Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 87

Instructors Manual

for the

Laboratory Manual
to Accompany

Holes Essentials of Human Anatomy and Physiology


Eighth Edition

Terry R. Martin
Kishwaukee College

Instructors Manual for the Laboratory Manual to Accompany HOLES ESSENTIALS OF HUMAN ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY, EIGHTH EDITION DAVID SHIER, JACKIE BUTLER, AND RICKI LEWIS Published by McGraw-Hill Higher Education, an imprint of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 1221 Avenue of the Americas, New York, NY 10020. Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc, 2003, 2000, 1998. All rights reserved. The contents, or parts thereof, may be reproduced in print form solely for classroom use with HOLES ESSENTIALS OF HUMAN ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY, EIGHTH EDITION, provided such reproductions bear copyright notice, but may not be reproduced in any other form or for any other purpose without the prior written consent of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., including, but not limited to, in any network or other electronic storage or transmission, or broadcast for distance learning. www.mhhe.com

ii

CONTENTS
Preface An Overview Instructional Approaches Correlation of Textbook Chapters and Laboratory Exercises Suggested Time Schedule Fundamentals of Human Anatomy and Physiology Exercise 1 Scientific Method and Measurements Exercise 2 Body Organization and Terminology Exercise 3 Care and Use of the Compound Microscope Cells Exercise 4 Cell Structure and Function Exercise 5 Movements Through Cell Membranes Exercise 6 The Cell Cycle Tissues Exercise 7 Epithelial Tissues Exercise 8 Connective Tissues Exercise 9 Muscle and Nervous Tissues Integumentary System Exercise 10 Integumentary System Skeletal System Exercise 11 Structure of Bone Exercise 12 Organization of the Skeleton Exercise 13 The Skull Exercise 14 Vertebral Column and Thoracic Cage Exercise 15 Pectoral Girdle and Upper Limb Exercise 16 Pelvic Girdle and Lower Limb Exercise 17 The Joints Muscular System Exercise 18 Skeletal Muscle Structure Exercise 19 Muscles of the Face, Head, and Neck Exercise 20 Muscles of the Chest, Shoulder, and Upper Limb Exercise 21 Muscles of the Abdominal Wall and Pelvic Outlet Exercise 22 Muscles of the Hip and Lower Limb Nervous System Exercise 23 Nervous Tissue and Nerves Exercise 24 The Reflex Arc and Reflexes Exercise 25 The Meninges and Spinal Cord Exercise 26 The Brain and Cranial Nerves Exercise 27 Dissection of the Sheep Brain Special Senses Exercise 28 The Ear and Hearing Exercise 29 The Eye Exercise 30 Visual Tests and Demonstrations Endocrine System Exercise 31 Endocrine System Cardiovascular System Exercise 32 Blood Cells Exercise 33 Blood Testing A Demonstration iii v vi viii ix xi 1 2 5 6 8 10 11 12 13 14 16 17 18 20 22 24 26 27 28 29 31 32 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 44 45

Exercise 34 Blood Typing Exercise 35 Structure of the Heart Exercise 36 The Cardiac Cycle Exercise 37 Blood Vessels Exercise 38 Pulse Rate and Blood Pressure Exercise 39 Major Arteries and Veins Lymphatic System Exercise 40 Lymphatic System Digestive System Exercise 41 Organs of the Digestive System Exercise 42 Action of a Digestive Enzyme Respiratory System Exercise 43 Organs of the Respiratory System Exercise 44 Breathing and Respiratory Volumes and Capacities Urinary System Exercise 45 Structure of the Kidney Exercise 46 Urinalysis Reproductive Systems Exercise 47 Male Reproductive System Exercise 48 Female Reproductive System Appendix 1 Materials Needed Appendix 2 Laboratory Suppliers

46 47 49 50 51 52 54 55 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 68

iv

PREFACE
This instructor's manual is designed to assist those who are using the Laboratory Manual to Accompany Hole's Essentials of Human Anatomy and Physiology, eighth edition by Terry R. Martin. It describes the purpose of the laboratory manual and its special features, and provides suggestions for presenting the laboratory exercises to students. The instructor's manual also parallels the laboratory manual, exercise by exercise, providing labels for unlabeled diagrams and answers to questions that appear in the laboratory reports. For some exercises, special instructional suggestions that propose alternative procedures, laboratory equipment, or laboratory techniques are provided. Most of the illustrations and labels parallel the textbook very closely, as requested by many of the users of the laboratory manual. Many of the leader lines are arranged differently than the textbook, and several illustrations are different than the textbook. This has been requested also by many of the users of the laboratory manual. I have attempted to reach a balance that will be beneficial for all students and instructors.

AN OVERVIEW
The Laboratory Manual to Accompany Hole's Human Anatomy and Physiology, eighth edition, was written to accompany the textbook Hole's Essentials of Human Anatomy and Physiology, eighth edition, by Shier, Butler, and Lewis. As in the case of the textbook, the laboratory manual is planned for students pursuing careers in allied health fields who have minimal backgrounds in the physical and biological sciences. The manual contains forty-eight laboratory exercises that are integrated closely with the content of the textbook. The exercises are designed to review and illustrate various anatomical and physiological facts and principles presented in the textbook and to help students investigate some of these ideas in more detail. Four computerized supplemental labs are available, which are physiological labs on humans. The laboratory exercises include a variety of special features that are designed to stimulate student interest in the subject matter, to involve students in the learning process, and to guide them through the planned experiences. These features include the following: Materials needed. The laboratory materials listed are those that students require to complete the exercise and to perform the demonstrations and optional activities. Safety. If the laboratory exercise requires special safety guidelines, this section is included. General safety guidelines also appear inside the front cover. Introduction. The introduction briefly describes the subject of the exercise or the ideas that will be investigated. Purpose of the exercise. The purpose provides a statement concerning the intent of the exercisethat is, what will be accomplished. Learning objectives. The learning objectives list in general terms what a student should be able to do after completing the exercise. Procedure. The procedure provides a set of detailed instructions for accomplishing the planned laboratory activities. Usually these instructions are presented in outline form so that a student can proceed through the exercise in stepwise fashion. Frequently, the student is referred to particular sections of the textbook for necessary background information or for review of subject matter presented in some previous part of the course. The procedures include a wide variety of laboratory activities and, from time to time, direct the student to complete various tasks in the laboratory reports. Demonstrations. Demonstrations appear in separate boxes. They describe specimens, specialized laboratory equipment, or other materials of interest that the instructor may want to display to enrich the student's laboratory experience. Optional activities. Optional activities also appear in separate boxes. They are planned to encourage students to extend their laboratory experiences. Some of these activities are open-ended in that they suggest how a student can plan an investigation or experiment and carry it out after receiving approval from the laboratory instructor.

vi

Illustrations. Diagrams from the textbook are often used as aids for reviewing subject matter. Other illustrations provide visual instructions for performing steps in procedures or are used to identify parts of instruments or specimens. Micrographs are often included to help students identify microscopic structures or to evaluate student understanding of tissues Some figures, such those involving the skull, are presented so that they are suitable for coloring. You may want to have your students use colored pencils to highlight various parts of these illustrations. This activity should enhance their ability to observe the figures more carefully and help them locate and identify important anatomical features. Laboratory reports. Immediately following each exercise, there is a laboratory report to be completed by the student. These reports include various types of review activities, spaces for sketches of microscopic objects, tables for recording observations and experimental results, and questions dealing with the analysis of such data. As a result of these laboratory exercises, students should develop a better understanding of the structural and functional characteristics of their bodies. In addition, their skills in gathering information by observation and experimentation should increase.

vii

INSTRUCTIONAL APPROACHES
Exercise Selection
Although the laboratory manual contains forty-eight separate exercises, it may not be possible to include all of them in any one program. However, since many of the exercises are relatively short and because the procedures of others are divided into sections, an instructor can easily select those exercises or parts of exercises that best meet the needs of a particular class. These exercises also vary in the quantities of equipment needed to complete them; if necessary, an instructor can make some selection based upon the amount of laboratory equipment available for use by a class.

Animal Dissection
In the laboratory manual, detailed instructions for dissecting certain organs, such as the sheep brain, sheep heart, mammalian eye, and pig kidney are included. If an instructor prefers to have students dissect some animal, appropriate sections of a specialized dissection manual may be added. A laboratory option is to obtain a cadaver as a demonstration specimen. If this is not possible, consider a field trip to a location that has a prosected cadaver. A minimum of two viewings is recommended one during muscle study and the other near the end of the course.

The Use of Animals in Biology Education*


The National Association of Biology Teachers (NABT) believes that the study of organisms, including nonhuman animals, is essential to the understanding of life on Earth. NABT recommends the prudent and responsible use of animals in the life science classroom. NABT believes that biology teachers should foster a respect for life. Biology teachers also should teach about the interrelationship and interdependency of all things. Classroom experiences that involve nonhuman animals range from observation to dissection. NABT supports these experiences so long as they are conducted within the long-established guidelines of proper care and use of animals, as developed by the scientific and educational community. As with any instructional activity, the use of nonhuman animals in the biology classroom must have sound educational objectives. Any use of animals, whether for observation or dissection, must convey substantive knowledge of biology. NABT believes that biology teachers are in the best position to make this determination for their students. NABT acknowledges that no alternative can substitute for the actual experience of dissection or other use of animals and urges teachers to be aware of the limitations of alternatives. When the teacher determines that the most effective means to meet the objectives of the class do not require dissection, NABT accepts the use of alternatives to dissection including models and the various forms of multimedia. The Association encourages teachers to be sensitive to substantive student objections to dissection and to consider providing appropriate lessons for those students when necessary. To implement this policy, NABT endorses and adopts the Principle and Guidelines for the Use of Animals in Precollege Education of the Institute of Laboratory Animals Resources (National Research Council). Copies of the Principle and Guidelines may be obtained from the ILAR (2101 Constitution Avenue, NW, Washington, DC 20418; 202-334-2590). *Adopted by the Board of Directors in October 1995. This policy supersedes and replaces all previous NABT statements regarding animals in biology education.

Background Information
The procedures of many exercises begin by suggesting that students review specific sections of the textbook. If the subject matter involved in a particular exercise has been covered recently in lecture, the students may be able to accomplish such a review rather quickly. On the other hand, if the material has not been presented previously, this part of a procedure may be used as a means of introducing information needed to understand the ideas presented in the exercise.

viii

When the procedure is used to introduce new material, an instructor may ask students to complete the first section before coming to the laboratory. Following this, some portion of the laboratory time may be needed for class discussion of the new material.

