed after both; as, enia rere nd (^person of goodness that), tliat good person. 103. Both 'yi' and 'nd' may be attached to plural nouns; as, awoq enia yi,

102.

The demonstratives

define

as, ile yi, this

tliese people ;

gbogbo

ile nd, all those


'

houses.

strative this.
'

appears to be, as regards its origin, the near demonpresent, however, this word and its corresponding substantive ' eni have the following uses and acceptations. 1. It is employed as an indefinite pronoun, which may be variously rendered or a person), speak to according to circumstances as, wi fu ni or eni (speak to one
104.
ni
'

The pronoun

At

me

or us ; bd ni
is
'

sise,

help one, or ns, to


ri

work ;

eni

ti

mb6

who
2.

coming ;
Ni'
is

emi k6

eni

kaq (I not see some one),

I see no one.
;

(one wlio is coming), he

frequently employed as a definite article ( 108). 3. It is combined with other pronouns in composition as, eyini (eyi ni), tliat ; awoni (awoq ni), those; tani? (ta? ni), who? kini? (ki? ni), what? are employed substantively, they are aug 105. When the demonstratives mented by the addition of the usual preformatives as, eyi, alayi, eleyi, this ; oqnd, tlmt; of which the plurals are awoqyi, iwoqyi, nwoqyi, tliese; awoni, awoqnd, Sometimes eyi reduplicates the second syllable as, eyiyi, this ; and fretlwse.
; ' ' ;

quently
eyini,
1.

it

is

compounded with
that.

ni,

forming the compound substantive pronoun


;

meaning

The

substantive demonstratives are construed like nouns

as,

eyi

li

o se e

24
{this itris
lie

ETYMOLOGY AND SYNTAX.


person did it / ognd 11 o wi i (that iwogyi mo, tliese hwio. and 'awoqnd' are emphatic; as, awoqnd ni mo 'Oqnd'
did
'

it),

this

it-is lie

said

it),

that

person said
2.

it

ri (tliose it-is

I saw

I saw),

tlmse very persons, or themselves.


DEFINITE ARTICLE.

106.

The demonstratives nd and

ni, tJmt,

and the substantive pronoun


that,
ti

eyi, this,

frequently have the force of the definite article. 107. Nd is always equivalent to the English demonstrative

some
inrni

cases

it

may' be rendered by the


yesterday.

article the ; as,

okoqri nd

although in o de lana, tJie

who

ca/rtie

108. Ni is scarcely used as a demonstrative, and is more nearly equivalent to the article as, d ri odo nld ni, we saxo tlie great river ; oba ni li o wi i (hing tJie itis that said it), the hing said it. In the use of ni we observe two peculiarities.
;

1.

It is
;

employed
as,

gularity
2.

omode

in connexion with kar), one, which kaq ni li o se e, the child did it.

is

used to indicate

sin-

qdzo ni, tliere is a Iwuse an o 16h oguq nd ni, ko huwa re, two generals, xolw we)it to tliat fire; baloguq med^i, war, did not hehave well. In these and all similar examples 'ni' may be rendered
ti

It frequently qualifies a phrase or sentence; as, ile

by

it is.

as a definite article, before the noun, in speaking of one among a plurality of things previously mentioned. Thus in Luke 15. 12, ' after mentioning the two sons, we have the phrase eyi aburo,' the yownger.

109. Eyi,

this, is

employed

The Relative Protunm.


110. The relative ti, w/w or which, is applied to both persons and things, and not varied to indicate gender, number, or case. Hence, as is the case, for instance,

is

with the uninflected Hebrew relative, a pereonal pronoun is often employed in connexion with it to indicate the number and person which the relative would have
if inflected.

111. 1. a. When employed as the subject of a relative clause, or in what may be called the nominative case, ti is usually followed by o or o, Jie, site' it, which is used in a general way for all numbers and persons as, awa ti o ri, we who see ; iwo ti o ko, thou who learnest. h. When the verb of the relative clause begins with 'm,' 'n,' or 'ij,' either as an auxiliary particle or as a component part of the verb, the o or o is usually omitted as, iwo ti qsoro, thou who art speahing / awa ti mbe, we wlio are.
;
'

'

'

'

Frequently, however, instead of o or o,' a pronoun is used, agreeing in person and number with the antecedent as, enia ti awoq ^e G (person who tliey did who ITcnow), I who Icnow. it), tlie people wlio did it; emi ti mo m6 ( 3. It being regarded as sufiicient if the plurality of the antecedent is once
2.
;

'

'

'

Thus the senexpressed, the same thing may be said in several difterent ways. he slew his sons tvJio rebelled, may be expressed in Yoruba either by, 6 kpa tence, awoq omo rh ti o sote (lit. ?ie slew tJtem son of him wTio lie rebelled) or by, 6 kpa
;

omo omo

r^ re

awoq ti o sote ( he sleio son of him they wlio lie rebelled) ti nwoq soto {he sleio son of Jtim who they rebelled).

or else by, 6

kpa

IKFLEXION AND CONSTRUCTION OF WORDS.

25

112. 1. In what may be called the objective case, 'ti' is not followed by 'o' or any other pleonastic pronoun as, ile ti oba ko, tlw Jiouse wliicli the hing huilt. 2. The relative cannot be governed directly by a preposition, but only through
;

a noun or pronoun the pronoun


to

whom J
113.
1.

hence when the preposition has no other word for its object, eni, one^ is introduced before the relative as, si eni ti {to one who)^ fu eni ti {for ofie who)^ for whom,
; ;

is expressed: a personal pronoun, which must follow the name of the thing By employing possessed ; as, okoqri ti il6 r^ d^o {man v)ho Iwii-se of him burned)^ the man whose hmise was burned.

The

possessive case

employing the pronoun eni, one^ before ti as, bata eni ti emi ko t6 gbe {shoes of one which I not am-s^(fficientto-bear')^ whose shoes I am not worthy to hear. Eni is sometimes introduced to make a phrase definite; as, gbogbo qyiq eni ti
2.

By

rjgbo {all you one who are-hearing)., all you wlw hear. 114. When its antecedent is a noun signifying time or place, 'ti' rendered by wlien or wliere; as, igba ti mo de, tlie time when came ; ibi

may be
ti

6 w^,

the place

where he

is.

1.
(lit.

115. The compound relative wMt is expressed: ' By a noun and ti,' which; as, emi k6 fe qkaq
thing which)
lie

ti

6e,

I do

not

lilce

what

did.

2.

3.

By By
;

eyi bi

ti,
. .

this
ti,

which ;
. .

a^

116. of
ti

as,

occasionally meet with ni or li, that., employed as a relative instead enia li o sina li eyi, this is a people that err.
OMISSION OF THE RELATIVE.

We

awa k5 m^ eyi ti 6 ri, we do not Tcnow wliat he saw. which; as, mo gb6 bi o ti wi, I heard what thmi saidst.
as,

117. The relative is omitted in the following cases: 1. Before an adverb composed of a preposition, a noun, and the relative li awoq eqyiq nigbati eqyiq gbo {ye are they in-time^hicliye hear)., ye are they

as,

who

when ye
2.

hear.

Before mdh, not; as, alagbara mdh m5 6ro {strong-man not Mows consideration), a strong tnan who does not consider; abani^e mdh ba ni 6e m6 {helper not with one acts more)., a helper who helps no more.
3.

Sometimes, instead of making use of a relative clause in dependence on the


;

main proposition, two separate propositions are employed as, am^raq l&d^a or^q {wise-man hnows proverbs., he recoTiciles difficulties)., a wise hnows proverbs reconciles difficidties.

mh owe, i man who

Interrogative

and

Indefinite Pronouns.

118. Ta? who? is generally, if not invariably, compounded with ni or li, iJ/iai!. is employed as follows 1. As an interrogative pronoun; as, tani? who'i tani ni? who is it? iwo tani? {tlm.0 who), who art tluruf tani se e? who did it? or, tali o 6e e? {who he did it), who did it ? 6 lu tani ? lie struck whom ? tani 6 wi fu ? whom did he speak to ? or 6 wi fu tani ? he spoke to wJiom ? 4
It
:

26
2.

ETYMOLOGY AND SYNTAX.

As an

indefinite

pronoun

as,

emi

m6

tani 6 lu,
'i),'

ITcnow

wlwm

Tie

struck.
'li'

In the

Egba
;

employed
3.

as,

li

dialect, before the auxiliary particle i)kp6 mi ? who is calling me ?

'ta'

is

sometimes omitted, and

only

is

Tani is equivalent to a possessive in various constructions After the name of the thing possessed as, ile tani r)di;o ? (Jiouse of whom is-hurning f ) wlwse house is burning f At the option of the speaker, ti, of, may be inserted before tani as, ile ti tani gd^o ? h. The same thing may be expressed by tani ? xvlio f and ni, to Imve or own^ with
:

a.

of the thing possessed; as, tani ni ile ti qd^o? {who house which is-bu7'ning^^ whose hcmse is-hurning ? 119. The relative 'ti' is employed as an interrogative in the sense oiwliat?
ti,

ivhich^ following the

name

ti se? {IsJutU what do)^ what shall I do? egyiq what do tchhnow)^ luno will ye Tcnow ? (ye in which case bi 2. Very often bi, as^ is employed as a complement to ti precedes the subject of the verb; as, bi emi ti qse? {as I what am-doing^, wluxt am I doing ? bi iwo ti se vah ? {as thou what dost to-hiow^^ lunv dost thou hnow f 120. The particle or pronoun e,' which the natives regard as a contraction of eyi, thi^^ is used for what in the expression, e se ? {what is it), what is the matter? why ? or, e ti se, which has the same meaning. 121. Ki? tvhat? which? is also combined with ni or li, tliat^ and is used /is

1.

Ti alone

is

used;

as,

emi 6

ti

se

md

xvill

'

'

'

'

'

follows
1.

As an
lie

ivhat is
tJu)u
2.

interrogative pronoun; as, kini? or kini ni? what is it? kill 6 qse? doing ? nitori kini iwo qkigbe ? {for what thmi, art-lawlin^)^ xvhy art
lati kini

bawling?
It is also

6 de?
as

{from

tvhat

it

came)^froni tohat did


as,

it

arise?
6
6e,

employed

an indefinite pronoun;

emi

mo
'

kill

ITcnow

xolmt he did.
3.

"When

inserted

between the parts of a reduplicated noun


ki

ki

'

has the force

ile, any house whatever (,56, 1, a). 122. 1. Wo? xohich? what? is an adjective pronoun, attached interrogatively to nouns as, ile wo li 6 ri ? {house lohicli is-it he bought)^ xohich house did he biiy ? ^nia wo li o fe ota r^ ? {person what is-it he loves enemy his), what nutn loves his

oi whatever

as, ile

or ilekile,

en&tny ?

formed by prefixing e to wo,' is a substantive pronoun as, ewo ti o dara ? (which that it is-good), which, or which one, is good ? emi 6 mb ewo I do nx)t hnow which ! b. Ewo is employed as an indefinite pronoun as, b^re ewo li 6 fe {ash which itris he wants), inquire which he wants.
2. a.
' ' '

Ewo ?

In the Egba dialect si and yisi are sometimes employed as substitutes id^9 si 6 de ? on what day did he come ? yisi 6 gba ? which did he take ?
'
'

'

'

for

'

wo' and 'ewo

' ;

as, ni

INFLEXION AND CONSTKUCTION OF WORDS.

27

VERBS.
Principles of Conjugation.

123. Througli

all

the variations of person, number, mode, and

tense,

the

Yoruba verbal

root remains unchanged.

124. Person and number are denoted that represents the subject, as follows
:

by the form of the personal pronoun


awa
ri,

emi ri, I see or saw. iwo ri, thou seest or sawest.


6q
125. the verb.
ri, lie

we

see or saw.

egyiq

ri,

nwoq ri, The modes and tenses are indicated by auxihary particles placed before The whole difficulty of the Yoruba verb lies in the position and meaning
;

sees or saw.

ye see or saw. they see or saw.

of these particles and thus the intricacies usually found in the inflexions of the verb ai-e here transferred* as it were, to the department of syntax. 126. There is but one conjugation, and no irregular verbs, in Yoruba; all verbs will here give a synoptical view of the being varied in the same manner. various forms of the verb.

We

INDICATIVE FORMS.
Simple.

AoRIST.
Past.

I Per/,
\

Impf.

j Perf. \

Impf.
First,

FuTUKE.

\ Sec.

emi ri, I see or saw. emi qri, I am or was seeing. emi ti ri, I have or liad seen. emi ti qri or qti qri, I have or had been emi b ri or k ri, I shall or will see. emi 6 ti ri,* I shall or loill ha/ve seen.
with ni or
li

seeing.

o.

pf.,f

j \

emi ni ri, I see or saw. emi li o ri, I saw or see. emi ni qri, I am or was seeing. emi li o ti ri, I have seen.
.

\
(

emi ni yi o emi ni yi 6

I shall ov will see.

ri, )

ti ri,

I sliall or will have seen.

OPTATIVE OR POTENTIAL FORMS.

emi ma ri, I may or would see., or am seeing. emi ma ti ri, I might or woidd have seen. Future, emi 6 ma ri, I may see or shall be seeing.
AoRisT.
Past.
This form
is

scarcely recognised

by the Natives.

28

ETYMOLOGY AND SYNTAX.

SUBJUNCTIVE FOBMS.
Simple.
.
,

p
Tfi

see or saw. ri, if hi emi Tiha. ri, if am ov was seeinff. \ I/npf. I^eif. bi emi ba ti ri, if Iliave or Jtad seen.
J I*e)'f. ^

bi emi ba

I I

Impf. bi emi qba

ti ri,
ri,

5 First, bi bi \ See.

emi 6 ba emi 6 ba

ti ri,

I have or Tiad been seeiiuj. I slidll or will see. if if I shall have seen.
if
ki.

with

Present, FuTUKE.

ki g ri or ki em'
ki emi ki 6
ri,

ri,

tJmt

I see.

that

I shall or will see.

AiKdliary Particles.

12*r. Before exhibiting in detail the forms of expression in Yoruba wkich correspond to our ideas of mode and tense, we will first examine into tlie nature and uses of each of the particles by the help of which these various accidents are denoted.
INDICATIVE PARTICLES.
Particle of Continuance.

I)

or

m.

exchanged for 'm' before 'b' or 'f,'is probably a contraction of ni, to he. We have analogous formations in several words as, nM, to he great, which is composed of ni, to Imve, and ild, greatness ; mbh (colloquial), there, from ni, in, and ibe, that place. 2. When g is attached to a verb, it may be prefixed to the accompanying also as, emi qsi r)s5ro, and I was speaking. particles 129. 1. The use of 'q' or 'm' in conjugation is to denote a continuing or unfinished action, or one which was unfinished at the time referred to as, omo
128.
1.

The

particle 'q,' sometimes

'

'

qsuq, the child is


yesterday.
2.

slewing or is asleep ; nigbati


'

awa mb6

lana,

when we were coming

not customary to prefix g ' to verbs in the future tense, no reason is apparent why this should not be done as, yi 6 qsi^e, he will be wo^'Mng. 3. This prefix is very appropriately employed in making general propositions,

Although

it is

that

is,

in asserting that
tlie

worship
spoils

palm-t/ree

eni

which always holds good as, keferi r)bo 8kpe, the heathens ti qke omo ni qba omo dze, he toho indulges a child
;

child.

Past

Particle.

ti.

130. This particle denotes that an action

is,

was, or will be finished at or before

INFLEXION AND CONSTRUCTION OF WOEDS.

^.
employed

some point of time expressed or implied


as follows
1.
:

in the sentence.

It is variously

To

express anything that


it

is

iIlia/6 done
lie

yesterday), tvas coining yesterday ; aragb^ni ti qsina, the ancients erred. 2. To express what is past in relation to some point of past time
.

I did it yesterday ;

past at the time of speaking ; as, mo* ti ^e e lana 6 ti kxi, lie is dead; 6 qti ijb^ lana,

as,

mo

ti

16h,

ki 6 t6 de, Iliad gone, before he arrived (ki t6, before). 3. To express what will be past before some future point of time; shall Imve gone, before he arrives. loh, ki 6 t6 d6,
. ,

as,

emi 6

ti

4.

It is

employed

indefinitely like the English auxiliary liave ; as,

mo

ti ri i

nigbakugba, / have seen him often. 131. 1. The origin of the particle 'ti' is doubtful. It is not improbably, however, a modification of t6, to he sufficient, to attami to, which is sometimes employed as a sort of auxiliary particle as, bi omo dagba k t6 li ogboq {if child
;

is-grown, it^ill attain to-lmve wisdom), when the child is grown, it will get wisdom / nigband ni nwoq t6 sina (tlie/i it-is they attained-to erring), then they erred. 2. The use of ti as a pleonastic particle seems to favor the suspicion that its
' '

original is t6.' a. It is sometimes

'

after prepositions expressing instrumentality ; as in the general proposition, nikpa i^e ow6 ti wdh, by labor inoney comes, lit. attai/)is to, or reaches the point of, comimg.

employed pleonastically

'

'

h.

Again,

ti

is

often thus

employed
!

after

mdh,

ki, ko,

or k5, not ;

as,

mdh

ti

16h

(not arrime-at going), do not go yet to bearing fruit), it camiot bear fruit.
!

6g ko

le ti so eso (it not is-alle to-attainr

auxiliary particle ti coincides with other particle ti in the language.


3.
'
'

The

'

'

'

t6

'

in accent,

but not with any

Future

Particles.

or 6.

132. This particle is the sign of the future tense, and is generally equivalent to The difference between 6 and o is simply euphonic, 6 ' being sludl or tvill. employed before close, and '6' before open vowels ( 14). 133. It is probable that 6 or 6 was originally the personal pronoun 6 or 6,
' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' '

lie,

she,

it.

If so, the expression emi 6


see.
' ' ' '

ri,

/ shall

see,

means

literally,

I oxn

he

to-

see,

or that is to

134. The particle 6 or 6 is frequently preceded in all persons and numbers by the pleonastic pronoun yi, he, she, it / as, iwo yi 6 6e e, thou wilt do it / awa yi 6 ri, tve shall see ; 5ro ti yi o ^e (word tvhich it will come-to-pass), a v)ord which
will be fulfilled. (Luke,
1.

20.)

is

135. This particle used as follows


;

may be regarded

as

an emphatic substitute for 6 or

6.

It

* The secondary forms of the pronouns,

as,

mo

or

mo,

/, arc

more frequently used than the longer

pri-

mary

forms.

30
1.

ETYMOLOGY AND SYNTAX.


a.

To give emphasis to an assertion, it being used in connexion with a nomibefore any vowel whether close or open as, emi k ri, shall see ; emi k native,
;

m5,
h.

/ sludl Tcnow.
Or without
a nominative,
;

when the
a
ri

either singular or plural will Mil me.


2.

as,

mi, he or

subject of the verb is of the third person, tliey will see me / k kpa mi, he or tliey

Before a verb used subjunctively, after ki, that^ without a nominative, and frequently with a preceding clause understood as in the evening salutation, ki k sdq r^ may you sleq) well ! lit. I wish that you tvill sleep well. Servants frequently ask such questions as, ki k k>Q eyi? shall I do this? lit. do you wish that I shall do this? But the clause preceding 'ki' is often expressed; as, 6 ni, ki k
; !

loh, he said^

let

us

ffo,

lit.

he said that

we

tvill go.

Emphatic

Particle.

ni

or

li.

136.

The demonstrative
;

'ni

'

or

'li,'

which assumes the nature of a substantive

verb (see 181), is sometimes employed in the latter sense along Avith verbs for the sake of emphasis as, babd ni ijvi, father is or was seeing babd li o vi^ father
,'

saw

or sees.

OPTATIVJi PARTICLE.

ma.
ISY. This particle is used as follows In affirmative propositions with a nominative of the first or third person, and in interrogative sentences with a nominative of the second pei-son, it expresses will or desire ; as, emi ma 16h, J desire to go ; nwoq 6 ma 16h, they will go., or will desire
:

1.

go ; eqyii) ma loh ? do ye wish to go ? 2. In affirmative propositions, with a nominative of the second person, it as, ma 16h, or iwo ma 16h, tlwu mayst go / 6 ma gbe e, ye expresses permission
to

mmj

take

it.

kuro, tlion

This form of expression is much employed instead of the imperative, as being more courteous mayest get out of my way ; 6 ma yara, ye may make haste.

as,

ma

it

In connexion with words denoting the continuance or repetition of an action, expresses what is customary or habitiuil ; as, d ma 16h nigbakiigba, xoe go often6q ma nd mi lodi;6di;um6, he flogs me daily ; iwo ma s5ro kpod:iu, thou taUcest too mwbch ; 6 ma seuq (he is always Mnd\ lie is very hind! 6 ma kpe! (^ye always
3.
!

stay)^ Iww long ye stayed! 138. "When the particle

'ti' is

employed, 'ma' precedes


' '

it;

as,

iwo

ma

ti

^e

buburu, thou hast done evil (habitually). But when le, to lie able., can^ or may., is employed with the verb, it may either precede or follow ma as, ki d 1^ ma m6, th/it we may hnow ma 1^ di;oba, perluxps 1i may or can reign. In these / boya yi 6 cases also ma denotes the continuance of the action.
; ' '

INFLEXION AND CONSTRUCTION OP WORDS.

31

SUBJITNOTITE PARTICLES.
ba.

139.

The verb 'ba'


as

signifies to

arrive

at,

attain

to,

meet, find,

&c.

It is

an auxiliary particle, chiefly in what may be termed the subjunctive employed mode, with something of the sense of o^eacMng, arriving at, or attaining to, the action expressed by the verb before which it is placed as, bi iwo ba ri i, kpa S, if them seest it. Mil it, lit. if thou attaim, to seeing it or chance to see it. 140. It is also employed as an emphatic or definite particle in the indicative
;

mode

which

mo ba ko ni, o w6 (Jiouse which I huilt Oris, it fell dotoii), the house has fallen down ; 6hur) ti Olorui) ba ti wen5, mdh fi kpi^ li aim6 (thing which God has cleansed not mahe to-call t&ie uncleanness), the thing which God has cleoMsed call Twt unclean.
;

as, ile ti

huilt

141. It is customary also to use de, wlien I arrive.

'

ba

'

after nigbati,

when ;

as,

nigbati

mo ba

aba and

iba.

142. These particles, which appear to be derivatives of 'ba,' imply duty or obligation as, emi aba ^e e, or iba se e, ought to do it; eqyiq ki iba ti 16h, ye shoidd not go or have gone. (For the use of ti after ki, not, see 131, 2, 6.)
;

143. In subjunctive sentences 'iba' is equivalent to if; as, iba se woli, i ba mb, if he wei'e a prophet, he tvould hnow / iba ^e mo ni iye {if it-were I had wings'), if I had wings ; a form of expression employed for oh! that I had, c&c.
ki.

144. Another subjunctive form arises from the use of the conjunction ki, that : 1. If the nominative to the verb is i), I, or a monosyllabic pronoun (except
'

6i) '),

only one ki ki n ri, , )


'

'

is

used
see.

as,

1 A

r ki emi n, j ki o ri, tliat tliou

that

_
see.

ki 6 ki d ki 6
2.
it is

ri, ri,
ri,

that he see. that

we

see.

that ye see.

If the nominative begins with a consonant or consists of

two or more
6,

syllables,
as,

usually followed by a second ki iwo ki 6 ri, tlmt thou see.


ki

'ki,'

with the pronoun 6 or

he, she, or it;

awa

ki 6

ri,

tlmt toe see.

ki nwoi) ki 6 ri, tluit they see. ki babd ki 6 ri, that father see.
3.

The pronoun

6r), lie, she, it, is

used with one

'

ki' or

with two

as,

ki 6q

ri,

or

ki 6q ki 6 ri, tlmt he s^e. 145. These forms are

Subjunctively ; as, according to the context,


2.

1.

employed as follows ki q ri, ki emi ri, or ki emi ki 6


:

ri,

tliat

I see,

that

I shall see,

that

I may

which may be rendered,


see.

Imperatively;

a.s.

32
ki q

ETYMOLOGY AND SYNTAX.


ri,
J

ki emi
ki o

ri,

>

let

me
-

see.

ki emi ki 6
ri,

ri, ;
)

ki iwo ki

ri, J
\

ki 6
ki
3. a.

ri, ri,

ki 6q
6r)

>let
ri,
)

him

see.

ki 6

preceded by an objective, it may often be rendered by an infinitive as, mo kpe o ki o se e, Z called tliee that thou do it or to do it mo kpfe nyiq ki 6 wo 8, J called yo^i to look at it / 6 bebe wa d wi, A^ us to tell ; 6 bebe wa ki d mdh wi, he hegged tis not to tell. hegged h. In this construction an objective of the third person plural is sometimes followed by ki 6, that lie ; as, d kpe wog ki 6 ^e e, we called tliem to do it.
is
;

When

the verb with 'ki'

OCCASIONAL PEEPIX.
i.

146.
i,

not)
1.

is

The inseparable prefix 'i' (which is not to be confounded with attached to verbs for the following purposes
:

i,

he,

and

permanently true or customary as, li okpolokpo okan li enu iso, in the ahmida/me of the heart the mouth speaketli. 2. It is frequently emphatic after ko, not ; as, nwoq k6 ide, tliey have not come. It would seem that, since ko is immutably unaccented, the i is introduced to supply the place of an emphatic accent on the negative. 3. It appears to be sometimes merely euphonic. a. After 'ki' employed instead of ko, not as, ki i^e awodi, it is Tiot a hatok; emi ki iloh ibe, I never go there. When the 'o which usually follows the relative 'ti' ( 96, 1) is omitted; as,
is
;
' ' ' '

To denote what

'

1).

eni

ti iloh, lie

wlw

went.

Farms for
147. In Yoruba, as in

the Passive Voice.

many

other African languages, there

is,

properly

Various forms of speech, however, supply its place. speaking, no passive voice. 148. 1. The most frequent form is the plural impersonal, employing the con tracted nominative d, they ; as, d ri mi, tliey see me, for I am seen / d ti ri mi, tJiey Imve seen me, for Ilmve been seen ; d 6 ri mi, tliey will see me, for I shall be seen.
Frequently, retaining this construction, the noun or pronoun denoting the object is placed first thus, emi li d ri {I it-is they see), I am seen.
2.
;

149. Although the above substitute for the passive is applicable in all cases, there are several other forms which may be used occasionally with good effect 1. All the mo, to d^e," to spoil, kpa compound active transitive verbs, as ba
:
. . . . . .

conceal ( 37,

of passives I), and a few other transitive verbs, may be used instead as, nwoq bad^e, tliey are spoiled ; awa kpamo, ^ve are hid ; 6 se li od^u mi, it tvas done before me, lit. in my eye ; 6ke bo mole, the hills were covered over ; nikpa
;

5ro Oluwa aiye

ti

dd,

hy ths v)ord of the Lord the loorld was made.

INFLEXION AND CONSTRUCTION OF WORDS.

33

2. Occasionally an abstract noun with a substantive verb is employed instead of a passive verb as, mo ^e igbagbe {I am a-forgetti-ng)^ I am forgotten ^ ile di dhoro, the house is a desolation, or is desolated. 3. All nouns formed from transitive verbs by reduplicating the first syllable have a passive signification as, riri, which is seen ; kpikpa, which is slain ; hike, lohich is done. And any of these nouns may be employed before ni, to le, to form a sub;
;

gbigb^ In the past and future tenses of the passives just mentioned, the word which represents the subject is followed by ^e or di;e, to do, to he, to get ; as, kpikpa ni iwo 6 ke or d:^e, you will
be hilled, or get
hilled-.

stitute for the passive of the perfect aorist tense ; as, riri li emi, ni nwoq, they are received; kpikpa ni 'bahk, father is hilled.

I am seen ;

Modes and
150.

Tenses.

in five modes,

various forms of the verb, including verbal nouns, may be arranged viz, the Indicative, the Optative or Potential, the Subjunctive from the two preceding), the Imperative, and the Infinitive. (formed 151. The tenses may be divided into three classes or groups, the Aorist or

The

and the Future. In the Indicative mode, and in the Subformed from it, the Aorist and the Past tenses have a perfect and an junctive Those of imperfect form, while the Future exhibits a first and second future form.
Indefinite, the Past,

the Indicative, for example, are as follows

Aorist Tenses.

emi emi Imperfect,


Perfect,

I see or soaj). qri, I am or was seeing.


ri,

Past
Perfect,
Iinperfect,

Tenses.

emi emi

ti ri,

Ilmve

ti qri,

had seen. I have or had been


or

seeing.

Future Tenses.
First,

Second,

emi 6 emi 6

ri,

ti ri,

/ slmll or vjill see. I shall or tvill have seen.

152. The foregoing synopses and remarks present the general principles of the Yoruba verb but the importance and intricacy of this part of speech seem to will therefore give the require a more detailed exhibition of particulars. various usual and occasional forms of each tense, and describe the peculiarities of each form.
;

We

INDICATIVE MODE.
Aorist Perfect.
ACTIVE.

A ff
")

ma ti ve

emi ri, > I see or saw. emi ni ri, emi li o ri, j emi iri, I see or sair roiitiniicnisly.

34

KTTMOLOGY AND SYNTAX.

Negative.

emi 6 (or ko) ri, I do or did not emi ki ii-i, I do not see.

see.

Interrogative.

emi emi emi

li

bi ?
] ?

ni ri bi
\\

\do or did
? )

I see ?

ri

bi

Negative Interrogative.
emi ko
ri

or 6 (ri) bi?

emirik6?
emi ki
iri bi,

do ov did
\

,.77-

I m)t see ?

do

I not see?
PASSIVK.

Affirmative.
ii

ri

mi,

)
I

emi li ii ri emi ^e riri,

*^^

*^^'

^''''^

^'^

^'"'

*^'''

'^'^'^^ ^^^'^^"

^ ^ ^^

or

;a.9

^^m.

ririliemi, |

Negative.
A kd (or 6) ri mi, they do or c?2'(^ not see me emi ko (or 6) se riri, am or ?i;a* ?w^ ^e^..

I am or xoas not

seen.

Interrogative.
k
ri

mi

bi

emi li A ri bi ? -am or wa^s emi ^e riri bi ? riri li emi bi?

I seen?

Negative Interrogative.
d ko (or 6)
ri

mi

bi

]
?
>

emi ko (or 6) ^e riri bi riri ko li emi bi ?

am

or wa,9

/ not

seen ?

Eemarks.

153.
1.

That the simple form,


it

time,
2.

the various forms of the aorist perfect we may observe see or sa/w, is wholly ambiguous as regards as, emi ri, used either in a present or past sense. being
:

On

may be used with a past signification but it naturally the idea of present time, and will suggests probably become a definite present
ni
;

The form with

'

'

tense.
3.

The form with

'

li

'

seems to have more of the past signification

but

it

can-

INFLEXION AND CONSTKUCTION OF WOKDS.


not be set
4.

35

dowu
'

as

a definite past tense, because


in the

it is still

frequently employed in

the present.
is

It iri,' denotes continuous or habitual action. not a usual form, except in the cases already stated ( 146). 154. As to the negative and interrogative forms, observe: 1. The Before open vowels they particles 'k6' and '6' are exact equivalents.

The

prefix

i,'

form emi

'

become k6 and
' '

'

6.'

Ki, not^ is employed before verbs beginning in 'i,' as shown in the example. As the prefix i denotes continuation, ki generally has the sense of never ; as, emi ki il6h ib^, I never go tlwre. This form is to be rendered by the present tense.
2.
' ' '
'

3.

The
is

and
4.

particle bi,' or its equivalents abi, tabi, often omitted as, emi ri ? did see f
;

'

is

merely a sign of interrogation,


ri

used only in interrogations where the verb is not expressed negations

K6,

not^ is

as,

emi

k6 ? do

not see ? and in

as,

6g k6,

it is

not he.

Aorist Imperfect.
ACTIVE.
i emi nri, '. 1 emi ni qri,
' . .

Y
j

jI am or was

seeinq. ^

PASSIVE.

emi

d nri mi, t li a qri,


.

-y.

\ J)

dfn or

was

seen.

Remarks.

present or past sense whereas the second form more frequently refers to present time. 2. This tense has no negative forms, and the interrogative forms differ from the affirmative only in the use of 'bi' or its equivalents ( 154, 3) immediately after
1.
;

155. This tense needs but little elucidation That the first form is employed either in a

still

we may

observe

the verb.
Past
Perfect.

ACTIVE.

emi wfi
.

ri,
'

I saw.
.

emi

,^ li

? ^

Iliofve or

Tmd

seen.

ti ri,

Eemarks.

156. The verb w&,

to be, is

used in

restrict it to the past. forms an indefinite past tense

When
;

it is

all tenses; but there is a tendency to used as an auxiliary particle, it invariably

as,

emi

w^

ri,

I saw ;

nwoq w^

li

el^^e, they tvere

sinners.

157.

A perfect tense

is

occasionally

emi gbe e de {Ihrmight


liave Jmished.

it

come),

I have

formed by other particles besides ti hrovght it ; emi ^e tdq {I did done),


;

as,

36
158. Li o
ti ri is

ETYMOLOGY AND SYNTAX.


rather more definite tlian
ti ri.

The
fect,

negative, interrogative, and passive of this tense, as also of the past imperare formed in accordance with the principles laid down in treating of the

aorist tenses.

First Future.
ACTIVE.

Af f rmati ve.
i

cmi o
X)

ri,

ri,

emi a ri, emi ni 6 ri, emi ni yi 6

I sliall nee.
ri,

Negative.

.mikiyiori,
jmi

m ki
6
ri ri

yi o

\
)

j ,^,ai not

see.

ri,

Interrogative.

emi emi emi emi

bi
bi

?
?

ni 6 ri bi ni yi 6
ri

-shall
?

I see?

bi

Negative Interrogative.
emi ki yi o ri bi emi 111 ki yi o n
?

}-,-,-. ^
? )

see ?
.

bi

PASSIVE.

Af f irma t
a 6
ri
li

ve.

mi,
ii

emi

I shall he

seen.

ri,

Negative.
d ki yi 6
i-i

mi,

I shall not

he seen.

Interrogative.
d 6
.

ri
i 11

mi
a o
, ,

bi
.

?
1
.

emi

ri bi

o ?

h
)

shall

77

t /
lie

seen f

Negative Interrogative.
A ki yi 6
ri

mi

bi

shall

I not he seeti ?

Remarks.

159. It

is

to

be observed here:

INFLEXION AND CONSTEUCTION OF WORDS.


1.

87

That the forms 'emi 6

ri'

and

'i)

ri'

have the same force

and that the

always arrangement from other similar combinations of words, and partly to avoid uneuphonious Thus, if k6, not, were employed, k6 6, pronounced as two syllables, expressions. would be disagreeable to the ear and if pronounced as one, it would be confounded with ki 6, tJiat he. 3. Here, as elsewhere, the affirmative active exhibits a greater number of forms
;

three other forms of the active afiirmative are emphatic. and that yi, Tie, 2. That ki, not^ is the only negative employed in the future to distinguish the future is This follows it. designed, partly
;

than the negative, &c.

OPTATIVE AND SUBJUNCTIVE MODES.


160. As these modes are but variations of the Indicative, it is thought that what has been said of them, together with the detailed treatment of the Indicative,
will suffice to explain their construction.

IMPEEATIVE MODE.
161.

The

following are the forms of the Imperative


Imperative Active.

mode

Affirmative.

ki o n, or ki iwo ki o ri, ki o ma ri, or ki iwo ki 6

r*^^> or see thov.

ma

ri,

Negative.

mdh mdh
1

ri,

w iwo mdh
ri, '

ri,

"]

6e

or iwo
.

mdh
.

se
1

ri,
,

ki o

ki o

,, man mdh

,.

ri,

or ki iwo ki
ri,

6e

or ki

,, mah ri, iwo ki 6 mdh ^e

ysee not, ov see thou not.


ri,

^7

Passive.

Affirmative.
ki
ji

ri o,

or iwo ui ki A

ri,

) ^

ki k

ma

ri o,

or iwo ni ki k

ma
.

be thou seen.

Negative
ki a

mah no, ^ kiAmdh^erio, \iethon


) ^

not seen.

Remarks.

162. Here, as elsewhere in the conjugation of the verb, the multiplicity of

38

ETYMOLOGY AND SYNTAX.


' ' :

forms arises from two causes fii'st, from the use of synonymous words, as o and iwo and, secondly, from redundant words, as ki o and 6e.' 163. On the use of the above forms observe 1. That 'ma' denotes continuance ( 137, 3). 2. 'Ki' denotes that, and ki 6, that he ( 144, so that the forms with 'ki' 2) are analogous to the French construction, qioHl voie, qxOil iie voie pas.
'
' ' '

';

3.

'

Mdh means
'

Twt^

and

is

employed instead of ko
'

'

in the Imperative

and
;

in

some other connexions.


4.

The verb

6e, to cfo, is

frequently employed pleonastically after mdh, not

as,

mdh

^e 16h, do not go^ instead of

mdh

loh.

INFINITIVE MODE.

164. The Infinitive Active is regularly and usually expressed by the simple verb or root as, emi fe ri, / desire to see ; 6 qgbero loh, he is thinhing to go i 6 dSgmo woq 6e e, it pleased th&m to do it. Frequently, however, a substitute for the infinitive is formed by the verbal nouns treated of in the following sections.
;

Verbal Nouns.

165. The following are the forms of the verbal nouns which correspond to our infinitives and gerunds or participles.
iri, to

see / a seeing. ari, to he seen ; tlmt


atiri, to see
riri, to

which

is seen.

or

to he

seen ;

see or to he seen / atima ri, to he seeing ; a continued seeing. ' 166. The form in i is employed as a gerund
'

a seeing. a seeing.

1.

In the nominative

as, isode

k6 ye

fu oloko, hunting is not suitable for

farmer. 2. In the objective as, nwoq k6 fe isode, they are not fond of hunting^ or they do not love to hu/nt. 16V. The form with ati prefixed is employed as a gerund or infinitive
; ' '
:

In the nominative as, atigbo ko ito, to hear or hearing is not enough. 2. In the objective, in which case it is frequently equivalent to a simple infinitive as, 6 k6rira atisise, he liatedtoorlcing or toworh ; d ma d:;e atiye, toe eat to live. 168. The preposition li, in^ in regard to., is frequently inserted between the gerund or infinitive in ati and the verb on which it depends as, 6 ko li ati^i^e, he refused to wor\ instead of 6 k5 atisise. The insertion or omission of 'li' is not
1.
; ;
'

'

always optional
1.

to

the governing verb is composed of a verb and noun, as beru (ba eru), he afraid^ li is omitted, because the gerund in ati sustains the relation of
' '

When

'

'

a genitive to the noun contained in the verb of doing it)., he was afraid to do it ; 6 mura
sleep or sleeping').^
lie

as,

6 beru atise e

{lie

tnet-thefear

prepared

to sleep /

(mu ara) atisiig (Jie tooh-himself tonwoq wona (wd 6na) atiw6 ile {fliey soughtthey endeavored to enter the house.

Orroad of-entering or .to-enter

tlie-lioiise)^

INFLEXION AND CONSTRTTCTION OF "WOEDS.


2.
as,

39

A simple verb,
li e.

on the contrary,

may govern
doing

the infinitive

by means of
do
it,

'

'

li

6 sd
a.

ati^e e (he fem^ediTirrega/rdrto

to it), Tie feared


'

instead of 6

s& atise

in such cases is not indisthe people generally prefer it. Hence we constantly hear such pensable, yet expressions as, nwoq rd li atikpa S, they thought to hill him ; awa kpfed^o li atikole, we assembled to huild a house. h. In many cases the form with li ati,' and the simple form of the verb, may be employed indifferently and interchangeably but when the infinitive is gerundive in its nature, the form with li ati is Thus it is perfectly correct to say, preferable.
that,

It should

be observed

although the use of

'

li

'

'

'

a house; but it would not be proper to say, nwoq r6 kpa fi (instead of li atikpa), they thought to hill him, because the precise meaning of the expression is, tJiey thought of hillvng him. 169. Nouns formed by reduplication have much the same sense when employed
(instead of
li

awa kp^dio kole

atikole), toe assembled to build

actively as those in i and ati.' Thus, igb6 ko ito, atigb6 k6 it6, gbigb6 k6 is not enotigh, are equivalent and it6, hearing equally proper forms of expression. lYO. In the form atima ri, to be seeing, the auxiliary particle takes the formative prefix like a principal verb. or infinitive of this form denotes gerund
'

'

'

continued or customary action as, atima ^e eru ni ii^oro, to be a slave is hard; emi I)r6n6 li atima gb6 6ro Olorui), lam thinking to hear the woi'dof God, i. e. to become a hearer, or to make a (mstom of hearing. 171. The infinitive passive is expressed; 1. By the form in 'a'-; as, 6hug ari, a thing to be seen; nwoq ^e agbarar^ akparuq {they made power his Ordestruction*), they caused his pcnoer to be destroyed. 2. By nouns in ati preceded by li ; as, 6 kp6 woq di;ade li atikpa, he called them out to be hilled, or to hill them.
; ' ' ' '

3. a. as,

By reduplicated forms preceded by di, ni or mu woq di kpikpa, he caused them to be slain ; 6


(fi
.

li,
fi

or

^e, in

the sense of
tliem to

to be ;

woq

le ^e tit^,

he delivered

them wp

. .

le) to be

sold ; 6 fu

woq

li

eraq ni diid^e (he

gave

have meat
Yoi"id)a

he game tJiem meat to eat. b. But the verb di, ni, or ^e is sometimes omitted a.s, is difficult to or he spoken, ; mo r^ dgutaq kpikpa, speak
to he eaten),
;

Yoruba 6oro

fif5,

I bought

sheep

to hill

or be

hilled.

Participles.

172. The Yoruba language has no participial words except the verbal nouns just The substitutes to be employed for participles depend on the nature of the sentence.
noticed.

173.
1.

2.

By By By

Our Present Participle is represented, a simple verb as, 6e gbogbo re here nihinyi, do all of it beginning here. a verb with the prefix g as, d ri enia qdiioko lebd 5na, we saw people
;

'

'

sitting by the road.


3.

nigbati, when, with a verb

and nominative

as,

nigbati 6

si

yanu

r^,

6 k6

Akparui), which is destroyed, which is to be destroyed ; ari, which is seen or to he seen. when It denotes the object or recipient of an action, has no exact equivalent in English.
Dictionary.

noun
'

in

'

a,'

See

'

in the

40

ETYMOLOGY AND SYNTAX.


(tvJien Tie also opened-moutTi Jiis^

woq

he tonight them)^
as,

and opening
fi

his mxmth^ he

ta/wght them. 4. By a noun beginning with 'a'

6 ^e aga aruq

tdi),

hs broke the chair


as the

ridning
174.

it entirely.

The

Perfect Participle

is

represented
';

much
qmi

in the

same manner

present
1.

By

a verb with the prefix 'q

as,

ifefe

fu afefe,

a reed shaken hy

the

wind.

verb used impersonally as, igi ti & gbiq hy river), a tree planted by the river. 3. By a verb used passively with a nominative
2.

By a

leti

6do

(tree

which they planted

as,

d ba ile-tubu 6 se (we

found
some-

jailrhonse,
4.

it wa-s-s-hut), xoe

found
;

tlie

prison shut.
ri

By
By

ki, that.^

and a verb

as,

mo fe

gkaq ki 6 to wo r| ^e {I wish
;

to see

thing that it by thee is-done).,


5.

I wish to see something done by thee.

a noun, or preposition and noun as, nwoq ba S oku, they found him dead (oku, a corpse) 6 sSkdle si ile re ni idalare, he descended to Jiis house justified, lit. in justification.
;

Substantive

Verbs.

1Y5. No language, perhaps, can claim so many verbs expressing existence, The whole number of either absolutely or in different relations and capacities. these verbs to be, including those which have other meanings, is ten, to wit mb^,
:

w^, y^, gbe,

si,

ni, ri, 6e,

d^e, di.

Most of them have

peculiarities

which prevent

them from being interchangeable.

176. This verb denotes existence ahsolutely, as Olorur) mb^, God exists, or God Mb^ is is, an expression often employed by the Yorubas as a solemn asseveration. used in all modes and tenses but in the imperative its place is usually supplied by gbe or wA.
;

wk.
verb absolute, but is not entirely equivalent to mb|. occasionally employed as an auxiliary particle, and in this capacity forms an indefinite past tense, the only one in Yoruba corresponding to the English imperfect as, 6 wk ri, he sato. 2 In some dialects it is preferred to mb| in the preterite as, 6 wa, he was.
177.
1.
is

W^

also a

It

is

3.

W4

is

preferred to

mbe

in the future,

and

in the imperative

as,

yi 6 w^, he

will be ; 6
4.
as,

wk

ib^, be ye there.

In the
iltS,

6 vfk

dialect, w^ is preferred to mb^, to express existence in a place ; he is in the house ; lit. he is house, the preposition ni, in, being omitted

Egba

after the substantive verb.

In speaking of the duration of existence, -wk (but not mb|) is employed in the sense of to live / as, 6 w^ li ogoruq oduq, Its Uved a hundred years, lit. he was
5.

foi'

a hundred years.

INFLEXION AND CONSTKUCTION OF WORDS.

41

lete except in composition

178. This verb, -whicli denotes existenoe in a state or condition^ is nearly obsoa dumb persmi. as, 6 y^di, he is diimb^ lit. y^ odi, is
;

si

179. This verb, denoting existence in a place, is chiefly used in negative sentences as, ko si owo, or ow6 k6 si, there is no money. 2. The only instance in which 'si' is used without a negative, is in the phrase
;

si

tion

qkaq (it is a thing), there is something the matter, said in reply to the quesk^ si gkaq ? (not is a thing), is not something the matter ?

180. Hi denotes a inode of existence, and with such words as behe, so, thus ; bi, as ; bi , -bi 6 ti ri, how is it f it-is it is), so it is
,'

is
.
.

always employed in connexion &c. as, behe li 6 ri (so ti, how,


;

181. The original of ri' sense of to appear, to seem,

is

doubtful

but

it

may be

ri,

to see,

employed

in the

ni ov

li.

182. 'Ni,' whether employed as a verb, pronoun, or preposition, usually But this change does not li before a vowel as, li ori, on tlie top. the combinations idi, igb, ih, ik, ikp, il, and in as, ni generally take place before

becomes

'

'

ni igba, at the time ; ni ika, tolmve cruelty, to be cruel; ni ikpa, in \dize, for food ; ni ile, in the Iwuse ; ni in6, in tlve inside. tlifi path ;

183,

The

substantive verb 'ni' or

'li'

appears to be the demonstrative 'ni'

manner with the personal pronouns of the third employed in the Aramaic languages. The pronominal origin of the word is shown by person the fact that in many cases it is equivalent to it is / as, tani ni who is it ? ami ni, In other cases it may be rendered it is I; awa li o Se e, we it is that did it.
as a copula, in like
'i

simply by the verb

to be ;

a.s,

tani ni babd, r^

toho is thy fatJier ?

oba li iwo, thou

art a Mng. 184. 'Ni' or 'li'

frequently employed pleonastically 1. For the purpose of making a proposition emphatic or definite as, emi ni saw. (See 185, 1.) see ; emi li o ri (/ am that saw), (/ it4s see), 2. Before nouns following verbs of naming, calling, &c. as, nwoq so oruko r^
:

is

ri

li

name Alaidiu (lit. woq ole, Alaidi;u) them thieves. 3. After an objective placed emphatically at the beginning of a sentence And in like manas, malii li d kpa (cow it-is tve hiUed), ive hilled a coto. ner after adverbs and adverbial phrases as, behe li 6 wi (so it-is lie said), he said so. a pei-sonal 185. When 'ni' is used pleonastically, it is frequently followed by
Alaidzu, they called his
called
to be
;

d kpt;

li

we

pronoun of the third person singular employed relatively


6

42
1.

ETYMOLOGY AND SYNTAX.


In the perfect aorist, 6 or 6, Ae, (I Oris that saw), I saw eijyir)

she,
li

it,

or that, often follows

'

ni

'
;

as,

emi

li

ri

m5 mo

{ye

it-is

that Tcnetv),

yehnew.

But

this tense refers to present time, the relative pronoun is generally omitted ; ri (I it-is see ; eijyii) ni see), {ye it-is hiow), ye hioiv. as, emi ni 2. In the future tense 'ni' is followed by yi, he, she, it, or that ; as, emi ni yi 6

when

ri

(/

it-is

that will see),

I shall see ;

eqyiq ni yi 8

m6

{ye

it-is

that will

know), ye

will Tinow.
gbe.

186. Gbe,
junctive;
as,

to dwell, abide,

takes the place of

mb^

in the imperative
lie

and subhe,

gbe

ib^, le there; die ki 6

gbe {make

that

he),

let

him

or

let

him
yfh,

alone.
is

187. This verb

in the house where he was ; nihinyi

often pleonastic after adverbs of place; as, ni nwoq gbe kii, here they died.
dl.

ile ti

6 gbe

188. Di,

implied
lie

as,

getting old ;

to hecome, maybe rendered by the verb to he, when change of state is iwo 6 di omo buburu, tJwu toilt he a had child ; 6 di arugb6, he is di atoqbi, to he horn again ; 6 di eni egki) {lie hecame one of contempt),

was

despised.
se.

189. The verb se, to do, to act, may be rendered as a substantive verb in several cases, as follows it has for its object a noun which denotes one who acts in some capa1. city or fills a station ; as, nwor) se woli, they were prophets, i. e. they acted as pro;

When

phets or performed the work of prophets iwo ni q^e babd mi, thou art my father ; eni ti ise akobi, he who is first-born ; okpo li 6q se, she is a widow ; yi 6 se krm fu
;

gyiq,
2.
as,

it

will he

The verb
li

6q, 3. It is also frequently ^e ti r^, it shall he thine.

oba

a sign to you. se (and sometimes die ') is used with a negative instead of he is a hing ; ki i^e oba, he is not a Mng.
'
' '

'

ni

'

employed to express the

relation of ownership
'

as,

yi 6

190. In the imperative with the negative mdh, not, s4 is frequently used pleoIt is sometimes used in nastically, like the English do ; as, mdh se loh, do not go.

'

the same manner in connexion with other negatives to express a refusal se 16h, I will not go.
idze.

as,

emi d

Die appears to be another form for se at least the use of the two verbs is very similar. Die is employed as follows 1. To express being or acting in the capacity of an officer; as, o die bale {lie acts governor), he is governor tali o fi mi die onidadio ? who made nie to he e. who made me a judge f judge? 2. Die is the only word employed in the sense oitohe'va. connexion with num 191
'
' . ;
:

;.

i.

bers

as,

6 die ogota

{it

makes

sixty), it is sixty.

INFLEXION AND CONSTRUCTION OF WORDS.


3.
ti i

43
eni
'

Sometimes
i

'

d^e,' like

'

^e,'

d^e or

se

(I not Tcnoto

Mm who
'

appears to
Tie

is)^

mean simply to he ; as, emi 5 mo I do not hnow who he is.

than se 1 92. In expressing refusal, d^e is more frequently used pleonastically will not go. ( 190) ; as, emi o dze 16h,
'

'

Pleonastic Use of Verbs.

193. In addition to the pleonastic uses of verbs which have already been spoken of, the following are worthy of notice Verbs of going and coming are much employed pleonastically after verbs of
:

motion to or from a place, and this gives peculiar definiteness to the language as, 6 gbe e lati oko 16h, he tooh it from the farm to some place at a distance from the speaker (which fact is indicated by 16h, to go or going) 6 gbe e lati oko wdh, he tooh it from the farm and brought it hither (which is indicated by wdh, to come or coming). So, 6 kpada 16h (Ae returned going~)., he went hach ; 6 kpada de (lie

returned coming), he came bach.

And

so, lati isisiyi

16h (^from

now
;

going)., hence-

forth. 194. After verbs of giving, ni or

li,

to h-a^e., is

always added

as,

bu mi

li

omi,

give

me

water ; Oloruq

li

fil

woq

li

agbara,

God gave them potoer.

NOUNS.
195. Yoruba nouns are not varied in form to express gender, number, or case or in other words, they exhibit no traces of inflexion.
Oender.
;

196. follows
:

Gender

is

distinguished only where there

is

an actual difference of

sex, as

a male, abo, a she-animal, a female ; akuko, a cock, agbeb5, a hen- oko, a he-goat, ake, a she-goat; 6koi]ri, a man, 6biri, a woman; babd, a father, iya, a mother ; and a few
1.

By

using different

words

as,

ako, a he-animal,

others.
2.

By

adding to a

common term one

of the above general expressions in appo-

sition.

In the case of animals, by prefixing ako, male, and okib, female ; as, ako malii, a hull, ab6 malu, a cow ; ako e^iq, a horse, ab6 e^ii), a mare. h. In the case of persons, by appending the words 6kor)ri, man, and 6biri,
a.

woman ;

as, om6koi)ri (omo dkoqri, child man), a man-child, a boy, om6biri (omo a woman-child, a girl ; iwofa 6kor|ri, a bond-man, iwofa obiri, a bond6biri), woman; egb6r) dkoqri, an elder brother, egboq 6biri, an elder sister ; aburo 6kor)ri, a younger brother, aburo obiri, a younger sister. 3. By compounding two or more words in construction as, bale (oba il^, lord of house), the master of a house, or father of a family ; iyale (iya, mother, mistress, ile, house), the mistress of a house, or mother of a family ; balogui) (oba, lord, li, as to, oguq, war), a general; iyal^e (iya, mistress, li, as to, dse, coohing), a female cook.
;

44

ETYMOLOGY AND SYNTAX,

Number.
197.
1.

By
I

Iraale fe

There are two metliods of indicating that a noun is plural employing the personal pronoua awoq, they.^ before the noun as, awoq oguq, tJie Moliammedans love war ; d 6 ri awoq esiq, we did iwt see tJie
:

horses

budi;oko awoq eleg^q,


plural

tlie

seat of the scornful.

connected by a conjunction, ' &yioi) ' is repeated before each of them as, awoij alagbAra, awoq ologboi), ati awoi) olododo, the powerful, tlie wise, and the But 'awoij' is not employed unless it is really necessaiy to indicate plurality. Thus in the righteous.
in this construction are
;

When

two or more

nouns

general proposition, aragbani bgboi), the ancients were wise, that the noun is used collectively.

it is

dispensed with, because

we

naturally infer

the idea of reciprocity or of repetition is connected with that of plurality, the two ideas are indicated by redu2:lication, a. The ideas of reciprocity and plurality are occasionally expressed by reduplication and a copulative conjunction as, ore or) ore ki iba ard woq d^^ (^friend and
2.
;

When

friend not tvith self their figh), friends do not fight with each other. b. Repetition and plurality are indicated by simple reduplication as, bu ikoqwo ikoqwo eru (talce handfid after handful of ashes), take handfuls of ashes ; eiye eiye mbe nib^ {bird bird is there), birds are tliere, i. e. in flocks.
;

In the numerals plurality is indicated by reduplicating the first portion as, egbegb6ruq, thousands, or thonsands on thousands ; ogogorui), hundreds, many hundreds.
G.
;

Case.

198. There is no inflexion of the Yoruba noun to indicate case. The relations, however, in which a noun may stand to the other words in a sentence are denoted
in various ways.

verb

subject of the proposition, or nominative, is always placed before the To this rule there is no exception. as, esiq sare, the horse runs. 200. The usage in regard to the vocative is various 1. In calling to a person at a distance, the particle 'o' is often employed after

199.
;

The

O child ! the noun as, omode o 2. If the person addressed is not far
; !

ofi",

the speaker uses nd,

tTiat ;

as, 6koi)ri

uA

wAh, man, come. 3. In addressing one


is

who
;

is

quite near to the speaker, the demonstrative


!

yi, this,

frequently employed as, omode yi, kuro child, get out of the way ! 4. Usually, however, the name of the person addressed receives no addition

as,

omode, t6 mi wdh, child, come to me; eqyiq Yoruba, gbo ti emi {ye Yanibas, hear the words of ?ne), ye Yortd>as, hear me. 201. The position of the objective depends on the character of the sentence:
governing word; as, mo ri oba, I saw the king ; dig dkara fu babd, bake bread for fatlier. 2. In cases of emphasis, however, the objective precedes the governing word as, ki d di ? {ineat that toe fry), shall I erai) fry meat f obo ri see the baboon I 6q li d wi fu {him it-is toe spoke to), we told him.
1.

It usually follows the

INFLEXION AND CONSTRUCTION OF WORDS.


3.

45

When
is

objective
calling

me; (I want fatlier see)^ I want to see my father. 202. The possessive relation is expressed in the following ways: 1. By placing the two nouns in juxtaposition, the name of the possessor always following that of the thing possessed as, iwe omo (hooh of child^^ the child's booh;
babd
ri
;

the governing verb is an infinitive, depending on another verb, the placed between the two verbs as, ye mi kp^ (cease me calV)^ cease 6 mo iwe \h, {lie Tcnoivs hook read')^ he knows Iww to read ; emi fe
;

ile

babd,
2.

father'' s liouse ; ile eiye,

bird's nest;

ebado okuq,
is

the shore

of the

sea, or

the sea-shore ;

okpa

irii),

staff of iron, or

expressed, in the Aramaic manner, by tlie relative pronoun ti, ivho, wJiich, placed between thera, which thus becomes equivalent to the preposition of; as, ile ti babd (house of
father),
father'' s

Less frequently, the relation

an iron staff. between the two nouns

house

Kristi

ti

Oluwa,

the Christ of the


is

203.
1.

The pronoun
the
first

or particle 'ti'

Lord, or tlie Lord's Christ. necessarily used in the following cases


is

a.

noun is omitted. In propositions where the relation of possession


it

When

predicated
ti

my it-is), my ; agbara of God), the power which is God''s. b. In propositions where the possessive relation is simply indicated and not predicated, but where the name of the thing possessed is not expressed as, nwoq se ti orisa do of idols), they da the work of idols, i. e. they serve idols ; awoq (they Nasdra fe ti Oloruq (they Christian love of God), Christians love the doctrine or service of God. When a laborer was looking for a suitable stone, another said to
is
father'' s
ti

ni (of father

idie

babd mi which is Oloruq (power


;

as, ti

The hearing, gbe ti ese r^ (take of foot thy), take the one at thy foot. instance comes under the same category ki i^e Oloruq okii bikd^e ti following dye, he is not the God of the dead, but of the living.
in
:

him

my

When the names of the possessor and possessed might be mistaken for names or epithets of the same person in apposition, the relation of possession must be indicated by ti Kristi ti Oluwa, ths Lord^s Christ ; Atiba ti oba, Atiba the as, servant of the king. Atiba oba, means Atiba tJie King the present King of Yoruba being named Atiba.
2.
'
'

Apposition.

204.

1.

"When nouns
tlie

are in apposition, the principal

word comes

firet;

as,

king, or King Atiba ; Kumi bale, Kumi the governor. 2. When a pronoun is in apposition with a noun, the pronoun comes first ; as, iwo thou child ; eqyiq ^nia, ye people. omo, 3. If words in apposition be connected by a copula, the predicate usually comes

Atiba oba, Atiha

first;

as,

emi

li

Oloruq (spirit

is

man

God),

God

is

spirit; ologboq

li

iwo

(loise-

art thou)., thou art wise.

ADJECTIVES.
205.

The
is

ofiBce

oi predicative adjectives,
:

i.

e.

of those which affirm or predicate


ti

a quality,
1.

performed

By

simple verbs;

as,

Aina

dara, Airui is good; 6

dara, /^ has been good;

46
yi 6 dara,
lie

ETYMOLOGY AND SYNTAX.


will he good ^ oyig dor), honey is sweet

igi nld, the tree is large.


'

Like

other verbs, they sometimes take the auxiliary particle Aina is good ; Aina ni yi 6 dara, Aina will he good.
2.

ni

' ;

as,

Aina

ni dara,

By compound

he,

to nouns;

khma, {he
lazy.

verbs, formed by prefixing ni or li, to have, or ^e, to Aina lagbara (li agbara, has strength').^ Aina is strong ; iwo as, enia, art a person)., thou art Tcind; 6 sble (se ole, is a lazy one)., he is
i.

206. The office of qualificative adjectives, to a noun to indicate quality, is performed


:

e.

of adjectives wbicli are attached

1.

By
:

abstract nouns placed after the nouns which they qualify.

These are

either
a.

Abstract nouns formed by reduplication from the simple neuter verbs which employed as predicative adjectives; as, ohuq didara (thing of goodness)., a good thing ; oyir) didSq (honey of s^veetness), sweet honey , igi nldnla (tree of
are
largeness).,
b.

a large

tree.
;

Primitive abstract nouns

as,

room ;
2.

enia agbara, a person of strength., or trouble)., a troublesome worTc.

baqga 6ke (room "of wpperness)., art, upper a strong man ; ise wahala (work of
;

noun they qualify as, a strongman otosi 6biri (miserable-one woman)., alagbaraenia (strong-oneperson)., a miserable or wretched woman okp6 6biri (widow woman)., a vndow. 3. By the relative pronoun ti, who., which., and a verb as, oyiq ti o doq (honey which it is-sweet)., sweet honey ; ida ti o mu (sword which it is-sha?p), a sharp sword; igi ti o ^e (stich ivhich it is-hroheii)., a broken stick. 4. In a very few instances, by a simple neuter verb as, mo ri obo nld, / saw a baboon ; enia rh li o 6e (person is-good it-is that did it)., a good person large did it.

By

concrete nouns placed in apposition before the


Comparison.

indicated
1.

207. Higher degrees of quality, answering somewhat to our comparative., are by the addition of words which perform the office of adverbs.

The word most commonly employed


very ;
is

for this purpose


it is

is

d^ii, surpassing.,

exceeding.,
to go,

as,

6 dara d^ii

(it

is-good exceeding),
pleonastically after

very
;

good., it is better.
;

16h L6h, frequently employed as, 6 dara diu but this adds nothing to the sense. 2. form of expression equivalent to a comparative is made, when only one term of the comparison is given, by adding si i, to it, i. e. in addition, more ; as, 6 dara si i (it is-good more), it is better.

d^u

3. More than is expressed simply by d^ii, or di;u 16h as, isubu roroq d^ii idide, or d^u \^\^^\()\i, falling is easier than di^u ki d ^e otoris^ing ; 6 ye fu ni ki k 6ise it is proper 6i, for us that we labor rather than that toe be poor. be expressed: 208. The highest degree, or superlative,
;

may

1.

By
By

dill

gbogbo, or

di:u

16h (this is-good surpassing


2.

loh, surpassing all; as, eyi all away), this is the best.

gbogbo

dara diii gbogbo


6 dara tdq
(it is-

tdq, completed, perfected, good perfectly), it is best.

placed after the adjective;

as,

INFLEXION AND CONSTRUCTION OF WORDS.

47

NUMERALS.
Cardinals,

209. The following


struction
1. 2. 3.
:

list

exhibits the

Yoruba

cardinal numerals and their con-

eni, okai).
edii.'

101. okaqlelogoruq 105. druqdilad6fa


110. adofa

(100 + 1).

eta.

(1105). (12010).
(20x6).

4.
5. 6.

eriq.
arurj.
efa. ed^(5.

120. ogofa, ofa 130. adodi:e

(14010).
(20x7).

7.
8.

140. ogodie, odie 150. adod^o


160. ogodiio, odi;o 170. adosaq 180. ogosaq, osaq 190. ewadiliigba 200. igba, or igbeo. 210. ^walelugba

(16010).
(20x8).

edi;o.

9.

esaq.

(18010).
(20x9).

10. ewa.

11.

okaqld

{great 1).
"

(20010).
(200+10). (200+20). (200+30). (200+40). (200+50). (400100).

12. ediild 13. etald

( "
(

2).
3)-

14. eriqld 15. 6ed6gui)


16. 6rii}dil6guq 17. ^tadil6guq

"
( 4).

18. c^dzidil6guij 19. 6kaqdil6guq 20. ogiiq. 21. 6kaqlel6guq 22. ed;^ilel6guq 23. ^taleloguq
24. 6riqlel6guq 25. 6ed6gboq 26. ^riqdilogboq 27. 6tadilogboq 28. ed:^idil6gboq 29. 6kaqdilogboq 30.

(205). (204). (203). (202). (20-1).


(20+1).
(20 + 2).

220. ogiiqleliigba 230. ogb6qlehigba 240. 6d^ilehigba 250. adotalehigba


300. oduruq

400. iriqwo, or 500. od^gb6ta


600. egbeta 700. od^gberiq

iriq'o.

(600100).
(200x3).

(800100).
(200x4).

(20+3). (20+4).

800. egb^riq 900. od^gberuq

(1000100).
(200x5).

(305). (304). (303). (302). (30-1).


(30 + 1).

1000. egb^ruq 1100. odegbefa


1200. egb^fa 1300. od^gbedie
1400. egbedi;e 1600. egbgdio

(1200100).
(200x6).

(1400100).
(200x7). (200x8). (200x9). (200x10). (2000+100). (200x11).
(2200 + 100). (200x12). (200x13). (200x14). (200x15). (2000 X 2).

ogb6q. 31. 6kaqlelogboq 35. druqdilogod^i 39. 6kaqdilogd6^i


40. ogodi;i, od^i 45. druqdiladota 50. adota 60. ogota, ota 70. adoriq 80. ogoriq, oriq 90. adoruq

(405). (40-1).
(20x2).

1800. egbfeaq 2000. egba 2100. egba 6 le ogoruq 2200. egbokaqla 2300. egb6kaqla 6 le

(505). (6010). (20x3). (8010).


(20x4).

ogoruq
2400. egbediila 2600. egb^tala 2800. egbfriqla 3000. egbged6guq 4000. egbadiii

(100-10).
(20x5).

100. ogoruq, oriiq

48
5,000.

ETYMOLOGY AND SYNTAX.

INTLEXION AND CONSTEUCTION OF WORDS.


213. This custom of counting

40

by

cowries also gives rise to the following,


o'f

Cardinals
okdq (ow6 kdij)

Price.

50

ETYMOLOGY AND SYNTAX.

NUMERAL ADVERBS.
218.
1. a.

Numeral adverbs are of two

kinds, viz.

cardinal and ordinal adverbs.


place,

The cardinal
by

adverbs, signifying the

number of times an event takes

prefixing '1' (li, in) and 'e' (a contraction of eriq or ariq, time) to the adjectival forms of the cardinals; as, lekdq, once; lemedii, twice. Very often erig or arii) is pronounced in full as, leriq kdq, or lariq kdr). h. For the round numbers, igba, time^ is employed and in this case n (ni, in)

are formed

'

'

is

preferred to
2.

'1,'

as

being more euphonious

as,

ni igba ogiiq, twenty times ; ni

igba ogodiiA, forty times.

Ordinal adverbs, which denote the order in which events occur, are formed
'

by

prefixing

le

'

to the ordinals

as, lekini, first ;

lekedii, secondly.

ADVERBS.
Formation of Adverbs.

219. In regard to their origin, adverbs may be divided into four classes: 1, primitive adverbs; 2, nouns used adverbially; 3, words compounded of nouns and other accompanying words, as prepositions, &c. and 4, verbs used
;

adverbially. 220. There are but

few primitive adverbs, that is words which are adverbial in their primary acceptation as, lai, eveft^ ; ewe, again ; eq, yes ; ndau, nx). 221. Nouns employed as adverbs are of two classes 1. Primitive abstract nouns; as, die, a little^ e. g. 6 suq die. Tie shpt a little ; 6ke, the parts above^ on Mgh, wp^ e. g. 6 gori 6ke, he rose tip ; isale, the parts below, down, e. g. o 16h isale, he went dmon. 2. Derivative abstract nouns, as, especially those formed by reduplication
;
:

nwoq gbero kpikpb,


222.
l6t6
1.

Many
;

they consulted much / 6 huwa buburu, he behaved badly. adverbial expressions are composed of ni or li, in, and an abstract

in this-day), to-day ; nigbani (ni igbani), long ago ; &c. (li oto), truly, 2. Sometimes, however, several words are combined into one as, disisiyi (di isisi yi, till time this), hitherto ; nigbagbogbo (ni igba gbogbo, in time every), always.
as, loni (li oni,
;

noun ( 62)

223. Verbs are frequently converted into adverbs enough, is used in the sense of sufitcientl/y / as, 6 s6ro t6, he spoke enough. b. toq, or tiiq, to be new, fresh, young, is used for again / as, 6 t6q de, he came
:

a. t6, to be

again.
c.

kp6,

to be

common,

for in

comm/m, or

together / as,

nwoq gbero kp6,

they con-

sulted together.
d. d^u, to surpass, excel, for mm-e, he labored m,uch or excessivel/y.

much;

as,

burn d^u, moreroicked ; 6 sised^u,

INFLEXION AND CONSTKUOTION OF WOKDS.

51

Classification

of Adverbs.

of time, 224. There is no deficiency of adverbs to express the various relations few of each class will be given, and the othera may be found in the &c. place,

Dictionary.
1.

Of Time :

loni (li oni), to-day / lana (li ana), yesterday / lola (li ola), to-mor(li

odi;o-od^o, 63), daily ; lo^o^u (lio^u osu), momOdy ; lekaq, mice I lemedi;!, twice ; nigbati, when ', nigbana, thmi j ki. . to, before^ e. g. ki emi
.

row ; lod^od^o

to de, hefore
2.

I come.
nihiqyi (ni ihiq yi),
(li

Of Place : Of Manner
;
fi

Jiere ;

nibe (ni ibe), there; loke

(li

oke),

xipwards ; lehig
3.

ehiq), backwards.

dantly
4.

or Quality : di;ed:?;e, softly / li okpoloko (in ahundance)^ abunogboq {with toisdom)^ loisely ; fi ika, cruelly ; fi agbara, poiverfully,
'
. . . . .

violently.
ti kp6, okpo, mioch ; die, little ; to, enough / bi kp6 t6, to (as I how wish to-go much enough^^ how Jww much^ e. g. bi mo ti fe 16h kp5 e. g. bi emi 6 ti ^e m5 ? (as I shall how do tomuch I wish to go I bi ti, how.^

Of Quantity :

Tcncno)^
5.

how

sliall

ITcnotc ?
d^ti,

Of Comparison:

more, exceedingly;
rere,

gidigidi, di;od;^o,

tdq, kpe, most,

perfectly, completely;

well;

much, very ; behe, bayi, so, thus; fere

almost.

Of Affirmatio7i : eq, yes ; beheni, so, so it is, yes ; 6, yes. Of Negation : ndau, n, no ; beheke, not so, no ; ki, kd, k6, k6, not ; to which it may be added that any grave unaccented vowel, except a' and 'e,' is a
6.
T.
'

negative.
8.

Of Doubt : boya
it

(bi 6 y^, if it be), perhaps

kpe, if

can be

that^, if possible;

kosekpe

bol^^e, bolfe^ekpe (bi 6 le se (ki 6 6e kp^,- that it be thai), if tliat,


;

suppose
9.

that.

Of Interrogation : bawo ?
?

nitorikini

(eyi se, this is), tohy ? (niti ori kini, as to reason what), wherefore ? why ?

(bi ewo, if what),

Iww f

ese

Const/ruction

of Adverbs.
;

225.
ri i loni,

As

a general

saw him
is

adverbs follow the words which they qualify as, mo to-day. may state, however, three exceptions to this
rule,

We

rule:
1.

The adverb
to-day

sometimes placed

first

ri

i,

I satv

for the sake of emphasis

as,

loni ni

mo

him.

But although

this construction is emphatic, emj)hasis does

not ahvays seem intended when it is employed. 2. Adverbs of doubt, negation, and some others, generally precede the word which they qualify; as, boya yi o \6h., perhaps he will go ; emi ko ri i, / did not see him. 3. Adverbial phrases composed of fi, with, and a noun, precede the verb as, 6 fl ogboi) ^e e (he with wisdom did it), he did it loisely.
;

52

ETYMOLOGY AND SYNTAX.

PREPOSITIONS.

FormaiAon of Prepositions.
226. Prmdtives. Three of the prepositions, ni, in ; si, to ; and ti, from^ are regarded as primitives. It is not improbable, however, that ti is the verb ti, to push^
'
'

to prop.

d^oko
of
'

ti

Retaining a trace of this meaning, it becomes a preposition, ti, hy ; as, 6 But at present the most usual meaning mi. Tie sat hy me^ i. e. touching me.

\sfrom. Verhs employed for Prepositions. Many verbs are employed as prepofew examples will sitions, although they still continue to be construed as verbs. be given here the remainder will be found in the Dictionary. a. ba, to meet., becomes bd, witTi,fo9\ from ; as, 6 bd. mi 16h, Tie went witTi rne i 6 bd mi vk d,die, Tie hougTit a fowl fromi me ; bd mi wd aso, seeTc dotlifor me., i. e. help
227.

ti'

to procure some cloth. If this w^ord were construed as a preposition, it would follow the verb as, 6 16h bd mi but the phrase would be unintelligible to a native of Yoruba.
; ;

me

becomes fi, witTi ; as, 6 fi ida ^dq. Tie smote witli a sww'd. G. fu, to give^ becomes fu, to, for as, wi fu ii, speaTs to Tiim / mo r^ S fu, I it for Tiim. But fu,' unlike bd and fi,' is construed as a preposition. hougTit The reason is that fu wherever used is in the infinitive mode whereas bd and fi belong 1;o the preceding nominative, and the verb which follows is an
h.
fi,

to moTce^

'

'

'

'

'

'

'

'

'

'

infinitive.

nail

and t6, to approacTi^ to follow^ are used for to / as, kaq S mo igi, th mi wdh, come to me. e. kd, to place^ set^ and lu, to striTce^ are employed for on j as, gbe e kd ina, set it on tTiefire ; 6 subu lu mi, it falls on me. 228. Compound Prepositions. We have already noticed the fact that the Yoruba language has names for purely abstract relations, which in many other languages are expressed by adverbs and prepositions. These abstract nouns are frequently as adverbs'; but to make them available as prepositions, they must be employed compounded with ni, m; si, to; or \j\ from; as, nino, m, witTiin^ from in6, tJie
d.

m6,

to adTiere^

it to tTie

wood ;

inside.

mind

229. This account of prepositions leads us to notice the manner in which the of the people contemplates relations. First, they regard the relations of ?/p,

down^ within.^ witTiout^ c&c, as actual things, and give them names. Secondly, they view these relations as fixed or permanent and to form adverbs of permanent relaThis word ni denotes fixedness tion, they prefix ni or li to the abstract noun. of relation, and is always employed after the substantive verb, whence it may be called the substantive preposition. Finally, the Yorubas contemplate the relations as in a state of motion or emanation /rom the subject to the object. Motion from is invariably expressed by ti,' and motion to by si.' Thus from each noun of relation are formed three prepositions, to point out the mode in which the relation exists between the subject and the object as, 16do (li odo), down, employed after verbs of rest or fixedness sodo (si odo), down, employed after verbs of motion to
; '
' ' '

'

'

'

'

INFLEXION AND C0N8TKU0TI0N OF WORDS.


or towards
(lie

53

object ;

todo*

(ti
;

from the

olyect to the subject below me.; 6 mb6 t6do mi, it is coming below me,

6do), doivn^ employed after verbs expressing motion 16h sodo mi, go e. g. 6 w^ lodo mi, it is below me;
i.

e. it is

approaching from below

towards me.
230.

Of the three fundamental prepositions,


' ' ' ' '

'ti'

receiving the prefix a ; as, ati, the fromTiess. does not take the prefixes si and ti,' but it is often compounded with lati il6 de oko, from the house to the farm.

by

only takes the substantive form For obvious reasons this noun
' '

li

as,

Construction of Prepositions.

231. Usually the preposition is placed immediately before the objective, and But to this rule the verb precedes both as, 6 mbe nin6 ile, he is in the lunise. we note two exceptions
;
:

1.

A finite
is

verb employed as a preposition ( 227.


'

<?.)

precedes the verb;

as,

6 ba
2.

mi r&, he bought from me. The relative ti' precedes


lie

the preposition
;

tive, as

sometimes the case in English


sat in
' '

as,

by which it is governed in the object emi ri ibi ti 6 dioko si, I sav) the
'

pla<;e tohich

si

in this construction being substituted for

ni.'

CONJUNCTIONS.
232.

We will here state the


'ti' in

ing them under 233. And is represented


1.

peculiarities of the principal conjunctions, arrangthe English words to which they correspond.

by

various particles.

personal pronouns as, iwo ti emi ri i, thou and I sato it ; yi 6 emi ti iwo, he will Mil me and thee. The pronouns, whether singular or plural, kpa which are connected by ti,' must be of the primary forms, except that re may be employed after 'ti' instead of iwo, thou, or 6q, he ; as, emi ti r^ d, o 16h, I and thou will go ; emi ti r^ ^e e, I and lie did it. b. In connecting verbs or clauses of sentences, ti is frequently employed with
a.

By

two

cases only:
;

To connect

'

'

'

'

'

'

si,'

and, also

as,

ri

i,

ti

si

mu
ba

u.

(we saw him, and we also caught


ti

hirn),

saw him and caught him


also call me), if he should
2.

bi 6

de,
'

si kpfe

mi

(if he shoidd come,

we and he

By

'

ati,'

come and call me. the substantive form of ti.'

to connect nouns, pronouns, adverbs, and prepositions ; as, 6biri ati omo loh, the woman and the child toent ; 6 kpe iwo ati emi, Jie called thee and me ; d ri wog leba ati nin6 6do, we saw them by and in the river ; 6 s5ro
a.

'Ati'

is

employed

l^saq ati lailogboq, he spoTce vainly and foolishly. ' b. Ati ' 6annot be employed to connect verbs, because

which might follow

it

Thus, 6 dide ati loh, 6 dide atil6h, he arose

it would make the verb sound to a verbal noun with the prefix ati.' he arose and went, would always be taken by the hearer for

equivalent in
to go.

'

* This form

is little

used.

54
3.
'

ETYMOLOGY AND SYNTAX.

Oq

'

is

equivalent to
;

'

ati

'

in all respects, only


tlie

it is

connect nouns
4.

as,

mo

ri

Dadd og Ade^ina,
;

I saw Dada and Adeslmm.


sense of
li

sometimes preferable to

Kpelu, wiih^

is

frequently employed in
as,

and

to connept nouns

and occasionally pronouns


came.
5.
'

6biri kpelu
is

omo

o de, the

woman amd the

child

Si

'

(si ehiq, to

hac\ go hachwa/)-ds)

employed to connect verbs only

as,

dide

si 16h, a/rise

and go.
;

Very often a nominative pronoun, agreeing in number and person with the nominative of the first verb, is employed pleonastically before the conjunction
dide, Tcnow.

emi

mo

si

loh,

I arose and went;

as,

iwo

ati

emi

ri

si

m5, thou atid

I see and

Because^ for., is represented by 'nitori' (ni itori), in or ly reason.^ hy reason of^ either of which may be employed at the option of the d ni 16h nitori oba mb5, we must go speaker as, for the Tcing is coining. 2. Before ati,' ni ') is nitori mo and^ the initial n

234.
'

1.

or

nitori
;

ti,'

'

'

'

'

(or preposition

beru

re, ati itori ti

iwo qSe oqroro

6nia, hecatise

Ifeared thee,

dropped

as,

atid hecause thou art

an

austere nian.

called 235. But., 6ugb6q, biko^e, bio^e; as, mo kp^ e,^ugb6q k6 die wdh, Mm, but he wovM not come ; ki i^e asiwere bikose ologboq, he is not a fool but a

wise man.
kosekpe, iba; as, bi 6 ba; -mS, if he knew or Tcnows ; kosekpe eqyir) loh, if you go ; iba m5 eyi, yi 6 kpada, if he Tcnew this, he would return. 237. Lest, ki...mdh, sometimes with 'nitori' immediately preceding 'ki'; as, d ^ise ki d mdh 6agbe (or nitori ki mdh, &c.), we ^oorli lest we should beg. .behe as, ko 16h behe ni k6 dioko, lie neither 238. Neither nor, ko or ki
236.

