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UE : Anglais

Date : 27/01/2012 Promo : PCEM2 Plage horaire : 14h - 16h Enseignant : Lesley Graham

Ronistes : Papin Juliette juliette.papin@free.fr Coust Valentin v.couste@live.fr

English 1
I. Basic medical terminology A) Human Body B) Two words C) Anatomical term v. patient's statement D) The abdomen E) The chest F) Which organ is affected G) The bones II. Overview of the health care system in Britain A) The General Practitioner B) Medical practitioners C) Hospitals in the British system D) The British health system : the NHS E) Key facts F) Med School III.Reminder of a few important grammar rules A) Irregular plurals B) Irregular verbs C) American vs British spelling of medical words
Note : la prsence aux ED est obligatoire, c'est un contrle continu. Notre participation aux ED compte pour 50% de la note finale. Deux images n'ont pas pu tre insres (abdomen et squelette) car impossible lire dans le diaporama de la prof. Rono relue et corrige par Claudi Landi.

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I. Basic medical terminology


A) Human Body
1. Ear : l'oreille 2. Cheek : la joue 3. Jaw / mandible : la mchoire / mandibule 4. Neck : le cou 5. Shoulder : l'paule 6. Armpit / axilla : l'aisselle 7. Upper arm : le bras suprieur 8. Elbow : le coude 9. Loin : le rein 10. Forearm : l'avant bras 11. Buttock : la fesse 12. Wrist : le poignet 13. Hand : la main 14. Thumb : le pouce 15. Fingers : les doights 16. Thigh : la cuisse 17. Calf : le mollet (calv : les mollets) 18. Leg : la jambe 19. Foot : le pied 20. Toe : l'orteil 21. Hair : les cheveux 22. Forehead : le front 23. Nose : le nez 24. Chin : le menton 25. Adam apple / laryngeal prominence : la pomme d'adam 26. Chest / thorax : le torse 27. Nipple : le mammelon 28. Breast : la poitrine / les seins 29. Stomach / tummy / belly : l'estomac 30. Navel / belly button / ombilicus : le nombril 31. Hip : la hanche 32. Palm : la paume 33. Groin / inguinal region : l'aine 34. Genitals (penis and testicles) : l'appareil gnital 35. Knee / kneecap : le genou 36. Shin : le tibia 37. Ankle : la cheville 38. Big toe : le gros orteil 39. Sole : la plante du pied 40. Heel : le talon Back : le dos Joint : articulation (wrist, hip)
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B) Two words
Many parts of the body are designated by two words in English : medical or anatomical word usually derived from Latin or Greek (ex : uterus). a familiar word which has usually an anglo-saxon origin (ex : womb). Voici la liste de quelques mots souvents utiliss, pour lesquels il existe un terme mdical et un terme de la vie courante: Anatomical word abdomen axilla carpus coxa cubitus mamma nates patella Common Word stomach / tummy / belly armpit wrist hip elbow breast buttocks kneecap

C) Anatomical term v. patient's statement


Vocabulary used by the doctor inguinal swelling abdominal pain periumbilical rash (= ruption) thoracic pain enlarged axillary node mandibular pain Word used by the patient I've got a lump in the groin. My little boy's got a tummy/stomach ache. I've got some spots around my navel. I've got a pain in the middle of the chest. There's a painful swelling in my armpit. I've got a pain in my jaw.

D) The abdomen
[dsol, nous n'avons pas le schma de la prof, mais on connait tous notre anatomie par coeur :) ] - the liver : le foie - the kidney (right and left) : le rein (droit et gauche) - the pancreas : le pancreas - the stomach : l'estomac - the spleen : la rate - the gall bladder: la vsicule billiaire - the bladder: la vessie - the duodenum: le duodenum

Examination of the abdomen : To examine the patient for enlarged abdominal organs, first feel for the liver and the gall bladder on the right side. To do this, ask the patient to take a deep breath, while pressing with the fingers upwards and inwards. Next, feel for the right kidney and then cross over to the other side of the left kidney. Still on the left side, palpate for an enlarged spleen. Finally, moving to the lower abdomen, feel for the bladder which is only felt if full.