CORRELATION OF TEXTBOOK CHAPTERS AND LABORATORY EXERCISES


Textbook Chapters Chapter 1 Introduction to Human Anatomy and Physiology Related Laboratory Exercises Exercise 1 Exercise 2 Chapter 2 Chapter 3 Chemical Basis of Life Cells Scientific Method and Measurements Body Organization and Terminology Care and Use of the Compound Microscope Cell Structure and Function Movements Through Cell Membranes The Cell Cycle Epithelial Tissues Connective Tissues Muscle and Nervous Tissues Integumentary System Structure of Bone Organization of the Skeleton The Skull Vertebral Column and Thoracic Cage Pectoral Girdle and Upper Limb Pelvic Girdle and Lower Limb The Joints Skeletal Muscle Structure Muscles of the Face, Head, and Neck Muscles of the Chest, Shoulder, and Upper Limb Muscles of the Abdominal Wall and Pelvic Outlet Muscles of the Hip and Lower Limb Nervous Tissue and Nerves The Reflex Arc and Reflexes The Meninges and Spinal Cord The Brain and Cranial Nerves Dissection of the Sheep Brain The Ear and Hearing The Eye Visual Tests and Demonstrations Endocrine System Blood Cells Blood Testing A Demonstration

Exercise 3 Exercise 4 Exercise 5 Exercise 6

Chapter 4 Chapter 5

Cellular Metabolism Tissues

Chapter 6 Chapter 7

Skin and the Integumentary System Skeletal System

Exercise 7 Exercise 8 Exercise 9 Exercise 10 Exercise 11 Exercise 12 Exercise 13 Exercise 14 Exercise 15 Exercise 16 Exercise 17 Exercise 18 Exercise 19 Exercise 20 Exercise 21 Exercise 22

Chapter 8

Muscular System

Chapter 9

Nervous System

Chapter 10 Somatic and Special Senses

Exercise 23 Exercise 24 Exercise 25 Exercise 26 Exercise 27 Exercise 28 Exercise 29 Exercise 30 Exercise 31 Exercise 32 Exercise 33 ix

Chapter 11 Endocrine System Chapter 12 Blood

Exercise 34

Blood Typing

Chapter 13 Cardiovascular System

Chapter 14 Lymphatic System and Immunity Chapter 15 Digestion and Nutrition Chapter 16 Respiratory System

Exercise 35 Exercise 36 Exercise 37 Exercise 38 Exercise 39 Exercise 40 Exercise 41 Exercise 42 Exercise 43 Exercise 44 Exercise 45 Exercise 46 Exercise 47 Exercise 48

Chapter 17 Urinary System Chapter 18 Water, Electrolyte, and Acid-Base Balance Chapter 19 Reproductive Systems Chapter 20 Pregnancy, Growth, and Development

Structure of the Heart The Cardiac Cycle Blood Vessels Pulse Rate and Blood Pressure Major Arteries and Veins Lymphatic System Organs of the Digestive System Action of a Digestive Enzyme Organs of the Respiratory System Breathing and Respiratory Volumes and Capacities Structure of the Kidney Urinalysis Male Reproductive System Female Reproductive System

xi

SUGGESTED TIME SCHEDULE


Different instructional programs provide different lengths of time for laboratory preparations, work activities, and follow-up discussions. Other factors that influence the time required for each exercise are the availability and variety of laboratory equipment and materials. Consequently, it is difficult to make precise suggestions for the amounts of time that should be set aside for particular laboratory exercises. The suggested time schedule was prepared with these limitations in mind. The hours listed for each exercise indicate the minimal time that probably will be needed for students who are acquainted with the subject matter of the exercise to complete the laboratory work. Students who lack background information and who have to read various sections of the textbook before beginning an exercise probably will require additional time. Similarly, students who are expected to complete the laboratory reports in class may need more time. Laboratory Exercise Exercise 1 Exercise 2 Exercise 3 Exercise 4 Exercise 5 Exercise 6 Exercise 7 Exercise 8 Exercise 9 Exercise 10 Exercise 11 Exercise 12 Exercise 13 Exercise 14 Exercise 15 Exercise 16 Exercise 17 Exercise 18 Exercise 19 Exercise 20 Exercise 21 Exercise 22 Exercise 23 Exercise 24 Exercise 25 Exercise 26 Exercise 27 Exercise 28 Exercise 29 Exercise 30 Exercise 31 Exercise 32 Exercise 33 Exercise 34 Exercise 35 Exercise 36 Exercise 37 Exercise 38 Exercise 39 Exercise 40 Scientific Method and Measurements Body Organization and Terminology Care and Use of the Compound Microscope Cell Structure and Function Movements Through Cell Membranes The Cell Cycle Epithelial Tissues Connective Tissues Muscle and Nervous Tissues Integumentary System Structure of Bone Organization of the Skeleton The Skull Vertebral Column and Thoracic Cage Pectoral Girdle and Upper Limb Pelvic Girdle and Lower Limb The Joints Skeletal Muscle Structure Muscles of the Face, Head, and Neck Muscles of the Chest, Shoulder, and Upper Limb Muscles of the Abdominal Wall and Pelvic Outlet Muscles of the Hip and Lower Limb Nervous Tissue and Nerves The Reflex Arc and Reflexes The Meninges and Spinal Cord The Brain and Cranial Nerves Dissection of the Sheep Brain The Ear and Hearing The Eye Visual Tests and Demonstrations Endocrine System Blood Cells Blood Testing A Demonstration Blood Typing Structure of the Heart The Cardiac Cycle Blood Vessels Pulse Rate and Blood Pressure Major Arteries and Veins Lymphatic System xii Minimal Time 2 hours 3 hours 2 hours 2 hours 3 hours 1 hour 2 hours 2 hours 1 hour 1 hour 1 hour 1 hour 3 hours 2 hours 2 hours 2 hours 2 hours 1 hour 1 hour 2 hours 1 hour 2 hours 2 hours 1 hour 1 hour 2 hours 2 hours 2 hours 3 hours 2 hours 2 hours 2 hours 2 hours 1 hour 2 hours 3 hours 1 hour 2 hours 2 hours 1 hour

Exercise 41 Exercise 42 Exercise 43 Exercise 44 Exercise 45 Exercise 46 Exercise 47 Exercise 48

Organs of the Digestive System Action of a Digestive Enzyme Organs of the Respiratory System Breathing and Respiratory Volumes and Capacities Structure of the Kidney Urinalysis Male Reproductive System Female Reproductive System

3 hours 2 hours 2 hours 1 hour 2 hours 3 hours 2 hours 2 hours

xiii

xiv

LABORATORY EXERCISE 1 SCIENTIFIC METHOD AND MEASUREMENTS

CRITICAL THINKING APPLICATION ANSWER


Answers and data will vary

Laboratory Report Answers


Part A 1. 2. 3. Part B 16. Answers will vary. (experimental results) (experimental results) Answers will vary, however many students will conclude that the data will support the original hypothesis

LABORATORY EXERCISE 2 BODY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY


INSTRUCTIONAL SUGGESTION
If a dissectible torso is not available, you might want to have the students consult the figures in various sections of the textbook, particularly the reference plates following chapter 1, to gain some understanding of the organizational pattern of the human body.

FIGURE LABELS
Figure 2.1 1. Thoracic 4. Pelvic 2. Abdominal 5. Cranial 3. Abdominopelvic 6. Vertebral Figure 2.2 1. Frontal sinuses 4. Oral cavity 2. Orbital cavities 5. Sphenoidal sinus 3. Nasal cavity 6. Middle ear cavity Figure 2.3a Figure 2.3b 1. Visceral pleura 7. Visceral peritoneum 2. Pleural cavity 8. Peritoneal cavity 3. Parietal pleura 9. Parietal peritoneum 4. Visceral pericardium (epicardium) 5. Pericardial cavity 6. Parietal pericardium Figure 2.4 1. Coronal plane 2. Sagittal plane 3. Transverse plane Figure 2.5a 1. Epigastric region 6. Left hypochondriac 2. Right hypochondriac region 7. Left lumbar region 3. Right lumbar region 8. Left iliac region 4. Umbilical region 9. Hypogastric region 5. Right iliac region Figure 2.6a 1. Nasal 11. Carpal 2. Oral 12. Palmar 3. Cervical 13. Digital 4. Acromial 14. Genital 5. Axillary 15. Crural 6. Mammary 16. Tarsal 7. Brachial 17. Cephalic 8. Antecubital 18. Frontal 9. Abdominal 19. Orbital 10. Antebrachial 20. Buccal

21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28.

Mental Sternal Pectoral Umbilical Inguinal Coxal Patellar Pedal

Figure 2.6b 29. Otic 30. Occipital 31. Acromial 32. Vertebral 33. Brachial

34. 35. 37. 38.

Dorsal Cubital 36. Lumbar Sacral Gluteal

39. 40. 41. 42. 43.

Perineal Femoral Popliteal Crural Plantar

LABORATORY REPORT ANSWERS


Part A 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. a d a a b 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. d a c a e 11. 12. 13. 14. d c d d

Part B 1. visceral pleura 2. visceral pericardium 3. parietal peritoneum Part C 1. c 2. d 3. h 4. g 5. j 6. i Part D 1. inferior 2. (correct) 3. (correct) 4. anterior 5. (correct) 6. (correct) Part E (figure 2.7) 1. Cross section 2. Oblique section 3. Longitudinal section Part F 1. f 2. i 3. n 4. c 5. k Part G 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11.

visceral peritoneum mediastinum diaphragm e f k b a

7. 8. 9. 10. 11.

distal (correct) superficial (correct) deep

6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

m o a l h

11. 12. 13. 14. 15.

d e j g b

j c f k l n h

9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15.

d m i e a b g

8.

Critical Thinking Application Answers


Part H 1. 2. 3. LUQ RLQ any or all quadrants 4. 5. 6. RUQ LUQ or LLQ LUQ

LABORATORY EXERCISE 3 CARE AND USE OF THE COMPOUND MICROSCOPE


INSTRUCTIONAL SUGGESTIONS
1. To stimulate student interest in the use of the microscope, you may want to have the students prepare wet mounts of pond water and observe the various forms of life present. A plankton net is a helpful device to concentrate pond organisms. Students can be encouraged to bring samples of pond water to class in preparation for this experiment. You may want to provide students with prepared slides of the major human organs to examine as a way of increasing their experience with using the microscope. 3. If oil-immersion objectives are available, you may want to provide students with prepared slides of various forms of bacteria to observe using these objectives.

2.

Critical Thinking Application Answer


Answers will vary depending upon the order of the three colored threads. However, the colored thread on the top will be in focus first, the middle one second, and the bottom one last as the student continues to turn the fine adjustment the same direction.

LABORATORY REPORT ANSWERS


Part A 1. 2. Part B 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Part C 1. 2. 3. 100 1,000 (sketch) About 4.5 mm for scanning power (using 4 objective) About 4,500 micrometers About 2.2 mm About 2,200 micrometers (sketch) About 1.7 mm (using a 10 objective) The diameter of the scanning-power field of view is about 2.6 times greater than that of the low-power field of view. Student is unable to see two adjacent mm lines on the scale in the high-power field of view. Light intensity is decreased when high-power objective is used. (sketch) Upside down and reversed from right to left Left Toward the observer 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. j d b g e

4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Part D 1. f 2. i 3. c 4. a 5. h Part E (sketches)

LABORATORY EXERCISE 4 CELL STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION


INSTRUCTIONAL SUGGESTIONS
1. 2. Instead of preparing cheek cell slides, you may want to have students prepare slides of plant cells using Elodea leaves or onion skin. If live frogs are available, you may want to pith the frogs and have students prepare wet mounts using small samples of the ciliated epithelium that lines the oral cavity. They also can prepare smears of frog blood and stain the cells with methylene blue, and prepare wet mounts of sperm cells from the testes of the male frogs. You then might provide students with prepared slides of human ciliated epithelium, blood, and sperm cells and have the students compare the frog cells with the human cells.

FIGURE LABELS
Figure 4.1 1. Flagellum 2. Centrioles 3. Golgi apparatus 4. Smooth endoplasmic reticulum Figure 4.2 1. Globular protein 2. Carbohydrate 3. Fibrous protein 4. Cholesterol molecules 5. 6. 7. 8. Nucleus Nuclear envelope Mitochondrion Ribosomes 9. 10. Cell membrane Cilia

Critical Thinking Application Answer


The outer body surface is the same tissue as inside the cheek, however, outer surface cells are dead from dryng out. Light scraping of the inside of the cheek does not hurt or bleed as stratified squamous epithelial tissue is many cells thick. Epithelial cells lack nerve endings and blood vessels between the cells that make the tissue ideal for coverings and protection.

LABORATORY REPORT ANSWERS


Part A 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Part B 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Part C 1. b k a o p m 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. j e d g c 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. i h l n f

lipids, proteins, and some carbohydrates a double layer of phospholipids water soluble protein protein (sketch)

2. 3. Part D 1. 2. 3.

The stained cells made the nucleus more clearly visible. Yes. Cells with similar structure would have a similar function. (sketches) They should always notice cytoplasm, nucleus, nuclear envelope, and cell membrane Answers will vary.

LABORATORY EXERCISE 5 MOVEMENTS THROUGH CELL MEMBRANES


INSTRUCTIONAL SUGGESTION
Instead of using human blood for Procedure C, you may want to substitute some other type of animal blood obtained from a meatpacking house, a veterinarian, or a biological supply house.

LABORATORY REPORT ANSWERS


Part A 1. 2. 3. 4. (experimental results) (experimental results) Answers will vary. Diffusion is the movement of a substance from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration as a result of molecular motion.