If

bi,

. .

Sometimes ko k6 as, ko ni babd ko ni lya nd, he has neitJier goes nor stays. father nor mother. 239. Or, tabi, mbi iwo tabi emi, tliou or I; ako mbi dbo ? a male or a
. . .

female

?
ni,

240. Whether ...or, iba... iba: iba 6e 6koqri iba 6e 6biri whether they be men or women, he will hill tliem. 241. Since, nigbati; nigbati eqyir) come, tve hear the word of God. 242. Tluit,
1. is
. .

yi 6

kpa W9q,
you hawe

ti

de, d

gbo 8ro Olorug,


:

since

represented
ki 6
'

by

several particles

By

ki, ki

native following ki ' ki 6 16h, say that he

ni ki 6 16h, ; as, say tliat he must go ; or if the nomihas two or more letters, ki 6' follows it as, mo ni ki oq
'
;

mo

must

go.
ti
.

2.

By

ti

as,

ki

li

emi 6 ^e

emi 6 dioguq iye

what

shall

do

tJiat

I may
!

inherit life ?
; as, 6 ri i kpe 6 dara, he saw tliat it was good; kpe is used pleoafter verbs of nastically saying, writing, perceiving, &c. ; as, d ti kowe r^ kpe, saw6 6 mb6, it is written, behold ! he cometh iwo 6euq, Ihnow tluni art good ; emi vah

3.

By kpe

kpe

6 bi wor) lere kpe, li oruko ta ni nwoq s5ro, he asked them in whose name they spoke; nwoq be e kpe ki 6 16h, they begged him to go. 243. Then, ndie as, nd^e d 6 suq li odaq, then we must sleep inihe prairie.
;

244. Though, bi, frequently followed dltltmigh we have rd)elled against him.

by

tile,

even;

as,

bi d tile ^ote

si

i,

INFLEXION AND CONSTEUCTION OF WORDS.

55

INTERJECTIONS.

245.

The principal interjections Alaa I oh ! ah ! ye aa


! !

are the following


sA kiyesi
!

Behold ! w6

saw6
kai
!

kiyesi

Fudge

huq
816

Pshaw !

Silence! dake! simi

WoTidei-ftd! kpa! ekpa! ari! Get out of the way ! ago kuro
!

56

SPECIMENS OF COMPOSITION.

SPECIMENS OF COMPOSITON.
YOEUBA PEOVEEBS.

songs, and, I believe, but few popular stories but the abounds in proverbs, which are at once the poetry and the moral science language of the nation. Many of them are sententious observations on the nature of things others are designed to inculcate the various relative duties of men and a few are simply an ingenious play upon words. We subjoin some specimens of these proverbs, not only to exhibit the idioms of the language, but also to illustrate the character of the Yoruba mind. They are taken chiefly from Crowther's Vocabulary.
;
;

The Yorubas have no

1.

Eni Mat

aba kb t6 bi
of grass not lasts

as

eni ore: mat of bulrush :

eni aba mat of grass

kd &e ika;
not does bend
;

riruq
breaking

ni

ruq
breaks

it-is it

w6mwom.
to-pieces.

A grass mat does not last like a


2.

bulrush mat

a grass mat will not bend ;

it

breaks to pieces.

Abaiyed^e k6 ^e
Tattler

ifl

idi

6ran
a

h&q.
apypear.

not does to-make

root of matter

It will not do to reveal

one''s secrets to

tattler.

3.

Abd k6
The

&e ik^q

m6
on

ni

li ese,

biko^e eni
except

ti

r)^e
is-doing

buburu.
evil.

Staple not does

drive to-adhere-to one on foot,


the foot

one

who

stocks are not fastened

of one, except

of him who

does

evil.

4.

Abata
Marsh

tdkete,
stands-aloof,

bienikpe k6 bd
as-if
aloof, as if it

6do

tar).

not with stream be-akin.

The marsh stands


reserved.

were not akin

to the

stream.

Said

of people

who

are proud

and

1.

Kd

^e,

does not;

'ika,'

infinitive
i

after

^e,
it

tlie

Observe the Hebraism,


poetical.
2.

riruij

ni

ruq, breaking

breaks, instead of

preformative 'i' being very slightly sounded. 6 ruij, it breaks. This form is

Abaiyedie
it is

fi . h^i) (to make . . . appear) is a compound quite an English idiom ; transitive verb, meaning to show, reveal ; idl brar), the root of the matter, a secret. 3. In various and widely separated countries of Africa, prisoners are sometimes confined by placing a

not do,

ba not proper, which


(4,

he

die, spoils ; aiye, the world),

is

'

world-spoiler.
'
.
.

Kd

^e

'

here means

it

will

'

kind of stocks. large iron staple around the ankle and driving the ends into a log, thus forming a rude 4. BI eni kpe, as if one should say.

SPECIMENS OF COMPOSITION.
5.

57

Bi od^um6 mo, oldwo gbe 6wo, iranwu A gbe keke, ad^agnq d gbe akpata,
If

dawn
weaver
diiX

dawns, trader

takes trade,

spinner she takes


&,

distaff,

warrior

he takes

shield,

iwoq^o d bere
ti

gbe
ti

asa,
sley,

kghe

di'A

ti

oq

ti

aruko,
hoe-handle,

omo-ode
child-oi-hunting

d
he

he stoops to-take

farmer he wakes and he

and

akpo

oroq.
hoio.

wakes and quiver and

This picturesque proverb, or poem,

may

be rendered thus

When the day dawns, the trader betakes himself to his trade The spinner takes her distaff, the warrior takes his shield ; The weaver stoops to take his sley (i. c. bonds over it) The farmer awakes, he and his hoe-handle ; The hunter awakes with his quiver and his how.
;

It would not be easy Yoruba town.

to give a

more

correct description of the usual day-break scene in every

6.

Ebi
Hunger

k6 kpa
not affects

6 Imale, Mohammedan, he
is

li

6q ki id^e ayd.
he
not
eats

says

monkey.

When a Mohammedan
he is not so scrupulous.
7.

not hungry, he says he never eats monkey.

But when he

is

hungry,

ki

iru

eraq

eriq

li

ori

ki

ma
may

fi

ese tkq

ire

ni

il^.

One not

with foot dig crickets in ground. One never carries elephant s flesh on his head that he may dig in the ground with his foot for crickets, i. e. one who has a plenty of elephant's meat (which is considered good food) does not
carries flesh of elephant
it

on head that he

put

on his head and go about searching


stoop to

for crickets to eat.

The proverb

is

applied to rich

men who
8.

mean

actions for the sake of gain.

Kpikpe
Long-time

ni yi
it-is

6
mil

kpe,
he-long,

eke k6
lie

mu

Srd.
body.

it

not catch

A
9.

long time

may pass away


;

before one is caught in

lie ;

but he

will

be detected at

last.

Amu
i,

ni

^e

esiq

ete

ti

imu
one, like

ni

li

agogo imo.
point of nose.
the point

Making one

to-be disgrace ;

leprosy which attacks one on

The slanderer brings disgrace on e. where all see it.

a leprosy which attacks one on

of

the nose,

10.

Abdnise mdh bd
Helper
not

ni

he.

m6.
i.

with one acts more.


e.

He is

a helper who helps no more,

he can no longer be depended on.

5. Bi, if,

when

a,

he or she, pleonastic, as
' '

it

often

is

in

animated discourse
is

ti

ti,

and

. .

and, or

both
6.

and.
to say,

Ni,
is

becomes

li

before a vowel.

The

construction

participial, that

is,

no word

for if or

when
8.

employed at the beginning of the sentence. burdens are commonly carried on the 7. Li ori
:

head

in Africa
;

ire,

a large cricket used


lie

for food.

Ar4, body, used for person, as sometimes in English form of saying a person is caught in a lie.
9.

eke

mu

ara,

catches

a person, an idiomatic

Amu
helps,

^e

esiij,

10.

Bk...ie

a making or causing to he a disgrace, means simply disgracing, or bringing disgrace on. (with ...to do or act), a compound transitive verb meaning to help, to aid ; hence abase, he

who

a helper ;ii\, one; mi,

one, ab^imi^e, 7ny helper, dc. ;

my ;
who,

r, thy, d-c,

may
8

be inserted before se
;

ti,

is

omitted before mah, not

mo,

as,

abdnise, the helper of

again, more, any more.

58
11.

SPECIMENS OF COirPOSITION.

Akuko
Cock
of

gkgara ui idadiio fu ni
bulkiness it4s
decides

li

ariq

ogaijdiq.

for us in midst of depth-of-night. Persons are supposed to te disputing cock decides for us in the midst of the night. large about the time of night, when the crowing of the cock shows that it is very late. The proverb may be quoted whenever a dispute is suddenly decided by unexpected evidence.

12.

Akobi
First-born

ni
is

ti

eleraq.
takes a

of shepherd. a

When

woman

ewe or

she-goat, both of

which are termed

erai), cattle,

to feed for the


is

owner, she claims the first-bom lamb or kid for her own.
the shepherd's.

Hence the proverb. The first-hom

13.

Ibaluwe

gbe
the

ile,

^e bi
is

akurS.
garden.
it is

Bath-room ahides4n house,


Although

like water-side
is

bath-room
li
it-is

in the house,

as wet as a garden by the water-side.


li

14.

Ologbdq
With
to JS(^oi

ogb6q
wisdom

r6

id^anu; okokaq

mh
d
it

iwa
ni

enia:
:

d
we

they forge

bridle-bits ; one-by-one it-is

we know character oi persons

ba

fe ; d ba enia, o, attain to-know character oiperson, they attain to-give thee,not desire;

vab

iwa

bug

k6

dbq

bi^abadio.

is-painful to one as calamity.

On
it ;

various plans bridle-bits are

racter of
it is

man being known


to

(to

made ; one by one we learn the characters of men : the chabe bad), if it were given thee as a present, thou wouldst not desire

painful
ti

one as a calamity.

15.

Ti

id^o qdfo,
dance,

&jh
rejoicing

ni
it-is

i^e

idiq,

wuye
oko
farm

wuye
igi. of wood.

ni

i^e
acts

igoqgo
the

d
they

Both dancing and

acts the skipper, wriggling wriggling it-is

worm :

qy^;

omo banabana
child of banabana

T)vh
is-going-to

they rejoice ;

rejoice ;

the skipper, wriggling about moves the worm: they dance, they but the child of banabana is going to the wood-farm. According to Mr. Crowther, this " proverb means, others may amuse themselves, but the poor man has no holiday."

With dancing and joy moves

16.

A
We

ki

iwd

ala^o

dla

ni

iso

elekpo.
the palm-oil

not search him-of-cloth white-cloth in quarters of him-of-palm-oil.

We
should

do not look for a


riot

man

expect any

result

clad in white cloth in the quarters of from incongruous or inadequate means.

maker.

We

17.

Okete m,
Rat
says,

odi;6

gbogbo

li
it-is

mb; 6q ko mo odi6 miraq.


e.

not knows every ; he day another. The rat says he knows every day ; but he does not know another day ; i. for the future, in which he is imitated by the improvident.

day

he knows

he lays up nothing

12.

For the mode of predicating possession in Yoruba, see Gram.

203, 1, a.
;

13. Gbe, to live or be in a place, is always used without a preposition is cultivated in the dry season only.

akurS, a garden by a stream, which


;

14. Ologboi), that Which has wisdom ; ogbor), wisdom; ologb6i) ogb6;), various wisdom or skill ; so a r6, they forge, is equivalent iru, or oniruru, means /tmc^s, this reduplication always implying variety to is or are forged (Gram. 148, 1) a ba, like iba,' a condition (Gram. 143) ; k6 fe, the sub-

oniru

'

implies

ject, iwo,' omitted, a common practice in Yoruba. 15. Ti . ti (see Prov. 5) wuye wuye, wriggling about
'
. . ;

of the act being implied

bana, said to

by the repetition of the word be an insect which carries a bit of wood


is

so taka taka, staggering to and fro, repetition banawriggling is thought to indicate pleasure
;
;

in its

many
heads

of
;

omo banabana

whom, both men and women, gain a

livelihood
;

equivalent to banabana simply

mouth, which is thus an emblem of the poor, by bringing firewood from the farms on their comp. the biblical expression, son of man, i. q.

man.

SPECIMENS OF COMPOSITION.
18.

59

Odiiik6koro
Govetousness
is

baM
babd

okandiua.

the father of unsatisfied desires.

19.

016gb6
TVie

arokiq.

ologbo

the father oi tradilionists.

20.

Alagbara
Strong

mdh m6
not

^ro
is

man

knows consideration

babd ol^. father of laziness.


the father (or prince) of laziness,

A strong man who is destitute offorethought is


21.

Eni

ti

kb gb6

ti

ega,

li

ega
oriole

qkpdtoto
is-noisy

enu.
of mouth.
i.

One who not hears of oriole, One who does not understand

he says

the oriole says the oriole is noisy,

the orioles are supposed to undei-stand each other. prone to despise what they do not understand.

The meaning of themerely chattering. are proverb that men


is

e. is

But

22.

Eleda
With

eda
God has

li
it-is

Oloruq dd
God
made

ni.
us.

nature nature

the same

created us with different natures or dispositions ; hence qualities in every one.

we

should not expect to find

23.

Bi alagbdra die o
J^ great
a

ni iya,

ki

fi

eriq si

i.

man

does thee in wrong, that thou

make

smile to him.

If a great man should wrong you, smile upon him.


still

Because resistance would bring upon you

greater misfortune.

24.

Alakpatd ko
Butcher

m6

iru

eraq.

not knows breed of sheep.

business,

The butcher has no regard for the breed of the sheep (which he kills). and does not meddle with matters which do not concern him.

He

attends to his

own

25.

Igbo
Forest

biribiri,
is-dark,

6kuqkuq
night
is

birlbiri;
is-dark ;
is

6kuqkuq
night

ni
it-is

yi

sete

igbo.

that will conquer forest.

The forest
of the forest,

dark, and the night

dark ; but

the darkness

of the night will soon conquer that

26.

Bi ko ^e oboq
If not
very ?
is

^nia, tani iba


person,

d^i

li

oiiro

ki

6 mdh. bo Od^u r^
not

m6

sloven

who

useth to-wake in morning

that he

wash

face

his clean

6a^a?
Except a sloven, who
is

wont

to rise

in the morning without washing his face nicely?

19. Tlie

20. Before

Ologbo mdh,
to

is

not,

the chief of the Arokiq, whose business the relative is always omitted.

it is

to

remember the

history of the country.

21.

Gb6

ti,

hear the meaning

' 22. Eleda eda (see Prov. 14) ; eni,' ni, same as and frequently employed instead of wa, us. son,

of, to

understand.

an

indefinite pronoun, signifying one,

some

one,

a per-

23. Die, to do, to act

(Gram.

37, 2, a)

ki,

ni, in, in regard to with a nominative,

; is

iya, affliction,

wrong

die
;

niya, to affict, oppress,

wrong
fi,

much used

imperatively

as,

ki o

fi,

make

thou, ki 6

let

him make (Gram.

161). 24. Erai), cattle, a term including homed cattle, sheep, goats, (fee 26. Bikdse (usually written as one word), except.

60
27.

SPECntENS OF COMPOSITION.

Emu

bal^

agbede.
;

Tongs are governor of smithshop. The tongs are at tlie head of the blacksmith'' s shop otherwise would bo unmanageable.

because they control the hot iron which

28.

0^6
Ornaments
Mil.
going.

onibud^e
of

k5

kpe

isaq,

oh6

oninaH

ko d^u oduq
year

hadze-woman not remain

nine-days, ornaments of inabi-woman not exceed

The murks made by

the

budze-womaw do not last nine days

man
29.

do not

last

more than a year.

No advantage or possession
kpa obo.

the
is

marks made by
permanent.

the inabi-wo-

Bi
If

adiia
dog

ba
*

li

eni

lehir),

has person behind, he-will kill baboon. If a dog has his master behind him, he will kill a baboon. This proverb the advantage of sustaining and encouraging people in their efforts.

is

designed to show

30.

Ad^a
Dog

ti

k6

li

eti

k6

^e

idegbe.

which not has ears not do for hunting. heedless dog will not do for the chase.

If a person will not take advice,

no one

will

employ

or trust him.

31.

Gagal6 subu, ow6


Stilts
fall,

t^

akpako.

hand
let

seizes palm-stalk.

If a man

man
32.

loses

an

office

fall his stilts, a hand will be stretched out to seize them. or position, another is ready to occupy his place.

^That

is,

so soon as

one

A
We

ki dd

ow6

16
to

ohuq

ti

& ko

le

igb6.

not give hand

We
33.

thing which we not can perform. undertake a thing which we cannot accomplish. should not

OniM
ewa.

r)d:^e

eso

gbir)gbuid6;
of

aled^o
guest

ni

ki

d se oq
him

li

ow6 kdg
hand
on

Housekeeper is-eating fruit

wild-beans;

says that we do

as-to

boiled-maize.

Although

the host

may

be living

on wild beans,

the guest expects

a handful of boiled com.

faces

an ornament. In this place it means the deep black stripes with which maidens ornament their and arms. Budi6 is the fruit of a small tree of the same name, which when green makes a jet black stain on the skin. Onibudie is the woman who makes a trade of marking the faces and arms of girls for a few cowries each. There is a fable of a jet black and exquisitely beautiful girl who was sought in marriage by all the nobles and rich men of the country but she treated every suitor with disdain. At last a worthless
28. Oso,

'

'

'

'

fellow laid a plan

by which she was enticed into his house and detained all night. Although she escaped uninjured, the community at first thought otherwise; and the disgrace afflicted her so much, that she fled into the woods, where the violence of her grief changed her into the bush that still bears her name. ' Inabi is a plant the acrid root of which burns a durable black mark pn the skin. It is seldom used for
'

L6h,' pleonastic after dzil (Gram. 207, 1). marking. 29. Ba, an auxiliary particle (Gram. 139) ; a, he will (Gram. 135, 1, b). 31. Stilts are made of the foot-stalks of the akpako, or wine-palm, called bamboo by the whites on the western coast.
33.

'

Ndze (Gram.

1 29, 3)

; se

.. .li, to

do

in regard

to,

i.

e. to

supply with.

SPECIMENS OF COMPOSITION.
34. Mdli gbiyel6
ti
;

61

ogiiq
to

^ot

trust-in

inheritance

eni ni hand of one is of


the

ow6

it6

ni.

sufficient-far one.
is sufficient for one.

Trust not

an inheritance ;

product of one's hands

Said

to those

who

neglect industry because they expect to inherit property.

35.

Akoseba, eyi
Chance,
this

ti

idie
chance

odiiq.
year.

which amounts-to

He who
turn up."

xvaits for

may

wait a year.

Said

to those

who

are " waiting for something to

36.

Eni

li d iberu ; d ki iberu eni ti d raq ni si. ti o rag ni ni ise One who he sends one on message it-is we fear ; we not fear one whom they send one to. We should fear him who sends us with a message, not him to whom we are sent. Applied to

messengers sent from one king or chief to another.

37.

Er6 kpesekpese
Light
very ;
it is

ko m5
not

bi ard

qkag

igbiq.
snail.

know

as body is-paining

You say who would

Said to those light blow, but do not reflect that it would hurt a snail. excuse their bad conduct to others on the ground that it does them no great harm.

a very

38. E^iq
Spear

ri ogui),
sees battle,
it

d^o

bko

ri

ogug, 6
battle,

y6.
the lance sees the battle, it rejoices,

dances

; lance sees

it rejoices.

When
39.

the spear sees the battle, it dances ;

when

Ohuq

ti

d
li

fi

^so

mii

ki

bad;^e

okuq

ti

fi

agbara mii

ni
it-is

Thing which we with gentleness handle not


ini ni

is sjyoiled ;

thing which we with violence handle

ard.

has one as-to body.


affair which we conduct with gentleness is not marred ; an affair which violence causes us vexation. Said to men who are irritable and impetuous.

An

we conduct with

40.

Bi
If

eyd
wild-cat

ba
*

di

ekiiq, eraq

ni
it-is it will

ikpa
kill
it ^oill

di,e.
eat.

becomes leopard, beasts

When

the wild cat becomes

a leopard,

devour

beast*.

41.

Afedzu
Gesticulation

toto much

k6

in5

6kor)ri.

not knows

a man.

Much

gesticulation docs not prove manliness.

"

A barking dog does

not bite."

203, 1, b) ; eni and ni ( Prov. 22, and Gram. 104). proverb. Comp. Prov. 9 and 10. ' a rai) ni, they send us, for the passive, we are sent, 36. Iberu; for the initial i,' see Gram. 146, 1 ; Gram. 148, 1. Si and other prepositions frequently close a sentence, as in English.

34. Ti

ow6 (Gram.
elliptical

35.

An

ara kai), it hurts ; so, in6 doi), it is pleasant (Prov. 56). 37. Observe the ellipses; . lara 39. Ni ni, one, often equivalent (ni .,. li ark, to have as to the body), to annoy, to cause vexation ;
. . .

to wa, us.

40. Eya, a beast resembling a leopard, but rather smaller, the leopard cat

ikpa

for the initial

'

i,'

see

Gram.
41.

146, 1

kpa dze, to devour, destroy, e.g. ef5i) kpaoi) die, the buffalo killed him totally, violently. Afediu, /rownm^r and other airs put on under pretence of courage ; md, to prove, to he evidence of.
;

SPECIMENS OF COMPOSITION.
50.

63

Afom6
Parasite

k6

li

egb6;
root ;

igi
tree

gbogbo
every

ni
is

Ibataq.
its

not has

kindred.

Aparasite has no root; every for a living.

tree is its

kindred.

parasite does not care on

wtom he sponges

51.

Enl k6
Slave not

6e
is

omo
child of

igi:

erii

kii,

iya

k6 gb6: omo ku, igbe


not hears
:

ta;

erii

wood

slave dies, his mother

child dies,

cry

arises ; slave

&e was

omo
child

ni

il6

iya

r|

ri.

in house of mother his once.

A
bits

lamentation

slave is not a block of wood : if a slave dies, his mother does not hear of it J if a child dies, This fine sentiment exhiis made : the slave was once a child in his mother''s house.

something of the heart of the people who use it as a proverb ; and it explains the reason why the Yorubas usually treat their slaves with a degree of kindness worthy of a Christian people.

52.

Ada
dd
breaks

^dq igbo,
hush,

ko

ri

ere

igbo

6
it

ro

6na,

ko

ri

fere

ona
road
fi

ada
bill-hook

Bill-hook cuts

not sees ^profit of bush ;

clears road, not sees profit of

idakiida,

ada

dk
bends

id^kuda;
a-bad-bending
;

ada
eka
from
li

dd,

aruq
five-cowries

a-bad-breaking, bill-hook

bill-hook breaks, it

with

gbadi,
The

di
reaches

oko
farm
of

olowo;
owner
;

ada

li

oroi),
neck,

6 gbadi;a
it

girigiri.
tightly.

girds-its-hilt, it

bill-hook has ring

on
the

is

girded

bill-hook clears <ihe

farm, but receives no profit

farm ;

the bill-hook clears the

road, but receives no profit from the road ; the bill-hook is badly broJcen, the bill-hook is badly bent ; the bill-hook breaks, it pays five cowries to gird its handle with a ring ; it reaches its

owner's
labors).

farm Has

the bill-hook

has a ring on

its

neck (handle),

it

is

girded tightly (for

new

reference to the severe

and unrequited labor of

slaves,

53. Ibi

ki
One

idiii

ibi;

bi

ti

bi

eni

li
it-is

bi

omo.
the free-born child.

JBirih not surpasses birth ;

as they

* bore slave so

they bore child.


born, so

birth does not excel another ; as the slave

was

was

54.

Bi
As

o
thou

ti

wu
please

ki
that

6
it

ri,
be,

d ki reriq we not laugh-at

abiroq
invalid
;

boya obuq
perhaps

ti

o
it

^e
ails

thing which

e him

loni

^e

iwo

lold.

to-day will ail

thee to-morrow.
;

One should never laugh at an infirm person

perhaps

the

same

evil that afflicts

him

to-day

may
55.

afflict thee

to-morrow.

Iwo
Thou

ni
it-is

qse abodiuwo
art superintendent

leliiq behind

babd;
master
;

todzu
look-to
;

ile

rere.
well.

house

Thou
56.

art the superintendent in the master^s absence


ti

look well to the house.

Ni igba
In
time

dgbe ba
*

qdi
is-binding
iti

ab6
bundles
of

okd
ot corn

when farmer ni yaqgidi


it-is

okd, in6 r| d corn, mind his it

dbq

nikpa
by

abd
bundles

is-sweet ;

ow6

wdb.
come.
rejoices ;

bundles of money also


the farmer is tying

When

up bundles of corn, he

by bundles of com bundles of money

are obtained.

ino

52. Skx) Igbo, to clear land for a farm; ri ere die, to receive profit. a bi, they bore, in the sense oi was born (Gram. 148, 1). 53. Bi .ti, as ; 54. Bi o ti wil ki 6 se, followed by a negative, is the usual expression for by no means, not in any vnse. 56. Nigbati, spoken and written as one word, when; ba, the subjunctive particle ( 139), follows nigbati ;
. .

d6r), to he pleased, to rejoice ;


ti,

as,

ino

mi

d6i),

/ am

glad

in6 r d5i), he

is

glad

iti,

the con-

junction

and, also, with 'i' prefixed

( 146).

64
57.

SPECIMENS OP COMPOSITION.

Ohuq
Thing

tl

i^e
is

ohuq

abukuq ki A mdh.
that

se
do

si
to

omo-enik^dii
fellow-man of

eni.
one.

which

thing of contempt

we not

A
58.

contemptuous action should not be done to one's fellow-man.

AbuM
Patch

ni
it-is

mu
makes

aso
cloth

il6
last

to
long

|ni
;

ti

k6 ba ^e todiu abul6, yi 8
not

one

who

does

look-to

patch,

he will

6e make

ard r^
self

li

ofo

aso.

his in

want oi clothing.
last long ; one
little affairs

Patching makes a garment


clothes.

A man who
rag
one on

who

neglects the

of his business will

does not attend to patching will come to fail, or come to want.

want

59.

Bi
As

d
they

ti

ni ni

i^e,

li
it-is

d
we

di;e
deliver

bi
it
;

iwo ba seni
*

si
to

i,
it,

adabowo
responsibility

* send
r|.

message,

if thou

add

ard

of self thy.

As
own
60.

one

is sent

on a message, so he should deliver

it ;

if thou

add anything

to

it, it

is

on thy

responsibility,

Addq
Bat
is

dorikodo
hangs-head-down

6
it

i^e eiye work of birds is-watching


its

qwo

gbogbo.
all.

The bat hangs suspended with

head down watching the actions of all

birds.

This proverb

probably designed to teach silent observation.

61.

d^8 aiye

diu

alaiye

16h.

ITe eats

world more than owner of world going. He enjoys the world more than the owner of the world.

Said
6raq

of extravagant persons.

62.

Dulum6

ekpa

li

oroq

se^e,

d
it

d^ebi

w6
to-enter

ti.
to-fail.

Slander of ground-pea on

neck of white-pea,

condemns the-cause
injures another.

The slander of
that a slanderer

the

ground-pea against
injure himself

the white field-pea falls

upon

itself.

Designed

to

show

may

more than he

63.

Obdnid^e 6 ba ard r^
Injurer
he

die.

body his injures.


another brings injury upon himself.

He who injures
64.

Abdnidie
Quest

mdh. bd

ni se ifd
is profit to

enia

eni

ti

o die did5q
he eats
sweet

ni idie kikaq.
it-is

who

not

with one
is

oi person ; one

who

eats

sour.

So is a guest who
Said of persons

who

a person ; he who eats the sweet should also eat the sour. live on others, and will not assist in the labors of the family. no advantage

57. Ohui) abuMi), a contemptuous action or 68. Ba, after eniti ( 139). 69. Bi ... ti, as ba, after bi, if ( 139).

word

ki

amah

^e,

we should not do

145, 2).

li

loh, pleonastic. aiye), to enjoy the world ; 62. This proverb is highly idiomatic and therefore difficult ti implies/aiVwre ; 6 oroi) mi, he charged his sin upon me ;

61.

Diaiye (die

to

build
63.

and could not finish ba die, to injure.


.

diebi

6rar)

wo

ti,

means

an accusation : 6 fi |^e r he built a house failed, i. e. began that the condemnation recoiled on the accuser.
:

li

oroi) refers to
ile ti,

ko

. .

64.

The

relative is omitted before

mdh, not ;-^m idie

obligation

is

frequently expressed

by the

indicative

form of the verb.

SPECIMENS OP COMPOSITIOH".
65.

65

Abati
It

Makpa; d
;

ba
;

S
it,

ti,

d bd

8,

t6.

Shakiness of old-wall
is like

we against

a shaky old wall


it

push, we taith it are-friendly. we push against it, and (finding that

friends with
of,

but,

on

in its shade). Said of persons (by sitting further acquaintance, receive into our friendship.

down

it

does not
are at

fall)

we make

whom we

first

suspicious

66.

Abebe
Pleader

ni
it-is

ib^
pleads
off f.
it.

ikii,

ab^be ni
pleader
it-is

ibe

5raq

bi oru
;

ba
*

mii,
is-sharp

death,

pleads off difficulty

if

heat

abebe ni
fan
it-is

ibe
dissipates

a fan mitigates
verbial saying.

A pleader (or supplicaior) wards of death, a pleader wards off a difficulty ; A fanciful play upon the word abebe is the principal
it.
' '

if the heat is severe,

design of this pro-

It also

shows the power of entreaty.


ire

67. lyar)

mii,

ire

yo

iyaq
famine

r6,

rii.

Famine

is-sharp, cricket is-fat ;

is-relieved, cricket is-poor.

When famine is sharp, the cricket is fat ; when famine is relieved, the cricket is jyoor. It also expresses the fact that when famine paradoxical play upon words. prevails, the cricket is eaten as if it were fat or delicious ; but when the famine is over, the cricket is rejected as
poor and
unfit to eat.

68. Ocli;o
Jiain
li
is

kpa bata
beats

bdta, bata bdta,

li

ori

akpdta,

li

ode
yard

adi^dlubdta;
of chief-drummer
;

patter patter, patter patter, on top of rock,

in

bdta drum

igi,

bata
shoe

li
is

aw9.
hide.
"

wood,

The rain

beats,

drummer
69.

the

drum

shoe drum, shoe drum," (or patter patter,) on the rock in the yard of the chief is wood, and the shoe is leather. words. play

upon

Kdnakdna bd kdnakdna
Crow
with

dzd,
fought,

kdnakdna
crow

dd
conquered

kdnakdna.

crow

crow fought with a crow, a crow conquered a crow. One. The Yonibas sometimes amuse themselves by repeating a play upon words by way of competition. At the end of the " " sentence, each time it is repeated, a bystander says, one," two," &c. and he who repeats the sentences oftenest without marring a syllable is victor.
;

crow.

Eni.
One.

70.

Ose
Smacking-of-lips

ni
it-is

isad^u
precedes

ekiiq,
weeping,
ri

abamS
mortification

ni
it-is

igbehiq
follows
^e.

Sraq

gbogbo
whole

difficulty ;

otokulu
of town

kpe,
assemble,

nwoq kd
they

ebo

abamo

not see sacrifice of mortification to-make.

As smacking

the lips precedes weeping, so mortification follows

difficulty ; the
tnortification.

whole popu-

lation of the town assembled cannot find

sacrifice to

make against

71.

Ikpa
Path

obere
of needle

li
it-is

okuq

it6.

thread follows.
the needle.

The thread follows

Applied

to

anything which happens as a natural consequence.

ba a ti (we meet it to-push), we push against it. 66. Oral), a difficulty, generally a cause before the judges. ' 67. The ' ire is a large cricket eaten by the poor in times of scarcity. 10. Ose ; the Yoruba people are accustomed to smack their lips several times before they begin to weep.
65.

66
72.

SPECIMENS OF COMPOSITION.

Abo^e

Job-work not

ki i^e i6e is work

odi6; i6e
of

babd

ni
it-is

ighk od^o
receives
;

eni.

day

work of master
is

day

of one.

(done for oneself) Said of slaves, one's time.

A job

not the day's

work

the master's

work claims

who may perform

little

jobs for themselves,

tlie chief part of but must not neglect

their master's business.

73.

Adarid^ini ni
Forgiver
it-is

i^ete

edi;o.

conquers dispute.

He
giving

that

pardons

the aggressor gains the victory in the dispute.

Designed

to inculcate a for-

spirit.

74.

Bi Oloruq ba
If

k^

ese

si

ni
us

li

oroq,
neck,

gbe.
I

God

should count

sin against
sins,

on

If God should compute our

we would perish.

we perish.
have heard this remark made by heait is

thens in attempting to settle disputes, but

am

not sure that

a national proverb.

75.

Fi obur) Put thing


praise

we
to-compare

ohuq,
thing,

fi

5raq

we

6raq

fi

6raq

d^ii),
to-be-distant,

ki
that

d
they

put matter to-compare matter; put matter

thee.

Compare thing with


be praised.

thing,

and matter with matter

Inculcates, as praiseworthy, the duty of

forgive the matter, that thou mayest examining into the facts of a dispute and
;

exercising a forgiving disposition.

76.

Abere bo
Needle

li

owo
hand

adete, 6
of leper,
it

di

ete;
;

6raq

ba

il^,

6
it

di
becomes

falls in

becomes consideration

matter comes-upon the-land,

ero.
thought.

If a needle fall from


it

up)

if

difficult

the (mutilated) hand of a matter come upon the country,

leper, it requires consideration


it

(how to pick
it).

requires thought

(how

to avert

77.

Aditaqmd esuo
Genealogy of
It
is like the

ti

li

4kulu
ekulu

li
it-is

o
she

bi

iya

r^.

esuo toho he said

bore mother his.

persons

who

genealogy of the esuo, who said his grandmother was an 6kulu. pretend to be related to great families.

Applied

to

78.

Elede
Pig

kpa

Mo

tdq,

6
it

qwd

eni

r^re
good

ti

yi

wallowing in-mire finished,

is-seeking person

whom

he will

fi ard rh make body his

yi. rub.

The pig, having done wallowing in the mire, is seeking some clean person to rub against. Said of disgraced persons who attempt to intrude themselves upon good society.
79.

Onifuru
Suspicious-character

ti

itete ise
first

onile

kpele.
gently.

who

does master-of-house

suspicious character (being found in a house) immediately salutes the owner of the house

(before

he

is

saluted).

72.

Odi6 and odi6


. . .

are not equivalent terms

odzo, the space of a day

odzo, time, a day.

See Dic-

tionary. 75. Fi

we,

to

compare
itaq

fi

diiq, to forgive.

11.

AditaqmS (da
lit.

79. Onifuru,

mb), a tracing of genealogy ; esuo and ekulu, two different species oi antelope. one who is pale with se apprehension kpele, to deal wtll with, to salute civilly.
;
. .

SPECIMENS OF COMPOSITION.
80.

G7

Agada ko
Sabre

1116

ori

alagbede.
know
the

not knows head of blacksmith.


(In battle) the sabre does not

head of the blacksmith (wlio made

it).

Applied

to

iugratitude.

81. Agbed:^e gb^ woq 1^, d ni ki d kpd S ni received them safe, they said that they cut it for Squash The squash having saved them (in time of famine), they
cup.

kpansa.
drinkinff-cup.
said,

Designed
yuest
of

Let us cut

it

for a drinkiny-

to illustrate ingratitude.

82.

A
We

ri
see

abdnid^e ^gboq
chin

isale; bi
below
;

6
it

kii
die

li

6wur6, k
morning,
it

ya

li

ale.

if

in

separates in evening.

meet with guests who are like the lower jaw ; if one die in the morning, it separates (from the upper jaw) in the evening. Said of those who forsake their friends in time of trouble.

We

83.

Akpdro diare
d^are
reasoned

adi;anakpa,
li
it-is

Ki
What
ice

li
is-it

6
he

mu
brought

aso
cloth

wdh
coming

ise

li

oko?
farm
?

A
He

Partridge reasoned bird-snare-of-cloth,

to-do in

akpdro, Li oko partridge. In farm

d gbe imu
do
the bird-snare

aso

il6h.

bring clothing going.

The partridge argued concerning

farm The meaning


?

partridge. of this proverb is, that something can be said on both sides of a question. The partridge, seeing a cloth so spread out as to form abird-snare, was suspicious and said, What does he mean by this ? The farmer replied, that people always bring their wrappers to the farm
(laying

He

replied to the

We

of cloth. Why did the farmer bring cloth to the are accustomed to take our ovcrclothes to the farm.

them on the

grass or a bush while at work).

84.

Adie,

Sdluga,

fi

eni

iwadiu
before

Fortune, the Elevator, he puts one

se eni eliiq ni kpele. sil^ doton to-do one behind in gently.

first

Adzhe, the Mevalor, he leaves the foremost to deal favorably with the hindmost. may sometimes be last, and the last first.

That

is,

the

85. Ad:ie,
Witch,

omo

lie

iya

trouble

child of envy

The witch, child Witches are thought to destroy people when asleep by sucking
troubles are sore

of envy my

mi ^oro my is-hard

ga

is-high

she

kpa
kills

nidli gb^giiq.
not

and hard

inherits.

she kills but cannot inherit.

their blood like a vampire.

86.

Ad^ekasu k5 in5
Loaf-eater

not knows

bi iyaq if famine

rrni.
jrrevails.

The man who has plenty


8*r.

to eat

does not appreciate the severity of a famine.

Akeke
Axe

etu si atari. ti qke se; igi k6 gb6nagb(ma woodman which is-cutting tree not refuses ; offers propitiation to head. The axe which cuts the tree is not afraid ; but the wood-man makes a sacrifice to his head. Some kinds of trees are supposed to be inhabited by evil spirits, which might inflict some

mbu

injury on the
in the head.

woodman unless he

ofi'ered

a sacrifice to his good genius, which

is

thought to reside

81.

The agbedze grows hard with


it

age,

and

is

cut to

make cups;

gba
to
be,

...

Id, to

save ;

ki k

kp4

a, let

us cut

145, 2). 82. Agb9i), the chin ; agboq isale, the lower jaw. 83. Mu...wah, to bring; niu I6I1, to take;

(Gram.

gbe,

to abide,

pleonastic like do in

Englth

(Gram.

187).

68
88.

SPECIMENS OF COMPOSITION.

Abetele ni ifod^u
Bribe
it4s

oiiidadi;6; notori abetele ki

ilfe

i^e idddi;o

otito.

blinds

judge

for

bribe

not can

do judgment of truth.

A
89.

bribe blinds the judge, for a bribe cannot give

a true judgment.

Bi 6
If
it

kui)

oni

kur)

ola

ki

ogbe ki

kpa

agiliti,

bdiio

r5.

remains to-day remains to-morrow that thirst that will kill iguana, rain will fall. If there remain to-day or to-morrow before the iguana will die of thirst, it will rain. Dehis creatures. signed to show the providence of God over

90.

Fi
Give

id^4
battle

fu Oloruq to God
battle to

d^^;
to-fight ;
rest

fi

owo

le

erdr).
temple.

jmt hand upon


your
temp>le

Leave the

God, and

on your hand (as a spectator).

That

is

trust

in God's providence.

91. Tinotino, t61iii)t61iiq ni


Within,
without
it-is

labaMba

ifi

iyiq fu Oloruq.
praise
to

butterfly gives

God.
i.

By
92. T)i\

its

beauty, the butterfly praises

God
eni

within and without,


ti

e.

in all its parts.

agba

Open

oti, d^i cask of rum, open

agba

etu

raij

wdh,
;

ki id^i agba.
cask.
is sent

cask o^ powder

one whom they send to-come, not opens


(if

Open

the cask

open the cask.

The Yoruba
ike,

of rum, open the cask of powder


carriers are

yours)

but he that

with

it

does not

remarkably

faithful to their trust.

93. Ogiiq

k6 r5
ok6
Ogun

agbede k6
smithy

r6

bata;
leather ;

oko k6 ^oro
farm
not is-hard

ro,
to-till,

agbede
the

k6
not

Ogun

not works ivory, ik.


to sell.

not works

smithy

kpa

makes hoes

does not

work

ivory, the smith does not


to sell.

cultivate, the

smith would not make hoes

That

work

leather ; if the
is,

farm

were not difficult to

every

man to

his trade.

94. lie

kiiq
one

w^

li

Oyo

ni igba
time
of

atidi;o,
antiquity,

ti

r)kpe Akidi;e
Silence
:

oib6
white-man

House
kii
died

was in Katunga in

which they called

mb|.
there.

In old times
95.

there

was a house in Katunga


si

called Silence

a white man died

there.

O
He

sure iku,
fled

bo

ako
and hid

Ida.

death, he entered into scabbard of sword.


the sword,

He fled from
fire."

in the scabbard.

"

He

leaped out of the frying-pan into the

96.

A
We

ri
see

ti that

eni

m5

iwi,

fi

akpadi
potsherd

bo

ti

one knoivs to-speak, he puts


see that

to-cover that of

r| mol|. him up.

We

one knows

how

to

speak (the faults of others), although he covers his otan with a

potsherd.

97.

A
We

ki igb^ 4kaka low6 akiti; not take squatting from baboon;

&

ki igb^

ile

babd lowo
from
;

eni.
one.

we not

take house of father


it is

We

cannot cure a baboon of squatting (because

natural to him)

we cannot

take the home-

stead from a

man

(because

it is

his

by

natural right).

93. Oguj) is the god of smiths. 94. Historical and other facts are 96. Ti r|, that of him, his.

frequently transmitted to posterity in proverbial sayings.

SPECIMENS OF COMPOSITION.
98. A,e
6rai)

69
abi

ikoko
secresy

6ebi
supposes

6q
he

li
it-is

d
they

mbawi,

ard
body

ifa
is-pale

bi
as

Doer of crime of

are-speak'mg-ahout, being

eni
one

^e ohuq.

who did

thing.
secret

The perpetrator of a
cowards of us
all."

conversation), his face being pale as one

crime supposes it is he they are talking about (if be sees men in who has done something (wrong). " Conscience makes

99.

Asbrokele bodzu\v6 igbe: igb6 ki iro; eni


Whisperer
If a

watches

bush

bush

riot

tells ;

he

ni ise ikukpani. ti k bd so traitor. who one with speaks it-is acts


he
to

A whisperer watches the bush ;


man
100.

a bush never

tells secrets ;

whom one S2}eaks is


to others.

the traitor.

wish his secrets to be kept, he should not confide

them

Odo

ki
The

k6q

bo

edia
fish

11

odzii.
eye.

River not

is-full to-cover

in

river is never so full as to obscure the sight of the fish.

That

is,

no scheme or purpose

is

too deep to be confided to a friend.

PAEABLE OF THE PRODIGAL


Luke
XV.

SON.

1182.

Okoqrl kdq 11 om6kor)i'l med^i. one had Man son two.


kpe,
to-wit,

Eyi
ogiiq

aburo
o
it

ni ln6

wov) wi fu
to

babd re
father his

This younger-brother in among them said


tl

Babd, fu ml
Father, give

nl

Iwoq

tori
belongs
11

ml.
me.

si

kplq

obuq

me

to-have measure of inheritance which

He and

divided thing of

ini

r^ fu
to

woq.
them.

Ki

possession his

Isi t6 ldi;6 melokaq Not and amounted-to day few

ehlq eyi,
after
this,

eyl
this

omdkoqri
son

in

aburo
I6h
go
tl

k6
llu

ohuq gbogbo
thing
all

tl

nl

d^o,

si

mu

ona

r^

tp9^

younger-brother gathered
si
to

which he had

together, he

and took road

his straightway

6kere

nl lb|

ni 6

gbe

nd

gbogbo
all

Inl

r^ ni Inakuna.

Ni igbd
In
time

town of distance; in

there it-is he

was spending

possession his in extravagance.

ba

gbogbo
all

r| d^e* tdq,
it

iyaq

nlanla wdli

mii
to be

nl llu

nd

6
he

which he to-destroy
si

of

ended,
si

famine of greatness came

sharp

in town that

beresi Idi
began

alaini.

16h, 6
went, he

dd ard r^ kp5
made
self

m6
cleave-to

oloto kdq
citizen

ard

and
llu

to-be needy-one.

He and
loli si

his

join

one inhabitant

nd
tl

6i)

si

of town that

he

and

sent

raq a him

oko r^ loh
farm
his

iso

elede.

Ayh
Joy

nl
it-is

ba

fi

di;e
eat

go

to

go

to-ioatch sioine.
fi

he would with

ondie
food

awoq
they tl

elede di;e; enlkeni


swine
ate;

ko
6

fu
to

li.

which

any-one
11^,

not give
ni,
said.
ti,

him.

Ni igbd
In
11
it-4s

odi:ii
eye

r^
his

wdli

time which
li

came to-ground, he

Awoi) aldgba^e babd ml melomelo hireling of father my They how-many

ondi^e ad^e
food

y6

atl

ad^e
eating

he have

eating to-be-full

and

to-leave,

emi si I and

qku

fu

ebi!
hunger/

Eml
I

am-dying for

Ba

dze, to destroy.

70
6
will

SPECIMENS OF COMPOSITION.
dide

s6,

emi 6

to

babd mi
my

161i,

arise indeed,

will go-to father

go,
;

emi 6 si wi fu ii kpe, Babd, emi I will and say to him to-wit, Father, I

qti
Iiave

qdese
r

si

oruq, ati ni iwadi;ii re


presence

sinned against heaven, and in

thy

emi k6 si ye I not and fit

ti

ba

ma
may

kpfe

li

that they should

call to-be

omo
child

m6,
lob.

fi

mi

^e bi
do as
ti

okaq ni in6
one
in
si

awoq alagbase
they
li

r|.
thy.

6
ri

si

dide 6
arose he

to
went-to

thy more,

make ms

among
ti

hireling

He and
i,

babd r^
g,

Ni igbd
In
time

w&
8
him

6kere,

babd
6
he
si

r^

anu
ko
touch

se
affected

father his going.

which he and had was in distance, father his saw him, pity

si

sure,
ran,

6
he

r5
hung upon

m6
to-cleave-to
Q.

li

oroi),
neck,

fi

enu

li

him, he and

on

and
si

made mouth

him on

enu.
mouth.

Omo
Son

si

wi fu
to

kp6, Babd, emi qti qdese


to-wit,

oruq

ati ni

iwad;^u
presence

and said
ti

him

Father,

J
li

have

sinned against heaven

and
si

in

r^ ;
thy
;

emi k6 si ye I not and fit


his to wit.

ba
ayo

ma kpe
may
ago

omo
child

r^

m6.
6

Babd
fi

wi fu awoq
to

that they should

call to-be

thy more,

Fathtr %nd said


i
it

ihem

omo-odo r^ kp6,
servant
fl

E mu
Ye

iguqwa wdh,* ki
si
to

wo
clothe

8;
him
;

6
ye

take choice garment of stateliness coming, that

ye make
si

6ruka
ring

bo
slip-on

make

8 li ow6, ati bata him on hand, and shoe ki


6
si

ese
foot

r^.
his.

E
ki
that

mii
take

esrboro
young-one
of

raalu
cow

Ye and d
si

abokpa
nitori
ti

wdb,

kpa
kill

S,
it,

kl
that

ma

dze,
eat,

fatted-to-kill coming, that ye

and
ti

we mxiy

we and
si

se driya; make merriment; may


ise
to-make

ma

omo mi
my
r^ eyi
his

yi
this

kii,
died,

6
he

si

toq

ye.
lives.

Nwoq
They

beresi
began

driya.
merriment.
ti

because that child

had

and again

and

Omdkoqri
Son

egboq
6

ti

mbe
was

li

oko,
farm, id^o.

bi
as

6
he
si

si

qtif

mbd,
ni
in si

this elder-brother

who

in

and

was-coming, and he

soqmo

eti

ile,

gbo

6nq

oq d

O
And

kp^ okaq
one

ino
among

awoq
them

drew-near-to edge of house, he heard

singing and dancing.

he called

omo-odo woq; 6
servant

bere

their; he inquired to-wit.

kpe, Kili What


;

mo J knew they
r|
thy
si

qkdq woqyi
thing
these

si?
to?

(3

wi
said

fu
to

ii

He and

him

kpe,
to-wit.

Aburo
ti

r^

de

babd
father
li

kpa
has-killed

egboro
(3
si

malu
6

abokpa,
fatted-to-kill,

Younger-brother thy

is-come ;

and
ni
in
si

young-one of cow

nitori

ri

kpdda
return

alafia
peace

ati

Uera.
health.

bin6,

ko
isikpe
beseeching

li

because that he sees

him

in

and

He and

was-angry, he refused as-to

atiwb
entering
vl.

ile.

Nitori

nd

ni
it-is

babd

re

6e di^ade,
go-out,

6
he

si

wd

fu
to

house.

On-account of that

father his

and did

and was

O
emi I

si

ddhuq,
qsiq

6 wi fu babd r^ kpe,
to li
it-is

Kiye
rufiq

si

i
it

lati

odiiq
year

melo
how-many
ri
;

yi
this

him.
li
it-is

He and
qti

answered, he said
o,
thee,

father his

to-wit,

Take-notice to

from

belie
so

have served

emi ko si I not and

r^ ni igba
time

kdq

iwo k6

break-law thy in

one heretofore ; thou not

*
f

Mu
Bi
.

wah,
as
;

to bring.
'
'

ti,

ti

The phrase 4 mb
Se, to do,
is

having the auxiliary particle i).' (Gram. 1 28, 2.) ... si, we know .to, is equivalent to the verb to mean.
.

'

generally employed pleonastically aflcr nitori na, therefore.

SPECIMENS OF COMPOSITION.
si
ti

"71

ifi

omo omo
child

ewur^ kdq fu mi ki 6
of goat

fi

bd

aTul hast given child

one
si
ti

to

me

that

it

make with

awoq ore mi them friend my


kpan^aga
adultery

^e

driya.

to-make merriment.

Sugboq
But
si
ti

bi
as

r^

yi

de, eni ti

fi

ruq
destroy
ii

thy this and has come, one

who he made
fu
for
ii.

or6 r^, iwo wealth thy, thou


kp6,
to-wit,

kpa
killed

egboro
young-one of

malu
cow

ab6kpa
fatted-to-kill

O
ti

si

wi fu
said
ti
to

Omo
Child

and hast
titi

him.

He and

him

ni
it-is

iwo mb^ lodo mi; obuq gbogbo


thou
art
:

mo
I
ti

ni

r&

ni i^e.
it-is
is.

O
It
;

ye
is-fit

continually

with me;
ti

thing

all

which

have of thee
kii,

ki
that ti

d ma ie driya nitori we may do merriment: because


n6,
been-lost,

aburo

r^

yi

si

toq

y^

si

that younger-brother thy this

had

died, he

and again

lives; he

and

si

ri
see

i.

had

we and

him.

THE LOED'S PKAYEE.


Babd wa
Father
ti

mb|
art

li

6ke oruq, bwo


above heaven
;

li

oruko
nam

re,
thy,

idioba r^ de;
reign

ife ti

rh

our who

in

honor
;

be

thy come, will of thee

ni ki
be that

d
we

^e
do

li

aiye, bi ti
earth,

6ke oruq
above heaven
ti

fu
give^

wa H

ondi;e

odi6

wa
;

li

oni

dari
;

in

as

us have food of day

our in to-day

forgive

igbese
debt

wa

d^i

wa, bi awa
us,

qdaridi;i
are-forgiving

awoq onigbese wa
them
debtor

mdb
not

si

fd

wa
us

our from

as

we

our;

and lead

81
to

in6
within

idewo,
temptation,

^ugboq gbd
but
deliver

wa
us

ni
in

in6
within

tulasiq.
distress.

Amiq.
Amen,

DICTIONARY
OF TflE

YORUBA LANGUAGE

INTRODUCTION.
proper to inform the reader that the following Dictionary contains scarcely one half of the Yoruba Language. There are doubtless some primitive words which the compiler has not learned and several thousand derivative vocables have been omitted for the sake of brevity. This severe abridgement, however,
It
is
;

meaning of the omitted words may be ascertained by the rules of derivation the meaning of inflected nouns and verbs in Latin from the nominative and infinitive. For the convenience of the reader, supposing him to be already acquainted with the rules of derivation as laid down in the Grammar, we here present a review of the various classes of words which
is

no

real defect, since the exact

quite as easily as

we can determine

have been omitted. I. Many verbs of the following kinds The 1. Verbs composed of a verb and noun as, beru, to be afraid ; from ba, to meet, and era, fear. omitted verbs of this class are formed chiefly as follows a. Of da, to make, and a noun as, dSse, to sin, from 6se, sin. b. Of die, to be, to act, to make, and a noun as, diolu (olu, a prince, officer), to be a prince, to rule as a
: ; : ; ;

prince.
c.

Of li,

to have,

and a noun

as, 16^e (^^e, sin), to

have

sin, to be sinful, to sin ; laini (aini, need), to be

needy, destitute.
d.
e.

Of mo, to know, and a noun as, mete (ete, consideration), to be considerate, provident. Of ^e, to do, to make, to be, and a noun as, iaimS (aim5, ignorance), to be ignorant, untutored ; saro
;

Verbs of this class are very numerous. 2. A considerable number of verbs which appear to be formed by placing two verbs in juxtaposition sare (sa, to run, and re, to go), to run ; but in as, bllu (bi, to push, and lii, to strike), to beat upon, as waves a striking, vch, a going. fact, the second member of these verbs is a contracted noun, for ilu, Bearing this in mind, the omitted verbs of this class are easily defined by referring to the roots. A little 3. A considerable number of verbs composed of three or four words as, fesetfe, to trample on.
to meditate. (aro, meditation),
; ;
;

practice will enable the reader to analyse these verbs, or, as the natives express and thus discover their meaning. Usually an elision occurs in the first syllable

it,
;

" to take

posed of
4.

fi,

to

teriba, to bow,

make, ese, the foot, ih, to jyress. But sometimes the from te, to bend, ori, tJie head, ba, to meet.
transitive verbs
;

first

as in fesete, vowel of the noun

them to pieces," which is comis

elided

as,

Many compound

as,

fi

hai), fo
it is

show

da

lebi

(li

ebi),

to

condemn.
treated as

All the foregoing verbs are in fact phrases, and vocables in a dictionary compiled by a native.

probable that none of

them would be

IL The number
1.

of nouns omitted from the Dictionary is very large : Several classes of nouns formed from verbs primitive and derivative. ' ' a and ' i.' a. Nouns formed by the prefixes
b.
c.

first syllable of the verb. d. For the meaning of nonns formed by these prefixes see " Derivation of Nouns" in the or refer to each prefix in the Dictionary. Grammar, 2. Nouns formed from nearly all nouns by the prefixes, al, all, el, el, ol, ol, alai, olu, oni. (See Derivation

By the prefix ai.' By the prefix ati.' By reduplicating the


'

'

of

3.

Nouns and Dictionary.) Nouns formed from most verbs by

prefixing

surpass

; kp6, together ; tin), completed ; as, of propriety ; asekpS, an acting together, co-operation ; asetai), a completed action, completion. Sometimes other suffixes aro employed ; as, la, to be safe, e. g. asalil, a running to be safe, esrajye, from sd, to run.

as above, with the addition of a suffix, chiefly d^u, to asedzu, excess, lit. an action surpassing or exceeding the bounds
a,'

'

4
and U, to or middle
III.

INTRODUCTION.
Such nouns arc easily analyzed, by ascertaining the meaning and then of the prefix and of the suffix. Adverbs, or adverbial phrases, composed of a nonn and the preposition ni or
he safe.
syllable,
ola),
first

of the verbal root

li,

in,

are often omitted of such words

as, lola (li

to-morrow

obvious so soon as

we

okere), in the distance, far ' ' ' ascertain that of the noun to which 1 or ' n
;

lokere

(li

off.
is

The meaning

is

prefixed.

requested to observe that the accent of Yoruba words in the Dictionary is marked in those cases where it cannot readily be determined from the rules laid down in the Grammar, only

The student

is

25-27.

PART

I.

YORUBA-ENGLISII
ABA
a, a prefix, the primary use of which is to form concrete nouns from verbs. But the meaning of nouns

a-ba, n. a thinking of, expecting, expectation, hope aba ki li o i)da ? (^fiope what is-it thou art-making?

thus formed

is

various

and accordingly they may


:

be
1.

classified as

denoting
;

what do you hope for? a-ba, M. an iron staple ;


staple driven into a log
n.

stocks, consisting of

a large

The

actor or agent
to

as, asoro,

a speaker, from
lit.

and enclosing. the ankle.

soro,

speak

adia, a dog,

from dik,
2.

to fight.

a fighter, a-ba, a-b&.

a species of wild fig-tree, See root ba.

The

patient or recipient of an action; as, aba, that which is met, from ba, to meet : e. g.
is

a-bft, (ba), .

a mat of coarse grass

eni aba, a

mat

of

the grass aba.

ohuq ab4, a thing which


3.

met.

3.-ba, n.

a stack of corn,

crib, barn, store.


<S;c.

The
to

action itself;

as, abS, a coming, from hb, a-bS.-bu-dza, n.

tohich surprises or thwarts,

come :

e. g.

ayuq ab5 mi

di

emefa
to six

loni,

my
to-

See abudza.
ft'-ba-da, fS.'-ba-da, adv.

goings and comings amount


day.
4. Tlie abstract quality

times

for

ever,

used only after a

negative

as,

emi 6 ie e

mo

fabada,

will never

implied in an intransitive
to

do

it

again.
(bade), n.
that which fits or is fitted ; sui-

verb
fit ;

as,

abade, suitableness, from bade,


the state

a-ba-de

aye,

of being

alive,

from yh,

tableness, adaptedness, congruity.

to live.
6.

a-bfi.-d6 (do), n.
it ;

a camping

together,

a fellow

en-

pron.

he, she,

and, by contraction of

awoi), we, they.

It is

much used
;

in
li)

camper. forming a sub- a-bft-do (6do),

awa and

n.

stitute for the passive verb

as,

mi, they struck

m,
fi,

i.

e.

I was struck.
to shall or will ;

an auxiliary jmrticle equivalent


as, eqyir)

a-ba-dza a-ba-dze a-ba-dze a-ba-dzo

(dza), n. (die), n.

a confiuence of streams. a fighting together.

an eating

together.
is spoiled ;

(badze), n.

which spoils or

k 16h, ye

reill

go.
!

kind of yam.
(edzo), n.

aa
n.

interj.

oh

ah

alas !

a meeting with
a meeting,
li
<S:c.

trouble or dif-

ab,

a contraction of
;

abi, that
eti), fila

which

is

or has any
ears,

ficulty.

As an
(ba),
:

inteijection, ?owrfer/MZ.' shocking!


n.
;

thing

as,

abeti (abi
:

that
abcti,

which has

a-ba-dztl
tremely

greatly,

ex-

which
flaps.

is

eared

e.

g.

a cap with ear-

6 ba mi

abadzu,

it

fell

upon me with

a great or grievous falling.


' ' '
'

ab, a-ba, a prefix formed of a and ba, to meet, and a-b4-dzu (ba), n. an excessive plaiting, <'c. a-ba-fe, n. a medicinal tree. occasionally of a and ba, with, implying a law-breaker ; law1. Meeting with, or encountering; as, abadi9 a-ba'-fir)-dze (ba ofiij die), n.
:

(aba edi9), meeting with a difficulty or trouble.

breaking.

a-ba-fo
together ;
as,
;

(fo),

n.

a speaking
n.

together.

2.

With or

abase

(^e,

to

do), co-

a-bS.-g6-ke (goke),
together.

a going up or ascending

operation,
together.

assistance

abasili],

sleeping

a-ba'-kpa-de (kpade),
coincidence,

v.

a chance

event, accident,

a-ba.

See root ba.

ABA
a-ba-lS, n.

6
a-be-hir) (abi
pertaining
to

ABO
ehiij), n.

See balB.
n.

tohich has something on or

a-ba-in5

(imi)),

painful rejlection on what has


n.

the back:

abiam6
e.

hapiyened, chagrin.

mother

ivith

a kicker

(i.

abehii) diidia, a a struggling child) on

a-ba-mo-le

(111919),

ambush, conspiracy, higha fellow-pleader, an advo-

her back.

way

rohhery.
(eni), n.

a-bfe-i-ya-nu, n.

importunity.
ivhich has boughs or branches.

a-bfi-ni-bS-be

a-be-ka

(abi),

n.

cate, intercessor.

a-be-lS, n.
eni), n.

a-bfi-ni-dze (ba

guest.

a-be-lS, n.

privacy, secresy. flatness, thinness of a


(abi), n.

flat

substance.
:

a-ba-ni-dze (ba
corrupter.

die), n.

an

injurer, slanderer,

a-be-na-gbo-ro
iboi)

which has a wide mouth

a-bS.-iii-dz6, n.

a fellow-dancer,
(ile),

jmt-tner.

abenugboro, a wide-mouthed gun. a-b6-nu-gb9.-gba (abi), n. a kind of


sers.

loose trow-

a-bfi-ni-gbe-le

n.

an inmate.

a-bS,-ni-k^
the
like.

n,

an assistant in counting money or A-be-o-ku-ta,

n.

tohich is

under

the rock, the

name

of the capital of Egba.

a-bft-ni-ko, n.
thering.
a-bfi.-ni-r, n,

an

assistant

in collecting

or ga-

a-bfe-re, n.

See b|re.
a needle, a pin.

a-be-re,

n.

tomer

who

a partner in buying buys from one. a felloiv-traveller.


ile),

also,

cus-

a-be-ri, n.

See

beri.

a-b6-r6
tilling the

(oro), n.

a trowel, a shovel

to

trim

mud

a-bfi-ni-iir), .

walls with.

a-bfi.-ni-r6-le (ro

n.

an assistant in

a-be-ru,

n.

See beni,
n.

ground.
a-b&-ni-ru, n.
a-bfi-ni-siln, n.
n.

a-be-te-le,

a begging

beforehand

bribe,

an

assistant in carrying anything.

bribery, briber.

a bed-fellow.

a-be-tu

(abi etu), n.
n.

a brook.
visitation, visitor.

a helper, co-worker. a-bfi-ni-se, See a'banibebe. a-bS.-ni-si-kpe. a-ba-ni-s6-"W0,


n.

a-be-"w6 (bw6), a-be-ya (iya), n.


a-bi, a-bi, n.

the armpit.
bi.
of,

a fellow-trader, jmrtner.
a slap
:

See bi and

a-ba-ra (aba
(lie

ara), n.

slapped

me

6 gba mi li abara, in-regard-to a-slap), he gave me a

abi, a preflx, implying being in a state


a-bl, n.

having.

an

existence,

a being: araiye abi odzu kpete,


eye,
;
i.

slap.

man, a being of limited


(abi ara), n.
yiyi, the

e.

circumstances.

a-ba-ra
abara

having a body or skin

agiliti

a-bl

(bi, if),

adv.

perhaps

eh ? iwo

mh

abi

you

rough-skinned lizard.

know, eh
a-bi-ga, n.

? n.

a-ba-sCir), n.

a sleeping with, cohabitation.


aid, co-operation.

a-bl-a-m6,
a-bi-ke-hir)

a nickname for a mother.


horses.

a-ba-se,

n.

a mixed breed of large and small


(kehiij), n.

a-ba-ta

(ita), n.

fi.'-ba-ta, n.

a public square. a little marsh, a pool. a wall.


(l^s.

the latter or last born.

a-bi-ku,
dren.

an
See

evil spirit,

supposed to

kill

chil-

9.'-ba-ti (ba

n. failure, shakiness of ti),

62, 3.)

a'-bi-ia, n.
(ba), n.

bila.

a-bd-'Wl

reproof, the act of scolding.


stain.
:

a-bi-l

n. (ile),

one homeborn.
n.

a-bfi.-'w6r), .

a sprinkling, a
n.

a-be-kS.-na (abi ekana),

that which has claws

a-bi-l-k9 (ba, ile, oko), husband's house.


a-bI-16
(ile),

woman

living in her

erai) abekana, carnivorous animals. a-bS-re. See hhre.

n.

a native.

a-be-se,
yi
!

n.

a contemptible person
for

iwo

a-bl-mo (omo), n. a parent of children. abese a-bin6, n. one wlw is angry, <&c. See bin6.
a-bi-n6-dze,
a-bl-n9-k(i,
a-bi-r9r) (abi
n.

you good

nothing

addressed to infe-

See bino die.

riors.

n.

a-bfe-tl (abi

eti), n.

that which has ears

fila

abeti,

an enemy. (Ps. 37, 8.) which is hairy. iroij), n.

a cap

10 ith

flaps to cover the ears.


that

a-be-Awe

(abi ewe), n.

which has

leaves.

a-bi-r5r) (ba iroij) n. a sick person, an invalid. a-bi-si (bisi), n. i7icrease, propagation by birth.

a-be, a-b^, &c. See be and be. a-be, n. the underneath : 6 wa li abe okuta, in underneath the rock.

Jie

a-b

(be, to cut), n.
n.
n.

razor, lancet, penknife.

a-bl-ye (abi iy^), M. which has feathers. (Gen. 1,21.) was a-bi-ya (iya), n. the armpit. a-b6, a-bd, n. See bo and bo. a-bd, n. a female, applied to children and to animals
tlie
:

a-be-be,
a-b6-be,

a fan.

abo

esiq,

a mare

abo

malii, a

cow

also,

a pleader, an advocate. ?l-be-gi (igi), n. a hewer or cutter of wood.

half cock of

a gun.

fi-bo, n.

a bag, a bundle.

ABO
^-bo,
n.

ADE
a-da-b9,
the
.

shelter, covert, refuge.

a half: adabo odza, a market held on


n.

a-bo-de
veil.

(ba), n.

the outer yard, the space without.


n.

day

after market-day.

a-b6-dztl (bo odiu),

a covering for the face, a a-da-b9-"W9,


a-da-dzi,
visitation,
. n. n.

self-assumed responsibility.

the time just before day.

a-bo'-dzu-"w6, n. official ence ; a superintendent.


a-bo-16
(ile),

superintend-

a-da-dz9,
a-da-gur),

a judge, an appointed day. a lake, a pond.

a burglar, burglary. a-bo'-nii-'w6r), n. a sprinkling, a sjmnkler. a-bd-ra (ara), n. a garment, a mantle. See bora.
n,

a-da'-gUl)-lS a-kpo, n.
battle-ground, from

a large quiver

set

on the
to tlie

which arrows arc given


n.

men.
a-d&-k9.-d-ke (ikaeke),
a
tattler,

a-b6-ri, n.

Sec
n.

bori.

a mischievous

a-bo-ru

(abi),

which

is hot.
'

pierson.

a-bo-yHr)

(abi), n.

which

is

pregnant.
^ikcdii, two

a-da-ko

a-bo, a-b6. See b9 and b5. cessation ; a half : abo fl.-b9, n.


half ;

a maker of eko. (eko), n. n. contraction of words. a-da-kpd,

and a a-da-kp5,

n.

union, confederacy.

a-da-la-re, n. justification, a justifier, a meeting of the new year, a a-dS.-lu, n. mixture, n. a-b6-dtli), (ba), living to see it come, the anniversary of the new a-da'-mah'-ld-se, n. one ivho makes a failure. year. a-da-md, n. a mistaken opinion, heresy.

abo

siketa, three

and a

half.

a-da'-m5-rar), n. advice, a proposal ; an adviser. a-b9-gi-bo-kpe (igi 9kpe), n. an idolator. a-bo-kpa, . which is fatted to Mil. (Luke 15, 23.) a-d^-mu, n. confusion of mind. a-b6-ri-sa (orisa), n. an idolator. a-da-na, n. Sec dana. die ose), n. a sabbath-breaker, a-da'-ni-dfi., n. which is natural or according to a-b6-se-dze (ba
. . .

a-bo-se

(ise), n.

a job, job-work.

nature.

a-b6-"W9-gfi.r) (bu owo), n. a musketo. a-bu, a-bil. See bu and bu.

a-da-ni-du-ro,
a-da'-ni-dzi,
one.

n.

a detainer.
that

n,

which

awakes or arouses

a'-bu-dza,
road or
'

n.

a cutting

across, short cut, anticipation


:

of one's words, a confounding


street.

abudia ona, a cross a-da'-ni-kpa,


tunate.

one
n.

a-da'-nl-lfi.-ga,

one

who is who

cruel.
is

wearisome, impor-

a'-bu-ka,

n.
n.

the act of surrounding.

a-bu-ke,

a hunchback.

a-da-ni-la-ra, n.
blessing.
;

mortifier, disappointer.

a-bu-k9r),

n.

an adding, a

Sec bukoq.

a-da-ni-la'-ra-ya,

n.

one

who

enlivens or cheers

a'-bu-ktlr), n.

remainder, deficiency

35, 26) : ^e li abukiq, to desinse. a'-bu-la, n. adulteration.

others. contempt (Ps. See bukui}. a-da-ni-l^-kui), n.

p>rohibitor.

a-da-ni-lo-dzu,
to

n.

one

who

disapiwints.

a-bu-l,

n.

a patch, something added

the true

a-da-ni-lo-ro,
alarmist.
a-dfi.-n6, n.

n.

a tormentor.
.

statement.

a-da-ni-ni-dzi,

one

who

alarms

people,

an

a-bu-in6,
a-bu-ra,
a-bu-rai),

n.

an

addition, exaggeration.

n. n.

who

swears.
is

See bura.

which

is

thrown away or
is

lost.

which

carded, prepared to be spun.


erect.

a-dar), n.
a-dfir), n.

which polishes,

polished, dx.

See

dai).

a-bu-ro
tive

(abi iro), n.

which stands

bat.

a-bil-ro, n.

a younger male or female.


n.

brother, or aiiy

younger

rela-

a-da-re, n.

a justifier, justification.
one loho forgives.
tlie

a-da-ri-dzi-ni, n.
a-da'-ri-kp9r), n.

a-bu-ru,

Sec buru.

red-headed lizard.

a-bfi-ru-bu-tfi.1), n.

a whale. See
busi.

a-bu-si, n.

a-bu-S9,
a-da,
n.

n.

a grove ; one who blesses. an invention, a falsehood.


bill-hook,

a-dfi-ro, n. anxiety, one who is anxious. a-da-ni-da-kp5, n. indiscriminate mixture,

con-

a pruning

knife.

fusion. a-da-S&r), n.

a hereditary

debt.
;

a-da-sl, n. which is spared, reserved, a gleaning a-da, a-da. See dA and dk. an intermeddler, intermeddling. a-d&. prefix implying making, constituting, apa-da-sd, n. a fiction, a fictitious report, a lie.

pointing.

a'-da-ba, a'-ta-ba, n. a dove : adaba in&n, the white a-da-"wir), n.

instalments of a debt.

a contribution of money. pigeon. a-dfi.-W9-l, n. who assumes responsibility. a-da-bi, n. which resembles, likeness. a-da'-bo-bd-ni (da abo eni), n, a defender, an a-de, n. a covering, a crown : dc li adc, to crown fi ade de, to set a crown on. ally.

a-da-wo,

n.

ADE
a-de,
M.

8
a-do-rur), num.

AD^
ninety,

a charm

to

briny home the ijhost of one


that

killed in war.

a-do-sag, num,
cbi), n.

one hundred

and

seventy.

a-de-bi-kpa-ni (da
A-de-g'b6,
?.

which starves

one,

a-do'-so-sap, num.

mie hundred

and

seventy each.

who a-do-ta, num. fifty. comes to hear. a-do'-to-ta, num. fifty each, covenant ; contracted; n. a-du, H. a few: sAm hrAsi, a few people, a-de-hCir), bargain, a liar. n. a-dti, n, a very black person, a-de-ke, n. a newly married woman, a a'-du-gb6, n, an old acquaintance, a neighbor, a-de'-le-lj^ (lie), bride. a-du'-gbo-lil. a stumbling block,

The name

of a man, meaning

a-de-mo, a-de-mu, n. a-de-na (ona), n. who


diment.

a water-gourd.
lies

a-du-kpe,
;

n,

thanks, thankfulness:

adukpe lodo

in

ambush

an impe-

Ol9ru]3, tlianks to Ood,

a-du-ra,
condemnation,
etc), n.

n,

a-de-bi,

n.

a-dza,
a-dza.

n.

a-de-te (da
a-di, n. a-dl, n.

leper.

d.-dza, n,

prayer to God only. a dog ; a fairy skilled in medicine, an attic, a loft, a ceiling overhead.
it is

a-de-ti-si-le, n.

listener to private conversation.

Sec adzara, of which


n.
troicble,

a contraction.

a binding,
oil

tangling,

<kc.

See

di.

a-dza-ba,

unhappiness,

of the palm-nut kernel.


notwithstanding, after
all.

a-dz9.-b5, n.

escape through hard struggling.


;

a-dl, conj.

a-di-d5g,

flour of parched com, anything savory. a-di-dzd. (di idza), n. coming to blows or to a fight.

n.

a-dza-di, n, which is broken in the bottom agboij, a broken bottom basket,

adzadi

a-dza-dze,

n.

low,

mean fellow.
is

a-di-dzi, n.

a scarecrow, a fright,
deceiver,

a-di-dzu, n. a blinder or a'-di-e. See adire.


a-dl-gba-ro,
a-dl-lu, n,
n,

a-dza-e, n. a cord with which a prisoner's hand bound to his neck,

4-dza-ga,

n,

neck-shackle,
n,

yoke,

a colander,

a-dza-ga-dzi-gi,
n,

a violent jerking at something

child's game of casting lots, solid, a-di-ini-ni6 (da mimo), n, a sanctifier, sancti- a-dza-gboi),
ficaticm,

the tamarind-tree.
soldier,

a-dza-gun,
n.

n,

title

of respect

much

like

a-di-in6, shut in.


a-di-in5,

he

who shuts one

in,

state

of being

" esquire."

n. n.

secret covenant,

a plot. a holding fast


;

a-dza-i-lS, n, or pit,

ceiling over the

mouth of a grave

a-di-mu,

who holds
name.
is

fast,

also as a proper

a-dir)-gbe, n, meat.
a'-dl-re, n.

which

dried over the fire,

a domestic fowl, a colander,


isi),

an epidemic, pestilence. a-dza'-ka-su (die aka^u), n. one who eats the large jerked loaf, i. e. who has plenty, a-dza-ko (oko), n, a kind of wild dog, a-dza-kpa, n, a petty trader, a nickname given to
used a-dza-ka, a-dza-ka-le, n,
the tortoise,

a-di-ro, n,

a-di-si (da

n.

an

inventor,

(Rom.

1,

30.)

a-dzi-ia.

See adzkhb.

a-di-tar)-in5 (da itaij), n, a tracing of kinship. a-dl-tl (eti), n. a deaf person.

a-do,

n.

a small gourd used for a

vial.

a-dza'-na-kpa, n. a bird-snare made of cloth. a-dza'-na-ku, n. the elephant. a-dzai), w. meat cut small to retail.
a-dza-o,
n.

an adulterer; lewdness. a-do-do-dze, num. one hundred and


a-d6, n.
ries)

thirty (cowsell
it ?

fi.-dza-6-SU, n.

a kind of large bat. the moon's dog, i.

c. the

evening star.

how dost thou one hundred and thirty each. adododze, a-do-dze, num. one hundred and thirty.
each
.

clo o ta

See aguala. a-dza-ra, n. a climbing plant the leaves of which impart a black a-dz,
n. stain.

a-do-gui) (da oguq),

n.

which causes

tear.

the
n,

a-do-dz9, num.
Sec adododze.

one hundred

and

sixty.

a-dze-dze,

god of money, fortune, a stranger or alien : adzedic


si,

ilu,

a-d6-dzo-dzo, num,
a-do-do-fa, num,
a-d9-fa, num.
a-d5i), n. fiavor,

one hundred and sixty each.

strange or foreign town ; se adzedze

to be es-

and ten one hundred and ten.


one hundred
taste, sweetness.

each.

tranged from, (Ps. 78, 30.) a-dze-re, n, an earthen pot pierced full of holes dry meat in.

to

a-dze,
a-dz,

n. n.

a paddle, an a
witch.
n.
n.

oar.

a-dp-rip, num.
a-do'-ro-rir),

seventy.

num.

seventy each.

a-dze-kdr),

a-do'-ro-ruij, num.

ninety each.

a-dze-kpd,

the cud,

a remnant after eating. an eating together.

ADZ
a-dze-le,
n.

AGA
a-fe-ni6-dzu-in6, n. the dawn, daybreak. a-fe-n5, n. which is winnoioed atoay.
uneaten.

an

official agent, consul.

a-dze-ni-a
a-dze-ti, n.

(enia), n.

a cannibal.

eating

and

leaving

a part

a-fe-nu-si
a^fe-re,
w.

(fi

enu), n.

a meddler.
cork-wood.
:

(Liike 16, 17.)

lightness ;
search,

a-dze-y6,

n.

eating to the full. (Lake 15, IV.)

a-fi|-ri, n.

a seeker

ie aferi, to seek.
betrothed.

a-dzl-lib-'wa-'bfi., n.

a-dzi-dzlr),

?i.

which pre-exists. a shadow. (Ps. 23, 4.)

a-fe-s6-na
a-fe-tS.r), n.

n. (si ona),

who is

perfect love.
unless, except.

a-dzi'-gbe-se, n. a debtor. a'-dzi-ra6 (Arab.), n, the Mohammedan Sabbath.

a-ff, a-fi-bi, conj.

a-fl-bi-kpd-re
a-fi-dzi, n.
a-fi-hS.r), n.

(fi

kp6), n.

an

tingrateful person.

a-dzi-na,
a-dzir), n.

n.
n.

expenditure, expenses.

forgiveness, repeal of law.

a-dzl-nde,

a rising

tip,

the resurrection.

a showing, guidance, exhibition.


n.

profound

silence, the depth of night.


is

a-fi-16

(fi ile),

abandonment, renunciation.
n.

a-dzlr)-sir(-sir), n.

deep concealment, that which

concealed.

an engraver, engraving. (fiq ona) a-fi'-n6-sa'-dze-re (fi in6 se adzere), n. one with a
a-fi-na
treacherous memory, an unreliable person, unteachable.

a-dzi-re
d.-dzo, n.

good morning ! a journey.

(lit.

did you wake well ?)

See a-fi-no-se-hir) (ehiij), a-fi-no-so-de (ode). a-dzo, n. anxiety : se adzo, to be anxious. the preceding word. a-dz6-gur) (dze ogu^), n. an heir. a-dzo-kpa-rur), n. lohich bums fiercely, devour- a-fir), n. a palace ; an engraver, engraving ; an
ing
fire.

albino.
(o, not), n.

a-dz6-6-kil

which

is

unquenchable.
else

a-fir)-dzu (odiu),
son.

n.

neatness, tidiness ;

a tidy per-

a-dz6-r3.r), n.

a catching fire from sometliing

on

fire.

a-dzo-vru, n. one who is jealous ; jealousy. a-dzo, n. an assembly, crowd : adz9 odu^, a
festival.

a-fir)-gba (igba), n. an engraver of calabashes. a-fi-re-se (ire), n. wilfulness in doing an evil action.
feast, a-fi-sor), .

one

who
n.

is accused.

a-fi-yag-dzu-se,
7i.

acting by constraint ;

reluc-

a-dzo-dze-kp5, a-dzo-mo-kpd,
for a feast. a-dz6-kpir),
a-dzo-rir), n.
(1 Pet. 4, 3.)
n.

an assembly
to

tance.

a-fl-ye-sl
:

(iye), n.

attention, noiableness.