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E) The chest
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Trachea / windpipe : la trache Lung : le poumon Lobes : les lobes Diaphragm : le diaphragme Airways : les voies ariennes Heart : le coeur Bronchioles : les bronchioles

F) Which organ is affected

Pathology hepatitis pneumonia nephritis gastric ulcer cystitis angina pectoris cholecystitis ulcerative colitis

Organ Liver lung kidney stomach bladder heart gall bladder large bowel (and of the colon)

G) The bones
Familiar name skull jaw bonespine breastbone rib collarbone shoulder blade thigh bone kneecap shinbone Anatomical name cranium mandible vertebral columm sternum costa clavicle scapula femur patella tibia

II. Overview of the health care system in Britain


A) The General Practitioner
The basic person who works in the medical profession is the General Practitioner (GP).
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RQ: In the USA, the GP is called a Family doctor or a Family Physician. A general practitioner is a medical doctor who provides comprehensive general care to patients, rather than focusing on a specific organ system, family of conditions, or type of medical issue. They work together in a small clinic with specialists (physiotherapist, psychotherapist) and nurses. Many people use a general practitioner for their primary care, and general practitioners are usually the first point of contact with the medical system for patients. This system is very similar to the French system. In fact, we go to the GP and the GP may refers us to a specialist.

B) Medical practitioners
A dermatologist specializes in diseases of the skin A rheumatologist specializes in diseases of the joints A traumatologist specializes in accident & emergency medicine A paediatrician specializes in childrens medicine An obstetrician specializes in managing pregnancies An oncologist specializes in the diagnosis & treatment of cancer A psychiatrist specializes in questions of mental health A pathologist diagnoses disease by examining cells and tissue

C) Hospitals in the British system


Hospital patients : Outpatients are the people who come to the hospital to attend a clinic (section in a hospital) or to have tests done or get treatment, or to consult a specialist. They do not sleep in the hospital. Inpatients stay in the hospital for one day or more days. The rooms where they stay are called wards (units de soin). In Great Britain, people in hospital are on wards with just a curtain between beds. In France they prefer a private room. And usually, the sexes are segregated in these hospitals wards : the wards are not mixt. If a patient's treatment requires only one day, such as a simple operation, they can be admitted to the day surgery unit. Hospital departments : The first we can mostly see are administrative: nursy administration. Nursies look after all of the patient population. We have Intensive Care Unit, called the I.C.U. A screening ward depists pathology. ER (emergency room) (USA) or A&E (GB) Accident and emergency department. There is the X-ray department, which is Radiology. The Day ward, is for patients who are only coming in for one day. Indeed, they go home at night. Blood clinics, where they come when they have an hematological problem. Here, there is another big difference in medical culture between Britain and France. Laboratories simply don't exist in Great Britain. People who have to get blood taken go to their GPS Surgery or to the Hospital. Occupational therapy : ergothrapie Family planning : people who want advice or contraception. Minor injuries : for people who have hurt themselves but not seriously. Wound (plaies) clinic, people who have some wounds come to have their wound dressing changed.
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Physiotherapy : kinsithrapie Radiology and echography Burns unit for people who have burned to their skin. The endoscopy unit Chapel = church The acute assessment unit is for people who have severe medical condition which need to be evaluated. Blood test Urology investigations Which department for : A woman in a diabetic coma ? A patient who has just had a radical prostatectomy ? A patient who has to have a skin lesion removed ? A man with a foreign body in his eye ? A woman with a threatened abortion ? ICU Intensive Care High Dependency Unit Day Surgery Unit : quick procedures A&E : accident and emergency Gynaecology

D) The British Health System : the NHS


The National Health Service or NHS is the publicly-funded healthcare system in Great Britain. The NHS provides healthcare to anyone normally resident in the United Kingdom (don't need the British nationality)with most services free at the point of use for the patient though there are charges associated with eye tests, dental care, prescriptions most you have to pay for. So, that means, if you go to see a doctor, there is no exchange of money, you don't pay the doctor at the end of the consultation. If you go to the hospital, there is no exchange of money. The public system (NHS) provides the majority of healthcare in England, including primary care, in-patient care, long-term healthcare, ophthalmology and dentistry. Before the National Health Service there was no public system. The National Health Service Act 1946 came into effect on 5 July 1948. Private health care has continued parallel to the NHS, paid for largely by private insurance: it is used by about 8% of the population, generally as an add-on to NHS services (but you have to wait a long time in the public center). In the first decade of the 21st century the private sector started to be increasingly used by the NHS to increase capacity.