Critical Thinking Application Answers


1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Part B 1. 2. 3. yes yes no no yes

Answers will vary. Answers will vary. Water entered the thistle tube through the membrane, thus increasing the volume of liquid in the tube. 4. Osmosis is the movement of water molecules from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration through a selectively permeable membrane

Critical Thinking Application Answers


1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Part C 1. 2. 3. 4. Part D 1. 2. 3. yes yes no yes yes

(sketches) Tube 3. There was a net movement of water out of the cells. Tube 1. There was a net movement of water into the cells. Tube 2. There was no net movement of water into or out of the cells. Water, glucose, and starch The tests for glucose and starch were positive. Gravity

4. 5. 6.

Charcoal Pores in the filter paper were too small. Filtration is the movement of substances through a membrane as a result of hydrostatic pressure that is greater on one side of the membrane than on the other side.

Critical Thinking Application Answers


1. 2. 3. 4. 5. no yes no no yes

LABORATORY EXERCISE 6 THE CELL CYCLE


FIGURE LABELS
Figure 6.2 1. Chromosome (chromatid) 2. Centromere 3. Centriole 4. Spindle fiber (microtubules)

Critical Thinking Application Answer


Interphase. Even in rapidly dividing cells interphase is the most prevalent because it requires the longest period of time for growth and duplication of cell structures.

LABORATORY REPORT ANSWERS


Part A Table: Stage Interphase Prophase

Metaphase Anaphase Telophase Cytoplasmic division Part B (sketches) Part C 1. Each new cell (daughter cell) contains identical chromosomes. 2. They may be slightly different in size and number of organelles. 3. Mitosis involves the division of the nuclear contents and the distribution of identical sets of chromosomes to the new cells; cytokinesis involves the division of the cytoplasm and cytoplasmic organelles. Part D (figure 6.5a-d) a. Metaphase b. Telophase c. Prophase d. Anaphase Part E (figure 6.5a-d) 1. Chromosome (chromatid) 2. Cytokinesis (cleavage furrow) 3. Cell membrane 4. Nuclear envelope 5. Centrioles/centrosome 6. Spindle fibers/microtubules

Major Events Occurring Growth, duplication of cell structures, and normal metabolism take place. Nuclear envelope disappears; chromatin fibers condense forming chromosomes (paired chromatids); centrioles move to opposite sides of the cell. Chromosomes align midway between centrioles. Microtubules pull chromosomes toward centrioles. Chromosomes elongate and become chromatin fibers; nuclear envelopes reappear. Cell membrane constricts, dividing cell into new cells (daughter cells).

LABORATORY EXERCISE 7 EPITHELIAL TISSUES


LABORATORY REPORT ANSWERS
Part A 1. f 2. d 3. c 4. d 5. c 6. d Part B (sketches) 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. e f b a a e

Critical Thinking Application Answer


Stratified squamous epithelium would have excellent protection as it is several cells thick. Pseudostratified columnar epithelium with cilia would provide good movement of mucus and trapped particles away from the lungs.

LABORATORY EXERCISE 8 CONNECTIVE TISSUES


LABORATORY REPORT ANSWERS
Part A 1. e 2. a 3. b 4. c 5. h 6. d 7. a Part B (sketches) 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. g f g a h c

LABORATORY EXERCISE 9 MUSCLE AND NERVOUS TISSUES


LABORATORY REPORT ANSWERS
Part A 1. b 2. a 3. d 4. a 5. c 6. b 7. c 8. a 9. d 10. b Part B (sketches)

LABORATORY EXERCISE 10 INTEGUMENTARY SYSTEM


FIGURE LABELS
Figure 10.1 1. Epidermis 2. Dermis 3. Subcutaneous layer 4. Hair shaft 5. Stratum corneum 6. Stratum basale Figure 10.2 1. Arrector pili muscle 2. Region of cell division 3. Hair shaft 4. Sebaceous glands 5. Hair follicle 6. Sweat gland (eccrine gland) 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. Sebaceous gland Arrector pili muscle Hair follicle Sweat gland (eccrine gland) Blood vessels

Critical Thinking Application Answer


Melanin granules are concentrated within some of the most superficial living cells of the body. Because melanin absorbs the ultraviolet radiation of sunlight, minimal damaging wavelengths reach the living cells of the dermis. (Most of the melanin granules are oriented on the superficial side of the nucleus that serve as a protective shield of the nucleus of the epidermal cells.)

LABORATORY REPORT ANSWERS


Part A 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Part B 1. 2. 3. k m a h c 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. d i e j g 11. 12. 13. 14. n l f b

4. Part C 1. Epidermis is the outer layer of the skin while the dermis is the inner layer; the subcutaneous layer binds the dermis to the underlying organs. 2. Cells of the stratum basale are living and reproduce actively; cells of the stratum corneum are dead and keratinized and form the surface layer of the skin. 3. It contains both elastic and collagenous fibers that give the dermis the qualities of elasticity and strength. Part D 1. Dermis 2. Sebaceous glands are usually connected to hair follicles and secrete sebum into the follicles.

Answers will vary. Answers will vary. Epidermal cells at the base of the hair follicle divide and grow, pushing older cells outward; as these cells die they become the keratinized parts of the hair. Pigment is produced by melanocytes.

3.

Dermis

Part E (sketch)

LABORATORY EXERCISE 11 STRUCTURE OF BONE


FIGURE LABELS
Figure 11.1 1. Articular cartilage 2. Spongy bone (red marrow) 3. Compact bone 4. Medullary cavity 5. Yellow marrow Figure 11.2 1. Spongy bone 2. Compact bone 3. Osteon 4. Periosteum 5. Central canal 6. 7. 8. 9. Periosteum Proximal epiphysis Diaphysis Distal epiphysis

6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

Perforating canal Blood vessel Nerve Canaliculus Osteocyte

Critical Thinking Application Answer


The closest blood supply to an osteocyte is located in the central canal of an osteon unit. Nutrients and wastes can move from one cell to another via small cellular processes located in minute tubes in the matrix called canaliculi. In this way, all of the osteocytes of one osteon are tied to a blood source.

LABORATORY REPORT ANSWERS


Part A 1. 2. 3. 4. Long bones occur in the upper and lower limbs. An epiphysis is the expanded end of a long bone, and a diaphysis is the shaft of a long bone. Cartilage forms a coating on the outer face of an epiphysis of a long bone. Except for its articular portions, a bone is enclosed by a covering of fibrous connective tissue called the periosteum. 5. Bony processes provide attachments for ligaments and tendons. 6. The periosteum forms an outer covering, and the endosteum lines the spaces and cavities within a bone. 7. Compact bone has osteons closely packed together, but spongy bone has large spaces between thin bony plates. 8. Compact bone provides strength in the shaft and along the borders of the bone. Spongy bone reduces the weight of the bone and provides spaces occupied by marrow. 9. The marrow in the medullary cavity of an adult is yellow, but marrow in the spaces of spongy bone is red. Part B (figure 11.3 a and b) 1. Epiphysis (distal) 2. Diaphysis 3. Epiphysis (proximal) 4. Medullary cavity 5. Compact bone 6. Spongy bone

LABORATORY EXERCISE 12 ORGANIZATION OF THE SKELETON


FIGURE LABELS
Figure 12.1a 1. Cranial bones (cranium) 2. Facial bones (face) 3. Skull 4. Clavicle 5. Sternum 6. Ribs 7. Vertebral column (vertebra) 8. Coxa (hipbone; innominate) 9. Carpals 10. Metacarpals 11. Phalanx (distal) 12. Patella 13. Tarsal 14. Metatarsal 15. Phalanx Figure 12.1b 16. Scapula 17. Humerus 18. Ulna 19. Radius 20. Femur 21. Tibia 22. Fibula 23. Vertebral column (vertebra) 24. Sacrum 25. Coccyx

Critical Thinking Application Answer


The largest foramen in the skull is the foramen magnum in the occipital bone. The largest foramen in the human body is the obturator foramen in the coxa.

LABORATORY REPORT ANSWERS


Part A 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Part B 1. 2. 3. 4. Part C 1. 2. 3. 4. axial hyoid coccyx thoracic vertebrae twelve pectoral girdle ulna c f a e c a g b 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. carpals sacrum pelvis patella tarsals phalanges

5. 6. 7.

g b d

5. 6. 7.

d f e

LABORATORY EXERCISE 13 THE SKULL


INSTRUCTIONAL SUGGESTION
You might want to have the students use colored pencils to color the bones in figures 13.1 through 13.5. They should use a different color for each of the individual bones in the series. This activity should cause the students to observe the figures more carefully and help them to locate the various bones that are shown from different views in the figures. The students can check their work by referring to the corresponding full-color figures in the textbook.

FIGURE LABELS
Figure 13.1 1. Parietal bone 2. Frontal bone 3. Coronal suture 4. Temporal bone 5. Perpendicular plate (of ethmoid bone) 6. Infraorbital foramen 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. Vomer bone Mandible Supraorbital foramen Nasal bone Sphenoid bone Zygomatic bone 13. 14. 15. 16. Middle nasal concha (of ethmoid bone) Inferior nasal concha Maxilla Mental foramen

Figure 13.2 1. Parietal bone 2. Squamosal suture 3. Lambdoidal suture 4. Temporal bone 5. Occipital bone 6. Temporal process (of zygomatic bone) 7. External auditory meatus Figure 13.3 1. Zygomatic bone 2. Sphenoid bone 3. Vomer 4. Zygomatic arch 5. Temporal bone 6. Styloid process

8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14.

Mastoid process Styloid process Mandibular condyle Zygomatic process (of temporal bone) Coronal suture Frontal bone Sphenoid bone

15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20.

Lacrimal bone Nasal bone Zygomatic bone Maxilla Mandible Coronoid process

7. 8. 9. 10. 11.

External auditory meatus Mastoid process Occipital condyle Maxilla Palatine process of maxilla

12. 13. 14. 15.

Palatine bone Foramen magnum Lambdoidal suture Occipital bone

Figure 13.4 1. Ethmoid bone 2. Foramen magnum 3. Crista galli 4. Cribriform plate

5. 6. 7.

Frontal bone Sphenoid bone Temporal bone

8. 9. 10.

Sella turcica Parietal bone Occipital bone

Figure 13.5 1. Coronal suture 2. Frontal bone 3. Frontal sinus 4. Ethmoid bone 5. Nasal bone 6. Perpendicular plate

7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12.

Maxilla Mandible Temporal bone Parietal bone Squamosal suture Lambdoidal suture

13. 14. 15. 16. 17.

Occipital bone Sella turcica Styloid process Sphenoidal sinus Vomer bone

LABORATORY REPORT ANSWERS


Part A 1. 2. 3. 4. d a a f 5. 6. 7. 8. c f f a 9. 10. 11. 12. c e f b

Part B 1. coronal 2. sagittal 3. lambdoidal 4. squamosal 5. The three cranial bones containing sinuses are the frontal, ethmoid, and sphenoid bones. 6. the maxilla Part C 1. e 7. h 2. c 8. a 3. c 9. d 4. h 10. f 5. d 11. b 6. g Part D Figure 13.7 Figure 13.8 1. Frontal bone 1. Frontal bone 2. Nasal 2. Temporal bone 3. Zygomatic 3. Parietal bone 4. Infraorbital foramen 4. Occipital bone 5. Maxilla 5. Ethmoid bone 6. Mandible 6. Sphenoid bone 7. Middle nasal concha 7. Sella turcica 8. Inferior nasal concha 8. Foramen magnum 9. Mental foramen Figure 13.9 1. Maxilla 6. Palatine process of maxilla 2. Zygomatic bone 7. Palatine bone 3. Sphenoid bone 8. Vomer bone 4. Temporal bone 9. Occipital condyle 5. Occipital bone 10. Foramen magnum Figure 13.10 1. Parietal bone 4. Zygomatic bone 7. 2. Sphenoid bone 5. Maxilla 8. 3. Temporal bone 6.