(Acts

2,

a jxirtaker, sharer a travelling together

seadzSkpiq,

20.)

partake, share.
:

a-fo, n.

a space, room
(fi),

openness,

an opening.

egbe

adzoriij,

a-fo-dzu-di

n.

insolence.

travelling companion.
n.

a-fi6-dzu-s6-na,
council.

a-dz6-r6,
a-dzo-SO,

a consultation,
a talking

a-fo'-fo-ro, n.

a looking for, expectation. n. cork-wood.


mistletoe.

n,

together.

a-fo-in6, n.

a parasite,

a-dzo-y6, n. a rejoicing together. a-fo'-ni-f6-dzi, . a valley. a-fo-re-se-bi (fi ore se ibi), n. an ungrateful person. a-dzu-ba, n. a newly cleared field. a-dzu-de (ode), n. an armlet of iron worn by hun- a-fo-ta, n. purblindness : 6 ie afota, he is purblind.
ters.

a.-fg, n.
n.

hogs^ mire.

a-dzu-mo,
a-fa. a-fa.

an acting or being

together,

panionship.

com- a-fo-ba-dze, n. overthrow, destruction. a-f6-dz11 (fo), n. a blind person.


a-f6-gur),
n.

See See

fa.

bottle.

ik.

a-fd-ko-ko
aim9), adv.

(ikoko), .
(fi

a poi-ioasher. a guide.

(Ps. 68, 8.)

a-fai-mo

(fi perhaps, liossibly, doubtfully : bi yi 6 de lola afaimo, if he will come tomorrow is uncertain.

a-fo-na-h3.r)

6na), n.

a-fori-fe-re, n.

a fiutc-player, pnper.
unruliness, disobedience.
oraij), n.

a-f6-6-gb6
a-f6-rar)-lo

n. (6, not),
(fi

a-fi-ra, n.

a bridge ; two
:

sticks

rubbed together

to

one

who

investigates

case

produce fire
fi.-fa-ra, n.

afara oyii), honey-comb.

or dis2)ute, a reconciler.

slowness, dilatoriness.

a kind of rat. a-fe-bi-kpa, n. See adebikpa.


a-fe, n.
a-fe, n.
pleasure, affection, love
:

a-f6-rar)-in6 (fi oraij), n. accusation, suspicion. a-f6-sf . a fulfilled prediction ; a foretelling.


,

a-fo-"w6-b6

(fi

owo), n.

secret.

mo

fe

li

afe tai),

a-fo-"w6-ra,

n.

pilfering.

love with perfect love.

a-f9-'w6-ta, .

a careless search. a suspicious person. high, a lieight ; a rampart, ladder,

a-fe-dzu,
a-fe-fe, n.

n.

a frowner, a frowning.
spirit.

a-fu-ra
a-ga,
n.

(fu ara) n.

wind, air,
(fi

which

is

a-fe-hir)-ti 2

ehig), n.

a prop, support.

chair, stool, table.

AGA
a-g..

10
n.
n. n. n.

AGB
strength, violence.

a-ga-lja-ge-be a hypocrite.
a'-ga-da,
n.

See agara, of which it is a contraction. a-gba-ra, a double-dealer, a-gbfi-ra, (gnij aba gn^ cbe),

a strong climling plant used for ropes.


a. stockade.

a-gb&-ra,
:

a short sword

agada k5

m5

ori ala-

a-gba-ri,

the skull.

gbede, the sword knows the head of the blacksmith

(who made
a-ga-kpo-si,

it).

a-gba'-ri-gba, n. a kind of antelope. a-gba-sa, n. a mass of rocks.


a-gba-si,
n.

a'-ga-da'-go-do,
n.

n.

lock, especially

a padlock.

accumulation.

bier.

a-ga-la-ma-sa, n. a trick, deceit, naughtiness. a-ga-na, n. a highway robber.

a-gba-sil), n. a ewe taken care of for a portion of her increase.

a-gba-ee,

n.

help for hire


7.)

fu

mi

li

agbase, hire

a-ga-ndzu, a-ga-ndzu.
a-g4i),
n.

n.

a palace.
is

me. (Matt. 20,


a-gba-tSr), n.
sewed, cuts or is cut,
dbc.

See agindiu.

entire help, helping throughout.


n.

which sews or

a-gba-to-dzu,
other,

one

who

keeps something for an-

See

gaij.

trustee.

a-gdX), n.

which despises or is despised, a despising, a-gba-"w5, n. which is hired or rented, as a house. contempt ; a barren woman : yh agai), to be barren. a-gbe, n. a resident, inhabitant; forgetfalness ; a-gai)-gar), n. a flat stone on which glass beads are begging for alms.

a-g&r)-gS.r), n.

ground or polished. a pinnacle, topmost point.


weariness
life.
:

3.-gbe, n.

a large gourd-bottle.
.

a-gbe-b6,
mi,

a hen.
one skilled in language, a
the middle, midst.
n.
lin-

a-ga-ra n. weary of
a-g&-ra, n.

agara &iye

ma

dii

/ am a-gbe-de
guist.

(gb6), n.

the coney (hyrax).

a-gba,
a-gba,

n. n.

a an

cask.

a-gbe-de-me-dzi, n. a-gbe-dzi (gba edzi),


a-gbe-dzo-lo,
n.

a rain hat. 6 gbe mi

help.
elder,

a long-necked gourd.
;
11

fi.-gba, n.

an

adult,

man : igba

agba,

man

by man.
(iboi)), n.

a-gbe-dzvl, n. great assistance diu, Tie aided me much.

agbe-

a-gba-bor)
a-gba.-bo,

a cannon.
in the translation of

a-gbe-gbe, a-gbe-nde,
a-gbe-ni,
n.

n. n.

neighborhood, surrounding region.

n.

afoster-child.
a loose garment
maize.
;

a-gbe-lS-bu,
n.

a-gba-da,

n.

a cross. (Luke 21, 21.) a raising up, the resurrection.


exalts or aids one.

Exodus, the laver.


a-gbfi.-do, n.

who
n.

a-gbe '-ra-ga,
a-gbe-re,
a-gbe,
the
n.

who

exalts himself, is proud.

a-gba-du,

n. n. n. n.

a viper.

fornication.

a-gba-dza, a-gba-dz9, a-gba-gba,


ted pigeon.

a girdle. an assembly of
a plantain
:

whole people.
eiyele,

awhetter; a farmer; a kind of sword. a-gbe-de (agbe ide), n. a smith's shop, smith work,
m.
lit.

agbagba

spot-

the whetting of brass.

a-gbe-dze, n. a kind of squash. a-gba-gur), n. that which causes the assembling of a-gbe-ku-ta (okuta), n. a stone-cutter, a lapidary. soldiers ; an army. lie makes beads and other ornaments of agate, a-gbai-ye, n. the whole world : odzu agbaiye, the jasper, and cornelian. face of the earth. a-gbe-mfi-ye, n. a barren hen.

a-gba-ko,
time

a coming in contact, a precise point of a-gblr)-yi-kfi-gba. (ogba), n. a hedge. n. a moment : li agbako na, at that moment. ; a-gbo, n. a flock, a ring of dancers, a stack of corn : . a frame in which a load is placed to omo agbo, a babe ; agbo ile, the inner court of a a-gba-ku, be carried on the head. house.
a'-gba-la, n.

a-gba-la-dza,
a-gba-le,
n.
n.
ji.

a walled garden. a kind of shirt. n.

a-gbo,
a-gb6,

n. n.

a ram.
which
is old,

a-gba-lfi.-gba, .

an elderly or honorable man.


the population.

be old ;

cat-flsh ;

an old person : so agbo, a fermented medicinal taash.

to

a-gba-lu,

a kind of insect. the whole town,


the open sea.

a-gb6-de-gbS, n. a thief stationed out of doors receive what burglars steal.


a-gb6-dzu-16,
n.

to

a-gba-mi,
a-gb^-ni,

n.

helper.

who perseveres, acts firmly. a-gbo-"w6-de (gba ow6 ode), n. a toll-gatherer,

the unicorn : agbaqr^re olowo tax-collector. kan, the agbaijrere is one-horned. a-gboi), n. the cocoanut-tree, a cocoanut. a-gba-9-dzo, n. one who is old in days, an aged il-gbor), n. the chin : ^gboi) isale, the lower jaw.

a-gba-r)r6-re, n.

person.

a-gb5r|,

n.

basket,

hamper.

AGB
a wasp. a-gbor)-rir), n. a kind of antelope.
a-gb6r), .

11
ai-ba-dze,
n.

AIL
which
is

not corrupted or spoiled, in-

corruptible.

a-gb9-ti (gba

oti),

n.

butler.

ai-bfi.-wf, n.

a-gbo-ya,
deaf.

n.

hearing quickly:

iwo gbo agb9ya ai-be-ru,


to

n.

blamelessness. (Mat. 12, 5.) courage, boldness. (Acts 18, 26.)

{thou hearest hearing-qmckly), you pretend


the stand

be

ai-b6, M.
ai-dfi, n.

defencelessness.

unceasingness, uncreatedness.
n.

a-ge-re,

n.
n.

on which

Ifa is set.

ai-da-a-ra,
ai-de-ra,
n.

bad health.
unnegligence, strict application.

a-ge-ni6,
a-gl-di,
n.

a-gi-dl, n.
a-gi-ll-ti, n.

; of a gun. stubborn ; an obstinately wicked person. balls of cold eko wrapped in leaves.

a chameleon

the cock

ai-di'-ba-dze, n. uncorruptedness, incorruption. ai-dze, n. which is uneatable ; a not permitting,


unsuitable.

a-gi-ndzu,
a-gl-sa, .
o'clock is

n.

a kind of lizard. a wilderness, a a

desert.

ai-dze-bi, n.
ai-dzi-yai),
lohat
;

innocence,
n.

uncondemned.
is

a rag.
bell,

which does not dispute,

indis-

a-go, a-go-go, n.
it

a clock

ago melo

putable.
n.

ago mediSi
struck

ni, it is
ttoo.

two o'clock

ago ai-fe,

medzi
a-gO, n.
n.
/

ro, the clock

ai-fe-ni, n.

unwillingness, indifference. uncharitableness.


boldness, courage. soundness, unbroken.

a-g6,

a cup, small box as a striped rat.

for pills.

ai-fo-ya, n.
ai-fi6, n.

a-g6

get out of the

way

ag6 mi H 5na, get out oj ai-f 5,


out of the
tallness.
%oa>j

n.

uncleanness, unwashed.

my

road

ago

esiq, get

of

the

horse !

ai-gba-gbo, n. unbelief. ai-gbe-de, n. state of ignorance of a language.


ai-gbo,
n.

a-g6-gO,

n.

that which is tall


n.

sluggishness, stubbornness.

a-go-go-ri (gopgo ori), a-go-ro, w. a rabbit.


a-gO-r6,
a-gO, n.
n.

a sharp point.

al-gb6, ai-gb6,

n. n.

unripeness, immaturity.
disobedience.

a striped

rat.

a-g6,

n.

a shroud. a tent, hut, shanty.

a-g6, a-g5-ni, n. one who neglects family discipline. See the next word. a-goi), 71. a grudge, hatred, strife. (Roin. 1, 29.) ai-k6r), n. which is unfilled. al-k6r)-si-n6 (si in6), i\ being unsatisfied, a mura-gor)-go, n. one armed with a club.
3,-gu-a-la, n.
the planet

lack of wisdom, folly, &L<i. See gboij. ai-gb6-rar), n. See aigbo. at-k^ n. which is uncounted, left out, excepted : gbogbo W91) li aika eyi, all of them except this.

ai-gboi), M.

Venus, called the moorHs

muring.

dog.

ai-kpa,
n.

n.

which

is

not killed, unquenched.

A'-gU-da,

a Spaniard, or other dark European. ai-kp6,


of9i)), n.

n. n.

who

is

not invited, uncalled.

a'-gu-foi) (gur)

the crested crane.

ai-kp6,
ai-ku,

undurableness.

a-gu-na,

n.

an embroiderer.
(guij die), n.
?),

ai-kpir), n.
table-fork.
n.

which

is

undivided, undistributed.

a-gu-ndze
a-ha,
n.

immoi'tality,

unquenchableness

aiku,

a'-gu-tar) (gui) itaq


n.

n.

a sheep.

a drinking-gourd.
a boaster ; boasting.
n.
n.

a-ha-le,

usually pronounced aku! or oku! is a very common salutation, whence the Yorubas are called in Sierra Leone " the Aku people."

a-ha-mS,
is

a-ha'-mo-ra,

entanglement, difficulty. who is entangled in business, harnessed in armor.


n.

ai-la'-ba-vrgr), n.

which which
is

is

unstained, unblemished.

who ai-la'-bu kur),


ai-la'-bu-la, n.

n.

is faultless,

uncensurable.

which

unadulterated.

a-ha-na,

reckless,

wicked man.

al-le-ra
ai-le-ri

(le ara), n.
(li eri),

infirmity, weakness.

a-har)-hai), n.

a lizard resembling the iguana.


bird-shot.

a-ha'-ri-ya,

n.

ai-le-'WU
ai-le-bi
:

(li

purity, cleanness. which is in safety. n. ewu)


n.

a-he-re

(ere), n.

a farm-house, a barn.
se ali6
si,

(li (li (li

ebi), n.

which

is guiltless.
is spiritless,

a-h6' (ho), an exclamation of contempt


to despise.

ai-le-mi
ai-le-nu

emi), n.
enu), n.

which

dead.

a'-ho-ro,

n.

desolation, ruins.
tight pantalocms.

ai-le-ri, (H eri), n.

which has no mouth or opening. which has no testimony, is un-

a-ho-to,

a-h.6r), n.

the tongue,

proved. ai-le-se (ese), n.

which has no feet.

a-hu-sa, n. ai, a prefix,


at-ba,
n.

an esculent nut.
not, un-, in-.
is

ai-16-se (ese), n. which is sinless, innocent. ai-lo-la (ola), n. which is unhonored.


<tc.

which

not met, dr., not meeting,

ai-19-niO (om9), n.

who

is childless

wa

li

ai-

See ba.

l9m9, he was childless.

AIM
ai-m&h, a double
negative
;

12

AKE

after anotlier negative

as, enii

or

/ must go, lit. / not am mdh 16h may be used


ore),
n.

employed pleonastically ai-ta-ra, n. equality : eiii) sure li aitara nwor) yo, the horses ran equally and came out 6 le ise aimah I6I1, together. able to do not go. Ail6h ai-t6, n. insufficiency : se aito, to be not enough.
instead of
ingratitude,

ai-mO-re {mh
grateful.

aim4h who

16h.
is

un-

(Mat. 25, 9.) ai-t6, n. crookedness, absurdity. ai-"wfi.-ka-ra (wu), ?. unleavened bread.
ai-"w6,ra.

ai-mo-ye
ai-md,
al-mo,
n.

(moye), n.

ignorance,

ignorance, which is

who is unknown

ignorant.

which

is

unwashed : aiwi ow6, wnwasAerf


:

or unusual.

n.

tvhich is unclean, not clear or light ; un-

hands. (Mat. 15, 20.) ai-AVli, n. which is unswelled or unleavened


akara, unleavened bread.

awu
cou-

cleanness, pollution.

ai-ni, n.

who has not ;


(idi), n.

need, destitution.
is causeless,

ai-ya,
:

n.

breast, chest, heart, stomach,

bosom

ai-ni-dl

which
lii

unreasonable

rage, influence.

nwoi) korira rl ainidi, they hated cause, or unreasonably.

him without a ai-ya-fd, ai-ya-dza,


affect

ai-ya-kpa,

ai-ya-ia,
afraid,
lit.

to

with fear

aiya fo mi,

/ am

the

ai-ni-kpai-ya,

n.

fearlessness.
:

heart jumps
li

me

da aiya

fo, to frighten

one (Ps. 10,

ai-nI-kpe-16, n. tohich has no addition kpcle, without addition. ai-ni-kpe-te,


li

alni-

18)

aiya kpa mi,


n.

my

heart fails. (Ps. 40, 12.)

ai-ya-kpa,
:

undeviatingness, union, as opposed to

n.

which

is

undesigned, unintended

schism.

ainikpete, without intention, undesignedly.


n.

al-ya-to,
al-ye,
n.

n.

tohich does not differ, identity.

ai-ni-kpe-kur),
foundation.

which
which

is endless, everlasting. is

the

world

condition, days or times of one,

ai-nl-kpi-le-se, n.

unfounded or has no

ai-ni-ni-ye, .

tvhich is numberless.

life, duration of life, as distin-guishcd from aye, life. ai-y, n. which is not understood, unintelligibleness ;

circumstances in

ai-nl-ye-n6,
ai-nl-yii), n.

n.

who has no understanding.


is

unceasingness.

which
n.

unpraised, unhonored.

af-yS, n.

tohich is lifeless ; lifelessness.


n.

which has no mercy or compassion : ai-ye-rai-ye, al-ye-ti-ti-lai, ai-nI-yo-n6, 6 16 woij li ainiyono, he drove them unmercifully. lasting ; eter7iity.

which

is

ever-

ai-ri-kpa-da,

n.

who

is

unredeemed.

ai-ye, n.

See aigbo.
(yi ese), n.

ai-re-k9-dza, n. soberness, temperance. ai-re-lS, n. which is unhumbled, lack of humility.


ai-ri-rai), n.

ai-ye-se
a-kfi, n.

firmness, steadfastness.

a
n.

crib.

dimness of

sight.

a-ka-be,

the cloth-beam of a loom.

ai-rl-'wl, n.

inexcusable, finds nothing to plead ; inexcusableness.


thoughtlessness, inconsiderateness.
(ri odiu), n.

who

is

a-ka-d3.Q,

n.

a felon on the
the large vulture.
n.

finger.

4-ka-ka,

n.

the squatting posture.

ai-rd, n.

8.-ka-la, n.

al-ro-dzfl

a being busy, unremitting a-ka-lfi-mbi,


a-kfi.-ni6, n.

a sack.
of surrounding.
epaulet.
is

occupation.

the act
;

ai-r9-"wo
ai-s&r), n.
ai-sl, n.

(ri 9VV0), n.

sickness
absence.

as the preceding. so aisaq, to be sick.

Same

a-k9l),

n.

a crab

an

a-kar)-se, n,
s^xciality.

a rarity ; which
(Acts 19, 11.)
bread.
71.

made

to

order ; a

al-si-mi, n.
ai-sir), n.
ai-sfi, n.

unrest, perseverance.

fi.-ka-ra, n.

independence.

a-kfi-SO

S-WU,
n.

a sack

coat, loose

garment.
tree.

which

is

uncut, unreaped.

a-ka-s6,
a-ka-ta,

stairs, ladder,

fork of a
cat.

ai-sa-na
ai-se, n.

(se anu), n. unmercifulness. (J as. 2, 13.) inaction ; which is not done.


n.

3.-ka-su, n.
n.

a large loaf or ball of eko. a kind of wild


.

ai-se-de-d6,

transgression.
equity, impartiality.

fi.-ka-ta, n.

the timbrella-hat of the natives.

ai-se-gbe,
ai-se, n.
ai-sd, n.

n.

a-ka-tar)-kpo,
a-kfi.-ta-ri, n.

cross-boio.

ai-se-me-le,

n.

diligence ; industry.

the zenith.

tohich is unfulfilled.

a-ka-"we,
(Ps. 59, 4.)

n.

metaphor, allegory, explanation

aka-

which

is innocent, faultless.

we

oraq, a comparison of matters.

ai-se-tar)

(etaij), n.

undeceitfulness, sincerity.

a-kft-TVe, n.

a reading, a

lesson.

ai-si-me-le.

See aisemele.
n.

ai-si-ye-me-dzi,
ai-SO-do-do,
n.

undoubtedness, certainty.

a-ka-yil) (ka chiij), n. a toothless person. a-ke, n. an axe : tike gboro, an adze,

injustice, unrighteousness

of action.

a-ke-de
a-ke-gi

(ode), n.
n.

ai-so-dzfl-sa-dzti, n.

impartiality.
injustice,

a-ke-dza-5-na,
(igi),

a public crier. a cross-road.

ai-SO-t6 (se ot6),

n.

wrong.

n.

a chopper or heteer of tcood.

AKE
a-ke-guQ
a-ke-ke, a-ke-ke.
(oko), n. an old worn-out hoe. See ake. n.

13
a-kd-sa,
a-k6-S0,
(Gen.
n.

AKP
a bird of prey.
control, restraint
:

n.
1,

ie akoso, to rule over.

See akerekere.
n.

16.)

a-ke-kur),
a-ke-16,
n.

stubble.

a-ko-so,
the chest.

n.

a smelling-bottle.

a-ke-re,

a completion of collecting : li ak6tai), of a very small person. finally. (1 Pet. 3, 8.) a-k-re-k6-re, n. a scorpion ; the trigger of a gun. a-ko-to, n. a calabash. a-ke-re-ko-ro, n. a nickname given to spiteful little a-ko, n. the male of beasts. See abo. Also, full cocked (gun) harshness, roughness : okuta ak9, a people.
drops;/
a-k6-tfi.r), n.
n.
;

a-ke-ri

(ke, to cut, ori, head), n.


n. n. n. n.

hater.

hard
a-ko,

stone.

a-ke-ru,
a-ke-si,

a a

bob-tail.
call,

n.

a stork ; a scabbard.
n.

caller, visitor.

a-k6-bi,

first-born.

a-ke-te,
a-ke-ti,

a bed of earth, a a crop-ear.


n.

bed,

a-ko-dztl, n.

a-k6-gba,
a-ko-kar),

n.

a very learned man, scholar. a fence, hedge.


the

the first, the foremost. n. a-ko-l, n. a superscription (Luke 23, 38) address on a letter. a-ke-hir)-d3.-si (ehiij), n. a turning the bach upon, one who forsakes (Mat. 26, 33) ^e akehiijdasi, to a-k6-le, n. a builder. a-ko-mu, n. that which is first taken. forsake.

a-ke,

n.

a large she-goat.
the gout.

a-ke-dur),

a-ke-sar), n.

a palace.
the red-flowered cotton.

a-ko-ni

(eni), w.
(eni), n.

a-ke-se,
a-k&-te,

n. n.

a-k6-ni

a strong man. a teacher.


beads

a hat. a new hoe


not), n.
;

a-koi), a-kur), n.

a-ke-tgr), n.

a bough.
does not reply, silence.
'

a-k9 9-dz6,
is held.

n.

every fifth

made of shell. day when full market

a-ki-i-dze

(i,

who

fi-ki-loh, n.

a salutation on parting, good-bye. a-kor)-rir), n. a singer. a-ki-ni6-le (ile), n. that which is pressed down. a-k5r)-si-n6 (ino), n. a grumbling, a grumbler. a-k5r)-'wo-si-le (il|), n. which is full to overfiowing. (Luke" 6, 38.)
a'-ki-ra, n.
a-ki-ri, n.

a-ki-sa,

n.

African tobacco. a wandering, a wanderer. a rag, scrap of cloth.

a-k6-r6,

n.

the first rains.

a-ko-ror), .

closet,

private room,
chance, luck.

a-ki-tar).
a-ki-ti, n.

See atag.

a-k6-se-ba (ese), a-k6-SO (eso), n.


!

n.

first ripe fruit, first fruits.

oib6 akiti agba the white man a-k6-se, n. first made, beginning. is an old baboon ! (cried in the streets of Abbeokuta a-k6-tfi.r), n. one who is perfectly taught, well inthe children when tliey see a white man.) by formed.

a baboon

a-kl-ye-si, n.
notable.
n.

attention

to,

an

overseer, that

which

is

a-ko-bi-a,

barrenness
ode), n.

ya

akobia, to be barren.
to

a-k6-"wah, n. the first coming, first comer. a-ko-vre (iwe), n. a writer, a scribe. a-kpa, n. an arm, wing, side, hough : li akpa
on one
side, aside.

kaij,

a-ko-de (aku
streets.

a salutation

one in the

a-kpa,
n.

n.

a thorny

tree.

a-ko-dza,
pletion.

a bringing

a-ko-dzO, (Rom. a-k6-k,


a-k6-ki,
'

n.

a prodigal, a spendthrift ; a drum a pack rope : akpa asara, a roll of tobacco. a piling up, accumulation, a lump a-kpa-da, n. a return, renovation.
to

an

end, finishing, coin-

d.-kpa, n.

cord,

14, 16)
n. n.
n. n.

se akodio, to gather in

a crop.

a-kpa-da-htl,
a-kpa-di,
a-kpfi-ko,
n.

of a series, first counted. a salutation on meeting in the road.


the first

n. afresh a potsherd.

start,

a young sprout.

a-kpa-gbfe-yii), n.
n.

a' runt.

a-ko-ko,

a tooth

a woodpecker.
:

a-kd-ko,
is

a point of time

akoko kodza,

the time

a-kp9,-ko,

n. n.

a board, a plank fioor. a footstalk of the wine-palm.

past.

a-kpa-la,
n.

a kind of gourd

a clod of earth
:

a-k6-kCir), n.

a-k6-kp5,

a remainder, remnant. a collecting together,

tohistle.

collection,

a-kpa-l9

(alo), n.

a riddle-maker

akpalo kpatit^,

draught. (Luke 5, 4.) a-ko'-16-10, n. a stutterer, a staminerer. a-ko'-ni-si-se, n. a taskmaster, a driver.

a riddle-nmkcr makes them

to sell.

a-kpa-mo-ra, n. long suffering. a-kpa-ni (eni), n. a murderer, an


a-kpa-ni-dze,
n.

executioner.
7, 15.)

a-k6-ri-ra, n.

a hater.

a devourer, (Mat.

a-k6-ro,

n.

a boggy or

muddy place.

a-kpa-ra,

barrenness of land.

AKP
-

14
a-kur)-yui)-gb&, n.

ALA
a court
flatterer,

a-kpa-ri,

n.

a bald-headed person.
n.

a bard, a

a-kp9.-ro, n.

a-kpa-ror),

a partridge. a kind of ratan. a


shield.

drummer.
a-ku.-r6, n.
season.

a garden by

the water side, for the dry

a-kpa-ta,

n.

a-kpfi-ta, M.
n.

a rock.

a-ku-t&,
ft-la, n.

n.

salutation to one

who

is selling.
d:c.

a-kp6-dze, a-kpd-dz6, n. an assembly. a-kpe'-dzu-re, n. a pattern, model.


a-kpe-l,
n.

an

invited guest.

fine white cloth, linen, cambric,

a-M,

n.

a dream

14 ala, to

dream.
associate.

a-la'-ba-dze, n.

a fellow-guest, an
n.

a surname.
one

a-la'-ba-kpa,
calls

n.

a partner in hunting or fishing.


chance, luck.
sharer.
robber,

a-kpe-na,
together.

n.

who summons or

a meeting a-la-ba'-kpa-de,
a-la'-ba-kpir), n.

a partner, a a highway
lielper.

a-kpe-na, n. warp-piins of a native loom. , a-kpe-re, n. a pad to ride on. a-kpe, n. a staying : akpe li o kpe, you stayed long. a-kp, n. a clapping of hands : ae akpe, to clap. a-kpe-dza, . a fisherman. a-kpe-re. See akpedzurc. a-kpe-ta, n. part of a dead body, as a finger, a nail, or a lock of hair, brought home from the battlefield to the relatives.

a-la'-ba-mo-lS,
a-la'-ba-iii), n.

n.

a kidnapper.

a fellow-traveller. a

a-la'-ba-se, n.
a-lfi-bd, n.

a-la'-bi-n6-k1i, n.

a deadly foe. a shelterer, defender.


n.

a-la'-bo-dzu-to,
a-la'-bd-o-viT'd, n.

the

a superintendent. owner of a bundle of cowries.


blesses or is blessed.
:

a-la'-bu-k6r), n.

a-kpi-ni,

n. n.

the chief of the priests called odie.

a-kpi-nti,

a kind of drum.

despises or is despised bukuij aroi), an invalid, a disabled person. a-la-bu-si, . one who bestows.

a-la'-bu-kdr),

n.

who who

ala-

a-kpo,

n.

a quiver.
:

a-la'-da-ra5,
a-la'-da-si, n.

n.

an

errorist,

heretic.

d.-kpo, n. a bag akpo agadagodo, a kind of leathern bag ; akpo isana, a bag for flint and tinder.

a meddler.

a-kpo-fir), n.

the chief archer.


n.

a-la'-da-so, n. one who speaks in the name of another without authority : aladas9 ni Mobomodu,

a-kpo-kpo,

roll

of cloth

tlie

pod of

certain

Mohammed was
a-la-de, n.
one

self-sent.

who wears a crown, a crowned head,


the oil adi.

a-kpo-lu'-ku-tu,
silkworm.
n.

n.

the large cocoon of the

African

king

omo

alade, the king's children,

a-la-dl, n.

a dealer in
n.

See akpofiq. a-kpo'-ri-ki, a walk in a garden. n. a-kpo-ro,

a-la-d5i), n.

paste of bene-seeds.

a-la-do-ta,
n.

which
n.

costs sixty cowries.

a-kpo-r6 (kpa
a-kpo-ti,
n.

oro), n.
box,

an
:

antidote.

a-la'-du-gbo,
afoot-stool.

a neighbor.
reconciler.

stool
:

akpoti

itise,

a-la-dza,

a peace-maker, a

a-kpor), n. a bachelor has weaned her child.


a-kpoi),
n.

akpoi) obiri,

a woman who a-la-dze,

a self-assumed nickname. a-la'-dzo-kpa. See alabakpa.


n.

restlessness.

a-kp6-nti, a-kp6-ti, n. a-ktl (aiku), n. a salutation.

a brewer.

a-la-dzo-ni, n. a partaker dition, a fellow.

one in the same con-

a-la'-dzu-ku,
a-la'-fe-hir)-ti

n.
(fi

seller

a-kua-bS
a-kua-lS a-kua-re
tigued.

(abS), n.
(ale),

n.

salutation to one returning. salutation in the evening. salutation


to

a-la'-fe-ti-gb6

n. eti), n.

of diuku tobacco. a hearer.

(fi eliiij),

a prop, a supporter. a meddler, a busy-body.

(are), n.

one

who

is

fa- a-la'-fe-nu-si
a-la'-fe-ri, n.

(fi

enu), n.
seeker.

a-kua-r5

(auro),

n.

salutation

in

the

morning,

a-la-fl-a, n.

peace, safety, prosperity.

good morning. a-kua'-ti-dzo (atidzo),

a-la'-fi-hfi.r), n.

n.

salutation to one

who

a-la'-fi-la, n.
a-la-fir), m.

a shower, a dealer in

exhibitor ;
caps.

traitor,

a-ku-td.

has not been seen for a long time. See akuabo.


the heart-ioood of a tree.
71.

one

a-la-fi-ye-si, n.
ent.
is sitting.

who owns a palace. an observer, overseer,


a valley.

superintend-

a-ku-dir), n.

a-kti-dz6-ko,

salutation to one

who

a'-la-fo, n.

hole, scuttle ;
(fi

a-kue-m

(eru), salutation to one carrying a load, n.

a-la'-fo-dzu-to
a-la'-fu-ra, n.

odiu).

See

alafiyesi.

a-kui'-e-gbe,

rheumatism.

a'-ku-ko, n. a male fowl, a cock. a-ku-16 (ile), n. salutation to one in


a-kur),
a-kui)-re-te, n.

a-la-fu-ta, .
the house.

a suspicious person. a jmrse, a wallet.


n.

a-la-ga (aga),
a-la-ga-ri, n.

a dealer in chairs.

a stupid person.

a saddler.

ALA
a-la-gba,
n.

15
a-lai-sf, n.

ALA
one one

an
n.

elder,

a-la'-gba.-f 5, n.

honorable man, gentleman. a washerwoman.

a-lai-se, n.

who is absent. who fails to do

which

is

necessary.

a-la-gb&-ra,

a strong man, a great man.


a hired farm-servant.
n.

(Acts 15, 28.)


a-lai-se, n.

a-la'-gb.-r6, n.
advocate.

one

who
one

does not sin.

(Ps. 19, 13.)

a-la'-gba-so, a-la'-gba--wi,
a-la'-gb.-se, n.

a spokesman, an a-lai-so-do-do,
a-lai-so-t6, n.
a-lai-t6, n.

n.

one

who

is

unrighteous.

who
is

does wrong,

a hireling.
one

which

a-la'-gbfl.-t^ n.

who

sells

on commission.

a-la'-gb3.-to,

n.

a foster-nurse.
See alagbaso.

a-lai-ya, n. who a clean heart.

not right. has a heart : alaiya

mim6, one with


:

a-la'-gba-^wi.

a-lai-ye

(li

aiyc), n.

the

owner of the world

6 diaiye

a-la-gbe,

n.

a beggar.
a blacksmith, a smith.
n.

a-la'-gbe-de, n.

world more than the alaiyc loh, he enjoys the owner of the world (said of extravagant persons).

dzu
a
receiver of money.

a-la'-gbo-wo (ghk owo),


a-la'-gb6-rar) (gb6
obedient.
a-19.-gi, .

a-lai-y6,

n.

which
one

is alive.

n. oraij),

one

who

is

heedful,

a-lai-ye, n.

a-lai-y6, n.

who is unfit, unworthy. one who is hungry. (Luke

6, 11.)

splitter or

sawer of wood.

a-la'-ka-ra,

n.

a baker, a dealer in bread.

a-la-gi-di-gba,
palm-nuts. a-la-gi-sa, n. a-la'-he-re,
n.

n.

beads

manufactured

a ragged person, a dealer in one who gathers in a crop.


one

from a-la-ka-tar)-kpo, n. a, cross-bow man. A-la-ke, n. the Lord of Ake, a title of the King of Egba, from li, to have, and Ake, the name of the rags.
royal
city.'

a-la'-he-so, n. a-la'-ho-ro,
a-lai-bo,
n.

a news-monger, a smatterer.

a-la'-ke-le, n. a-la'-ke-si, n.
a-la-kor), n.

a master weaver. a visitor. an addition

n.

who
is is

is desolate.

which

unsheltered, defenceless.
unstable, changeable.
is

to.

a-lai-du-ro, n.

which

a-la'-ko-se,
3.'-la-kpa, n.

n.

a-lai-gbe-de (gb6 ede), n. one who the language, a barbarian.


a-lai-gb6, a-lai-gb6-rar),
advice.
n.

ignorant of
will not take

a-la'-ko-ti, n.

a beginner. a disobedient person.

an old
n.

wall.

one

who

a-la'-kpa-rui),
a-la'-kpa-ta., n.

a destroyer.

a
n.

butcher.

a-lal-gboi), n.
n.

one

who

is

unwise.

a-la'-kp6-dze,
a-la-kpir),
n.

an

invited guest.

who is untattoed, uncircumcised. a-lai-ko-la, one who is untaught, ignorant. n. a-lai-k6, a-lal-ku, n. who is immortal. who is unsaved, unsafe. a-lai-ia, .
a-lai-le, .

a divider, sharer.

a-la'-kpo-lu, n. a mixer, an apothecary. a-l^-la, n. which is white.


a-la-lS., M.

a dreamer.
evening

which

is

a-lai-le-ra, n.
a-lai-16-re, n.

who

weak, unsound. is weak or infirm.


is unjyrofitable.

a-la-lS, n.
evening.

by evening
n.

li

alal|,

every

which

a-la'-lu-kpfi-yi-da,

a juggler.
n.

a-lai-le-so, n. a-lai-lS-se, n.

which

is fruitless, barren.

who

is sinless,

innocent.

a-la'-mgba, a-la-m&, a spy, a secret a-19.-nii, w.


ted, speckled.

the red-headed lizard.

observer ; which is spot-

a-lai-16-gb9r), n. one without wisdom. one without honor. a-lai-lo-la, ?j.

a-lai-mo-re, one who

a-lai-mo-ye,
a-lal-ni5, n.

n.

is ungrateful. one without understanding.

a-la-mb, n. a secret. See alamgba. A-la'-mp-re, n. A title of Obatala, as


the body,
lit.

the

maker of

the

one
n.

who
one

is

ignorant.

a-la'-mo-rl.
a-la-nf-yai),
ie alaini, to

owner of the good clay. See alamgba.


one

a-lai-in5-"W,
need, to tvant.

a-lal-nf, one tvho lias

who cannot read. not, who is needy :


child.

n.

who

is

anxious.

a-la'-nta-kur)

(ta

okuq), a-lai)-sa-sa, n. a spider.

a-lai-ni-ba-bfi, n.

a fatherless
n.

a-lai-ni-gba-gb6,
a-lai-nl-ka-n6,
a-lai-ni-to, n.
n.

an

unbeliever.

a-la-nu, n. one who is merciful. a-la-ra (liara), n. which has a body (Mat. 14, 36), a free person.
a-la'-ra-b&-ra, n.
bara, all sorts

one without cruelty. one who has not enough.

kinds, fashions

oniruru alara

offashions.
one

a-lai-nl-ya

(iya), n.

a motherless
is

child.

a-la'-r9.-dze, n.

who buys

his provisions.

a-lai-nl-ye, n.

which

numberless.

a-la'-rar)-se, n.

a helper.
n.

a-lai-nl-ye-ii6 (iye in6), n.


standing.
a-lai-ri-Tvl, n.

who

is

without under- a-19.-re, n.

one in the right, righteous.

a-la-r6-ke-r-ke,
one without excuse.

a scoundrel. a
transgressor.

a-la'-r6-k6-dza,

n.

ALA
a-la'-re-na, n.
a-la-rl, n.

16
Al-ku-ra-ni
a-16, n.

AMO
(Arab.), n.
tlie

one employed to engage a bride for

Koran.

another, a go-between.
scarlet.

district ; flame.

a-lo-ngo,

n.

tight-legged trowsers.

a-la'-rir)-dz6, n.
a-la'-riij-ki-ri, n.

a strolling dancer. a wanderer, stroller.


is blue.

a-lo-re, n.
a-lo, n.

sentinel's stand,
is inverted ;
is bent,

gibbet.

which which

riddle.
:

a-la-ro, n.

which a

a-16, n.

grafted

al6 ina, flame.

a-la'-ro-l)5, n.

petti/ trader.
tiller.

a-lo'-le-ke (ileke), n.

a-la'-ro-ko, n. a-la'-ro-ye, n.
a-la-rvl, n.
n.
ti.

a farmer, a great

talker.

a-lo'-mo-ri (omo ori), a-lo-m6, n. which is engrafted.

a bead-grinder. n. which has a

lid.

a porter,

carrier.

a-la-sa,
a-la-s6,

a king's messenger. a cook.

a-ld-ni-ld-TVO-gbS. (!o owo), n. an extortioner. a-lu-ba-ra, n. a beetle. See bambam.


a-lil-ba-ta, n.

a beater of

the

drum
the

called bata.

a-la'-si-ki, n.

who

is

prosperous.

a-lu-bo-sa,
dopdo:).
a'-lu-fa, n. a-lu-fa, n.

n.

an onion.
a beater of

a-la-so, n. a-la-s5, n.

talker.

a-lii-dor)-d9i), n.

drum

called

a quarrelsome person.
a flatterer, one who exaggerates.
officer.

a-la'-so-ddr), n.

a learned man,

religious.

a-la-sa, n.

a military

teacher, doctor in religious

knowledge.

a-la-sfi.-ra, n.

a dealer in tobacco or

snuff.

See

olifa.

a-la'-se-dzCl, n. willed person.


a-la'-se-rftr), n.

who

acts

extravagantly,

self-

a-lu-gba, a-lu-gbe,

n.
n.
7i.

a door-facing.
domesticated honey-bees. a likeness, resemblance.

one whose actions infect others, a

a-lu-gbor),

leader in evil.

a-lu'-kar)-rin, n.

a crow. a jacket,
tunic.

a-la-BO, n.

one

who has
n.

cloth,

a dealer in

cloth.

a-lu-ka-sa-fa,

n. n.

a-la-ta'-mkpo-ko,
a-la'-ti-le-hir), n.

a grasshopper.

a-lu-ka-vra-ni,

an agreement.
a stirrup.

a sustainer, supporter.

a-lu-ke-mbu,
a-lu-kb,
n.

a-la-t9r)-se, n.

one loho mends or repairs, a re- 3.'-lu-ko, n.

a cockatoo.
purple.
n.

former.
a-la-'we,
n.

a-la-vsre, n.

which has cotyledons. a faster, a mourner.


one

a-lu-kpa'-yi-da,
refuses a-lu-se, n.

sleight

(Acts 16, 14.) of hand.

a-la'-'wi-l-gb6, n.
advice.

who

is

unruly, who

a-lu-ma-ga-dzi, w. scissors. a door-lock.


a damage, misfortune.
ablution.

a-lu-sir), n.

a-la'-"wi-i-ye, n. one

a-l-a'-wi-k&,
a-la-'Wd,
n.

n.

does not speak intelligibly. a wizard, a witch.

who

a-lu'-"wa-la, n.
a-lu'-'wa-si,
a-mi-lfi.

parade, ostentation.
aid), n.

a-la'-^wl-ye, n.

one

who

explains.

(mo
n.

an

interpreter

of dreams.

as an adj., a-inb6 (bo, to a-la-"w6, n. ; which has color: malu alaw5 kpukpa, a red colored lect; whence orombo,

a diviner, a priest. a leather or fiide dealer

a'-ma-la,

yam-flour mush. peel), a white man, in the Iketu dialit.

orange, or the white man's

cow

alawo kpikpS, many

colored.

fruit.

one toho lives in a palace. a-la'-"w5-fir) (afiq), n. a-la-y&r)-dze, . a swindler.

a-mbo-sir), a-nib9'-to-rl, adv.

lohat else ?

a-la-ye,

n.

which

is

spacious, roomy,
life.

a-mbu-a, n. red ink. a-m.6-wa (ni6 ^wa), n.


9.-nii, n.

a judge of beauty.

a-19.-ye, n.

which has

sign.

a-la'-y e-kar), n.
a-la-yi, pron.

a kind of apron.

a-ml,

n.

a spy.
n.
n.

this.

a-mi-kir),

a breathing
which
is

on.

a-la'-yi-dfi.-yi-d&, n.
bler.
(I's.

an artful fellow, a dissem- a-mi-kpb,


38.)

shaken together.

(Luke

6,

26, 4.)

a-le, n.

a-le-bu,

n.

a concubine. one who


n.

a-mlr), adv.
vilifies,

amen. a breathing
ofiij)

or abuses.

a-ird-sl, n.

into.

a-le-dzo,

a-le-gba, n. a-le-SO, which


a-le, n.

a stranger. a kind of yellow monkey.


is fruitful.

a-md-fir) (mo

n.

a lawyer.

a-mo-dz(i-k<i-ro
observing.
n. n.

(niu), n.

an overlooking, or not

evening.
w.

a-mo-re,
a spirited
horse.

a thankful person.

a-li-ga'-ri-mi,

a-li-kfi-ma, n.
a-li-kl-ba, n.

wheat. blanket.

a-mo-ye, a-mo, n. a
k-rag,
n.

an

intelligent person.

large earthen pot.

potter's clay.

AMO
a-in6,
n.

17
a
child.

ARI
\

ag-ge-re, ??, a wooden leg. a-mo-dur), n. next year : woyi amodui) m' k to a-ra, n. an oath. body, skin, member of a community, self : gbai)ga-gbai)ga, b)j this time next year I shall be a a-rfi, M. ar41e {\\i), family ; arale (ile), citizen ; ara mi dd, great man.
which adheres
;

figuratively,

a-in5-dza,

n. n.
:

a guess
one

&e amSdia, to guess.


tries

my

body
is

is well,
i.

a-m5-dze,
a-mb-dztl,
a-m.6-dzil,

who

susjyected

persons by

skin

pale,

e.

water ordeal
n. n.

id amodie, to try by water.

body pains me,


iyara, the

e. / am well ; ard mi fuq, my / am alarmed ; ard kai) mi, my ara e. / am grieved, vexed ;
i. i.

one

who
n.

is

well informed.

body

itself,

the natural body.

drunkenness, a drunkard.

a-ra, n.

thunder.
the cotton-tree

a-in5-hur)-gbo-gbo,

who

is

omniscient.

a'-ra-ba, n.

a-mo-kpa,
drunkard.

a-mo-kpa-ra,

n.

drunkenness,

a a-ra'-bi-ri

(obiri), n.

sister,

(bombax). a female

relative.

a-rft-dzo {vh adio), n.


a-ra'-kor)-ri, n.
a-rfi.-16, M. a-rfi,-16,

traveller.
relative.

a-ni5-kp, conj. though, notwithstanding. a-mo-kur), n. a latne jierson, lameness. a-mo-le (mo ile), n. a builder.
a-mo-le,
a-ni6-na, a-ni6-na,
a-ni6-ra, a-in5-se,
n.

a male

a melnber of the family. a citizen, inhabitant. a-rS.-lu, n.

a conspirator
n.

se amoll, to conspire.

a-ra-in6-ri, n.
a-rai), n.

tight cap.

a-ino-16-kpa,
n. n. n.
n.

assassination.
:

intestinal
velvet.

worms.

a guide

se

amona,

to guide, lead.

a-rS.1), n.

booty, plunder.

S,-rar(, n.

a-mb-rar),

an attendant, body-servant. a wise person.


wilfulness, obstinacy.

dotage : se ^raij, to be old and a-rar)-ba-ta, n. a shoemaker.


a-rar)-k9.r), n.
bitterness, spitefulness.

silly.

n.

a-raij-mfl, n.
self-conceit.

which

is infectious.

a-ni5-tS.r), n.

pretended knowledge,
n.

a-rfi.r)-ni-16-"WO, n.

help,

a helper.

a-mo-te-kur),

an animal

like

a leopard.

a-rar)-se, n.

See the preceding.

a-m5-te-le, n. foreknowledge. a-mu, 71. a hook.

a-rar)-so, n.
a-rarj-'WTi, n.

sewer, tailor.

a cotton-spinner.
at all, in the least.

a-mu,

n.

confusion of mind.
n.
n.

a-ra-ra, adv.
a-ra-rfi, w.

a-mu-bfi,

means, instrumentality. ^

a dwarf.

a-mu-di,

cold. n.

a-mu-kpa-da,
a-mu-rar), n.
while sewing.

a-ra-rtm, num. five by five. a bringing back, restoration. a-rS.-tu-bu, n. a prisoner, one in jail. a tailor's hook, to hold the cloth a-ra-yfi, n. liveliness, cheerfulness, merriment.
9.-re, n.

a being in

the right

emi ^e

are,

I am right.

a-mu-re,

n.

a-mfi-ror), n.

a girdle ; a kind of lizard. a bleeding at the nose.


result, effect, issue.

a-r-ke-r-ke, n. dishonesty, knavishness ; a trick, a knave : edio so ar^kereke, the serpent was subtle.
(Gen. 3, 1.) a-re-re, n. deep
n.
silence.

a-mu-'wSll,

n.

a-mu-ya,
a-na,
n.

n.

seizure of goods for debt.


:

yesterday

6 de

li

ana, he
;

came yesterday. a-re,


extension of kinni
i

eldership, older ; as a title of honor, gene:

fi-na, n.

relative

by marriage

ralissimo

iwo ^e are mi, you are older than


is the are.
:

I;

are

dred.

a-na-bi

(Gen. 30, 20.) the prophet (Arab.), n.

die, he

anabi

Musa

li

o a-re, n.
it is

fatigue
to

are
tire

mu
one

mi,
;

/ am

tired

6 t6 are,
tAi),

wi, the prophet

Moses
n.

said.

enough

ara mi di are

/ am

a-na'-bi-ri
aunt, dc.

(obiri),

a female
n.

relative,

sister,

tired. (Ps. "73, 2C.) a general in the army. a-re-kfi.-kai)-f6, n.

a-na'-kor)-ri (okoqvi),

a male

relative.

a-re-kfi-nda,
a-re-16, n.

n.

deceit.

a-nl

to say), (ni,

adv.

even, yea.

abasement, an abaser.
n.

a-nl-a-ni,

n.

doubt, uncertainty.

a-re-mo (omp),
a-re-ni-dze,
a a-rf,
n.

the eldest child, first born.

a-nl-do-kpir)
a-ni-tftr), n.

(de okpii)), n.

complete possession.
as

cheater.

a-nl-ni-la-ra, n.

an

o^opressor.

complete possession; used also


anxiety, care.

a-re-AVa (ara ewa), n. a beautifid person. which is seen : etu mbe li oko ? ari, are n.

there

proper name.
a-ni-yar), n.

any guinea-fowls on

the farm? there are

ari! see

now
ko anu,
to

a-nte-te,
a-nfl, n.

n.

a kind of cricket.
:

a-ri-di-dzi, n.
;

an apparition.
is hot,

pity, sorroto

ie anu, to pity

a-ri-fi, n.

which

heat

in6 re gbona bi

arifi,

moxirn.
aij-fa-ni, which is easily performed
;

the inside is hot as heat.

advantage.

a-ri-hur)-gbo-gbo,

n.

all-seeing.

ARI
a-ril), n.

18
previoumess
:

ASO
!

the centre,
it
:

time,

li

arii) rS,

a-sfi.

inter},

excuse

me !
asia.

said

by a

bailiff

when he

in the middle of once


arijj

mo

se e

li

arin kaq,
it

/ did

it
li

arrests a

man.
w. n.

See

mo ri li aiiij k4n, / liave seen odio, in the midst of the rain.


a
street dancer.
;

before ;

a-sa-di-dze,
a-sfi-lfl, n.

afoot-race.
the square

a-sa-ka-ni-l,

of a house.
:

a-rir)-dzo, n.
a-rii)-ko, n.
a'-rl-'Wfi, n.

a fleeing for
barrenness
:

safety, escape, refuge

sa

a point of time
the north.

chance.

asala, to escape.
a-sft-lS, n.

di asale, to be barren. (2

a-ri-'wi, n.

an

excuse, extenuation.

Pct."l, 80.)

a'-ri-vro, n. noise, uproar. a-rd, n. meditation : se aro, to meditate.

a-s9l), n.

emptiness, vanity, naught


It

asag

li

ori^a,

idols are vain

a-r6, n.
d,-ro,

corn-crib ; blue dye.

or contemptible ; without excuse or cause.

asaq, in vain,

n.

sorrow,

mourning

da

aro,

se

aro,

to

a-sfiii-k6r), .

mourn,

to be soi-ry.

a-sa-re, m.
a-sfi.-s6, n.

full payment. a runner.


cook.

a-ro, n. restlessness ; a hearth, a stand on which pots are set to boil.


a.-TO-'hg, n.

a-sS.-sii), n.
live

a runaway,

who

forsakes his father to

petty

traffic.

with another.
paint, color.
:

a-rd-dze,

n.

resting-place

on

the road.

a-se, a-se, n.
a-sd, n.

a-r6-h.ur)-g'bo-gT30.
a-r6-k3.r), n.

See arihuijgbogbo.

a meal, a feast

ase al5, a supper ; as6

a-ro-ko,

n.

painful reflexion, grief, remorse. the head man of a farm.

a-ro-kpin,
a-ro-le, n.

n.

limit

ie arokpii), to limit.

; ase iyawo, a wedding-feast ; asfe owurS, breakfast ; ase osai), dinner. a-se-kpoi), n. a barren woman, used as a term of

idio, a public feast

an

heir.

reproach.

a-ro-in6-le, n.
a-r6-ni-kfi, n.

the afternoon.

a-se-ndze.
a-se-n6,
on, terms,
n.

See asase.

witch, wizard.

a barren woman.
the fetid field-rat.

a-ro-si-ld, a-ro-tS-le, n.
bargain.

a thing agreed
li

a-se, M.

a strainer ;

S.-se, ai-s&, n.

large door.

a-ro-"wa,

n.

now

wdli

arowa, come now.


:

a-se-mi
to

(omi), n.

water-filter.

a-ro-ye, n.

grumbling, disputing

se

aroye,

a'-si-a, n.

a flag,

ensign.

grumble, dispute. one with withered limbs, a cripple. a-ro, n. the smithes trade. a-r6, n.
a-r5, n.
affliction,

a'-si-a

interj.

excuse

me ! I

beg pardon ! alas !

See as4.
a-si-ki, n.
a-sir), n.

good
service.

luck, success.

lamenting.

a-r6, n.

a quiver made of a long gourd.


one skilled in traditions.
n.

a-ro-kii), n.

a-sir)-gba, n. an express, or the sending of things, generally the king's goods, from post to post.

a-ro-ku-ro,
children.

the latter rains.


ri

a-sir)-kpa, n.
one

bitter service.

a-r6-ni9-'bl-nio (6

om9),

n.

who has grandis

a-sir)-rir), n.

the rat called ase.

a-sir)-AVii), w.

afool, a crazy person, lunacy.


the last state.

A-rp-ni

the name of a fairy. (aro enia), n. (It sculptured as a female, with one arm and one

a-si-"wa, n.

(Luke 11,

26.)
asi

leg,

with a long queue and a ball at the end.)


a-r5r), n.
41, 3.)
sickness
:

a'-si-'wa a'-si-bb, adv. now at last : ndie, asibo yi 6 de, then, at last he will come.

wa

ni ibule aroi), in sickness. (Ps.

a-so-fei-ye-dze
it

(fu eiye), n.

species

of fig

(lit.

bears for birds to eat).


n.

a-r5n-ka-r5r),
disease.

n.

all sorts of diseases;

an

evil

a-s6-gb6,
a-s5,

ripe fruit.
n.

a-s6-kp5,
n.

wrangling

tisb

baba

idia,

a-ru-da, n.
a-ru-fir), n.

a propitiatory
a law-breaker.

sacrifice.

wrangling
a-s5-d5r),

is the father

of fighting.

sweet talk, flattery, exaggeration.

an old person. a-ru-go-gai), n. an iron hook. a-ru-k9i), . a freshet; an extra a-nii), num. five.
a-ru-gb6,
n.

3.-s6-ni-dS.-ho-ro, n.

a desolation.

a-s6-ni-d3.-y6,
sacrifice.

n.

which

quickens,

or

makes

alive.

a-SOq-k6r),

n. n.

increase, the dropsy.

a-ruQ-di-lo-gljor) (di
five.

W,

from
on),

on),

num. twenty- a-S9r)-nx6,


sixty-five.
tattler.

nearness, proximity,
n.

a-s5-ro-dze-dze, a-s6-ro-ke-le,
(le
li,

a whisperer,
:

a-rur)-le-lo-ta

laid

num.

a-sa, n.
a-Sfi, n.

a saddle. a flight, a running.

a-so-t&ij, w.

completeness of talking

6 sbro

If

aso-

tdq, he spoke perfectly.

(Acts 18, 26.)

ASO
a-SO-td-le, n.

19
;

ATE
(enu), n.
n.

prophecy, prediction

so asotSle, to

a-se-nu

an advocate, mediator.
beginning.

prophesy, predict.
a-SO-ti, n.

(Acts 19,

6.)

a-s-se-ko-se,

an

unfinished

talking,

a failure
:

in

making a
a-so-ye,
a-sd-bd,
a-silr), n.
n.

speech.

a-si-kpa-ya, a a-si-ri, n.
a-si-se, n.

n.

revealing, disclosing.

secret,

a discovery.

a reasoning, explaining

so asoye, to

convince.
n.

(Acts 18, 28.) a gilding, or plating of metal.


state

a laborer, a poor man. a pistol. a-si-so-ri, n.


a-si-AV^-re, n. a fool. (Ps. 31, 33.) a-B6, n. a morose sour look : aio erig, an elephant

of being asleep.

the sleep of death. a'-sur)-"w6g, n. a wallet, a purse. &-sa, n. a fashion, a custom : asa
a-silr)-k<i, n.

feeding alone.

a-so-dzu.
lailai,

See a^ehiijde.

an old a-so-re,

n.

a
a

well-doer, benefactor.

custom.

a-so-ri, n.

tree to

which the natives ascribe

the

pro

asa ni Takpa eiye, the falcon is perties of the upas. the Takpa of birds. a sharp-pointed knife. or Nufe people a-S0-r6, n. (The Takpa a tormenter, a vindictive person. are said to be the swiftest of men.) n. a-s6-ro, which is picked up : &ik enia, an idler, a-sd-TWO, n. a trader, merchant. n. a-S&,
a-sa, n.
:

a falcon

lounger, vagabond. a-sa-dzii, n. a forerunner.

a-so, n.
dress
;

cloth, clothing ;

a watcher

aio oio, a fine

&ko

a-sa-gbe,
a-sa-gi

n.

a beggar.
n.
chips.

a-s5, n.

a curtain. one who is fierce, a savage.


tita,

(igi),

a-SO-lu
a contentious person.
a-SO-te,
over a corpse.

(as9, watcher, ilu, town), n.


71.

a magistrate.

a-sa-goi), n.

contention,

a
n. n.

revolter, rebel, hater.

a-sa-kpa,
a-sfi.-lS, n.

n.

a canopy

a-su-kar),

barren or worn out land.


evening.

a-sa-le, n.
a-sarj, n.

a-su-Tvpr), red pepper. a-ta, n.


fi.-ta,

a kind of bread. a measure.


of a house. : ataba orei)k^re (re
eraij), n.

food without meat or


n.

sauce.

n.

the ridge

a-s&-ra,

snuff.

a'-ta-ba, n.

a dove

ni k^re),

a-sa-ro, n.
a-sa-ti, n.
a-sa-tl, n.

mush, porridge.

a wild pigeon.
cattle,

a-sa-ro, n. meditation, meditator: ie a^aro, to meditate. a-tfi-dza-te-rar) (ati adia ati a stack or shock. mestic animals of any kind.

do-

which

is rejected.

a-ta-fo, n.

a whitlow.
everlastingly.

a-sS.'-'wa-da, n.

jesting, playfulness.

a-tai-ye-rai-ye, adv.
n.

a-sa-"wi, n.

a one-sided statement, special pleading. a-ta-16,


playfulness, as that of a kitten.

ginger.
the larger species
n.

a-sa-ya,
a-se, n.

n.
n.

a-ta-li-a, n.

a-sa-yar),

which

is selected.

a-ta'-mkpo-ko,
a-ta'-mo-ra,
excess.

the

of Malaghetta pepper. thumb.


is

an

action, actor ; paint.

n.

one

who

girded with armor, or

a-se-dzil, n.
a-se-fe-fe, n.
a-se-h9.r), n. a-se-kS.r), n.

extravagant behavior,

entangled in business.

who

is

puffed up, proud.


action.

a-t&-na-infi.-na

(ati

ana m8 ana), adv.

from

yester-

tohich is done for display.

day

till

now.
refuse.

a final
which

a-se-kpe,

n.

is

perfected.

(1 Pet. 5, 10.)

a-se-ktir), n.

lohich remains unfinished. falseness.


(Jas. 1, 21.)

what is thrown away, a dung-hill, dirt-pile. a-ta-re-re, n. a kind of pepper.


a-t&-n5,
n.
9.-tar), n.

a-se-le-ke, n.
a-se-sa,
n.

a-ta-ri, n.
a-te, n.

the

crown of

the head.

disgraceful action.

a kind of rat.
a hat
;

a-se-tSu,
a-se-tl, n.

n.

which

is

completed.

a-te, n.

bird-lime.
is first,

a failure.
w.

See asekui).
(2 Pet.
2, 10.)

a-te-te, n.

which

youngest.

a-se-ti-n6,
a-se, n.
cess
:

self-will.

a-te-te-ba, n. which
tier.

is first

met,an outer yard, fron-

12)

power, a commandment ; good speed, sucase ik5, authority, commission (Acts 26, He ase, a mighty work, a miracle ; kpa a^e,
li

a-te-te-bi, n.

the first-bom.
n.

a-te-te-kg-se, a-te-te-se,
a-te, n.
3.-te, n.

the beginning,

kpa

. .

a^e, to

command,

decree.

fiatness, insipidity, disgrace.

a-se, n.

which comes
;

to pass,

a fulfilment,

effect;

a fan for winnoioing.


n.

imjrrecation

the menses.

a-te-gur),

a-sei-ye-sa-te
sembler.

(eiye ate), n.

double-dealer, dis-

a-te-le, n.

afresh breeze. which follows, the


a hunchback.

next, the second.

a-tfe-le-bg-si, n.
(ehii)),

the outer yard.

a-se-hir)-de

n.

an agent.

a-te-le-hir), n.

ATE
a-te-le-se, n.
a-t6-lo-'VB"6, w.
the sole of the foot.

20
a-t6-na,
n.

AWI
a spy, loatchman on the road.

the

palm

of the

a hand-breadth.
a-te-mo-ra,
a-te-ru,
n.

hand: ibu atelow6, a-torj-bi, a-tur)-bi, n. regeneration. a recreating. a-t9r)-d&, n.


a-tOQ-hii, .

n.

long suffering.

repetition

of behavior,

a fresh

a slave-dealer.

sprouting out, revival.

a-ti,

a-toi)-kpa, n. a candle. a-te-'wo-gb&, n. which is acceptable. a prefix, forming nouns which present the a-tor)-se, n, a mending, amendment. meaning of the verb in a substantive form ; as, a-tog-wi, n. repetition of a thing said.
atiri,

seeing ;

k i)w6na

atiri,

we are trying

to see.

a-t9-rur)-"W"fili (ati

wug),

n.

which

is original.

a-ti, prep.
a-ti, conj.

from.

a-t9-'W"9-"W&h, n. which originates with oneself. a meeting, a coincidence ; used also as a-tu-b6-se, n. ivhich brings to completion. a proper name. a-tu-b5-tS.r), n. termination, end of life. a platform, a scaffold. a-tu-di-mb, n. a covenant breaker. (Rom. 1, 31.) a'-ti-ba-TDa, n. a coming, an advent. a'-ti-b5, n. a-tu-k9, n. one who rows or paddles a boat.
a'-ti-bfi, n.

and ; ati both you and I. emi, a sheaf. a-tl, n.

ati,

both

and

a-t6-si, M.
:

gonorrhoea.
(ati

ati

iwo

ati

a-to-'wo-do-"W9
15,2.)

de owo), n.

tradition.

(Mat.

a'-ti-de, n.

an

arrival.

a.-ti-dia.-T\iT), from five

days

till

now

emi 6

ri i li

which breaks up the ground, as a plough. a-tti-ni-ni-n6, n. which comforts.


a-tu-l&, n.
a-tur).

atiiarug,

I have

not seen
six

him for five days.


days
till

a'-ti-dze-fa, n.

from
the

now.
:

a'-u-r6, n.
li

a'-ti-dzo

(ati

odz9), n.

old times, former days

atidio iwa,

from

day of

being,

i.

e.

from

the

For words beginning in atm), see atog. morning. a-vra, pron. we : awa nd, we ourselves ; awa tiks^ra wa, we ourselves, our own selves ; ara wa, ourselves.

beginning of creation. the beginning. a-ti'-kpi-le-se, .

a-"W&,

71.

a sparrow.
a jest, a joke
n.
:

a'-ti-kpo, n.

resident, sojourner,

immigrant
:

se

fi.'-"wa-da,

se awada, to jest.

a'tikpo, to sojourn,

emigrate.

a'-"wa-intl, n.

adherence.

a'-ti-ma, auxil. part, denoting continuance


ri, to be seeing.

atima a'-"wa-n6,
a-"wa-ri, n.
it.

a waster, spendthrift. search : wah li awari 1, look


perfect ov perfected search.

till

you

a-ti-rar)-di-rai)

(irai)

de

n. iraij),

genealogy.

find
:

a-ti'-si-si-yi-16h, n.

this

time

and forward

)i

a-'wa-tfii), n.

atisisiyiloh, henceforth.

a-'Wa-ti, n.

an abandoned
awati,

search,

a failure

to find

a'-ti-se-nl-s, n.

a'-ti-tu'-ni-n6, n. a coming, arrival, advent. a'-ti-AVfih, n. the east. a'-ti-"wfih o-dzo, n.

a punishing, 2>umshment. a comforting, consolation.

we looked but could not find a-"W"a-"wi (wah wi), n. an excuse, subterfuge. a-'wa-ya, n. bird shot.
k
li

wdh a

it,

a-vra-yfi, n.
struggle, to be
n. n.

struggling,

agony

se

awaya,

to

a'-ti-"w6 o-rui), n.
a-to, n.

the west.

in agony.

which straightens, a long-necked gourd. SL-Mve-re, noise : kpa ato, to make a noise ; a-'wS-re, a-to, a-to-to, n. hear ye ! " oh yes ! " a word used by the a-"we, n. atoto
!

the yellow

monkey. a cotyledon,
to

folly, silliness.
;

breadth of cloth

town criers. i-we, n. mourning, a religious fast : gba awe, a-to-ni-mo-ni (ati oni m6 oni), n. morning till fast. now : emi b diehug li atonimoni, / have not eaten a-'we-in6, n. a washing clean, purification.
to-day.

a-vre-nb,
reason
of,

n.

which

is

washed

off,

a being cleansed

a-to-ri, n.

account of: li reason that, on account of. a-to, n. urine : ile ato, the bladder.

atori,

for

the

or pure.

a-"wi-gb6,
which
is

n.

a-wi-i-da-ke
old
:

(i,

hearsay, plain speaking. incessant talking. not), n.

a-to-dz9-in6-dzo,

n.

a long time

a.-'vn.-l-ghd, n.

one

who

refuses to receive advice.

5ro at6dz9modzo, an old story. a-to-dzu, n. a director.

a-"wi-kpe,

conj.

j^rovirfec? that.

a-tp-ko

(tu oko), n.
,

a pilot, helmsman.
de omo),
li

a-wi-m&h-yi-hur) (ohuij), n. a true one who speaks without equivocation.


3.-wir), n.
credit
:

statement,

a-to-kur), n.

leader, guide.
(ati

ta

li

awii), to sell

on

credit.

a-to-mo-do-mo
generation
:

n.

generation to
it

a-wi-rir), n.
a-Avi-si, n.
terms.

witch,
is

loizard.

yi

wa

atomodomo,

will remain

which

said in addition, superadded

from

generation

to generation.

AWI
a-"wrl-ya-nu (enu), n.
a-"wi-ye,
n.

21
a-yar)-8e-bi, conj.
:

Bi
unless, except.

importunity.
s5 awiye, to

discussion, explanation

SL-ye, n.
tiling
;

space, room, opportunity, or time to

do a

explain, discuss.

aye agba, a chief room.


breadth of cloth.
the state of being alive, that
n.

a-'WO,

n.

any white earthen

of corn ; an earthen basin

a plate ; a shock a-y6, the black-crested Guinea hen : awo koto, .-ye,
vessel,

n. n.

which

is alive,

awo

imi,

; awo oko, awo kpoko, a dish ; a chamber-pot ; awo aiya, a breast-plate.

a-ye-tfir),

perfect

understanding

of a thing.

(Acts 24, 22.)


a-yi-dfi.,
n.

a-'Wd, n. a secret bargain, a superstitious mystery ; a spy-glass : awo odiu, spectacles ; awb dzidii, a
looking-glass.

change,

cycle

of time, a year, next

season.

a-'wo-di, n.

a hawk.
colic.

a-yi-da'-yi-da, n. much talk, loquaciousness. a-yi-ka, n. a surrounding, circle, halo.


a.-yin, n.

a-'wd-ko, a-"w6-ko,
a-'wo-ni,
a-"wo-re,

n.

a palm-leaf mat.
light blue color.
the

n.
n.

the mocking-bird.

a-yii)-rii), n.

visitor.

d.-yo, n.

game

called warry.

a-"w6-rai), n.
n. M.

likeness, resemblance.

a-yo, a-y6, a-yo,

n. n. n. n.

which
eating

is beloved,

much prized.
which
is full.

luck.

to the full,

a-Tvd-se,

a pattern. a cure
:

which

is selected, chosen.
:

a-"w6-tfi.r), n.

so aw5tai], to cure.

a-y6,

joy, happiness
(ilu),

y6 ay5,

to rejoice. to

a-'wo-tl-ii, n.

a bow-knot.

a-y9-lu-'w6

n.

a spy sent

survey a town.
the

a-'WO-'WO,

a channel. a-"WO-ye, n. an inspector, spy. ii.-'wo, n. a hide, leather; color, outward appearance
n.

a-yo-mo,
:

n.

a daughter-in-law,
(eni), n.

wife of

king's son.

a-yo-ni-'w6
a-yo-sai),
n.

a spy

set

over one.

awo sama, a
a-w5-hii),
n.

cloud.

money paid for


which
is

sacrifice.

a hunch-back.
a.

a-y9-se,
lie.

n.

done by

stealth.
ayiir)

a-'WO '-16-h.ii,

a fabrication, a
n.
those.

a-'w5-le-'w6-ri,
a-"W"9-nl, pron.
n.
:

a boivlegged person. a cunning scamp, a miser,

a going : ayfig ab6, and returning. a-yun, n. a saw, a fie.


ydr), w.

aw4h, going

a-'WO!),

tortoise ;

stinginess

se aw9i), to be stingy.
:

a-'WO!), pron.

they they themselves.

awoi) na, awoij tikara

yfOT),

B
ba,
V.

a-"w6i), n.
a-'WO!),
n.

the tongue.

to

come in contact with


:

and hence,

to meet,

net.

overtake, find, befall


go),

ba

ti

r loh {meet of thee


. . .

a-^VOQ-k&i), pron. certain, some. a-"wor)-so, n. a weaver.


these. a-'wor)-yi, pron. a-'WU-dze, n. red beans.

go thy way ohur) (See ba


.

ba

. .

li go about thy business ; ba ba li oruko die lohui)) (See ni ino die (See ba lorukodie) ; ba

ninodie).

a.-'WM-dig, n.

the

midst of a crowd.

ba,

V.

to

bring in contact with

and hence,

to

plait ;

a-'WTi-dzu, n. confusion, the midst. a-ya, n. a wife. a monkey. a-yfi., n.

to strain, to bespeak, to

come

to the point in

speaking

about a thing ; to fit ; or hide ; to bend or

to alight ; to be bent
:

to sit, to lie close

ba

aro, to strain

a-y a-ba,
a-ya-ko,

n.

a king^s

wife,

a queen.

potash
16

rao b^

e^ii),

/ bespoke

the horse ; eiye


;

b^

a-ya-bfi, n.
n.

devoutness. (Acts 17, 17.) a mother-in-law. (Mat. 10, 35.)

okuta, the bird alighted

on the rock

ib9i) \>k,

the

gun

is bent.

a-ya-kpa, n. division, separation. a-ya-mo, n. a daughter-in-law.


a-ya-mo-'bi,
n.

ba, aux. pref.


bfi, adv.

shall, will,
:

at all

ki ise

6i) bii, it is

would, should, ought. not he at all.

otherwise, unless.

a-ya-ndze,
i.-yar), n.

n.

cheat, imposition.
:

ba, ba-ui), adv. so, as : tali o wi ba ? who said so ? iru 6nia ba w6ni, such people as these.
bfi,

a cockroach, a stench
inquisitiveness.

ie iiyai), to stink.

a-yai), n.

with, from, for : hk mi loh, go with me : prep, 6 b4 mi ra .idie (he from me bought fo^ol), he bought
;

a-yar)-fe, n. which is chosen, beloved ; a friend in the translation of Scripture, " the elect."

a fowl from me

ba mi wa owo {for me find

a-yar)-ga,
inferior.

n.

a word

money), find or get money for me. or rebuke to an ba-ba, n. of threatening copper, red Guinea-corn.
ba-bft, n.

a father, a master.

a-yar)-se,

n.

ivhich is

made

or done to order.

bfi-ba,

a great matter.

bA
b3.-ba, n.

22
:

BE
n.
to
.

a small matter
nla), n.

Mba

bo baba mole, a bfi-sa (Egba),


bfi
bfi.
.
.

great affair covers


ba-ba-lfi. (baba arch.

up a small

affair.

s6,

V.

a large room, parlor. quarrel with, scold.


co-operate; to suit.

a grandfather, a patria chief cook.


a priest of
to surprise
Ifa.

. .

stir), V.

to cohabit. to
assist,

bfi. ...

se,

(Acts

ba-bfi.-li.-se (alase), n.

15, 15.)

ba-bfi.-lQ.-'wo (al4w6), n.
bfi.-bi-ka, n.

ba-so-rui).

See iba^orui).
hoof; a small

a popular dance.
v.

ba-ta,

n.

hide, leather, shoe, sandal,

bfi.-bu-dzfi (abudza),

by coming upon

box.

suddenly,

to

thwart.

bfi-ta, n.

a kind of drum.
V.

ba-da,
bfi.
.

n.

title.

. .

dfi,-kpd,

V.

to unite with, to join

6 hk

ba ba woq

tfi.r),

to be akin. to

ti,

t".

dakpo, he joined them.

/ missed
bfi
. .

miss (as an arrow)


n.

mo

\>k

eiye

ti,

the bird.

ba-de,

v.

to suit, agree, ft
li

bata b4 mi

: 6 bade, it suits or fits : ese de, the shoe fits me (on the foot).

ba-tu-re (Hausa),
.

a white man.
blame.
to

wl,

V.

to rebuke, to

ba

dze,

v.

to

spoil,

corrupt, injure,

destroy

ba

wi-dzo
wor),
V.

(wi edio),

v.

judge. (Acts

1, 1.)

badie,

to be spoiled,

dc.

ba-"wo, adv.
6 ba mi dziyag, bfi
:
.
.

how
so
:

ba

dzi-yar), v. he contradicted me.


. . .

to contradict:

to blot, besprinkle.

ba-yi, adv.

16h bayi, go in this or that direction


in the

ba-dzo

to get into trouble (edio), v. I got into trouble at Ilorirj. Ilorig,

mo badi9

ni

(as the speaker points out).

ba-nl (Egba), adv.

hand

mu oko bani,

take

a eunuch, in the King's palace, ba-fir) (b4 afii)), n. where there are six of them.
bfi-ga-dai'!
!

a hoe in your hand.

be, an obsolete verb signifying to heap up (?) whence bebe and ebe. by the staff of ]^gu5 (an oath): tlie bank or brink bagadai' igid4 oloko sa, the treefell and frightened be-be, n. of a river or ditch ; a the farmer, i. e. the mountain labored and shoal ; a lieap : bebe idl, the rump : bebe odi6, brought
!

forth a mouse.

the eyebrow.

bal, adv.

See bayi.

be-kpe-dze, (ba ekpe


bS-re,
alike, the
v. V.

die), v.

to

swear falsely.
:

bdi-bdi, adv.

dimly shining.
same.
li

to ask, to inquire,

to exact

6 bere

o,

he

bfi.-ka-nfi. (bi okaij n4), adv.

inquired after you.

ba-lft-bu-dza (ba

abudia),

See abudza.

be-se,
V.

n.

a saddle-cloth.

ba-la-ga (b4

le

aga), n.

a youth, a yonng man be,

nearly grown, an adolescent. ba-16 (ile), n. a master of a house, landlord.


b9.-l&, V.
to be quiet, contented.

2. to jump ; 3. to be of a red color ; impudent; 5. formerly, perhaps, to rfecenc?, whence abe and b|re 6. to breed, applied to T. to cool pigeons and to carnivorous animals only

l.tocut;

4. to be

ba-lS
bfi.
. .

(il&),

w.
(li

a governor.
eru), v.
to frighten.

by fanning

be

1
:

(i[i),jump
. . .

down

be
.

s4r)4ai), to
lori).

le-ru

split into strips

be

li

ori (See

be

. .

b&, bS-be, V. ba-lo-gur) (li oguij), n. a military officer. bfi. 16-hur) (li in ohuij), v. to assent to. (Luke be-he, adv.
. . .

to beg, entreat.
so,

thus

behe ko,
ni,

no, not so ;
it is ;

behe
ni ko,

23, 51.)

gege, even so ; behe


slanneither.

yes, so

behe

lo-ru-ko-dze (ba die li orukp), v. to der : 6 hk mi loruko die, he slandered me. ba-lu-Ave (ibi aluwe), n. a bath-house.
bfi
.
. .

be-kpe,

a pawpaiv.
v.

be-le, be-le-be-le,

to be thin, fiat.

bam-bam,
bS.-in6,
V.

n.

beetle, for

beating

mud

floors.

be-le-dze, adv.

to consult with.

be
ambush.

lo-ri
n.

(li

beautifully red or yellow. to behead. ori), v.


:

b9.-ino-le

(mo

il), v.

to lie in

be-nde,
to

bar)-gl-dzi. See obaijgidzi. bfi. ni'-dzam-ba, v. to do violence


. . .

a blow with the fist strike with the fist.


v.

ko

ni

bende,

to, to
t.

assault.
to

be-nte,
lean.

to be lean,

weakly

axa

mi

bente,

/ am

bfi

ni-n6-dze (ba die


adv.
n.

ni

ino), v.

to vex,

grieve.
bfi.-0,

be-re, n.

a kind of grass (broom-sedge).


rS),
v. to be

See bawo.
the vine

bS-re (be and


stoop
:

low, fiat, sloping ; to

ba-ra,
bfi

of the egusi.

kd
V.

bere, to be lying dead.


to begin.

bfi-ra, n.
.
. .

See elegbara.
V,.
t.

bS-re-sI,

re,

to agree, to be friendly.
v.
t.

be-ri (Luke
5, 36.)

(ori),

v.

to
v.

behead.
to fear. to be

bfi
bfi

re-kp5,
v.

to be

adapted

to.

be-ru

(ba eru),
v.

.rd,

to advise, to

consult with.

be-ru-be-ru,

timid

adv. timidly.

BE
be-ru-ke-ni
keni,

23
what shall
of
the

BO
I do ?
; bi
ti,

to fear something ; (era ki era), v. generally employed in the negative : emi 6 bera-

eni bi
ti

ti

Egba, a mat
as.
:

like those

Egbas

in6

r, according to

your mind
iote
si

Ifear
V.

nothing.
to visit, to investigate, to affect,
. .

or will ; n! bi

inasmuch

be
bi,

"wd,
to

bl
.

ti-le, conj.

though, if even

bi

tile

i,

V,

ask;
.

ebi (See bi

lebi)

or cause to suffer ; bi . . bi ino die (See bin9die).


to

li

though we have

rebelled against him.

bi-ye-sl

(bil),

to respect

or reverence the great.

See

bl,

V.

to generate,

beget, hear, breed ;

follow or

kabiyesi.

succeed.

b6,
push, vomit
:

V. V.

to peel, to strip off, to


to cover, to be full

bray

like

a he-goat.

bi, V.

to

bi kiri, to beat or drift about

bd,

of

leaves, to

overwhelm.

on

the water.
if,

bo-bo, adv.
though, whether
:

very or intensely (hot).

bl, conj.

as,

bl 6nia, like a

person ; b ofi^, according to law. ? a sign of interrogation : 6 m6 bi ? does he know ? bi-ba-'WO 1 adv. loherehy ? in what way ? how ? b6-dzu-to, bC-dzu-'wd, bi-bS, n. a begging, supjilication. for, to see after.

bl

bo-de (ba ode), n. a custom-house. bd-dzo (bi odio), adv. like a coward, cowardly. bo-dzu-in6 (ba odiu), v. to chide, reproach.
v.

to look

ujmu,

to

care

bi-bi, n.

birth,

a bearing

6 dekni)

bibi, she left

bo-dzu-"w6

(bil),

v.

to

look at,
v.

visit.

off bearing.

b6-dzu-yai) (ba odiu),


orar) bodzujai), the

to blind

with brightness:

a covering, which is covered. bi-bd-mo-le, re. which is overwhelmed.


bi-bd,
n.

sun

is blinding.

(Ps.

'77, 3.)

b6-16
b6-l,

(ile),

V.

to

bi-bu,

n.

a patch in a

roof.