E) Key facts
The NHS is a massive organization. It employs over 1.3 million people nationwide. It is the 4 th largest employer in the world behind the Chinese People's Liberation Army, Wal-Mart (massive chain of supermarket in USA) and the Indian Railways. Around 77% of the NHS workforce is female. Nurses make up the largest part of the NHS workforce at around 30%. 23 million people visit their GP or practice nurse each month GPs treat an average 255 patients each week. GP are not payed per patient, they all receive the same salary from the NHS. Community pharmacies dispensed 745 million prescription items in 2006/07. Staff across the NHS are in contact with more than 1.5 million patients and their families every day. In a typical week, 1.4 million people will receive help in their home from the NHS. But it's changing because nurses and doctors visits at home is expansive.
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There is no exchange of money between the patient and the doctor because the NHS is largely funded from the general taxation (A major part of the general taxation is reserved for the NHS and the part that is reserved for the NHS is called National Insurance payments). Prescription charges : As of April 2009 the prescription charge for medicines was 7.20 (which contrasts with Northern Ireland at 3.00, Scotland at 4.00 and Wales where they are free). The decision that was taken, was to charge the same price for each item . Each item is exactly the same price. So it can be really expensive. People over sixty, children under sixteen (or under nineteen if in full time education), patients with certain medical conditions, and those with low incomes, are exempt from paying. The charge is the same regardless of the actual cost of the medicine, but higher charges apply to medical appliances.

F) Med School
When students arrived in the first year of medicine, they have already got at least 3 years pre-med. So they have a qualification scientific or not. After enrollment, there are 2 roughly equal components : pre clinical students don't go to the hospitals 2 clinical years Med School granted after 4 years of study, they are doctors.

III.Reminder of a few important grammar rules


A) Irregular plurals
The vast majority of irregular plurals are derived from Latin. Most Latin masculine nouns end is -us and are pluralized -i (cactus / cacti). Most feminine nouns end in -a and are pluralized -ae (alga / algae). Most neuter nouns end in -um and take the plural ending -a (serum / sera). Medicals examples : Alveolus alveoli analysis analyses appendix appendices atrium atria bacillus bacilli dactum data diagnosis diagnoses esophagus esophagi maximum maxima nucleus nuclei phenomenon phenomena pleura pleurae psychosis psychoses scapula scapulae septum septa spermatozoon spermatozoa stimulus stimuli thesis theses thrombosis thromboses vertebra vertebrae

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B) Irregular verbs
Infinitif seek bind break freeze find lead shake spin tear Prtrit sought bound broke froze found led shook span tore Participe pass sought bound broken frozen found led shaken spun torn Traduction rechercher / chercher se lier / attacher casser geler trouver mener / guider secouer / trembler tourner dchirer

The most common irregular verbs used in scientific English : be, bear, become, begin, bend, bind, break, bring, build, burn, choose, come, cost, cut, deal, do, draw, drive, fall, feed, feel, find, fly, forget, freeze, get, give, grow, grind, hang, have, hit, hold, keep, now, lead, lean, leave, let, lie, light, lose, make, mean, meet, put, read, ring, rise, run, say, see, set (up), shake, shut, spend, spin, stand, strike, swing, tear, think, understand, wear, write.

C) American vs British spelling of medical words


Simplification of ae and oe. Many words are written with ae / or oe / in British English, but a single e in Amercian English. Examples (with non-American letter in bold): amoeba, anaemia, anaesthesia, caesium, gynaecology, haemophilia, leukaemia, orthopaedic. definition An unborn baby a female hormone Liquid excrement a children's specialist the study of blood the origin of disease a neoplastic growth British English ftus oestrogen diarrhoea paediatrician haematology aetiology tumour American English fetus estrogen diarrhea pediatrician hematology etiology tumor

Another difference between American and British, is the z for words which end in -ize or -ise. For example hospitalization. -ize US spelling vs -ise British spelling : Amercian spelling accepts only -ize endings in most cases, such as organize, recognozie, and realize. British usage accepts both -ize and the more French-looking -ise (organise, recognise, realise). Follow up : There are two espace langues one here in Carreire, the other al la Victoire. Carreire : Monday Thursday 13h-17h (Tuesday 19h)
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