Frontal bone Mandible

LABORATORY EXERCISE 14 VERTEBRAL COLUMN AND THORACIC CAGE


FIGURE LABELS
Figure 14.1 1. Cervical 2. Thoracic 3. Lumbar 4. Intervertebral discs Figure 14.2a 1. Facet for dens (odontoid process) 2. Facet for occipital condyle 3. Transverse foramen 4. Transverse process 5. 6. 7. Intervertebral foramina Sacrum Coccyx

Figure 14.2b 5. Dens (odontoid process) 6. Superior articular facet 7. Transverse foramen 8. Body 9. Vertebral foramen 10. Spinous process 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. Superior articular facet Transverse foramen Spinous process Transverse process Facet for rib articulation Transverse process Pedicle Body

Figure 14.3 1. Lamina 2. Body 3. Lamina 4. Pedicle 5. Body 6. Lamina 7. Superior articular process 8. Vertebral foramen 9. Spinous process (bifid) Figure 14.4 1. Superior articular process 2. Pelvic sacral foramen 3. Coccyx 4. Sacral canal

5. 6. 7. 8.

Superior articular process Tubercle Dorsal sacral foramen Sacral hiatus

Critical Thinking Application Answer


The four curvatures allow more resiliency and flexibility, which will enable the vertebral column to function more like a spring instead of a rigid rod. Figure 14.5 1. True ribs 5. Body 2. False ribs 6. Xiphoid process 3. Thoracic vertebra 7. Sternum 4. Manubrium 8. Costal cartilage 9. Floating ribs

LABORATORY REPORT ANSWERS


Part A 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Part B spinal cord bodies intervertebral discs vertebral arch spinal nerves arteries 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. atlas dens (odontoid process) lumbar five sacral hiatus

Vertebra

Number

Size

Body

Spinous Process

Transverse Foramina
present absent absent

Cervical Thoracic Lumbar Part C 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

7 12 5

smallest intermediate largest

smallest intermediate largest

C2 through C5 are forked pointed and angled downward short, blunt, and nearly horizontal

206 floating transverse clavicles a. It supports the shoulder girdle and arms. b. It protects the visceral organs in the thoracic and upper abdominal cavities. c. It aids breathing. Part D (figure 14.6) 1. Spinous process 2. Atlas 3. Axis 4. Transverse process 5. Intervertebral disc 6. Body (of sixth cervical vertebra)

LABORATORY EXERCISE 15 PECTORAL GIRDLE AND UPPER LIMB


FIGURE LABELS
Figure 15.1 1. Clavicle 2. Rib 3. Sternum 4. Costal cartilage Figure 15.2a 1. Acromion process 2. Coracoid process 3. Spine 4. Glenoid cavity (fossa) 5. 6. 7. 8. Scapula Humerus Ulna Radius Figure 15.2b 5. Acromion process 6. Coracoid process 7. Glenoid cavity 9. 10. 11. Acromion process Head of humerus Coracoid process

Critical Thinking Application Answer


The clavicles brace the freely movable scapulae, helping to hold the shoulders in place. If an excessive lengthwise force occurs on this structurally weak bone, as when a person breaks a fall with an outstretched rigid upper limb, it is likely to fracture. Figure 15.3 1. Head 2. Greater tubercle 3. Anatomical neck 4. Surgical neck 5. Olecranon fossa 6. Lateral epicondyle Figure 15.4 1. Trochlear notch 2. Coronoid process 3. Head radius Figure 15.5 1. Distal phalanx 2. Middle phalanx 3. Proximal phalanx 4. Metacarpals 5. Carpals

7. 8. 9. 10. 11.

Capitulum Greater tubercle Lesser tubercle Intertubercular groove Deltoid tuberosity

12. 13. 14. 15. 16.

Coronoid fossa Capitulum Trochlea Medial epicondyle Trochlea

4. 5. 6.

Radial tuberosity Styloid process Olecranon process

7. 8.

Head of ulna Styloid process

6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

Pisiform Triquetrum Hamate Phalanges Trapezium

11. 12. 13. 14.

Trapezoid Scaphoid Capitate Lunate

LABORATORY REPORT ANSWERS


Part A 1. 2. 3. scapulae manubrium acromion process 4. 5. spine acromion process

6.

coracoid process

7.

head

Part B 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

a b b b b

6. 7. 8. 9.

a b c e

10. 11. 12. 13.

a a f d

Part C (figures 15.6, 15.7, and 15.8) 1. Ulna 2. Humerus 3. Olecranon process 4. Head of radius 5. Radius 6. Acromion process

7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12.

Head of humerus Humerus Clavicle Scapula Rib Phalanges

13. 14. 15. 16.

Metacarpals Carpals Distal phalanx Proximal phalanx

LABORATORY EXERCISE 16 PELVIC GIRDLE AND LOWER LIMB


FIGURE LABELS
Figure 16.1 1. Coxa (hipbone; innominate) 2. Sacrum 3. Coccyx Figure 16.2 1. Iliac crest 2. Anterior superior iliac spine 3. Acetabulum

4. 5. 6.

Obturator foramen Pubis Ilium

7. 8. 9.

Ischial spine Ischium Ischial tuberosity

Critical Thinking Application Answer


All of the features examined are wider in the female pelvis which will result in a larger pelvic cavity and must also serve as a birth canal for a vaginal delivery. Figure 16.3 1. Head 2. Fovea capitis 3. Greater trochanter 4. Neck Figure 16.4 1. Lateral condyle 2. Head of fibula 3. Fibula

5. 6. 7.

Lateral epicondyle Lesser trochanter Lateral condyle

8. 9.

Medial condyle Medial epicondyle

4. 5. 6.

Lateral malleolus Medial condyle Tibial tuberosity

7. 8.

Tibia Medial malleolus

Figure 16.5 1. Tarsals 2. Metatarsals 3. Phalanges 4. Calcaneus 5. Talus

6. 7. 8. 9.

Navicular Cuboid Lateral cuneiform Intermediate cuneiform

10. 11. 12. 13.

Medial cuneiform Proximal phalanx Middle phalanx Distal phalanx

LABORATORY REPORT ANSWERS


Part A 1. 2. 3. coxae (hipbones) acetabulum ilium 4. 5. 6. symphysis pubis iliac crest tuberosity 7. 8. 9. pubic arch Obturator foramen sacroiliac

Part B 1. 2. 3. 4.

e a g a

5. 6. 7. 8.

f f g f

9. 10. 11. 12.

f b d c

Part C (figures 16.6, 16.7, and 16.8) 1. Obturator foramen 2. Symphysis pubis 3. Ilium 4. Sacrum 5. Head of femur 6. Pubis

7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12.

Femur Tibia Lateral epicondyle Lateral condyle Head of fibula Fibula

13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18.

Tibia Talus Calcaneus Metatarsal Proximal phalanx Distal phalanx

LABORATORY EXERCISE 17 THE JOINTS

Critical Thinking Application Answer


Maximum flexion of body parts can occur when in fetal position or performing a cannon ball into a swimming pool.

LABORATORY REPORT ANSWERS


Part A 1. suture 2. cartilaginous 3. fibrous 4. fibrocartilage 5. Synovial joints Part B 1. a 2. b 3. e 4. d 5. d Part C (figure 17.2) 1. Rotation 2. Elevation 3. Depression 4. Supination 5. Pronation 6. Abduction 7. Adduction 8. Flexion 9. Extension 10. Abduction 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 6. 7. 8. 9. Synovial fluid menisci bursae cartilaginous hyaline cartilage a c f c

11. 12.

Adduction Circumduction 13. Protraction 14. Retraction 15. Extension 16. Flexion 17. Extension 18. Flexion 19. Flexion 20. Extension 21.

22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29.

Flexion Extension Flexion Extension Flexion Extension Dorsiflexion Plantar flexion

LABORATORY EXERCISE 18 SKELETAL MUSCLE STRUCTURE


FIGURE LABELS
Figure 18.2 1. Fascicle 7. 2. Muscle fibers (cells) 8. 3. Sarcolemma (cell membrane) 9. 4. Tendon 10. 5. Fascia 11. 6. Epimysium 12. Figure 18.3 1. Myofibrils 6. 2. Cisternae of sarcoplasmic reticulum7. 3. Sarcoplasmic reticulum 8. 4. Transverse tubules 9. 5. Openings into transverse tubules 10. Perimysium Endomysium Nucleus Sarcoplasmic reticulum Myofibrils Filaments Mitochondria Myofilaments (filaments) Sarcoplasm Sarcolemma Nucleus

LABORATORY REPORT ANSWERS


Part A 1. n 2. k 3. e 4. h 5. b 6. a 7. i Part B (figure 18.4) 1. Z line 2. I band 3. A band 4. Sarcomere Part C 1. origin 2. insertion 3. two heads 4. biceps brachii 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. d j c l m g f

5. 6. 7.

prime mover synergists prime movers

LABORATORY EXERCISE 19 MUSCLES OF THE FACE, HEAD, AND NECK


FIGURE LABELS
Figure 19.1 1. Frontalis 2. Occipitalis 3. Masseter 4. Sternocleidomastoid 5. Temporalis Figure 19.2 1. Semispinalis capitis 2. Splenius capitis Part A 1. 2. 3. 4. Part B 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. Orbicularis oculi Zygomaticus Buccinator Orbicularis oris Platysma

LABORATORY REPORT ANSWERS


zygomaticus buccinator orbicularis oris close the lower jaw (as in biting) epicranius zygomaticus masseter sternocleidomastoid buccinator 5. 6. 7. orbicularis oculi sternocleidomastoid platysma

6. 7. 8. 9.

platysma temporalis splenius capitis semispinalis capitis

Critical Thinking Application Answers


Part C (figure 19.3) 1. Epicranius (frontalis) 2. Zygomaticus 3. Orbicularis oculi 4. 5. Orbicularis oris Platysma

LABORATORY EXERCISE 20 MUSCLES OF THE CHEST, SHOULDER, AND UPPER LIMB


FIGURE LABELS
Figure 20.1 1. Trapezius 2. Deltoid 3. Latissimus dorsi Figure 20.2 1. Pectoralis minor 2. Internal intercostal Figure 20.3a 1. Levator scapulae 2. Supraspinatus 3. Deltoid Figure 20.3b 1. Deltoid 2. Biceps brachii Figure 20.4a 1. Biceps brachii 2. Brachialis 3. Supinator 4. Pronator teres Figure 20.4b 1. Triceps brachii 2. Flexor carpi ulnaris 3. Extensor carpi ulnaris 4. 5. 6. Levator scapulae Supraspinatus Infraspinatus 7. 8. 9. Teres minor Teres major Rhomboideus major

3. 4.

Serratus anterior Trapezius

5. 6.

Deltoid Pectoralis major

4. 5.

Infraspinatus Teres minor

6. 7.

Teres major Triceps brachii

3.

Subscapularis

4. 5. 8. 9. 10.

Coracobrachialis Brachialis Palmaris longus Flexor carpi ulnaris Pronator quadratus

5. 6. 7.

Brachioradialis Extensor carpi radialis longus Flexor carpi radialis

4. 5.

Brachioradialis Extensor carpi radialis longus

6. 7.

Extensor carpi radialis brevis Extensor digitorum

LABORATORY REPORT ANSWERS


Part A 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Part B 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. c h e k j 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. i m l a b 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. o n d g f

rhomboideus major serratus anterior pectoralis minor coracobrachialis teres major subscapularis 7.

9. 10. 11.

8. teres minor 9. brachialis pronator teres pronator quadratus brachioradialis

12. 13. 14. 15.

flexor carpi radialis palmaris longus extensor carpi radialis longus extensor carpi ulnaris

Critical Thinking Application Answers


Part C (figure 20.5) 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. Trapezius Deltoid Pectoralis major Rectus abdominis Sternocleidomastoid Biceps brachii Serratus anterior External oblique Deltoid Trapezius Infraspinatus Biceps brachii Triceps brachii Latissimus dorsi Pectoralis major Serratus anterior Biceps brachii Trapezius Deltoid Triceps brachii Brachioradialis

LABORATORY EXERCISE 21 MUSCLES OF THE ABDOMINAL WALL AND PELVIC OUTLET


FIGURE LABELS
Figure 21.1 1. Rectus abdominis 2. Internal oblique 3. Transversus abdominis 4. External oblique Figure 21.2 1. Ischiocavernosus 2. Bulbospongiosus 3. Superficial transversus perinei Figure 21.3 1. Ischiocavernosus 2. Bulbospongiosus 3. Superficial transversus perinei

4. 5. 6. 4. 5. 6.