V.

to cover

rob a house, to confiscate. or thatch a house.


robber.

bI-6-n.i-a, adv.

humanlike, humanely.
like dust.
as,

bo-le-bo-le,
bd-le-bo-le,

n. n.

bi-e-ru-kpe, adv. bi-e-ni-kp6, adv.


bi-e-rai)-ko, adv.
bi'-ki-ta,
v.

a thatcher.
(bi),

as

if.

bo-lS-se-bl, bo-16-se-kp6

adv.
;

if possible.
to flourish.

brutishly.

b6-le

(ile),

iJ.

to cover the

ground

to notice

or regard.
conj.

b6-lo-b6-lo,

n.

a honey-making gnat without


omi),
v.

sting.

bi-kd-se, bi-k6-se-kp6,
bi-l&, V.
to

but, except, unless.

b6-nii-'w6l)

(bil

to sprinkle

with water.

open a
(li

way

or give place in a crowd.


to ask,

bo-mo,

the white-grained Guinea-corn (a species of

bi bi bi
bi

le-bi

ebi), v.

inquire

bi

og

lebi,

Sorghum).

ask him.
. .

bd
v. (li ere),
(li

in6-16,

v.
v.

to

overwhelm.

16-re

to question, interrogate.
v.

b6-ni (Egba),

to be large.
to be

le-dzo
16-hur)
to

edio),

to

arraign, interrogate a bo-ni-bo-ni,

v.

very large.
body.

person in a court.
.

b6-ra
to
fault.

(ara), v.
ori), v.

to cover, to cover the

bi-lil, V.

reproach for a beat against, as waves.


(li

obui)), v.

b6-ri (b6 head or

to surpass, to prevail, to cover the

top.

bI-rQ9 (omo), V. to beget, or bear a child. bl-na-bl-na, n. abusive language. bi nl-n6 (ino), v. to grieve, to vex.
. . .

bo-r9, very near (as to distance). See gboro. dze (ba oruko dze), v. to slander. bo-rtl-ko
. . .

b6-ti,

V.

to tear

half-way open,

to

half

strip.

bi-n6

(ino), v.

to be

angry.
vexed.

bo-ti-bo-ti, adv.

foolishly (talking), sillily.

bi-n6-dze, v. to feel grieved or bi-6-su-ma-r6 (osumarc), adv.


semicircle.

bo-yui)

(abi oyui)), v.
1.
;

in the

form

of a ho,

V.

to

or slide

to be pregnant. of a solid) ; hence 2. to slip drop (as 3. to take down, as from a peg; 4. to

bi-0-kor)-ri, adv.

manly.

bi-9-16-rur), adv. godlike, godly. bi-ri, a suffix, contr. from obiri, a


biri,

woman

om9-

ozone's clothes; 5. to feed; hence, 6. to worship ; 7. to wash any part of the body, as the face 8. to beat, as a mud-floor 8, to empty (Ps. 10, 8)
ta^e
; ;
:

girl.
to be

oral)

n4 bo

li

owo

mi, that business failed in


;

(lit.

bl-rl, v.
bi-ri,
V.

small (applied to land).


(applied to land).

fell out of)


(lit.

my hands

mo bo

li

cwu

ni,

I escaped

to be large

bi-ri, bi-ri-bi-ri, n.

darkness

adv. darkly, very


:

slipped out of ) that danger.


1. to insert ;
;

b6,

V.

2. to pierce ;

to boil

or cook in

dark.

water
n.

4. to

put on a garment;
; 6. to enter

5. to

shake

(lit.
;

bi-ri-ga-mi,

a haversack,

satchel.

insert)

hands

or go out of a house
:

bi-ri-ko-to, v. to be small, as a hole in the ground d4 iho birikoto, dig a small hole.
bi-si,
V.

V. to arrive, to be

in the act of coming


;

b6

1&,

get
is

down
run

sokalB b6, come doion


;

6 ijtutu b6,

it

to increase

or multiply.
as,
;

getting wet
;

bi

ti,

adv. and pron.

ti

enia,

do

like

a person

bi

how, what, that : se bi emi 6 ti ie ? how or

mb6

nw9i) sare b6, they are coming on a w4h, he is coming.


V.

bo-dzu

(odzii),

to

wash

the face.

BO
bo-gi
(igi), V.

24
bil
. .

DA
.

bo-ki-ni,
b6-l&,
V.

n.

to worship a tree or image. a neat person, dandy. to

lil, V.
:

with

to overwhelm, to smite toitk, to affect 6 bil ifodiu lil W013, he smote them with

bo-lfl. (bil ola), V.


to fall

honor, reverence.

blindness.

down, as

when

struck. (Ps. 89, 23.)

bil-m6,

V.

to

add
:

to ;

to hide or ccmceal itself aio<

b6-lo-gI, n.

a kind of

lily.

one, as vermin
(black).

6 bil

m6

ijyifl,

it

hides about or

bo-lo-dzo, adv. beautifully

Comp, beledie.

cleaves to you.
bill),

b6

l9-'w6

(li

9w6),
to

v.

to

shake hands.

for bil,
V.

v.

to give.

"bq-Toi (omi),
b9r),
V.

v.

put

into water, to dip.

bu-ra
bu-ru,

(ara), v.

to swear, to take

an

oath.

to he filthy, slovenly.

to be bad, ugly.

bu-ru-bu-ru, adv. badly, closely (hiding). bu-ru-ku, adv. intensely, very. bo-ru-ko-nu, n. a stupid spendthrift ; wasteful- Bu-ru-kii, n. an evil deity who causes some kinds ness. of fits, and produces death in small-pox. bo-se (b6 ese), v. to go aside on a call of nature. to add to, to bless, to bil-sl, V. offer sacrifice to. b9 si-kpo (ikpo), V. to restore one to his place bu-s6 (ibi iso), v. a tying-place for animals, a stall. or position. bu-s6 (ibi iso), n. a resting-place, where travellers b5-vrfih, V. to he in the act of coming : k ^bowah, put down their loads. we are coming (now on the road). bu-sil, n. loose, heavy sand. bo-'wo (bil owo), V. to divide. a sleeping-place, a bedstead. bu-silr) (ibi isilij), n. to shake hands. bil V. to bite severely, as a bS-^wfi, V. S&V), dog o bil mi
bo-ni,

n.

a kind of acacia used hy


to loash oneself.

tanners.

bo-ra

(ard), v.

b5-'W9 Q^^

9^'9)i

*"

^<'

honor.

ikj),

he

bit

me.
V.

bo-'W9-lo-"WO, adv.

fancifully made.
to take

bil

w6r).

to
v.

sprinkle with anything.


to praise, to

b9-ya
bil, v.

(bi 6 ya), adv.

perhaps. to cry aloud, to ahuse ; to stink ;

bil-yii)

(iyiri),

honor

mo

bilyiij

a por-

fu o,

I praise

thee.

tion
bin, V.

of.

1. to

to cross

8. give ; 2. to cut or break, as bread each other, as roads ; 4. to roast in the


;

D
dfi, V.
1.

ashes ; 5. to moulder or rot

bO.

mi

11

omi, give
to

me some water. bu-ba (ibi iba), n.


bu-bu-ru
person.
(buru), n.

make,
stick.

create.
:

a hiding-place.
badness
:

2.

to assault, strike

6 da mi

11

igi,

he struck

me

fenia

buburu, a bad
3.

tcith
to

bu-do

(ibi ido), w.

a camping-place.

4. to

flash: m&n&m&nA dk, the lightning fiashes. break or he broken : 6 d4 mi li ese, he broke
or leg
:
:

bCl-dza (odia),

bu-dza
to

a thing to one to be sold. (ba idza, a reaching the road ; see dia), v. make a near cut to a place, to anticipate what
to entrust
is

my foot,
5. C. to cease to be

ese

mi

da,

my foot
li

is

broken.

6dio d4,

the rain ceases.


:

dry, without rain

oda d4

od&i)

ni,

about to say. bu-dz6, n. a fruit used for making black ornamental marks on the skin.

one

there is
1.

to

a drought (lit. it droughts) this year. : Ak eko fu give adza, give mu^h to the dog
to contribute
:

da ow6,
8. to
it

money.
i.

bu-dze
bCi btl bCl
.
.

(ibi idze), n.
V.

a feeding-place, a
to

stall.

prepMre or buy

da eko, buy mush,

e.

have

dze,

to bite.

prepared.

ka

(ika), v.

surround, encompass.

9. to

pay

kfi, V.

to distribute

around :

mo

bti

owo k4
ina,

10. to prescribe

da owo ode, to pay a tax. : ta li o da ebo n4 ? who prescribed


mention:

W91),

I gave
kfi, V.

bu

them money all round. to set on the top> of : bu ikoko ka


fire. to swell, to rise in

that sacrifice ?
11. to speak or

mah

se

da oruko

r|,

do

set the

pot on the

not mention his name.

bil-ke

(bil oke), v.

a hump or

1 2.

to

conquer, whip

kanakana da kanakana, a
promise
:

hillock.

crow whipped a crow.


to

b'Cl-k6r), v.

add

to, to

fill

up ;

to bless.

13. to be intelligent, give


little

omo n4
is

da,

bii-kili), V.
of.

to be deficient, to despise, to

make

that child is intelligent.

(Jas. 2, 6.)

14. to be sound

ara mi d4,

my

body

sound.

btl-ia, V.

bil btl

mix, to adulterate. lfi.-bu-ka (li abuka), v. to surround.

to

15. to overturn,

as a stone or anything

heavy:

d4
dfi, V. 2.

li

aga.

See da
out.

. .

laga.

la-dzar) (adzaij),
V.

v.

to cut into bits, to mince.

1.

to

pour

bu-le',

to

add

to, to

patch.

to overturn, capsize, as

a boat.

DA
3. 4. 5. 6.
7.

25
to

DAN
.
.

to

remove a tliing/rom one position


purify, as silver.

another.

dfi

la-gbe-de-me-dzi,

11.

to

cut in two, to di-

to betray, disappoint.

vide.

to

to he acceptable, as to

sacrifice.
of.

turn

aboict,

change the position

8. 9.

to offer
to

sacrifice.

become.

10. to bend or be bent, as a sword.


1-1.

to

attend

to,

as cattle.
?

da, adv.

where ? iwe mi da
v. to

where

is

my

book ?

da-ba
dd.-ba,

(aba),
V. V,

think

of, expect,

suppose.

to be flat, as
to

a roof.

da-bl,

resemble, be like, to act the

part

of.

da-bd-bo (abo
da-da,
n.

bo),
is

v.

to shelter, defend, protect.

da la-mu (li), v. to confuse, confound. da la-ra (li), v. to disappoint, to annoy. da la'-ra-ya, v. to enliven, to cheer. da to justify. la-re, v. da to trust, to sell to on credit. la.-'wir), da to give life to, to quicken. Ifi-ye, v. da ... 16, V. to put down. da le-kur), v. to prevent, forbid. da le-se (li), v. to cripple the foot or leg. da to convict of sin. le-se, v. da to strike with a sword. li-da, v. da 16-dzo, v. to frighten, intimidate.
.
.

4'.

. . .

which

made.

da
name
da.

lo-dztl,

V.

to

make
it.

one certain:

da mi

Da-da,

n.

one of the Yoriiba idols, a proper


to detain.

lodzd,
. . .

I am

sure of
V.

of a person.

lo-dzfl,

to

disappoint.

da

du-ro,
v.
V.

v.

da-dza,
da-dzi,

to serenade. to arise before


v.

day.
steadily or long.
for

da-dz6-ko, da-dzo, V.
judge.

to sit, to sit

to a2}point

a day

any purpose

to

da da da da da

lo-go,

v. v.

to glorify. to to

16-hur),
lo-ro,
lu,
V. V.
v.

answer, reply.

torment, torture.

to bore. to

1%

mingle, adulterate.

da-lii, v.
fell on
cer-

to fall

upon

okuta

dali\

kpa

a,

a stone

da-dzu, V. to be evident, confident, impudent. da-dzu-da-dzu, adv. evidently, confidently,


tainly.

and

killed him.

da

me-dzi
So,

(medzi),
. . .

v.

to
. .

cut or divide into two


.

jiarts.
V,

da

meta, da

merir), &c., to divide

dS.

f 5,

to

invent a report or story.


to

into three iMrts, four 2>arts, dx.

da-gba

(iigba), v.

grow,

da-gbe-re
da-gbe-se,

(da), v.
v.

to

to be developed. bid farewell.

da

ni6,

v.
:

to

cause to adhere, to strike against,

to
v.

run in
to

debt.

impute k6 da |se m6 wa, he does not impute sin to us ko da ese mo Adama, he did not create
to
:

da-gbo
. .

grow (ogbo), the hack of a furnace or chimney. da-gir), n. da . gi-ri, v. to frighten, to drive people together,
as

old.

Adam
da-md,

a sinner.
v.

to

hold an erroneous opinion,

to

invent

doctrine, to be

heretic.
v.

when they
v.

collect

from fear of war. a pool or 2'>ond.


or destroy a town.

da-mo-dza
da-ni6-rar)

(anwdza),
(Sraij), v.
v.

to guess.

da-gnr)

(oguij), v.

to collect into

to

purpose, advise.
confuse
;

da'-ho-ro,

to desolate

da-mu

(amu),
to he

to per^^lex,

to

he con-

da-hur) (da ohui)), v. dai-ya-fo (do aiya), v.


dfi.-ka-ka,
dS.-k&r),
V.

to reply,

answer.
discourage.

founded,

damned.

to frighten,

v.

to

squat.

to strike against. to

da'-mu-re (amure), v. to gird. da-na (ina), v. to make or kindle a fire. ni-da (d4 ni ida), v. to he or to make da
.

ac-

da-ke,
dead.

v.

he silent, to cease ; figuratively,

to he

cording
. . .

to nature, to look or be natural.

to frighten people, as war, da-ni da-gi-ri, v. to he calm, as the which drives them together. dfi.-ke-dze, d&-ke-r6-ro, v. wind. da ni-de (ide), v. to redeem, set free. ni-dza (Idza), v. to throw in wrestling, da da-ko-dza, v. to step over, 2mss by, to neglect. ni-dzi (idii), v. to frighten, surprise. da-kpa-ra, v. to be hard, as flint to canker, to rust. da V. to contract a, word. da da kpS, ni-gi (igi), v. to heat with a stick, to cudgel. da to adhere, join, da da v. kp5, kp5-in6, nl-kpa (ikpa), v. to cause division or strife,
.
. .

mingle. da-kti,
V.
v.

to

separate or alienate friends.


...

to faint, to be at the to

point of death.

da-ni

lo-dzQ. (odiu),

v.

to

make one
it,

certain:

da-kur),
dfi.
dfi,

withhold.
thread.

6 danilodzd, we are certain of


truth.
to depart.

confident as to its

dS.-kiir(, V.
. . .

to reel

. . .

ku-ro, V. la-da-dzO.

to release,
(li),

acquit

da

n5,

v.

to

pour out, throw

aivay, waste

nwor)
to-

v.

to over-drive, as to

flock.

S9r9 dano loni, they failed in their negotiatimi

dfi

la-ga

(li

aga), v.

weary.

day.

DAN
dfi.-nil (enu), v.

26

DI

dar),

to he fluent, talkative. de, prep, for, ready for, to. to he slip- d6, V. to hind, shackle: de mo, to bind smooth, hright, as metal as a road ; to polish ; to he good, all right. de-bi-kpa (da ebi), v. t. to starve. pery,
V.

to he

to.

c"ai),

a sign of interrogation
?

iwo

m6

dai)

do you de-de (Egba), pron. de-de, adv.


de-hCir) (ohuij),
v.

all, every.

know

rightly, properly,
to

dar)-dar), n.

a
n.
v.

talc mirror.

conclude a bargain,

dar)-ka-re,
,dar)
. .

soldiers.
to try, to

de-ke
tempt
; to

(da), v.

to invent or tell

lie.

'wd,

consult

an ora- de

la-de

cle or a priest, to da-ra (da ara), v.

divine.
to he

"

(li

ade), v,
to

to

crown,

d9.-ra

(iini),

v.

good, handsome, pretty. to introduce a neio fashion or custom.


goodliness
;

de de

. . .

Lb-na

(ona), v.
v.
v.

withstand, oppose,

m6-16,
(yna),

to cover

up,
:

da-ra-da-ra,
ner, well.

n.

adv. in a good mancommit a fault.


herdsman.
to he cheerful,

d6-na
de-ri

de, to lie
(ori),

road, to obstruct in wait for, to cover the head, v,


to stop the
diti.

d6na

dd.-rai) (oral)),

v.

to transgress, to

de-ti.

See

da-r3.r)-da-r9.r), n.

cattle-driver,
to

de-"w6 (d4 ewo),


grounds,

v.

to

prohibit

on
de

religious

da'-ra-ya
merry.

(araya), v.

make or

de,

V.

to

da-ri (d^ ori), v. to lead, to drive. da-ri dzi (dari and di\,far), v. to forgive, da-ri . dzo, v. to assemhle, to meet.
. . .
. .

dog
d6,
V.

after ; de

hunt, chase, to set a trap sile, to lay a snare.


to

si,

to set

to he soft, rijje, loose, slack ;

grow negligent,
(see

to

mitigate,

as

pain

d5

. . .

li

ara

d6

. . .

da-ro di-ro

(ar6), v.
(aro), v.

to

dye

hlue.

lara).

to grieve, to feel

uneasy about a thing. de-bi (d4


to he

Aa.-Ta.,v.

to stir

up, confuse things ;

mingled in d&-d&, adv.


he

a confused manner.

to pronounce guilty, to condemn. near hy, at hand : hdio su dede, the clouds are dark and low, i. e. near the earth,

ebi), v.

da-ru-da-kp5, da-ru-kp5,
confusedly.

v.

to

mix or

mixed de-dd (odo),

v.

to fish

with a

net.

de-dza
entirely:

(edza), v.
(aida),
v.

to fish. to

da-ru-da-ru, adv.
da-ru-g'b6
da-sa,
n.
V.

ikuku bo

ilu

mole de-dza'

hunt

ivith

a dog.

darudarii, the fog hides the town entirely.


(dl arugbo), v.
to

grow or
and
stop.

he old.

d&-dztl (odzu), n. de-gbe, v. to hunt


de-hir) (Egba), adv. don^t lie any more.

coarse cloth.
in the

a small covered dish.


to tire doion, to fail to sto])

woods or prairies. again, more : mah dehii) soke,


to cease, to yield
:

da-sa,

da-se

(ese), v.
off.

going to a place

to cease,

d6-kur)
forbear

(da.

ekui)), v.
let

dekuq

leave

! desist!

me

alone !

da da

... si, V.
. .
.

to

intermeddle
v.

to reserve, to spare.
;

si-le

(ile),

to

cause a thing, to introduce

dS-kur) (6kui)), v. de la'Ta (li ar4),


. .
.

to set
v.

a rape

snare.

to relieve, to

make comfort-

to reserve, sjiare, discharge.

able.

da

s6,

V.

to talk

ahout, mention.

d6-n6
de-ra

(in6), v. soft

to fast,

da-sfi., V.

to

d.-sa,

('.

presume, dare. (Acts 5, 13.) to introduce a custom ov fashion.


to fail, to risk. (Ps. 12, 1.)
to clothe, cover.

der)-gf, n.

mush.
to he negligent, slothful.

(ara), v,

da

se,

V.

de-re-d6-re, adv.

loosely hanging.
be terrible
:

da-so-bd

(aso), v.
n.

de-ru de-ru
de-se dS-se

(eru), v.

to

6 deru

si

mi,

it

is

dau-du,
da-Avir)
dfi.
. . .

eldest son
to

of a prince, the heir apparent.

terrible to
(di),

me.
v. to v.

(awii)), n.
V.

pay hy
an

instalments.

bind or pack goods.


to make afraid. slacken the pace, stop. to sin.

'WO,

to consult

oracle, to inquire

of the de-ru-ba (eru),


(esc), v.

gods.

to

da-'Wd
to

(ovvo), V.

to contrihwte, to

pay da-"wo-kp5 (ow6), da-WO-l (owo), V.

into the savings cluh ;


v.

dawo

pay : dawo 5su, IB, to pay down. de-ti

(dil Pse), v.
(eti),

v.

to

incline the ear, to listen, hearken

to

combine in a scheme.

deti sile, to listen secr.etly or attentively,

to lay hands on, undertake, da-vrti (owu), V. to reel or wind thread, da-ye-16. See diyele.

dS-ti,

V.

to be difficult, to fail in

an attempt.

de

"wd.

See dai)w6.

di, V.

to hind, tie, close

de,
to

V.

to

come

to,

arrive at, come upon, to extend


;

to cheu)

up ; to toreathe ; to require ; tobacco ; to he entangled, complicated ; to


hard on
cooling, as tallow
it
;

; to cover with a lid de odzu 6na, go with me (see de lade).


. . .

to

wear, as a hat

ba mi
.

coagulate, to groio
deficient, to lack
:

to he
;

to the

gate

de

li

ade

6 di edzl,
.
.

lacks two cowries

di

. .

li

odiu

(see di

lodzu).

See

dii).

DI
di, V.
to be, become, to be
is growing
fi

27
changed: 6
till it

DUll
.

ijdi

arugbo di-ye-le, f
d6,
ti

to set

a price

on, charge for.

16h, he
titi

old

; di dfo, to disappear, vanish;

V.

to

encamp,

to cohabit

(an indecent word)

do

di isisiyi,
;

till

now

(lit.

made

to betill

ka,

to

encamp

against, to besiege.

come now)
it

6 di ola, loait
;

till

to-morrow

(lit.

do-do,

n.

the navel ; in the Ikctu dialect,

a room

becomes to-morrow) 6 di idi6 kedii they went the next day.


(di),

nwoq

loh,

in a Louse.

d6-d6, do-do-d6,
:

n.

truth, righteousness

&c dodo-

di

prep,
di
li

mcdzi

from, employed in composition oguq {two from on twenty), eighteen.


spoil, be corrupted.

do, to be upright.

do-dzu-bo-lS,
ground,
to

V.

to

turn

the face

towards

the

di-ba-dze, v. to di-bi. See da-bi.

hang down
to
v.

the head.

dl-bo
di-da,

(di), V.
n.

to cast lots. is

do-dzu-de, v. do-dzu-kd-do,
is
:

turn upside down.


to Jiang

down

the head, to medi-

healthy ebi, condemnation ; dida ard, health ; se dida ara,


to heal.

which

made, which

dida

tate, 2ionder.

do-dzu-ti,
abash.

V.

to

make ashamed,

to

put

to

shame,

to

di-de,

V.

to arise.

d6-gi-ri,

v. V.

to gallop. to

dl-di, n. di-di, n.

which
the
V.
V.
.

is

bound, wreathed.

Sec

di.

do-go-tl,

dun.

game of drafts.
cause war, to become a fight. emulate.
disappointed, mistaken
it
:

do-gur),

V.

to rust.

di-dzd^

to

dom-dom-ai-ye
of
life.

(dSij doi)), n.

comforts, luxuries

di-dze,
di-dzi,

to complete, to

V.

to be afraid, to be

do-ri-kd-do
do-de,

(ori).

See dodzukodo.
v.

mo

didii baba

mi

ni,

thought

was

my father,

but was mistalien.

d9-ba-l& (da ibale), a raven. n.

to prostrate, to lie flat.

di-dzu,
dl-6, n.

V.

to be entangled.
little,

do-do, adv.
v. to establish, con-

7nitch slirivelled or cool. right, straight.


to anchor.

a few, some.

di

e-le-se niu-16 or ni-lS,


bloom, to blossom.
to

dp-gba, V. to be equal, do-ko-du-ro (oko), v.


d6r),
V.
V.

firm.
di-fe,
V.

to cry, as

any beast or
pleasant ;
doij,

bird.

to

dbr),
to wait.

to be sweet,
:

to affect

pleasantly or
i.

di-gba-ro,
di-gba-ti,
di-gi, .

v.

remain standing,
till.

conj.

di-gbo-se, adv.

by and by. glass, a mirror.


v.

my mind is pleasant, e. / am jjleased ; ino d<)q mi, my belly aches or pajws me ; in& mi d8i) si 1 am pleaded with him (Mat.
painfully

ino

mi

i,

3,

17)

ki
n.
v.

li

di-go, n.
da....

a breech-cloth.
to gird.

doQ-doi),

o doij o, wliat ails a kind of drum.


to please.

thee.

ha'-mo-ra,
ka-lfe, V.

dor)-m6,
dtl, V.
dCl, V.

t.

di

to establish,

confirm.

to be black.
:

di-kpa-ra, v. See dakpara. di la'-mu-re (li), v. to gird. to deafen, to refuse di le-ti (li), v.
. .
. . . .

to deny, to refuse, to grasp he refused me money.


V.

6 dh mi

li

owo,

to hear,

du-bu-l,
a-bed.

to lie

down

dubule

aroij, to be sick

di-le,

V.

to be dilatory, at leisure.
(li),

di di

le-ru

v. v.

to enslave. to chain.

. . .

le-'wor)

(li),

du-du, n. du-dze, V.

blackness.

See didze.
n.

di-lo-dzH
dl-lu,
V. V.
V. V.

V. (li),

to tangle, to blindfold.

to congeal. to fasten on, to cleave to

a stumbling-block. du-gbo-lu, du-ke-lu-ke, adv. merrily.


to.

di-in6,

or cling

du-kpe,

V. v.

to

thank.
to slander,

di-m5, di-mu,

agree upon, covenant,

du-lu-ni6,
dtir), dill).

to hold,
to block
(ni),
v.

uphold, lay hold on.

See

d6i], dSi).
effort to

di-na, di-nl-bo

V.

up
to

the road, impede, hinder.

grasp, enclose in the hand.


to take captive.

du-ra, V. to make an one stumbles. du-ro,


SI, to

prevent falling

when
tiri

di-nl-gbe-sir)
dir), di, v.

(ni), v.

V.

to stand, to wait,
;

stay
.

dnro
duro,

ti,

duro

parch, fry. dir)-ka-ra (al^ara), v. to bake bread,


di-ri-ki-si,
v. v.

to bake,

stand by, wait on


n.

mu
:

to

make or
play
the

cause to stand.

to consjnre, to

di-ror)

(^vovi),

plot against. plait the hair.

du-ru,

a
li

violin,

a guitar

li\

duru,

to

violin ;

odiu 6kui) duru, on


n.

the harp.

(Ps.

di'-si-si-yi, adv.

till

now, hitherto,

49,4.)

di-ti

(cti), V.

to be deaf.

du-ru-du-ru,
God).

greatness (applied to the works of

di-'w6,

V.

to be in

a strait or difficulty.

D^A
dza,
V.

28
a rope
;

DZI
soot.
v.

to jerk, to break, as
;

to

break
to

loose,

dza-r)ka.--w5, n.
to be

as a horse

to snatch, to
;

drop from

aloft,

find dza-re,
if

right ; to justify, to be justified ;

out a thing

to

reach the road.

you please.
V.

dzS, prep, dz4,


V.
:

through, throughout a place.


to

dza-si,
rage,

to reach, arrive at,

drop into
to.

to be or act

fight,

quarrel,

strive ;

to

as

as

diasi bi, to be according


. .

storm

dza

ole, to steal ;

nwoij dza a t9

bfile loh,
. . .

dza

ti-l&

(ti ile),

v.

to cast

down.

they dragged
(see

him

to

the

governor

dza

li

ole

dze-gbe-dze-gbe, adv.
dze-ni-a-dz6-ni-a,
n.

childishly, foolishly.

dza
V.
v.

. .

.lole).
to to

a cannibal.

dza-l)5,

escape by struggling.

dza-de,

go out ;
afara), v.

adv.

dz6-re,
:

V.

to

gain, deserve, earn.


sparklingly, dazzlingly.

out, forth

diade

dz-re-dz6-re, adv.

turn out

! to be slow, to loiter.

dza-fa-ra (die
dzS.-gai),
dzS.-gbfi,
servants,
V. V.

dze, V. to be, to act in a capacity : bi Ol9rui) ba die kpelu m\,-if God shall be with me.

to be to

rough, harsh.

die,

V.

to eat, to

consume
to

to otoe ; to

to deserve, to to reply, to

perform a job (applied to pawnwho must do jobs for the pawnee, when
confusedly.

gain, earn, get ;

perform,
;

make ;
to be

deliver (a message)
will,
fu, to

to let or

permit,

to be ivilling,

called on).

would;
. .

to

mean, as a word,
;

named : die
. .

dzfi.-gba-dza-gba, adv.

consent to (Gen. 34, 23)


leri).

die

li

eri (see

dza-gi-di-dza-gar),
17, 5)
;

n.

a low, mean fellow (Acts on any account.

die

base conduct.

dzd.-gu-dS.-kpa-ll, adv.
dzfi.-gu-du,
V.

dze, dze-dze, adv. dze-bi (ebj), V. to


dze-di-e-di-,
its cry.

quietly,

still.

be guilty, to be

condemned.

to

struggle together, tug at each other.

dza-gur),

v.

to fight, in

war;

n.

a kind of cockatoo, so called from

n.

title.

dzfi.-h.ir)-dza-hir(, adv.

through, from side to side.

dze-dze-dze, adv.

very gently, quietly.

dzai-ye
dza-ka,

(die), v.

to

enjoy the world, to act extra-

dze

vagantly.
n.

Sec diigbese. dze-gtl-du-ra-gtl-du, n. a vagabond, a


.
. .

gbe-se.

loafer.
(li

a mug.
v.

dze-hur)
feed on.

(oliui)),

v.

to eat

diehui) lara

ar4), to

dza-ka-di,
dza'-ka-re,

to wrestle.

(Ps. 49, 14.)


to snore.
(li

n.
v.

soldiers.
to contradict, oppose.

dza-ko-ro,

dze-ka, v. dze-la-ra
dze-le-ri
to

ara), v.

to feed on. to
v.

dza'-ku-ni6,

n.

a leopard.
V. to

v. (li ori),
(li

bear witness.
to

dz9.-kui) (okui)),

break a rope,

break

loose.

dze-lo-"we

owe),

aid in work.
afflict.

DzS.-ku-ta
Sarjgo, the

(okuta), n.

the stone-caster, a

name

of

dze-ni-ya
dz6-ri,
v. v.

(iya), v.

to

punish,

god of thunder.
by fighting,
to

See
to

die-leri.

dza-ld.,

v.

to escape

fight one's

way dz^-rur),
dze-iir),

devour.

through. dzS.-le (ole),

V.

See diehui).
*'

v.

to steal, pilfer.
(li

dze-"W9 (9^?)?
to

^^ confess.

dz^

le-ka-na
(il6),

ekana),

v.

pinch, to scratch.

dza-le
the

v.

to

go through
;

the country ;

adv.

dzi, dzi,

V. V.

to steal. to

to

ground
.

(see koro)

flatly, utterly refusing.

dzf, dzll),

dza-le, dzfi.-le-dz&-le, adv.

dza dza

l-nu
Id-le
to

(li

enu),

v.

to

thoroughly. wean.

knock

awake, awaken, quicken, frighten. to fall into a hole, to tap a cask, to V. to be deepi, obscure, or hard to understand,
:

to be distant

dii

li

ese (see dil

lese).

v. (li ole),

to steal from.

dzi

di-de,
n.

v.

to arouse, to raise from the is lustrous.

dead.

dz3.-lil, V.

attack by surprise.
soldier.

dzi-dza,
dzi-dzft.

which

dza-ma,

n. n.

See di4.
v.

dza-iuba,

damage, violence
to.

ba ni diamba,

to

dzi-dza-du,
dzi-dze,
n.

to

scramble for a thing.

assault, to

do violence
v.

food.

See die.

dza-na
in

(ona),

to

one''s
. . .

position.

reach the road, to be reasonable dzi-dzii) (dii), n. depth, distance, lowness. n. resemblance. See dio. dzi-dzo,
to release

dza dza dza

ni-de

(ni ide), v.

one by force.

dzi-dzu,

n.

which
(die),
v.

is cast, etc.

See diu.

ni-ko-ro
ni-yar)
(enu), v.

(ikoro), v.
to

to contradict.

dzi-gbe-se

to

go in debt, to owe.
fruitful.

(iyaij), v.

dispute with.

dzl-gbi-ni, adv.
dzi-goQ-ror),
v. v.

abundantly
to deliver

dza-nu

to boast.

to be deep, as

pit.

dzaq-dzai), adv. intensely hot: dial), the sun is very hot.

oru m<i dia;)

dzi-hir)

(di;e),

inessage,

to

answer

for an

offence.

dza-Qgbo-ro,

n.

the knee-cap.

dzi-ka-nu

(Nnfe), n.

brick.

DZI
dzi
to
. . .

29

EGB
E.

le-se

(li

ese), v.

to

strike the foot against,

supplant.
. . .

dzl

le-S (e^e),
n.

v.

to strike

with the

fist.

dzi-mi-dzi-mi, adv.

gorgeously.

e,

a prefix, having

the
?

a term of abuse. dzi-mi-r9.-ta, to heal, as a wound. v. dzi-na,

e, interrog. d, adv.

what

power of&. which ? C ti ^e


in-,

why

?
;

and

prefix,

un-

hmh, unknown
ending in
:
'

dzi-na

(ona),

v.

to he far off.

dara, not good.

dzi-nde, v. dzi-ndl (di),


dzi-nle

to arouse, to raise from the


v.

dead.

pron.
se
e,

him, her,
it,

it,

after a verb

'
;

as,

to steal

and

conceal

diindi dzindi

do

kpo

e, call

him.

to be thievish.

6-be, n.
to be deep, abstruse, to deliver

hill to

plant yams in
:

k6

5be, to

make
yam-

(ni ile), v.
i^e), v.

dzi-se (die
mediator.

a message,

mysterious. to act as a

yam-hills.

e-be, n.

yam-parings a journey
:

fl

ebe fu

eraij,

give the

peelings to the goat.


to suffer.
i).

dzi-ya
dict,

(iya), v.

e-bi, n.

mo

vh ebi,

/ went
9,

a journey.
;

dzi-yar)

(iyaq),

to be careful,

anxious

to contra-

e-bl, n.

hunger

ebi kpa,

hunger afects

ebi

gkpa

deny.
i.

mi,

/ am

hungry ; ebi ko kpa

thou art not

dz6, dzd,

V.
V.

to dance, to to leak, to

whirl ;

to

burn.

hungry.
e-bi, n.
6-bi, n.

drop, as water.

vomit.

dzo-fo-lo, n.

a kind of cap.

a question, interrogation

bi

It

h\>\,

ask

dzo-gnr) (oguij), v. to inherit, possess. dzo-ko, V. to sit, dwell, abide : dioko de mi, wait
for me.

him.
e-bi-ll-si, n.

6-bo,
to
i.

n.

a demon, the devil. a binding ; a species of fig-tree,


a pot-herb.
;

dzo-kpa, V. t. dzo-na (ina), v.

consume, burn up.


to
t.

e'-bo-lo, n.

bum.
to

e-bu,
e-bu,

n.
71.

dzo

ni-rur),
v.
v.

v.

burn up, consume.

a crossing mildew.

curse, abuse.

dzo-rar),

.to

catch or take fire.

d-bu,

dzo-rur),

to

burn up, consume.


to struggle, to be in trouble.
v. to be jealous.

dzo-'we-re

(dza), v.

small yams to plant, yam-plantings, a landing-place, wharf: omi bo ebute e'-bu-te, the water covers the wharf. m9le,
n. n.

dzo-vru

(die owu),
v.

dzo-ye
dzo,
V.

(dze eye),
to be

to be

a ruler,

to

govern.
:

alike ; to assemble, to he together

dio

a crawfish, a prawn. a language, a nation : emi 9 gbo 6-de, do not understand thee.
e-de, n.
n.

fede rB,

please ! diio mi li oroi), let let it alone ; dzo mi lowo,

my neck
let

alone ; dio

r,

e-di, n.
e-dl, n.
6-di, n,

deficiency.
idi.

me

alone.

dzo-ba

(dze 9ba),

v.

to reign, rule.

a cause, origin. See a binding, a bond.


the horise-cricket.

dzo-dzo, adv. very, greatly, loell. dzo-l& (die), v. to enjoy an honor due dz6-15, n. a long-necked calabash.

to

another.

e-dl-di, n. -do-16, n.
e-dfi, n.

a stopper, a cork; a bundle, parcel.


charcoal.

dzo-'wo (die ow6), dze, v. dzo-"W9


. . .

v.

to let,

permit

to let alone.

to let alone.
to release, dismiss.

e-dza-n6, n. e-dz, num,

passion, intense feeling,


seven,

dzo-'WO-lo-'W9,

v.

dzu,
dzfl,

V.

to

be toorm-eaten, as

wood;
surpass.

to

take

two. e-dzi, nmn. a 6-dzi (Egba), n. rain. up

tting.
v.

6-dzi-kfi, n.
to cast, to

the shoulder.

throw

to

In compa- 6-dzi-kar), n.
(See Gram.
e-dzi-lfi,

thief,

a robber.

rison, more,
207.)

more than,

above, very.

num.

twelve.
:

6-dzo,
V.

n.

a snake

edio

li

oro, the snake is poi-

dzu-ba,

to respect, to

remember with gratitude.


applied to the

sonous.

dzu-di-dzu-di, adv. mind.


dzii-fu, n.

confusedly,

e-dzo-no

(ino), n.

an
n.

intestinal

worm.

e-dzu-dzu,

n.

a kind offan.

an armlet.
tobacco of native manufacture.
together.

e-ga-ke, e-gi-ni,
cgakc, do not

tickling

mah

rir)

9m9

II

dzu-ku,
dzu-n6, dzu-re,

n.

tickle the child.

dzu-in5, adv.
V,
v.

e-gba-y a,
to lose, to be lost.

n.

a pole

tied across rafters.

to

throw away,
V.

e-gbe,

n.

profit ; vindication ; contiguity.


loss, perdition
:

to point, direct,

show how

to do,

e-gb, n.
e-gbe-re,
e-gbir), n.

egbe ni fa o
spirit.

damn

thee !

dzu-"w6

(6w6),

to beckon.

n.

a kind of evil

a kind of antelope.

EGB
e-gbix), n.
filth.

30
e-le-gbe, n.
in chorus.
;

KRI
an
n.

aider, instigator ; one

who responds

e-gbo,

11.

bran,

husk of grain.

e-gbO,

n. n.

boiled maize,

hominy

toughness.

e-le-g6-de,
e-le-ke,
n.

a pumpkin.
liar.

h-gbo,

a root

sore, ulcer.
tick.

e-gb6r), n.

a flea, a
only.

e'-ge-de, adv.
e-gi-ni.
e-gi-ri, n.

e-le-kpe, n. a swearer. e le-ni-ni, n. a backbiter, a


e-le-ri, n.

despiser.

See egake.
chilliness
:

which

is filthy, filthiness.

egiri

mu

mi,

/ am

chilly.

e-gurj, n.

an

im.precation.

e-16-se, n.
e-le-so, n.

e-le'-ru-kpe, n. which is earthy or earthly. a maker or seller of colors.

e-gur), e'-guij-gur), n. a bone. E'-gur)-gur), n. one of the gods.

which

is fruitful,

fruit-bearing.

e-16-su, n.
e-le-ti, n.

e'-gu-re, n.
e-gu-rir), n.

village.

one possessed with the devil. one who is obedient.


this.

dirt, filth.

e-h&-se, e-h&-ti-ae, adv. why? what for? e-he-re, n. a crop, a harvesting.


e-hir), n.

e-le-yi, pron. how 6-lo, adv.

much ?

in price

elo yi

hoio

much
oLui)

for
;

this ?

a tooth a

ehiij

okii;)kag,

a front tooth

h-\o, n.
elo,

use

furniture, a utensil, ingredient

ehiijdSri, toothache.

vessel.

e-ho-ro,

n.

rabbit.

e'-lu-b9, n.

yam-flour.
I,

e-hu,

71.

e-h\l, n.

a sprout, blade of young grass. which is old and stale. a white man. a wart.

e-mi, pron.

me

emi na, emi tikari mi,

I myself.

e-mi-ni,
e-in6,

n.

the fruit-bearing yam-vine.

e'-i-bd, o'-i-b6, n.

ei-di, n.

the sand-fly. e-mi-rii), n. a bur growing on grass n.

em6

agbo, a

e-kar), e-ka-na, a claw, finger-nail.


e-kar), n.

young

sprouts.

6-kar), n.

e-ke,

n.

a wooden pin or peg. a lie, falsehood ; a liar.


the seventh.
the second.

large kind of bur. d-md, n. which is unknown, strange ; a monster, a wonder ; fem6 de loni, a wonderful thing has hap-

e-ke-dze, num. e-ke-dzi, num.


eki, adv.
e-ki-ri, n. 6-ki-ti.

e-na, e-na,
e-ni,

pened to-day. n. a stretching


n.

visit.

warp-pins of a loom.

only : eki wura, pure gold. a kind of goat.


okiti.
is callous ;

See

e-k6,

w.

which

hard pods of okra.

e'-ko-lo, n.

the earth-worm.
ft

e-ko.

See oruko.
n.
ti.

to price or quantity, something a message. a human being, person ; mankind, people. e'-ni-a, n. a kind of antelope. n. e-ra, i-ra, a small black ant. e-r3., n.

6-ni, n.

num. one. an addition


to

added

e-kpa,
e-kpe,

a crust.

e-x&i).

See IrAq.
crab-grass.
inflection.

e-kpo, n. e-ku. See ekute. e-ku-ku, n. a cocoon.


e'-ku-lu,
.

a curse, an oath. chaff, husk, bark ; palm-oil.

6-rar), n.
6-r^l), n,

e-r, n. e-rh, n.

an imprecation.
jin image
';

goodness, gait, going

ere

e^iij,

a kind of antelope.

the gait of
hilt of a

a horse.
to

e-kur), e-ku-kur), n. sword.

a knife-handle, a
;

e-re, n.

why
a region of coun- e-re,

a question : bi li ere, for what reason ?


the boa constrictor.

ask

ere idi re

e-kui), n.
try.

protracted sickness

n.

6-re, M.
the knee.

gain, desert, guilt, interest

on money

e-kur), e-ku-rur), n.

crop

die

ere, to gain.
?.

e'-ku-ro, n.

e-ku-ru,
e'-ku-ru,

n. n. .
n.

the dry palm-nut. bread of pea-meal.

e-re-k-re,
e-re-ko,
n.

dishonest gain, filthy lucre.

e-re-k6-ti, n.

a dunghill.

dust.
the

a hamlet.
n.

e-kH-ru,
e'-ku-te,

mange.

e-re-ku-su,
e-re-ni,
?.

an

island.

rat.

the fourth

day hence

i)

6 loh

li

ereni,

e-ku-ya,
e-le, n. e-16, w.

n.

a pot-herb. on a wall

/ will go four
e-ri, for ori, n.
;

force, violence, hardness.

days hence. the head :


filth,

a course or
tools,

layer,
;

an eminence ;
;

e-ri, e-rip, n.

eri ekuij, the knee-pan. wet bran fed to goats.

iron

toeapons

interest

on money

ele

to

6-ri-gi, n.
e-rii), n.

arms !

the gums. an elephant.

ERI
S-riq.

31
e-VTU,
n.

EDi;
danger
:

See

cri.

di ewu, to be or become dan-

e-rirj-mi
e-ro, n.
e-r6, n.
6-ro, n.
vice,

(omi), n.

the river-horse,
;

hippopotamus.

gerous.
e-"WTi, n.

a caravan

nit.

a percussion-cap, a
consideration
;

lucifer match.
telling ;

^-"WU-tSl, n.

grey hair. a kind of soft yam.

a relation or

de-

g-vru-rS, n.

goat.

thought.

S-wu-ro,

n.

a pot-herb.

e-ro, n.
e-rtl, n.
n.

a funnel, lamp-filler.
deceit, craft.

e-yi, e-yi-yi, pron.

5-ru,

ashes, lime, ash color.


n.

this : cyi ti, this or that which ; ? eyi na, this, that, the same ; cyi ti ri ? why that : cyini ni, that is, e-yi-ni, pron.

e-ru-ku-ku,
e'-ru-kpe,
e-rur), n.
n.

the

tame pigeon.

e-yir).

See

eliiij.

dust, earth.
ant. ant.

e-yl-ta-"wl-yi

(ti a),

adv.

just now, straightway,

an
a cat

directly, immediately.

e-sa, n.
e-se, n. -se, n.
6-se, n.
e-si, n.

a small red
;

e-yo,

M.

a pod of okra,

the butter-tree nut.

preparation for the future, providence.


paint, color.

E.
e,

e-SO, n.
e-s5l), n.

frxiit,

a reply. a

a prefix.
yes.
ye,

See

a.

seed-vessel of

any kind.

e, adv. ,
^,

See he.
you.
it.
:

accusation, a suit at laio.


jasper, camelian.

^071.
pron.

e-su, n. -SU,
M.

him, her,

a payment
nausea
:

to the funds

of a

club.

e-l)a, n.

e-stl, n.

sugar-cane grass.

e'-su-e, n.

kpa

li

csue, to nauseate.

by (if e-'ba-dd (odo), n.


6-be, n.
e-bl, n.

nearness, proximity to the ground near the ground). See leba.


the water-side, shore.

li

eba,

e-su-ru,

n. n.

a small

bitterish

yam.

entreaty, supplication.

e-SU-SU,

leech.

fault, guilt, condemnation.

e-se, n. gleaning. e-S, adv. why ?


h-hi, n.

e-M-ri, n.
e-bi-ti, n.

a large quiver. a
a trap, an insecure crag, or the like. the sacrifice : ebo alakoto, the sacrifice in
i.

a mistake, accident, error.

e-bo, n.

e-siri-sir), w. e-stl, n.

a fiy.

basket or vessel,

e.

human

sacrifice.

locust, the white ant

when winged.

E-bo-r9,
&-b6-t9,

n.
n.

a name q/"Egui)gui).
coto-dung.
;

6-SU, n.

the devil, Satan.

e-su-su.

See esusu.
n.

e-bu,
times.

n.

an abode
See ebu. a
n.

kiln, a furnace,

e-su-"wa,
e-ta, n.
e-te, m.
e-t, M.
e-ti, n.
.

former

e-bti, n.

a crosswise

direction.

dry bran ; soreness of the gums. a lip ; intention, thought, device,


a fragment, morsel.

e-bur).
S-bir), n.

gift, present.

6-bu-ru,
:

a back door or passage.


natural pi^operties,
;

an ear ;
n. (ile),

edge,

proximity

fi

cti

si

ti

emi,

e-da, n.
e-dfi,
n.
;
:

afiower.

hear
e-ti-le

m ;

eti igor),

a corner, angle.
:

a creature
creation
;

instinct,

vicinity, nearness

wa

li etile,

he

nature

a kind of rat

interest

on

was near.
e-ti-ri, n.

money
numbness.
e-dS.-16

se eda,
n.

to create.

(il6),

deceiver, traitor.
staff.

e-ti-ri, adv.

why ?

See

eyi.

e-dar), n.

the

Ogboni

e-ti-he, adv.

ivhy? what for?

6-de, n.

which

is soft, ripe, slack.

e-tu, n. e-tu, n.
n.

lohich is loosed, stripped off ;

a discovery.

e-df-gba-rir), num.

seven thousand.
sixteen.

an old farm nearly worn


childhood, youth,

out.

e-di-n6-gur), nmn.
e-d6-gur), num.
e-d.6, n.

6-tu-tU, n.

pacification, reconciliation.

fifteen.
:

e-'We,

child.

the liver ; resolution, firmness

ed6

fofo,

e-vrfe, n.

leaf, herb.

irascibility.

e-TVfe-b^ (^be),

n.

e-we-ke-Ave,

n. n.

an esculent herb of any kind. a leaf or herb of any kind. a garden herb of any kind.
?

e-dor), n. e-d6r),
n.

a kind of monkey.
sweetness; grief (aoo doq) ; a hatchet to one of twins
;
:

e-wS-ko
e-Avi, n.

(oko),

a proper name frequently given


imi
edfti),

insanity.

sigh.

e-'Wd, pron.

which ? what ? why


:

e-dza,
the

n.

a fish.
blood
:

e-AWO,

n. n.

time, season

ewo odzo,

rainy season. edze, M.

eni edie, a bloody or bloodthirsty

6-W9,

prohibition, something prohibited.

man.

EDZ
e-dzo, num. eight. e-dz6, n. a criminal matter ; dispute
edzo,
to
;
.
.

32
e-gbir), n.
filth.

ELA
n.

harm
li

da e-gb9r),
to

an

elder brother,
is

a male
to be

relative.

judge, as a magistrate

da,

edi8,

fegboi), n.

which

shaken or

shaken

Sgbofl

condem,n.

ee-di-n6-gur), &c.
e-fk,

See e-di-no-guij, &c.

owu, cotton whipped with a bow ready for spinning. e-gbo-ro, n. the young of cattle : egb9ro malii, a
calf.

num.

six.

e-f&, n.
e-fe, n.

a kind of trowsers.
fault-finding, -accusation.

e-ge, n.
e-gi, n.
;

a snare, a trap a
dog''s collar.

brittleness.

6-fe, n.
to

jest,

mockery
smoke.

se efe, to jest

se |fe

si,

e-gu,

n.

a seat in a
for beasts.

tree

on which a hunter

sits

to

mock,

ridicule,

watch

e-fi, e-fir), n.

e-gtlr), n.

e-fo, n.

greens, pot-herhs.

a thorn, brier, prickle : thorn used for arrow-heads. large

egui) ikoko, a

a close-fitting garment. e-fo-ko (ok9), n. shipwreck. e-hfi., n. a corn-husk ; footstalk of a palm-leaf ; a e-hii), n. the back, hinder part ; the last of a series e-foi), n. the outside of a town the top of crossbow arrow : efoi) iha, a rib. anything in a
; ;

e-f 5r),

n.

buffalo.

vessel
asa,

absence

ehiq ola, after to-morrow


left

ehii)
li

e-fu-fu, n.
e-fur), n.
n.

wind,

breeze, air.

a remnant of cloth
li

in the

loom; A 6

chalk, lime, white clay.


the yellow palm-bird.

e-ga,

^-ga,

n.

a grasshopper.

ehiq Ol9rui), we have no power loithout (or apart from) God ; se e li ehii) mi, do it in my absence ; wo ehiij, to look after one who is

agbara

e-gai), n.
forest.

thick forest

egai)

osusu, a thorny

walking away.
e'-i-ye, n.
rebellion, revolt.

S-gar),

n.

contempt,

reproach,

blasphemy

s6ro

ei-y6, n.

bird.
;

egai), to

blaspheme.

e-ka,

n.

a band, ring
adv.
once
:

a branch, bough, prong;


once, at once,
li

e-ga.X)-Ta.i), n.

unripe fruit.
is

the collar-bone.

e-gba,

n.
n. n. n.

which
the

swept.

e-kar),

li

ekaij,
ti

imme-

e-gba,

E-gta,
6-gba,

mangrove tree. the name of a tribe.

diately,
it

formerly

mo

se

ekaij,

have done

once.

the palsy.

e-kar), n.

sourness.

e-gba, num. two thousand. e-gba-dze, num. fourteen thousand. e-gba-dzl, num. four thousand. e-gba-dzo, num. sixteen thousand.
e-gba-fa, num.
twelve thousand.

e-ke,

n.

e-k, n.

e-ko,

n.

indulgence to inferiors, confidence. a beam, joist, rafter ; the trigger of a gun. sour mush of maize.

e-k6, n.

which

is

hard, as

fruit.

e-k6,

n.

doctrine.

e-gba-ra,

n.

a kind of rat.
eight thousand. ten thousand.

e-gba-rir), nmn. e-gba-ruQ, num. e-gba-sar), num. e-gba-ta, num. e-gba-"wa, num.

e-ko-k-ko, n. superstition, false doctrine. which fills up, fulness, a supplement. e-k6r), n.
e-k5r), n.

a grumbling, murmuring.
the

eighteen thousand. six thousand.

e-kpa,

n.

ground pea or pea-nut


bisa^, the

ekpa

roro,,

twenty thousand.

pea-nut ; ekpa e-kpor), n. a spoon, a dipper.

the oily

mealy pea-nut.

e-gbe,

n.

the side, the loins ;


:

pany, society
nations.

a companion, a com- e-kp6r), n. egbe-egbe orilS hde, a multitude of e-kp6r), n.

redness, ripeness of fruit, flattery.

testicle.

e-kpo-ro,
five thousand.

n.

ditch, drain, sewer.

e-gbe-d6-gur), num.
e-gbe-fa, num.

twelve hundred.

a kind of trap or snare. a gable end, a back yard. n. e-ktl-16,


e-ktl, n.

e-gbe-gbe-rur), num. adv. e-gbe -ra, n. equality.


e-gbe-ri, n.
e-gbe-rir),

by

the thousand.

e-kut), n.

cessation, prohibition,
to cease ;

door, shutter
to forbid,

da

ekur),

da

li

ekui),

pro-

obscurity, mystery ; one initiated.

hibit ; se ekui),
e-kfl.r), n.

ha

ekui), to shut the door.

num.

eight hundred.

a
n.

crying, weeping.
ivaste jjlace.

num. twenty-eight hundred. e-gbe-rur), num. one thousand. e-gbe-sar), num. eighteen hundred.
e-gbe-rir)-lfi,

e-kur), n.

a leopard ; a region, a
the herb Cleome.
al,

e-ku-ya,
el, ele,

(see
(kc.

ala),

prefixes,

denoting the actor,


a,

e-gbe-sir), n.

nettle-rash.

owner,
e-l&, n.

e-gbe-ta, num.

six

hundred.
twenty-six hundred.

which

is cloven, split off ;

detachedportion,

e-gb6-ta-l&, num.

fragment.

ELE
6-11-1)6, n.

33
e-ni, pron.

ESO
vited ; eni kaij,

a pleader, advocate.
n.

e-le-b6-to,
e-le-da, n.
e-le-de, n.

cow-dung.
creator.

a person, oiie : eni ikpe, one who is insome one, anyone, the only one;

eni kedii,

a hog. e-le-dze, n. which is bloody. which has smohe, is smoky e-le-fii), n.


steamer.
e-le-g9.r), n.

eni

ti

a da

a companion, friend, tdij, a happy man.

the next

person

a smoker, a

a despiser,

scoffer.

e-nu, n. a mouth, opening : enu kokoro, the beak of a bird ; enu ikpa, the mouth of a river ; enu ona, a gate, door; enu osqrq, eaves of a house ; enumira, my appetite fails or is bad ; enu mi ^i, my appetite is

e-le-gbfi, n.

helper, deliverer.

good ; enu mi
ye,

ya,
:

/ am

astonished.
ej]jii)

e-lS-gba,

n.

a palsied person, a paralytic.


n.

ei)-yir), pron.
eijyir)

you

egyii) nd,

ara

jgyifl,

e-le-gba-ra,
e-le-gbe, n.
e'-le-ge,.

the devil.

tikard
n.

a companion, a leader. which is fragile, brittle.


coarse calico.
n.

e-rag,

ye yourselves. a beast, a goat or sheep


ijyir),

meat, flesh
;

eraij nl4,

a cow

eraq

fui),

a kind of bufalo

erai)

e-le-go-do, n.
e-le-k6'-re-de,
n.

which

is

weak, infirm.
;

shokana, a carnivorous animal; eraqar4, man'' sflesh. the temple of the face. B-T&I), n,

e-le-kug,

a weeper, mourner

figuratively,

a e-rar)-ko (oko),

n.

a wild a cow.

beast,

a brutish person.

daughter.

e-rari-lfi. (nl4), n.

e-le-la, n.

a kind of soft maize. a bank, gully, mire, bog. 6-re, n. a part or portion. the cheek, jaw-bone. e-re-ke, n. e-lS-mi (emi), n. one who has breath ; a servant, so e-re-rii), num. by fours.
e-le'-kpe-re, n.
called because his master's
life is

in his hands.

e-rl,

n.

witness,

testimony

gba

se

eri, to

take

e-le-mo,
e-le-no,
e-le-ri

n.

a palm-wine dealer.
n.

as a pledge. in dress.
e-rir),

e-le-mb-so,
n.

one

who

is tasteful

e-ler)-ga, w.

a spider. a grasshopper.

four : eriij di loguij [four sixteen ; erii) di logogi, thirty-six. twenty),

num.

from

e-rir), n.
e-rlr), n.

(number
laughter.

of) times

li

eriq medii, twice.

n. (eri),

an

eye-witness.
relates to the feet:

e-le-se, n.

which has feet, which


which has four

e-rir)-lfi,

num.

fourteen.

elese merirj,

feet,

a quadruped j e-ro,

n.

skill, contrivance, subtlety.

di elese nile, to establish, confirm.

6-ro, n.
e-rtl, n.

softness, gentleness.

e-16-se, n.

who has

sin,

a sinner.

e-le-sir) (esiij), n.

a horseman.

e-rCl, n.

a slave ; a hoe or axe-handle. a load, luggage, goods.


fear, aioe, terribleness.

e-le-tai), n.

a dissembler.

6-ru, n.
despised ;
ridi-

e-le-ya (eya), n. cule ; a scorner.


e-le-ye, n.
order.

who

is scorned,

e-rtl-bi-ri (obiri), n.
e-iHi), n.

a female slave. a fragment, a crumb, splinter.


the

a tidy person, who has clothes made

to

e-rur), n.
e-sSr), n.

dry
nine.

season, great heat.

payment, retaliation, vengeance.

e-le-"w3. (ewa), n.

a handsome person.
is

6-sar),

num.

e-le-'wor), n.

who

chained, a prisoner.
another, others.

e-se, n.
6-se, n.

a row, order.
afoot, track, course. num. nine by nine.

e-lu, M.

e-lo-mi, e-lo-ml-rar), pron. indigo ; a mixture.

e-se-sai),

e-ltl-lu, n.

a thrush. a mouse.
twice.

S-s-se, n.

an orderly manner.
shame, ridicule
;

e-lu-ru, n.

e-si, e-sir), n.

secret.

e'-me-dzi, num. e'-me-fa, num.


three in one ;

S-SO, n.
that which has

carefulness, gentleness.

six times.
li

e-s5r), e-Silr), n.

an

accusation, a suit at law.


;

e-me-ta-lo-kar) (meta

okai)), n.

e-s, n.

bloto

with the fist ; a broken part, piece

the trinity.
n.

e-ine-"wa (m6 ewa),


minister.

a chief councillor, a prime 6-se,

n.

sin, guilt

|se edie, blood guiltiness ; ese

oba, treason.
the shea-tree, itsfruit, the butter

e-mi,

n.

made of it. e-se-na


e-sir), n.

(ina), n.

coals of fire.

6-nii, M.

breath,

life, spirit.

e-se-ri, n.

rancidity.

e-mo, e-mu, n. palm wine. e-mu, n. tongs, pincers ; seizure.


e-na,
n.

a horse a spear.

gui]

esii), to

ride on horseback ;

disgrace.
;

inversion of words or letters

as,

de mi

e-Sir), n.

babd, for
e-ni, n.

baba mi

de.

e-so, n.

a watchman, guard, newly smelted


iron.

police.

a mat.

e-s6, n.

ETA
e-ta, n.

34
; ex-

FEK
(agbofl), v.
to

bulb, tuber, ear

of com, coarse flour

fa-gbor)

shave the chin.

tension ;

sting.
three.

fa-giii), V.

to protract. to

e-ta,

h-tSL, n.

fil-kpa, V. a fragment of a corpse brought home to the f ^ 13, ti. fd... 16, V. over which funeral rites axe performed. family,
. . . .

num.

withdraw, draw back.


a bow.

to lick. to tighten, to string to seduce. to adhere.


.

e-ta-la,

num.

thirteen.

g-tai), n.

deceit,

allurement

&e etag, to deceive.

f3. le-tai) (li), V. f3.-1116, V. to cleave,


. . .

e-t, n.

disgrace, reproach.
leprosy, scrofula.

fS.

. .

in6-ra

(ara), v.

to embrace, to

hug, to cleave

^-te, n.

to.

e-te-ta,
6-ti, n.

num.

by a failure.

threes.

ffi-ra-hSr)
ffi-ra-kpfi,
ta.'-r2L-m.6

(fi

ar^), v.

to

become

visible, to

appear.

v.
(fi),

to hurt, to v.

wound.

e-t6r), n.

a bough, branch. a kind of antelope. gunpowder.


checked cloth, a guineafowl ; coolness ; a
ten ;

to adhere, to adjoin.

e-tu,
-tu, 6-tu,

n.
n.
n.

fa'-ra-"we,
emulate.

v.

to

compare,

make a

trial

of powers,

propitiatory sacrifice.

fi-ri, fa-ri,
fa-rd,

V.

to

shave the head.

n.
V.

display, parade.
to be sad.
(si

e-AvS, num.
e-weL,
n. n. n.

mind, intentions.
:
Ii

beauty, likeness

ew^,

to be beautiful.

fa

. .

se-hir)
;

ehiq), v.

to

draw

back, withdraw,

^-wa,
e-'we,

a jest, a joke. a kind of bean.


again, on
the other hand.

abstain

to

shun, delay, withhold,

fa-t6-le, n.

a small
to

canoe.
aside.

S-vre, conj.

fa ...
fa-tu,

ti, V.

draw

e-'we-'wa, num. by tens. a bellows. e-"wi-ri, n.


e-"WO, n. fe-WO, n.
e-'WOl), n.

fa-tl-la, n.
V.

a lamp.
to loosen,

a company, caravan.
hail.

fa

ya,

v.

to tear,

pull up by the roots. rend : 6 fa mi sokoto ya,

it

tore

my
V.

trowsers.
to

a a

thistle.

fa-yo,

draw
v.

out, extricate.

-wor),

n.

chain, bondage.
;

fe, adv.

long (in time), /or ewr.


(ebi),

fe-"WU, n.

which pleases

loose

garment,

shirt.

fe-bi-kpa
fe-fe, n.

to famish, starve.
:

e-"WTi-nl, n.

a pit covered with

earth.

boasting

&e

Me,

to boast.

e-ya,
6-ya,
e-y,

n.

a kind of panther.
separation, contempt ;
fitness, worthiness.

fe-re, n.

asthma.

M. n.

division, tribe.

fS-re, n.

a fiute, pipe.
to sip.

f6-re,
to superiors).

v.

e-3rl, adv.

yes (used only

by males

fS-re-se, n.
fe-si
fe-ti
(fi

a window.
to reply.
v.

e-yll), n. B-yft), n.
6-yir), .

a palm-^ut

the eye-ball.

esi), v.

an

egg.

(fi eti),

to listen, hearken, regard.

(Gen. 21,

praise, that

which

is celebrated.

12.)

e-yir)-ko-lo, n.

little hills

e-yir)-n6-gi,
e-y6r), n.

n.

starch

made by earth-worms. made of maize.

fe, V.
to

to blow, fan:

fe 16h, to

blow away

; fe efesi,

find fault with.


to love, to wish, desire, to be

toe-itch.

fS, V.
to

willing ; to woo,

marry, procure in marriage.


to

(Gen. 21, 21.)


efe (see fe lefe).

f6,

v.

to breathe heavily, to puff, to distort the face,

R
fa,
V.

to frown ;

enlarge

f|

li

fe-di.
to scrape, shave, toipe,
to

See

fe idi. to seek food.

pluck
to

to prefer.

fe-dze
;

(idie), v.
n.
v. V.

fil, V.

to

draw, lead, crawl, shrink, as a raw hide


.
. .

creep, as

a melon-vine
:

fe-dze-fe-dze,

provender, food.
to accuse.
to

abate

fa,

li

eta^

fe-dzb-m6

(fi),

(see fa

letaij).

fe-dzO. (odzfi),
; exceed-

look angry, to frown.

f&, adv.
ingly.

leisurely, freely, without restraint

fe-dzu-fe-dzu, adv.
fe-fe, V.

frowningly.

to be few, to be near.
v.

fS-lja-da.
fll-da, n.

See 4bada.
(at
Ilorii)),

fe-fe
the aristocracy, the aristo-

(efe),
V.

to

fe-fa,

to betroth for
(fi

find fault, to axxuse. or to.


v.

cratic quarter

of the town.
the
to

fe-hir)-ti

ehi;)),

to lean on,

to trust in ;

to

fa-da-ka,

n.
n.
v.

silver,

prop, support.
fe-i-dl, V.
to investigate.
to scatter, to strew.

fa-dze-re,

dawn.

f^-dzu-ro,

look sad.

fe-ka,

V.

FEK
ffe
.
. .

35
is

FIR
. .
.

kuij,

kui), V. / miss

to

miss what
book.
to

lost

mo

fe

iwe mi

fl fi

my

dzo-ye dzo-ba
n.
fa.

(die), v.

to
to

(die),

v.

aprimnt to office. appoint one to be king.


is

fe-le, fe-le-fe-le, v.
fiat, thin.

be fine in texture, smooth,

fi-fil,

tearing, that

which

torn or to be torn.

See
(li

fh ..
fe
fe
. . .

le-fe

efe), v,

to accuse,
v.

find fault with.

fi-fa-yo, n.
fl-fl,

which
w.

is

dratvn out, extricated.

lo-dzu

(li

odiu),

to choke.

flr)-flr),

dimness, twilight.
:

f-IU-fl-ni, n.
. . .

dry pea-hulls.
v. to court,

fi-fi, n.

a swinging, which swings, &c.

ebo

f ifi,

nl-ya-^wo,
V.

woo.
off.

wave-offering.
fi-fo, n.

fe-n5,

to fan
(fi

or

winnow away, blow


to kiss.

which
which
V.

is is

broken.

See
See

f6.
f5.

fe-nu-ko

enu),
v.

v.

fi-f 5, n.
fi
.

washed.
to,

fe-nu-si (enu), fe-ra (ara), v.


fe-re,
fe-re,
v.

to reply, intermeddle.

fu,

to

give

endow

toith.

to be selfish.

fi-fli.

See

fuijfufl.

to be light, as to

weight.

fi

gbe,

V.

to give

up

to destruction, to destroy,

adv.

almost

fere

m4h,

with

difficulty,

fi-gbo-na,
fi
.
.

V.

to heat, to
to to

warm.
male.
suspend.
to

scarcely.

gTirj, v.

fe-re-fe-re.
fe-ri (ori),
v.

See

fefe.

fi

. .

ha,

V.
V.

put hang up,

to the

to cool the

head, to rest ; to seek, in-

fi fi fi

h&T),
kfi, V.

quire after.
fe-Sl, V.
to

. .

show, exhibit, reveal, betray. to place or set upon.


to

to

find fault with.


(si),

k6i),

V.

add

to

fi

omiraij

k6q

8,

ddd an-

fe

. . .

sd-na
to

v.

to betroth

ti fe

aya s5na, he

other to
.

it.

to suppose, to pretend, to mean fi . . kp^, V. (Gen. put, apply to a purpose. 33, 8) : nwoi) fi i kpe woli, they supposed him to be a prophet ; 6 fi axk rS kp6 :Qkaq, he pretended with, in, by, for, during : 6 & ida ^a fl, prep, he smote them, with a sword y fi i ^e baui), do to be something woi), great. thus with it; fi oruko oba, in the name of the fi... 16-16 (ilg), fi...l6, fi...si-le, V. to put
fi, V.

has betrothed a wife.

make ;

to place,

king ; ami wo li a 6 fi mo eyi ? by what sign shall we know this ? fi gbogbo odio, for or during the

down,
office.

leave, forsake

fi

oye

IS, to

abdicate, resign

whole day.
fl, V.
side.
fi
. .
.

fi
fi

l-lo-'WO,

V.

to deliver to.

to

swing, vibrate, wave, sling, incline to one

11-kpo,
lo, V.

V.

to substitute.

fi
(il^), V.
:

to investigate, inquire, interrogate.


V.

ba-le

to
fi

place on the ground,


bale, set

down ;

to reject

agb9g
laid

put the basket down ;

to

fi fi fi

. . .

m6,
ni5,

to suspect, to

V.
V.

mo
i.

fi

dkh)

bale,

my

heart on the ground,

. .

mu,
ilS),

attach to, impute. cause to know, to show, inform of. to take hold of, grasp : fi ese mu ilu
to be established,

e.
.

/ rested, was
to
:

contented, satisfied.
;

(or
to

to

grow firmly,
V. (ilB), is

fi

Tjo, v.

dip,, to

soak

put into, to put on, as a garment fi oka bo di otxb, soak the corn
v.

fi

. .

inu-16
ilB

to establish,

confirm

confirmed. ; 6 -ese _fi

till

mu

wayi, he

noio established.

morning.
fi
.
. .

fi-na, n.
(omi),
to

leather string.
v. (fe ina),

bo-mi
bu,
V.

dip,

immerse, soak in fi-na, fe-na

to

blow the

fire, kindle.

neater.

fi...nij&.
to

Seefi-le-16.

fi fi fi

put on
v.

oath, to swear one

to accuse.

fix), V.
to

to

terminate, to be perfected
;

to discover ;
:

. .

bo., V.

to abuse, vilify, curse.

engrave, embellish
fii),

to

be fine, nice

bo

li

da-le

(ile),

to throw, as to sit
to

a horse his rider.

abo
fir), V.

to

peel off the bark.

fi-di-ba-le
fi
. . .

(idi ilS), v.
v.

down.
to

to fill

with smoke, smother, suffocate.


v.

dzfi-fa-ra,

slight,

treat with

dis-

fil)-dzu (odifi),

to be neat, tidy,

tasteful in re-

respect.
fi fi fi
. . .

gard
v.

to one's appearance.

dz9.-re,

to justify, in

a forensic sense.

fig-fir), n.

which

is carved,

engraved,

<tc.

See

fiij.

dze,

V.

to

place in authority, to ajipoint.


v.

flr)-flr), n.
fir)-rir), n.

dimness, twilight.

dze-bi

(ebi),

to

condemn,
to

to

regard as

a thread.
very (high)
:

guilty.
fi fi
. .
.

fi-O-fi-0, adv.
v.

il6

ga

fiofio, the

house

dze-AVO ai-ye,
dzi,
V.

condemn
sin,

to death.
fi to

is
. . .

very high.

to forgive, to
v.

remit

repeal a law.
to

ra-na.

See

fi

gbona.

fi

dzi-y9. (die),

to

punish,

give

up

fi-rax) (oral)), v.
fi
. .

to aggress, to seek
:

a quarel.

misery.
fi
. .

r,
(fi

V.

to
ri,

curse
to
be),

fire, to be accursed.

dz6-na,

v.

to

burn

fi

igi

diona,

bum

the

fi-ri

and

wood.

2)ass,

employed

in

a complement of diH, to surthe sense of more ; as, 6 tobi

FIR
diii fenia
firi

36
man), he
is

FUL
fo-rl-bo
(ori), V.

(he is great surpassing

greater than' man.


fi
fi
.

fo-ri-fui), V.

to to

to plunge into. submit to. (Gen.

4, 1.)

. .

ro, r9.

V.

to twist, to

sprain a joint,

fo-ri-tl, V.

endure, persevere.

See
V.

fina. to

fo-ro,
to

V.

to afflict, to be bitter against. to fear, to be

fi
fi

ror),

chew,

dip into sauce.

fd-ya
fo,
V. V. V.

(aiya), v.

discouraged.

ru-bo,

V.

to sacrifice.

to skin, flay. to break, as to

fi

S&Q, V. to value ; 6 fi dgutaq s4i) egba, he f6, valued the sheep at two thousand (cowries) ; fi . f6,
, . .

a vessel
;

to ache, as

the head.

wash, cleanse

to speak,

s4r) o\v6 k4g, with contempt

to
;

value at one cowry,

i.

e. to treat

f6-dzu

(odz(i), V.

to be blind. to speak.
to set

vaih

fi

9mo

sai)

owo

k4i],

do not f 6-hur)

(ohui)), v.
(fi),

treat the child with contempt.


fi
. . .

f5-kar)-sl
earnest.

v.

the

heart on,

to

be in

si,

to

add
See

to, to
fi
. .

contribute.
le-15.

&...
fi
fi fi
. . .

ai-lh, V.

f5-kar)-sii),
f55-l (ile), n.

v.

to be devout, to serve in heart. to

si-n6

(ino), v.

to

keep or harbor in the mind.


to conceal.

break into a house.

sir) or sir)-sir), v.

fo
to

li-o-dzu.

See

f9

lodiu.

SO-1^

(ile), v.

to

dash down,

lay the foun- fo

lo-dzu
(iln), V.

(li), V.

to blind,

put out

the eyes of.

dation of a clay house.


fi
. . .

fo-lu

to destroy

a town.

s5r) or
se,
V.

siiX), v.

to accuse, to sue.

fo-na

(ina), v.
(fi),

to take flre from the hearth.


v.

fi fi fi fi fi

to
V.

appoint.
to ridicule, disgrace. to ridicule.
v.

f6-na-h9,r)
for), V.

to

show

the road, direct, guide.


to be slender ;
to

se-eg,
.

to scatter, to

sow

press,

se-fe,

V.

se-le-ya,
SO-fo,
V.

to set

at naught.

squeeze, choke ; to blow a flute or trumpet, to kindle a fire.


foi)-f9r), adv.

to waste.

soundly (sleeping).
to soio seeds.

fi
fi

su,

V.

to deliver to.
V.

fog-gblr),
for)-ka,
V.

V.

su-ra,
to

to

treasure up.

to scatter abroad, disperse.


v.
V.

fi-ti, V.

lean against ; to suspend or postpone.

for)-kor),

to

discharge menses.
to blow a trumpet. crowd, as in a congregation.
V.

fi-ti-la, n.
fi
fl
.

a lamp.
V.

for)-kpa,

to choke.

. .

to-re,

to give,
to to

make a present.
; to

for)-kp5
for)-kp5,
indue
;

(ikpe), v.
V.

"We, "w6,

V.
V.

compare

w^rap up.
to

to

fi

put

into, to clothe with,

for)

lo-roi)

(li),

to choke.

bait a fish
fi
. . .

hook.

f5-raQ-in6
to be

(orai)), v.

to accuse,

charge with.

ya-na.
V,

See figbona.
v.

fgT)-TU-gl>ii) (iru).

See foqgbiQ.
to touch, feel.

fl-ye-de-n6,
fi-ye-sl,

patient under trials.


to.

fo-'W9-ba
fo-'W9-ko,

(fi),

V.

to

attend

V. V.

to

go hand in hand,
beckon
to.

to

embrace.

fo'v.
fd,
V.

to be

empty, wasted,

lost ;

to feel bereaved.

fo-"W9-kpd,

to

to fly,
:

clouds
float.

jump, palpitate ; to break away, as f9-"W9-ra-nu aiyo fo mi, / at7i alarmed ; ib soke, to affliction.
fo-AVO-ta
v.
(fi),

(enu), v.

to be silent

under wrong or

V.

to

search or seek for carelessly.

fd-dzi-s6r) (odii),

to

accuse of adultery.

fu,

V.

to

grow, as a plant.
for,
to, of,

fo-dzu-di

(odz<i), V.
v.

to be insolent. to squint.

fu, fur), prep,

by, with,

on account of:

fo-dztl-kar)-Av6,

mu
to

ii

fu mi, catch
;

it

for me

; so fu W95, speak

fo-dz<i-kp6,

V.

to

wink
at,
v.

fo-dzd-si, V. fo-dzQ.-s5-na
fo-dzti-tl,
V. V.

to
(si

look

to, give a hint. attend to.

them
li

r|

6 id
;

to

ona), abash.

to look for, expect.

cord

6 koq fii omi, it is full of water ; fu ara he did it of himself, or of his own acifefc I) mi fu afefe, a reed shaken by the toind ;
e,

odifi r

wnwo

fii

oruq, his eyes were heavy with


to

fo-dztl-to,
fo-fo, n.

to oversee,

superintend.

sleep ;

dio fu ay 5,

dance for joy.

foam.
to

fd-fo,

V.

be

bright, glittering, radiant ;

fQ,
adv.
fii,

ftir), V.

to give, to be white.

adv.

quickly, at once, rapidly.


V.

brightly, radiantly.

fll-dza,

to brag, to boast.

fd-ko-dza,

v.

to

pass by, neglect. (Mat. 23, 23.)

fu-fu, fur)-fur), n.
2}ounded.

whiteness, purity ; boiled

yams

f6-lo-f(5-lo, n.

the lights, kings.

an ungrateful person, an ingrate. fu-ke-fu-ke, adv. violently to be soft, as corn. empty, as an ear of corn. fVi-le, V. fo-ri-b9.-le (ori ile), v. to bow down, worship, fu-le-fu-le, adv. softly.
fS-re-si-gi, n.
fo-ri, V.
to be thin,

(palpitating).

submit.

fu-lu-fu-lu,

n.

dry corn-husk.

FUN
fur).

37
gba-di
(idi),
v.

GBA
to encircle the loins

Sec

fa.

Foi) alone, or as a syllable, is often


fill).

or the hilt of a

pronounced

sword.
to be suspicious, to

fu-ra
fu-ra,

(arl), v.

to be pale,

do gba-du-a, gba-du-ra,

v. to

to

pray

to God.

wickedly.
n.

gba
beer

dU-Iu-mo,
n.
v.
v.

v.

slander.

of grain and honey.

gbfi.-dza-m6,

the barber's trade.


to let blood, to bleed, to assemble, to collect

fHi-ru, adv.

silently, quietly.

gba.-dze (edie),

cup.

fu-te-fu-te, adv.

fu-ye,

V.

easily (torn). to he light, as to weight

gba-dzo
;

(adio),

an assent-

to he better, in

bly.

sickness.

gba-e-ri-dze,
gb3.-gba,
n.

v.

to bear witness.

ivhich is capacious, wide.


n.

gba-gbar)'-di-di,

a dry uncut gourd.


to forget.

a
ga,
V.

gba-gba-ro,

n.

eaves of a house.

gba-gbe
to be high, tall,

(igbe), v.
V,

gba
!

gb6,

to believe, to obey.

ga, m.

a
!

title.

gb.-ge-de, n.

a wall around a yard.


V.

ga-bau'

interj.

wonderful
:

gbi.-gur) (og&i)),

to inherit.

gfi-ba-si, n.

the east.

gbdi, adv.
ka gafara
fii

loudly, noisily.

g&-fa-ra,

v.

an excuse

mi, excuse

me ; gbai-ye
gba-ko,
6.)

id gafara lodo woi), let them alcme. gfi-fa-ra ! interj. beware ! take heed ! (Gen. 24, ga-ga, adv. closely (crowded).

to live, to be in the world. (gba), v. adv. exactly, fitly.

gba-kpe
gbfi.
. . .

(gba erukpe),
(li), V.

v.

to

make mortar.

1&, V.

to save, rescue. to slap. to credit, trust for

ga-ga-lo,

n.
re.

stilts.

gba.. .la-ba-ra
gbfi.
. . .

a large gawky animal. ga-ga-ra, ga-la, n. a kind of antelope.

13.-Avir)
(ile), V.
(il6),

v. (li),

goods.

ga-mu-ga-mu,
ga.-ni-g9.-ni, n.

n.

a tomahawk, battle-axe.
despiser.
n.

gba-l gba-lS

to

sweep the house.

V.

gba.-16, V.
shield.

to

to sweep the ground or yard. spread over the ground, to extend, in-

ga'-ni-ki, ga'-ri-ki,

crease, fiourish.
. . .

to pierce, to stab ; to sew gar), V. coarsely ; to cut gba. hushes ; to take by little at a time ; to he upright, gba.

le-dze

(li),

v.

to bleed
v.

le-ri-dze

(li),

to

or cup. hear witness for.

perpendicular. gar), adv. firmly


g9.r), V.

gba
:

. .

lo-dza
V.

(li),

v.

to

duro gag,

to

stand firmly.

to despise, revile.

16h, gba. he took atvay


. .

to

take

away : 6 gba mi

gird (Ps. 18, 32), swaddle. li aso ]6h,


to help,

my
(li),

cloth.
V.

gar)-gaQ,
gar)-gaQ,

n.
v.

a small quantity of sauce or the like. to be perpendicular ; overhead ; n.

gba

lo-^wo

with one objective,


deprive
of,

succor ; with two, to

erectness, perp>endicularity

osai)

gai)gai),

midday.

from

6 gba mi I9W0, he assisted

away me ; 6 gba 9010

to

take

gar)-gar), adv.

erectly, exactly, very.

a kind of drum. gai)-gar), n. gar)-rar), adv. straight (onward).


gar)-rar)-gar)-rag.
ga-ri, n.
ga-ri, n.

gba

lowo mi, he deprived me of my child. to dash or cast upon the ICl, V. shore, as waves 6 gba 6ko It. okuta, it cast the ship upon
.
. .

See gagara.

the rocks.

farina.

gbam-gbam,
gba.
. . .

adv.

tightly,
to

compactly (tied up),


embrace, hug.
to

saddle.

in6-ra

(ard), v.
to seize

g&-ri-ki, n.

shield.

gba
much fatigued.

mu,

V.

upon,

make a

pretext of.

ga-sa,

V.

to he tired out,

gSi-sa.] interj.

wonderful/ indeed!
to fioat

gaur), adv.
glja, V.

very (much).
fu, to

(Luke 11, 54.) gbar)-ga, n. a large room, hall, parlor. gbar)-gba, n. publicity, which is exposed
view.
v.

to

public

to slap, to sioeep, to collect together,


:

about lodiu

gba

permit

to

remain at ease: gba... gba-ra,

to boil slightly, parboil.


V.

(li),

to

slap in the face.


;

gba, adv.

loudly (slapping)
to

gba
v.

rd,
:

to relate in

behalf of one,

to

defend a

to

sound.
to receive, to

cause

gba

braj) rai rd,


(il6), V.

defend

my

cause.

gba,

V.

take,

to
;

take

away from ;
succor
;

gba

Sl-lS

to

redeem by exchanging one

hold, as a vessel

to assist,

to strain ;

to

thing for another.


. . .

(Exod. 13, 13.)

wrap up
roomy
band.
;

to

to recreate,
fi

so-do (si), V. to receive into friendship. fiourish ; to consent : gba id4raya, gba amuse oneself; gba aye, to he large, gba to obey, observe a rule. se, v. odia ghk, to gird, encircle with a gba-ti, V. to crowd after one. '
.

gba-'we

(aiwe), v.

to

mourn,

to fast.

GBA
g"b3.-ye (^ye),
v.

38
roomy.

GBO
n.

to be broad, large,
to hire

gber)-gbe-gber)-gbe,
gb6-sar) (gba),
v.

largeness or bulkiness.

gbd.

"wQ,

V.

or rent a house. abide at ; to take up, raise ; ; to bear loith one.


to perdition.
:

to take vengeance, to avenge.

gbe,
to

V.

to be, to live, to

make, cause, perform


V. V.

gb, gbd,

to perish, to

go

to be near, to
(it)

badie,

is

help ; to be difficult not hard to spoil.


to

gbe-se (gbe), v. to step nimbly. gbS-se (gba), v. to sin. gbi-dza (gba), v. to assume a quarrel, to defend. k6 gbe gbi-gba, n. which is received, &c. See gba.
gbi-gbe,
n.

which

is exalted. is

understand a language. gbS-de (gb6), gbi-gbe, n. which is dry, dryness ; which ede gba yo), v. to interpret gbi-gbo-na, . which is hot, heat. gbe-de-gbe-yo (gba for persons speaking different languages. gbi-gb6, n. which is heard, hearing.
v.

hewn.

gbe gbe

. .

di-de,

du-ro,
v.

gbe-dze,

rise, to raise up. cause to stand, to uphold. to remain quiet, to be undisturbed.


v.

to

cause to

gbi-hir) (gb6),

v.

to

hear news.

v.

to

gbi-ke

(gba),

v.

to accept

a propitiation (applied
take comfort,

to idols).

(Ex. 23, 11.)

gbi-kpe,
to raise

V.

to accept consolation, to

gbe

ga, mote in rank.


.

V.

up, exalt, magnify, to pro-

to be

comforted.
to take one's place, to be substi-

gbi-kpo
to to

gbe-go

(ago), V.

dwell in a

tent, to tabernacle.

(gba), v. tuted for.

gbe gbe gbe gbe gbe gbe gbe gbe

ha,
kfi,

v.
V.

hang up, suspend.

gbi-le.

See gbale.
(gba), v.
to consider, advise, consult. to be
v.

to set

upon

gbe

ka. ina, set it

on

gbi-m5
gbi-na
to

the fire.
. . .

(gba),

on fire,

to catch fire, kindle,

ka-le,

v.
V.

to set

down,

set before, establish.

glow.
v.

gbe-16 (gba),
.
.

to exact
. . .

Ig, V.

See gbe
(li),

usury, to take interest. ka.

gbi-ni-k6r),
flame.
gbil), V.
to

to fester, to be

full of pus, to in-

. .

le-bu
le-ke,

v.

to

lay crosswise.

breathe heavily.

. . .

v.

to exalt, extol.
v.

gbiJ),

V.

to plant, sow.

16-rag
v.

(li),

to clear, acquit.

gbir)-gbi-ni-ki, n.

bulk, bulkiness.

mi, gbe-ra-ga (arA),


. .
.

to

swallow.
v.

to exalt oneself, to

vain.

gbe-r6,

V.

to

bid farewell.
to lift

gbi-ro. See gbero. to endure. be proud, gbi-yari-dzti, v. gbi-te (ite), v. to accept worship or caressing. gbi-ye-16 (iye). See gbakel6.

gbe-ri

(ori), v.

up

the head, take courage.

gbo,
gb6,

V.

to

bark as a dog ;

to

rub

gbo

eiij) li

ard,

gb6-ro

(gba), v.

to consider, intend, consult, think,

curry the horse.


V.

jmrpose.

to be or

grow
the

old, to ripen, to be

tough : gbo

gb gbe gbe gbe gbe

. .

ro,

V.
V.

to to

cause to stand,

erect, build.

loh, to

wax

old.

iH,

lay upon.
to

(Ps. 89, 19.)

gbo'-do-gl,

M.

yaws.
to be bold,

.sar)-le, v.
.

dash down.

gbo-dzu
ground in order
a
bride, to
;

(odiu), V.
V.

impudent.

"wfth,

V.

to bring.
to raise from the

gbo-dztl-gba,
to

to be bold,

impudent.
look up.

wd,

V.

gbo-dzu-16,

V.

to be resolute, confident.

judge of the weight.

gbe-ya-'WO
gbe,
D.

(iyawo),

v.

to take

marry.

gbo-dzu-"w6-ke gbo-gbo, pron.


the day.

(okc), v.
all,

to
:

every

titi

gdiq gbogbo,
clumsily.
!

all

to be

dry;
a hen.

to sharpen,

whet

to carve,

hew;

to cackle, as

gbo'-gO-d6,

V.

to be v.

clumsy
to

;
:

adv.

gbe-du,

n.

a kind of drum.
n.

gbd-hui)

(gb6),

hear

gbohuq

hear ! an

gbe-du-gbe-du,
of water.

an

overflowing, a wide extent

exclamation during a public address. gb6-h.ur)-gb6-hur), n. an echo: gbohuijgb^liur)


gba, the echo sounds.

gbe-dze.

See gbadie.
ehii)), v.
v.

gbe-hir) (gbe

to follow ; to be too late.

gbe-dz9
gbe-kar),
is sore

(gbo),
v.

to

hear a cause or suit.


:

gbo-ku (gba), V. le-nu (li), gbo


. . .

to be stale, rancid.
v.

to contradict.

to feel sore

ar4 mi gbeka^,

my

body gbo-16-hur),

n.
V.

a single word, just a word.


to be large, as
v.

or aches.
to

gbdm-gbo,
le

gb6-ke-16, gb5-kar)-16 (gbe), v. to trust, in, depend on : mo gbekele woi), or mo ghoknx) mi

gbo-mi-gbo-mi,
gbo-na,
V.

to be large, as

a heap. a surface.

to be
V.

rearm, hot, zealous, fervent.


to resist

woq,

/ trusted

in them.
(9na), n.

gbo-nu
a carpenter.

(enu),
n.

jiroposition.

gbe-na-gbe-na
gber)-gbe, adv.

gbo-r)gbo,

root, bottom of a matter.


?i.

widely (extending).

gb6-r)gbo-ta,

Malaghetta pepper.

GBO
gTjO-ro, w,

39
gi-gui), n.

HAL
which
is

gb6-ro,

V.

to he

a kind of snare. narrow.

long

which

is

to be

ridden.

gljo-ro, V.

to he wide.

gbd-rur) (gb6
scent.

oruri),

v.

to

smell,

lit.

to

little quantity or thing. hear a gi-ri, gi-ri-gi-ri, adv. closely, firmly, diligently. a corn cob. gl-ri-gl-ri, n.

giQ-gU),

(Acts 23, 24.) n. a very

gblS, V.

to hear,

heed

gb6

ti,

to hearken.

go-go,

n.

sharp 2>oints

adv.

sharply,

severely:

gbb,

V.

to flourish, as

a plant.
to dare,

ar4 mi bar) gogo,

I am
v.

lean.
to

gbo-do (gba

edo), v.

presume

b gbodo, g6-ke (gw)), go-ri,


gor)-go,
go-ri.
V.

go up, mount, ascend.

k6 gbodo, no, not (emphatic). gl39-g9-do, adv. (falling) with a crash.


gbo-hir)
(ibii)), v.

to he sharp, acute.

See goke.
shrilly.
to he

to

hear news.
to

go-ro, adv. See go, g6, gd,


V.
V.

gbg-hur)
gbbhuT).

(61iui)), v.

hear a

voice, to hear.

long and slender, to stoop,

to hide.

to puzzle, perplex.
to be stupid,
V.

gb6-kar)-l.

See gbSkele.
v.

V.

gbb-ko
gbor),
V. V.

(gba), to he deep, great.


to he wise,

to be navigahle.

go-go,
to hale

end, for
to strike ;

awkward. mane; a stick with a hook at the plucking fruit from trees; a child'' s play
a
horse's

gb6r),

cunning ;
to

out

of

lots.

water.

go-go-'WTi, n.
to sliake ;

a a

sheet.

gbbr),

V.

move

to tears, to he in dis-

goi-goi, adv.

sluggishly.
table-spoon.
to be

tress, to sling

a stone, depth

to cast, ;

gborj-gboi),

n.

adv.

throw.

go-mbo,
gox)-gov),

n.
V.

headlong.

prominent, as the eyes

to

be

gbor)-gbor)-gbor)-gbor), adv. clumsily. gb6-rar) (Sraij), v. to hear a cause, to hear.

large, as a bird's beak.

gor)-gor), gor)-gor)-gor)-gor), n.

a height, a

steep.

gbo-ro,
gb6-ro,

n.
V.

greens of squash-leaves.
to be

gu.

See

gui).

long

and
to

slender.
of.

gbu-ro (gb6
gbu-ru, adv.

iro), v.

hear

gu-de-gu-de, n. gti-du-gd-du, n.
gCl-du-gll-du, n.

cloudiness.

violently (raining).
to cut.

scramble; adv.
v.

scrambling
entirely.

ie gudugudu,

to

(Gen. 31, 15.)

ge (Egba
ge,
n.

for ke), v.

a poisonous wild yam.


the esculent watermelon.

a kind of cloth. ge-ge, n. a lot : ie gcge, to cast lots. gb'-ge-le, n. a bank of earth, a furrow.
ge-gur),
ge-le,
gS-le,
n.
V.

gu-fe,

to belch.

gu-na
gUT),
V.

(Il9rii)), n.

gu-nu-gu-nu,
gux), V. water.
gtU),
V.

n.

a buzzard.
to be long. to land, as

n.

curse.

to climb, to ride ; to

a handkerchief.
to be elevated, raised

encamp

a boat

to

pond, as
:

above the surface.

ge, adv.

exactly.
n.

to strike against,

pound,

stab, pierce

guggi

ge-de-ge-de, dregs, sediment. ge-ge, adv. even so, well : gege bi, even as.
gS-ge,
n.

(igi) fo, to be

torn or broken, as a bush in travelling.


to land, to

gui)-le

(il&), V.

run aground.

a wen.
n.

gui)-r9r),
dilatoriness
:

V. V.

to recline.
to

ge-ne-ge-ne,
dilatory.

it genegene, to be

gur)-'wa,

put on
n.

stately dress, to sit in state.

gui)-ye
in a lambent manner, as flame.
descent, slope, or brow of a
to
tlic

(iye), v.

to he fledged, feathered.

ge-re-ge-re, adv.
ge-re-ge-re,
ge-sir) (guq
n.

gvl-SU (Hausa),

the south.

hill.

eiiri), v.

mount,

to ride.
:

H.
libisi

gi-di, a pleonasm in
gidi,

Egba

dialect

6 jgloh

whither art thou going ?


very much.
tumult, uproar.

ha,

V.

to scrape, scratch, bruise. to lock, to wattle,


to

gl-di-gl-di, adv.

hfi., V.

be entangled, crowded,

gl-di-gl-ni, n.

narrow.
hfi,
loftily.

gi-ga,

n.

height.

gi-ga-gi-ga, n, great height ; which is pierced or gi-gai), n.


gi-gar), n.

adv.

an
n.

expletive auxiliary.

hS,

astonishment

ha

ie woij, they were

asto-

to be pierced.

nished.

which

is

despised. (Acts 19, 27.)

ha

interj.

denoting wonder.

g^-gi, gi-gi-le

(ile).

See g^gele. which


is putzling.

gi-gi-e-se, n.

the heel.
is slender ;
is stupid,

ha-ha, n. a blade of corn, fodder. ha-kur) (ekuij), v. to shut a door.

gi-go, w.
gi-gd,
n.

which
which

ha

la-ye

(li),

v.

to throng,

crowd.

awkward.

hfi.-16 (ile), V.

to boast.

HAM
hfi.
.
. .

40

IBE

ni6,

V.

to lock

up, imprison.
to

ha

. .

m6-ra
n.

(ard), v.

gird

to he

armed, har-

h^-na,

to he crazy, to act the

madman.
hanta, he
is

i,

hfi-na-ha-na,

n.

roughness.
:

ha-nta,
lean.

adv.

scrawnihj

ril

very

a preflx forming nouns of action, and occasionally other nouns from verbs as, iba, a meeting, from It is also used with the subjunctive ba, to meet.
;

mode.
to write.
i,

ha-ntu, ha-ntu-ru (Hausa), v. to scrape, to he worn out, hai), V.


hdl),
to
V.

pron.

he, she,

it.

as land
to

to

scream.
nail
;

% pron.
i,

to appear,

become visible ;

draw out a

hang up.
. . .

him, her, it. adv. not : odudua igba nla medii, 4 de i ^i, the universe is two large calabashes, which are shut

hM)

16-in6

(li),

v.

to

maltreat.
to

and can not


to reve-

he opened.

ha-ri

(ori), v.

to

do homage,

worship,

i-ba, n.

the act

of meeting, &c. (see ba)


coincidence,

a hiding,

rence ; to share.

an ambuscade ; a
iba,
things scattered.
that

a lucky

hit.

hau
he,

See ho.
to
.

V.
. .

pick up
V.

aux. part. should, ought, might, suppose : iba se fenia, if he were a man ; awa iba ti
;

he

so,

to collect
to

news

to tell, to

pick up crude

kpada, we might have returned


that ! if that !

iba de

would

knowledge,

smatter.

he-'WTi (own), V. to grow grey-headed. he, adv. yes (addressed by females to superiors).

i-ba. i-ba, n.

See ba.
fever
n.
:

iba

rise e,

he

is sick

of a fever.

hee,

n.

malignant envy.
pantingly. used for he by males. narrowness.
conduct, behavior.

he-le, adv.

i-ba-de, fltness, accordance. i-ba-di (id), n. the hips or loins.

he-yi, adv.

i-ba-dze, .

spoiling, corruption, injury.


trouble,

hi-ha,

n.

i-ba-dzo,
i-ba-fii).
; to shout, roar,

n.

a meeting with
bafi^.

difficulty,

hi-hil, n.

See

h6,

v.

to boil,
;

ferment, lather, foam


strip
:

hoot at

to peel,

ho

iho, to

make a
lit.

noise ;

i-bai-ye-dze, n. mischief, a stirring up of strife. i-ba-ka, n. a mule.

ddio
to

i)h6 b6, the rain is close at hand,

roaring i-ba-ka'-si-e, n.

a camel. a chance meeting.


quietness, contentment ; the

come.
V.

i-ba-kpa-de,
to shout,

n.

ho-kui),
h6-16,
V.

applaud.

i-ba-le

(ilS),

n.

train
:

h6,
to

V.

by acclamation. to he narrow ; to peel or pare ; to scratch


to salute to retreat.
:

or tail of a loose garment ; a throwing or casting ibale oko, a stone's throw.

move hastily ;
not
!

i-ba'-lo-gur), n.
is it

h6, k6, adv.

eyi

h6

not this ?

i-ba-16h, n.

a military officer. See baloguij. accom2}animent, attendance. an ambuscade. an apron.


:

ho

h9-hu
m.

an exclamation of contempt or of op- i-ba-in6-le,


i-ba-nte, n.
i-bfi-ra, n.

n.

position.

ho-ho,
hoi). h6r),
hdr),
V. V.

a kind of crow.
huij.
to itch, be irritable.
to

See

the passage of migratory birds loh Ibara, the hawks are gone to Jbara.

awodi

i-ba-re, n.
h6i), the

friendship, alliance.
consultation.
.

caiv

kanakana die, 6 yo, a


is

i-ba-r6,

n.

crow has
hor)-rur),
ho., V. h\l, V.
to
to

eaten, he
v.

full, he caws.

i-ba-so-kp6,
i-ba-tar), n.

a talking
relative,

together, conference.

to snore.

i-ba-so-rui), n.
roots, to disinter.
to be feeble ; to

a prime minister.
kinsman.

pull up by the
; to

moulder, rot come up, as a plant ;

germinate, i-ba-"wi, n,

a judging, rebuke.
twins.
,

behave

to occur, to

come i-be-dzi
li

(bi edii), n.

into notice, to he notable, distinguished: lailai


hvi,

6 i-be-kpe-dze,
i-bfe-re, n.
to

n.

perjury.

he flourished in ancient times.


(oko),
V.

hu-ko
hu-ko,

to

produce herbs, as the earth

i-b6, adv.

an inquiry. that place, yonder, there


entreaty, supplication.
.

nib|,

there ;

spring up.
V.

sib, to there, yet ;


to

niha ibe, near there.

cough.
devise, originate

i-b^-be,

n.

hu-m6,
notion.
htlr), V.

V.

to meditate,

an idea or i-be-kpe,
i-be-re, n.

a pawpaw. a stooping
;

a beginning, commencement.

to

grunt.
v.

i-be-ru, n.
to behave, to

fear, dread,

a fearing.
n.

hd-vrS. (iwa),

conduct oneself.

i-be-ru-bo-dzo (ba odio),


bling.

fear

and

trem-

hu-ye

(iye), v.

to be fledged, feathered.

IBE
i-b&-tS-le, M.
hrihery.

41
i-bu-ra,
n.

IDA
an
oath.
n. n.

i-be-"w6,
i-bi,
71.

n.

visitation, investigation.
this place, here
:

i-bu-ru,

wickedness, evil-doing.

a place,

ibi

gbogbo, every- i-busi,

an addition, a
n.

blessing.

where, every respect ; ibi iyawo, a marriage ; ibi oku, a burial ; ibi dioko, an abode ; ni ibi ti, lohere.
i-bi, n.
evil,

i-bu-Av6r),
i-da, n.

a sprinkling, staining.
honor, reverence.

i-bu-yir), n.

hurt; a question.
:

wax, resin.

i-bl, n.

birth

ogui)

ibi,

birthright

ibi to, travail

i-dfi, n.

which

is created,

which
:

is

natural

a divi-

(Gon. 35, 10.) i-bi-ki-bi, n, any place whatever.


i-bi-l
i-bl-lS
(ilo), n.
(ile),

comes on.

sion, part,

point of time

ni Ida ana, at this time


;

yesterday ; Ida keriij, a fourth part

ida

nieriij,

one home-horn.

four jyarts.
i-dft, n.
71.

n.

native.

See

dii.

i-bi-mbi,
i-bi-n6,
n.

n.

the natural state, untutoredness.

vexation, anger, wrath.


(ino), n.
n.

a sword, cutlass. i-da, i-da-a-sa, n, a scrap of cloth, a


i-da-do,
n.

2)atch.

i-bi-n6-dze
i-bl-si, n.

sorrow, regret, vexation.

island,

a detached abode.

i-bl-ro-gbo-ku,
i-bo, n.

a couch, a

sofa.

increase.
the ]}lace in which,

where

ni ibo,
?

i-da-du-ro, n. detention. i-da-dzi (edzi), n. half; aflaio in cloth. where ? i-da-dzo, n. a collecting, a collection.
li

iiiha ibo,

where away, in what place


of what

ara ibo

i-dfi.-dzo, n.

judgment, sentence of the judge.


condemnation.

iwo

citizen

pilace art tliou ? or lohence

i-da-dzo-lCl, n.
i-da-gi-ri, n.

art thou ?
i-bo, M.

an

alar7n.

breadth

lot, sortilege.

i-da-gil-de, w.

cold cloudy weather.

i-bo-de (ba ode),


towns. i-bo-dzi, n,

n,

custom-house at the gates of i-da-gur)-si-le, n.


i-dfi-ho-ro, n.

which causes war.

desolation.

i-bo-dziQ,

n.

a den, pit, grave. a shade.


a fearing, trembling for fear. a veil ; dissimulation.
n.
n.

i-da-hui), n.

i-eply.

i-da-ke,

n.

silence, quietness.

i-bo-dzo,

n.

i-bo-dzu

(odifi), n.

i-da-ko-dza,
i-d5.-kp5, n.

i-da-ke-dze, i-da-ke-ro-ro, n. quietness, a calm a ptassing over or by. n.

i-bo-dzu-'w6,
i-bo-nii-'w6r),

superintendence.
sprinkling, affusion.
concealing, concealment.

i-dfi-ko-rd (5k9), n.

an anchor.

mixture, fellowship, union.


n.
?.

i-bd-nio-16,

n.

i-da-ktl-da,
i-d3,-k\i-da,

i-bd-ra
i-bo-ri

(ar4), n.
(ori),

n.

i-bd-se

(ese),

body. a covering for the head or top. a hoof. n.


cause.

a covering

for the

a bad breaking. a bad bending.


half.

i-da-me-dzi,
i-da-me-rir),

n. n.

a fourth part, quarter.

i-bo-ni, n.
i-bor), n.

a supporting of one^s
a gun.
idolatry.

i-bo'-ri-sa, n.

i-da-me-ta, n. a third. i-da-me-^wa, n. a tenth. a mistaken opinion, i-ASi-iab, n.


i-da-mo-rai),
n.

heresy.

i-bo-se

(ese), n.

a
n.

stocking.

a plan,

device, invention.

i-b9-"wo (owo),
i-bu,
.

glove.

i-da-mu,
i-da-na,
;

n.

confusion, perplexity.

abstraction of a part.
n.

little

portable furnace

a feast.

i-bu, i-bu-bu, chamiel ; depth.

breadth, diameter

an

abyss, a

i-da-nde, redemption. i-da-ni-la-ra, i-da-ni-lo-dzu, n.


trouble.

n.

disappointment,

i-bu-ba,

n.

a hiding-place.
crosswise, coastwise
:

i-bu-bu,
i-bu-do,

n.

ibubu

adv.

i-dai), n.

which

is

smooth, sleek
brightness
:

sleight of

hand

crosswise.

a joint of grass
i-dar)-ra-'w6
i-darj-vrd,
I

a camp, encam2)ment. a stand, stand-point. n. i-bu-dze (ibi idie), n. a feeding-jylace, a manger.


n.

bottom of trowser legs


(ar4), n.
trial,

omo

a piece sewed idaij, a damsel.

to the

i-bu-du-ro

(ibi iduro),

a trial of strength, exertion.

n.

temptation.

i-bu-dzo-ko,
i-bu-ke,
n. n.

n.

habitation, abode.

l-da-ra, n.

goodness, beauty.

i-bu-koi),
art thou.

a carver, engraver, carving. i-da-rar), n. transgression. a blessing fa li iwo, blessed i-da-ra-ya, ?i. ibukoi) cheerfulness,
\ \

liveliness.

i-da-ri-dzi, n.

forgiveness, pardon.

i-bu-kCir), n.
tempt.

deficiency,

remnant

disgrace, con-

i-da-ro,

?i.

anxiety, sorroiv.

i-dfi.-ro, n.
(ibi

i-bu-in9
i-b0.r), n.

imo), n.

a watering-place or trough.

i-dS.-r5r)-si-le,
lence.

dross of iron, cinders. . lehich causes disease or

^'f*'*-

gift, present,

IDA
i-da-ru-da-kp6, n. which i-da-si, n.
officiousness.
is spared,

42

IPA
strife
:

a confused mingling p^e mixture. i-dza, n. a blow. a remnant, gleaning, i-dza, n. wrestling, fighting, war, motion of the whirlwind.
n.

idia idi\,

i-da-si-lS, n.

beginning, cause ; an ordinance or i-dza-ba,

trouble, annoyance.

law.

i-dza-dar), m.

fruit which the bats have gnawed.


w.

i-da-se, n. a venture, risk, hazard. i-dfi-wS, w. consulting the gods or an oracle,

i-dza-de-16h,

a going forth.

i-dza-du,

n. n.

scrambling, earnest contest.


fear.
wrestling, struggling.

i-da-wo, i-da-'wo-kpd,
i-de, n.

n.

See idaro.
n.

i-dza-i-ya,

union, combination.

i-dza-kS.-di, n.

i-da-ye-da-ye, adv.

now and

then, occasionally.
:

i-dza-kpa-ti,

bandage, bond ; a binding


ebi), n.

ni ide, bound.

i-de-bi-kpa {Ak
i-de-hui), n.
i-de-le, n.

starvation.

a pitched battle, contest ; a snatching from the hand. " i-dza-16h, n. the black ants called drivers."
n.

a bargain.

guardianship ; family medicine.

i-dza-nu, n. a bridle-bit ; a club with an irmi hook on the end used by kidnappers.

i-de-na,

a king's officer who has charge of the i-dzai)-dza, n. small pieces. n. revenues of a district ; a custom house ; an ob- i-dza-r9, n. detection offalsehood. a leathern guard on the struction in the road, a hindrance ; a lying in wait, i-dza-sar), n. an ambuscade.
defend
it

left

wrist to

i-de-ni, .
i-de-ri, n.

bondage.

i-dze,

n.

against the bow-string. a race, competition, emulation.

lid,

cover. the

i-dz, n.
ear.

a reed

the seventh day.

i-de-ti
i-de.
i-de, n.

n. (idi eti),

bur of the

i-dze-dzi-la, n.
i-dze, n. i-dze, n.

twelve days ago.

Sec de.
brass.

a response, reply. of a gun. feed, food,

an

effect ;

wad

i-de, n. i-dS.

a demijohn.
a snare.

i-dze-'bo, n.

an

altar.

See de.

i-dze-ka,

n.

deep sleep, snoring.


the silk of maize.

i-de-kur), n.
i-de-ti, n.

i-dze-re, n.
i-dze-ri, n.
i-dze-riri, n,

failure, inability.
n.

testimony, evidence.

i-de-'WO,
i-di, n. i-dl, n.

trial,

temptation, snare.

four days ago,


three dags ago,
; fright, surprise.

a bundle,
the

sheaf,

bunch

costiveness.

i-dze-ta,
i-dzi, n.

n.

rump,

buttock, hilt ; a source, cause, reato

a whirlwind, a storm
n.

son

ri idi, to

understand,
idi

prove

wk

idi, to in-

i-dzi-gbo,
i-dzi-ka,

vestigate ; so idi, to expilain.


i-di, n.

a chief priest. a ravine, valley. n. i-dii-gg-igx),


n.

an

eagle

baba akosa,

the eagle is the

deep sleep.

father of birds of prey.


i-di-dzi, n.

i-dzi-la, n.
i-dzi-le, n.
n.

a famous or notorious person,


depth, mysteriousness.

a fright, an (Harm,

i-di-glia-rO (da), n.
posture,
(da), n.

a remaining in a standing i-dzi-in6,

See adiim6.
depth (from tbe top of a height), dis-

i-dzi-na, n.
union, combination.

i-di-kp5
i-di-le

tance, expenditure.

n. (ile),
(ilu),

kindred or race of the same stock.

i-di-lu

n.

a mixing, a mixture.

i-dzi-ni (oni), n. seven days hence, Sec idzi and idiina. i-dzir).

i-di-n6
i-dir),

(ino),

n,

n.

a maggot, skipper
n.

anger, passion ; costiveness. 1-dzi-se-kpa-le (ile), n. the early afternoon. : di idig, to breed i-dzo-WTi, n. jealousy, envy.

worms.
i-di-ror)
(iioi)),

i-dzo-ye,
a plaiting of the hair,
i-dz9,
ft.

n.

officer.

an assembly.
a day
: ;

i-dl-ibl) (oroi)), n.
i-do', n.

neck-tie.

i-dz6, n.
siege;

encampment, settlement, colonization ;


n.

bibi, birth-day

idz& odui), new year's day idi6 gbogbo, daily.


(li

idio

the herb canna.

i-dz6-kfi.i)-lo-g'b6r)

ogboij), adv.

seldom, occa-

i-do-do,

the navel ; in the Iketu dialect,


n.

a room.

sionally,

now and

then.

i-do-gbo-lu,
i-do-ko,
i-dor), n.
i-d6r), n.
n.

a stumbling-block.
the

i-dzo-ni, n.
;

eight days hence.

an arriving at

farm

the

name of i-dzu,
I-fti, n.

n.

wilderness.

a town.
the bed-bug, chinch.

i-dzu-re,
i-fa, n.

a pattern. See akpediure. n. one of the Yoruba idols.


for scoopitig out

sweetness, pleasantness.

a round shave, used

the

i-du-gbo-lu.
i-du-ro,
n.

See idogbolu. a standing,


the erect position.

i-fk, n.

pulp of green calabashes. gain, luck ; abatement, ebbing.

IFA
i-fS-gi
(igi),

43
i-gba-ku-gba,
i-gba-la,
n, n. n,

IGO
any time
:

a drawing-knife,
of six days.

ni

igbakugba, often
:

i-fa-ni, n.

the space

salvation, deliverance
seizure,

se igbala, to save,

i-fa-ror) (oroq), n.
the bowstring is
i-fe, n.

an iron instrument with which i-gba-mu,


i-gba-ni,

drawn.

n.

a cup ; a whistling. a reed. i-fe-fe, n, a flute, a pipe. n. i-fe-re,


i-fe-ti-si
i-fe, n.
(fi),

i-gb3.-nl, n.

a span, ancient times


n,

ara igbani, ancients,

i-gba-ro-ko,
i-gba-ti
obedience.

the hip-joint,

(eti), n.

a border, edge.

n.

attention

to,

love, will, desire.

a taking ; forgetfulness. i-gbe-kur), n. a male captive,


i-gbe, n.
i-gbe-le, n.
usury. i-gbe-ra, n,
is he.

See igbagbe.
to

i-fe, n.

a belching, eructation.
ife), n.

usury,

interest

'

se

igbele,

exact

i-fe-ktl-fe (k!
i-fe-ni, n.

irregular desire, lust.

charity, philanthropy.

self-defervce, vindication,
ri),

i-fe-se-dzi, n.
i-fi-bu, n.
i-fi-bur), n.
i-ii-dzi, n.

who
a

forgiveness of sins. is cursed: ifibu li 6i), accursed

l-gbe-ri (gbe and i-gbe-ri


(ori),

w.

nearness.

n.

position above the head,

(Mat.

gift, present.

27, 37.)

i-fi-har), n.

pardon, remission. a showing, revelation.


suspicion, a fastening upon.
slave.

i-gbe-ri-ko, n,
i-gbe-ro, n. i-gbe-se,
i-gb6,
. n.

a neighborhood, province.

consideration.
debt, desert.

i-fi-mo, i-fi-rar)-mo, n.
i-fo-le, n.

a home-born

bush;

figuratively, /ceces.

i-fo-ri-fo, n.

a flake, a spark of fire.


fear, dread.
;

i-fo-ya, n.
i-f6, n.

i-gbe-hir) (igba), n, of a period.

the last, the afterpart, the

emd

abundance

bawling.

i-gbe-ke-le,
i-gbe-sir), n,
n,

n.

hope, assurance.

See gbekele.

i-f 6, M.

cleansing ; utterance.

a female

captive,

i-fo-ko, n.
i-fo-le

shipwreck.

i-gbl-md,
i-gblr), n,

councillor,
effort to

(ile), n. (ilu), n,

i-fo-lu

burglary. the destruction of a town,

a snail ; an

remove anything,

i^bo,

n.

a forest. an assembly of priests, a


n.
sacrifice.

i-for), n.

i-f6r), n.

i-for)-for),

a gut, bowels, tripe. a severe eruptive itching of the hands, a small honey -making fly. n. a crowd.
whiteness.

i-gbo, n.

i-gbo-du, i-gbo-fa,

a sacred grove,
courage,

i-gbo-i-ya, i-gbo-dzfl, n,

i-for)-kpo, n.
i-fui), n.

i-ga, n.
i-ga, n.

height, stature.
stretch, extension
:

i-gbd-kui) (gba), n. a sail. i-gbd-ro, n. bush-grown fallow land. i-gbo-ro, n. a street,

na

iga, to

stand at full i-gbo-ro-bo, n,

the

thumb,

stretch, reaching up.

I-ga-na, n. a town.
i-gai), n.
the large

i-gbo-se, n, after a while : 6 di ^boie, let him wait a wall, a walled enclosure, the name of a while, after a little ; yi 6 w^h ni igbose, lie will come by and bye,
:

contempt, coniemptuousness

igaij

amado, i-gb6,

n.

hearing, attention, trust, obedience.


credulity, one

wild boar.

i-gbo-kti-gbo, n.
i-gbor)-ra
(ar4), n.

who
:

is

credulous.

i-gar)-gar), n.
i-g.r)-gar), n.

a kind of yam,
largeness, hugeness.

a shaking of the body.


so ni rgboi)\v6,

i-gag-riq,
i-ga-ra, n.

n.

a mattock. a pick-axe. a robber, robbery,


beating upon
:

the elbow, a cubit i-gbor)-'w6, n. to jog with the elbow,

i-gar)-re, n.

i-gbo-'WO
i-ge-de, n,
; ;

(gbil),

a pledge, token

cubit,

a mystery (superstitious).

i-gba,

n.

admittance, reception
;

a i-ge-re,
ti,

n,

a fish-pot,
sitting, perching,

gourd cut for use

time, opportunity

ni igba
;

i-ge, n,
i-ge, n,

in the time which,

igba kpik6, many i-gba, n, the African

when ; ni igba na, then times ; igba ori, the skull,


locust-tree,

ni

the breast, chest,


n,

i-ge-kpa,
i-gi, n,

a bird-snare.
stem
:

laood, tree, stick, stalk,

igi

imo, snout,

i-gba, mtm,
i-gbfi., M.

ttco

hundred.

i-go, n.

bottle,

tomato,
n, n,
n.

i-g6r)-gO, n,
pipe.
i-gor)-gor), n.

a gruh-worm
end.
:

igoijgo

ofoi), the

wind-

i-gba-dzi, i-gba-dze,

loin-girdle,

i-gba-gbe,

a large gourd. forge tftdness, oblivion,


faith,

tip,

i-g6, n.

per2)lexity
tree.

igo

igi,

roots above the

ground

i-gba-gb6,

n.

bracing the
l-gor), .

i-gbako,

n,

ladle.

the shin.

IGO
i-gor), n.

44
kl, n.
salutation.

IKP
ki-lse, n.

i-gVLQ, n.

a corner, an angle. a vulture,


n,

sash,

a band,

i-gur)-wa,
i-gfU-SO, n.

sitting in state, statcliness (of dress).

ki-ni, n.
ki-ri, n,

salutation,

tobacco pipe,

a forked

stick,

an

instru-

wandering.
n.

ment of
i-ha, n.
il,

torture.

ki-"we-dze,

a wrinkle.
:

the side,

a part, portion, region

iha ikpig

ko,
ko,

the ends of the earth ;


;

iha ino, the inward

palm-leaf fibres woven into cloth a binding on the edge of cloth,


n.

iko-eti,

parts

ni iha ibe, in those parts ; iha ekpo, the


the

n,

husk of
i-ha-ho,
pot.

palm-nut.

ko-dzo,

a large tall basket in which peas are stored, n, a gathering : ikodi9 oko, harvest.

i-h.a-ga-ga, n,
n.

a pres, a crowd.

ko-gur), n.

crust or burnt part at the bottom of the

ko-ko, ko-ko.
ko-16h,

n,

a pot

plunder, captivity. : ikoko taba, a tobacco pipe,

See ikoriko.
n,

1-ha-le, n.
i-ha-ri, n.
i-hlr), n.
i-hil), n.

poverty.

homage.
place, this ^ylace, here, hither.

a carrying away, captivity, kor)-ko-SO, n, a kind of rat-trap, ko-re, n. a harvest, a crop.

narration, news, thing, reputation.


noise,

ko-ri-ko,

n.

grass

a hyena,

i-h6,

n.

&c.

See ho.
:

ko-ro,

n,

bitterness,

i-h.0, n.

iho imo, the nostrils ; iho itebo, a socket for a tenon, a mortise. i-ho, i-hd-ho, i-hd-ri-ho, n. nakedness : ni ihoho,
hole, pit, ditch

k6-ro,
ko-ro,
ko, n.

n. n.

a sky-light. a perch
(fish).

ko-ti, n.
doctrine.

hair-pin.
chisel,

naked.
i-hd-kilr), i-h6-l, n.

a cold

a tack

a cough

a skein

acclamation.

See k9.

i-h6, n.

a
n.

district

spared for hunting, a park.

i-hd-hu, i-hu-lS (ile),


i-ka, n.

down.
n.

a messenger, k6-dzu-sl, . a fronting

ko,

n.

on,

moving or looking
secret

origin, rise.

toivards,

a finger.
cruelty, obstinacy, wickedness.
n.

ko-k9,

n.

the inner

comer of a thing, a

i-k^

n.

place, privacy,

i-ka-ka,

a muscle
n.

(shell-fish).

k6-ko-ro,

n.

hook,

i-ka-ki-ka,

great wickedness.

ko-ku-ko
ko-le
koi), M.

i-ka-ndu,
i-ka-ni, n,

n.

a large stinging
a waist-band.
li),

ant.

(iko ki iko), n. false doctrine. n. the head man of a farm. (ile),

1-ka-ni-la-ra (kag words.

n.

piercingness, or power of

k5r), n.

a squirrel ; mucus ; fulness. a murmuring.

kor)-d6
ika.

i-ka-n6
i-kar), n.
i-k&r), n.
i-kS.r), n.

(ino).

See

kor)-du,

a freshet, (6do), n. the end, as of a box, .


fatigue, satiety,
(ino), n,

cane with which chairs are bottomed.


the white ant, a large species of termites.

kor)-ra, n.

k5r)-si-no

a grumbling.

a kind of egg-plant.
n.

'k.gr)-wg (owo), n.

i-karj-dzu,

a hastener:

ikaqdzu dzaiye, one

kog-wS-si-le
sure,

(ile),

a handful. an overflowing full mean.

who

haptens to be rich.
extremity, remote corner.
;

i-kar)-gur), n.

ko-ra,

i-ka-ra,

n.

a back yard
respect
;

a clam.

a loud hotoling, a crying out, ' ko-se (ese), n, a stumbling, a hindrance,


n,

i-ka-si, M.

that which is stale.

k6-se-bfi., n.

an unexpected

event,

a chance.

i-k^-wS,
i-ke, n.

n.

control,
;

mastery

ie ikawo, to subdue.
;

kpa,
road.

M.

a path, foot-print, channel: ikpa ona, a


power, circumstances in

ivory
;

a hump

or hunch

carving,
;

sculpture

joint,

a partition, a ring of bread


afidzi, to

kpa,
party

n.
;

life ;

a part, a

an outcry.
i-ke-de, n. a proclamation : 4e ikede claim tlie repeal fif a law. i-ke-le (il6), n. a partition, a room.
i-ke, n. i-ke, n.
indulgence, devoted attention
hoarseness.
the end, the last
:

kick,

pro-

kpai-ya, n, fearfulness, kpa-ka, n. a corn-floor,


kpa-kai),
n.
n.

barn.

a part.
the hollow

to.

kpa-ka-ra, kpa-ko, n.
last.

a spacious back yard. on the back of

tlie

neck

i-ke-hir), n.

ni ikehiij, at

yi

ikpako

si,

to flee from,

i-ke-kur), M.

a snare.
large

kpa-kpa,
the fire,

n, n,
n.

a prairie, a mingling, a mixture.


hurt, injury.

i-ke-na,
i-ki, n.

n.

wood for

kpa

kp5,

thickness of

a liquid, as soup.

kpa-la-ra,

IKP
l-kpa-le-ni6,
vest.

45
:

IMA
(iI6),

n.

jrreparation

ikpalem6 oko, har- i-kil-le


ni

m.

the gable

i-kur), n.
n.

the belly,
(ard), n.

abdomen

of a house. ; a cavity, bowl.

i-kpa-na,
art in

a place

iwo mbS

ikpana mi, thou i-kur)-ra


i-ku-sa,
i-la, n.
i-lft,

ointment for the body.

my place
n. n.

or seat.

n.

nearness.

i-kpa-ni,

manslaughter, murder.

oJcra.

l-kpar)-ka,

a largain as

to price.

n.

cleaving,

cleft ; salvation, escape ;

ap:

i-kpar)-ko-ro 9-ino, . a girl. i-kpa-ra, n. suicide ; rust on metal.


i-kpa-r&, i-kpa-rur),
n.

pearing, state,

condition ;

tattoo ;

circumcisimi

ila onii), sunrise, the east.

destruction.

i-la-gur),

11.

first fruit

of the season.

i-kpa-ri
i-kpa-ro,

(ori), n.

baldness.

i-lai-ya, n.

boldness, courage.
n.

a change, exchange. i-kpa-se (ese), . a foot-])rint, a i-kpe, . a trumpet. See kpe.


n.

i-la-ka-ka,
2)ath.

forcible impression.
ia ilana, to ordain.
:

i-la-na, n.
i-la-ra, n.
i-la-ri, n.

an ordinance :
envy
the
n.
;

freedom

se ilara, to envy.

i-kpe-dze,

n.

an

invitation to a feast,

a king's herald.
okra
leaf.

i-kpe-dzi, n. an opening, interval, interstice, as be- i-la-sa, n. tween the teeth, or between threads of cloth. i-la-sa-dd,
i-kpe-le, n.
n.

a distant
n.

relation. the eye-lash.

i-l, n.

a kind of herb. a house : ile abere, a


ilo ato,

needle-case ; ilo

^se,
;

i-kper)-kpe-dzu,
i-kpe-re,
1-kpe,
i-kpe,
n.

a kitchen ;
ile

the bladder ; ile ero,

an inn

the

small snail.
beasts.

eiye,

bird's nest ; lie iso,

stable ; ile oku,

i-kpe-ti, n.
scale ;
n.

a snare/or

tomb.

of maize or Indian com ; a fish- i-le, n. a bird snare. See also le. a flat stick on which raw cotton is wound. which is above, an upper garment. i-le-ke, n. i-lg-ko. See ileto. entreaty : is ikpe, to beseech.
the shoot

i-kpS-for), M.

bailiff: ikpSfoi) igbese, ^ciiy (ieSis.


fish,

i-le-ko, n.

a pistol.
strength,

i-kpe-kpe, a scale, as of a kpe okuij, a sea-shell.


i-kpe-re,
n.

a small shell: ikpe- i-le-ra

(ara), n.

which
:

is

strong.

i-le-ri, n.

a promise, vow
a furnace.

se

ileri, to

promise.

halter for a horse.

i-le-ru, n.
i-le-to, n.
i-ld, n.

n. young people. i-kpi-lS, i-kpi-le-se, n. foundation, beginning.

i-kpe-re,

village.
1^)
:

ground, earth (see


i\h

il5 ini

or nini, a pos;
ilS

i-kpir), n.

one's

good genius

a species of rough:

session ; il| oku,

a burying ground
it is

oba,

leafed fig ;
nini,

division, <&c. (See kpii))


;

ikpiq

il

kingdom;
il

m6,

a portion of an inheritance
distinction.
office,

ikpiij

r&, his

aiye, the earth ;

daybreak ; ile iu, it is dark ; il5 biri, a small piece of ground,

share.

a field.
i-lS-dti, n.

i-kpir)-ka, n.

i-kpo,

n.
:

place, stead,

rank, condition

; fold,

i-le-ke, n.

double

ikpo ok6, the


n.

i-kp6-ni6,

of the dead, hades. i-le-kpa, n. mixture : ikpom6 enia, i-le-kui), n. mingling,


2>lace

black soil, manure. a bead : ileke okp9l9, a grave, tomb.

toad's eggs.

a door-shutter.
the beginning.

mingled people. i-kpo-rur), n. a parasol.


i-kp5,
n.

i-le-se, n.

i-lo, i-lo-ro, n. i-16, n.

a porch.
vessel.

abundance, clteapness.
n.

i-kp5-dzu,
i-kpor), n.
i-kpor), n.

the greater part, majority.


;

i-lo-ri,

a using, use : ohug ilo, a a whirling round. n.

thickness

a wooden spoon.
ikpoij
si,

Sec kpoij.

i-lo, n.

an

accusation, a charge.

See

lo.

irony
n.

rai)

to

speak ironically i-loh, n.


i-lo-lo, n.

See l9h.
fetidness ; lukewarmness.
se ilora, to delay, tarry.

of
i-kpor)-dzu,
i-kpo-ri, n.
distress, adversity.

i-lo-ra, n.

delay
**

the great toe.

i-lo-S9,
i-lu, n.
i-lu, n.

**

i-kp9-si,
i-ku,
.

n.

scorn, contem2H.

squatting posture. a gimlet ; a town. See

lu.

end, termination.

a drum.

See

111.

i-ktl, n.

death.
the gable of a house,

i-lu-ke-dzi, n.

a small

village.

i-kCl, n.

end of a box.

i-kti-du, n.

a clay

pit.

i-ku-dza-re
i-ku-gbu, n. i-ku-ku, n.
i-ku-ku,
n.

(die), n.

the gathering

of locust fruit.

i-ma, aux. part, a sign of continued ma. i-md.-do, n. a kind of wild boar.
i-ma-le,
straint.
?*.

action.

See

presumption.
the fist.

a Yoruba inoselyte
ara),
n.

to

Mohammedanism.
self-re-

i-ma-ra-du-ro (mu

continence,

cloud, fog.

IMA
i-ma-ti-ko,
string.
n.

u
the bow-

IRO
hearted ;
to

an instrument for drawing


:

ino badie,

to

be

displeased ;

in6 yo,

i-me-le, n,
dolent.

idleness, indolence

se imele, to he in-

pity ; ekog 12); ni in6, in, within ; ino midSq, I am pleased, happy ; in6 d6r) mi, / am pained, grieved.

in6, the Julness of a thing (Ps. 50,

i-ml, n.
i-ml, n.
i-mi, n.

dung.

no-bi-bi, n.

fretfulness.

a breathing. a shaking : imi


a shaking of
w.

n6-dz(i, n.
ed5i), sighing,

a
n.

towel for the face,


inside the house.

a handkerchief.

sigh.

n6-le

(ile),

i-mi-lS, n.
i-mi-si, n.

the earth.

Ii5-se, n.

foot-towel.

breathing on, inspiration.

n6-'w6,
ra, n.

n.

a hand-towel.
See
ra.

i-mo-dzo,
i-md-re,
n.

a kind of rat.
n.

a morass, a bog ; a kind of horse.


n.

i-mo-dug-dzu-o, i-mo-dzu-o,
gratitude.
oru), n.

the fore-finger.

ra-do,

compassion.
n.

-ra-kpa-da,
heat of the sun:

redemption.

i-mo-ru (imu
i-mo-ye, i-mo, n.
i-ni6, n.
n.

imoru

ra-le, n.
-ra-le, n.

lathing, laths.

odio, the heat or middle of the daij.


intellect,

evening.

understanding.

See moye.
:

ra-na,
-TB.T), n.

n.

the nose.

sight, seeing ;

a propitiation made for the dying. a generation, a race

; re-

knowledge, interpretation, decision


the water ordeal.

fi

im5

semblance.
rai)-dl-rar), n.
successive generations, genealogy.

sokai), to agree together.

i-mo-dze,
i-in5-dzu,
i-in6-le, n.
i-in5-le, n.

n.

rai)-se, n.

a a

servant.

i-in6-dzCl, n.
n.

drunkenness.
sujterior knowledge.
n.

rai)-wu,
ra-"wo, n.
-re, n.

n.

cotton-spinner. (Pr. 44.)

star,

i-ni6-dzu-in6,

the

dawn.

plaff.
off,

light : ie imole, to enlighten.

r6, n.
-rh, n.

a conspiracy.
n.

a going forward, haste.


(ode), n.

as

a trap

curse,

an urging

i-mo-mo,

the grass-nut.
n.

goodness ; well-wishing

gait of a horse.

i-mS-ni-no,
i-mo-rai), n,

conscience.

re-de

revelling, revelry.

a wise man.
t^), n.

re-gur), n.
,-re-ke, n.

abuse,

curse,

i-mo-ti (mo
i-mu,
m.

a having sold out.


See mu.

sugar-cane.
n.

i-mb-te-le, n.
i-inu-'b&, n.

foreknowledge.

re-k9-dza,
,-re-kpa, n.

a passing

over.

sharpness, severity.

transgression.

means, instrumentality.
n.

re-kpe,
re-ni,
n.

n.

a scrap or remrmnt of cloth.


hence.

i-mu-ku-ro,
i-mu-le,
n.

taking ateay.
the fire-fly.

four days
pride.

firmness, as to standing.
n.

re-ra, n.
,-re-ri, n.

i-mu-na-mu-na,
i-mu-ni-bi-no,
i-mu-nO.,
.

a being past harvest


hope.
<&c.

time.

n.

a provocation.
a cause.

re-ti, M.

activity, in

re, n.
-re, n.

friendship,

See

re.

i-mu-re,
i-na, n.

n.

a flea.
louse.

corn-tassel.

a flre ; a blossom ; a
a whipping, a

See na.

i-n^

n.

stripe or stroke with the whip.

re-na, n. candle-snuffers. -re-ni-dze, n. a cheating, fraud.


ri, n.

See na.
i-na-bi, n.

sight, <&c.

See

ri.

a plant which
(ki), n.

blisters the skin.

i-na-ki, n.

the chimpanzee, ape.

dew, mist. ri-dzti, n. a steward.


ri, n.

i-na-kH-na
i-nar), n.

extravagance.

-ri-na, n.

a
iron

sight,

spectacle.

sight, vision. n.

ri-ndo,
rlr), n.

n.

nausea.
;

i-ne-dz-dzi,
i-nl, n.

sides of the doorway.


:

a kind of rat-trap.
<fcc.

possession

ini

ih kpc>, his possessions are

rir), i-rio-le, i-rir)-ini, n.

dampness, moisture.
rii).

great.

rir), n.

walking,
hatred,

See

i-ni-la, n.

greatness.

-ri-ra, n.
-ri-rai), n.
ri-ri, n.

an abomination.

i-ni-la-ra, n.
i-ni-ra, n.
i-ni-rai), w.

oppression.
;

See

irina.

freedom
the inside,
:

difilcully, strait, need.

experience.

remembrance.

-ro, n.
;

a a

telling, d:c.

See

ro.

i-n6, n.

mind, womb

an indentation or
:

rd,

n.

stirring, <kc.

See

r6.

bowl (Ex. 25, 34)


se in6 d8r)
rere,
si,

ino didoi), pleasure (of mind) to he pleased with, delight in ; ino


;

ro, n.

the chimpanzee.
grief, trouble.

ro-bi-n6-dze, n.
ro-gba,
n.

o good

disposition

ia ino

rfere, to

he kind-

an assembly of

the elders.

IRO
i-rd-ktl-rd, n.

47
i-sirj-kii-sir), n.

ITA
superstitious worship.
this time,

an

evil thought.
of.

i-ro-na,
i-ro-n6,

n. n.

a going in quest
n.

i-si-si-yi, n.
i-SO, m.

now.

consideration, thought.
repentance.

a tying ; an emission of wind ; a producing


:

i-ro-n6-kpi-wa-da,
i-ro-ra, n.
i-ro, n.

offruit See
ro.

iso melokai),

little

while. (Gen. 24, 55.)

pain, groaning.
relating, interpretation, <&c.
;

i-SO-fir), n.

a giving of law, a prohibition.

i-so-ko, n.

i-r6, n.
i-ro, n.

a Jib

texture, the

warp of cloth.

i-SO-kpa,
i-SO-lu, n.
**

n.

a mooring-place. a hard knot.


a coupling.
'^

an equal, a companion. i-rg-gbo-ku, n. a couch.


i-ro-kp5,
n.

i-SO-r9,

hanging, a curtain.
marriage.

acting for an absent person.

i-SO-3^-gi, n.

i-ro-n6, n. abstinence the stomach.

from food,

solemnity,

pain in

i-S9, n.

place, station, quarter of tbe

town

iso

4gba, meeting-place of the elders.


i-SO-di, n.

i-ro-nu, n.
i-ror), n. i-roi), n. i-r6r), n.

tenderness, compassion.

which

hair

vtoii

gauqgaui), a
rote.

bristle.

i-SO-ka, n.

is made, or caused a kind of bird snare.

to be.

prayer by

i-s5-kil-S9, n.

silly or evil talk.

a being

sick.

i-S9-nu,
fast.

n.

the

Mohammedan

supper after the long

i-ror)-g4r), n.
i-ror) -gbor), n.

barrenness.
the beard.

i-sog, n.

a fountain.
n.

i-ro-ra (am), n.
i-ro-xi (ori), n.
i-ru,
n.
ru.

bolster.

i-su-"wa,
i-sa, n.
<kc.

goodness of a proposition or act.

a pillow.

ebb-tide.

rising,

a fountain, an uproar,
kind, species, such he loves. . ti)
:

i-sa-dzCl, n.

See

i-sa-na, n.
seed of plants
;

i-ru, m.
eyi
ti

bi iru

i-sa-kpa,
i-sar), n.

M.

former (time or state). a flint and steel. a kind of hibiscus.


;

fe,

such as (bi

a flood

vein, artery.

i-ni, n.

the tail ;

a gadfly.

i-sa-sur), n.
i-se, n.

a sauce-pan.

i-ru-di, n.

a bud.
seed for sowing.
71.

i-ru-gbir), n.
i-rfl-ke-rii-do,

i-se-ur), n.
i-se, n.

See ^e. custom,fashion, character, etc. kindness : iionr) ife, loving kindness.
:

i-ru-ke,

n.

cow''s tail carried as

a tumult, insurrection. a badge.

work, trouble, distress


; ise ikpa,

He

ami, a sign
sibi

i^e

ase, a miracle

hard

toil ;

i^e isi^, duty,


ise,

i-ru-ke-re, n.

corn-silk.
n.

service;

\i&

oro,

torment; loh

go

to

i-ru-kpe-kpe,
i-ru-la, n.

vexation ; vigorous growth.


seeds.

work.
i-se-ki-se, i-se-ku-se, n.

okra

a wicked work.

i-ru-lu, n.

a tumult, an uproar.
waves.
seed, offspring.

i-se-kpe, n.

small fire-wood.

i-ru-mi,

n.

i-se-kpo,
i-se-ti, n.
i-si, n.

n.

a fold, a double.
abortion, miscarriage.

i-ru-mo

n. (91110),

i-se-n9, n.

i-ru-ru, n.

i-ni-ya, n.
i-sa, n.
i-S&, n. i-sh, n.

a variety of kinds, any kind. an emetic.


<&c.

a hem. a kind of indigenous fruit,

paleness, fading.

flight,

See
pit.

sa.

i-si, i-sir), n.

a grave, a

i-si-nu, n.
i-sir), n.

appetite.

an attempt, <kc. See si. an outer yard. i-sa-bo-ti, n.


i-sa-ga-da-gba, n. a regular a siege. i-sa-ga-ti, n.
i-sa-le, n.
i-sar), n.
retaliation, dtc.
set-to in battle.

tree

and

its fruit.

i-si-si, n.

a fault, error of action.


peevishness.
slackness, as of a rope.

i-SO, n. i-s6, n.

the lower part, bottom, below.

i-S9-de, n.
i-SO-kai), n.
i-SO-ra, n.
i-s6-rar), n.

patrol, jiolice.

See sa^.

concord.

i-sai), i-sa-ni, n.
i-sS.r), n.

nine days hence.


harvest.

watchfulness.

sinetv.

an

offence,

an

offender, evil doer.

i-sfi.r)-dur( (odfii)), n.

i-S9-te, n.

enmity, rebellion, sedition.


ball,

i-sar)-sa, n.
i-s3.-se, w.

deserter,

a runaway.

i-SU, n.

a feast.
confection.

ode, wild

yam ;

i-sh-hi, n.
i-se-le, n.
i-si, n.

i-su-ra, n.
i-ta, n.
era.

; the yam, dr. (see su) isu okpe, palm-cabbage. treasure.

a lump

i^u

an earthquake. a new invention, a new


rest, the

street ;

woof of cloth
See a
ta.

pain, pungency ; a

setting sail, d'c.

i-si-mi, n.
i-sir), n.

sabbath.

i-ta-do-gur), .
i-ta.-fo (local), n.

seventeen dags.
table.

service.

ITA
i-ta-le, M.

48
n.

lYA
gain, profit, seeking for food.
the front, presence, before, brow.
n.

a worm which comes up from the ground i-wa-dze,

and

attacks people
n.

when

asleep.

i-'wa-dzu,

i-ta-le-mo,

ancestors.

i-ta-mo-ra,
i-ta-na,
i-tai), n.
n.

n.

accoutrements for war.

i-'W&-ku-'w3, 71. bad behavior, caprice. a digger ; figuratively, a man i-"wa-le, n.


son.

child,

a flower, blossom.
the thigh,

ham ;

kinship, tradition, com-

i-"wa-na,

n.

a smithU poker.
haste, impatience
:

pletion, d;c.

See

taij.

i-'wa-ra, n.
hurry.

ie iwara, to hasten,

i'tarj-kpa-ra, n.
i-ta-ra, n.
i-ta-so-ri, n.

an

ulcer caused by small-pox.

haste, hurry, zeal, anxiety.

i-Tva-se, n.

powder, fine grains

the menses.

which
n.

is

poured on

the head.

i-wa-'wi,
i-'we, n.

n.

an

excuse, extenuation.

i-ta-S9 (a^o),
i-te, n.

a cloth stretched or hung asacuriain. i-AVa-ya i-dza,


of a roof; a tenant. Seeiho. i-"W,
n.

n.

struggling, agony.

throne, d;c.
the underside

the kidneys.

i-te-bo,.
i-te-hir), n.
i-te-le, n.

book,

a comparison. a
tress.
:

saddle-cloth.

i-Ave-dze,

n.

a wrinkle.

the leg

of a

beast.

1-te-le, n.

foundation.

i-'we-dze, n. i-vre-re, n.
(as

curl,

silliness,

folly

se iwere, to be foolish,

i-te-le-se, n.

a private sign

a nod, wink, &c.)

to act foolishly.

to attract attention.

i-'we-ri, n.
i-"we, n.

a head-band.
; fineness

i-te-ri-gb, n.
i-te-se, .
i-ti, n,
i-tl, n.

the lintel of a door.

a frog
n.

of grain or of threads.

the treadle of a loom.

i-"we-fa,
i-'we, n.

a eunuch.

timber,

log.

a horn.
the thrush in children.

a bundle,

sheaf,

wisp ; breaking, snapping in i-"w6,

n.

two.

i-"W"6-do, n.

a ford.
a heathen, an
idolater.

i-ti-dzu, n.
i-ti-se, n.

shame, modesty.

i-'WO-ro, n.

a foot-stool.
a share : so
nearness
truth.
itori, to

i-"WO-ye,
share.

n.

foresight, 2irovidence.
the present time, now.

i-to-ri, n.
I'-to-rl, n.

i-'WO-yi, n.
i-'we, pron.

the cause, reason ;


:

therefore.

thou.

i-to-si, n.

nitosi, near.

i-'w6, n.
seeds ;
n.

the navel, crookedness ;

husk of certain
See

I-to-t6, n.

a horn.
poison put in food
;

i-to-ye, n. merit, value. i-'w5, i-to n. straightness ; a creek; old age, endurance, wo.
leading ;
i-t5, n.
spittle, dbc.

entering, dr.

See
t5.

to.

i-'we, .

suitableness,
n.

form

a fish-hook.
together,

urine, dx.
n.

See

i-"WO-dzo,
perseverance:
se

a gathering

an assembly,

i-to-dzu,
n.

oversight,

care,

crowd.
i-'WO-fa, w.

a pawn
servant.
those.
<fcc.
;

itodzii, to persevere, to ovfrsee.

i-t&-k9,

an

oar,

a rudder.

i-'wb-ni, j)ron.
i-'WOl), n.

i-tor)-ri-rar), n.

i-to-re, n.

recovery of sight. a gift : itore fmu, alms.

scarcity of food,

a long neck, as

of a gourd.
i

i-to-'WO, n.
i-tu, n.

an

earnest, anticipation.

'w6r), n.

overthrow, eradication, dr.

See

tn.

iw6i) fadaka,

a measure of quantity or distance, sise : a piece of silver, as money; ni iw5i)

i-tu, n.
i-tCl,

spiarroio.

n.

ease,

relief:

\i\S.

cdo, consolation

io

itii

bi, so long as ; iw5i) linia, as many people as. the igxiana ; a bundle. i-'WOr)-'WOI), n.

ard, to rest.

i-'WOl) -yi, pron.


interp>retation, sense,

these.

i-tu-mb,

n.

meaning.

i-'wa-ra,

n.

greediness.

1-111-116, n.

comfort, consolation.

i-'wp-si, n.
i-'W^O-SO, n.

contempt, spite

ic iwosi

si,

to insult.

i-tu-ra, m.

ease from 2)ain, refreshment: ituraodi6, the cool of the day.


distribution. (1 Pet. 4, 10.)
being, origin,
life,

a ball of thread,

wound up ready
Sec wu.

for

weaving.
i-'WTi, n.

i-'wS, n. i-vrS,
71.

choice, preference, dc.

duration of

life,

conduct,

i-"WTi'-ka-ra (akara), n.
n.

leaven.

disposition, nature of

a thing, presence (Gen. 43, i-'wnr),


i-ya, n. i-ya, n.
emirii)

a thing.

9)

iwh ikpa,
tito,
ibi,

violence ; iwil buburu, wickedness ;

the armpit.
loss,

iwa

integrity, honesty ;

iwa

tiltn,

meekness

pmtrrty, suffering

die

lya, to suffer ;
is

iwa

ika, mischief; iwa mimo, holiness ; iwa ara, brotherhood ; iwa Olorui), the Godhead ; oAio odftij iwk r6, th<- years of his life.

iwa

die ni ko to

lya, the bite

of a sandfly

not

so shar]) as poverty.

i-ya, n.

mother, mistress of a servant.

lYA
i-ya-fii) (afiq), n.

49
i-yo, n.
sugar.
salt,

KAN
the flood
tide (sec

a queen, mistress of a house,

yo)

iyo oibo,

i-ya-gb^
i-ya-ko,

n.

a midwife. a mother-in-law.
separation, a
sect.

n. n.

i-yo-n6,

re.

compassion.
trouble.
coral, pearl.

i-ya-kpa,

i-yo-nu,
i-ydr),
to.

n.

i-ya-lft, i-ya-nlft, .

a grandmother.
cook.

i-ya-l&.-se, n.

a female

i-ya-le

(ile), n.

the mistress

of the house (that

is,

tlie first wife),

K.
about eight o'clock in the forenoon.

i-ya-le-ta, n,

i-ya-lo-de,

n.

a wise woman.

kS,

V.

to gather, to reap, to

pull a tooth
around.

to fold, to

i-ya-nu,
i-yfi.r), n.

n.

wonder, astonishment.
boiled

roll; to fail.

yam pounded.
a question in
disyai).

k&, prep,

i-y4l), n,

denial, contradiction,

k&,

V.

to

around^ on ; count, to read


not.

adv.
j

to regard, respect ;

to set

or

pute,

(tc.

See

i-yar), n. famine. i-yar)-dze, n. a cheats imposition,

place upon. ka (ki a), adv.

See Gram.

ITO.

kS, adv.

presumptuously.
roughly, unevenly. let us reverence!

i-yar)-dz<l, n.
i-yar)-fe, n.

exhortation, perseverance, constraint,

Sec
n. m,

ayaijfe.

ka-ba-ka-ba, adv. ka-bi-ye-si (ki


!

4),

an excla-

i-yar)-gbe,

dryness, that which is dried.


chaffs.

mation

as the

king approaches.
v.

i-yan-gbo,

kd.-dui) (odur)),

to he the space

of a year.
in,

i-yar)-rar), n.

an

oven.
:

ka-fo,

re.

tight-legged pantaloons,

i-yaq-rii), n.

sand

iyaijrir) dide,
:

i-ya-ra,
the

to.

activity, nimbleness
itself.

quicksand. ka-gba, v. to hang or be entangled ar4 iyara (eyi ard), ka-hur). See kauij,
v

body

i-ya-ri, n.

vivacity.
difference, separation,

kair)-kair)-ka, to. chaff of millet, kfi-ka, re. which is strong., stiff.


kd.-ka,
ously.

i-ya-to, n.

adv.

instead

of,

otherwise

presumptu-

i-ya-Twd,

.
to.

a bride

ibi-iyawo, a wedding.

i-ya-AVU,
i-y, i-y6,
TO. TO.

a sledge-hammer. See iyekuru.

ka-kar)-fo,

n.

a military generaL

i-ye, in composition, this, self, very.

kS-ka-ra,

n.

a muscle-shell.
strongly,
stiffly.

mind, understanding. dec. See yh. life,

ka-ka-ra-ka, adv.
kfi-ki-ri, adv.

abroad, wanderingly.

i-ye,

TO.

number, value, price

so iye, to value, set a


as,

price on ;
iyekai).

a reed
w.

in

composition, mother,

ka-ko, ka-ko,
kfi.
.
. .

V. V,

to curl, to twist, to be stiff.


V.

k6r),

to

add

to.

i-ye-bi-ye, i-ye-kai), n.

great price, 2>reciousness,

a mother's
to.

relative.

k&-la-ni6, ka la-ra
.
.
.

re.

a pen
(li),

to write with.

v. v.

to enfold, entangle, as
to

a net.

i-yg-ku-ni
i-ye-ni, n.

(iye),

the very dust,


:

ka

le-hiQ
(ile),

(li),

pull a tooth

of.

i-ye-me-dzi,
i-ye-n6,
i-ye-re,
i-ye,
TO.

n.

doubt

ie iyemedil, to doubt.

k^-le
adv.

V.

to set

down,
let

to deposit, to establish ;

which
sense,

is intelligible.

around, abroad.
{ki k loh),
v. v.

to.

understanding,

ka-16h

us go

to follow !

black pepper, fitness, comeliness

ka
;

in6,

to
re.

surround,

to enclose.

a feathers akpa-iye, a ka-na-ka-na,


ka-na-k.-na,
k9.-n6,
V. V.

a crow. a
sling.

wing.
i-ye,
TO.

re.

dust of worm-eaten wood.


n,
w.

to be cruel,

harsh.

i-ye-fuQ,
i-ye-gbe, i-ye-ka,
a
tree.

-flour.

ka-nu,

to be sorry, to grieve,

mourn.

re.

a kind of trowscrs. kar), adv. at once, quickly. to be sour, morose, painful, opposed the very branches, natural branches of kar), V.
bore.

to ;

to

i-ye--wd,
i-ye-"WTi,
i-yir),
to.
TO.

n.
TO.

DivestigatMn.

k&Q, num.

one:

awoij
kaij,

kai), certain

ones;
;

niirai)

a chamber, a pin
turn the weaver's beam,
the

kai), others ;

owo
;

praise.
to
re.

the last action

the last

cowry
to

ise

kaq,

adv. precious. (Ps. 22, 20.)


:

i-yi-SO,

i-yo-dzd
23.)

(iye),

natural face.

(James

to drip, drop, as water k&r), V. take off, as a ring.

pluck, nip, to
as an ox.

k^, V.
n.

to

knock upon,

nail, touch ;

to gore,

1-yo-kui),
1

the remainder, the rest.

kag-dzu,

v.

to hasten.

KAN
kar)-ga,
n.

50

KEY
cotton is

well.

kar)-gi, n.

to be difficult, callous. to be the last, at the end.

ke-gi (igi), V. to cut or chop wood. ke-ke, n. a stick on which carded


for spinning.

wound

kar)-gur), n.

kar)-kar), adv.
kd.r)-kar),

hastily.

ke-ke,
ticket

n.

ring of metal,
child's

<fec.,

when

struck.

k3.r)-ri-kar(, n.

soft fibres used instead ke-k, n.

play of

lots ;

a custom-house, a

of sponge.
kar)-ki, n.
tight pantaloons.
to
v.

or check.

k6-k6, adv.
ke'-ke-ke,
n.

clamorously.
littleness,

kai)-kur) (ekuij), v. la-ra (ar4), kag


. .

knock at the door,


to pierce, as

little one.

words,

ke-ke4u-ke,
agbe- k6-ke-re, n.

n.

which

is full-breasted, as

a bird.

kaj)

. .

in6,

v.

to nail or

fasten

to : kaijin6

smallness.

lebu, to crucify.

kag-mo-le,
kar)-ra
kar)-ri

v.

to stick fa^t, as in

mud.

kai)-inu-kar)-niu, adv.
(ar4), v.
(ori), v.

sweetly (flavored).

to be to

morose, peevish.

ke-kp6, V. to call, to call upon. k le-g&-ke (li), v. to tickle. ke-lo, adv. how many? a lion. k6-ni-<i, n.
. . .

nail a cut-off head to a tree ; to ke-re, v.

to be little.

touch the head with a sacrifice. kar)-ri, kar)-ri-kar)-ri, adv. far distant.

ke-re-o-"Wtl, n.

cotton-seed.

ke-ri

(ko), v.

to

grow

dirty, to be filthy.

kar)-rui)-kar)-rur)-f, n.

a long

time.

ke'-ro-ra
ke-si,
V.

(irora), v.
to visit.
v.

to

cry out for pain, to groan.


asleep, as

ka-ra,

n.

a gland.
loudly.
.

ka-rfi, adv.

ke-ti, ke-ti-ii,
foot.

to be

benumbed,
to.

the

ka-ra-wor),
k.-ri (ori),
v.

a conch-shell.
to set

on

the head.

ke-to,

V.
V.

to call

upon, to cry

ka-rur), num.
kd.-sai), n.

fifth.

ke-vni,

to read.
;

sarsaparilla.
to

kd.-se, V.

walk

leisurely ; to terminate.

ke, V. to indulge, cherish, as a child or wife a snare.

to set

ka-si,

V.

to be stale.
V.

kS,

V.

to extend,

to

grow

worse, as a sore

to be

ka ... si,
kd ka

hoarse ; to glow. place upon, to impute, to respect : 6ro Olorug si, he docs not regard the word ke-dzo, num. eighth. '
to

of God.
k3.-si-r)kai3 ? (ki

kee-do-gur), num.

fifteenth.

si),

whafs

the matter ? is any-

kee-d6-g'bor), num.

twenty-fifth.

thing amiss ?
i)kai), there is

kd

si

ijkai),

there is nothing ! 6 si

ke-fa, num.
ke-g9.r) (ko),

sixth.
v.

something.

to despise.

ka-sa, adv.
kd.-sa, V.

proudly (walking), to introduce a new fasMon ;

ke-gbe,
to recite the

v.

to associate with. to be last, to follow.


v.

ke-hirj,

v.

names of the gods. ka-ta-ka-ta, adv.


ka-ta-ri,
n.
v.

ke-hig-da-sl,
scatteringly, staggeringly.

to

turn the back on,

to forsake.

ke-ke,
ke-ke, k-ke,

n. n. n.

cackling, as of a

hen

a black squirrel.
distaff.

to be in the zenith,

overhead.

a wheel of any kind, a

ka-ti, adv.

kauri,

(not) at all, (none) ivkatever. trona, carbonate of soda (from the Great

profound

silence.

kS-ke, adv.

slowly, gradually.

Desert).

kaug-kaui),
kfi.-"we, V.

adv.

sweetly (scented)

quietly.

ke-ke-kpa, v. to be dumb, quiet. ke-ke-ru, n. a wagon, cart.

to

wind.
to read. to to

ke-ko
count money.
;

(k9), v.

to learn,

study.

k.--we (iwe), v. k.-'w6 (owo), V.

ke-le, adv.

gently.
n.

ke-le-ke-le,
ke-le-kll, n.
n. n.

a spy, vanguard ;
calico.

adv.

gently.

abstain from things prohibited ka-'w6 (owo), V. to assort ; to grasp, rule over.

ke-re,

a kind of mat.

ka-'W9r).

See karawop.
to reel, roind ;
;

k3.-"W<i (ow<i), V. ke, V. to cry out

to

walk

to

to cut, chop.

ke-de,

v.

to be scarce,

unfrequenf.

ke-d6

(ode), v.

to

proclaim aloud.

a simpleton. k6-re, and fro. ke-re-de, v. to be weak, infirm. ke-rir), num. fourth. ke-rir)-lfi, num. fourteenth, ke-sai), num. ninth.
ke-ta, tzvm. ke-te-ke-te,
kfe-vya, num.
third.
n.

ke-de-re, adv.

clearly (seeing).
seventh.
the second, the next.
n.

ke-dze, num. ke-dzi, num.

an

ass.

tenth.

k6-fe-ri (Arab.),

an

unbeliever,

heatlien.

ke-y6r),

n.

the toe itch.

KI
ki ? pron.
ki, conj.
to, ki
.
.

51
?

KOT
ko
iinu, to

what
that
.

? ki

li

eyi

what

is this ?

odi6 ki

odio, any day whatever.


:

liver to ;

mourn ; ko irira, to hate ; ko fu, to ko woi) to mi wah, bring them to me.


confront
:

de-

ki

iwo ki 6

16h, that thou

go ; ki

. .

ko,

V.

to meet,
be.

bl 6 le k6, if possible, if it

teni, hefore ;

ki 6 to 16h, before he goes

may

ki a to loh, hefore we go. to he thick, as oil or bushes ki, V.

k6, adv.
;

not

ko

^e kp6,

if,

suppose that.

to

ram,

to

press ko-bi-ko-bi, adv.

down.
kl,
V. V.

ko'-bi-ta, n.

thickly (breaking out). riding shoes with spurs.


to take

to salute.
to press, load, as

ko'
a cart.

. .

dl-n6, V.

up and throw away.


!

ki,

k6-d-de, adv.

no wonder
to collect,

no doubt !

kl, adv.

not.

ko
in a small compass. in a large compass. (omi), v.
to

dzo,

V. v.

heap up.
withstand.
to see.

kl-bi-ti, adv.

ko-dzu-dza,
k6-fi-ri, V.

to resist,

kl-W-ti, adv.

to espy, to
v.

happen

ki

bo-mi

press into the water, to ko-gur) (ogun),

to inherit, to take pro^jerty.

immerse.

ki-dzi-ki-dzi, adv.
quivering.

ko-ki-ki, V. to magnify, extol. tremulously (shaking), with ko-ko, w. a knot, protuberance, wen knuckles ; koko ese, the ankle.
cloth.

koko

o\v6, <Ae

ki-dzi-kpa,
ki-gl3 (ke),

n.
v.

a kind of coarse
to

cry aloud.

ki-ki, n. salutation. ki-kl, adv. only : kiki wura, pure gold. ki-ki-ni, n. a small particle or bit.

k6-ko, adv. very much. kd-ko, n. the tania, root and plant. k6-ko-r6, n. a worm, an insect.

ko-ko-se

e-se, n.

the ankle.
.

ko

. .

kp6.

Sec ko

. .

dio. or plunder a house.

ki-k6Q, n. a food.
ki-kur), n.
V.

that which is full

kikoi) omi,

a freshet, ko-16 (ile), V. kd-le-ra (ar4),

to steal
v.

from

to be feeble, infirm.
v. to despoil, to rob.

which

is

hard, loud.
hardly, loudly.

k6

. .

le-ru
n. n.

(li),

ki-kuQ-ki-kur), adv.
ki-lo,
to

k6-lo-b&,

warn, caution, threaten.


V.

k6-lo-bo,

a mattock. an oil-pot, a
(li),

lamp-filler.

ki
ki

. .

mo-lS,

to press to the

ground.
with the

ko
fist.

lo-dzfl
(li),

V.

to confront.

ki-ni, n.
.

a thing, something.
v.

kd-lo-fir)

n.

a lawless person.
take away, carry lead captive.

. .

ni-be-nde,

to strike

k6-lo-lo,

V.
V.

to stutter. to
off,

kl-ni-dze-be', adv.
ki-ni-ki-ni, adv.
ki-ni-si, n.
ki'-ni-tl.

no

! not at all !

neatly, accurately.

a carpet. See keniu.

ko ko ko

16h,

l&-na lo-no

(li),
(li),

v.
V.

to meet, encounter.

to discourage,

alarm.

ko-mo-kur),
is it f

n.
n.

the

muscle between the breasts.


child.
.

ki-nla

pron.

what

ko-nl-ba-bfi,

a fatherless
v. v.

kiq-kir), n.
kir)-rir), v.

a very
v.

little

portion.

to rub, to

curry.

ko ko

.ni-be-nde,

See ki
to

ni beude.

. .

ni-dza-nu,
v.

hold in with a bridle.


is

ki-re-dze,
ki-ri,
V.

to twist, entangle, as thread.


stroll.

ko-ni-gba-gbe,
a proper name.

one ivho

not forgetful f also

to

wander,

ki-ri, ki-ri-ki-ri, adv.

about, wanderingly,

kor)-ko-tO, n.

a play-god of children,a kind of dove.


to gather, to reap.

ki-ri-bi-ti.

See
v.

kibiti.

ko-re

(ere), v.

ki'-ri-m6,

to

press one, to insist on, to apply k6'-ri-k6, n.

grass.
the hyena.
to hate,

closely to work.

kd'-ri-kd, n.
is

ki'-ri-kpa,
ki-sar) (koq
ki-ta,
V.

w.

ki-ror) (irog),

which dry and hard. to pray by rote. V.


to be

ko'-ri-ra,

v.

abhor.

ko-ro,

V.

to be bitter, spiteful.

isaij), v.

nine days.

ko-ro, adv.

very, entirely
tlte

okuta la dzalekoro, the

to be three

days.

stone split to

very bottom.

ki-tir), n.

a very
v.

little.

k6-ro,

M.

ki-we-dze,
ki-yax), adv.
ki'-ye-si,
v.

to
V.

wrinkle.
to thrust the

ko-ro-ko-ro,

a smelting-pot, crucible. a small brass bell. n,

ki-'wo-bo (owo),

hand

into.

at once.
to notice, look, attend to : kiyesi ar4,

ko'-ro-AWO, n. a ditch. ko-SO, n. a kind of drum. ko-sur) (kun), v. to paint


ko-ti,
V.

red.
to encounter.
:

take care of yourself.

to collect

around;

ki

. .

y6,

V.

to

cram full. grow hard ; to take up, two hard substances together :
to

ko,

V.

to gather, collect ;
;

ko-to, the stomach

n.

hole, pit, ditch


;

koto diigorjrog, a deep ravine

koto aiya, the pit of ; koto

as a load

to strike

6ke, a valley, glen.

KO
ko,
V.