Levator ani Gluteus maximus External anal sphincter Levator ani Gluteus maximus External anal sphincter

Critical Thinking Application Answer


An appendectomy incision would involve the external oblique, internal oblique, and transversus abdominis muscles from superficial to deep.

LABORATORY REPORT ANSWERS


Part A 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Part B 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. linea alba rectus abdominis transversus abdominis tense the abdominal wall and compress the contents of the abdominal cavity tense the abdominal wall and flex the vertebral column pelvic anal canal and vagina support the pelvic viscera bulbospongiosus constrict the vagina ischial tuberosity

LABORATORY EXERCISE 22 MUSCLES OF THE HIP AND LOWER LIMB


FIGURE LABELS
Figure 22.1 1. Psoas major 2. Iliacus 3. Tensor fasciae latae Figure 22.2 1. Gluteus medius 2. Gluteus maximus 3. Biceps femoris 4. Tensor fasciae latae Figure 22.3 1. Adductor magnus 2. Gracilis 3. Semitendinosus 4. Semimembranosus Figure 22.4 1. Tibialis anterior 2. Peroneus (fibularis) longus 3. Extensor digitorum longus Figure 22.5 1. Gastrocnemius 2. Soleus 3. Peroneus (fibularis) longus Figure 22.6 1. Gastrocnemius 2. Soleus 3. Flexor digitorum longus 4. Peroneus (fibularis) longus Part A 1. 2. 3. 4. Part B 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Sartorius Rectus femoris Vastus lateralis 7. 8. 9. Adductor longus Gracilis Vastus medialis

5. 6. 7.

Sartorius Rectus femoris Vastus lateralis

5. 6. 7. 8.

Gastrocnemius Gluteus medius Gluteus maximus Biceps femoris

4. 5.

Tibialis anterior Extensor digitorum longus

LABORATORY REPORT ANSWERS


c d e g gluteus medius and gluteus minimus adductor magnus sartorius 4. 5. 6. 7. 5. 6. 7. 8. b a f h gastrocnemius tensor fasciae latae vastus lateralis semitendinosus 8. 9. 10. vastus medialis flexor digitorum longus tibialis anterior

Critical Thinking Application Answers


Part C (figure 22.7) 1. 2. 3. 4. Rectus femoris Vastus medialis Vastus lateralis Sartorius 5. 6. 7. 8. Vastus medialis Tibialis anterior Gastrocnemius Soleus

LABORATORY EXERCISE 23 NERVOUS TISSUE AND NERVES


FIGURE LABELS
Figure 23.1 1. Chromatophilic substance (Nissl bodies) 2. Dendrites 3. Nucleus 4. Nucleolus 5. Nodes of Ranvier Figure 23.2 1. Schwann cell nucleus 2. Myelin (myelin sheath) 3. Axon (nerve fiber) 4. Neurilemmal sheath (neurilemma) 6. 7. 8. 9. Axon (nerve fiber) Schwann cell Cell body Neurofibrils

LABORATORY REPORT ANSWERS


Part A 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Part B 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. h i g c a b (sketch) (sketch) (sketch) (sketch) (sketch) 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. d f k j e

LABORATORY EXERCISE 24 THE REFLEX ARC AND REFLEXES


FIGURE LABELS
Figure 24.1 5 3 4 1 2

LABORATORY REPORT ANSWERS


Part A 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Part B 1. Nerve pathways central nervous system (spinal cord) Reflexes muscles sensory 6. quadriceps femoris 7. quadriceps femoris 8. upright posture 9. skin 10. Flexor

2.

Table: Response Observed Effector Involved Extension of leg Quadriceps femoris Plantar flexion Gastrocnemius and soleus Flexion of forearm or slight biceps twitch Biceps brachii Extension of forearm or slight triceps twitch Triceps brachii Plantar flexion of foot and flexion of toes Gastrocnemius, soleus, and flexor digitorum longus The quadriceps femoris is stretched, stimulating stretch receptors within the muscle. As a result, impulses pass along sensory neurons into the spinal cord and synapse with a motor neuron. Motor impulses travel out of the cord on nerve fibers that lead to the quadriceps femoris. Muscle fibers contract, and the leg is extended.

Critical Thinking Application Answer


All of these reflexes are rapid, subconscious responses to physical stimuli.

LABORATORY EXERCISE 25 THE MENINGES AND SPINAL CORD


FIGURE LABELS
Figure 25.1 1. Spinal nerve 2. Dorsal root ganglion 3. Gray matter 4. Body of vertebra 5. Epidural space Figure 25.2 1. Posterior horn 2. Lateral funiculus 3. Anterior horn 4. Posterior funiculus 5. Posterior median sulcus Part A 1. b 2. d 3. e Part B 1. spinal nerves 2. cervical enlargement 3. lumbar enlargement 4. posterior median sulcus 5. horns 6. anterior Part C (figure 25.3) 1. Dorsal root of spinal nerve 2. White matter 3. Ventral root of spinal nerve 6. 7. 8. 9. Ventral root of spinal nerve Dorsal root of spinal nerve White matter Subarachnoid space

6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

Lateral horn Central canal Gray commissure Anterior median fissure Anterior funiculus

LABORATORY REPORT ANSWERS


4. 5. a c

7. 8. 9. 10. 11.

gray commissure central canal funiculi nerve tracts (ascending and descending) meninges

4. 5. 6.

Gray matter Dorsal root ganglion Central canal

LABORATORY EXERCISE 26 THE BRAIN AND CRANIAL NERVES


FIGURE LABELS
Figure 26.1 12 1 8 10 4 3 Figure 26.2 1. Frontal lobe 2. Temporal lobe 3. Parietal lobe 4. Occipital lobe Figure 26.3 1. Motor area for voluntary muscle control 2. Motor speech area (Broca's area) 3. Auditory area Figure 26.4 1. (I) Olfactory nerve 6. 2. (II) Optic nerve 7. 3. (III) Oculomotor nerve 8. 4. (IV) Trochlear nerve 5. (V) Trigeminal nerve 9. 6 11 5 7 9 2

4. 5. 6.

Cutaneous sensory area General interpretative area Visual area

(VI) Abducens nerve (VII) Facial nerve (VIII) Vestibulocochlear nerve (IX) Glossopharyngeal nerve

10. 11. 12.

(X) Vagus nerve (XI) Accessory nerve (XII) Hypoglossal nerve

LABORATORY REPORT ANSWERS


Part A 1. h 2. d 3. c 4. a 5. g Part B (figure 26.5) 1. Corpus callosum 2. Thalamus 3. Hypothalamus 4. Diencephalon Part C 1. vestibulocochlear 2. facial, glossopharyngeal 3. optic 4. olfactory 5. vestibulocochlear 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 5. 6. 7. i f j e b Midbrain Pons Medulla oblongata 8. 9. 10. Brain stem Cerebrum Cerebellum

6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

trigeminal trigeminal oculomotor oculomotor oculomotor

11. 12. 13. 14.

oculomotor, trochlear, abducens facial, glossopharyngeal accessory vagus, accessory, hypoglossal

15.

glossopharyngeal, vagus, accessory, hypoglossal

LABORATORY EXERCISE 27 DISSECTION OF THE SHEEP BRAIN


INSTRUCTIONAL SUGGESTION
Rather than have the students dissect sheep brains, you might want to provide the class with samples of whole sheep brains and sectioned brains for examination. This should extend the use of the available specimens.

LABORATORY REPORT ANSWERS


Part A 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. The human cerebral hemispheres are relatively larger than those of the sheep. There are more convolutions and sulci in the human cerebrum. The human cerebrum with its large size and greater number of convolutions is more complex and thus able to carry on more complex functions. The human cerebellum is divided in the midline into two hemispheres, but the sheep cerebellum is not divided. The olfactory bulbs of the sheep brain are larger than those of the human brain. The olfactory, optic, and trigeminal nerves seem to be the most highly developed in the sheep brain. The senses of smell and sight and the sensory functions associated with the trigeminal nerve are highly developed.

Critical Thinking Application Answers


Part B 15. Answers will vary. The sheep brain and the human brain features are more similar than different. Therefore a complete list of similar features would be very long. Among similar features include two cerebral hemispheres, medulla oblongata, pineal gland, midbrain, thalamus, hypothalamus, pons, olfactory bulb, four ventricles, and others. (Note only 5 answers are needed.)

LABORATORY EXERCISE 28 THE EAR AND HEARING


FIGURE LABELS
Figure 28.1 1. Auricle 2. Malleus 3. Incus 4. Semicircular canals 5. Stapes 6. Cochlea 7. Vestibulocochlear nerve Figure 28.2 4 6 Figure 28.3 1. Tectorial membrane 2. Hair cells (outer) 3. Cochlear nerve (branch) 4. Hair cell (inner) 5. Basilar membrane 8. 9. 10. 11. Oval window Tympanic membrane (eardrum) Auditory tube External auditory meatus

5 3

1 2

Critical Thinking Application Answer


The largest ear structure is the auricle which is able to trap and funnel a minute sound wave into the middle and inner ear structures. This will allow a concentration of the vibrations making the sound detection more likely to occur.

LABORATORY REPORT ANSWERS


Part A 1. c 2. j 3. i 4. g 5. b 6. k Part B (figure 28.7) 1. Scala media (cochlear duct) 2. Tectorial membrane 3. Hair cells 4. Basilar membrane 5. Scala tympani Part C 1. (experimental results) 2. (experimental results) 3. (experimental results) 4. Answers will vary. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. h d e a f

LABORATORY EXERCISE 29 THE EYE


FIGURE LABELS
Figure 29.1 1. Lacrimal gland 2. Canaliculi (superior and inferior) Figure 29.2 1. Superior oblique 2. Superior rectus 3. Medial rectus 4. Levator palpebrae superioris Figure 29.3 1. Ciliary body 2. Suspensory ligaments 3. Iris 4. Lens 5. Pupil 6. Cornea 7. Aqueous humor 8. Anterior 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Lacrimal sac Nasolacrimal duct Lateral rectus Inferior rectus Inferior oblique

9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16.

Retina Choroid coat Sclera Vitreous humor Fovea centralis Optic nerve Optic disc Posterior

Critical Thinking Application Answer


The delicate retina is only located next to the choroid coat by the pressure maintained by the vitreous humor. Any alteration of this pressure could allow the retina to detach as was easily observed during the dissection. No connective tissue was observed between the inner and middle tunics of the eye.

LABORATORY REPORT ANSWERS


Part A 1. 2. e d g i n j f b l 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. a k m c h cornea, aqueous humor, pupil of iris, lens, vitreous humor, retina Answers will vary.

3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Part B 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

The outer tunic (sclera) is toughest. Dense (fibrous) connective tissue is responsible. The pupil of the dissected eye was probably elliptical in shape, and the human pupil is round. Aqueous humor occurs between the cornea and the lens. The dark pigment absorbs excess light and keeps the eye dark inside. The lens is biconvex and transparent (a preserved lens becomes cloudy). The vitreous humor is a transparent, jellylike fluid.

LABORATORY EXERCISE 30 VISUAL TESTS AND DEMONSTRATIONS

Critical Thinking Application Answer


When using both eyes for observations, if the image of a small object falls on the optic disc of one eye, the object is still seen by the other eye. This can be confirmed because the blind-spot demonstration will not work with both eyes open.

LABORATORY REPORT ANSWERS


Part A 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. (experimental results) (experimental results) (experimental results) (experimental results) a. A person with 20/70 vision can see from 20 feet what the normal eye sees from 70 feet. This person has less than normal vision. b. A person with 20/10 vision can see from 20 feet what the normal eye sees from 10 feet. This person has better than normal vision. c. Astigmatism results in blurred vision because some parts of the image on the retina are in focus, while other parts are not. d. The elastic quality of the lens tends to decrease with age. e. The retina is lacking cones that are sensitive to red or green wavelengths (an X-linked/sex-linked trait). (experimental results) The optic disc lacks receptors (rods and cones) and thus creates a blind spot in the retina. The photopupillary reflex involves the constriction of the pupil in response to exposure to bright light. The photopupillary reflex occurs in both eyes even when one eye is shielded from the light; however, the shielded eye may not show as much change as the exposed one. When an eye is focused on a close object, the pupil constricts. When the eyes are focused on a close object, they converge toward the midline.