52
up a tent drunk ; to
hungry
hole.
;
;

KPA
to

to learn, teach ;

another (Gen, 21, 14)

mark,
to

tattoo, write ;
:

lay one thing on earth into heaps; to ; dig to flash ; to call, crow, shout ;
to build, to to

betray

to

hatch

to

make one

cease, knock off : ebi kpa mi, / was kpa 6diobo, to make a loop or button

entangle

ko

okuij, to

make a
is

rope.

k6, V. to be not: omi k6, it k6 ? art thou not a king ?


k6, V. to k5, adv.
ko-bi,
w.

not

I;

iw9

li

oba kpa, adv.

at once, suddenly.

refuse, reject, rebel;

to

hang up,

to deter.

kpa kpa
;

interj.
.
.

wonderful

del, v.

to turn, return.

not.
tall projecting gables

kpa-dS,, adv.

again, in return.
v.

of a royal palace
be

hence, a projection.

ko-dza,
sight.

V.

to

pass

by, to omit, to
it is

beyond

de, 6 fo kpa-de-gni)
. . .

kpa kpa

. .

da-n5,
v.

to lose.

to shut, close ; to

meet with
battle.

; to

help.

(oguij), v.
to
to

to

meet in

soke odzii r| kodia rere,

above far out of his kpa-de-lil, v.

come in

collision.

kpa-d-ru,
v.

v. v.

meet together.
devour, destroy utterly ; to for-

ko-dzu-dza-si,
ko-dzu-si,
V.

to resist, oppose.

kpa

dze,
n.

to

to face, to

attend

to.

get the

day of

the

month.

ko-glia (ogba), V. to build a fence. koi-koi, V. indirectly, suspiciously. ko-kar), num. one. k6-ka-rEi, v. to howl aloud.
n.

kpa-f^
kpa-fo

a butcher's bench.
(afefe), v.
to to take the air.

kpa-fe-fe

(afo), V.

wallow in mire.
pitch a
tent.

kpa-go

(ago), V.

to

a hook, a key, a bird's beak : k9koro kpa-hir)-ke-ke k9-ko-ro, the iron pin %oith which a weaver turns the kpa-ka (oka), v. gai),
toarp-bca7n.

(ehii)), v.

to

gnash.

to thresh corn.
to adjust one's wrapper. adv. very (sound in health).

k6-ko-so.
k9-ktl,
n.

See koqkoso.
green color.
to

kpa-ka-dza, v. kpa-ki-kpa-ki,

ko-kui),
ko-l&,
V.
71.

n.

make a

rope.

kpa'-ki-tl, n. a kind of mat. kpa-ko. See akpako.

to tattoo, to circiimcise.

k5-la,

the

ko-le
ko-le,

(ilc), V.

small goorah-nut. to build a house.


hills or beds
to

kpa-kpa, kpa-kpa,

n.
h.

ap)rairie,
self.

a jMsture.

kpa.-kpa, adv.
or parching.

V.

to

make
V.

of earth.

kpS-kpa-la, adv.

violently (trembling) ; slammingly. in a shrivelled state, from drying

k5 ... 15

(ile),

renounce, forsake.

ko-lo-fir), n.

a
n.

secret place, closet.

kpa-kpe
the fox,

(akpe), v.
V.

to

clap the hands.

ko-lo-ko-lo,
the casra.

a beast commonly called

kpa kpa

kp6,

to mingle, to

confound or confuse;

to be to assault, to smite.
to. teach.
r.
. .

very abundant.
.

ko-lu,

V. V.

kfl, V.
n.

to kill.

k9-ni,

kpa-ku-ta,
to refuse

k6

nl-ya-\v6,
(ono),
V. v.

a betrothed bride.
of.

kp3.-la, adv.

a stnall stewpan. with difficulty or with much


to

effort.

ko-no
k6t),
mi, mi,
V.

to dread, to
to sing.

stand in fear

kpa-lS.

(ila),

v.

separate from, divide.

kor), kor)-rir),

kpa-lai, adv.
heavy
;

by no means.

to fill, to

be full, to feel

owo

koi)

kp.-la-ka,
fingers.

n.

a fork, as of a
v.

stick,

or between the

my hands are 1 am sleepy.


V.

heavy (Ex. 17, 12)

oruq k6i)

kpa
of palm-leaf. of a stream.

. .

la-nu
la-ra
la-rS
la-se,
(ile), v. v.

(li),

to

make
is

sorry.

kbi), kCir),

to

hum, murmur, grumble, begrudge. kpa-la-kpa-la,


a
sieve

n.
v. v.

which

rough, as a road.

k6r)'-ko-SO, n.
k5r)-ror), n.
V.
v.

the bed
to fall to

kor)-sa,
ko-ri-si,

or pounce upon. move towards.

kpa kpa kpa

. .

(li),

to hurt,

wound.

(li),

to fatigue.

. .

v.

to to

command, give

orders.
to plaster.

kpa-le

rub a dirt floor,

kd-ro.

See

k9i)roi).
to trip, to to

kpa-le-in(5,
stumble.
kpfi.-le-ni6,

to set to

a house in order.
to prepare.

ko-se

(ese), v.
v.

v.

prepare ground,
(li),

ko-se-ba,
ko-ti, adv.

meet by chance.

heavily, reluctantly.
to write.

ko-'we,

V.

kpa kpa kpa


cut in two
; to

Ie-nu-in6
le-tar), v.
71.

v.

to

put

to silence.

.le-rir), v.
.

to

make one

laugh.

to outwit, deceive.

kpa,
ing

V.
;

to kill, to beat

extinguish

to
;

crack kpa-li,

lids

of a book.
V.

a nut
;

upon, as rain
to

to rub, as in polish-

to

peel off bark

to relate

a parable

beat in playing a ; game ; to break up fallow land to set ;

kpa kpa kpa

lo-dzo,

to intimidate. to fool, to to

lo-kpe,
lo-se,
v.

v.

puzzle one.

paint, color or stain.

KPA
kpa-lo
(alo), V.
.

53
kp, kp,
one;
conj.
V.

KPI
that, to wit.
to

to

propose riddles.
along the coast.
to convince
. (li okaij),

kpa kpa
to

16h,

V.

to sail

complete, perfect ;
is right ;

to

last

long

ow6

16-kar)-dS. change or convert him.


. . . .

kpe, the

money

iwa r6 kp6, his character


.

is perfect.
. .

kpa
to
fi

to he

ni6, v. to keep, preserve ; to hide : kpain9, kp6, V. to call, to invite, to assemble : fi hid ; kpa enu m6, to he silent ; kpa oko mo, ijkai), to esteem. to call an assembly, to assemble. in a crop ; kpa . . . m6 kuro, to withhold ; kp6-dzo, V. gather
.
.

kp^

ar4 kpamo,

to restrain oneself, refrain.

kpe-ge-de,

v.

to be right,
to call

proper.
to assemble.

kpa-mo-le, n. a viper. kpa-mo-ra, v. to endure, hear. kpa-ndu-kfl, n. an uncut gourd. kpa-ni, kpa-ni-a (enia), v. to kill a
murder.

kpe-na
on.

(ena), v.
n.

an assembly,

kpe-kpe-le,
person, to

a bank of earth in a room to sleep

kpe-re, adv. only. kpe-ri, v. to mean,

to say.

kpa-ni-kpa-ni,

n.

a murderer.
to confuse.
v.

kp6
; to

. . .

ro,

V.

to drill soldiers, to v.

form a

line,

kpa kpa

ni-ye,

v.

kp6-se
V.

(kpa),

to prepare.

ni-ye-dS,
n.

to

persuade

change one^s kpe-te (kpa),


to

mind.

kpa-nsa,

kpa-nsa-i-16,

See kpandiiku. a grave. n.


n.

to intend, to thiiik of doing, devise. v. stay long at a place, to last long. kpe, to turn the back on. kpe'-liir)-dd. (kpa), v.

kpe-ka

(kpa),

v.

to

shoot forth branches.

kpa-nsa-ga,
kpS-nti-ri,

adultery,

an aduUress.

kpe-ke-kpe-ke,
kpe-kui),
V.

n.

which

is

streaked, speckled.
to

n.

a bramble.
at one bloiv, at once.
to

to terminate,

come

an end. an altar ; a

kpar)-hur), adv.

kpa-ra
kpa-rS.,

(ara), v.
n.

hurt oneself ;

to

anoint oneself.
the

kpe-kpe, kpe-kp,

adv.
n.

gently (striking).

slip of wood,

shelf,

the plate or timber laid

on the top of

bird-snare ; a shell.

piazza posts.

kpe-kpe-kui) (oku^),
with a sudden noise.
to

n.

sea-shell.

kpa-r&, adv.

kpe-kpf i-ye, n.
;

a duck.

kpa-ra

dft, v.

turn around

to

change

to

kpe-le, adv.

gently.
to be fiat.

disguise oneself.

kpe-le-be,
to restrain oneself, to

v.

kpa-ra-in6,
he

v,

keep

close,

to

kpe-le-kpe,
kpe-lu,
conj.

n.

a kind of wild dog.


also
;

kpa-re, kpa-ri,
kpa-ri,

with, in : kpelu ayd, with joy ; kpelu e^e, in sin. fade away, put out, destroy. to finish, come to an end ; to conclude v. kpe-lu-kpe-lu, adv. moreover, besides, yea. from premises ; to be bald-headed. kperi-sai), n. a crushing : ic kpeqsai), to crush.
v.

humble.

prep,

to

n.

the jaw-bone.
v. to

kpe-re,
its

v.

to he soft ;

adv.

gently.

kpa'-ri-d&,
course.

turn a thing about, to change


v.

kpe-re, adv.

suddenly. kpe-re-kpe-re, adv. (tearing) into rags or piieces

kpfi.-ri-'WO (ariwo),

to

make a
barter
;

noise.
to

very much.
the

kpa-ro,

V.

to

exchange,

change

kpe-se, adv.
sition.

gently, easily.
n.

character ov purpose.

kpe-se-kpe-se,
a commotion or a storm.
to

gentleness of conduct or dispo-

kpa

rp-ro,
v. v.

v.

to still

kpa-ru-TjO,

to kill to

sacrifice.

kpe-se-in6
destroy,

(kpa),

v.

to

restrain the feet, slacken

kpa-rur),
abolish.

rub

out,

consume,

one's pace.

kpe-te-le,
n.

n.

level

ground, a plain.
comfortably.

kpa-sa, kpa-sar),
kpS.-sar), n.

an

oyster,

kpe-te-kpe-re,

adv.

a whip.

kpa-se

to command, enact. (ase), v. kpa-si-kpa-ro, v. to exchange, barter. kpa-ta, V. to prepare, make ready.

kpe-te-kpe-te, n. mud, mire. kpi, adv. entirely, wholly.


kpi-dar)
juggle.
(idaij), v.

to

perform

sleights

of hand,

to

kpa'-ta-ki,

n.

tohich is chief, principal.

kpa'-ta-kd,
kp9.-ti,
v.

n.

a wooden

shoe,

a hoof.
entirely, altogether.

kpa-ta-kpa-ta

(9toto), adv.

to be forcible, violent.

kpi-dze (kpa), I/, to piull ox cut grass for feed. kpi-kpa, n. which is to be slain. kpl-kp6, n. perfection. kpi-kp6, n. much, abundance.
kpi-le-se,
v.

kpa-ti-kpa-ti, adv. forcibly, kpa-ti-re, n. a sioitch, twig.

violently.

to
v.

commence.
to counsel, suggest.

kpl-mo
to

(kpa),
v,

kpa-to, kpa-to-to

(atoto), n.

make a

noise.

kpi-nu,

to bargain,

purpose, conclude, resolve.

KPI
kpir),
V.

54
kil, to
sift, to
:

LA
run here and
a blanket
there, to

to share,
v.

divide ; to terminate.

thunder mutter-

kplr)-i-ya,

to divide, separate.
v.

ingly

kil ekuru, to n.

throw dust.
;

kpir)-hur)
agreement.

(ohuij),

to

conclude a bargain or

ku-bu-su,
ku-d5r),
V.

peaty earth,

to be fond of, to love.

kpir)-kpii), adv.

fast or tightly, closely,


to terminate.

ku'-du-ru,
flour.

n.

the globular

form ; bread of

bean-

kpirj-le

(il|),

v.

kpir)-ya,

v.

to divide, separate.
v.

ku-fe-ku-fe,
to

n.

braggadocio.

kpi-tar) (kpa),
old events.

to relate

traditions,

recount

ku-gbS, ku-gbe,

V. V.

to perish. to die in the

bush

o kugbe

may you

kpi'-'wa-dfi, (kpa

. .

da), v.

to reform, repent.

die in the bush !

kpi'-ye-dd,

v.

to

change the mind,


to

ku-gbu, v.
ktl-hu, adv.

to

charge furiously ; to be presumptuous. loudly shouting.

kpi-ye kpo, V. kp6, V.

(kpa), v.
to

plunder.

knead.

to smelt.
v.

ku-kpa, V. ku-ku, adv.


to

to be

very busy.

rather.

kp6'-hur)-re-re,

cry aloud, bewail,

kil-ku,

n.

corn-cob.

kpo-kpo-ndo,
kpo'-kpo-rd,
n.

n.

a large wild bean. a corn-stalk.

ku'-ku-ni6,
kfl-ku-ru,

n.

tunic.

n.

ku-ku'-ndu-ku,
n.
n.

n.

the sweet potato.

a nut of which snuff-boxes are made. kpor)-se, kp6-ri, kp6-ri-ri (ori), v. to whirl around,
kpo-rir)
v. (irii)),

shortness.

ku'-ku-te,

stem or boll of a tree,

to

smelt iron ore.


talkatively.

ku-mbu,
ku-in6, V. kCl-mo, n. ku-na, V.

n.

a coney (hyrax).
to cleave to, as dust.

kpo-ro-kpo-ro, adv.
kpo-si,
n.

coffin.

a cudgel.

to be smooth, fine, as thread or meal. kpo-tu-tu (kpa), V. to feel cold. to bum, to enkindle. kpo-'we (kpa), v. to speak a parable. kui), V. to remain, to lack ; to daub, paint, anoint ; kpo, V. to vomit. ktir), V. V. to be abundant, great, common, cheap : to be busy here and there : kill) si dide, to be near, kp6, kp6
si,

to
V.

kp5,

multiply or increase. to turn from, to separate, turn away.


in

at hand.

(Gen. kur)-kur),

v.

to

purr.
loudly, aloud.
to

14, 8.)

kur)-kur), adv.

kp5, adv. kpo-ko, n.


kp6-in6,
kp6r),
V.
V.

common,
to be

together.

kur)-le
kur)-le,

(ile),

v.

plaster a house.

a kind of calabash.
mixed, mingled.
to to be red, to be ripe ;

V.

to kneel. to spare, to give

kur)
sharpen, whet
rusurusu,
to
; to

. .

si-1^, V.
to get

up.
ni,

ku-ro,

V.

out of the
in ;

way : kuro
Ile,

kuro

flatter,

make

much

of:

kp6i)

be

n\n6, from, from

6 diade kuro ni

he went

brown.

out of the house.

kp5r), V. to carry on the back; to dip up. ku-ru, V. to be short. kporj-gfi, n. sticks placed across a grave to prevent ku'-ru-ba, n. a pail, a bticket. the earth from falling in. ku-ru-hil, n. the cry of a hen when she sees a

kpor)

16-dzu
V.

(li),

v.

to afflict, torment, (yppress.

hawk.
ku'-ru-kti, n.

kpor)-nii (omi),

v.

to

draw or dip

water.

kpoQ-mu,

sharpen. kpor)-so, V. to ripen, as corn. kpor)-ti (oti), V. to brew.

to whet,

ku'-ru-mti
ku-sa,
ku-si,
v.

fog, mist, cloud. adv. no, not at all !

to

make a bold
torment.

attempt.

ku-sa-ta,
V.
to be

n.
to to

a compound or block of houses.


find dull
sale, to sell

kpo-si,

V.

to increase.
(ile,

kpo-si-16, kpo-so-de

ode), v.

busy in

kil-tfi, V.

a thing slowly.

and

out. n.

kii-tu-kill-tu, n.

very early in the morning.

kpo-tp-kpo-to,

mud,
be

mire.

ku-ye,
redness
:

V.

to be forgetful.

kpu, adv. kpu-kpa,


eyii), the

precipitately.
V.

to

red

w.

kpukpa

yolk of an egg.
to lick ; to to

kpu-kp5. See kpikpS. kpu-ro (kpa iro), V. to fib.


kpu-tu, adv.
kti, V.
well,
to die, to

IS, V.
ISl,

dream.
to

foamingly lathering, as soap. wither, to terminate, to come short

v.

split ;

wade
;

to

appear
:

;
\h,

to

pass
to

through, escape, be safe


devise.

to

be rich

inio,

to be blunt or dull.

LAB
li.-ba, n.

LER
55
la-na
(li),

a leathern hag,

satchel.

adv.
v.

yesterday.
to

la-ba-la-ba, n.

butterfly.

la-ba-mo-le, n. la-be (li), prep,


slept

robbers, kidnappers.

ld.-na (5na), la-nli (li), v.

open a road ;

to propose, decree.

to be merciful.

under, beneath

sAij

labe

igi,

we la-ra

(li),

prep,

under a
n.

tree.

mi, avenge

on, in, from : me on my enemy ;

gbesai)

mi

lara ota

lara igi tutu, in the

la-bu-14-bu,
ld.-di (idi), V.

fresh ashes.
to explain, to

green
i.

tree ;

gbe W91) lara mi, take them from me,


to be stout

prove.

e.

deliver me.
(li),

la-di-ro, n.

a
n.

beer-strainer.

la-ra
la-re

v.

of body, bulky, fat.

la'-du-gbo,
ld.-dzfi, V.

a large earthen pot.


v.

Ift-ra, n.
(li),

the castor-bean.
v. to be tiresome.

ld.-dza (idia),
to

to reconcile, to

pacify.

pass through, traverse.


v.

ld.-dzo (edio),

to settle

dispute.
bridle.

la-ga, n.

the

brow-band of a
the
v.

la-gba,

n.

a horse-whip.
brow-band of a
wood, ring a
to

manifest. in the midst of, amongst : lariq See leriij kaj). kiij, once, before or previously. in vain, vainly : enia l^sai), Ift-sar) (li), adv.
la-rir) (H), prep,

Ift-ri, v.

to prove,

make

trifling

la-gba-mo, n, la-gba-ra (li),


ld.-gi (igi), V.

bridle.

people.

to be strong.

la-ke-TdX),

V.

to cause infection, to be infectious.

to split
V.

saw

into boards,

la-ti, prep,

la'-go-go (W),

to

bell.

verb
the

as,

6
;

from, often followed by a pleonastic mu u lati oko wAh, he brought it from


lati

la-gur) (ogui)), V. to sweat, perspire. lai (li ai), a prefix, implying not having, without : as, laiberu, toithout fear, fearless ; i ma fi fu ni lai-

farm
;

person
lati

lati

odo, from, when the object is a owo, by the hand of, by ; 6 ra^ k
it

ow6

maleika, he sent

gbowo

(li

ai gb^), he gives to
ever,

us without money.
:

la-to-ri

(lati ori), conj.

because

by the angel. See nitori. of.

lal, lal-lal, adv.

for

ever.
ilo lailai,

lal-lal, n.

oldness, ancientness

la-'wa-ni, n. a belt, a girdle. a very old la-vru, adv. alVs well : alafia ko
lawu,
it is.

wa ?

is it

peace f

house.

lai-kpe, adv.

soon, quickly.

la-"WTi, adv.

very (white).

lal-ku-ku, adv. not rather. lai-le-"wu (li), v. to be without danger,


lai-16-se
(li), v.
(li),

la-ye,
safe, secure.

v,
(li),

to be spacious,
V.

roomy.

la-yd
1, V.

to be alive ;

n.

living animal.
; to be

to be free

from

sin, sinless.

to he strong,
:

hardy, healthy

more than,

lal-lo-vrS
less.

V.

to he destitute

of money, moneywithout
:

above, overhead
le eta, the

mu
is

mi

le,

make me

strong ;
too

money

three (cowries)

owo much : 6

lil-ni, adv.

and prep,
adv.

in need

of,

6 lob

gbe nibS
ten days. 16, V.
to

16 ni

idio mewa, he stayed there more than


to

laini bata, he

went without

shoes.
:

lai-ni-dl

(idi),

without cause
.

6 ba mi wi

lay upon

appear

to drive,

pursue

reproached (ba wi) lal-sd (is, to sin), adv. without sinning or being in 16, prep, cm, upon : fi 16 1I&, put it on the ground. fault : nwoi) kpa a laiiS, they killed him without lb, V. is able, can, may. le-bi (li, to have), v. to be hungry. sin, i. e. without his being guilty of offence.
. .

lainidi, he

me

without cause.

to blister.

lS.-ka-ka,

v.

to strive to to

do a thing.
leg.

16-gur) (ogui)),
the enemy.

V.

to

prevail in battle,

to

beat back

lfi.-ka-lfi.-ka, v.

hop on one

patience, clemency. however. Ifi-ki-s6, adv.

la-kl-ri, n.

le-ke le-ke
:

(li
(li

6ke), prep, 6ke),


v.

above

adv.

up.

to be above,

to be

prominent, ex-

Ifi-ko-ko
Tik,

(li),

adv.

punctually, at the time

lakoko

alted.

then.

le-ke-le-ke,
finally, in short.

n.
v.

an

egret.

Ifi-ko-tai), adv.

le-kpa
on
the

(ikpa),

to follow, piursue. to be satisfied, at ease ;

la-ko,

V.

to

Ifi-kpa-ta, n.

gain a prize, to win a race. a kind offried cake (masa).


n.

le-16, le-il&, V.

adv.

down,

ground

kd

Icle,

to be

troubled, pcr2ilexed,
for the

Ia-kul-e-gb6,
la-la, n.
la-lfi (aid), V.
19.
.
. .

a kind of rheumatism.
dream.

with
tive.

6kar), heart,

or

ara,

body,

nomina-

trouble, annoyance.
to

le-ra
le-re
16-re
le-ri
to

(ara), v.
(ire), v.
(li),

to be strong, healthy. to hasten,

161l, V.

to

go through.
to devise.
ftrai)), v.

urge forward.
to strike

la

15-na, v. Ift-md (imo), V.


. .

to ordain, decree, enact.

v.

to be profitable.
lit.

la-in.5-rar) (la
pose.

imo

plan, advise, pur-

to promise, v. with the hand). (forehead,


(Ivl ori),
(li ori),

the

head

le-ri

prep,

on, upon.

LES
le
.
. .

56
theft.

LUK

S0-n6,
se,
to
(li,

v.

to drive

16

. .

V.
it.

to

compel

6 le

away in mi

^o

e,

me
le-ti

do

lo-dzH-karj-nfi, adv. immediately. he compelled lo-dztl-rS-re, adv. favorably, graciously. 16-ke (li), adv. above, up, on, beyond.
lo-ki-ti, n.

to have), v.

to be obedient, docile,

a false-bottomed
to-day.
v.

vessel

for straining

le-ti

(li,

on), prep.
V.

by.

jMtash.

le-vru
le, V. le, V.

(li),

to be grey-haired.

lo-ni

(li),

adv.

to be sluggish, lazy. to be

Id ... nl-inl-in6,
(li),

See

16.

evening

to

lay one thing lightly on an- lo-ri


:

other, to engraft, transplant

al& le, it is evening

16-rl, V.

prep, on, upon. to whirl. adv.


to

(nearly dark).
IS, V.

lo-ru
to be elastic, pliable ;

(li),

patch ; to be strong, as the wind. down, on the ground. 15, for nil6, adv.

to replenish, to

lo-SO,

V.

16-ti-t6

(li),

by night. squat like a dog, adv. truly.


truly, verily.
to conceive, be

to

crouch.

16-t6
of,

(li),

adv.
V.

le-ba

(li),

prep,

by, at, dtc. ;

by the side

applied lo-ytir)
lo, v. lo, V.

(li),

pregnant.

to tilings near the ground.


le-lje, n.

to
to

anything narrow and flat, a fin.


n.

play a stringed instrument. be lukewarm.


transplant ; to wring, to grind ; contrary ; to wrest the meanto

If-bu-lf-bu,
le-he, adv.

new

ashes.

16,

V.

to engraft, to

well, thaCs right. le-hir) (li), prep, and adv. after, behind, outside mhb lehii) wa, he is coming behind us.

to be twisted, crooked,
:

ing of one's words compare.

cry lost goods

; to investigate,

le-hir)-le-hir), adv.
le-li&i), adv.

backwards.

lo-do

(li),

prep,
(li),

by, with,

among. (Gen. 24, 40.)

once, first: lOkedzi, secondly;

leme- lo-do-dur)

adv. adv.

yearly.
daily.

dii, twice ; lemeta, leketa,

&c.
as air.

lo-dzo-dzo
15-fe, adv.

(li),

16-1&, n.

which

is yielding, elastic,

le-rir)-kar).

See

Isk&ij.

lo-gar)

(li),

early in the morning. adv. instantly, immediately.

le-ro,

V.

to be skilful. to be terrible,
is this
:

16h,
ibi yi leru t6
!

le-ru

dreadful as, dara dzil loh, very good. place ! in a row, in regular or- lo-hur) (li), adv. adv. yonder. le-se-se, le-se-e-se,

V. (li),

used adverbially in the sense oioff, away : e loh, take it away, pleonastic after dzA, very ; gbe
to go,

how dreadful
der.

lo-ko-kar)
immediately.

(li),

prep,
to

towards, opposite

to.

le-se-kari-nfi., adv.

lo-kpo-k6,
lo-lS.
(li),

V.

le-S9-le-SO, adv.
le-"WTi, .
tinder.
11,

carefully, strictly.
at the foot of

adv.

grow, fill up, as an ear of corn. to-morrow.

down

palm

leaves,

euphonic for
(ibi),

ni, to be, to

have, to say.

used for I0-I6, adv. lately. to strangle, choke. lo lo-ror), V. lo-ra (li), V. to be slow, to linger. See ni.
.

11-1)1-81 1

adv.

where ?
?

lo-ro

(li),
(li),

V. V.

to be rich. to be eloquent.

11-1)0 ?

(li),

adv.

where

15-rO

li-dze-ta

(li),

adv.

three

days ago.
is

lo-sar)

(li),

adv.

by day, at noon.
adorned, wnamented.
yi 6 b5re re
;
a,

li-kpo
11-li, n.

(li),

prep,

for, instead of.

lo-SO
lo-to

(li),

V. V.

to be

11-le, 11-le-ll-le, n.

which

hard, violent, strong.

(li),

to be distinct, separate, different.

a kind of porcupine.
adv.
to

lO-AWO, prep,

from :

li-li-ll,

by
;

littles,

scatteringly.

16, V.

use
.
. .

to

bend, to
to

out

16

ni

mim6,

of or from you be elastic : 16 gbo, to wear done by me. See lolo. use sacredly, to sanctify. lo-"WO-10-"WO.
it

demand

se e

I9W9 ^yii), he will lowo mi, it was

(Ex. 20, 8.)


16-l)0-t'Q-dze, n.
the physic-nut (curcans).

lo-'WO-WO,
ness.

adv.

lukewarmly

n.

lukewarm-

lo-de
lo-di

(li),
(li), (li),

adv. adv. ado.

outside.

lu,

v.

to bore, to scuttle ; to

to be discovered.

contrarily.

l<i, V.
ICl, V.

mingle, adulterate.

16-do

below.

to strike,

knock
to

to

make a move, as

in chess
:

lo-dzi-dzi, adv.

suddenly, abruptly.
to be timid,

to beat
111,

a drum,

play a stringed instrument


(Ex. 14, 27.)

sk

lo-dzo

(li),

V.

cowardly.
lil
:

tofiee against.
.

lo-dzo-dzu-in6, adv.

daily.
oral)

l)0-le, V.

to beat to

down, destroy.

lo-dzH

(li),

V.

to

be attentive, observant

mi

Ill

dza,

V.

break into, as a house.

lodzfi, 7ny affairs are j>rosperous, in

lo-dzH, prep,

before, in the presence of.

good condition. lu-ha, V. lu-k6-ro,

to be difficult, abstruse.
V.

to

hint or insinuate against one.

LUK
111
. . .

57

MO
there.

kpa,
(ilB),

V. V.

to

lu-le

to strike

smite fatally, to slay. down ; adv. down,

mb^, V. to be. mbS, adv. for nibe,

lu-lu, adv.

entirely (burnt up).


to be hid.

Iu-in6,

V.

lll-ru, n.

powder of dried
to bathe, to

leaves, for sauce.

mbi, conj. or. me-dze, num. seven. me-dze-dze, num. by

sevens, the seven.

lu-'wd,

V.

swim.

M.
ma, an
auxil. particle, conveying the idea of con-

me-dze-dzi, num. the two, both. me-dzi, num. two : mcdii medii, a pair. mS-lo? adv. how many ? many (Acts 24, 10) egberui) melo ? how many thousands ?
m-lo-kfi.r), pron.
soine, certain ones.

iye

tinued action.

mfe-lo-mfe-lo, adv. Tcxh-xo (mu ero), v.

how much more.


to consider, meditate.

to reflect, consider. mft, adv. very, truly, well : o m^ seui), you are me-te (mu), v. very kind ; esiij ma sare, the horse runs rapidly. me-do-gui), num. sixteen. ma-de-ko-so, n. a strolling beggar, who tells news me-dzig-me-dz^p, adv. with a spring, elastic manner. for a living.

in

an

mft-di-mi-lo-rur) (mah di mi
sical person.

li

oruij), n.

a drop- me-dze-dzo, num. the me-dzo, num. eight.

eight,

by

eights.

ma-do-fur),
mft-dza-la,
through

n.

white leather.

me-fa, num.

six.

n.

flakes of burnt grass which fly me-fe-fa, num.

the air.
n.

ma-dze-re, ma-dze-^we, ma-dze-si, n. a child.


m.fi.-dze-mu (m4h),
n.

saddle-girth.

me-gbe, me-ne, n.

n.

the six, by sixes. a mealy yam or potato.

a kind of broom-grass.
the four,

me-re-rir), num.

by fours.

a covenant.

me-rir), num.

four.
to be skilful.
v.

ma-ga-dzi,

n.

an
:

heir, especially the first-bom.


16 ^e

mfe-ro (m6),

v.

m&h,

adv.

not
n.
71.

emi ko

mah

wi,

/ must speak. me-se-ri

(mu),

to be rancid.

ma-ha-ru,
ma-kfi-lu,

the hotel

of a wild
stick.

beast.

me-ta, num.
me-ta-lo-kar),

three.

a forked

n.

which

is triune.

ma-ka-ri, ma-la-dzu, n. a kind of rat. ma-lei-ka (Arab.), n. an angel.


ma-ltl', n.

n.

compasses, dividers.

me-te-ta, num. me-'wa, num.

the three, by threes.


ten. to be

mS-'wa

(mo),

v.

a judge of beauty.
to

a bull

an animal of the cow kind : ako malA, mi, pron. me, my. abd malil, a cow ; omo malil, a calf. ml, V. to breathe : mi
v.

si,

inspire

mi

hele,

to

ma-ni5-dza,

to guess, conjecture.

pant.

ma-na-ma-na,
ma-na-ma-nfi.,

n.
n.

a kind of snake.
lightning.
to restrain oneself. ara), v. in a bright dazzling man-

mi,

V.

to

shake

to

swallow.

ml-e, pron.

See mirai).
cleanness, purity, holiness.

m&-ra-du-ro (mu
ner.

Iiu-m6,

n. M.

ma-rarj-ma-rai), adv.
ma-ra-nii), num. ma-ri-ma-dze, n.
kinds of food.

mi-mu,

sharpness.
another, other.

mi-rar), ml-re, pron.


the

miO, 2>ron. five, by fives. a person who has no regard for mo-dzu-ku-ro (mu),

whole

I.

v.

to be inattentive,

to con-

nive at, to impute not.

n. strips of palm leaf, a garland. ma-sa, w. a kind of pancake. ma-so, adv. only, even.

ma-ri-'wd,

moi-moi, n. a kind of cake. mo-kui) (mu), v. to receive strength, grow

strong.

ma-sa-la-se,
ma-se-gbir),
ma-ta-kS.,
7i.

n.
n.

a mosque.
a kind of antelope.

md-re mo-ru

(mo),

v.

to be grateful.
to be sultry.
to be

(mu),

v. v.

mo-ye
mo,
touched
;
('.

(m5),
to

perceiving, intelligent, discreet.


;

a smith's hammer.
not to be

drink, to

suck

to

build or form of clay.


to shine, to

ma-te,
ina-t6,
inter].

n.

a kind of snare.
which
is sacred,

n.

mi6,

V.

to be light (as day),


to adhere.
;

be clear,

clean, holy ;

Imnds off!
^wo),
v.

ma-vrd (mu
of.

to

assume

the form or nature

m6, m5,

adv.
V.

again
to

after a negative, more.

ma-ya-fi,
8

n. n.

a sash,

belt.

ma-ya-mi,

a hunter's ba.gfor

bullets,

dc.

m6 si is employed mean ; as, ki li 4 16 mo eyi si ? wliat does this mean ? 6 g6 mi bi d ti ba m6 eyi si, it puzzles me as to what this means.
know,
to

understand

as a substitute for the verb to

MOD
mo-di
(odi), V.
to

58
nfi, V. niL, V.
to to

NIG
spend money.
fiog ; to stretch, extend.
v.

build a wall.
brains,
to try
to be

mo-du-mo-du,

n.

marrow.

mo-dze

(adie), v.
v.

by water ordeal.
tame.
to

na-dza
na-ga

(5dia),

to trade, traffic.

in5-dz(i (odi6),

(iga), v.

to stretch in

reaching up.

mo-dzu-mo, v.
mo-kpa-ra
mo-kur), mo-le, V.
v.

to be light in the

morning,

dawn. na-g^-dtl,

n.

a kind of trowsers.
to

ino-kar)-l&, num.
(arA),
to be

eleven.
v.

na-hur)
drunk.
aloud.

(ohui)), v.

extend the voice, to speak

to get

lame.

na-mai,
drawn.
ground.
to shine.

n.

a ring with which the bow-string

is

to

build a house.
to the

mo-lS
niO-16,

(ile),

adv.

na-na,
na-ni,
to one.

n.
v.

madam.
to be careful of, to

V.

to conspire ;

make much
eh ?

of.

m9-16-"WTl, n.

the grape-vine.
closely,
to

mo-ra

(ar4), adv.
v.

near
the

nar), dar) ? interrog. interj. na-ro, v. to stand erect,


n.

mb-rar) (mo),
to be wise.

know

law as to disputes, na-sS.-ra (Arab.),


nfl.
.
.

a Christian.

Sl-lS, V.

to let
v.

down from

above, to lower.

mo-tl (mu),
drunkard."

v.

to

drink

spirits.

na-vro
the

(ow6),

to

spend.

mo-ti-mo-ti,

n.

a drunkard ; a gnat called "

na-^wo-na-'wo,
n9.-'w6 (ow6), v. hand to hand.
ndai), adv.
not.

n.
to

a spendthrift,
extend the hand, to pass from

m6-ti-in6-ti, adv.

closely joining,

hard

by.

mo-tI-y6,

v.

to get

drunk.

See
adv.

naij.

mu, mu,

V.

to drink, to suck, to absorb.


rice.

ndau, nda-vro,

no.

nde, V, to arise, get up. mil, V. to catch, to hold ; to be sharp ; before an ndze, adv. then, therefore. accusative and verb, to cause ; as, 6 mii mi duro, ne. See na.
he caused

n.

me

to stand,

he upheld

me ;

mfl 6na ne-ga. ni,


V,

See naga.
to be, it is, it in, on, at
:

kpoq, go your way.

was.
ni bi, whereas, that whereas.

mii,

V.
.
.

to sink, to
.

disappear, as in a crowd.

ni, prep, nl, nl,


v. v. V.

mu

ba,

V.

to fit

or adapt to ; to employ as a

to have, to

own ; must.

means.

to say. to

mu mu mu mu mu mu mu
Tfxa

Tje-ru,

v.

dze,

v.

afraid. to devour, as a wild beast does.


to heal
v.

to

make

nl,

load a canoe or ship.


one, person, us, that, the.
there,

ni

(cnj),

pron.

dzi-na, v. dzti-td (odiu),


go,
V.

a wound.
to see to,

ni-bai, ni-ba-jd, adv.


attend
to.

yonder.

ni-b6

(ibe), adv.

there.

. . .

to fool one. v. to spread, as to fill.


v.

ka-le,
k6r),

here, hence. ni-bi, ni-bi-yi, adv. famine or pestilence. ni-bi-kax), adv. somewhere.

v.

kpa-dS,

to

bring back, restore.

nl-bi-kl-bi, adv. wherever. where, whence. ni-bi-ti, adv.

save. mu ...l&^v. mu la-ra-dft heal. mu 1, strengthen,


to
. ,
.

ni-bo, ni-bo-ti, adv.

where, whence.
elsewhere.
crossvnse.

(li),

v.

to

ni-bo-mi-rar), adv.
to confirm.

. .

V.

to

ni-bu, ni-bu-bu, adv.


ni-dfi.-ye-dfi.-ye, adv.

mu-l&

(116),

v.

to

stand firmly,

now and

then.

miu-ntl,

V.

to be active, fiery. to

ni-dl, Tii-dii-M, prep,

about, concerning.

mu-ra

(ard), v.

prepare
n.

oneself,

make

mu mu mu mu

ready.

ni-dze-fa, adv.

six

days ago.

ro-16,

v.

to tranquillize.

mu-su-lu-mir)' (Arab.),
. . .

a Mohammedan.

se,

V.

to
V.

bring

to

pass, to fulfil.
introduce, entertain a

ni-dze-rir), adv. four days ago. ni-dze-ta, adv. day before yesterday. ni-dzo-gbo-gbo, adv. every day, daily.

. .

"wfih,

to bring, to fetch. to

ni-dz9-kar)-lo-gbor), adv.

seldom.

vrb,

V.

bring

in,

guest.

when, while. ni-gbS.-tI, adv. ni-gba-gbo-gbo, adv. always.

ni-gb^

ni-gba-ku-gba, adv.

at

any

tinu, often.

N.
n, adv.

ni-gbS.-nfi, adv. ni-gba-nl, adv.

then, at that time. anciently, in old times.

See nn.

ni-gbar)-gba, adv.

publicly, openly.

na, adv. already, now. oA, pron. that, the satne,

ni-gba-"wo
the.

? adv.

when

ni-gba-yi, adv,

now, at this time.

NIG
ni-gbe-hii), adv.

69
nwor), pron.
nyir), prmi.
they.

ODD
these.

nl-gbo-se, adv.

afterwards, hereafter, at last. by and by, after awhile.

n-wog-yi, pron.
you.

ni-ha, adv.

near, aloiigside, about.


here, hence.
v.

ni-hir)', ni-hig-yi, adv.

ni-hd-ho, ni-hd'-ri-ho,

to be

naked.

ni-kar), ni-kai) so-so, adv.

alone, singly, only.

N.
r),

ni-ke-hir), adv. at last, lastly. ni-k6, adv. See qko. ilI-k9-ko, adv. in private, secretly.

an auxiliary prefix, denoting an action which is or was in being at the time alluded to in the proposition
;

ni-kpa, ni-kpa-tl, prep,


cording
to.

by, concerning, as

to,

acT),

as,

Jjta, lie is selling.

pron.
!

I.
interj. interj.

ni-kpa-se

(ese),
v.

prep,
to

ni-kpe-kui),

by (means of). have an end, to terminate.


of,

T)gbh.

take

it !

r)gb6
r)kfi.r)

hark ! hear.

ni-kp6, prep,
ni-kpor),
v.

instead

in the

room

of.

(ohui) kaij), n.

a a
6

thing, something.

to be thick, as

a board.
to.

r)kai)-ki'-r)kar), n.

trifling thing.

nl-ku-sa, prep,
Hl-lfi (nl4), V.

near, close
to be large.

r)k6,
it?

v.

to be not
it

i)k6, it is not

he

ri

r)k6

{he saw

is-it-not

or did-he-^not) did he not see

ni-lai-lai, adv.

anciently.
ara), v.
to

ni

la-ra

(li

annoy, vex, press, as a job r)s6.

See nio.
you.

of work.

r)yir), pron.

ni-1^

(ni),

adv.

on

the

ground, down.

ni-l9-16, adv.
ni-nft, n.

lately, recently.

extent, extension.

o.
tutu nini, to flourish, as a
O,

ni-ni, adv.

quite (cold)

plant. (Ps. 92, 14.)

6,

pron. thou. a word of assent


or

to

mi

y/kh, come here ; O, yes,

ni-ni, n. ni-ni, n.

hail-stone.

/ will.
he, she,
li, ti,

property, possessions ; an owner,


inside, within,
to

6, pron.
after
it-is

it,

that

used without the tone-mark


;

ni-n6, prep,
ni-rar),
v.

among,

in.

and other

particles

as,

emi

li

o de {I

remember.
beloio, beneath.

that came),
not.

I came.

ni-sa-16, prep,
ni-si,
V.

6, adv.

to be

concerned about, to care.


(ulv.

6, aux. jtart.

shall, will.
;

ni'-si-si, ni'-si-si-yi,

now.
.

O-bi,

ji.

a parent

a female, of

cuttle.

nl-sa-dzu, adv.
cerning, in,

before,

formerly

6-bi, n.

the kola or

goorah nut.
a woman.

ni-ti, ni'-ti-tl, prep,


of,

in that, for that, for, conin regard to that.


the

6-bi-ri, 6-bii)-ri (obo 6nia), n.

from.
as
to,

0-b6, n. 6-bo, n.

hint, private information.

ni'-ti-kp, cmtj.

pudendum

muliebre.

because, for, for ni'-to-ri, ni'-to-ri-tl, conj. sake of ; prep, for, concerning.

o-bo-tu-dze, n. physic-nut (curcans). 0-b6, n. a foster-parent, a nurse.


0-b5, n.

ni-to-ri-nfi, adv.

therefore, wherefore.

roller for

ni'-to-si, jyrep.

near.

O-bu,

n.

which

is insipid, stale ;
:

ginning cotton. a rotten egg.


se odale, to break

ni'-t6-t6, adv.

in truth, truly.
to be

O-da-le, n.
disposition.

a breaking down

amiable, of a good nl-"wa-dzu, prep, and adv. before. ni-wo-yi, adv. now.

ni-AvS.

(ni), V.

down.
o-de, n. o-de, n.
the outside, out

of doojrs.

a small

bat.

ni-"Wor), adv. moderately ; at the time nl "wprj-bl, adv. inasmuch as.

of.

o-de, n.
O-di, n.

a parrot.
malice,

wrongfulness

odi

si,

opposition,

ni'-ye-n6
ni-yir),
nlfi, V.
v.

(iye in6), v.

to be intelligent.

perverseness.

to be praised, honorable.

o-dl, n.
tree.

a town

wall, breastwork ;

a dumb person.

to be

great

igi nla,

a large

o-di-de.
o-di-di, n.

See ode.

nlfi-nla, n. greatness. nn, adv. no.

n6,

V.
. . .

to be lost ;

to

wipe

adv.

0-di-n6,

n.

a bunch, cluster ; the whole. a passionate person.


division, section, party, district.
for

nd

nd,
v.

v.

to

wipe

off, blot out,


little.

away. brush away.


off,

o-do, 0-d6,
6-do,

n. n.
n.

a mortar

pounding things

in.

noQ-yi, ns6, V.

to rest

water in a body, as a river or pond.


never, not at all.

to

go

on, jrroceed.

O-do-di, O-do'-ro-di, adv.

ODO
O-do-do,
0-do-d6,
n. w.

60
O-dzu-mS,
n.

OGU
morning, dawn. a covetous person
;

truth, riffhteoumess, justice.


scarlet color.

O-dzu-nlfi., n.

envy, greediness.

O-do-gl, n.

scrofula.
the

O-dzu-rar), n.

dream, a

vision.

O-du,
6-du,

n. n.

companion of Ifa.
n.

0-dzu-r6-re,
O-dzu-ri,
;

K.

favor, grace: ^eodiurere, to /ator.


eye-witness.

boiler, caldron.

n.
.

an

O-du-a, O-du-du-a, dess, Nature : Odudua, igba nla medii d de


Jieaven

heaven and earth

the godi ^i,

d-dzu-sor),
0-dzu-ti, n.

a fountain.
n.

O-dzu-sa-dzu,

partiality.

and

earth, two large calabashes shut not to

shame, modesty.

be opened.

O-dze,
0-dz,
O-dzi,

n. n. n.

sap of plants.
lead.

O-dzu-'wfi, n. a sharer, distributor. 0-fe,n. a parrot ; a dexterous fellow.


0-fe-re, n.
the the

morning star ; about


lit.

three o'clock in

a reviving, revival.
forty
n.
;

morning.

6-dzi, n.

adultery.
resin.

O-fi, n.

a loom,

a swinger.

O-dzi-a, n.
O-dzi-dzi,

gum, an electrical fish.


n.

O-fi-dzi, n.
O-fir), n.

forgiveness.

o-dzi-dzi, o-dzi-dzir),

a shadow, shade.
;

6-dzi-dzi, mwrn.

by forties

6-fir), n.

a law, prohibition. a pit.


loss,

n. suddenness.

6-fo, .

calamity, emptiness, desolateness.


tale-bearer.

o-dzi-gbe-se,
O-dzi-gboi),
n.

n.

debtor.

0-f5-fo, n.

a busy-body,
n.

the outer corner


sufferer,

of a house.

6-fo-ro, n.

a kind of squirrel.
the

o-dzi-ya, O-dzo,
6-dzo,
n.

n.

one oppressed.

O-fu-ru-fQ,
O-gbi-fo,
M.

firmament, space.

n.

cmcardice, a coward. rain : odio oti, new weak


n.
n.

an

interpreter.

ale.

O-gbi-gbi,

n.

a kind of owl.
all.

O-dzo-bo,

a loop.
ague.
n. n.

O-gbo,

for n.

gbogbo, pron.

0-dz6-dzo,

o-dzo-dzfl-le,
n.

every house.
every day, daily.

old age; a kind of wildcat. O-gbo-do, n. a young or green yam.

O-ghQ,

O-dzo-dzu-mo,
O-dzo-gar),
O-dzo-gtir), n.

a kind of scorpion.

O-gbo-dzu, o-gbo-gbo,
0-gbo-ni,
elderly
71.

n.

n.

a daring man. a mallet.


n.

an
one

inheritor.

o-gbo-16-gbo,
at play, a cheat.

ancientness, old age.


;

O-dzo-ro,

n.

who cheats

a sort of free-masonry

a respectable

O-dzo-'WU,

n.

a jealous person.

man.

0-dz6-ye,
0-dz5,
n.
;

n.

ruler, officer.
:

bread

of a day comp. odio.


the space
n.

O-gbu-fo. See ogbifo. ondie odi6, daily O-ge, n. a fop, dandy.


O-ge-de, adv.
only.

0-dz9-ro,

O-dzu,

n.

an iron mace. a sore, a scar.

0-ge-de-gbe, o-ge-de-mgbe,

the eye, face, appearance, edge, O-dztl, M. knife or sword ; an opening : odi(i ona, the middle

ogedemgbe ; adv. headlong falling. as of a O-gi, n. an old dog, an old bachelor.


6-gi, n.

n.

headlongness

li

starch of maize.

of

the road, the road,


to

a gate

odifi re
;

wdh
odiu

il|,

he

O-gi-dar), n.

a leopard.

came

a kind of drum. himself (after being insane) al4, a O-gi-dl-gbo, n. dream; odifi aiye, the sky ; oAHl ow6, tlie principal O-gl-ri, n. a yard wall. (money), as distinguished from interest; odz6 orur), O-gi-ri, n. a gallop), a rush of a crowd.
sleep ;
odzfi. ori, the

grave

oAiix agbara, a gutter,


;

0-g6,

n.

glory, vaunting.

a wide
to

street ;

odiii sama, a cloud

gun ; gbe odz<i abo, to O-dzu-gba, n. a companion, an equal.


o-dzu-g9r),
n.

cock a

gbe odi<i ako, 6-gO, n. a person sitting at one's door daily to shame him into the payment of a debt. half cock a gun.
0-gO-do,
n.

the

young of cattle, a

calf, colt.

the shin.
n. n.

0-dzu-kar)-n&,
to covet.

immediateness.
covetousness
:

0-dztl-k6'-ko-ro,

0-gO-du-gb6, 71. dropsy. O-go-dze, num. one hundred and forty. in odzukokoro, o-go-dzi, num. forty.
o-gor)-go, n.
the ostrich.

0-dzu-kpo,M.
king takes the

a skylight in
air.

the palace ivhere the

6-gO-ti, n.

O-gU-fe, w.

See dgo. a wether.

O-dzu-kpor),

n. n.

trouble, perpleimy.

O-gu-lu-tu,

O-dzu-la-fe-ni,

a time-server, an eye-servant.

O-gu-na,
O-gur), n.

n.

O-dzu-le

(ile), n.

a doorway.

a clod of earth. a coal of fire. war, an army, a battle.


n.

O-dzu-lu-m.6,

n.

an acquaintarwe.

O-gGr),

n.

the

god of blacksmiths and of soldiers.

OGTJ
O-gtiQ, n.
6-gtir), n. 6-gtli), n.

61
twenty.

OLO
n.

an inheritance
a chair.
perspiration.

num.

0-kp6,

O-kpo-kpo,

a post ; a widow : okp6 oko, a mast. an avenue outside a town gate, n.

6-gur), n.
O-gilr), n.
leaf.

0-kpo-ro, n. which is common, usual. a corpse, the dead, state of death, insipidity. a charm. O-kQ., n. medicine, poison, a round pole, foot-stalk of a wine-palm o-kli, for alkfl, n. a salutation.

o-ku-ku,
n.

n.

the

O-gn-ro-do,
6-gu-r6,
n. n.

a standing upright.

0-ktl-n9. (5na), n.

woof of cloth. an old overgrown road. a string : okiiq


darkness.
tiijriq, tioine.

0-gu-s5,

palm-wine. a tobacco-pipe.
to

0-kui), n.
O-ktli), n.

strength, ability.

rope,

6h

the
!

usual reply

a salutation.

See

6.

6-kur), n.

the ocean.

a word of exclamation. a thing : ohur) O-hxLl), n.


O-llO

6-kur), 6'-kur)-kur), n.
ilo,

vessel,

utensil ;
tool,

0-kur)-fa, n.

an

attraction, encouragement.

ohuq

ini,

instrument
6-llur), n.

property, possessions ; ohur) ona, a ; ohur) 9sig, a domestic animal.


the voice, speech,
n.

o-kur)-ra, n.
o-kur)-ror), n.
n.

anything rotten.
illness.

a sound.

O-ku-ru-ro,

an

ill-natured person,

o-hur)-k6-hur), any thing whatever. a white man. o-i-b6, e-i-b6, a-mb6, n.

o-ku-sa,

n.

ale of millet.
n.

0-ku-sa-le,
O-kti-su, n.

worn-out land.

6-ka,

n.

ring.

refuse

from dyeing
a boulder.

vats.

6-kfiri, n.

one cowry.
n.

O-ku-ta,

n.
n.

stone,

6-kar)-ai-ya,

the breast, chest.

o-ku-y e,
:

one dull of memory.

6-ke,

n.

top,

hill,

height,

mountain

oke orug, 6-la,

n.

the cloth-moth.

heaven.

0-1&, n.
n.

that which saves, saving, salvation.

o-ke-16,

a package of salt.
a
bit,

6-l, n. 6-le, M.

a
a

roof.
thief, theft.

6-ke-16, n.

a morsel. a

o-ke-re, 6-ke-td,

n.
n.

distance, far of, aloof.

0-li-fa, n.
;

which has or pertains

to Ifa

tohich is

a bale of goods, a wallet


n. n.

rat.

0-k-hir)-d^
O-kf, n.

renunciation, forsaking.

advantageous, 0-lo-b6, n. one


0-lo-di, n.

who
is

hints, or gives

a caution.

o-ke-le-ndze,
dull knife).

a kind of
to fire (as

lizard.
to

which

walled, fortified.

failure

a gun), or

cut (as a

O-lo '-do-do, n.

O-lo-du-ma-re,
God.
O-16-dzo,
n. n.

n.

a righteous person. the Ever righteous, a name of

6-ki, n. flattery, compliments. o-ki-ki, n. fame, rumor.


O-ki-ki-ri, n.
hardness, difficulty ; a knot. n. the area of a circle. O-kl-ri-bi-ti,

o-lo-dzu,

a stranger. oneself, an owner.


n.

O-lo-dzu-kai),
:

a one-eyed person. See


ofofo.

O-ki-ri-kpa, dryness and hardness, adia, an old dog. okirikpa


n.

as of leather

O-lo-fir), n.

a lawgiver.
a
cat.

o-lo-fo-fo, o-lo-fo-ro.

6-ki-ti, n.

a summerset, a headlong fall.

6-ki-ti, 6-ki-ti O-gtlr), n.

a whitS-ant

hillock,

o-lo-gbo, a 0-16-gb6,

n. n.

the king's traditionist or chronicler.

heap.

O-lo'-gi-ni, n.

cat.
is honorable, glorious,

o-ki-ti a-ro, m. O-ki-ti 6-be, n.


n.

a potash-strainer.

o-lo-go, n. 0-16-go, n.
o-lo-gur), n.

who
one

hill for planting yams, corn, d-c. O-ko, ale, afternoon's farm work j oko eru, bondage, slavery. 0-k6, n. a stone.

who duns, a dun.


a sparrow.

a farm: oko

0-lo'-gor)-se, n.

o-16-hur)

(li),

a physician. a man of n.

influence.

0-ko-b6,
O-ko-to,

n.

a eunuch; a
n.

liar.
s,

o-lo'-ki-ki, n.

who

is famous.

o-k6 i-bog,
n.

the lock of

gun.

o-16-kur), n.

6-ko,

n.

a kind of snail. a name.


;

O-lo'-ku-ror), n.
0-16-14, n.

which has strings ; a rope-maker. a sick person.


tattooer.

a professional a
See
stuttering,
oni.
oijkEi.
:

a puzzle, ignorance o-kpe-kpe, n. a youth.

o-kpe,

n.

a simpleton.

6-I0-I6, n.

stammering.

o-lo-ni.

O-kpir), n.

an
(ile),

end, boundary.
n.

o-lo-r)ka.
the

See

0-kpir)-lS
earth.

boundary of land, ends of

O-ldre,

n.

a benefactor

ol6re ofe, one

who

is

gra-

cious, benevolent.
;

O-kpo,

n. the place of audience in the palace raised place to sleep on.

O-lo-ri, n. O-lo-ri, n,

a head man, chief, captain. a great man's wife.

OLO
O-16-rir), n,

63
o-lu-tar), .

ONI
a a
relative,

singer.
all sorts, variety.

a kinsman,

o-lo-ri-o-ri, n.

O-lu-to, n.

director ; one

who

brings

up a

child,

O-lo'-ri-sa, .

an

idolator.
is

a nurse.
O-lu'-tO-dzti (od^fi), n.

O-lo-ro, n,

which
w.

venomous.
is distinguished,

a guardian, a

keeper,

O-lo'-ru-ko,

who
n.

famous.

O-lu-'wfi, n.

lord, master, owner,

O-lo'-su-ma-re,
0-lo-'w6, n.

which

is

curved.

o-lu-Ava-re, n.
0-lu-"wd,
n.
n.

an individual, a person.
n.
:

0-16-t6, o-16-ti-t6, n.

a just person,

a priest.
one who respects persons,

O-16-ye, O-16-ye,

n. n. n.

who is rich, who is wise, prudent.


an
officer,

O-lu'-'wo-dzQ,

noble.

O-loyo,
O-lo, n.
0-l<i, n.

the yellow

monkey.

kikai), foul water. a young chicken; a maiden. o-mi-dze, omi-odzti, n. a tear.

O-mi,

water

omi

o'-mi-d&i), n.

powder of any kind. a chief, an owner : old


a hammer.
n.

O-ml-rar), n.
ofig,

giant.
other, another, the other.

a lawgiver or

o-nif-rfl.r),

pron.
m.

otvner.
O-lCl, n.

o-mi-rli), n,

the throat ; swallowing with ease, broth.

o-mi-to-ro,
or feeds ;

O-lu-bO,

who maintains who who


an
a

who

beats

a om-ni-ra,

M.

a free person,
tied to the body,

mud floor.
O-lfl-lju-koi), n.

O-mu,
adds, or blesses.

n. n.

the grass-nut.

O-nde,

an amulet
n,

o-lu-da-nde,
o-lu-da-re, n.
O-lu-fe, n.

n.

a redeemer, ransom^r,
is justified.

O-nde-re,

a parrot,
food.
:

o-ndze,
o-ni, n.

n.

who

loves,

or

is beloved.

this day, to-day


oni, h

oni oloni, this very day ;

0-ltl-fi-s5r), n.

accuser, plaintiff.

6 de

li

came
the

to-day.

0-lu-f9'-kar)-sI, n.

a devout or devoted person.


savior.
deliverer,

O-nl-ba-ta, n.

o-lu-fu-ni,

n.

giver.

o-nl-bo-de,
o-nl-bu-sl,
n.

n. w.

owner of a shoe, a shoe-maker, a custom-house officer,

0-l<l-gba-l&, n.

one

who

blesses,

0-lu-gb3.-ni, n.

a helper,
lifts

o-ni-d&,

creator, maker,

O-lu-gbe,

n.

who

o-lu-gbCg-gbo,
cloth is fulled.

n.

O-lu'-gbo-ro,

n.

o-nl-da-dzo, n. a judge. a smooth round block on which o-nl-da-la-re, n. ajustifier. an adviser, proposer. 0-ni-dfi.-m&-rar), n. a cudgel. O-ni-da-nde, n. a redeemer.
up, or raises.

0-lu-gb6,

n.

believer.
<

o-ni-dar)-"wo, n.
o-nl-di-kar), n.
the oth^r

a tempter. a child who has one parent free and


n.

o-lu'-ko-lo.

See abiku.
n.

O-lu'-ko-re,

a reaper, crop-gatherer.
n.

slave.
(fi),

o-lu-ko, o-lu-ko-ni,
cutioner.

a
n.

teacher.

o-nl-ffi-ra-ro
exe-

stipporter, backer.

o-lu-kpa, o-lu-kpa-ni,

a murderer, an

o-ni-fa-ra-Tve,
o-nl-fe-fe, n.

n.

an

imitator, emulator.
boaster.

a proud person,

o-ld-kpa-mo,

n.

a preserver.
n.

O-ni-fo, n.
is long-suffering.

a washer.

o-lu-kpa'-ra-in9,
O-ltl-kpi-le-se, n.

one

who

0-nI-gfl.r), n.

U catechumen of an

idol.

a beginner, author,
one who
is

O-lu-kpir), n.

a sharer, divider.
poor, distressed.

o-l<i-kpor)-dzti, n.

o-ni-gb&-dza-m6, n. a barber. o-nI-gba-gb9, n. a believer. o-ni-gba-ni, n. a helper, savior.


o-nl-gbe-se,
n.

olu'-ku-ltl-ku, pron. each, every. o-lu-ni6, . a builder.

debtor.

o-ni-gb9-"wo
O-nl-ha-le,
n.

(gba), n.

a surety.
n.

o-ln-mbxai),

n.

a wise man.
a helper. a sender, a sheep-shearer.

who

is

poverty-stricken.
(in6),

o-ltl-rar)-16--wo, n.

o-ni-ka, o-iii'-ka-n6

one

who

is crtul.
:

o-lu-rar)-se, n.

o-lu-rS, n.

a comforter. a a a
server, worshipper.

o-ni-ke-ke-re, n. one who has little of a thing little faith. eijyii) onikekekere igbagbo, ye of
o-nl-ke-re, n.
o-nl-ki-ri, n.

o-lu'-re-ror) (iroq), n.
O-lu-sir), n.

a small person.

a wanderer.
one

o-l(i-sa-r6, n.

a thoughtful person.
doer, actor.
victor, conqueror.

O-ni-kO

(iko), n.
n.

who

is

troubled with a cough.

O-lu-se,

n.

O-ni-kpa,
hater.

one

who

takes part in

a transaction, a

O-lu-se, n.

participator, sharer.

O-lu'-se-tar), n.

an enemy, a
:

o-nl-kpe-ld,
O-ni-kpir),
n.

n.

one
lie

0-lu-s5, n.

a watcher

olu^o agutai), a shepherd.

who is gentle, courteoti*. who appoints our lot, the disposer

0-lu'-s6-gba (ogba),

n.

a gardener.

of events.

ONI
O-ni-ku,
n.

63
O-ri, .
ori

0^1
the head, top ;
n. butter.

one who
.

is

mortal.
betrayor, traitor.

a kind ofpigeon ; shea


end of the finger.

butter :

o-nl-ku-kpa-ni,
0-ni-l&, n.

amo,

who

is tattooed or

circumcised.

o'-ri-ka

(ika), n.

the

0-nI-13.-dz3, n.

a peace-maker.
wJio is healthy.

o-ri-ke, n.
O-ri-lS, n.

a^oiM^ of the limbs.

O-nl-le-ra, . o-nl-lo-ra, n,

a family,

race, nation, tribe : orile 6de,

who

is slothful.

a nation.
O-rir), n.

O-ni-na

(ina), n.

which

is fiery.

a tooth-brush made of a root bearing


tune.

the

0-ni-ni, n.

a possessor. a persecutor.

o-ni'-no-ni-bi'-ni, n.

same name. a song, a 6-rir), n.


0-ri-so, n.
o'-ri-sor), n.

0-nl-n6 dl-ddr) (ino), n. a good-natured person. o-ni-n6 fu-fu, n. a pure-hearted person. 0-ni-n6 ti-te, n. a meek person.
o-nl-re-ra,
n. n.

stall,

a tying-up place. a spring, a fountain.


idol.

o'-ri-sa, n.

an

loho is proud.

0'-ri-s&-ko (oko), n.
O'-ri-sa-nlS., n.

the farm-god.

O-nlre-l^,
O-ni-ro-ra,

who
,

is

humble.

a name o/"Obatala.
priesCs work, the priestly

o-nI-r6-bi-n6-dzf
n.

n.
is is

who
hairy.

is broken-hearted.

O-ri-se fi.-lu-fa (ise) n,


office,

who
which

pained, in sorrow.

priesthood.

O-ni-roi), n.

O-ro, n.

honey
the

stick to stir ale

with

provo-

O-ni-ru, n.

one
n. n. n.

who is who who


a

o-nl-ru-ru,

similarly endowed. variety, various kinds.


is
is

cation, difficulty, hardness, fierceness.

O-ro,

n.

god of

civil

government, the executive


torture, torment

o-nl-sa-dzu,
o-ni-sa-dzu,
O-ni-se, n.
0-ni-sl, n.
o-nl-si-ti, n.

modest, bashful.
partial,

of the state deified.

o-r6, n.

venom of

reptiles ;

Hie

O-nl-se-gTir), n.

doctor.

oro, to be tormented.

a worker. an author or inventor of a


n.

6-r6, n.
thing.

the erect posture, erectness ;

the indigenous

mango.
O-ro-bo,
n.

a powerful or eloquent speaker.

good

luck, fortune.

O-nl-BO-gui),

a a

doctor, physician.
trader,

O-ro-mbo
o-ro-re, n.

(oro ambo), n.

an orange,
face.

lime, lemon.

0-nI-s6-"W0, n.

pimples on the
bitterness, gall.
oil
:

O-nl-SO-na, n.
O-nl-tu-'bu, n.

a mechanic. anyone,
lit.

O-ro-ro, n.
their person.

0-m-ti-'wor),^ro?i.

o-r6-ro, n.
6-rO, n.

fi

ami ororo
is tender.

yai), to anoint.

a jailor.

O-ni-'wa, n. who has a disposition or character ; circumstance : oniwa iwa, all circumstances or con- O-ru, n.
ditions.
O-rCl, n. n.

morning. a O-ro-nu, n. which

heat, steam.

a pitcher, jug,
night.
n,

a preacher. o-nl-'wa-si, o-nl-'wa-su, which wriggles, a wriggler. n. O-nl-we-re,


O-nl-'WO-ra,
n.

6-ru,

n.

o-ru-ba,

an
n.

oil-pot.

a greedy person.

o-ru-ga r)dzo,
O-ru-gu-du,
o'-ru-ka,
n.

n.

midnight,
bottle.

O-ni-ye,
0-n6,
or), n.

n.

one

who has a good memwy.


it.

a short thick a

prehension of danger, dread,

pron.

OX), conj.
6r), jyron.

him, her, and.


he, she,

O-ru-ko, n. 0-ru-l (ile),


O-rui), n.
O-rur), n.

a ring. a name
n.
:

lie-goat.

roof,

it.

sleep
the
sets ;

orug kor) mi,


:

lam
sun

sleepy.
rises ;

or)-fe, n.

one

who

is charitable.
:

sun

omij

la, the

orui)

w6,

or)-gbe, n.
thirsty.

thirst

oqgbe gbe mi,


counts,

/ am

or was

the

sun

O-rtlr), n.

^e-oruq, the large red setting sun. a smell, a scent.

or)-ka,

n.

one

who

a a

counter.
saver.

O-se, n. 0-s6, M.
O-sil), M.

paint.
the

013-ld, n.
or)-nfi,

that which saves, himself, that.

pron.

or)-ro-ro, n.
Ol)-se, n.

one who

is austere.

6-sir), n.

hippopotamus. which is tamed, a domestic animal, cattle. the left, the post of honor : osir) yama, the
the lips for sorrow ; the club

a messenger. a purchaser. a bulrush, a mat of rushes. a watch-tower, a watching from a tower.


goodness, kindness
:

south.

0-r4, n. o-re, n.

0-se, n.

a smacking of
See
osc.

of Saijgo.
0-se-se, n.
O-si, n.

O-re, M.
6-re, n.

meat of

the first quality.

ore o(e, grace.

misery.
n.

o-re-re.
o-re,
n.

Sec okpokpo.
the porcupine.

o-sise,

a poor or miserable person, a fauper, a

wretch.

oso
O-SO, n.

64
si,

OFO
prostration.
the

a
n.

witch, sorcerer : ie oio

to bewitch.

9-ba-le, n.

0-S0-n6,
O-SU,
n.

an

ill-natured person.

0-bfi.r)-gi-dzi, n.

Lord, the Almighty.

the

new moon, a month.


the
n.
n.
a,

O-ba-ta-lS., n.

the origirmting

god (an androgyne),

o-su-kpa, n. O-su-ma-re,
o-su-me-re,
O-SU-SU,
.

moon.
rainbow, semicircle.
lily.

the generative principle.

o-ba-ra, n. cord, pack-thread. 9-b, n. a knife.


to

a grove,

thicket

kpa oAu^u,

form a 9-b&,

n.

sauce, hash, soup.


n.

grove, to

stand in a grove.

O-be-do,
o-bo, n.

green scum on loater (lemna)

hence,

6-su-'wor), n.
O-td., n.

a measure, a weight.
of a house.
otito idi, the true cause or reason.

green color.

seller.

a baboon.
coarse white cloth.

O-te, n.
O-ti-tO, n.

the corner

9-b6, n.
5-b9i),
n.

truth

O-to-lo, w.
O-to-si.

a hind of antelope.
See
osise.

a filthy person, sloven. an umbrella ; a beetle 9-b9r)-b9r)', n.


9-bo-r9, n.

(insect).

6-t6, n.

truth.
n.

o-tor)-kpar)-yar),
O-tu, O-tu-tu, n.

one

who

creates disturbance.
the head.

plain (not marked). O-dfi, n. drought, dearth, need ; old ale do you need anything ? nyii) ?
6-da,
n.

which

is

od4 da

cold,

a cold in

wax.
n.

0-tu-ni5, o-tu'-di-md, n. a covenant-breaker. O-Ave, n. a proverb, a parable ; plumpness.


O-'we-re, n.
o-v?"i-"wl, n.

9-da-dz<l (d4 odiu),


o-dai), n.
9-dfi.i3, n.

one toho

is

shameless.
talker.

an a

inconsistent story ;

a vain

struggle, effort, wriggling, writhing.

species

of fig-tree.
to

an owl.

6-dar), n.

a prairie.

0-"W0, n.

O-WO,
6-"WO,

n.

a horn. a boil.
cowries,
trade, n.

q-de,n.

a hunter: de ode,
a piazza.
n.

hunt for; oLui) ode,

0-'w6, n.
n.

money

id owo, to

make money.

prey. 9'-de-de, n.

traffic :

se owo, to trade.

-wd-bo-de,

tax, customs.

o-AVO-kaQ-ai-ya,

n.

the bosom.

-wd-se
-"wCl, n.

(ise), n.

wages.

a remnant of cloth in the loom. a living being li odo, si odo, ti o-Ag, 9do ; see lod9, sodo, todo lati odo, from. 9-d6, n. the young of domestic animals : odo agu9-di-a-kpa-sa,
n. presence of
. :

cotton, thread ; jealousy.


n.

ta^,

a lamb.
every year, yearly
:
li

S-AVU-rb,
n.

morning.
n.

g-dg-dvLT), n.

od9duri

li

ri

i,

O-'WU-SU-'WU-su,
O-ya,
n.

fog, gloomy weather.

we

see it every year.

that which separates, a comb.

g-Agi), 9-dur), n.

cloth of palm-leaf fibres.

melo ? how often ? nwoij 9-dtlr), n. a year. O-ye, a band, a girth ; that which is broken off. k6 li oye gba, tkey set no number (of times). 9-dzfi, n. a market, merchandise, intellect : oye ye mi, I un- 5-dza, n. n. understanding, 0-y6, derstand ; k6 li oye, he has no sense. o-dze-hur), n. a glutton. d-ye, n. a title of honor, office : die oye, to hold an o-dz6, n. time, a day : odi6 ale, afternoon ; odi6 ibi, n. birthday ; odio idio, assembly-day ; odi6 office.
a number
:

li ariij

O-yi, n.

giddiness

oyi r)kpa

mi

loh,

/ am

dying

iwa, the

of vertigo.
0-yi-b6, 0-i-b6, n. a white 7nan. a honey-bee, honey : oy'iri O-yirj, n.
oyiq alugbe, bees in a hive.
n.
"n.

world

day of being, the creation, beginning of odi6 isi, a notable day, an epoch.
a place of settlement, lodging-place
to set
:

the

5-dzo,
\gax),

n.

so

. . .

wild honey ;

li

6dzo,

or place. (Gen.

1, 17.)

9-dz9-dz9,
:

n.

every day, daily.


n.

O-yo,

a small owl.

9-dz6-dz9-dz6,
a hand-saw
li

many

days, old times.

O-yQr),

pregnancy ;

oyuij, to

ceive, to be 2)regnant.

noon. con- g-dig-'k.a.-rii), n. one hundred o-fa, num.


b-fL, n.

and

twenty.

an arrow, a
pawn.

pledge,

a paion

the stale of

o.
O, ])ron.

being in

6-fe
thou.
lie,

an exclamation of
the street.

those

who carry a

corpse

through
it.

6, pron.
5, adv.

she,

9-f, n.
b-fe, n.

gratuity, gratis.
the

not.
shall, will.
;

dawn, a gentle

breeze.

, aux. part,

O-fe-re, w.
:

the being nearly, the being almost.

O-ba,

n.

a king
n.

father, sire

Oba Ogo, Ood.

9-fii), n.

a pit to catch a thief or beast,


a squabble, palaver.

pit-fall.

O-ba-kar),

a father's kinsjKople.

o-f5, n.

OFO
6-fo, n.
O-for), n.

65
O-ke,
the
n.

OLO
a sack. a proper name of a man.
the squirrel.
:

mourning for
the neck.

the dead.

P'-ke-re, n.

O-ga,

n.
;

who
oga
n.

is exalted,

a hero

Oga Ogo,
:

Most O-ke-re,
O-ko,
71.

n.

High
O-gar),

orisa, the

chameleon.

a husband a hoe;

oko

ij^awo, a bridegroom.
:

a thorn, a cocFs spur

jo

ogai),

to

put 0-k6,
rup.

n.

the shoulder-blade

oko

asa,

stir-

forth spurs.
O-gfir), n.

an instant
the large
n.

the hilloclc
;

of the white ant. 6-ko,

n.
:

a
.

canoe,
ti

boat,

ship,

trough, shuttle

5-gai), n.

wild hoar
:

a^vain boaster.

s]war

nwofl ba

oko

loh, they

went by ship.

o-gar)-dzo,
darkness.

midnight

ogaqdzo medze, great o'-ko-kai),

the direct line ;


to.

the direction totvards

or oiyposite

0-gar)-rar), n.
g-ghSi, n.

a straight course.

O-ko-kai), num.
o'-kori-ri, n.

one by one, each one.


n.

a garden, a fence. n. equality, a balance, an equal. 5-gba, a hand-bell. O-gbarj-gar), n. O-gbe,


n.

o-ko-la-ya, 6-ko-lo-bi-ri,
a maii.

a married man.

wound : nw9i)

0-k6-se, H. one roho refuses to do a thing. de ino, they O-kpa, n. a staff, a pole : okpa ikpo, a travellinggba, ogbe
staff:

were cut

to the heart,

vexed ; ogbe in6, internal he-

morrhage.

O-kpa-gui),
n.

n.

an

ensign,

a banner.

O-gbe-le
gbdro,

(ile),

dry land

dry-land mouth, a riddle, meaning a gun.

ara ogbel|, iku abenu 0-kpai-mb6 (okpe ainb6) n. the pine-apple. death with a wide o-kpa-ko, n. a pole to push a canoe. thunder,
:

d-gbo-do, no !

n.

dare, defiance, challenge

0-kpS.-la-ba, n.
interj.

bottle,

vial.

O-kpa-lai,

n.

squabble,

dispute.

O-kpe,
;

n. n.

the oil-palm.

O-gbor), n. a precipice, a depth, a deep ditch extreme end ; bristles of a turkey-cock.


p-gb6r), n.

the

O-kpS,

thanks
n.
n.

da 9kp, ^e okpB,

to

thank.

o-kpe-le,
e,

wisdom, cunning

fi

9gboi) ^e

he O-kpe-re,

a messenger of Ifa. a canoe, a boat. a frog.


n.

did

it

wisely.
thirty.

0-kp6,

n.

abundance, a multitude, much.


n.

0-gb6r), num.
6-gbor),
n.

o-kpo-16,
o-kpor),
n. n.

gauze.
wisely.
subtlety, dis-

o-kp6-lo-kpo,

abundance.

o-gb6r)-gbor), adv.
honest dealing.

a boiol.
n.

o-gb6r)-ko-gbor) (ogboq ki ogboi)),


5'-ge-de,
n.

o-kpo-'wom,
6-kur), n.
O-la, n.
5-lfi, n. 9-IS., n.

an innumerable swarm.
;

an

insect (Tiilus)

a stupid person.

the banana.
the cassava.

to-morrow.
honor, authority, majesty.
wealth, safety.

0-ge-g6,

n.
n.

O-gerd,
O-ge-yi,
n.

which
cold

is gentle, soft.

n.

club, o-go, o'-go-do, n. a clay-2nt, a pit.

gloomy weather. a rod ; a package

0-19.-dza, n.
(of salt).

a peace-maker.

o-la-ra, n.
9-le, n.

an envious person.

laziness, one

who

is lazy.

o-go-dzo, num.
o-go-fa, num.
o-go-rir),

one hundred and sixty. one hundred


eighty.

and

twenty.

num.

a foetus, embryo. a kind of cake. O-le-le, n. a mill-stone. 0-I9, n.


O-lh, n.

o-go-rui), num.

one hundred.
sixty.

9-lo-dz3., n.

an

executioner.

o-go-ta, num.
O-har), adv.
.

9-lo-gar)-rar), n.
9-lo-gb3., n.

a kind of cricket.

yes.

a gardener.
n.

O-he,

a stupid person.
tJiat

g-lo-ghdt),
:

a wise person.
to,

5-h.ur), n.
there,

place, the place beyond

li

61iuij,

yonder.

which has, or pertains 9-15-kar), olokai} niirao, one ivith a holy heart.
n.

a heart

0-k&,

n.

Guinea corn,

the large red millet (sorghum)

9-l9-k9,
9-16-k9,

71.

any kind of corn.


d-ka,
n.

71.

a spearma7i. a master or owner of a ship.


n.

name of a
re.

disease

oka

ikfi,

the death

9-19-kpa, 9-lo-kpa-ga,
policeman.
O-19-la,
71.

staff-bearer,

bailiff,

struggle.

0'-ka-ndz<l-a,
9-kai), num.
coincide.

avarice, a miser.

an ho7iorable or

official

person.

one, the

same

ie okai),

to

agree,

e-ko (omu), 71. a maiden nearly grown. 9-19-na (9na), n. a mechanic.


9-19-inti

6-kar), n.

the heart, reins. (Vs. IC, V.)


eleven.

O-kaiJ-lfi, nu}n.

9-16-na (5na), n. the otvner or overseer of a road. a giver. 9-19-re, n.

OLO
O-16-ro, n.

66
5-rir), .

OTO
diarrhoea:
biiij

a rich man, an eloquent man.


li

edie, dysentery ; Sriq^se

O-lo-rur) (6

oruij), n.

God, a
'

name never

ap-

e, Jie is

sick of diarrhoea.

or plied to tlie inferior gods, O-lo-sa, n. a licensed roller,


O-lo-tai), n.

orisa.'
e.

O-ro, n.

euphorbia.

i.

a land privateer.

6-r6,

n.

a kind of rope.
equivocation., deceit.

a distant a
relel,

relative.

0-r6, n.
O-Td, n.

O-lo-te, n.
O-lo-ti, n.

a seditious man. a

loealth ;

O-lo-to, n.
zen.

a Irewer, a liquor-dealer. a rich or distinguished person


a
child, servant, offspring ;
;

5-r9, n.
;

a word,

clay; a ghost, a fairy. conversation : oro ikoko, a dark


;

citi-

saying (Ps. 49, 4)


o-r9r), n.
the neck.

or9

idiiijle,

a mystery.

O-mo,
ces ;

a kernel:

qmo

9-rur), n.

a bow,

the sky, heaven, the invisible world,

agbo, a lale

omo

alade, children of a king, prin;

hades
o-rtlr),

orui) akpadi, hell ;

oke

orui), heaven.

omo

ale,

a lastard

omo

eliiq,

a follower, a

num.

one hundred.

disciple ;

soldier ;

omo 9do, a lody-scrvayit ; omo ogui), a 9-rur)-la, n. dried okra. omo kewu, a scholar, school-child ; om9 O-sa, n. name of the lake at Lagos. odzu, pupil of the eye ; omo ok1i, an orphan ; omo O-Sfi, . flight, retreat : sk osk, to flee from. own, a smithes hammer ; om9 odo, a pestle ; omo 5-sa, n. a space of time : 6sa agogo kag, the
4ika,

space

a keg. 6-ni5-bi-ri (6biri), n.

of an hour.

girl,

daughter.

9-S&, n.
9-Sfi.r),

robbery.

O-mo-d&r),

n.

a young woman. a
child.

n.

daytime.

o-mo-dd,

n. n. n. n.

q-ShX), n.

an

esculent fruit,

o-mo-dir),

the little finger, little toe.

9-sar)-gar)-gai), n.
0-sai)-har), n.

midday.

o-mo-dd,

a rivulet.
tender leaves of a tree.
n.

the straightforward direction,

O-mo-dur),

0-sar)-hir), n.
O-se, n.

the

god of medicine.

o-mo-ko-ko,
O-mo-le (ilo), O-mo-lo-dzu

a potter.
n.

the sabbath,

0-in6-kor)-ri (okoqri),
n.
(li),

a loy, a son.

o-se-ge, n.

a holy-day. very wide cloth.


osprey.

the house-lizard.
n.
n.

9 -sir),

n.

an

a grand-child.

5-sir), n.

domestic animals, cattle.

another person, another. 0-s6, n. much talk, exaggeration, complaining. a brother or sister by the 6-SUl), n. a common pot-herb. n. o-mo-no-ya (in6 iya), same mother. a bow-string, a cord : oikxi enia, a long o-h&X), n.

o-m9-ni-ke-dzi,

O-mo-rl
o-in6-se
0-xa.o-ti,

(ori),

n.

lid, as

of a pot.

(ese), n.
n.

toe.

lean person. soap o-se, n.

drunkard,

tippler;

kind

of O-si-gi,
o-sii), n.
n.

n.

ant.

; a kind of crane. grains of maize boiled. one who makes a mistake.

O-mu,
fat
9-na,

m.

the female breast,

udder ; breast milk ; a 9-S9,

decoration,

show

b-sg, n. an iron digger ; mechanic's work, carving, decoration. a rat-trap ; a hard kind of wood. 0-S0r)-S0r), n. a road, a channel ; a president of any de- 0-s6-ro, n. drippings of rain from the eaves of the . 5-na, partment of government : as, 5na Iwefa, the chief of house, a cascade : osor9 adire, a young chicken ;
stick to divide the woof.
n.

ie li 959, to adorn. thorns in a pitfal.

the
cil

Eunuchs

5na

Isokuij, the chief of the

Coun-

of Twenty-two. O-ni, n. a crocodile.

enu 9^pr9, eaves of a house. 9-ta, n. an enemy, adversary: 9ta


foe.

6kai),

o deadly

0-n9,

n.

apprehension, fear of results.


fat, fatness: ora egur)gufl,

o-r&, w.

marrow.

a bullet, shot, 9-ta, n, adv. all right, very well. 9-tfi.r),


9-ta-o-l9-dza,
n.

0-X&, n.
5-rar), n.
to

a purchase, a jmrchaser. a matter, a cause, an affair


a friend. a switch, a small whip. a gift, present, offering
n.
:

an

executioner.

fi

5rai) loh,

O-te, n.

enmity, rebellion.

appeal.

o-te-se, n.
9-tI, n.
g-\,g, n.

a private informer.
:

O-re, n.
0-r, n.

ale, beer, spirituous liquoi:

difference, separateness
;

enia 4

ma ya

It

qiq^

5-re, n.

5re anu, charity,

men

are different

ya

si

9t9, separate or withdraw

alms.

from.
a small cowry-bag made of grass.
9-t9'-k9-lu, M.
O-tor), n.
n.
salt.

O-re-ke-se,
o-re-re,

6-re-re, w.
O-ril),

convulsions.
eighty.

nvm.

9-t6r), n. as to rank.

the whole population. holy water in the idol houses, &c. the right hand side or direction ; second,

OTO
0-tor)-lS., n.

67
ra-na
ra-nti
of rar),
to
v.

REL
(ina), v.
to

the

day

after to-morrow.

ivarm or dry at the


to
to

fire.

0-to-t9,

11.

the whole, totality. the foot-stalk of a ^vine-palm leaf.


n.

ra-ndztl a
shower

(ni odzii), v.

look sternly or fiercely.

9-'wS,
rain.

n.

(ni cti), v.

remember.
sew
: ;

O-Ava-ra,

which

is

scattered,

to twist, to spin, to ;

to
rai)

send

to

help ;

grow slowly
;

to

endure

ikpo, to speak

o-'wa-ri-rl, n.
n.

a trembling.

ironically
us.
V.

raq loh,

to

appoint

rai) ni si

wa, send

a company invited to do a piece of work, to b-Ave, an accomplice, abetting : 6 die ole li 6we, he aided xhX),
the thief.

to

to shine,

communicate, as fire or infectious disease, burn ; to cut, wound.


(li),

-we-re, n.
o-"w-re,
n.

the small intestines.

rar) rar) rai)

le-ti

v.

to

remind.
to dazzle. to help.
to-

a kind of perch.

lo-dzu
19--WO
lu,
V.

(li), v. (li),

O-'WO,

n. n.
ina,

a broom.
the

v.

0-'w6,

hand

a flock, caravan, assortment


tB, to

rag
rar)

to

sew small pieces of cloth


to to

owo

fame ; owo
n.

attain

to.

gether.
. . .

h-'vro, n.

honor, respect.

ni-rai), v.

remind.

0-"WO-d6-'W9,
0-"W9-le,
n.

hand

time (for

hand, tradition. doing a thing), opportunity,


to

rar)

ni-se,
v.

v.

send on business.

rar)-se,

to to
v.

9-W9r),
O-'VJ'qx),

n. n.

retaliation, recompense.

raij-so,

V.

send a messenger. sew cloth.


spin cotton.
all.

a black snake, said

to eject

venomous rarj-Avu,

to

spittle.

ra-ra, adv.
scarcity, dearness, as to price
;

at

0-'w6r), n.
person.
(i-'wgi), n.

a wicked ra-rfi, adv.


ra-re,
v.

loudly.
to linger in sickness.

a pillar, a column.
hire,

rau-rau, adv.
re,
V.

entirely.
off,

O-ya,

n. M. n.
M.

wages.
(tlie

to

shed

to

moult.
off,

O-ya,
o-ya,

the

Niger

wife of Sai)g6).

r, rS,

v.
V.

to
to

spring or go

a creature
the

O-ye,

a hedge-liog. harmattan-wind.
like

go

to be

good

adv.

as a trap.
ivclL

re-l)i (ebi), v.

to journey, travel.

0-y9-im-si,

n.

the elders of

Oyo.

re-de-re-de, adv. foolishly. re-dl (idi), v. to wag the tail.


re-fir) (ru
re-fir), v.
ofiij

or

efii)),

v.

to

break a law.

to

R
ra,
V.

re-ke, adv.

smoke, as a chimney. in a high degree.


v.

ih
to

..

k9-dza,
;

to perish, dissipate ; to to

ache slightly.

surpass
to
tie

adv.
to be

to cross over, to

pass beyond,
:

to

much, surpassingly

re

mi kodia,

xSl, v.
rfl, V.

rub upon

to

crawl, to struggle.

buy ;

together, to

lay one thing on another, to lath a house ; to rot, to moulder ;


to

r6-k<l,

pass by me. (Mat. 26, 42.) to kill, as a trap. v.


v.

to

re-ra,

proud.

soar around, to hover near, as a hawk.


ra-lji-tfi., n.

re-re, adv.
rS-re, n.
well.
to pity.

a piece of scarlet
>.

cloth.

far, at a great distance. adv. in a goodly goodness ;

manner,

ra-di,

v.

to

recompense, retaliate.
to be peevish, sp>lenetic ; to hover, as to

ra-d9

(edo),
v.

re-ri,

v.

to be

past harvest time, entirely gathered.


out of sight, gone.
; to

ra-d9-b6,

a hen

to shelter.

re-ni,

v. V.

to be entirely
to expect,

ra-dzo

re-ti, go a journey, travel. a child bom after the re, V. r2.-gar)-bl (ro agar) bi), n. mother has been long barren. r, V.
(re), v.

hope

pick the

ear.

to dye, to soak. to cut, shear, to

skim milk ;

to stick

or adhere,

r8.-hur) (ohui)),
be perplexed.

v.
v.

to

murmur, grumble.
:

to be friendly ;

to suit, agree.

ra-hur)-ra-hur),

perplexity

so rahuqrahui), to

xh,

ra-ko, ra-ko-ro,

v,

to craiol, creep, as

an

insect.

to be weary, heavy of heart, humbled ; to V. comfort or quiet ; to shed leaves, fade, withe?; to be red ; to increase or multiply. his, her, its,
v.

ra

ku-na,
(ile), v.

v.

to

crumble.

rh, pron.

thy

him,

thee.

ra-le
ra-le

to lath. to be evening.

re
adv.

dze,
v.

to cheat. to set

(al5), v.

re-ge
loudly,

(re), v.

a snare.

ram-ram, ra-mu-ra-mu,

harshly r6-kp5,

to agree, accord.
v.

(crying or roaring, as a lion).

re-le, for ra-le,

to lath.

REL
re re
...

68
; to

RU
. . .

16
:

(ile),

v.

to

abase
.
.

relS, to he
v.

bend down, decline humble.


cut doicn,
:

humble, ro

lo-dzu,
(&na),

V.

to be

or seem difficult.
to

r6-na
;

v.

to

open a road,

spy

to

meet by

mo-lS,

to

mow.
to

appointment.

re-re, adv.

closely

Ic

rere,

pursue
smile.

rere

ro-n6

(ino), v.

to meditate, to be
v.

solemn.

odzu, an eye-servant.
re-rir), v.
to

laugh
v.

reriij wesi, to

re-roi)

(iroij),

to shear, to
. . .

trim the hair.

ro-n6-kpi--wa.-da, ro-re, n. a pustule, a pimple. ro-ro, adv. with a fine red color.
r6-ro,
n.
V.

to repent.

xe

... si-lS.
(oyiij),

See re
v.

16.

a door -mat of twigs.


to be austere,

re-yir) ri, adv.


ri, v.

to take

honey from the

hive.

ro-ro,
TO,
V.

harsh.
to

heretofore.
to be, to

to slacken, to

wither ;

scrape together, to col-

have

to see, to seem, to

find

to be

lect into

a mass.

defiled.
ri, v.

r6,

to sink, to

drown,
;

to hide, to

plant a

tree

or a

turn from a course or position, to yield or give place, to bend or break at the edge ; to gush
V.

to

post in the ground


sley.

to piass

threads through the

out, to rush, to sprain ;

to explain, to translate.
;

r5,
to

V.

to cool, ease,
to

mitigate

to be soft ;

to

rain

ri-di

(idi), v.

understand or ascertain the nature

to

swing,

of a matter.
ri
. . .

press, insist
to receive.

suspend on a thing, to lean ; to urge, on ; to fabricate from any raw mateor ivory.
to

gbk,
V.

V.

rl-ki-sl,

ri-nd9,
rir), V.

v.

plot against, to conspire ; to be nauseated.


n.

to

rial, as iron, leather,

n.

a plot. r6-be-re,

v.

explain at length, by relating the

facts of the case.

ri-ndo-ri-nd9,
a weight.
rll), V. ril), V.

strength .of stomach.


to

to water, to be ivet ;

press

to the earth, as

rb-M, V. to travail. r6-dzo (odzo), v. to rain


water on.

rodio

si,

to

sprinkle

to
to

laugh.
walk, wander, sail ;
to tickle
:

riq, that ship sails well or rapidly.

ro-dzo, V. to loither. 6ko na m^ r6-dzu (odzu), v. to persevere, to bear patiently, to try. r5-dzu, v. to be tame, gentle, as an animal.

rir)

Ie-d9

(li),

v.

to

make

sick at the stomach,

ro

gba-kfi., V.
V.

to

to nauseate.

ro-gbo-kH,
;

to lean

surround, beset. on the elbow, recline.

ri-rar), n.

'a sending
re.

brightness.

See

rai).

ro-gui),

V.

to lie in wait, to set

a watch for

to

pro-

ri-rar), f .

to see, to see

a vision or wonder.

duce, as yams.

ri-re.
ri-ri, n.
sight.

See

ro-ke-ke,
which
is seen or to be seen,

v.

to

make
;

seeing, sight ;

public enterprise
ro-kir),
v.

to

active preparations for some make an uproar or tumult.

See

ri.

to relate traditions. to rebel.

rl-rl, adv.

slightly (trembling).

ro-koi),

V.

rt-ri, adv.
rl-ri, n.

greatly (trembling).

ro-kpo
ro-kp5,
ro-le,
V.

(ikpo), V.
V.

to take the

place of another.

a sinking.

See

ri.

to

mix, mingle.

rir)-ril3, adv.

ri-ro, n.

(weighing) heavily. See the root^ ' re'


riru onii, waves.

to cease, to be tranquil.
V.

ro-in6,

to
v.

hang or lean upon.


to be pale.

ri-ru, n.

a swelling, a sprout of a vegetable, an ro-ndor),


:

issuing forth

ro-no,
r9r), V.
V.

V.

to fast, to be to to

solemn.

ri

sfi.,

V.

to flee from, to to relate;

shun.

ro,

V.

to
;

tell,

to

sound, to strike, as a r6r),


the

dip chew,

into, to sop.

clock

to

cut weeds

from

ground,

to

till ;

to

r5r), V.

to be sick :

6
n.

rbx)

^gba, he

is sick

of palsy.

drip or drop, as water ; to pain, to throb ; to stand erect ; to excite : ro kal, to publish abroad.
id,
V.

r9-nd9i)-r9-nd9r),
r5r)-gfl.r), v. to be

jyaleness.

barren from disease.

to stir, to think, meditate,

intend ;
of, to

to trouble.

rox)-gbgi), n.
Tgi)-Tgx),
V.

the beard.
to be easy.

ro-dzo ro-dzu
rd-dzu,
TO-guV),

(edzo),
(odiu),
V.

v. V.

to give

account

ansxoerfor^

to delay.

r5-ra

(ara),

v.

to be gentle,

go softly

ma

rora, be

to
to

look sad, to be perplexed.

V.

drain

off, distil.

careful ! a road.

common

salutation

on meeting

in the

ro-hii) (ihiq), v. ro-ki-ro-ki, adv.

to tell news, to relate.

r6-r9, m.

the bearded sheep.

brightly (red).
to till, to farm.

ru,

V.

to rise, swell, to

spring up, as a fountain angry,


to

to

ro-ko
ro-le

(oko),
(lie), V.

V.

smoke,

to be elevated, to be

be agitated, to

to

succeed by inheritance to the head-

boil over, to stir up, to sprout, to flourish, to

break

ship of a family, to inherit property.

out, to be exposed ;

to

mingle.

RU
rtl, V.
to bear,
;

69
lean
:

SI
V.

carry

to be

rCl

16h, to

remove sai),

to be in

health
;

to

a thing

ril

eb9, to offer a sacrifice.


to sacrifice.

sai) tele, to

prepay

sarj

esai), to

pay, recompense, beneflt : retaliate ; 6 sai)


sar)

ril-bo (ebo),

v.

die, he is

Utile better ;

aiya

woij, they prosper

ru-bu-tu, M. a writing, a manuscript. ru-di (idl), V. to bud.

in the world.
sar), adv.
Sfi-I), v.

loudly, vividly, straight forward.


to gird, to tie

ru-du-ru-du,
ru-fir)
(ofii)),

n.
V.

confusion.
to

around

to crack, to split ;

to

break the law, transgress.

thunder.

a cloud. sar) -ma, n. rd-gu-du, V. to be thick and short. ru-ke-ru-d6 (6ke odo), v. to make a tumult. sar)-ra (ar4), v. to be healthy, to be fat. ru in strips or sVqys. v. to make one vomit. sar)-sar), adv. lai-ya (li), ru-lu (ilu), V. to stir up the town, to cause sedition. sar)-yai3, n. silk. sa-ra (si), prepi. on, in (after a verb of motion). ru-lu-ru-lu, a-ru-lu, n. a seditious person. ru-n6 (iiio), v. to be vexed, indignant. sa-ra, sa-ra-hfi, n. alms (Mohammedan),
. . .

rtir), V.

to

consume, destroy
to

to

break

to pieces, to

sa-re

(ire),

v.

to

run.

perish.
rClr), V.

Sfi-re, n.
to stink ;

the square of a house.


n.

chew a

stick, to

rub

the teeth

sa-re-kpe-gbe,
calls

the messenger

of a

society,

who

with a

stick.
to

the

members
the

together.
before

i\ii)-lh (ile), V.

dig into a house, as thieves.

sa-ri, n.
the fast.

Mohammedan meal
in the midst,

day during
verb

ru-ru, adv.

confusedly.
v.

ru-'we

(ivve),

to put forth leaves, flourish.

Sfi-rir) (si),

prep, of motion).

among

(after a

sa-r6-ta, .

cigar.
to

sa-ru-ba,
s.
Sfi.-se, V.

n.
to

a border sewed

a blanket or sheet.

make a feast.

sa ?

adv.

where

sa-ta, n. a household, a group of buildings under one head man.


to

sfi, V.

to run, to flee, to fear ;

dry in

the

sun

sa

S&-"w6
s6,
V.

interj.

behold ! look !
to close

kuro nin6 or lod9,


8&,conj.

now, only : s4gb6! hear now! miss, in shooting. S^ V. to aim or point at, as with a gun to attempt, s6, V. to cook, to dye cloth or leather. to make : st\ se-bo (ihq, feeding), v. to grow fat, to be gross. akpere, to make a model or pattern. a lohile, for a time. adv. se-d6 (odo), v. to dam. sfi,

for;

adv.

to flee from.

to

shut a door,

up

to be

barren, to

sfi-ba

(sill)), V.

to sit, as to take

a hen, to incubate.

se-gi-ri

(sa), v.
v.
V.

to be chilly.

sa-di

(idi), v.

refuge under a persorCs pro- se-kpor),

to be to
V.

barren or unfruitful.

tection.

se
v. v.

m6,
n.
(so),

sa-ga-da-ga,
sfi.-ga-ti

to

become a close conflict or


to

battle.

se

mo-16,
V.

shut up, imprison. to shut in.

(aga),

encamp
to besiege.

against, to cast

up se-se,
se-SO

the stinging bean.


to

works before a town,

bear fruit.
5, 39.)

sa-gba-ra-ka
cially

(so

agbara ka),
to

v.

to fortify,

espe-

se-si, adv.
se, adv.

perhaps, haply. (Acts

with stockades.
(ogui)), v.
n.

sa-gur)

make a charm.
dried provender.

dide
he
s6,
V.

se,

emphatic and nearly expletive: as, i) 6 / will arise (Luke 15, 18) ; 6 mb6 se o,
('

sa-ka-ni,

the

surrounding neighborhood.
liay, to

is

really coming
to strain, as

'

pleonastic).
;

sfi.-ka-sfi.-ka, n.

milk

to

deny

6 s6 Oluvta

r6,

sa-kpa-mo,
sa-kpa-ra,
sa-kpe-re,
v.

v.

abscond, hide.

he denied his Lord.


s6,
V.

n.

barren land.
to

to distil, as

dew, or water from the ground


;

make a

pattern, sign, or token.


its

to

quake, as the earth

to interrogate, inquire.

sa-ku-sa,
sfi.

n.

a bird noted for


v.

song.

se-gi, n.

sa-la-hfi, sfi-la-lfi, n.
. . .

a kind of apron.
to set

a kind of bead, ancient Egyptian beads from the earth at If and other places. dug
behind, outside ; prep, backward (after a verb of motion).
(si),

la-mi

(li),

mark

or seal on.

se-hir)

adv.

back,

sa-lar)-ga, n.

a privy.
V.

sa

19-dza,
V.

to slip from the

memory.

se-m.i (omi),

v. v.

to to

drip, to filter.

run away, desert. sa-16h, a sandal. n. sa-ltl-bfi-ta,


to

sS-mi
riors).

(sir)),

Obrui) semi
sign on.
sl, V.
to be.

rg,

God

preserve one's life or breath : preserve thee! (said to supe-

sa-ma, n. See sa-mi (ami), v.

sarjma.
to

mark,

to

make a

SI
si,

70
F

SON
.

prep,
to the

to,

; mo y6 si i, / SO-ri (si), jJrep. on, upon, on the top of. wa, they are far from SO-r6, V. to hang up so as to swing, to suspend. to marry persons, unite in marriage. us ; bo si yara, go into the room. SO-yi-gi, V. to throw, to leap ; to move a V. and. SO, Sl, conj. thing ; to sew where ? a, wound or broken calabash, to mend ? sa ? adv. si-a up ; to cause
si ikii, %oe

go k ye

house

against, of, at, from, in, into : 16h si il6, ; 6 dide si mi, he arose against me ;

SO

lo-ror)
V.

(li),

v.

to

hang a person.

so-m6,

to tie to.

are ivorthy of death


si

rejoice at it ;

nwor) diina

si-ai), SU-ar), v. impers.

it is

good,

it is well.

or make, (see so
stem, as leaves.

di)

to

shoot forth

from
or
;

the

si-b6
si-bi

(si),

adv.

there, yet, still,

more: 6 wa

sib|, he

is yet alive.
(si),

s5,
here, after a

V.

to speak,
6, 1

talk,

pronounce,

to call

name
come

adv.

verb of motion.

(Luke

3)

to

quarrel, scold, complain

to

si-ha

(si),

prep,

by,

towards, dx., after a verb of

down, descend,
shoulders
:

to let

ox put

down from
to

the

head or

motion.
si-hir), si-hir)-yi, adv.
here.

s6 asodSi), to exaggerate ; s5 itunift, to


;

expound, explain
gainsay.
to,

s8 odi

si,

speak against,

to

sik-sik,

sl-ki-sl-ki, n.

si-kpa
si-1^ Sl

(si),

prep,

hiccup. towards, unto, in regard

con-

cerning.
(si),

SO SO
so

. .

dfi-ho-ro

(di),

v.

to desolate.

dai-in6,
(idi), V.

v.

to pollute.

adv.

to the

ground, down.
;

si-mi,
. . .

V.

to rest, to
v.

pause

so-dl
!

to explain,
to

prove.

interj. simi

Jmsh /

di, V.
to

cause

to

be or to

do
;

so so
.

dl ^saij,

ndze,

to imitate,

mock.

to

bring

naught,
so
. .
.

to

annihilate

di nl4, to
. . .

sl-ni-kfi, n.

pewter.

make great ;
kpikpS,

di

mimo,

to

sanctify ; so

di

si-ni-si-ni, n.

a tyrant.
into,

to increase.

si-n6, prep,
sir), adv.

among.
tete, first or early:

SO-do
SO-fa

(si),

prep,
to

to,

unto a person.
to

6 tete do
Sli), V. sir), V. to to

before; preceded hj siq mi, he came before me.

(9fa), v,
(si),

pmt in pawn,

pledge.

SO-hur)
to sneeze. to to

adv.

yonder, used after a verb of mocome, put, or bring down.


lay a foundation, to

to string, as

beads

to ;

bury

tion to.

to serve, to

worship
to

to

accompany,
;

lead ;

so

. .

ka-lS,

V.

to

tame or pet,

to raise cattle, <fcc.

to cease ;

domineer over,
;.

silj-gbfi,
to

to piut in pawn ;

prevent from doing. to transmit from town

dun ; so-kur) (ekuij), v. to weep. to dash down, so IS, v.


. .

to

pound.
SO-16-dze,
n.

town.

a child's play, a sort of dancing


V.

siri-hui).

See

siqwiij.

'doll.

sir)-ka-fa, n.

pewter.
v.

sir)-ku (oku),
sii)-sir), adv.

to

bury.

closely.

SO SO SO

lo-fir)

(li),

to pirohibit,

forbid a thing.

lo-ku-ta

v. (li), v.

to stone. to locate

lo-dzo

(li),

in a place, to assign

Slr)-slp, n.
sir)-sir), n.

burial.
service, religion.
I',

to lodgings.

so-lii, V.

to pelt.

sirj-'wii),

to be silly, crazy.
is

SO-ini-do-19-to,

n.
si),

a solitary yellow monkey.


n.

si-SO, n.

a speaking, which

spoken

eni 6ro siso,

SO-na-sI

(soi)

ina

irritation, excitement : ie

who speaks fluently. si-Tva, adv. forward : siwa backwards, to and fro.
one

sonasi, to excite against.


sebiij,

forwards and SO-ni-di


before, mor,

(so eni di), v.

to

make, appoint, or conto

si-"wa-dzu
for a
so,
V.
v.
little

(si),

prep,

before ;

adv.

stitute one, as to a purpose.

SO

n5,
off.

V.

to

throw away,

lose

kc S9n5,

to

space.

cut
;

to tie, to to

hang

to

bear fruit.
to

SOr), sur), v.

to broil, to

burn. (Mat. 3, 12.)


to plough;

b6,

break out aloud,


the

break wind.

s6r). Stir), V.
to

to

move,

to shove, to filter ;

s6-bi-a, n.

Guinea worm,

sd-de (si), adv. out of doors, out. SO-dzi (si), adv. near, into the shadow or presence Sor)-ki,
of:

send forth water, as a fountain. to accuse, to sue ; to point or aim s5r), siir), v.
V.

at.

to shrivel,

contract y

to

shrink from,

mu

sodzi, to receive into favor. (Ps. 85, 6.)


to enact, to

shun.
sor)-k6r),
f.

s6-fir) (s6),

V.

prohibit.

to v.

drip full of water.


to filter, drip.

Sd-ke

(si),

SO-kpa, SO-kpai)-kpa,
appraise.

V.

prep, and adv. above, up. to tie into a hard knot.


v.

sorj-mi (omi),
SOr|-ni6,
v.

to ajyproach. to

to

value goods for the market, to

s6r)-m6

(im6), v.

snuff the nose, as one with a

cold, to sniff.

SOE
s5-ro
soro
(&ro), V.
to

11
:

AN
(se), v.

talk, converse
;

ba
to

s5ro, to speak
;

sa-fe-ri

to seek.

or comnizme with
iii

soro odi
of.

si,

speak against
to

sa-fir), sa-la, n.

an iron chain or ring worn on


v. v.

the

rere, to

sjKak well

arm.
to

so-ro-dze-dze or ke-le,
privately.

v.

whisper,

talk

sa-fo-dztl-di

(se), (so),

to be

saucy, insolent,

sa-fo--w6-ra
v.

to pilfer. to

so-ro-le-hir),

to backbite.

sa-gfi.-la-in&-s9. (so), v.

play

tricks, to be

guilty

so-te-le,

V.

to predict, to to

prophesy.

of double dealing.

so

ti, V.
V.

miss, in throwing at.

sa-gbe
on.
;

(so), v.
V.

to beg, to

borrow.

SO-y e,
StL, V.

explain, to value, set

a price

sa-gb6,
to re-

to be old.
V.

to

SOW, to retail
the socket

any

liquid, as beer

sa-h6
sai
!

(sc),

to despise, to ridicule.

move from
to

or handle ;

to perplex, to
;
:

interj.

of contempt or defiance.
to be sick.

break out, as measles ; to be weary puzzle ; fall lame, to coat with metal, as in gilding diade, to bring forth herbs, as the earth.
sil, V.

to

sai-sar)

(se), v.

sd sa-ka, adv.
sa-ka-tfi, n.

entirely, wholly.

a morass, a bog.
to

to fail in cutting
is dull.
v.

or wounding because the


well

sa-ki, m.
sSi-ln, V.

instrument sH-a, su-ai),


it is

paunch, tripe. to miss fire or snap, as a gun

fail in

impers.

is

good,

nice,

siiar),

cutting, to be naught.

well ; very well, all right.


universally.
to coat
v. ife),

Sti-a, adv.

sa-ki-sa-ki, adv. unevenly, raggedly, badly a logbe saki^aki, he was badly wounded.
sfi.-ko-k6 (se),
tune.
v.

k di

su-bo, V. su-fe (so


su-ni6.
sur), adv.

with metal.
to whistle.

to

occur seasonably, to be oppor-

See

soijino.

sa-ko-SO

(so), V.

to control, govern,

have dominion

enu

sui),

li over. (looking) with surprise : aditi wo rii the deaf look with surprise on people's sa-kpa-nfi,

n.

mouths (when speaking).


Stir).
siHr), V.

S&-kpa-sfi.-kpa, adv.
thick on cooling, to coato

small-pox. in a disorderly manner.

See

soi).

sa-kpe-dzu-re, sa-kpe-re.
to

See sakpere.

to sleep ;

grow

sa-kpe,
s3.
.
. .

V.

clap the hands.


v.
v.

gulate, as oil; to freeze.


siir).

sa-la-bS.-kpa-de,

to chance, to to

happen.

See

soi].
v.

15-gbe

(li),

wound, by striking with a

Sur)-ko-nu,
sur)-ye,
v.

to cease.

weapon.
a short nap.
a blessing upon.
to be

to doze, to take

sfi.-lu-ga, n.

who

elevates; fortune;

title

o/Adie,

su-re
Su-ru,

(so

ire), v.
ire), v.

to bless or call
to
:

god of money.
sS.-na
(ina), v.
(^e),
to strike fire.
v.

sfl-re {sk
n.

run.
se suru,

patience

mu siiru,

patient ;

sa-ni-a-ni

to be

doubtful, uncertain.
;

suru imu, taking patience, or being patient. (Jas.


5, 10.)

sa-nu
mi,

(^e) V.

I am
V.
;

pity : mo ^anu wojg sorry for them.


to

anu woi) ie

sil-ti, n.

a contemptuous pouting of
See

the lips ; con-

sar), adv.
SfiJ),

tempt.

to

twinklingly, as stars ; uprightly, erectly. strike against something hard ; to cut

su--wa, su--wor).

suai).

bushes
s4r),
to
is
V.

to

daub

to eat

dry bread or yain.


a stream
;

to be loose ;

to flow, as
:

to

burst,

burst forth, as thunder

aso ijsaq

1|,

the cloth

dragging on the ground.


(so),
v.

s.

sa-r)fa-nl

to be profitable,

advantageout.
land.

Sa-r)g6,
sa,
V.

n.

the

god of thunder.
v. V. to

to fade.

sS.r)-gbe (igbe),

cut bushes, cut

to clear

sa, adv. S&,


Sfi.,

awhile.
to smite, hack,

sfir)-gb6 (igbo),

to

down a forest.

V.

loound

to

snap a gun.
select.

sar)-ktl, V.

to die in the
v.

adv.
V.

only
to

by all means.
;

sar)-ku-ta,
saij-lfe, V.

ah,

sa-ba.

pick up, collect See ^afiij.


to

to

pick out,

to

prime of life. dash against a stone. dash down.


to to strike the feet

sar)-se (ese),
ing.

v.

together in walk-

sa-d6

(so), V.
(se),
V.

commit lewdness.
anxious, apprehensive.
to

sd.-dzo

V. to

to be

sar)-sar) (see

saij),

adv.
to

in splits or strips.

sa-dzu,
sa-fa,
V.

go

before, precede ;

go forward,
color.

sfi.r)-'w6 (9W6),

v.

swing the hands in walking.


i.

advance.

s3.r)-"w6,

V.

to

be emptty-handed,

e.

having no

a kind of

tree

iafa

kpukpa, yellow

presents in hand.

SAR
s3.-rar)
(se),
v.

72
from
age, he

SET
V.

to

be silly

in oneh

s6-ni-sl,
tions, to

to

exceed or go beyond one's instruc-

dotage.

add

to the price.
v.

sa-re
sa-re
sa-r6,

(se), v. (se),
V. v.

to

make

right, to he right.

se
se

. .

nl-dzam-ba,
ni-se
(ise), v.
v.

to

do violence

to,

to

mal-

to he older than.

treat.
.
. .

to meditate, to he
v.

thoughtful.

to

sa-ro-kpii),

to limit.
to dispute,
;

se-ri-dzfi,

to serve

punish. as a steward.
of.

sa-ro-ye,
sa-sa,
n.

v.

complain.
scars left hy small-pox.

se-ro-na,
se-sir)

v.

to

go in search
to ridicule.

an old hroom
entirely,

(esiij), v.

sa-sa, adv.
sa-ta, n.
sd.-tl, V.

tlwroughly ; scatteringly.
to set at

se-tar),
se-tl, V.

v.

to

complete, to be completed.
to, to

mud, mire.
to cast
V. to

to

pertain

serve.

away,

naught.

sa-ti-kpo,

sojourn, emigrate.

se-ur) (olmi)), v. you, well done !

to he kind,

good

seiii),

thank

saur)-saur), adv. ivell, thoroughly: 6 gbede sauij^aur), he understands our language well.

wa

se, adv. se, s6,


V.

greatly.
to

come

to pass, to

s5.-"wa-da

(se), v.
V.

to jest, joke.

V.

to break, as

a stick

happen, to be fulfilled. to break up or subdue as


;

Sk-'WO

(so),

to plot, conspire.
V.

a town ; to

make a
to to to

noise

se okui)

bo im6
nose.

e4ii),

sa-'wo-tai)
sa-"wor)

(so),

to heal, cure.

make
sS,
v.

the rope into


to sin ;

a noose on the horse's

(se), v.

to he stingy.
to stink.

commence.

sa-yai)
s4-yar)
se,
V.

(se), v. (se), v.
to do, to

se-bo
Be
6 ^e ehig bi
ti
. . .

(se), v.

to pick out, cull, select.

bo,

V.

make a sacrifice. make into a noose on a

thing.

See

make
a hack
^e
ti

to he ;

to ail
;

"sf
silk.
v.

elede, he has

like

a hog

kl ise

wa,
;

not ours

awa

Oloruq,

loe serve

God
to

it is se-da, n. bata se-dS. (se),

to create.

k6

gug good up se-dzti (odiu), v. to wink the eye. a rock ; nwoi) se oduq, they are keeping new year's se-fe (se), V. to jest, mock, ridicule.
se
ori okuta, shoes are not

climb

day ;
e
?

^e e ki 6 mole,

make

it

shine

wiwo Had
;

^e

se-gbe
se-gur)

(se), v.

to associate with.

ni tit9, the crooked shall he

made
ko

straight

ki i^e

se-ge, n.

a kind of grass, broom-sedge.


to
v. v.

what

ails

him

iba

T)se, fever ails

him

and

rS
ai)

(ogiii)), V.

i)^e mi,

I am
avva

sorry for
le se

him

\h se

m^li (or

se-hir) (se),

to be

conquer, prevail over. behind or last,

must
fight.

ko

mih dia

(or aidza), loe

must se'-i-ye

(se),

to rebel, revolt.
tickets, to cast lots ;

se-be,

n.

a black snake.
to

se-ke-ke, v. to reckon by give an account.


if.

to

se-Tbi, V.

suppose, to do as
v.

se-ke-re,

a calabash-drum, tambourine.
n.
fetters, shackles.

se

dzi-na,
v.
v.

to deepen.

se-ke-se-ke,
se-ke-te,
.

se-fe-fe,

to he vain, to to excuse.

hrag.

beer of maize or
to

Indian corn.

se-gS.-fa-ra,

se-kpe, se-kpo,

v.

wither.

se-gbe,

v.

to perish, to he lost.

V.

to be double.
V. V.

se-i-ro-na.

See Verona.
to tell

se-ku
lie.

(si),

to to

se-ke

(eke), v.

se
dishonor.

kui),

open the door. diminish or remove a part. (Exod.

se-kpe (se), V. to swear. he ... la-bu-kfir) (li), v.


se he
. . .

to

5, se
.

8, 11.)
. .

le-ti, V.
(sc),

to

hem.
to despnse,

Ifi-le-dzo

(li),

v.

to entertain

a guest.

se-le-ya

n.

contemn.

se-la-ra

(ilara), v.
(li),

to envy,
v.

... Ig-gi-ri
.
. .

to chill.
to treat coldly.

se

Id-m5

v. (li),

se-mbe, se ni-kpo, se-n6 (ino), v.


.

adv.

in a flickering manner.
v.

to

double.

to

miscarry, to suffer abortion.

se-le-ri
. . .

(ileri), v.

to

promise,

to

vow.

se-o-rui), n.
se-ri, V.
to

ike setting

sun when

it

se to communicate the le-te (li), v. leprosy to. se to beautify, to decorate. IS-AWa, v. lo-fo (li), V. to bereave. se se lo-re (li), v. to befriend. 16-re (!i), v. to confer a se favor. se...lO-SO (li), V. to clothe, to adorn, to fur.
.
.

turn into another course,


to ridicule, to be

to take

appears large. another

direction.

se-sir), v.

ashamed.

se-se, se-tor), adv.


s6-se,
n.

nearly, recently.

which
v.

is

broken.

se-tar)

(se),

to be deceitful, to deceive. to

nish.

se-te
V.

(^c), V.

conquer, to gain the victory in a

se-ni,

to trouble, {id),
v.

annoy.
kind, accommodating.

dispute.

sd-ni-a

to be

se-tu

(ie), v.

to be speckled.

SI
si, V,
to he
to

I'd

^OF
(^e),
v. v.

make a
;

mistake, to miss ; to fade in color,

si-ro

to reckon, calculate.
to

pale
to

to rinse.

si-se (&se),

move

thefobt, to hasten.

hi, V.

open, to remove, to slip out of the hand, to

si-s^

n.

which

collects,

collection,

&c.

See

ih.

push
Bi-bi, n.

off from the shore.

si-s3.r), n.

which flows, &c.


to

See

ikig.

a spoon.
the papain.
V.

si-se, n. si-se, n.
to

mistake, to do amiss.
he done,
to

si-bo, n.

which can
to

which

is possible.
:

si-dl

(id)),

to

pluck up,
v.

remove.
shade, to overshadow.

si-se

(se), v.

work,

labor,

to he in distress

si-dzi, si-dzi-bd (se),


si-dzti,
V.

to

sise oro, to be in torment.


si-si, n.

to
V.

open the
to

si-dzu-"w6,
si-fi-sl, V.

eyes, to be daring. look upon, to regard.

which errs which


is

an
;

error.

si-su, n.

dark

darkness.

to

misplace.

si-SU, adv.

rapidly (boiling).
(se), v.
v.

8i-gb6r).
sl-gi-di, V.

See ^ugb6q.
to he short

si--wa-dzu

to be before, first. to he silly, insane.

and thick.
to hattle.

si-'we-re

(sc),

si-gi-di.

See silgudu.
to

si-vro

an exclamation of defiance.
V.

sl-gnr)

(ogui)), V.

go forth

sl-"w6 (ow6),
to

to

remove the hand,

to stop loork ;
:

si-gni), n.

the physic-nut.

remove, drive

sik, a contraction of sc ikoq, to make a fulness, or to fill up, employed as a prefix to numerals after abo,

they have knocked off


to

away (Exod. 8, 31) work ; owo to


9.)

n\v9r) siwo,
si, it

is

time

knock

off.

a half ;
si-ka,
n.

as,

abo siketa

(eta), three

^ikaruq (arui)), five

and a

half.

and a half; abo si--WOr) (se), v. to weigh. (Ps. 62, si-ye-me-dzi (ie), v. to doubt, to
so, adv.
s6,
to disV.
V.

hesitate.

key.
V.

si-ko (oko),

to get to

under way.

to he passionate, to he

very slightly (touching). morose.


slackened or loosened.
to hint.

si-kpa-yS,

v.

lay open, expose to view ;

sd,

close, reveal.

SO-b6
to entreat, to
si

(se), V.
v.

si-kpe
si-kpo.

(^e), V.

beg pardon.

so-di-n6,

See

io.
to cheat
v.

See

nikpo.
v.

so-dzo-ro

(io), v.

in play.

open the door. (ekui)), to remain^ after some has been taken. si-kdr), V. si la-dze, v. to condemn for witchcraft.

sl-kuq
. . .

to

so-dzu-ko-ko-ro,
so-dzu-r6-re,
s6-fo
V.
v.

to covet.

to he gracious, to favor.
v.

so-dzu-sa-dzu,
(se),

to be partial.

si

lai-ya

(li),

v.

to alienate.
sickle.

to

suffer

loss

of property,

to

he

si-lo, n.

a curved grass-knife, reap-hook,


(li),

si

. .

lo-dzu
V.
(iai

V.

to stimulate or revive, as

wLen

empty, so-fo-fo

to waste, to feel bereaved. (se),


V.

to tattle.

weary.
si-16h,
to start, depart.

so-go
amb6),
(se), v.

(se), V.

to glory, to exult, to act valiantly. to be offended, to forsake.

SO-ke-hir)-dfi., v.
lit.

si-mbo
Hi.

n.

thepapaw,
to counsel,

the white Tnan's

s6-ko-to, s6-ko-t6,

V. V.

to be small,

narrow, as a room.

trowsers, pantaloons.
to be simple,
v.

ki-rab-rax)
deration.

to take into consi-

so-kpe

(se), v.

ignorant.

si-na
si si

(5na), v.

to

miss the way,

to err.

In Pa. 78,

so-kur), so-kur)-kur), a rivulet. SO-16, w.


so-lo-ri,
v.

to be

dark.

50, for ie 6na, or s5na.


.

to

command,

to rule over.

ni-kpo, si

ni-di
to

(ni),

v.

to

remove.

S0-n6,

V.

to be peevish, surly.

ni-ye
n5,
V.

(ni),

v.

remind.

sor)-so, n.
item,

the point or tip ;

a pinnacle ; a small

sl

to

wash,

rinse.
;

a particle.
v.

BIT), V.

to

run precipitately

to he

guilty

to lend,

s6-re
so-ro,

(^e),
V.

to

do good.
to be spiteful,

to borroto.

to be difficult.

sir), sir)-sii), adv.


sir),

uprightly, steadfastly.

so-r6

(^e), v.

to be

sharp pointed

adv.

piercingly, keenly.

sir)-sir), n.

a porcupine quill.

furious. so-so, adv.

singly, only.
V.

siQ-sir) 6-b6, n.

a kind of sauce.
tut !

so-so

(^c),

to bewitch.
to

si6

inter] .

pshaw !
to

si-ra (ara), v. si-re (se), v.


si-re-gur)
proach.
si-ri, n.

to he quick, to

hurry.
to re-

SO-AvS s6-"W0
so-yi
s6,
V.

(so), V.

make money.

(se),

V.

to trade. to be dizzy.

play.
to

(se), v.

(se),

v.

rebuke for ingratitude,

to watch, to

guard.
the dead.

SO-de
a stalk of corn or
rice

(ode), v.
V. to

to patrol.

with the grain on

it.

so-fo,

mourn for

10

SOF
BO-foQ,
is

74
su-n6
su-ra,
(ino), V.
V. V.
V.

TAN
to be loose, to

V. to be persuasive : k iofoi) bi alakara, he as persuasive as a cake-seller.

run

off,

as the bowels.

to treasure to be in
to be

up.

SO-gba
sb-kar)

(se),

v.

to

keep a garden,

su-ru,

a heap or bunch.

so-hom-'bi-a,
(sc),
v. v.

n.

boot.

su-su,
in concert.

plump.

to be one, to agree, act

SU-SU, adv.

greatly, utterly.

S9-kpe
SO-1&
.

(se),
V.

to to

thank.

(^e),

honor.

lo-SO (li), V. to garnish, adorn. SO 80-na (se), V. to work at a trade, to carve. to strike with the elbow, BO nI-gbo-"W"6, V.
.
.
.

T.
to

ta,

V.

jog_

to spill

BOX), adv.

coolly, calmly.

to

kick; to sting, to bum, as pepper or shed, as blood ; to open a boil ; to pour, anoint ; to cast, to fall on ; to spread, as a sail ;
;

to shoot, to

BOr), adv. B6r), V.

precipitately, with a plunge.


to abstract
V.

by

little

at

time.
:

to shine ; to produce, as yams or potatoes, forth roots or branches ; to sound aloud

to
;

shoot
to

go

Bog-gor),

to be

long

and

slender

a.iox]gqr) obiri

asowo
trading

m4h

de odza,
is

a (a riddle),

long slender
i.

from place to place : ta ? pron. who ?


tfi, V.

ta ire, to imprecate evil upon.

wonum who

never reaches the market,


at the landing-place

e.

to sell ;

to fine.

a canoe, which the owner goes


slender.

left

when

t3.-ba, n.

tobacco.
or, indeed. to

into the market.


n.

ta-bl, adv.

sor)-gor), soq-gor)-sor)-gor),

which

is

long and ta-dze

(edze), v.
V.

shed blood.

ta-dzi,
to to
to

to

awake suddenly.
v.

so-ra
BO-re
BO-ro.

(ara), v.
(se),
v.

watch over

oneself, be careful.
offence.

ta-dzu
ta-fa

(odzu),

to be in haste, to be

anxious.

s5-rar)

v.

commit an

(ofa), v.
v.

to shoot to waste.

bote.

(se),

be friends, to associate:

6 b^ mi ta-fa-la,

spre kp6, he loas

my friend.

ta-fa-ta-fa, n.

an

archer.

See soijgoq. so-rom-bi-a, n. See sohombia.

ta-ge-re,

v.

to hasten.
v.
v.

ta-gbo-kur),

to set sail. to stagger, to decline to

BO-s5 b5-SO SO-te

(se),

V. V.

to

adorn.

ta-gbor)-gbor),
to

one side.

(se),

to

complain,

talk

much.

tai, tai-tai, adv.

indifferently, insolently.

(se), V.
(se),
V.

to be

a foe,

to revolt.

ta-ka

(ika), v.

to

snap the fingers.

SO-"w6
su,
811,
v.
V.

to
v.

hand

over, send over, deliver.

tfi-kar-da, n.

BO-Wor)

(se),

to be scarce, dear, precious.

ta'-ke-te,

v.
v.

to to

paper. throw a summerset.

to cast out, to to discourse ;

evacuate fceces.
to intrust ;
&ii.,it is

ta-ke-te,

stand aloof.

to

grow dark,

to

blacken, as clouds: il6


to be

dark ; su

okui)kui),

ta-ko-ko, V. ta-ko-ta-b6

to tie

a knot. a pair, male and female.


snatch away.
ears, as

(ate), n.

dark, obscure, difficult to be understood ; ^u dzikana, to make bricks ; sd si, to care for or notice

ta-kpa ta-kpe
maize.

(ikpa), v.
(ikpe),
v.

to kick, strike, to shoot

or

put forth
rope.

what
to

is

amiss.
to

Bil, V.

knead,

make

into balls or loaves ; to be


to collect, as

ta-kur)
tfi.-lfi,

(okui)), v.

to stretch

round as a

ball, to be cylindrical ;
;

n.

white cloth, whiteness.


(li),

swarm
sCl-b6,
V.

of bees

to be disagreeable to.

ta
push down.

lai-ya
to,

v.

to strike

on

the breast, to be

See siim6.
to

contrary
fall: bi subu, as a crowd.
to

as the wind.
is poor, to

su-bu

v. (so ibu), v.

su-dzo,

to collect,

ta-la-ki, n. which lo-re (li), v. ta


. .
.

a poor person.
to.

give a gift

SU-gb6r),

conj.

but, yet.

t9.1u-bo,

n.
v.
?;.

young fruit.
to

sCl-gu-du, n.
SU-kfl, n.

an image made of clay. BU-kp6 (okpo), V. to marry a widow.


a Utile hand-basket.
sd-ku-rfi., n.

tfi-ma-ha,

suppose, to hope.

ta-mkpa,
tS.-ndze,

the breast-bone.
v.

t3.-n& (tag ina),


v. v.

to light

lamp or candle.

a partridge (the akparo).


(li),

to cheat, to deceive. to look

su SU

le-se

V. V.

to

besmear with paint.


to censure, to abuse.

ta-ndzu,
ta-nd,
V.

stem.

16-h.ur)
(li).

(li),

tS.-ni-tfi.-ni

so-ko,

n.

a centipede.

su-lo-kp6
sCl-m6, crowd
V.
;

See sukpo.
gather around,
as bees.
to to

to throve
to be

to

press upon, in a tar),

V.

away, cast out. akin to ; to run a canoe aground.


to

to settle on,

tfi.r), V.

to be finished, perfect ;

cure ;

adv. per-

SU

ni-n6

(ino), v.

purge.

fectly.

TAN
til), V.
to shine, to light, as
:

75
;

TIB
V.

ceive, scatter

taij

a lamp molB or imol5, to

to entice, de-

te-fa,

to

consult Ifa.
v.

shine.

te

...

gbeg-gbe,
V. to

to

expand.
array, to
lie

tar)'-ga-ra, n.

tin,

a plate.

te-gur),

set in battle

in wait, as

tarj-gbo,

V.

to take root.
v.
v.

an array.
te-hii)-gbe-sa,
n.
v.

tar)-ka-le,

to

spread abroad, promuhjate.


to ulcerate.

criist.

tar)-kpa-ra,
tar)-sar),
v.

te

.lai-ya
t'.

(li),

to soothe,

pacify.

to shine, as

a lamp.

te-le,

to follow,

pursue.

tar)-tar), adv.

(stretching) to the full extent, vioas in convulsions. lently,

tS-le, adv.

beforehand, previously.
.

tS

1&,

t|

. .

le-se,
to

tS

si-lS, v.

to

tread down,

tar(-ta-si, n.

a yam-vine

left to rattoon.

trample on

spread out, prepare food.


to

ta-ra, n. gravel. t&.-ra, adv. straightforward, hastily.


tar-dft, n.
ink.
to

te th

lo-go
lo-ror)
. .

(li),

v. v.

glory or triumph over,


comfort.

..

(li),
.

to satisfy, to

te-in6, te

m6-l&.

See

tele.

ta-ri
ta-sa,
ta-se,

(ori), V.

push

violently.

tS-na, adv.

already.
abject 2x>verty, distressed condition.
v.

n.
v.

tin

or pewter.

tS-ni-t6-ni, n.

to miss.
v.

te

nl-kpa

(ni),

to

compel.

ta-se

(|se),

to kick. to spill, to shed, as blood.

ta

si-1^, V.
V. V.

t6-n6 (ino), V. to he meek ; adv. tS-nu-in6 (enu), v. to affirm.


te-nte-re,
ter)-yir)
'

quietly.

ta-se,

to
to

ta-S9,

imprecate evil on. war]} thread for weaving.


v,

n.

a kind of vulture.
pron.
yours.

(ti),

ta-AWO, ta-yo,
ta-tu, adv.
fere tatu, this

to

play
is

the

game

called

worry ^
igi

te-re, n.
(ti),

lime, shells

of ivhich lime
long

is

made.

very (light); sadly, gloomily:

te-re yi
tS-re,

pron.

his, thine.

wood

very light.

v.

to be slender, be

and narrow.
bend the head down.

te,

V.

to fondle,

worship, propitiate.

te-ri, tf-ri-ba (ori), v.

to hoiv, to

t6, adv.

(sitting or alighting)

on

the top.

te-ru,

ii.

ivhite cloth, sheeting, shirting.


to

te-de,

n.
v.

a kind of piarrot.
to

te-ru
te te

(ta), v.

deal in slaves.

te-dzu,

look after, superintend,

te-ru-tS-ru,
. .

w.

a slave-dealer.
tele. to

th-fe-th-ie, adv.

wholly, entirely.

si-le.

See
to

te-mi, pron.
te-ni.

of me, mine.
toni.

se,

v.

compel

do a thing.

See

te-ni-te-ni.

Sec tonitoni.

a game of chance ; the name of a weed. te-te-gUr), te-te e-gtlrj, n. a kind of cane.
te-te, n.

te-re, n. a wave of the sea. te-re, adv. scatteringly : cni


here

te-te-r, adv.
tere

carelessly,

awkwardly,

edzi

tere,

one

te-tu, n.

an

executioner, sheriff.
v.

and
n.

there.

te-"w6-gbd. (owo),
with a quick pace.
ti, aux. part,
ti, v.

to receive, accept.

te-te, adv.
te-te,

early, soon, first ; the leg of a beast.


first.

have, has, had.


;

to

gnaw
who,

to tie,

bind.

te-te-k6, adv.
t,
v.

ti, 2^^on.
to he fiat, insipid, dis-

which, that,
:

to lay, to

graced
erect,
v.

to

spread out ; beat or outdo ;

ti,

adv.
is there

how, where, lohen, already


already.

ti

vfk nib&, he

to

push forward
;

to

as a tent or an altar.
to

ti, ti, prep,

from, of, by
the farm ;

conj.
ti

and : a

ti

oko de, we

t6,

trample ; to bend ; to castrate proach, to be near : te si, to agree to.

to

ap-

came from

tS-bfi.,

t&

ba-lS,

v.

to

bend, to bow, to be cast

Lord ; duro ti I and thou will


tl, v. to

Oluwa, the word of the mi, stand by me ; emi ti r6 k loh,


oro
strike against ;
to

go.
to

down.

thump,

fade, as to
to lock or

t6 t6 tS

bS-re,

v.

to bend, to dip, to

bow,

level.
;

color, to
to

consume.
support
;

bo, V. hook or pin.


.

immerse

hang up on a

tl, V.

to lean against, push, prop,

fasten, to lock up>,


v.

imprison

ti

leliiij, to

sustain,

. . .

bo-mi
v.
V.

(omi),

to

dip into water.


calmly, leisurely.
settlement
;

strengthen ;
ti,

ti

subu, to

push down.

te-do,

to be patient, to act

te-d6,

to

encamp,
to

to

found a
smooth
;

habit, to dwell.

t^-dzu,
cloth.

v.

be fiat,

adv. heavily, vehemently (beating upon, as the sun or waves). 6 kole ti, an adverbial particle denoting/a/^wre ; as, in his attemjtt to build a house. aso tedin, plain -ti, he failed
to in-

ti-ar), adv.

distant,

far

off.

tS-dz<i,
at.

te-dzu-m6,

v.

to fix

the eyes on, to gaze

ti-be, adv.

from

there, thence.

ti-b5,

V.

to kindle.

Tll)k
ti-dzti (odiu),
v.

76
t6,
V.

TOL
to stand or plarx in a row, to set in order, to or ponder in the mind ; to lay up, to be rekeep

to be

ashamed.

ti-ha, prep.
ti-ko, adv.

from.
self.

tl-ka-lfi, tl-ka-rfi, n.

stored, as

a broken limb

to dzo, to lay up, as

sluggishly, unwilUnghj.
by,

treasure.

ti-kpa-se, prep,
ti-ktl-ro, V.

by means

of.

to-bi, n.

a napkin, a
to be large.

towel.

to cast off, reject.

td-bi,

V.

with all the house. ti-16-ti-16 (ati ile ati ile), <idv. ti-lS, adv. from the ground, even : ko til& sc kpd,
not that, not because,

to-bi-n5-'w6 (n5
to-dzti-bo,
V.

9\vo), n.

towel.

to

pry
to

into.

to-gb6,
to be

V.

to doze, to
v.

slumber.

ti
ti

le-hir),

v. V.

to sustain, strengthen, to

lo-dzu, abash, ti-ni6-ti-in6, adv. closely (adhering). tim-tim, n. a pillow, a cushion.


.
. .

ashamed

of,

to-ge-dr)-gbe, a loattle. to-16, n.


to-16-to-16, n.

come tumhling down.


is wattled,
\.

which

e.

a turkey.
:

tl-na-b5
ti-n6

(ina), v.

to

sef on fire, to kindle,

tom-bfi^ . a sort of club or cudgel. till to-day to-ni, te-ni (to oni), adv.
before ; ki a tcni do, before

ki

teui,

(ino), prep,

from

within, from out

erf,

we come,

ti-n6-ti-n6, adv,
ti-ra, n.

heartily.

Mohammedan charm ;
thine, his.
to stoop, to

a book.
ti-rS
(ti),

till now, to-ni-to-ni, te-ni-te-ni, adv, anything written, to-ni-to-ni, adv, cleanly, nicely. to-nto-ro, 71, a small bit, a particle.

pron.

to-ri
look doianwards
:

(ti),

V.

to

fall to one^s share, to pertain to

tl-ri (ori), v.
opposite
ti-rir), v.
to.

tiri si,

tori odili, to satisfy, satiate,

to-ri, prep,
:

from

on.

to be slender

okui)
tiriij

tirii),

twine ; Ogar)
(a riddle),
(lake),
e.

to-ro,

V.

to be

narrow.
coat.

kAg, Osa kilq, 6 kdi) there remain the Ogun


the slender,

k6 kpade
Osa
(i.

to-ro, n.
V.

an upper garment, a
to
settle,

(river), the

and to-ro,
;

as dirty water; to be tranquil:


is

which you have not met

crossed)

ile toro, the

country

at p>eace.

meaning
V.

the nose.

ti-rir)-ino-16
to

v. to stand firm, (ti iriri), stand on tiptoe reaching upward. ti-ro, with consideration, advisedly. tl-ro-ti-ro, adv. ti-sa-dzu, n. which is former or foremost.

to-ro-gbfe, to-to, adv.

V.

See togbe. clearly, without clouds.


(never again) at
all, totally,

to-to, to-to-hur), adv.


thoroughly. truth t6-t6, n.

ni t6t6, truly,
to be meritoriotis.

ti-tS, n,
ti-t3.r),
J?,

which

is for sale, dkc.

See

td.

to-ye, See
t^i).

V,

to be

of equal value,

ivho is cheated, or deceived, etc.

to-ye-to-ye, adv,
t6,

considerately, discreetly,

ti-t&, n.
ti-ti, adv.

which

is

lowly, <tc.

See

t&.
:

continually, for ever, till ola, he will be better by to-morrow.


. . .

yi 6 sAq

titi

to guide, lead, bring up, educate ; to watch v, over or take care of ; to be straight, right,. true ; to

correct ; to be long, durable ; to split into strips ;

ti

ti, adv.

toholly, altogether

ti

ogo

ti

ogo, all

to

glorious, (Ps. 45, 13.)


ti-tl, adv.

td,

V,

touch ; to urge, trouble, enrage ; to taste, to follow, to approach, resort to, arrive at
:

to

tremulously, violently (shaking).

urinate

to

mi

loh, tO

mi

\t\i\ij,

follow me; tbmi

ti-ti-ai-ye ti-ti-lai, adv.


ti-to-ri, conj.
because,

for ever. on account of.


See
to,

ti-t9, n.
ti-tor), n.

which

is straight, true, dtc.


is

t8, to cry to, wah, come to me ; ke v. to bring up, as a child. t5 da-gba, to-do (i\), prep, from, from the presence of
. . .
.

which
pron.

neio or young.

ti-"wa

(ti),

ours,
theirs.
;

ti-'VTOV), pron.

t6-dztl (odz6), v, to look after, take care of. to-ho, adv. well, very (employed in commending) iwo seui) tgho, you have done well.

to, adv.

by drops, as water
to be

without clouds.

to-hur)
reach

(ti),

pron,

that one yonder.


(ti),

t5
t6,

interj.
v.

well ! very good !


to
:

t5-kar)-t5-kar)
freely.
(tu), v. to
v,

adv,

with

all

the

heart,

enough, sufficient, capacious ; kd to Bk4i), few, not much ; 6 kp5 t6


!

how much to-ko

paddle a canoe,

to steer,

or

how

big it is /
fi

& to ogorui), they are as

many

as

t5-kpa
. . .

(ikpa),

to follow, trail, trace out,

a hundred ;
to ;

odifi to, to

put

the eye

to, to

attend

much Lord

t6 bl, as as ; a^e

much as ; Oluwa to,


;

16 behe, so much, inasthe

td-kpe-re (akpere), v. to copy, t6 kp5, v, to bring up together,

a.s

children.

commandments of
li>,

the

to-kug
t6 t6 to
. .
.

(okui)), V,
(li),

to guide, direct,
to

are right

agogo

to

it

is

time for the


is ten

la-ra

v. v.

touch one.

clock to strike ; 6 to bi eni odui)

mewa, he

le-hir)

(li),

to follow.
to, to follow.

years old.

16h,

v.

to

go

TON
t5-na
tor), V.

77
the road, to trace the

WEL
v.

(6na), v.

to

go along

wft, wft,

to seek ;

to

share

to

tremble

wa

ri,

to find

footsteps, to take the lead,


to

out, discover.
V.

t6r), tfir),

run, as a melon-vine. adv. again, once more.


to

to be, live,
:

endure, stand

to dig, to

pull an
laye or

oar or paddle
:

wa

imo,

to perceive ;

wa

tp-re
t6-ro,

(ta), v.

give a present,

to offer

t9re ann,

li

aye,

to live.

to give
V.

alms.
to borroio, to beg.
to trace out, track,

"wa., pron.

us, our.

"Wa, adv.

loudly.
V.

t5-se
t6-to,

(5se), V.
V.

to be whole,
V.
(ti

complete

adv. fully.

examine.

wa-di

(idi),

to

examine

into, to scrutinize.

t6 to

"Wd,

to taste.

wa-du-wfi-du, adv. to seek wa-dze, v.


n.

hurriedly.

or seize food, to forage ;

to

w6

owo), prep,
to

to-AVO-b9

(te), V.

by (means of). gain. dip thehand in (Mat. 26, 23). "wa-dzi,

blue dye or color.


to

tO-'w6-te-se, adv.
V.

(bound) hand and foot.


respectfully, reverently.
to to spit ; to

wa-dzo,
wrong.

n.

investigate a cause

to

avenge a

t6-'WO-t5-'W9 (owo), adv.


tu,
to

throw out,

pluck up

to fail.

wa-ga,
;

M.
n.

tfl, V.

to untie, to loosen ;

break

loose, as
;

a horse

wa-gari,

a package of kauij. mush.


butter.
to set in battle

to

pour

out, to gush, to tap a barrel


to unfold, to to

to scatter, to

wa-gl,

n.

plunder,

blossom, to break up, as a


:

crowd

pull a paddle or oar

tidings that the bearer's friend is


ttl, V. to cease from

td 9f9, dead.

to

bring

wa-gug wSh, V.

(ogui)), V.
to
V.

array.

come.
to trouble.

wa-hfi.-la,
to

paining,

to ease, to reconcile ;

"wa-hS.-la,

n.

trouble, affliction.

be cool or cold.

tu-ba tu-bb
tu-bu,

(Arab.),
(till)),

v.

to repent. to try

"wa-ha-ri, n. a slave See wayi. WEii.

woman
n.

taken for a wife.

V.

again.

w.-ka-si, "wa.-ra-ka-si,

cheese,

n.

a jail.
(odid),
v.

wa'-ka-tl,
to take

n.
v.

time, season, hour.


to seek for. to write on,

tu-dzu-ka

courage, be cheerful.

wa

ki-ri,
n.

tu

ka,
V.

V.

to scatter.

wa-la,

a board
n.
V.

slate.

tu-ko,

to navigate.

"wa-la-mi,

an

oar,

a canoe-paddle.
a house.

tu-kpu, adv. precipitately. tu-ku, n. a wild hog.

W&rle
W3.-16,

(ile),
v.
(ile),

to search

to be at
V.

home.

tu tu

la-ra
la-SO

(li),

v.

to refresh.
evil.

wk-lh

tu-la-sil), .
.
.

misfortune,
(li),

dig the ground, to dig, war)-rar)-"war)-rar), adv, irregularly, foolishly,


to

V.

to strip one.

"wa-kpd,

V.

to be

end

to end, to abut.

tu-lS

V. (ile),
.

to

break

up

the earth, to plough.

tu tu

le-do

(li),

V. V.

to console. to tame, to

wa-ra, w&-ra,

n.
V.

a shower.
to be

nimble.

. . .

lo-dzQ.

(li),

charm, as one does w9.-ra,

n.

milk.
n.
to

a serpent.

wa-ra-kpa,
the silk-worm.
to disclose to

epilepsy.

tum-bu,
tu-md,
V.

n.

"wa-ri,
to baffle

v.

divide or share; to do

homage,

to

a secret,
to strip

a plot

to

worship.

explain words,

expound.
v.

tu tu

. .

nl-ho-ri-ho,

naked.
comfort, console, to

. . .

ni-no

(ino), v.

to pacify,

a counsellor, one of the cabinet. wa-ri-ko (ori), v. to sit head to head, as two persons leaning forward in conversation.

wa-ri-fa,

n.

propitiate.

"wa-rl-ri,
. .
.

v. v.

to tremble. to

tu-n6.
v.

See tu

nino.

"wa-ri-ri,

tremble greatly.
v.

tti-ra-ri, n.

perfumery of any kind,


coldness, greenness (not dry, as plank)
:

"wa-rorj-ki
obstinate.
;

(9r9i)),

to

stiffen

the

neck,

to

be

tu-to,

to spit.

tu-tu,
e
iii

n.

wa-si, "wa-su,
'wa-'wi,
V.
V.

v.

to

preach.

raiontss, lohich is wet ; fres/mess {not salt)


tutu, he ate it raw.
entirely.

o die wa-"Wa, n.

a leaf of maize.
to

make an

excuse.

t<l-tu, adv.

wa-'w6,

to cease, abate.

to come to a close contest. "wa-yfi.-i-dz&, v. wa-yi, adv. now.

w.
"wa ?
adv.

we,

V.
. . .

to twist, to curl, to fold ;

to

wean a

child.

we
where
?

kp6,

V.

to twist

or

wind

together.

iwe mi

wa ? where

is

my

book ? we-le, adv.


I

wavingly, as grass in the wind.

WEM
we
. .

IS
"wo-yi, adv.

YA
V. to

in6,
v. V.

V.

to

wind upon.

we-re,
"WS-re,

to be silly. to be

'wd,

drag,

at this time (to-morrow or next year). to crawl, as a snake to flock : wo


;

quick motioned.
the stinging bean.

diado,

to
to to

drag out.
be hollow,
to enter into ; to to

we-re-kpe,

n.

w6,
set,

v.

abide in a

we-re-"we-re,

adv.

nimbly.

house,

lodge
;

to
to
;

we-AVU (wo), V. to enter into danger. wf, V. to be fine, as grains or fibi'es to


;

as the sun

chew, grind,

to roost, as

fowls

; put on clothes ; to as an eruption ; to go disap>pcar, to shed leaves, to press down as

excavate

mash

to sport or be to
to

playful with each other.


; to

a burden
:

to distress ;

to be suitable, convenient.

wS,

V.

wash,

to

swim

adorn, decorate

wo w6-bi-a,
"wd-dza,

re.

greediness, lasciviousness.
to cast
V.

diado,

swim

out.

v.

down.
gather together. to look or see there. (Luke

wS
"WS
.

for

ewe,

adv.
?
V.
. .

again,

now

e se

we ? whafs w6-dzo-kp6,

to

the matter
. .

now

wo-hur) (wo
to castrate.
v.

ohui)), v.

lS-"wa

(li),
.

17, 23.)
off,

wS

m6, "we
(ara),
v.

nb,

to

wash

cleanse,

w5-ko

purify.

"We-ra

to
v.

wash
to

oneself.

wd w5
i)wi,

(oko), V.

to
v.

embark.
to enter into one. to clothe.

la-ra
la-S9

(li),

V. (li),
('.

"we-re, we-"we,

to be

small.
the hands.
:

we-w6
Wl,
wl,
V.

(9W0),

V.

wash

to speak, to say, tell

they say,

it is

wd-le (ilc), wd-le (ile), WO-ndd, V.

to to

go into

the house, to enter

a,

place.

v.

sink into the ground. to take soundings.


those.
to enter,

said.
V. to singe.

WO-ni, pron.

w6-n6
v.

(ino), v.

go or come

in.

wi-dzo
wi-ndi,
wll),
V.

(edz9),
V.

to complai7i

of a

difficulty.

"WOT), pron.

them.

wl-kl-ri,

to

publish about.
tinder garment.

'w6r),

v.

to be scarce, dear, precious, stingy, to catch


;

V.

an

to lend, to
v.

borrow.

any thing thrown to one to wean ; to sprinkle ;


blame, to retaliate.
'vrhX), V.
to

to

descend on, as a curse

to

weave, plait, knit ; to

wiri-rir),

to be
re.

near a place.

w^I-ri-^wl-ri,

twilight.

measure,

to

weigh

to

prune,

to

pick

W^i-ri-'Wi-ri, adv.

quickly, hastily.
is

off ;

to

aim

or point at.
to these.
to enter into one. to

wi-"WO, wi-'WU,
"WO,
V.

n.
n.

which which

crooked, crookedness.

w6r)-SO

(aso), V.

weave.

is swollen,

a swelling, a tumor.
or push
:

WOr)-yI, pron.

to doze, sleep lightly. to fall ; to break, cut,

WO-ra
down;
to be

(ara), v.
v. (irii)),

wS,
is

V.

wo-rir)

make

nails.

dead, applied to large animals

esiq wo, the horse

wo-ro-'WO-ro, adv.

lukewarmly, as water.

dead.
v.

w6-so
look
at,

(aso),
V.

V.

to

put

on, to wear.

"wd,

to

behold

; ;

to

wait on the sick

to

WO-ti,
by.

to

draw
v.

aside, as for conversation, to sit

visit,

superintend, search

to look, seem. to

w6 wd

ba-16,

V.

to

break a thing down,

abate a

w5-^w6

(ew6),
V.

to wither, to cast the leaves.

nuisance.

W9-W0,
to look
v. V.

to be

copious, to be lukeioarm.
its

WO-du,
. . .

V.

black or dark.
to

"WTJ, V.
bi 6
ti

to

please one by
ki

appearance or character
please that
it

dzl-na,
v.

heal a loound.
regard.
at, to

wu

4 io
all

{as

you

be that be),

w6-dztl
WO-fi-ri,

(odi4),
to

to

as

it

may, by

means.

glance
v.

look at stealthily.

wti,

V.

to swell, to rise as
;

bread

to increase, to stir

w6-hir) "wo-hur),

to

look here

and

there.

up sediment
ger
:

to look

wd-ke

w6

(oke),

v.

to

look upwards.
.

ori re w{i,
n.

gloomy ; to impend, he was frightened.

as dan-

kpa-lS.
v.

See w6

balB.

WU-ndl-a,

a virgin.

W6-1S,
"Wd-lS

to fall
v.

down.
look at the

wu-ra,
ground
;

n.

gold.
ire), v.

(ilo),

to

a common

wu-re

(wi

to bless.

salutation.

'wu-ru-'wu-ru, adv.
"WU-'WO,
height.
.

"WO-ll,
"WC-lCl,

re.

a pi-ophet.
to fall
(ilS).

v.

to be

confusedly (mixed). heavy, dull of action.

V.

w6

upon from a
See

la-lS
v.

wo

balg.

wo-rar),

WO-ro,

n.

look on, to look. (Luke 23, 35.) a grain or seed.


to

Y.
ya,
V.

to hasten, to
;

be sprightly, lively ;

to be

easy
to

'WO-'We,

n.
V.

hail.
to perceive, to observe.

wd-ye,

of performance hold in pawn;

to select

to tvarrn,

an image to worship ; to be warm.

YA
yd^v.
to tear
;

T9

YON

to rejoice. comh, adjust ; to pluck cr& yfi.-y6 (ayS), v. a well to depart, separate ye, V. to lay eggs ; to be pleased ; to cease doing a from company, give place in a crowd. to be comprehensible : 6 tiling ye mi, 6 ye W91), / understand it, they understand it. yi, V. to be : 6 yh aro, he is a cripple. (Acts 14, 8.)

apart ;

to

of corn

to cave in, as

ya-lDO-de,

v.

to

smuggle.
to he

ye
yd,

interj.
V.

oh

! alas !

ya-di

(odi), v.

dumb.

to live, to be

sound in health.

ya-dzu
ya-g&l)

(odin),

v.

to be

(agai)), v.

saucy. to be barren.

ye'-me-dz4, n. the goddess of streams. ye-ye, n. mother.


ye,
Iloriq).
to err.
V. V.

ya-gbe

(igbe), v.

to
71.

evacuate fceces.

to be fit, ivorthy, suitable. to

ya-htl-di (Arab.),

a Jew (so called at


to

y,

make much
a
little,

of,

indulge, praise.

ya-kpa ya-kpa
ya-la,

(ikpa), v.
. . .

to seimrate, to

go astray,

y, adv.

lightly (sleeping).

si-16, v.
v.

separate from, avoid, slum.

yS,

V.

to

turn out of place, change, postpone.

ya-ku-ro,
couj.

to leave, clear out, to be absent.

ye-mo-ti.

whether.
(li),

ye-na
. . .

See yor)m9ti. to open a road. (ona), v.


v.

ya

lo-to
n.

V.

See ya

S9t9.

yfe-ra (ara),

to

change one's position,

to

turn

ya-ma,
ya-na yi-na
the

the west.
n.

aside, to dei)art.

yam-yam,

a musketo.
to

(ina), v.

warm

at the fire.

ye-tu-ye-tu, n. a blossom, yfe-wu, n. a chamber.


v. V.

(9na), v.

to step

out of the road, to get out of yi,

to turn, revolve,

move, pervert.

way.
.

yi,
v.

to be tough, fibrous.
this.
v.

ya
ya

ndze,
ni ha,

to cheat.
v.

yi, pron.

ya-ndzu
.

(ni odzu),
v.

to be beautiful.

yi
yanu
si,

d.-n5,
V.

to

overturn, spill.

to chagrin, to mortify.
to
at.

yi-gbi,
to

to be

dull or slow in hearing or believing.


to prevaricate.

ya-nu
yar),t.

(enu), v.

open
.

tloe

mouth

yi-gi, n.

marriage.
(oliur)), v.

gape or wonder

yi-hur)

to encircle, to surround. tohake,fry,parch ; to loalk leisurely, proudly. yi-ka, v. yi yar), adv. ku-ro, v. to avert, to cross the hands in salubrilliantly (sliininjr).
. . .

yftlj, V.

to gape, to
to

yawn,

to

neigh

to kick.

tation.

yS.r), V.

choose, select, appoint, to

take out

from

ylr), V.

to

move,

to

shake slightly,
to eject

to

lay eggs, to

among
a thorn

several, to
:

buy food from a cook,


(Exod.

to extract 5, 14.)

attract attention, excite covetous desires.


yir), V.
to praise,

yar) le, to appoint over. n.

admire

suddenly.
to shoot.

yar)-gar),

maize.
clay stone cemented with iron.

yir)-bor)

(ib9i)), v.

to fire to

yai>gi,

M.

ylr)-fir) (ofiij), v.

a gun, break a law.

yar)-gi-di, n.

a bundle of emeries.
a
cat.
to threaten.

yi

yarj-hai), ya-ur), n.

kpa-da, v. to turn, convert, pervert, yi-kpo, V. to turn aside, to pass away.


. . .

avert.

yar)-hur)
yar)-kor),

(ohui)), v.
v.

ylt)

. .

lo-go

(li),

V.

to extol, glorify. to shoot, to

to

add
v.

select things to.

yir)

ni-b9r),

v.

shoot at.

yar) yar)

kpa-mo,
ni-kpa,
ni-tete,
v.

to lay up, as

money.

yir)-yir), n.

hail.

v.

to set at variance.
v.

yi-si

pron.
V.

which

yar) yai)

ni-kpo-si,
v.

to set

at naught.

yi-yS,
to

cessation, failure, healthiness.

to

kick (applied to beasts).

yi-yi, n.
be

ivhich is rough, scaly.

yar(-rar),

to

boast

of one's knowledge,

y6, yo,
to

V.

to be full, satisfied

with food.

obstinate in one's opinion.

yd, adv.
as a

deeply (red).
to

yar)--we (owe),
yar)-yar), adv.
y3.r)-yS.r), adv.

v.

to be

plump,

young

bird.

V.

pull

out, to

draw, as a sword;

to deliver,

entirely.

ya-ra,
ya-ra,

n. n.

roughly, unevenly. a room : yara okc, an upper room. a ditch around a toion.
to

put forth young as the new moon. y6,


V.

escape ; to

leaves ; to appear,

to melt,

to feel

compassion
:

to slip,
si i,

to

be

slippery, to

walk

stealthily

mq

mi yo

I pity

ya-ra
yft-ra

(ar4), v. (ara),
v.

hasten, to be active.

him.

to

warm

oneself

y6,
or set apart to a

V.

to rejoice, to be glad, to
v.

triumph

over.

ya...so-to
purpose.

V. (si),

to separate,

yo-dza-de,

to
v.

protrude.
to be
v.

yb-dzH
to be different, to differ. to

(odzu),

conspicuous, to appear,
harass, annoy.
the

ya-to

(9t9), v.
v.

ya-ur),

mew ;

yo

le-nu

(enu),

to

n.

cat.

yo-nu

(enu), v,

to toash

mouth

to

be trou-

YSi-ySL, adv.

nimbly, briskly.

blesome.

YON
y6r),
V.

80
yo-ro,
n.

YUN
vermin on fowls.
V.
.
.

to itch.

y5r), adv.

with force
to

(falling)
off.

in a swarm.

yo

su-ti-sl,

to

thrust out

the lips at,

to

ydr),

V.

cut or saio

deride.

yoQ-mo-tl, n. yo-ri (ori), v.


of
tall

sesame, the bene plant.


to raise the head, as
;

yo-y o,
V.

n.

a group, a JlocJc, a constellation.


to conceive, to be

from the midst ydr),


fro.

pregnant

to

go

to

and

grass

to

appear, to be conspicuous, pro-

minent.

APPENDIX.
[Some of
tlie

following words have been supplied from memory, and others from Crowther's Vocabulary, a was not able to procure for a long time after my return to America. T. J. B]

work which

ABA
a-bai-ye-dze
maker, a
(a

AIM
aiyc), n.

ba

dze

a mischief-

children

agboqgbcre kpete

igara, snatching re-

tattler.
?t.

sembles

(lit.

thinks of) robbery.

a-ba-ku-lu-dze,
A-b9-do-rir)
a-bo-gS.!), n.

(abi)

a kind of egret. de orii) ?), n. a jiroper name.


a house or
settle-

a-gbor)-yi, n.

a-gbu-bo,
a-ge, n.
.-gO-ro, n.

n.

a kind of antelope. a forest bird.


officer,

See abowogai).
;

a petty

a king's servant.

an island a-dfi.-d6 (da odo), n. ment in a retired situation.

title

of honor.
rides, is rid-

a-gn-m5-na,
a-gur),
den,
killed
n.
dtc.

A-de-rlr), a proper name of a man. A-de-gb6, a proper name of a man.

a running plant. n. a climbing, a riding, which See gui).


'

a-di-re i-ra-na,
a-di-ri
(ori), n.

n.

the

fowl of propitiation,

a-h.a, n.

Sec the root See the root


n.

ha.'
he.'
d-c.

jnst as a person dies.

a-he,
insurrectionist, one

n.

'

grape-shot.

a-he-so,

a newsmonger, a smattercr,
dr..
'

See

a-do-te-si-lS, n.

an

who pro-

heso.

motes rebellion or enmity.


a-dCir), n.

See adSq.
a jerking; one toho jerks, which
is

a-ho, a-hu.
jerked,

n.

a cawing,
See the root
n.

See h9.
a falsehood, a false re-

hu.'

a-dza,
etc.

n.

a-hu-so,
port.

which

is false,

See dza.

a fighting, a fighter, c&c. See dia. ai-ba-de, n. unsuitable, unbecoming. not fiat, uneven. a-dza-SO, n. a flying report, hearsay. ai-be-le, n. a town in Yoruba. (broken by war), a town west of Ba- Ai-bd, n. A-dzd.-se, n. which does not refuse, which consents. dagry. aX-dSX, n.
a-dz., n.

a-dze,

n.

the water ordeal.


n.

a-dze-fo-"WO,
name.

a jMt-herl.
n.

ai-dza, n. ai-dzo, n.

See the root dza.


unlike, dissimilar.
n.

See dio. See he.

A-dzi-bo-kpe,

(^pahn-ioorshipper),

a proper ai-gbe-se,
ai-he,
n.

not indebted, not owed.

a-fQ-re-si-bi, a-fd-re-si-gi, n.
son.

an ungrateful per- ai-ke-si,


ai-kl, n.
is

n.

not lacked up or gathered. not visited, unvisited.

not saluted, dc.

See

ki.

a-forj-ru-gbli), n.
a-gar)-rar), n.

a sower

which

sowed,

d:c.

ai-ki-lo, n.

not warned, unadmonished.

the green parrot.

a-gai)-"WO,

n.

tree

used for timber.

al-ko, n. ai-ko, n.
belotv

ungathered

not hard.

See ko. See ko.


See

uninstructed, ignorant.

a-gba-kar)-kar),

n.

a forest
the

bird.

ai-ko-la, n.

untattooed, uncircumcised.

A-gba-ma-ya,
oknta.

n.

name of a town

Abe- al-kbr),

ai-ktir), n.
n.

unmurmuring.

kftq.

ai-ko-se,
n.

a-gba-Tvd,

See

agbasli).
n. the

ai-kilr), n.

free from stumbling, void of offence. which is not remaining ; finished, ex-

a-gba-yor), a-gba-yoQ-kor), hausted, used up. the sweet" taste of which remains in the ai-19, n. unsaved ; berry,

miraculous

invisible,

dc.