Part B 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

LABORATORY EXERCISE 31 ENDOCRINE SYSTEM


FIGURE LABELS
Figure 31.1 1. Hypothalamus 2. Pituitary gland 3. Parathyroid gland 4. Testis (male) 5. Pineal gland Figure 31.2 1. Anterior lobe of pituitary gland 2. Sphenoid bone 3. Hypothalamus Figure 31.3 1. Thyroid gland 2. Larynx 3. Isthmus Figure 31.4 1. Pharynx 2. Thyroid gland 3. Parathyroid glands 4. Esophagus 5. Trachea Figure 31.5 1. Adrenal cortex 2. Adrenal medulla 3. Zona glomerulosa Figure 31.6 1. Gallbladder 2. Small intestine 3. Common bile duct 4. Digestive enzyme-secreting cells (exocrine) Part A 1. 2. 3. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 4. 5. 6. 4. 5. 6. Thyroid gland Thymus Adrenal gland Pancreas Ovary (female) Pituitary stalk Posterior lobe of pituitary gland Sella turcica Colloid Follicular cell Extrafollicular cell

4. 5.

Zona fasciculata Zona reticularis

5. 6. 7. 8.

Pancreatic duct Pancreas Duct (of exocrine cells) Islet of Langerhans (endocrine)

LABORATORY REPORT ANSWERS


Growth hormone, thyroid-stimulating hormone, adrenocorticotropic hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, prolactin Antidiuretic hormone, oxytocin a. antidiuretic hormone b. growth hormone c. thyroid-stimulating hormone d. oxytocin e. adrenocorticotropic hormone f. prolactin Thyroxine, triiodothyronine Calcitonin Parathyroid hormone Bones, intestine, kidneys

4. 5. 6. 7.

8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14.

Epinephrine, norepinephrine Increased heart rate, increased blood pressure, rise in blood sugar concentration, increased metabolic rate, increased breathing rate, dilation of airways, decreased activity in the digestive tract (These are seven possible responses for five requested.) Aldosterone Kidneys conserve sodium ions, kidneys increase excretion of potassium ions, kidneys conserve water (reduce urine volume) (These are three possible responses for two requested.) Cortisol Decreases protein synthesis, increased release and use of fatty acids, stimulates liver to produce glucose from noncarbohydrates Insulin, glucagon

Critical Thinking Application Answer


Glucagon stimulates change of glycogen to glucose, causing an increase in the blood glucose concentration. Insulin causes a decrease in the blood glucose concentration by promoting the transport of glucose into cells. Part B (sketches)

LABORATORY EXERCISE 32 BLOOD CELLS


WARNING
Because of the possibility of blood-borne infections being transmitted from one student to another if blood slides are prepared in the classroom, it is suggested that commercially prepared blood slides be used in this exercise. The instructor, however, may wish to demonstrate the procedure for preparing such a slide.

LABORATORY REPORT ANSWERS


Part A 1. erythrocytes 2. biconcave 3. transporting and exchanging gases 4. Hemoglobin 5. oxyhemoglobin 6. nuclei 7. leukocytes 8. granulocytes Part B (sketches) Part C 1. (experimental results) 2. Answers will vary. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. agranulocytes neutrophils eosinophils Basophils Monocytes Lymphocytes megakaryocytes nucleus

Critical Thinking Application Answer


A total white blood cell count provides the number of white blood cells in a given volume of blood; a differential white blood cell count gives the relative percentages of types of white blood cells in a blood sample.

LABORATORY EXERCISE 33 BLOOD TESTINGA DEMONSTRATION


WARNING
Because of the possibility of blood-borne infections being transmitted from one student to another during blood-testing procedures, it is suggested that the following demonstrations be performed by the instructor.

LABORATORY REPORT ANSWERS


Part A (demonstration results) Part B 1. Answers will vary. 2. Various forms of anemia will produce a decreased red blood cell percentage. 3. Polycythemia, due to dehydration or an excessive production of red blood cells, will produce an increased percentage of red blood cells. Part C 1. Answers will vary. 2. Iron-deficiency anemia, lack of certain amino acids or vitamin B12, pregnancy, severe hemorrhage, excessive menstrual flow, or excessive fluid intake may cause a decreased hemoglobin content. 3. Polycythemia, obstructive pulmonary diseases, congestive heart failure, and living at high altitudes may cause an increased hemoglobin content. Part D 1. Answers will vary. 2. Anemia, leukemia, and severe hemorrhage may cause a decreased red blood cell count. 3. Severe dehydration, diarrhea, exercise, living at high altitudes, rise in temperature, or polycythemia may cause an increased red blood cell count. Part E 1. Answers will vary. 2. Aplastic anemia and adverse drug reactions may cause a decreased white blood cell count. 3. Acute infections, leukemia, infectious mononucleosis, and menstruation may cause an increased white blood cell count.

Critical Thinking Application Answer


RBC percentage (hematocrit), hemoglobin, and RBC count are all blood tests that could indicate anemia.

LABORATORY EXERCISE 34 BLOOD TYPING


WARNING
Because of the possibility of blood-borne infections being transmitted from one student to another if blood testing is performed in the classroom, it is suggested that commercially prepared blood-typing kits, containing virus-free human blood, be used for ABO blood typing. The instructor may wish to demonstrate Rh blood typing.

Critical Thinking Application Answer


The anti-A serum would contain anti-A antibodies if clumping was observed for a person with type A blood. The anti-B serum would contain anti-B antibodies if clumping was observed for a person with type B blood.

LABORATORY REPORT ANSWERS


Part A 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Part B 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Part C 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Part D 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. red blood cell membranes four A B anti-B anti-A AB O two to eight months (experimental results) Answers will vary. Answers will vary. Answers will vary. Answers will vary. rhesus monkey antigen D Rh-negative Rh-negative agglutinate Rh-positive (demonstration results) Answers will vary. Answers will vary. Answers will vary. Answers will vary.

LABORATORY EXERCISE 35 STRUCTURE OF THE HEART


INSTRUCTIONAL SUGGESTIONS
1. You may want to have the students use colored pencils to color the features of the heart and blood vessels in figure 35.3. This activity should help them observe the illustrations more carefully and locate the various features shown from different views in the figures. They can check their work by referring to the corresponding figures in the textbook, which are presented in full color. Instead of using preserved sheep hearts, you might want to provide fresh pig hearts for dissection. To reduce the cost of the specimens used, you might provide predissected, preserved sheep hearts for observation and save the specimens for use with other classes. Fresh beef hearts are sometimes available from meat-packing houses. You might want to demonstrate the dissection of this large heart. Try to make sure that the atria and large blood vessels are left attached for this purpose.

2. 3. 4.

FIGURE LABELS
Figure 35.1 1. Aorta 2. Superior vena cava 3. Right atrium 4. Right coronary artery 5. Right ventricle 6. Inferior vena cava 7. Pulmonary trunk (artery) Figure 35.2 1. Aorta 2. Left pulmonary artery 3. Left pulmonary veins 4. Left atrium 5. Left ventricle Figure 35.3 1. Aorta 2. Superior vena cava 3. Aortic valve 4. Right atrium 5. Tricuspid valve 6. Chordae tendineae 7. Inferior vena cava 8. Left pulmonary artery 9. Pulmonary trunk Part A 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. Left atrium Left coronary artery Cardiac vein Left ventricle

6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17.

Apex of the heart Superior vena cava Right atrium Inferior vena cava Right ventricle Left pulmonary veins Left atrium Pulmonary valve Bicuspid valve Papillary muscle Interventricular septum Left ventricle Right ventricle

LABORATORY REPORT ANSWERS


b i m k c l f 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. g h j d e a

Part B 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

The tricuspid valve is composed of three relatively large flaps, or cusps; the pulmonary valve is made up of three smaller pocketlike cusps. The cusps of the tricuspid valve moved upward into a horizontal position and closed the opening between the right atrium and the right ventricle. The chordae tendineae prevent the cusps of the tricuspid and bicuspid valves from everting into the atria when the ventricles contract. The papillary muscles pull on the chordae tendineae and help to open the cusps when the ventricles are relaxing and filling with blood. The thicker wall of the aorta allows it to withstand the higher pressure of the blood pumped out from the left ventricle. The thinner wall of the pulmonary trunk (artery) is related to the lower pressure of the blood that leaves the right ventricle. Vena cava, right atrium, tricuspid valve, right ventricle, pulmonary valve, pulmonary trunk, pulmonary artery, capillary of lungs, pulmonary vein, left atrium, bicuspid valve, left ventricle, aortic valve, aorta

Critical Thinking Application Answer


The thicker wall of the left ventricle allows it to contract with greater force and create the high pressure needed to move blood to all parts of the body (systemic circuit) except the lungs. The thinner wall of the right ventricle creates the lower pressure needed to move blood a relatively short distance to the lungs (pulmonary circuit).

LABORATORY EXERCISE 36 THE CARDIAC CYCLE


LABORATORY REPORT ANSWERS
Part A 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Part B 1. 2. Part C 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Part D 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. systole diastole closed open vibrations A-V (tricuspid and bicuspid) pulmonary and aortic (experimental results) (experimental results) cardiac muscle sinoatrial (S-A) atrioventricular (A-V) A-V bundle Purkinje fibers 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. cardiac cycle polarized atria ventricles ventricles

(labeled ECG recordings) Answers will vary. Normal is 0.120.20 sec. The P-Q (P-R) interval indicates the time it takes for the atria to depolarize and the cardiac impulse to reach the atrioventricular node. Since each QRS wave in the pattern indicates a ventricular contraction, the heart rate can be determined by counting the QRS waves that occur in a minute. 5 (experimental results)

Critical Thinking Application Answer


36

LABORATORY EXERCISE 37 BLOOD VESSELS


INSTRUCTIONAL SUGGESTION
If live frogs are not available for the microscopic observation of blood vessels, you might want to provide small goldfish. The head of a fish can be wrapped loosely in wet cotton to keep its gills moist, and the fish can be placed on a glass plate on the stage of a microscope. If its tail is spread out beneath a microscope slide, the blood vessels can be observed with low- and high-power magnification. However, if the fish is not returned to water within a few minutes, it is likely to die.

FIGURE LABELS
Figure 37.1 1. Tunica interna 2. Tunica media 3. Tunica externa Figure 37.2 1 4 3 2

LABORATORY REPORT ANSWERS


Part A 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Part B 1. 2. 3. endothelium middle layer (tunica media) outer layer (tunica externa) vasoconstriction vasodilation capillaries greater 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. Precapillary sphincters diffusion hydrostatic osmotic lymphatic Valves Veins

(sketch) (sketch) The inner and outer layers are similar in the artery and vein. The middle layer of the artery contains relatively greater amounts of smooth muscle and elastic tissue than that of the vein.

Critical Thinking Application Answer


Because arteries are under higher pressure than veins, the thicker arterial walls help to maintain the strength and elasticity necessary against their walls. Part C 1. The blood in an arteriole moves with a pulsating rapid flow, but blood in a venule moves with a steady, slower flow. 2. A capillary could be identified by its small diameter and the presence of blood cells moving in single file. 3. Blood moves fastest in arterioles, somewhat slower in venules, and slowest in capillaries.

LABORATORY EXERCISE 38 PULSE RATE AND BLOOD PRESSURE


INSTRUCTIONAL SUGGESTIONS
The following suggestions should be considered when trying to obtain an accurate blood pressure: 1. 2. 3. The room environment should have a moderate temperature and be quiet (no talking). The client needs to be relaxed and comfortable. A temporary increase in blood pressure could exist from smoking, pain, anxiety, or a full urinary bladder. Palpate the pulse first so that you are certain to pump the cuff high enough to not miss the first tapping sound. It also assures that you do not pump the cuff so high that we alter the blood pressure when releasing air.

LABORATORY REPORT ANSWERS


Part A 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Part B 1. 2. Part C 1. 2. 3. inner walls of blood vessels arterial systolic diastolic cardiac cycle alternate expanding and recoiling of an arterial wall brachial (test results) Answers will vary. (test results) (test results) Answers will vary. 4. Answers will vary.

Critical Thinking Application Answer


A palpated pulse would be characteristic of the systolic pressure as the arterial wall is expanding at that moment under the higher pressure.

LABORATORY EXERCISE 39 MAJOR ARTERIES AND VEINS


FIGURE LABELS
Figure 39.1 1. Superior vena cava 2. Pulmonary trunk 3. Inferior vena cava 4. 5. 6. Pulmonary veins Pulmonary artery Aorta

Critical Thinking Application Answer


The left ventricle wall is thicker which provides a more powerful contraction to force the blood through the longer distance of the systemic circuit. Figure 39.2 1. Right common carotid artery 2. Right subclavian artery 3. Brachiocephalic artery 4. Aortic arch 5. Ascending aorta 6. Right renal artery Figure 39.3 1. Superficial temporal artery 2. Occipital artery 3. Internal carotid artery 4. External carotid artery 5. Vertebral artery Figure 39.4 1. Subclavian artery 2. Axillary artery 3. Deep brachial artery Figure 39.5 1. Common iliac artery 2. External iliac artery 3. Deep femoral artery 4. Popliteal artery 5. Abdominal aorta Figure 39.6 1. External jugular vein 2. Subclavian vein 3. Internal jugular vein Figure 39.7 1. Internal jugular vein 2. Axillary vein 3. Cephalic vein 4. External jugular vein

7. 8. 9. 10. 11.

Right common iliac artery Left common carotid artery Left subclavian artery Coronary artery (left) Abdominal aorta

6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 4. 5. 6. 6. 7. 8. 9.

Thyrocervical artery Subclavian artery Facial artery Common carotid artery Brachiocephalic artery Brachial artery Radial artery Ulnar artery Internal iliac artery Femoral artery Anterior tibial artery Dorsalis pedis artery (dorsal pedis artery)

4. 5.

Vertebral vein Brachiocephalic vein

5. 6. 7. 8.

Brachiocephalic veins Subclavian vein Superior vena cava Azygos vein

Figure 39.8 1. Subclavian vein 2. Brachiocephalic vein 3. Axillary vein 4. Brachial vein 5. Cephalic vein Figure 39.9 1. Hepatic portal vein 2. Superior mesenteric vein 3. Gastric vein (right) Figure 39.10 1. Common iliac vein 2. External iliac vein 3. Inferior vena cava 4. Internal iliac vein Part A 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

6. 7. 8. 9.

Basilic vein Medial cubital vein Radial vein Ulnar vein

4. 5.

Splenic vein Inferior mesenteric vein

5. 6. 7. 8.

Femoral vein Great saphenous vein Popliteal vein Anterior tibial vein

LABORATORY REPORT ANSWERS


d i c a f b 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. h j g e k

Part B 1. right subclavian artery 2. aortic arch 3. phrenic artery 4. gonadal artery Part C 1. a 2. b 3. d 4. e Part D 1. brachiocephalic vein 2. popliteal vein 3. common iliac vein 4. basilic vein Part E (figure 39.11) 1. Common carotid artery 2. Brachiocephalic vein 3. Superior vena cava 4. Femoral vein 5. Great saphenous vein 6. Internal jugular vein 7. External jugular vein

5. 6. 7.

left common carotid artery brachial artery external iliac artery

5. 6. 7. 8. 5. 6. 7.

h c g f renal vein external iliac vein hepatic vein

8. 9.

Subclavian artery

10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15.

Subcl avian vein Pulmo nary vein Inferi or vena cava Aorta Com mon iliac vein Com mon iliac artery

16.

Femoral artery

LABORATORY EXERCISE 40 LYMPHATIC SYSTEM


FIGURE LABELS
Figure 40.1 6 3 2 4 8 1 5 7 Figure 40.2 1 4 6 5 2 3

LABORATORY REPORT ANSWERS


Part A 1. lymphatic capillaries 2. squamous epithelial 3. lymph 4. veins Part B 1. lymphocytes 2. hilum 3. Nodules 4. lymph sinuses Part C 1. thymus 2. lobules 3. immunity 4. thymosins 5. spleen Part D (sketches) 5. 6. 7. valves lymph nodes thoracic

5. 6. 7.

afferent tonsils Peyer's patches

6. 7. 8. 9.

blood white pulp red pulp macrophages

LABORATORY EXERCISE 41 ORGANS OF THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM


FIGURE LABELS
Figure 41.1 1. Lip 2. Hard palate 3. Soft palate 4. Uvula Figure 41.2 1. Parotid gland 2. Masseter muscle 3. Submandibular gland Figure 41.3 1. Enamel 2. Dentin 3. Root Figure 41.5 1. Pharyngeal tonsils (adenoids) 2. Opening of auditory tube (eustachian tube) 3. Nasopharynx 4. Oral cavity 5. Palatine tonsils Figure 41.6 1. Esophagus 2. Cardiac region 3. Pyloric sphincter (valve) 4. Duodenum 5. Pyloric canal Figure 41.7 4 2 5 6 Figure 41.9 1. Cystic duct 2. Gallbladder 3. Duodenum 4. Hepatic duct (common) 5. 6. 7. Palatine tonsils Tongue Vestibule

4. 5.

Tongue Sublingual gland

4. 5. 6. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 1 3 7

Crown Gingiva Root canal Oropharynx Lingual tonsils Epiglottis Laryngopharynx Esophagus Trachea Pyloric region Lower esophageal sphincter (cardiac sphincter) Fundic region Body region Rugae

5. 6. 7.

Common bile duct Pancreatic duct Hepatopancreatic sphincter (sphincter of Oddi)

Figure 41.10 10 1 3 7 2

6 9 8 5 4

Critical Thinking Application Answer


The small intestine, which is much longer than the large intestine and contains villi, provides more surface area for absorption than the large intestine.

LABORATORY REPORT ANSWERS


Part A 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Part B 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Part C 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. d m g h j n l k 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. f i o e a c b

nasopharynx oropharynx laryngopharynx The soft palate is raised; the hyoid bone and larynx are elevated; the tongue is pressed against the soft palate; the longitudinal muscles of pharyngeal wall contract, pulling the pharynx upward; muscles in the inferior pharynx relax, opening the esophagus; a peristaltic wave forces food into the esophagus. Mucus 25 The esophagus provides a passageway for food from the pharynx to the stomach. cardiac, fundic, body, and pyloric regions pyloric sphincter (valve) mucous, chief, and parietal cells chief cells parietal cells 6. 7. 8. 9. pepsin intrinsic factor gastrin The stomach receives food from the esophagus, mixes it with gastric juice, initiates the digestion of protein, does limited amount of absorption, and moves food (chyme) into the small intestine.

Part D 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

d b e g a

6. 7. 8. 9.

f i c h

Part E 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

duodenum, jejunum, and ileum A mesentery supports and suspends organs. It contains blood vessels, lymphatic vessels, and nerves that supply the organs. lacteal intestinal glands peptidases, sucrase, maltase, lactase, and intestinal lipase ileocecal sphincter (valve) vermiform appendix The small intestine receives secretions from the pancreas and liver, completes digestion of nutrients, absorbs the products of digestion, and transports the residues to the large intestine. The large intestine absorbs water and electrolytes, and forms and stores feces.

LABORATORY EXERCISE 42 ACTION OF A DIGESTIVE ENZYME


INSTRUCTIONAL SUGGESTION
For this experiment to work, it is very important to obtain amylase that is free of any sugar. Most of the amylase sold by laboratory suppliers in 2002 contained sugar, as can be determined by the control in tube 1 of this experiment. Ward's Natural Science Establishment, Inc., does handle amylase (alpha amylase from Bacillus subtilis; catalog #39 W 0058) that is free of sugar and several other companies plan to add this product to their catalogs. If in doubt, call the supply company and consult with the person in technical support. Keep any of the unused amylase frozen.

LABORATORY REPORT ANSWERS


Part A 1. Expected experimental results: Tube Starch Sugar 1 0 0 2 + 0 3 (varies) + a. Testing the amylase solution for the presence of starch and sugar demonstrates the negative results of the tests. b. Tube 2 demonstrates that starch will not change to sugar when warmed to 37C (98.6F). c. The change of starch to sugar is a result of the action of the amylase in tube 3. Expected experimental results: Tube Starch Sugar 4 + varies 5 (varies) + 6 + 0 a. Amylase is slow to act or inactive at either a low temperature or a high temperature. Its optimum temperature is near 37C (98.6F). b. The tubes in which digestion failed to occur could be placed in the 37C (98.6F) water bath. If digestion occurred at this temperature, the enzyme was not destroyed by the previous treatment.

2.

Part B 1.

2.

Critical Thinking Application Answer


The test would show a positive result for sugar. The experiment would not be valid as it would not show a change from starch to sugar when sugar is already present. (Note: some amylase sold is contaminated with sugar.)

LABORATORY EXERCISE 43 ORGANS OF THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM


FIGURE LABELS
Figure 43.1 1. Nostril 2. Oral cavity 3. Epiglottis 4. Larynx 5. Bronchus (right) 6. Right lung Figure 43.2 1. Epiglottic cartilage 2. Thyroid cartilage 3. Cricoid cartilage Part A 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Part B 1. 2. Part C 1. 2. 3. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. Frontal sinus Nasal cavity Pharynx Trachea Left lung

4. 5. 6.

Epiglottic cartilage Thyroid cartilage Cricoid cartilage

LABORATORY REPORT ANSWERS


h b i a e (sketch) (sketch) The sticky mucus is secreted into the upper and lower respiratory tract, which will trap particles of dust and microorganisms. The cilia create a current of mucus toward the pharynx. The mucus contains entrapped particles that are usually swallowed. If the smooth muscle of the bronchial tree relaxes, the air passages dilate, which allows a greater volume of air movement. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. d j f g c

Critical Thinking Application Answer


The simple squamous epithelial cells allow for rapid diffusion of oxygen and carbon dioxide between the blood and the alveolar air.

LABORATORY EXERCISE 44 BREATHING AND RESPIRATORY VOLUMES AND CAPACITIES

Critical Thinking Application Answer


Aging results in some natural loss of elasticity of the lungs as well as the muscles (diaphragm and intercostal muscles) used in breathing. This can be measured by a vital capacity test.

LABORATORY REPORT ANSWERS


Part A 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Part B 1. 2. 3. 4. Part C 1. 2. ventilation atmospheric 760 atmospheric pressure phrenic increases a g e f 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 5. 6. 7. 8. external intercostal visceral pleura surfactant elastic recoil internal intercostal muscles abdominal wall d h c b

3.

(experimental results) a. Answers will vary. b. Answers will vary. c. A measurement of the residual volume is needed. Answers will vary.

LABORATORY EXERCISE 45 STRUCTURE OF THE KIDNEY


FIGURE LABELS
Figure 45.1 1. Minor calyx 6. 2. Major calyx 7. 3. Renal pelvis 8. 4. Renal papilla 9. 5. Ureter 10. Figure 45.3 1. Glomerular capsule 2. Proximal convoluted tubule 3. Glomerulus 4. Efferent arteriole 5. Descending limb of the nephron loop 6. Ascending limb of the nephron loop Renal pyramid Renal column Renal capsule Renal medulla Renal cortex 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. Interlobular vein Afferent arteriole Distal convoluted tubule Peritubular capillary Collecting duct

LABORATORY REPORT ANSWERS


Part A 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Part B 1. 2. e a h f b 6. 7. 8. 9. i c d g

3. 4. Part C (sketch) Part D (sketch)

A renal corpuscle is the cluster of capillaries (glomerulus) and the saclike structure (glomerular capsule) that surrounds it; a renal tubule is the coiled tube that leads away from the glomerular capsule and empties into a collecting duct. 3 5 2 4 1 6 Blood enters the glomerulus through the afferent arteriole and leaves through the efferent arteriole. Since the afferent vessel has a somewhat greater diameter than the efferent one, blood pressure is increased in the glomerulus. The juxtaglomerular apparatus is a structure located where the distal convoluted tubule contacts the afferent and efferent arterioles. It is composed of epithelial and smooth muscle cells and plays a role in regulating blood flow through renal vessels.

LABORATORY EXERCISE 46 URINALYSIS


WARNING
While performing the urinalysis, students should wear disposable latex gloves so that skin contact with urine is avoided.