See

la.

mouth
a-gbe,
n.

for a long time.

ai-la-di, n.
d'c. (see

unexplained.
unreconciled.
unsettled, as a dispute.

one who takes,

gbc)

a-gbil), M.

which

is 2'lanted,

a planter.

a cockatoo. ai-19.-dza, See gbii). ai-la-dzo,


n.

n. n.

a-gbir)-yi-ka-gba,
garden.

n.

a hedge or fence around a ai-ll-fa,


ai-lu, n.

disadvantageous, unprofitable.
the

name of a plant.
n.

a-gb6,
11

n.

which

is

heard
the

a hearer.

See gb6.

ai-lu, n.

not perforated, imperforate.


inconsiderate, improvident.

a-gb6r)-gbe-re,

n.

snatch-game, played

bv at-mS-te, ai-mS-ro,

AIM
ai-me-le,
al-tnl, n.
n.

82
:

BIB
a fashion, custom.
aiye), n.
th

not lazy, industrious

&e almele, to

i-ra, n.

be industrious.

unshaken,
n.

<t.

See
is

ani. d:c.

a-rai-ye (arA mankind.


See a-ra-ra, adv.
a-ra-AVO,
n.

people of the world,

ai-mo, ai-mu, mu.


ai-mO.,
n.

which

not drzmk,

at all.

a carnivorous
n. n.

bird,

not sharp, dull.

a-re-ke-re-ke,
ra.

dishonesty,

a dishonest person,

Ai-na,

n.

a proper name.
unhouyht,
unshorn,
unseen,
<S;c.

a-re-re-gbo-sur),

a small bird with red feathers,


merriment.

ai-rfi, n.

See

fi-ri-ya,
h.-XQ, n.

&ri-y6,

n.

ai-re, n.
ai-ri, n.

dec.

See See
ri.

re.

a small bird with blue feathers.


a previous agreement, a bargain.

etc.

a-ro-si-16, n.

ai-r9.
al-si, n.

See root

ro.
^i.

al-tS, n.

See unopened, d:c. unsold. See ta.


the

a-ru-gbo-ru-gbo, n. a very old man. a-ru-ko, n. a hoe-handle.


a-ru-kpe, n. a-ru-lu (ilu),
Seeke. a-sa,
interj.

a dwarf.
n.

a-ka,

n. K.

name of a

tree ;

the armadillo.

a seditious person.
asia.

a crier; a cutter, which is cut, i&c. a-ke, a hater ; a saponaceous plant. K. a-ke-ri, n. a climbing plant, used for ropes. a-ke,
A-ki-o-la,
n.

See

^-sa, n.
a-ta, n.

the batten of a loom.

a resinous

tree.

{only honor), a proper name.

a-t3.r)-ko-ro, n.

disease in fowls.

a-ki-sa-lS, n.
a-k6r)-ror), n.

a running plant. a closet.


a roll of tobacco.

a-ti-16-nde
a-ti-nl, n.

(ati ile), n.

a youth, adolescent.

possession, attainment.

a-kpa a-sa-ra, n. a-kpa i-kd-ko, n.


thread
is

a-ti-0-ro, n.
wliicli shoe-

a
a

tassel ;

a kind of bird

a kind of

a fibrous plant, of

plant.
a-to-ri, n.
tree the

made.
n.

a-kp5-dzCl,

the majority,

abundance.

a-tOr)-"wfi.h, n.

wood of which is very elastic. a coming again, a returning.

a-kpog, .. a king-fisher. a-ku-ma-la-kpa, n. the young


tree.

a-tur)-se.
leaf of
the shea-

a-'wa-'wa, n. like a dog.

See at9gse. a small climbing animal which barks

a-la, a-ia., n.

See the roots


'

'

la

'

and

'

la.'

A-wa-ye,
a-"w6,
n.

a-la, a prefix equivalent to oni,' implying the owner, the actor, Ac. (Gram. 52, 1, 4).

the name of a town. n. a washing, cleansing, that which cleanses. a-'wS-de (ide), n. an herb used for cleaning brass:

a-Ia-ba-lase
of Obatala.

(ala

ba ni

a^e), n.

the oracle ;

a name

onibaba ni itodiu orombo, onide ni itodiu awede, the owner of copper looks for a lemon, the owner of
brass looks for awfede.

a-la-ba-wdr), n. a sprinkler ; one who has a stain on his character.


a-la-dii, n.

a-"w5r) e-kur),

n.

nettle,

a-la-fe, n.

a refuser. a lover.

a-"wu-ka-ra

(akara), n.
conj.

lit. leopard's tongue. leavened bread.

a-ya-m5-kp6,
a-y6r),

otherwise, unless.

a-la-fe-ni, n.

a charitable person, a philanthropist. a-la-gba-da, n. a maker or dealer in the garment


agbada.
a-la-gur), n.
n.

ay

Cir), n.

a saw, a

file.

a-la-h6r),
a-la-ri, n.

a perspirer. which has a tongue, tongued.

B.
ba-bo, n. a tree with a broad leaf. ba-na-ba-na, n. a kind of insect. ba-na-ba-na, be-na-be-na, n. a

a-le, n.

the

a king's spy or policeman, name of a plant.


the fig-eater, a bird.

A-II, a proper name.

narcotic plant.

a-19-ke-le, n.

ba-uq
be-dzi

(ba

oi)),
V.

adv.
to

so, thus.

al-ma-ga-dzi, n. scissors, A-lu-lii, a proper name.


a-lu-kl, n.

shears.

(bi),

bear twins. give a false reply, to utter a false-

b6-ke

(bii),

v.

to

b5\vo fu

hood. a slender prickly plant : bi ina dzo, ^ when the fire burns (the woods), it b6-ro-fu aluki,

(bii), V.

to refiect

upon,

to

think about.

respects the aluki

(and leaves

it

uiiburned).

Be-se,

n.

a town in Yoruba.'
v.

a-lu-ma-ga-dzi, n. See alraagadii. a-mkar), a-mu-kar), n. sorrel plant. a-md-dze we-Ave, n. a medicinal plant.

bS-mi
bi-ba, bi-bd,

(bil),

to give life to.

bi-a-ti-Q'Wi, adv.
n. n.

just now, at once, immediately.


(tc.
eSc.

a meeting,
a bending,

See ba. See ba.

a-mgba-du,
a-rfi, n.

n.

the

name of a pot-herb,
bird.

the

name of a

bi-bi, K.

that ivhich is pushed, dc.

Sec

bi.

BIB
bi-bo,
n.

83
See bo.
e-ba,
n. n.

EIIU
E.
an
oil-jar.
off.

that which is fed, a feeding, d'c. that ivhich


.

bi-bfl, n.

is

given, dx.
to sjwil

See bu.
love, to

bi-fe-dze (ba.
mity.

.die), v.

cause en-

e-bo,
V.

a peeling

bl-kp5,
breed.

to

breed together

mu

bi

kpo,

to cross

e-d&, n. e-de, n.

a creating, creation.
slackness, as of a rope
twins.
;

ripeness.

Bl-d-kfl, n.

(if he does not die),


n.

a proper name.
be tcith us), the

e-dzi-e, e-dzi-re, n.

Bi-o-l9-rur)-kpe-lu, name of a town.


Bi-ri, n.

(f God

e-dzu,
e-ga,
n.

n.

casting,

which

is cast.

a height.

(darkness), the slave of Sarjgo.


(bii), V. to salt.

e-ga-ni, n.
e-gui), n.

See egake.
length.

bl-yo-sl

bo-dzi, bo-dzir), n. bom, n. a kind of

See ibodzi.
tree.

e-ha,
e-he,

n.

scraper.
collection of

n.

a gathering or picking up, a


haiek^

bo-mu-bo-mu,
milk.

n.

tree the leaf

of which curdles

things.

e-kar) a-"wo-di, n.
(li),

claio,

a prickly shrub

bo

la-so

V.

to strip off the clothes.

so called.

bo-sl, V. bu, adv.

to enter, enter into.

e-kar) e-kur),
se, or 6 bu
tai), it is

n.

leoparcTs claw, a prickly shrub so

nearly, almost

6 bu

called.

nearly finished, completed, all gone.

e-k5, e-k6 9
year.

dtir), n.

the

winding up or end of the

Bu-ku,
bu-su,

n.
V.

See Buruku.

any

soft

springy substance, loose heavy


the

e-ko-ro,
e-k6r), n.

n.

that ivhich is bitter. that which is full.

sand, soft peaty earth.

bu-su-gba
fruit.

(igba), n.

soft

pulp of

the locust

e-ku-se,

n.

the

name of a
is

disease.

e-le-ri, n. e-16-si, n.

See
one

olori.

who

mistaken.
awoi), the tortoise), n.

e-na a-vror) (ena

for m&,jire;

D.
da-bd,
V.

the flickering

appearance of the atmosphere in hot


n.

dry weather.
to cease.
lie

to cease
V.

da

bu-16,
v.

coming, to cause to

e-re,
to

e-we-re,
'

a kind of white bean with a black

down,

lay down.
of.

eye.

da-kpa-ra,
da-kur),
v.

to sneer at, to

make a jest

to cease.
v.

e-ro-dzi-ka-si, n. a kind of sweet plum, a kind of tree. e-sir), n.


e-su-O, n.

da-ktlr) (okuq),

to

make yarn

into hanks.

a kind of antelope.
paint, color,

da da

ku-ro,
le-bi,
v.

v.

to release, acquit, to

redeem.

6-se, 6-se, n.

condemn, censure.
v.

e-su-su,

n.

dar)-ka-re,

n.

soldiers.
to

e-tu-tu, n.

a running prickly plant. a small species of white ant or termes.


ear-leaf,
i.

da-o-ru-ko, da-ru-ko,

da

"wbx),

V.

to enclose,

shut in

mention by name. : sakati ni ida


themin(t\\(iiciviw

e-we

e-ti, n.

e.

convolvulus, so called
is

because the juice of the leaf


heal sore
eai-s.

mixed with

oil

to

woi) woi)
of) Bese.

mlii(is,(i,lhe

marsh shuts

e-'we i-na,

de-htli) (obuq), di-le-di-le, adv.

V.

to

lower the voice.

n. fire-leaf, an acrid poisonous shrub, the leaf of which blisters the skin.

dilatorily.
to be careful,
V.

di-yar) (da),
d6-ti,
V.

v.

do-g^Q-si-lS (da),
to

to

thoughtful about. cause war. e-de, n.


:

E.
a kind of
n.
tree.
lit.

encamp

against, besiege.

do-te-si-16 (da), v. to cause enmity. du-du, adv. blackly, gloomily, darkly

odzo ^u e-do-fo-fo,

irascibility ;

liver

of foam.
;

dudn,

the rain

(i.

e.

the clouds) gathers darkly.


the

The

liver is

supposed to be the seat of the passions


to receive
liver),
to be

dza-na-dza na,
dza-ndu-kti,
n.

n.

name of a

disease.

hence gbod9 (gba edo,


rageous,
to

cou-

dza-6-ke,
dza-ta,
v.

n.

tlie

a wicked person. name of a shrub.


to be careless.

dare.
n.

e-ga a-kpa-SO,

a kind of palm-bird,

to be

unconcerned about,

dzu-dzu,

n.

a confused mass, chaos.

e-go, e-go-r9, n. a kind of plant. water-melon seeds, the oil -gu-sI, n.


e-hi-ri, n.

made of

them,

e-hil-ru, n.

a poisonous plant. a kind of large bird.

EIY
ei-ye-le
(ilc), n.

84
lit.

IDZ
...
. . .

a pigeon

house-bird.

e-ka-do-rir), num.

the seventieth. the ninetieth.


fiftieth.

fq fo

kpe-te-kpe-te, v. to destroy. tu-tu, rau-raio, fo ru-ru, fo


. . . . .

v.

to

e-ka-do-rur), num.

destroy entirely.

e-ka-do-ta, num.
e-ke,
n.

tlie

iq

y9.r)-yai),
n.

v.

to

break

to pieces, to

smash.

the cheek, the jaw-bone. the eighth. the fourth. the ninth. the third. the tenth. the eleventh.
.

f9-nu,

an

elastic

wood used for bows,


brag.

e-ke-dzo, num.
e-ke-rir),

fp-nu
take.

(enu), v.
(fi),

to boast,

num.

fo-'w6-l

V.

to place the

hand on
fura.

to

under-

e-ke-sar), tium.

e-ke-ta, num.

fU-la, n.

a kind of beer.
il|,

See

e-k&-"wa, num.
e-ku,
.

fu-lS-fu.-16 (fu

for the earth), adv.

freely, co-

e-ko-kar)-la, num.
n.

piously.

a running plant.

e-ktl-ku,
kiln for

e-le-TJU, n.

a very viscous j^lant. one who owns or occupies a


oil

fu-15-f9-l9-rui), fur)-le-fu-l9-rur), adv. (lit. for the earth and for God), of one's own accord, freely,

making
n.

e-le-gbe i-na,
is

of choice. house, or a or burning earthen-ware. fur)-kur), f9r)-kur), companion of fire, a bird which
(to catch insects)

v.

to

discharge mucus.

liovers over the fire prairie

when the

burning.

G.
a person with proga-ga-dz6,
gbft,
V.

e-le-yii)-dz<l (eyii) odiu), n.

minent

eyes,

pop-eyed.

n.

tree

which grows near

the water.

e-li-ri, e-lu-ru, n.

a mouse.

to

wrap

e-lu i-'wa-se, n. the small-leaved indigo, an her- gbfi. a-du-ra, v. to pray. baceous plant much like the American indigo. to take exercise or recreation. v. gb9. i-da-ra-ya, e-lu o-gbo, n. the broad-leaved indigo, a small tree gbil i-kpe, v. to take comfort, to be comforted. with very long virgate branches. The fine indigo gbe (to be), a pleonastic particle much used after
of

up, to envelope. to take (lit. prayer),

Sudan
w.

e-mo,

is the product of this plant. a kind of brown rat.

adverbs and nouns of place

as, nihiijyi

li

a gbe

k6 ara wa
met
here.

{here it-is

we

to-be

met

selves our),

we

e-rir)-di-16-gur),

num. 6-rir)-di-16-gb9r), num.


e-rtl,
71.

sixteen.

twenty-six.

a kind of
n.

spice,

nsed as medicine.
deceit),

gbii)-gbi-nd6 (gbiijgbii) odo, planted by the water), a tree growing near streams which bears an esculent
bean.

E-ru-mu,
Ibadajq.

{caught by

a town east of

gbd-do-gi (gba odo


a medicinal employed
grain,
i.

igi),

n.

the

name of a jdant.

e-rur), n.

tree.

A
away

fumigation of the
evil spirits.

bark
e-t9., n.

is

to drive

a kind of leopard.
e.

I.

S-"wa,

n.

corn of any kind ; a mixture

of boiled
e-yir), . e-ylr), n.

com and
a

beans.

i-ba-dd (odo),

n.

the water's edge, coast, shore.

e-"WTl-ru, n.

int-fall covered tvith earth.

that ^ohich protrudes or is prominent.


charcoal.
the eyeball.

I-ba-dar) (iba odag), n. {the meeting of the woods tvith the pirairie), a large town fifty miles east of Abeokuta.

e-yir)-dztl, n.

I-ba-ra (ba ra

?),

n.

a town near Abeokuta.


tribes,

one of the Yoruba I-ba-ra-kpa, west of Idzaye and south of Isaki.


n.

living

F.
f3.-ti,

adv.

freely, leisurely, greatly.

See

fa.

I-b6, n. {who is peeled), a proper name. one of the Yoruba tribes, in the N. E. of I-bo-l9, n. the kingdom.
I-d, n,

6-11-1)4-16, V.

See foribale.

f6-ri-bo,

V.

See foribo.

I-d6, .

{hunting), a large town east o/"Ibadar). {camping), the name of a town.

f6-ri-ti, V.

See
V.

foriti.

i-dd-do, n.
the car
to, to listen attentively,

See adodo.
n.

fo-ti-si
to

(fi),

to

put

i-du-kpe,
toions

a thanking, thanks.
{a fighting around), the
river, called

hearken.

I-dzS.-kfl., n.

fi-la, n.
fi
. . .

a cap.
to

on the Yeriwa

name of two Idzakokc or Idik-

se-sir), v.
(fi),

put

to

shame,

to

shame, disgrace.
to

kauke

(oke), upper Idzaka,

and Idzakodo (odo),

fo-ri-si

V.

to

pay

attention

to,

apply the

lower Idzaka.
I-di8.-16,
71.

mind

to.

a town in Iketu. {a fighting for home),

IDZ
I-dza.-y6, n. [fiyhting for miles JSf.E. of Aheokuta.
life),

85
a lanje town fifty
the

YE

ro-ke-ke,

n.

a tumult, an uproar. a running plant.

ru-ke,

n.

See irukere.
rat's hole ;

I-dze-sa,
country.

n.

tribe in

the

N.E. of

Yoruba

sa, n.
sfi, n.

a sharp

stick or bar for digging holes in the

I-fa-gbe-mi,
given
I-f6, n,
to

n. (Ifa helped me), a proper children in honor of Ka.

name

ground. se-hir)
sir)-ku
(i-se-i),
re.

(enlargement),

tribe

and a town of Yotribe

(okii), n.

a town west of the Oguij. burial, a funeral.

ruba.
I-ga-la, I-ga-ra,
n.

s3.-be, n.

(a doing or

an opening beneath

?)

a semi- Yoruba

east

of

Yoruba.
I-ga-na,
n.

a considerable town in Jbarakpa.

See

Igana. I-gbe-ti, n.

of Yoruba. a heap or height?), a n. sa-ga, (the making of town west o/"Abeokuta. sa-ki, n. (a snapping, as of a gun, a failure), a
the west

town in

(entangled loith bushes?), a toiun on a


q/"Iloriij.

large town in the west of Yoruba.

mountain west
I-gbo-ho,
n.

sa-la, n.
ioien in
the
cir-

toion near

Aibo.

(the noisy forest?), a

se-dztl, n.

the twinkling of

an

eye,

an

instant

^. W. of Yoruba, cuit but now much


n.

formerly twenty miles in reduced. Lander's Bohoo.

ni isedzii kaij, in

a moment, instantly.
of lots, a lottery. a kind of tree, a kind of grass.
roots.
isir).

se-ke-ke,

n.

the casting
n.

i-hu-l&-hu-16, i-ka-nu, n. See iko infra.

See ihul5.

se-kpo-lo-hui), a hem. se-ti, n.

I-ke-tu, m.

(a cutting loose?),

tribe

and town of and small


:

si-gur), n.

a prairie shrub with aromatic

Yoruba.
i-ki (ikki), n.
erect ears,

si-ko, n.

species of

tree called also isi

or

an animal
o so
iki

luith large eyes

si-se, n.

a wrong

action,
n.

a misdeed.

which feeds on the kola or goora nut


obi,
bi
?

si-ye-me-me-dzi,
scruple.

a doubting, a doubt, a

iwo
(art

le

dze

thou art able


;

to eat
?

always eating) kola nuts

art thou an iki


?),

so-n6,

n.

peevishness, surliness.
severity, provocation.

I-ki-si, n.

(an opening of the thicket


the act

a large town
of feeling a

so-ro, n.

near Igboho.
i-ko,
n.

sd-ro, n.

difficulty.

of gathering
:

the act

SU,

n.

the act

of casting out, emission, evacuation.

iko anu or ikanu, a pitying, a See kajHi. feeling compassion or sorrow.

mental emotion

sQ., n.

the state of being dark,


n.

gloomy ; darkness.

SU-bu,
t&, n.

a fall,

the act of falling.


tree

the name of a plant. i-kpai)-ko-ro, n. a proper name, a town on the Niger. I-la-de, n. 1-16 O-de, n. (the hunter's house), a village near

the

name of a

much used for fuel.


tree?),

t.-b6, n.

(shaded by the itd


n.

a town in a being

Yoruba.

Idzaye.
I-le-sa, n.

a very large town, the capital of Idiesa. The syllable ^a in these two wards is a contrac'

ta-gbo-kur), under sail.

the act

of setting

sail,

'

tion of a proper
I-le-sai), n.
I-lo-rir), n.

name.

ta'-ma-ha, n. ta-me-ta, n.
n.

hope, hoping, expecting.


the meeting

a town in Ibarakpa.

(a going to loalk ?), a large town in the north of Yoruba, a proper name of persons.
the

of three streets or roads. a fondling, a worshipiping. See te. te, te-ro, n. a town west of Igana. tS, n. a trampling on, d'c. See t^.

I-lu-ku, n.
i-na-ki-ri, n.

I-ra-"WO,

n.

name of a town. a carpenter's compasses. (star), the name of a town in the west-

tS-do

(te ed9), n.

composure, patience.

te-le-di, n.
hips.

the

under garment, worn around the


n.

ern part of Yoruba, the head-quarters of Orisako. i-ra-"WO i-lS, n. (ground star), a medicinal plant.
i-rir)

te-"WO, i-te-"WO-gb&,
tl-le-hir), n.

acceptance, reception.

aiding, abetting, support of a person

o-kpa i-kp5

(walking-staff, abundance), n.

in his cause.

rapid journey, a forced march.

-t6-bo-lo, n.

a town in Iketu.

i-r6-dzu, n.
tenance.

perplexity, vexation, sadness of coun-

"wa-ri,

n.

homage

to a king.
bitter kola-nut.

i-ro-ko, n.

farm
an

labor, tilling ;

a farmer.

w6, w6,
w6.

n.
ra.

the tree

which bears the

a falling ; a pushing do^vn, a felling.

See

i-rO-k6, n.
i-ro-ko, n.

esculent

running plant.
in

i-rd-ko, n.
Liberia.

a kind of okra or esculent hibiscus. a fine timber tree, called sassa wood

wd,

re.

a a

look,
tree

y&, n.

appearance ; a raven. with broad leaves.


edza),
re.

ye-m9-dza (om9
patience, 2>erseverance.
fishes)',

(the

mother of young

i-ro-dzu, n.

one of the Yoruba idols.

lYE
i-ye-re, n.

86

LER

the seeds of the African locust. ko ko, ko-ri-ko, n. grass. an unI-ye-'Wa, n. (our mother), one of the Yoruha ko-md-re-kd-mo-ra (m^ ore mh ova), n. idols ; a small river which falls into the Osa west grateful ^^erson, lit. he knoivs not goodness, he knows

of Badagry. i-y e-y 6, n. a kind of sour plum. i-yi-kp9,-da, . a turning, conversion.

k6-ni-lg-k6-15-na
a road),
n.

not the purchaser of the thing which he enjoys. (ni, to have ; ile, a house ; 6na,

ko-ro-kpo-ma,

a vagabond, a vagrant. ra. the name of a plant.


not good,
it is

K.
k., k'S.
(ki a),

ko-si-a, ko-su-ar), kd-su-'wa, adj. not proper. See sua.


k6-si-r)kar), n.
nothing,
lit.

there is nothing.

an

optative particle
;

conversation,

Ze/

MS

shall
let

much used in k6-t6. See koit6. we? shall I? ynay we? ko-'we, n. a bird
; k'a kpe woij ? shall I ride ? k'a

so called from its cry.

may you

k'a bere,

us inquire

k5-bi-k5-bi, adv.
castellated wall.
built in this

with

many

prelections, like

shall toe call them ? k'4 ge^ir) ? de be li alafia may we reach there in peace f k'a sill) 1-6 may you sleep well ! a very
!
!

The
'

walls of royal cities only are

way.
i>'07i

customary ^9"^9"S^9i

**

pin on which thread

is

salutation on retiring to rest at night.


yesi

See kabi-

wound.

and kaloh.
(introd.

ko-SO-ko,
n.
coffee.

n.

ka-fe

from Ilausa),

K5-so-k6
sometimes of k5-t6,
adj.
n.

(ko

a kind of bird. si a proper name. oko), .

kai

an exclamation of

dispileasure,

wonder.
ka-nfi. (kai) na), pron.

same person. ka-ndzti (kaij odiG), v. See kaijdzfi. ka-ndzQ. dzai-ye, ?. one who makes haste rich, a covetous person.
a kind of gnat called ka-nti-ka-nti, n. drunkard ;" a kind of ant.
kar),
k&l),
V.
V.

not straight or right, crooked, wrong. Additional phrases to those already given kp8i, the same: enia kana, the are, kpa agbo, to form a circle, as in dancing kpa al6, to cease burning in a flame ; kpa alo, to pro;

pose a riddle
to he

kpa

ase, to

command,
;

to

proclaim a

^'

the

kpa imo, to consult, suggest, hint ; kpa iye, to forage in the farms ; kpa osu die, to miss or forget the month ; kpa
;

law

kpa

ete, to intend,

purpose

to ache. to reach, to arrive.

form a grove ; asori kl ikpa osusu, the never forms a grove, only one tree upas being found in a place ; kpa odio die, to miss or forget the
osusu, to
.
n.

kar)-ga-ra,

n.

kar)-gba,
kaq-rii),

v.
v.

a kind of bill-hook or pruning knife. day. See kagba. kpa-kpa-go-ri, to he far kpa kur)-re-te, off.

a kind of bird.
a kind of dove.

kar)-rir)-kar)-rir), adv.

far

off,

out of sight, dean

kpa-16

(alo), v.

to cease

gone.
ka.-ro, n.

kpa-m6
a bird so called from
n.
its cry.

(imo).
n.

kpa-nsu-ktl,
cover.

burning in a flame. See kpimS. a large calabash with a lid or

k6-gi-o, kS-gi-ro, n.

a kind of bird.
the

ke-ke-le-ndze,
ke-l|,
V.

to

a small kind of lizard. cut down ; hence akelS, dropsy in


dc.

kpa-nti,
kp3.-si, n.

n.

See kpantiri.

chest.

a coarse grass used in thatching. kp6-kpo-l&, n. a tree with scarlet flowers.

ki-kar), n.

sourness,

(see

kar));adv.
kaij.

ear-

Ku-mi
ku-ru
!

(koi) omi?), n.

a proper name.
to drive

nestly, strenuously.

an outcry of women

away hawks.

kl-kar), n.

a dropping, dc.

See

ki-kar)-ki-kar), adv. ki-ke, n. See ke.

earnestly, strenuously.

ki-ke, ki-k|,
ki-ki, ki-ki,

n.
7i.

See ke and k5. See ki and


kl.

la-gba-de-me-dzi
7nidst.

(li),

adv.

in

the

middle or

ki-ko, ki-k6, ki-ko, ki-k5,

n.
n.

See ko and kb. See ko and k().


n.

lal-be-ru, adv.
k6i).
.

without fear, boldly.

ki-k9r), ki-k5r),

See

koij

and

lai-bd, adv.

in

an uncovered or unsheltered

state.
sitt.

ki-ku-na, n. ki-ye-sa-ra
be careful.

smoothness, fineness. lai-dze-bi, lai-lS-se, adv. to take care (kiyesi), v. or guilt. of oneself, to
.

innocently, without

k6-i-t6, adv.
loh,
it is

not yet, lit, not time to go.

it

is

not enough

\h... 16-na (li), v. to enact, ordain. koito La-si-me-dzi, n. a proper name. le-ri (li), V. to have filth, to be filthy, unclean.

LEB
le-bi
(li), V.
(li),

87
condemned.

OMO
n.
(ci

to be guilty, to he
to he sinful.
is split

0-lu-ko-nto,
O-ni-se,
n.

a proper name.
doei-),

l|-se

V.

apro2}er 7iame.
tree.

li-14, n.

which

or to he split, Ac.

See

1^.

O-ra,

71.

a medicinal

li-16h, n.

a going, a departure.

O-ri, n.
6-ri, n.

a kind of wild pigeon.


a large f7-uit si7nilar to the black haw.

M.
Ma-dfi.-ri-ke, n.

O-ri e-ya, n. o-ri O-ya, n.


O-ri ... si,

tribe.

a ki7id of hedgehog.
. . .

o-ri

ya,
si,

v.

to

feel

lively, be
lit.

well
their

Mfih-kti,

71.

a proper name. a proper name.


embroidery.

pleased
O-ri

ori W9r)

they are delighted,

head opens.

mal-ki-ri,

n.

Ma-ma,
ma-na,
rah (emi

n.

n.
/,

a proper name. a kind of bird.


e not), in the

"wu, V. to be delighted with the conduct or words of an inferior who is much beloved to yeai-n.
. . .

0-r6, n.
dialect,

Egba

/ will

custom, habit, fashion.

not

me

dehir) ra aso,

/ will
tweli'e.

O-ro-fo, n.

not buy cloth again.

me-dzl-lfi, num.

O-ro-gbo,
O-ro-re, n.

n.

a kind of wild pigeon. a kind of kola-nut.


the
the

me-dzi-me-dzi, num. two by two. O-ru-kpa, n. me-yar)-me-yar), adv. in small pieces, (broken) O-ru-wo, n.
to

name of a bird. name of a tree.


tree,

a kind of
n.

useful for timber.

almns.
6-sir)
v.

mo-ko-ko (ikoko), mo-nu-mo-nu, n.


in5-hur)-gbo-gbo
to be all-wise.

i-"wefa,

to

make earthenware.
v.

(the left

hand eunuch), a eunuch


left

of the third rank.


0-sir) i-ya-lo-de, m.

See modum9du.
(oliui]),

to

know

all things,

hand), a
6-sir)

title

(a wise woman of the next to that of ot9r)-i3'alode.


n.

i-ya-ma,

[the
'

left

hand of

west),

the

south.

o.
o-bo-ni,
n.

name of a tree. name of a tree. O-si-kpi, n.


0-se, n.
of great

seci-et

society

power and O-SU-SU,


civil

71.

a kind of pi'ickly bush.

influence, connected with the religious and government of Yoruba. See ogboni.

d-Ave,

n.

young leaf of

the plant ewere.

0-dz6,
O-fu-a,

n.

a dancer

O-fi-ki, n.
n.

; a proper name. O-WU a-ke-se, n. a proper name. a kind of kola-nut ; the name of a me- O-TVU 6-gO-do, n.

d-Ave a-wpr), n. a trailing leguminous plant. O-Ave-re-dze-dze, n. a kind of trailing shrub.


a kind of cotton with small pods.
a ki7id of cotton with large pods.

dicinal

tree.

n. (the toild cat caught the sena large town in Yoruba. O-gbo-yS., n. a small carnivorous animal. O-gbu-gbu, n. a wild duck (?) a kind of grass ; o-bai-ye-dze.

0-gbo-m9-SO,
tinel ?),

o.

dyed cotton

loool.

See abaiyedie. 0-ba-kar)-bI-ke-dzi, w. a first cousin on the fathers side.

O-gu-ba-na, n. a proper name. 0-gu-b6, . a proper name. 0-gu-du-gb6, n. Sec ogodugbS. O-gu-mo, 71. an esculent herb.
O-gu-nto-ro,
O-gu-ro-do,
0-ki-ti-kp6,
O-ki-yar),
7-ocks.
7i.

Oba

Ku-so,

n.

the

King of Kuso, a title

of

Shango

who was
and
a kind of

a king of Kuso or Koso in Yoruba, at which place he descended alive into the ground,
for that reason n.

0-gur)-gur), n.
n.
??.

a proper name. a kind of tree.


[standing
erect),
tree.

was

deified.

o-ba-ni-dze,
bird.

See abanidze.

O-ba 0-g6,
9-dar)-ko, O-fa, n.
n.

n.

King of
a

Glory, a

title

of God.

name of a

n.

n.

a small aTlimal which lodges under O-dze-re,

species of wild fig-tree. a medicinal plant.

a town in Yoruba.
the

O-kpe-re,
always

n.

a bird

7ohich is said

to

be

almost 6-ka,

n.

name of a plant employed


the pepper-hird.
.

to

cure the

asleep.
n.

disease called oka.

6-kpo-kpo,
o-lo-gi-ri,
71.

a kind of banana.

O-kpe-re,

n.

O-lo-fe-re, n.

name of a
a

bird.

O-kporj si-b6,

the piine-etpple.

O-lo-gU-ni,

n.

species of oiiole. a small gregarious

O-kpo-to
bird.

ki-ti, n.
n.

a kind of wild

fig-tree.

O-lo i-n6,

the kidneys.

O-lo-kpi-ri, n.

7iame of a bird.

O-mo-lft-la, w.

a great-grandchild.

OMO
o-mo-ri-ka,
n.

88

TOM
s.

the tip

of the finger.
Sfi.-fa, n.

O-mo-ri o-d6, . o-mo-ri O-lo, n.


9-mo-t6,
V.

pestle.

the U2'>per millstone.


to he

an iron ring worn on


n.

the wrist

by hunters.

{child bends or prostrates),

taken

sa-gbe-sa-gbe,
sa-gor)
(se), V.

a beggar.

with the pains of child-birth. O-ta, n. a toion and tribe south q/"Abeokuta.
0-t6iJ ga-ba-si, n.
the north.

to be contentious.

sar)-kpa-nfi., n.

See sakpana.
the coffee-tree.

sa-sa-ba-ku,

n.

se bai-bai, v. to grotv dim, to be obscure. a eunuch of the second rank. 0-t6r) i-"we-fa, n. to interpret, act as second se gbe-de-gbe-yo, v. a loise woman of the o-t6r) i-ya-lo-de, n.
rank.
preter.
f/rasjn), to attain to,

inter-

0-"w6
to

tS, V. {hand bends or come into possession of: owo

re tB ol4, he attained

honor.
n.

name of a bird. n. se ru-bu-tu, v. to write. se su-na-si, v. to j^rovoke.


se-ne-'WO,
. .

0-'w5-'W0,
O-yai),
n.

a bird which lodges in holes. name of a tributary of the Ogiii).


:

se-tfir), adv.

after all ;~v. to complete.

o-y,

n.

grey color
one

esii)

9ye, a grey horse.

Oyo,
o-y6,

n. n.

the capital of

Yoruba.

who

rejoices,

rejoicer.
its

se-da e-le-fil), n. purple-shaded silk. se-da yo-ri-yo-ri, n. white silk. se-kpo-lo-hur), n. name of a prickly shrub. se lo-dzu or le-ka-na, v. to wink or beckon by
.

0-y5-g6-ho-g6-ho,

n.

a bird so called because


to indicate joy.

way of giving a
se-ni-fir)-rar), n.

hint.

motions are sup2>osed

name of a
to suit ; to

thorriy shrub.

se se

ni-ffil), V.

rub or scratch the body

of another.
. . .

ni-se,

v.

See se
so-siij.

nise.

E.
rar)-hur)
sedly.

se-sir), v.

See

si

raij-hur),

n.

perplexity

adv.
to

confu-

le-nu, v. to open one's mouth, open the mouth.


. . .

to

cause one to

sli), v.

See

si.

rar)-kpo (il<po), v. to speak me-yar)-ine-yar), v. rf


.

ironically.
to

So-fi-mi-de, So-a-nde,
atoms.

n.

a proper name.
to

crush
v.

SO-AVe-ra
effort.

(^e),

v.

to

struggle,

make a great

rir)

la-ga-ke

or le-gi-ni

(li),

to tickle.

ri-r, n.

that which is bought or to be bought, <tc.

so-fo-dir), n.
sti-ru,
V. V.

an

esculent herb.

See

ra.

to be small, to

ri-r6, n. ri-ro, n.

a going, dx.

See

le.

stl-ru,

he large, applied to a

applied to a leaf or buncb. bunch or any-

the act of forging iron ;

withering,

<f.T.

thing expanded.
su-si,
V.
to.

See

r9.
is to

to care for, to notice,

to

reply

when

spo-

a consuming, that which ri-rtir), n. sumed, (kc. See rui).

be con-

ken

rd

lo-dztl

(li),

V.

to

tame, domesticate.

rQ.-rtl, adv.

utterly (destroyed or

broken to

T.
pieces).

ta-ki-ri, n.

clemency.
v.

ta-ma-hai),
tar)-ga-lfi., n.

See tS.maha.
the
fniit of

s.
si-sS, n. si-SO, n.

tar)-gi-ri, n.

used in
a cooking,
to be

name of a bird. a running plant, the dressing morocco leather.


to

which

is

cooked, (tc.
so.

See

se.

ta-r

(ire), v.

tying, d:c.

Sec

tS
sur).

nfi, adv. ?

already

imprecate evil upon. : iwo t6 de na

hast thou

si-sdr), n.

sleeping, dc.

Sec

come already
\,h ...tL, V.

SO so SO so so

de-ru
di-di,

(ili), v.

to enslave. to

to

put under, submerge


abundantly.
to

hide, suppress.

so

li-11, V.

play a game.
monkey.
v. to

ti-a, n.

See

tira.

SO-di-mi-lo-to,
. .

n.

the solitary yelloiv

ti-ar)-ti-ar), adv.

dl rar)-hur) rar)-hur),

perplex.

ti

SO-de

(si),

v.

push

out, to exclude.

do-mo
do-r6
n. H.

(dl), V.

to

adopt.

(dl), V.

to enrich.

a wart ; the name of a bird. ti-"WOr)-ti-'WOr), n. toin-b6, an unnieaiiing word used by children at
play, while

SU-na-si,

provocation.

hopping on one foot


!

lakalaka tonibo

suu-ru,

See

su-rii.

hop along tomb6

TOR

89
w6-hir)
backed.
(ehii)), v.

YOR
to be

td-ro, n. a kind of rat, noted for its fatness. t6-fo (tu), n. to tell mournful news, to brine/ news
that a friend is dead.

crook-backed

or hunch-

wbxy-dd
to

(odo), v.

to

measure

the depth

of water,

to

tu . dz6
.

(odi6),

v.

dismiss

an assembly

sound.

'tuAio, to disperse, adjourn.

'wg-kg-'wg-so,

n.

the

name of a

bird.

u.
{x[;''pron.

him, her,

it,

after

a verb ending in

'

u.'

yfi-be-dzi (ibedii), god of twins.

v.

to

purchase images of the


lawless.

w.
"wk
. . .

y.-ha-na (ahana), v. to be wild, wicked, yar)-k5-to, n. an esculent herb.


to

lal-ya
n.

(li),

v.

encourage,

yai)-rar)-yai)-rar), adv. brilliantly. embolden yag-ril), n. an esculent herb.

strengthen.

yar)-riQ
See warakpa.
(w6),
v.

mi-mi
v.

Wa-kpa, wa-kpa-kai)
"Wfi-lS

y&-re

(ere),

or yi-yir)-rix), n. quicksand. to make or purchase an image

to

to squint. to the

worship.

(wah

il6), to

come
to the

wdlS

(his eye

came

ground : odiu r ya-rir), n. a disease in fowls. to dress greens for ground), he came to him- yi-fo (yi, to turn), v.
yir)-rir), v.
to yield
(li),

the table.

being drunk or crazy. we-re-"we-re, n. a dwarf.


self, after

or give

way under

the feet.

yo

16-h.ur)

v.

to seek to

entrap in conver-

wi-li-ki,

n.

leather
n.

worn by males.
the

sation.
n.

"WO-lu-ha,
prayer,

among

Mohammedans, family y9i)-yor),


yg-ti,
n.

a plant used for washing horses,


bird.

name of a

12

PART

II.

ENGLISH-YORUBA.
ABA
abaft', adv.
lehiij, sehiij.

ACC
ablu'tion,
a'bly, adv. abode', n.
abo'llsh,
V.

n.
li

aluwala, iweno.

absorb',

v.

mo, mu.
a.
ti

abaii'don,
abase',
v.

v.

fisilS.

agbara.

absorbable,
a.

16

mu.

aban'donment,
rele.

n.

ifisilS.

ebu, ibudioko.
kparui).
a.
ti

abase'ment,
abas'er,
n.

n.

arel, irelS.

arel|.

abo'lishable, abo'lisher, n.
.
. .

&

lb kparui).
ti

absorb'ed, absorb'ent, n. agbemu. absorp'tion, n. amu.


abstain',
v.

amu.

akparug, eni

fd,... sehii),

ron6.

abash',
lodiu.

v.

dodiuti, lodzuti,
idodiuti.

ti

kparui).

aboli'tion, .
n,

akpanii), ikparui).

abste'mious, a. abste'miously,
r9noron6.

arono.
adv.
li

arono,

abash'ment,
abate', v. abat'ed, a.
fa,

mu ... fa, wawo.


n.
ifa.

afa.

abo'minable, a. akorira. abo'minate, v. korira. abomina'tion, n. irira.


abori'ginal,
n.

abste'miousness,
ab'stinence, n. ab'stinent, a.
abstract',
16h, soq.
v.

n.

aron6.

irono. iron6.
.

abate'ment,

atetedelS.

abbre'viate, v. ke kuru. abbrevia'tion, n. ike kuru. abbre viator, n. ake kuru.


ab'dicate, v. abdiea'tion,
ii

abor'tion,

n.

iseno

to suffer

gbe

16h,

mu

. . .

abortion, ieng.

oye

\%.

abor'tive, a. ^saij. abstruse', a. diinle, luha. abound', v. kp5. See multiply, abstruse'ly, adv. diinle, luhaincrease.

n.

ifoyelS.

luha.
kiri, niha.

abdo'men, n. ikuij. abdo'minal, a. ikui),


abduc'tion,
abet',
V.

ti

ikuq.

about', adv. about', prep,

abstruse'ness,
nle.

n.

adilnle, idzi-

nidi, niditi, niha.

n.

igbel6h.

See aid, help.

above', adv. above', prep.


soke.

leke, loke, soke.

absurd',

a.

ko dzana.
aidzana, ait6.
laito.
ifo,

dzA, leke,

loke,

abet'ting, n. bv/e. abet'tor, n. 9l6we. abhor', v. korira.

abreast', adv.

lokaqkai), niha.
atu.

absurdity, n. absurdly, adv. abund'ance, n.


lokpo.

okp6, okp6-

abroach',

a.

abhor'red, a. akorira. abhor'rence, n. ikorira. abhor'rent, a. li irira. abhor'rently, adv. li akorira.


gbe, dioko, w6. abi'dingly, adv. li agbe, ni ikpe.

abroad', adv. k^kiri, kale, ab'rogate, v. See repeal. abrupt', a. odiidzi, ogkt).

lode.

abund'ant, a. abund'antly,
lokpo.

kpikpS, kp6.
adv.
li

9kp5su
. . .

abruptly,

adv.

lodiidii.

abuse',

v.

bu,

fi

bu,

abide',

v.

abil'ity, n.

agbara, ikpa, okui).


at|ni, arele.
n.
itfeni.

ab'ject,

a.

ab'jectness,

tSnitSni,
li

abjectly, adv. abjura'tion, n.


abjure',
a'ble,
a.
v.

atSni.

lohui). abrupt'ness, n. odiidzi, ogdq. abscond', v. kpamo, sal6h, sa- abuse', n. binablna, ebu,ireg6i). abu'ser, n. alebu. kpamo. abscond'er, n. asaloh. abu'sive, a. ebu, li ebd (li, to ab'sence, n. alsi, ehiij. have). ab'sent, a. kosi, aisi, lehii). abu'sively, adv. li ebu (li, in,

egfiq. ie eguij.

absent', v. absentee',

fakuro, yakuro.
n.
alaisi.

with).

abut',

V.

wakp5.
n.

abjur'er,

n.

aseguij.

16, lera.

a'ble-bodied,

a.

alagbara, alera.

absolu'tion, n. afidii. absolve', v. Mil. absolv'er, n. afidii.

abut'ment,
abyss', n. accede', v.

iwakpS.

ibu, ibubu.

See a^ree.

ACC
ac'oent, . accent', v. accent'ed,
iwil6.

92

AFT
iSoso,

wi
a.

16.

awil6.

aekno-w'ledge, v. diew6. adorn', v. ie... lo^o, ackno-w'ledgment,n. idzew6. adorn'ing, n. o^o. acquaint'ance, n. adugbo, adrift', a. fo, afo.
adult',
ti.

w6.

aladugbo, odiulum6. accept', V. gba, gbike, tew6gb^. kuro. accept'able, a. atew6gba, da. acquit', v. da accept' ably, adv. li atewogba. acquit'tal, n. idakuro. acquit'ted, a. adakuro. accept'ance, n. itew6gba. across', adv. li ebu. aceept'ed, a. atewogba.
. .

agba.
. .

adul'terate, v. biila, da lu, lu. adul'terated, a. abuld, adalu. adul'teration, n. abula.


.

adulterer,

n. n.

ado.

accept'er,
ac'cess,
n.

n.

atewogbi.

act,

V.

se.

isum9.

act, n.

ase, ise.
n.
a.

adul'teress, adul'terous,
kpan^aga.
yara.

a.

kpan^aga. alado onise

access'ible, a. ti a le sumo. ac'cident, n. ab4kpade, csi. aceident'al, a. akoseba.

ac'tion, ac'tive,

ase.

munu,

adul'tery,

n.
v.

odzi, kpansaga.
fi
. . .

ac'tively, adv. munumunu. adv. li abakpade. acti'vity, n. accident'ally, imunfi, iyara. acclaina'tion,. ih6kilr),ili6Ie. ac'tor, n. ase, oluse. accorn'modate, v. mu ba, acute', a. goijgo, mu.
, . .

advance',
^adiu.

sadiu, korisi,

advance', n. iwadzu. advajice'ment, n.


ifisadiu.

afisadiu,

mu

. . .

bade.

acute 'ness,
a^euq (apimu.

n.

agoggo,
.
. .

amii,

aecom'modating.a.
plied to persons).

accommoda'tion,
aye,
ibi,

n.

wo.
n.

bade. muba, mu amuba. (room), adapta'tion, w. adapt'ed, a. barekpS.

adapt',

V.

advan'tage, n. aqfani. advanta'geous, a. se aqfani. ad'vent, n. atibb. ad'versary, n. ota.

accom'paniment,
ibiloh.

asii)16h,

adapt'edness, add', V. bu
. .

n.
koi),
.

abade.

acconi'pany,f.

b4
a.

. .

16h, slq.

fi

koi),
si.

fi

. .

si,

accom'panying,
or loh.

ti

ba w4h

^eni

ad'verse, a. odi si, ^e odi si. bum6, busi, adver'sity, n. ikpoijdiu. ka koq, advice', n. adamSrag. advise', v. b4 ro, damSrag,
.

add'er,

n.

olubuk6i).

gbimS, lamSrai).

aceom'plice, n. 6we. accom'plish, v. kpinu, ^etdij. accom'plished, a. akpinu. aceom'plisher, n. akpinu.

add'ing, n. addi'tion,
^ni, ibusi.

abukoij.
n.

advi'sedly,
abum6,
derately.

adv.

See

consi-

abuk6r),

advi'ser,
a.

n.

adamSrar), onidav.

additional,
ad'dle,
v.

alak6q.

morai).

accora'pUshment,
accord',
v.

n.

akpinu.

se obu.

ad'vocate,
fu,

gba

wi,

bebe

b4

de, rekp9.

ad'dled,

a.
t.

obu.

sikpe

fu.

accord',

w.

ibade.

accord'ance, n. ibadc. aceord'ant, a. abide. accord'ing to, prejp. gege


accost',
V.

bl.

da...kp6m6, da... ad'vocate, n. abebe, alagbaso, m6, faramo, m6, r6. asenu, elebe. adhe'renee, n. awamu, idakp6, adze, n. ake gboro. mo. li okere. afar', adv.
adhere', mo, fa
. .
.

ki.

account', v. rodio. accountabil'ity, n. account'able, a. ni

idiiie.
idii^e.

adhe'rent, a. am6. adhe'sion, n. imo. adhe'sive, a. amo. adhe'siveness, n. im6.

aflFair', .

6rai).

affect',

V.

kpa, d6i).
afe, ife. a.

affec'tion, n.

For affec'tionate,

onife.
fi

other roots, see adhere. accou'trements, n. itamora. afffec'tionately, adv. li afe, dio. ife. acou'mulate, v. ko adieu', adv. See farewell. accu'mulated, a. akodio. affirm', v. tenum6. adjoin', v. faram&, gb6. itenum6. afaram6, ifaramo. affirma'tion, n. aocumula'tion, n. agbasi, adjoin 'ing, a.
. . .

akodzo.

ac'curacy, n. akpe, ikpe. ac'curate, a. kpe. ac'curately, adv. kinikini.


accurse', v. See curse. accusa'tion, n. af&ragmo,
esoi), esvli).
efe,

ka. adjourn', v. tu adjura'tion, n. afibi'i, .bu. adjure', v. fi


.

afflict', V.
ifibu.

foro, kpoi)

lodifi.

afflict'ed, a.

olukpoqdzu.
ikpoijdzu,wali41a.

afflic'tion,.

adjust',

V.

kpakadza, ya.

affu'sion,

n.

ib6miw6q.

accuse',
fi
. .

v.

fS

lefe,
s6i),

fi

bu,

.sbx),

f&ratjmo,
n.
n.
v.
i-a.

suq.

acous'ed, accus'er,

afisSq, elefe.
olufis5i).
16.

aceus'tom,
ache,
a'cld,
V.
fo,

ad'mirable, a. ni iyiq. ad'mirably, adv. toho. admire', v. yig. nile. admit', v. gba, gba admit'tance, n. ighk. admo'nish, v. kilo. admoni'tion, n. akilo, ikilo. admo'nitor, n. onikilo.
. .
.

li afb. afloat', V. afoot', adv. hk ti ese he went on foot, 6 ba ti ese 16h.


:

afraid',

a.

aiyaf6, beru.
titoij,

afresh', adv.

tog.

after, adv. afternoon',

lehii), sehii).

n.

odzo

ale,

aro-

mole, idzisokpale.

ado',

n.
V.

ariwo.

afterwards,
. .

adv.

igbeliiij,

ni

kay.

adopt',

gba, gba

se.

gbehii).

AGA
again', adv.
tor),

93
|we, kpada,
aloft', adv.
loke, soke, lekc.
nikai), uikaijsoso.

AEM
are called, agbari-gba, agboijrii),
egbiij, ekulu, era, etu, gala,

dehiij,

wl.

alone',

a.

ma-

against', prep, si, ti. alongside', adv. nilia. segbin, otolo, esuo. okere to stand anti'cipate, v. age, n. ogbo. aloof, adv. budza, daba. a'ged, a. arugbo, ogbo. aloof, takete. anticipa'tion,n. abudza,itowo. a'gent, n. adiele, asehiqde, aso- aloud', adv. ku^kui). an'tidote, n. akporo. dzu. alrea'dy, adv. na, ne. anxi'ety, n. adze, aniyarj, idaro, itara. al'so, conj. aggress', v. firaij. kpelu. aggress'or, n. onifiraij. al'tar, n. anxious, a. alaniyaij, tadiu, ^e idzebo, kpekpe. soke. a'gitate, v. ru, ru altoge'ther, adv. kpatakpata. adzo, dziyar). a. ru. a'gitated, am, al'^ways, adv. nigbagbogbo. anx'iously, adv. fi adzo.
: . . .

ago', adv.

kodza.
v.

ambuscade',
na.

n.

buba, iba, ide- a'ny,

a.

eni.

a'gonize,

ie awayd.

a'gony,
agree',

n.
v.

awayA iwayd-idi^.
bade, bare, dimS,
re,

am'bush,
gui).

v.

bamolS, dena, roabamole, adena.


amii).

a'ny-one, pron. eni kai). a'ny-thing, n. ohuijkohui].


apart', adv.
\i

rekp5, 45kar) tesi.

agree 'ment, n.
de
:

alukawani, iba-

secret agreement,

adimd.

am'bush, n. amen', adv. amend', v.

apart'ment,
ape,
n.

n.

akpakai). vara.

inaki, iro.
ffi

tog
n.

^e.

apiece', adv.

olukuliku.

aground', adv.
a'gue,
ah',
n.
interj.

gurj, to.

amend'ment,

atoijse.

apo'logize,

v.

sikpe, wawi.

odzodzo.
aa.

ahead', adv.
diu.

H
. .

iwadiu,

si

a'miable, a. niwa. amid', amidst', p/rp. iwa- amiss', a. sise.

apology,
lariq.

n.

awawi, isikpe.

among', ^rep.
.

larig, nino, sarirj,

aid, V. die lowo.


aid'er, .
ail, n. thee ?

lowe, gbe,

raij

siiio.

amount'
a'mulet,
aji'chor,
:

to,
n.

v.

dia

si.

appa'rel, n. aso, ibdra. appa'rent, a. hari, ti o h^ij. appari'tion, n. arididzi. appeal', v. fi oraij loh. appear', v. fara hag, bar),
.
. .

la,

elegbe, olurai)lo\vo. e ^e o ? what ails se, dSq

onde,
n.

tira, ogui).

le.

}?. yodzu, yori.

an'cestor,
v.

italemo, baba.

dSkoduro, dokoro.

appearance, n. appearing, a.
appease', v. appertain',
tu,
v.

awo,
ila.

odifi.

aim,
air,

V.

%k, s6p, sili), w6r).


afefe, efufu.

air, n.
V.

an'chor, n. idok9ro. an'cient, n. igbani.


an'eiently, adv.
lailai.

tu

. . .

nino.

tori.

kpafefe.
a.
a. v.

nigbani,

ni-

ap'petite,

n.
v.

isinu.
liokuij.

air'y,

onifefe.

akin',

ba
n.

tdij, t4i).

alarm', alarm',
alas',

deruba, dagiri.
idagiri, ididii.
aa, dsia, ye.
afir).

an'cientness, and, conj. oi),


an'gel,
n.
n.
v.

n.

ogbologbo.
dehiij.

si, ati, ti,

maleika.
ibin6, idin6.

applaud', applause', n. apply', V. fi, appoint', V.


rai)
. .

ihokui).
fi si.
fi
. . .

die,
:

fi

se,

interj.

an'ger, an'ger,
an'gle,

loh, S9nidi, yai)

to

ap-

albi'no,
ale, n.

n.
oti.

bi

. .

nin6.

point a day, dadzo.

n.

\govi.
:

appoint'ed,
an an-

a.

ayag
n.

appointed

a'lien, n.

adzedzi.
v.
^i
.

a'lienate,
alight',
V.

laiya.

an'gry, v. bin6, ru, runo gry man, abino.


an'kle,
n.

day, adadio.

appoint'ment,
appraise',
v.

ilana, ifidze.

ba,.

kokose.
v.

sokpaijkpa.

alike' (be),
dabi, dzo.

v.

aiyato, bakana,

anni'hilate,

so

di asar).

annoy',
alaiye,
alayfe,

v.

da..', lara,
n.

alive',
]ay6.

a.

aye,

lenu.

apprehen'sion, n. ono, on6. yo... apprehen'sive, a. sadzo, ^on6. approach', '. sor)ra6, sumo, tft.
ta,
fi

annoy'ance,
n.

idzaba, lala.

Al'coran,
all', a.

alkurani.
:

anoint',
at

v.

kuij,

kpara,
fi

a'pron, n. ar'cher, n.
tafatafa.

alayekai), ibante.
akpofii),

akporiki,

gbogbo, dede, ogbo


n.

ororo

yai).

all, rara, arara.

anoint'ed,
yai).

n.

eni to 4

ororo

ar'gue,
arise',

v.
v.

diiyaq.
dide,

al'legory, alli'ance, n.
all-see'ing,

akawe.
ibare.
oni.

nde

to arise he-

ano'ther, pron.

elomirai),

mi-

fore day, dadzi.

al'ligator, m.
n.

rag, mire, omiraij, oinoiiikcdzi.


. . .

aristocracy,

n.

fada.

ariguijgbogbo.
n.

allure 'ment,

Almigh'ty, n.
gidzi.

loLuij. ark, n. an's"wer, v. diibui), da q\o. . esi, idahui). arm, n. akpa. an's'wer, |tai). hamora Obaqgidii, Baq- ant, n. eruij different kinds are arm, v, di
. ;

. .

to

arms !

called, era, esa, idzaloh, ikaudu,

016!

almost', adv.

fere ofere.

ikai), ota.

armed',
n.
\he.

a. n.

hamora.
adzude,
dziifu, safiij,

alms,

n.

it9re anu, ore anu, sara,

BJitece'dent,
an'telope,
n.

a^adzu.
various kinds

armlet,
saba.

saraha.

ARM
ar'mor,
n.

94
atone',
v.

BAT
back,
adv.
lehiq, sehiij.
sorolehiij.

ihamora.
abeya, abiya, iya.

se etutn.
n.
fi
. .

arm 'pit, n.
ar'my,
n.

atone 'ment,
attach', attack',
attain',
V.

etutu.
.

around', around', adv. ka, arouse', v. dzi


.

agbaguij, ogui). \k. prep.


kale.
.

m6.
afim6.

back'bite, v. back'biter, n.
hii].

alenini, as9r9le-

attachment,
V. v.

n.

d^aW, kolA.
o\v6
n.
tB.

back-door',

n,

eburu.

dide, diinde.

backed,

a.

abelnq.
z;.

arraign', arrange',
arri'val,

v. v.

bi

ledio.

attain'ing,

atini.

backslide,

fa...seliii).

to. n.
ito.

arrangement,
n.
v.

attempt', attempt',
attend',
v.

v.

kusa, sa.
isa.

back'ward,
lehii), sehii).

adv.

lehii),

lehiij-

n.

atide.

da, fodzuto, fodzusi,

arrive', ar'ro^w,
ar'tery,
art'ful,
as, adv.

b5, de, d;iasi, t6.


ofa.
isaij.

fiyesi, kiyesi,

kodiusi, mudzuto.
isii).

n. n.
a.

atten'dance, n. ibal6h, atten'dant, n. am6ra.


atten'tion,
. . .

bad, a. buru, bubuni. bad'ness, n. bubuiTi. bag, n. abo, akpo, 14ba. bag'gage, n. eru.
bai'liflfj n.
ikpef9i), 9lokpa.
. . .

alayidayida.
ti.

n.

afiyesf,

akiyesi,

ba, bi, bienikpe, bi


v.

ascend', goke, gori. aseen'sion, n. igoke. ascertain', v. ridi.

igb6. adza. at'tic, n.


ifetisi,

bait,

V.
,

fi

wo.
yag.

bake

v.

di, diij,

attract',
ti
.

v.

kuijfa.

ashamed',
lodzii.

a.

sesiq, tidzn,

. .

attrac'tion, n. okuqfa. at 'tribute, n. iwa. au'dible, a. ti d \h gbo.

ba'ker, n. alakara. ba'lance, n. ogba. bald, a. kpari, akpari. bale, V. {water), gboij
di
. . .

{to pack),

ash'es,

n.
a.

eru, labulabu.

ashore',

guqle.
11

aside', adv.

akpakaij.
. .
.

ask,

V.

bfere, bi, bi

lebi, bi

austere', a. au'thor, n. author'ity, au'thorize,


avail',
V.

oi)roro, roro.
olfikpilese, onisi. n.
v.

li

okete.

bale,
ball,

n.

6ket6.
i^u,

o\k.
fi

ball, n.
V.

iw9^u, 9ta.
. . .

ola le.

iw, di

li

osu.

lere.

ere die, diere.

bamboo',

n.

9kpagui),

{wine-

asleep',
ass', n.

a.

asiiii, ijsilo.

ketekete.
n.
.

a'varice, n. okandiua. avari'cious, a. olokandiua.

palm) akpako.

assassina'tion, assault', V. ba
.

ainolekpa.

avenge',

v.

gbesfiij,

wadi9.

bana'na, n. ogede. band, band'age, n.


dza, eka.

odia, agbaerr

ni

diamba, da, aveng'er,

da

. .

nigi, kolu.
v.

a'venue,
.

n. n. yi
.

olugbesai). okpokpo, orere.


aife.
. .

ba'nish,

v.

le

kuro

diade.

assem'ble,
. . .

dio, gba Aio. dzo, dio, kpe, kpe


. .
. . . :

dari

aver'sion,
avert',
v.

bap'tism,
.

n.
v.

itb9uii.

kuro, yi

. .

kpa- baptize',

t|b9mi.

dL assem'bly, n. adio, akpedzb an assembly for a feast, adio- avoid',


dzekp6, adz6inokp8.
a'wait',

V.

sa kuro.

V. v.

durode.
dii
:

barba'rian, n. alaigbede. bar'ber, n. onigbadiamo. bard, n. akuijyuqgba.

assent',
assist',
rai)
. .

v. V.

balobui).

awake',
gb^,
gbe,

to

hk
n.

... ic,

denly, tadii.

awake sud- bsir'gain, bar'gain,


arotele.

v.

dehui), kpinu.

n.

adehu^j,

arosilS,

lowo.
ibase, ira^lowo.

a"wake',
a^vare',
aba^e, abanise.

a. a.

adzi, aisili).

assist'ance,
assist'ant,
n.

rah.

asso'ciate,
sore.

v.

kegbe,

a^way', adv. segbe, avre, n. |ru.

kuro, 16h, n5.

bark, bark, barn,

v.

gbo.
ekpo.
ahere.

n.
n.

awe,
n.

V.

deniba.
'

bar'rel, n.

agba.

asso'ciate,
assort',
V.

alabadie, egbe.

a'w'ful,

a.

li

|ru.
sa, sa.

bar'ren,

a.

agaq,

sagai),

ase-

kaw6.

avT'hile', adv.

kp9q, seno, yagaij, sekp9i), iroggai), aseno, {said

assort'ment, n. ow6. assume', v. maw6. assu'rance, n. igbekele.


assure',
v.
fi

avrk'-ward, a. gig6, go. a-wk'"wardly, adv. tetere. a-w^k'^wardness, n. gig5.


avrl, n.
olu.

of land) a^ale,

akpara, sakpara.

bar'renness,
bar'ter,
v.

n.

See barren.

or

mu

dadzu.

assu'redly, adv.

dadiudadzu.
alafere.

axe,

n.

ake, akeke, edSij.

asth'ma, n. asthma'tic,
asto'nish,
. .
.

fere.

base, base,

a.

kpar9, kpa^ikparo. adiadie.


isale, idi.

n.

n.

bash'ftil,

a.

onisadiu, olodinti,
koto.

v.

enu
^e.

ya, yanu,

ya

B.
baboon', ba'by, n.
n.
akiti,

tidifi.

lenu,

h^

ba'sin,
n.

n. n.

awo
n.

asto'nishment,
astray', adv.

ha, iyanu.

obo.

bas'ket,

agbSij, ivkn.

yakpa.
\o\.q.
li,

9m9-agbo, omo-owo.
n.

asun'der,
at, prep,

adv.
leba,

ba'chelor,

ni, si, ti.

back,

n.

ehii)

akpo^, ogi. back of a

bas'tard, baste, v.

9m9-ale.

gai).

fitr-

bathe,

v.

luwe.
n.

athirst',

a.

o^gbe gbe.

nace, dagii).

bath 'house,

baluwe.

BAT
bat 'tie,
n.

95
begin'ner,?i. alakose, olukpile^e. be'ware',
v.

BLI
kiyesi.

idzakpati, ogni).

bat'tle-axe, n. gamugamu. baAvl, V. kigbe. ba-wl'ing, n. ikigbe, ifo. be, V. mbe, wa, ya, ni, gbe,
si, se, di,

begin'ning,n.
atetek9se,

akose,a^eseko^e,
atikpilese,

atetese,

bewil'der, v. damn. beyond', prep. k9dza,


bid,
V.

loke.

ikpil6, ikpilese, ilese.


ri,

kpe.
aga-kposi.

begrudge',
beguile',
v.

v.

kSij, kAij.
.
. .

bier,

n.

dze.
ebnte, ibado.

taij, tai)

dze.

beach,
bead,
n.

n.

ileke

shell bead, akoij


;

palm-nut bead, alagidigba fossil old Egyptian glass bead, segi.

beguile'ment, n. itai)die. bil'lo'W, behave', v. hii, liilwa. beha'vior, n. hihil, iwa, iwa- bind, v.
kuwa.
be
. . .

big, a. tobi, lara. bill '-hook, n. ada.


n.
tere, inimi.
di,

de,
n.

demo, dern.

bind'ing,
lori, beri.

didi, ebo, edi.


:

beak,

n.

k9k9ro.
house), n.

beam
bean,
bear,
so,
Til
;

{of a
n.

eke.

ewe,

awudie,
:

behead', v. behind', a. kpo- behold', V.

bird,

n.

eiye

bird ofprey, akosa.


ile-eiye.
ate.

leliii), sehii), seliiij.

kiyesi, saw6,
v.

wo.

bird'-cage, bird'-lime,
bird'-shot,

n. n.
n. n.

kpondo.
v.
;

behoove',
bl,

ye

fu.

ahariya, awaya.

bimo

to

bear fruit, be'ing, n.

iwa.

bird'-snare,
birth,
n.

adia-akpa, ige-

seso
to

to

bear a burden, carry,

bear with patience, to en-

dure, ru, kparamo.

beard, n. beast, n. beastly,


beat,
V.

iioqgboi).
erar), eraijko.

belch, n. ife. belch, V. gufe. belief, n. igbagb6. believe', v. gba gb6. believ'er, w. olugbo, onigbagb6.
. .
.

kpa, is9ka, kpekpe.


ibi. ibi.

birth'day, n. idio ibi, odi6 birth'place, n. ibi-ibi. birth'right, n. oguij ibi.

a.
Ill,

bi eraijko.

bo, te,
a.
li

beau'tifu.1,

arlwa, dara.
. .

n. ago, agogo, korokoro, bit, n. gai)gai), kikini, okele: a saworo, gbaqgaij. bridle-bit, idzanu. bite, V. bu saij. die, bu ^wa, yandiu, bell'-ringer, n. alagogo. koro. bel'loAvs, n. ewiri. bit'ter, a.

bell,

bilil,

kpa.

16wa. bit'terness, n. araijkai), bel'ly, n. ikuij. beau'tify, v. se ororo. n. idara. belong', V. dze ti, se ti, tori. beau'ty, |\va, because', conj. nitori, nitoriti, belov'ed, a. ayaijfe, ayo, oliifc. black, V. (]<i. adii (b9l9di9). latori. isale, black, a. below', prep, and adv. v. nisale. beck'on, diuwo, fowokpe, lodo, black'ing, n. edii.
.

ikoro,

sakpere.

belt, n.
v.

lawani, mayafi.
ba,
.

black 'ness,
rel6,
t|,

n.

dudu.

become',
bed,
n.

da, di.

See

suit.

bend,

v.
.

da,
.

16,
. .

ibustlij,

akete,

okpo,

teba, te

bale, te

bere.

blad'der, blade, n.

n.

ile ato.

(of grass), elm.

kpekpele.

bed'-bug,

n.

idoi).

beneath', prep, benefae'tor, n.


be'nefit,
'

labe, nisal.

blame,
WOI).

v.

ba
a.

. .

wi,

fi

diebi,

asore, olore.
. . .

bed'-fellovr,

n.

abanisAij.

v.

da
a.

lere, saij.
ifeni,

blame 'less,
ofe.

aibdwi.

bee, n. oyii), olugbe. bee'-hive, n. ile-oyiij. beef, n. eraq nialil. beer, n. otf, sekete.
bee'tle,
n.

bene volence, n.
bene'volent,
ofe.

anu

blan'ket,

n.

alakiba, kubusii.
v.

olore ofe, olanu

blaspheme',
soro egai).

S9

egai),

benumb'ed,

a.

keti, ketiri.
.

blasphem'er,
olus6r9 egai).

n.

asor9

egai),

heavy mallet), bereave', v. gba (an insect), alubara, bambam 14), se.. .lofo.
(a
;

. .

li

(Gen. 43,

blas'phemy,
blast,
ofo.
V.

n.

egai).

oboijboi).

bereav'ed,
ba.

a.

fo.

fif9i).

be'fa'u', V.

bereave'ment,
V.

hefore', adv.
larii) kai),

ki...to,ki...teni, beset',

19... gbaka.
kpelukpelu.
doti
. . .

blaze, bleed,

n.
v.

ow9-ina. sedie gbadie, gba


n.

. ,

niladiu,

niwadiu

siq,

besides', adv.

ledie.

siwadzu.

besiege',
prep,

v.

ka.

bleed'ing,
bless,
V.

isedie,

igbadie

before',

iwadzu, lodiu, bespeak', v. ba. niwadiu, siwadiii, ^iwadiu. best, a. dara diu gbogbo 16h.
adv.
^e
.

a bleeding at

the nose, aniur9i).

bilk9i), bvlsi, sure,


a.

wure.

before'hand,
befriend',
lore.
v.

tele.
. .

bestOTv',
. . .

v.

bilsi.

bless'ed,
.

alabuk6i), ibuk9q ni

li

ore, ^e

beg,

V.

bfe,

blbe, sagbe, toro.


bi,

fu. bestovr'er, n. alabilsi. v. fi .. bless'er, n. betray', da, haq, kpa. betray'er, n. onifihaij, oniku- bless'ing,

oltihukoi), onibusi.
n.

abukoij,

ibuk9i),

beget', V. beget'ter,

bimo.
obi.

kpani.

ibusi.
v.

n.

betroth',
bet'ter,

fe a.

. .

fn, fe

s6na.

blind,

a.

kdid
f9
. . .

a blind person,
to

beg'gar,
dekoso.

n.

alagbe, a^agbe, nia-

betroth'ed,
a.

afesSna.

afodiii.

ftiye, sap.

blind,

V.

lodzd

blind

beg'glng,
begin',
v.

n.

agbe.

beresi.

bet'ween', prep, lariri, nin6. be'wair, v. kpohugrere.

with brightness, b9diuyai).

blind'fold,

v.

di

'.

lodid.

BLI
blind'ness,
blis'ter,
v.

96
ifodid.

BRU
okpiijlfe,

n.
le.

airiiaij,

bor'der,
odzu-ile.

w.

samba,
da
.

breathe,

v.

mi,
w.
a.

mi

femi,fe, gbii).

breathing,
.
.

imi.

bloat, block, block,

V.

>vu.

bore,

V.

lu,

lu.

breath'less,
n.

ailemi.

n.
V.

(of houses), kusata.


d'lna.

born, borne,

a. a.

bibi. riru.
v.

block'head.

See stupid.
m.

bor'ro"w,

toro, wii), siq.


n.
atfiro, onitor9.

breech'es, breed, v. bi. breed, n. oruk9

See pantaloons.

blood, n. edie. blood'guiltiness,

bor'ro'wer,
Sse edze.

: alakpata ko bere oruko, the butcher does not

bo'som,

n.

owokaijaiya.
ati,

enquire the breed.

bloodiness, . blood'shed, n.
blood'y,
a.

eledie.
itadzesile.

both, conj. both'er, v.


bot'tle,.
n.

medzedzedzi.
.
. .

yo

lenu.

breeze, n. brevr, v.
brevr'er,

afefe, ategui), 6fo.

kpoqti.
n.
9l9ti.

edie, eledie.
dife, tu.

igo, afogur), 9kpalaba.

bloom, bloom,
blot,
V.

V.

n.

ina, itana, yetuyetu.


... \v6i), kparuij.

bot'tom, isale, gboqgbo. bot'tomless, a. ainisale.

hi
V.

bough,
etoi)
off,

71.

aketoq,

akpa,

eka,

blot, n.

abawoi).
fe,
ior)
:

kpeka.
ni dide.

blO'W,
feti6
;

to

ifow

6/ow away, feloh. blOAV, m. id^a : a Mow with the


fist,

bound, a. ide, bound'ary, m. boundless, a.


kpekui).

bre-w'ery, n. ebu-oti. bribe, n. abetele. bri'bery, n. abetele, ibetele. brick, n. dzikanu. bride, n. iyawo, adelebd.

okpiq, okpiqlS.
allokpiij,

bride'groom,
bridge,
bri'dle, bri'dle,
n.
n.
v.

n.

oko-iyawo.

aini-

afira.

bende, ese.
a.
fifoi], ife.

idianu.

bloAv'ing, blue, 71. aro, ayinrir), wadzi. blunt, a. kii. bo'a-constric'tor, n. ere. boar, n. ako elede a wild boar, 5gai), amado, igaq.
:

bO'W,

V.

foribale, teba, te

bale,

ko

li

idianu.

teri, teriba.

bri'er, n.

eg6i).

bovT,

71,

orui).

bow'knot, Ji. awotiri. boAvlegged, a. aw61ew5ri.


bov^'els,
boAvl,
n.

n.

ifoij.

bright, a. dag, fofo. dag. bright'en, v. dag, mu bright'ly, adv. rokiroki. bright'ness, n. idag, rirag.
.

. .

board,
boast,

n.
V.

akpako, kpako.
se
fefe,

okp9i).
.

bril'liant,
osaij.

a.

rag, yag.

fudia, halS,

bo^w'string,

brilliantly, adv.

yag.
di eti.

dzanu,

yai)rai).

boast'er,

n.

abale, onifefe.

box, boy,

n. n.

akpoti, ago, bata.

brim,

n.

eti.

omokoijri.
n.

boast'ing, n. fefe. boat, m. oko, okpere.

boy 'hood,

iwa omo.
fudza.
w.

boat'man,

n.

bob 'tail,
bo'died,

n. a.

atuko, olokS. akeru.

brag, V. scfefe, braggado'cio,


afudza.

brim'ful, bring, v. w4h.

a.

k6g

mu
bebe.

. ,

w4h,

gbe

. . .

kufekufe,

brink,

n.

abara, alara.

bo'dily, adv. taratara. bo'dy, n. ara.

braid, brain,

v.

ba, diroij.

brisk, a. yara. brisk'ly, adv.


bris'tle, n.

j'aya.

m. w.

m9dumodu.
igbe.

vcoti

gauggaug

brake,
braji,

tmhei/s

bristle,

9gb9g.
ege.

bog, n. bog'gy,
boil, n. boil,
V.

|re, ira, sakata.


a.

71.

egbo, eta.

brit'tle, a.

elege.
n.

akoro.

owo.
b6, bo, ru,

branch, w. See hough. brand, v. sami si. brand, n. ami, isami.


brand'ed,
brass,
k.
a.

brit'tleness,

broach, v. tu. broad, a. gboro,


si.

nibo.
ni gboro.

boil'er, n.

odu.

alami, onisami

broad'cast, adv.
broil,
V.

bold,

a.

gbodin, laiya.
adv.
n.

ide.

sog, sug.
a. a.

boldly,
bols'ter,

laiberu.

brave.
braTwl,
V.

See hold.
s6, dia.

broiled,

sisug.

bold'ness,
n.

aiberu, aifbya.
irora, timtim.

bro'ken,
variojis

dida, ^ese:

broken

bread,

n,

akara
m.

kinds

iri

the bottom, adzadi.


a.

bond, n. edi, ide. bond, a. onde, oloko-eru. bond'age, n. fewoq, ide,


oko
eru.

are called, sukaq,

okilrii,

kilduru.

bro'ken-hearted,
iiodze.

onirobi-

bread'-seller,
ideni,

alikara.

breadth, n.
breaJc, hreak
out,
v.

igboro, awe, aye, ibo. to bu, da, dza, se :

brook,

n.

abetu.

bond'maid, n. bond'man, n.

iwofa obiri. iwofa 6koi)ri.

loose,
;

ru

dzakuq, tii ; break hreak to pieces, rui) ;

broom, n. 9W0, sasa. broom'sedge, w. bere, mene.


broth, n. bro'ther,
egb9g.
oinitoro.
n.

bond'-servant, n. iwofa. bond'-service, n. b(a. bone, n. cgui), egui)gui). bo'ny, a. elegui). book, n. iwe, tira.
boot, n. boo'ty,
sobombia, sorombia.
n.

break down,

wo

break up, tu.

ara, arak9gri, abilro,

break'fast, . ase-owur9. breast, n. aiya, ige, 9mu.

breast'bone,
breast'plate,

n.
w.

tanikpa.

bro'therhood, n. iwa ar4. brovr, . iwadzu: brow of a hill,


geregrre.

awo-aiya.
odi.

amona.

breast'work, 7i. breath, m. 6ini.

bro"wn,
bruise,

a.
v.

kp6g rusurusu.
ba.

BRU
bruis'ed, brute, n.
bru'tish,
a.
hilia, fif6.

97
calabash,
kpok9.
n.

CHA
akoto,
igba.

eraijko.
a.

bi eraijko.

cala'mity,
cal'culate,
calf, n.

n.
v.

6fq.
iirb.

carv'er, n. ibuke. carv'ing, n. ibuke, cascade', n. qidiq.


case,
n.

ike.

buck'et,

n.

kuruba.

oraq.

bud, V. rudi. bud, n. idi, irudi. buffalo, n. efSij. bug, n. kokoro.


build, modi.
V.

calico,
call,
V.

egbftro malil. n. kelekti.

kpe, kekpe, ko.


akesi, ikpe.
a.

cask, n. agba. cassa'va, n. ogcge. cast, V. gba .. .lit, gboq, did


tile, dzil, sati, su,

call, n.

w6dia,
. . .

ta,

ta
ti

. . .

ke,

kole,

mo, mole, callous,


a.
V.

eko, kai)gi.

Tib,

ba,

t&

balfe,

. . .

build'er,

n.

akole,

bulb, n. bulk, n. bulk'y,


bull,
n.

eta.

calm, amde, dumo. calm, calm,

dakedze, dakeroro. mu . ddkedze.


. .

kuro.

cast'away,
cas'trate,
v.

n.
th,

adqno.

n.

idake,

idakedze, idatedo.

wS

lewa.

gbiqgbiniki.
a.

keroro.

ca'sual,
adv.
iqj),

a.

abakpade.

lara.

calmly,
ca'mel,

cat, n.

ese, ologini, ologbo, yaij-

ako malA.

n.

ibakasie, rakumi.

hni), yaui).

bullet, 11. Ota. bul'rush, n. ore. bul'-wark, n. odi.

camp, camp,

V.

n.

d6, tedo. budo, ibudo.

catch,

V.

mu

catch fire, gbina,

diorai).

bunch,

n.
n.

odidi.

bun'dle,

abo,

idi,

iti,

iwoi)-

woi), yaijgidi.

bur, n. emo. bur'den, n. en\. bur'glar, w. abole, bolebole. bur'glary, n. ibole, ifole.
bu'rial,
n,
isiq, siijsii).

can, aux. V. le. can'did, a. awimahyihug. can'dle, n. atqqkpa. can'dlestick, n. okpa atqqkpa. cau'dy, n. oyiri. cane, n. ikaij, teteguij. can'ker, v. dakpara. can'nibal, n. adzenia, dzeniadieiiia.

catch 'ing,m. imu:


adzorai).

catching fire,

ca'terpillar,
cat'tle, n.

kokoro.

Ssir).

cause, cause,
8rai).

V.

da

sil^, sq,

sodi.

edi,

idasilS, idi, itori,

causeless,
cau'tion, n. cau'tioner,

a.

ainidi, laisS.
kilo.

burn,

iJ.

dio, dzona, dioniruij,

can'non,
canoe', cap, n.
folo.
ji.

n.

agbaboi).
fatele,

n,

olobo.

dioriir), kui), rarj, soi), sui), ta.

bur'nish, burst, V. bu'ry, iJ.

v.

daij,

mu

daq.

fila,

oko, okpere. abeti, aramori, dzoa.

cave,

iJ.

ya.
hSi).

caw,

V. v.

be, saij.
sii),

cease,
gbagba,
to.

d4, dab5, dake, dase,

siijku.

capa'cious,
caprice', capsize',
n.
v.

dekui), kpa, rqle, siq, suqkonu,

bush,

w.

igbe, igbdro.
n.
ise,

iwakuwa.
da.
olori.
. . .

wawo,

ye.
a.

bu'siness, bu'sy, a.
kposile.

draq.

cease'less,
ceil'ing,
??.

aidd.
:

airodilj, airowo, kilr),

cap 'tain,

n.

adza

ceiling over

bu'sybody,
olofofo.

n.

ofofo,

ofoforo,

loh. cap'tivate, v. ko grave ov pit, n. cen'sure,i'. cap'tive, (male), igbekui);

adiailfi.
fSfe, f
.
.

lefe, fesi,

(female), igbesij).
^ugboi), biko^e.
n.

^u

lohur).
n.

but, conj. but'cher,

capti'vity,

n.

ikoguij, ikol6h.
ero,

cen'tipede,
cen'tral,
a.

tanitani sokq.

alakpata.
agboti.

caravan',

n.

ewo, ow6.

ariij, ti ariq.
arii).

butler,

71.

butt'-end,