INSTRUCTIONAL SUGGESTION
Since most student urine will produce negative results for glucose, protein, ketones, bilirubin, and hemoglobin, you may want to provide samples of artificial urine'' (distilled water that contains weak concentrations of some of these substances). By performing the urinalysis tests on such samples, the students will be able to obtain some positive results.

LABORATORY REPORT ANSWERS


Part A 1. 2. (test results) Answers will vary.

Critical Thinking Application Answer


If urine is not refrigerated, substances within it will begin to change as a result of bacterial action, and the composition of the urine will be altered. Part B 1. (sketch) 2. Answers will vary.

LABORATORY EXERCISE 47 MALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM


FIGURE LABELS
Figure 47.1 1. Vas deferens 2. Urethra 3. Penis 4. Glans penis 5. Prepuce 6. Seminal vesicle Figure 47.2 1 5 4 3 7 2 6 Part A 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Part B 1. 2. 3. 4. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. Ejaculatory duct Prostate gland Bulbourethral gland Epididymis Testis Scrotum

LABORATORY REPORT ANSWERS


seminiferous tubules epididymis spermatogenic spermatogonia Spermatogenesis (meiosis) 23 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. acrosome epididymis fructose alkaline bulbourethral glans penis

(sketch) (sketch) (sketch) a. The supporting cells support, nourish, and regulate the spermatogenic cells. b. Spermatogenic cells give rise to sperm cells by meiosis (spermatogenesis). c. Interstitial cells produce and secrete male sex hormones. d. The epididymis stores sperm cells while they mature and propels them into the vas deferens. e. The corpora cavernosa and corpus spongiosum form three columns of erectile tissue that contain vascular spaces that become engorged with blood during an erection.

LABORATORY EXERCISE 48 FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM


FIGURE LABELS
Figure 48.1 1. Uterine tube 2. Ovary 3. Uterus 4. Clitoris 5. Labium minus Figure 48.2 5 10 9 4 3 Figure 48.3 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Part A 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Part B 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. Labium majus Vaginal orifice Fimbriae Cervix Vagina

8 1 2 7 6 Areola Nipple Lactiferous duct Alveolar glands (mammary glands) Adipose tissue

LABORATORY REPORT ANSWERS


pelvic ovarian follicles follicular first polar body FSH Ovulation fallopian tubes or oviducts infundibulum 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. cervix endometrium smooth muscle hymen vulva mons pubis clitoris vestibular glands

(sketch) (sketch) (sketch) (sketch) a. A mature follicle swells and ruptures under the influence of certain hormones. As this happens, the oocyte and follicular fluid escape from the ovary. b. The cilia that line the uterine tube beat toward the uterus and help to draw the oocyte into the infundibulum of the tube. c. The glandular endometrium thickens throughout the menstrual cycle until it culminates in menstrual bleeding (menses).

APPENDIX 1 MATERIALS NEEDED


This is a composite list of materials needed for the entire lab manual. The amount or number of each item will depend upon the laboratory size and the number of students working as a group. The laboratory manual has the materials needed listed at the beginning of each lab, as some of these materials might not be needed if certain labs, demonstrations, or optional activities are not attempted. Items indicated with an (*) are either demonstration or optional materials.

PREPARED MICROSCOPE SLIDES


Three colored threads Mitosis (whitefish blastula) Human chromosomes from leukocytes in mitosis* Simple squamous epithelium (lung) Simple cuboidal epithelium (kidney) Simple columnar epithelium (small intestine) Pseudostratified (ciliated) columnar epithelium (trachea) Stratified squamous epithelium (esophagus) Transitional epithelium (urinary bladder) Loose (areolar) connective tissue Dense connective tissue Adipose tissue Elastic connective tissue Hyaline cartilage Elastic cartilage Fibrocartilage Bone tissue Blood smear (Wright's stain) Skeletal muscle tissue (cross section and longitudinal section) Smooth muscle tissue Cardiac muscle tissue Nervous tissue (spinal cord smear and cerebellum) Human scalp or axilla Heavily pigmented human skin* Dorsal root ganglion (section) Neuroglial cells (astrocytes) Peripheral nerve (cross section and longitudinal section) Spinal cord cross section with spinal nerve roots Cochlea (section)* Pituitary gland Thyroid gland Parathyroid gland Adrenal gland Pancreas Pathological blood, such as eosinophilia, leukocytosis, leukopenia, and lymphocytosis* Artery cross section Vein cross section Lymph node section Human thymus section Human spleen section Parotid gland (salivary gland) Esophagus Stomach (fundus) Small intestine (jejunum) Large intestine Trachea (cross section) Lung, human (normal) Lung tissue (smoker)* Lung tissue (emphysema)* Kidney section Testis section Epididymis, cross section Penis, cross section Ovary section with maturing follicles Uterine tube, cross section Uterine wall section Uterine wall, early proliferative phase* Uterine wall, secretory phase* Uterine wall, early menstrual phase*

APPARATUS/SUPPLIES/EQUIPMENT
Safety equipment (first aid kit, disposable latex gloves, safety glasses, laboratory coats, and disinfectant solution) Compound microscopes Micrometer scale on compound microscope* Stereomicroscopes (dissecting microscopes) Oil immersion objective on compound microscope* Lens paper Microscope slides Coverslips Transparent plastic millimeter ruler Medicine dropper Dissecting needle (needle probe) Toothpicks (flat) Single-edged razor blade* Petri dish Forceps Thistle tube Molasses (or Karo dark corn syrup) Dialysis tubing of 1 5/16 inch diameter or greater Ring stand and clamp Beakers (assorted sizes) Rubber bands Test tubes Marking pen Test-tube rack Graduated cylinder (10 mL) Glass funnel Filter paper Hand magnifier Radiographs (X-ray films) of skeletal structures and joints* Rubber percussion hammer Anatomic charts of various systems Dissection instruments (scalpel, probe, scissors, and forceps) Dissecting trays Long knife Watch that ticks Tuning fork (128 or 256 cps) Sterile cotton Meterstick Audiometer* Ophthalmoscope* Snellen eye chart 3" x 5" cards Astigmatism chart Pen flashlight Ichikawa's color plates or other color-blindness test Water bath with temperature control Laboratory thermometer Sterile disposable blood lancets* Slide staining rack and tray* Heparinized microhematocrit capillary tube* Sealing clay (or Critocaps)* Microhematocrit centrifuge* Microhematocrit reader* Hemoglobinometer* Hemolysis applicator* Hemocytometer* Unopette system (Becton Dickinson) for counting red blood cells* (see Appendix 2 for a supplier of Unopette systems) Unopette system (Becton Dickinson) for counting white blood cells* (see Appendix 2 for a supplier of Unopette systems) Hand counter (tally)* ABO blood-typing kit Anti-D serum* Slide warming box (Rh blood-typing box or view box)* Stethoscope Electrocardiograph (or other instrument for recording an ECG) Cot or table Electrode cream (paste) Plate electrodes and cables Lead selector switch Paper towels Frog board Dissecting pins Thread Masking tape Ice Hot plate Clock with second hand Sphygmomanometer Pulse pickup transducer or plethysmogram* Physiological recording apparatus* Test-tube clamps Wax marker Porcelain test plate Pipets (1 mL and 10 mL) Pipet rubber bulbs Spirometer, handheld (dry portable) Disposable mouthpieces for the spirometer Disposable urine-collecting container Urinometer cylinder Urinometer hydrometer pH test paper

Reagent strips (individual or combination) to test for the presence of glucose, protein, ketones, bilirubin, and hemoglobin/occult blood in the urine

Centrifuge Centrifuge tubes Normal and abnormal simulated urine specimens* Paper cups

MODELS/SKELETONS
Dissectible torso (manikin) with musculature Animal cell Animal mitosis Human long bone, sectioned longitudinally Articulated human skeleton Disarticulated human skull (Beauchene) Human skull, sagittal section Fetal skull* Disarticulated human skeleton Vertebrae (cervical, thoracic, and lumbar examples) Male and female pelves* Synovial joints (shoulder, elbow, hip, and knee) Skeletal muscle fiber model Muscular model of the upper limb Muscular model of the lower limb Muscular models of the male and female pelves Neuron Spinal cord Dissectible human brain Dissectible ear Dissectible eye Dissectible human heart Teeth, sectioned Tooth model, sectioned Larynx model Thoracic organs model Kidney model Model of male reproductive system Model of female reproductive system Mechanical model of the respiratory system*

PRESERVED MATERIALS
Spinal cord with meninges intact* Human brain Sheep brains Beef or sheep eyes Sheep or other mammalian hearts Pig or sheep kidneys Animal lung with trachea*

LIVING SPECIMENS/FRESH MATERIAL


Amoeba culture* Paramecium culture* Plant materials such as leaves, soft stems, fruits, and vegetables* Uncoagulated animal blood Fresh chicken bones (radius and ulna from wings)* Fresh animal bones, sectioned longitudinally and transversely Fresh round beefsteak* Fresh animal joint (knee joint preferred)* Frog

CHEMICALS, REAGENTS, AND BIOLOGICALS


(This includes any ingredients needed to mix solutions described in Appendix 1 of the laboratory manual). Distilled water Frog Ringer's solution Methylene blue (dilute) 0.5% amylase solution (must be free of any sugar) Iodine-potassium-iodide (IKI) stain 0.5% starch solution Potassium permanganate crystals Sedi-stain 0.9% NaCl (aqueous solution) Bacterial amylase powder (store in a freezer) (see Appendix 2 for a supplier of amylase that is 3% NaCl (aqueous solution) free of any sugar) Powdered charcoal Glucose 1% glucose solution Sodium chloride 1% starch solution Cornstarch Benedict's solution Potassium iodide Vinegar* Iodine Wright's stain* 95% ethyl alcohol 70% alcohol

Potassium hydroxide Sodium bicarbonate

Potassium chloride Calcium chloride

APPENDIX 2 LABORATORY SUPPLIERS


This list is not complete, but it does contain well-established names recognized by most anatomy and physiology instructors. Additional suppliers often advertise in scientific journals or have booths at scientific association meetings. Some of these companies also have regional offices. Bio Corporation 3911 Nevada Street Intelitool/Phipps & Bird Alexandria, MN 56308 P.O. Box 7475 http://www.biologyproducts.com Richmond, VA 23221 http://www.intelitool.com Carolina Biological Supply Company 2700 York Road Nasco, Inc. Burlington, NC 27215 901 Janesville Ave. http://www.carolina.com Fort Atkinson, WI 53538 http://www.nascofa.com Central Scientific Company (CENCO) 3300 CENCO Parkway Nebraska Scientific Franklin Park, IL 60131 3823 Leavenworth St. http://www.cenconet.com Omaha, NE 68105 http://www.nebraskascientific.com Connecticut Valley Biological Supply Co. 82 Valley Road, P.O. Box 326 Sargent-Welch Scientific Company Southampton, MA 01073 P.O. Box 5229 http://www.ctvalleybio.com Buffalo Grove, IL 60089 http://www.sargentwelch.com Cynmar Corporation 21709 Route 4 North Science Kit & Boreal Laboratories P.O. Box 530 777 East Park Drive Carlinville, IL 62626 P.O. Box 5003 http://www.cynmar.com Tonawanda, NY 14151 http://www.sciencekit.com Fisher Scientific U.S. Headquarters Southern Scientific 2000 Park Lane P.O. Box 368 Pittsburgh, PA 15275 McKenzie, TN 38201 http://www.fisheredu.com http://www.southernscientific.com (Fisher Scientific is a supplier of Becton Dickinson Unopette blood counting systems. For cases of 200, the RBC Unopette system catalog number is 13-68023, and the WCB Unopette system catalog number is 13-680-1.) Flinn Scientific P.O. Box 219 Batavia, IL 60510 http://www.flinnsci.com Frey Scientific P.O. Box 8101 Mansfield, OH 44901 http://www.freyscientific.com The Scope Shoppe 113 Read St., P.O. Box 1208 Elburn, IL 60119 http://www.scopeshoppe.com Wards Natural Science Establishment, Inc. 5100 West Henrietta Road P.O. Box 92912 Rochester, NY 14692 http://www.wardsci.com (Wards Natural Science Establishment is a supplier of the enzyme amylase that is free of sugar. The catalog number is 39W0058.)