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# Assignment 23: AC 2, Power, and Resonance

## A Resistor and a Capacitor in a Series AC Circuit

A resistor with resistance and a capacitor with capacitance are connected in series to an AC voltage source. The time-dependent voltage across the capacitor is given by . Part A What is the amplitude of the total current Hint A.1 How to approach the problem in the circuit? Hint not displayed Hint A.2 Applying Ohm's law to a capacitor Hint not displayed Hint A.3 The reactance of a capacitor Hint not displayed Express your answer in terms of any or all of , , ANSWER: = Correct Part B What is the amplitude of the voltage across the resistor? Hint B.1 Relating to Hint not displayed Express your answer in terms of ANSWER: = Correct Part C If , , , and Hint C.1 Calculating the answer , what is ? , , , and . , and .

Hint not displayed Express your answer numerically, in millivolts, to the nearest integer. ANSWER: 3 = Correct mV

## A Voltage-Driven Parallel L-C Circuit

An AC source that provides a voltage drives an inductor having inductance and a capacitor having

capacitance , all connected in parallel. Part A Recall that the currents and through the inductor and capacitor are not in phase with their respective voltages and . In particular, for a sinusoidal voltage driver, which of the following statements is true? ANSWER: and both lag their respective voltages. and leads lags Correct The phase angle between voltage and current for inductors and capacitors is radians. Among other things, this means that no power is dissipated in either, since the time-averaged product of current and voltage (= power) is zero: . Part B What is the amplitude of the current through the voltage source? In other words, if the time-dependent current is , what is the value of ? Hint B.1 Voltage in a parallel circuit Hint not displayed Hint B.2 Current through the capacitor Hint not displayed Hint B.3 The current through the inductor Hint not displayed Hint B.4 Total current Hint not displayed Express the amplitude of the current in terms of ANSWER: = Correct Part C , , , and . both lead their respective voltages. and and lags leads . .

With and representing the respective magnitudes of the currents through the inductor and capacitor, which of the following statements is true? ANSWER: At very high frequency and at very low frequency . At very high frequency for all frequencies. for all frequencies. and are about the same at all frequencies. and at very low frequency .

Correct Part D The L-C circuit is one example of a system that can exhibit resonance behavior. The resonant frequency is . At this frequency, what is the amplitude of the current supplied by the voltage source? Express your answer in terms of and any other need terms from the problem introduction. ANSWER: 0 = Correct Part E Which of the following statements best describes the implications of the result that ANSWER: The currents ; ; are zero at all times. The current The current The current Correct At the resonant frequency of the circut, the voltage source can supply voltage easily because the parallel L-C circuit draws no current at all! (For this reason, a parallel L-C circuit can be used as a filter to pass signals at the resonance frequency.) Of course, the same current flows in the inductor and the capacitor as the current that flows when they are driven separately by the voltage source. However, the currents are exactly out of phase, so that the net effect is a current circulating around the loop made by the capacitor and the inductor without passing into or out of the voltage source. is zero at all times although and are not. when ?

is zero only when the voltage is zero. is zero only when the amplitude of the voltage is not changing.

## Alternating Current, LC circuit

A capacitor with capacitance is connected in parallel to two inductors: inductor 1 with inductance , and inductor 2 with inductance , as shown in the figure. The capacitor is charged up to a voltage , at which point it has a

charge . There is no current in the inductors. Then the switch is closed. Part A Since the two inductors are in parallel, the voltage across them is the same at any time. Hence, where and are the reactances of inductors 1 and 2, and and are the currents through them. Use this equality to express in terms of . Hint A.1 The reactance of an inductor Hint not displayed Express your answer in terms of . ANSWER: = Correct Part B What is the effective inductance of the inductors 1 and 2 in the circuit? Hint B.1 Formulas for effective inductance Hint not displayed Express your answer in terms of . ANSWER: = Correct Part C Find the maximum current through inductor 1. Hint C.1 Use conservation of energy to find the total maximum current Hint not displayed Express your answer in terms of , , and . ANSWER: = Correct ,

Problem 31.40
Five infinite-impedance voltmeters, calibrated to read rms values, are connected as shown in figure

. Let Part A What is the reading of the voltmeter ANSWER: 5.44 = Correct Part B What is the reading of the voltmeter ANSWER: 2.18 = Correct Part C What is the reading of the voltmeter ANSWER: 22.7 = Correct Part D What is the reading of the voltmeter ANSWER: 20.5 = Correct Part E What is the reading of the voltmeter ANSWER: 21.2 = Correct Part F What is the reading of the voltmeter ANSWER: 13.8 = Correct Part G What is the reading of the voltmeter ANSWER: 27.6 = Correct Part H if if if 200 if 200 if 200 if 200 if 200

200 ?

0.400 ,

6.00

and

30.0 .

1000

1000

What is the reading of the voltmeter ANSWER: 11.5 = Correct Part I What is the reading of the voltmeter ANSWER: 16.1 = Correct Part J What is the reading of the voltmeter ANSWER: 21.2 = Correct

if

1000

if

1000

if

1000

Exercise 31.23
An L-R-C series circuit frequency of 402 . Part A = 0.123 , = 244 , and = 7.33 carries an rms current of 0.448 with a

What is the phase angle? ANSWER: 0.811 = Correct radians Part B What is the power factor for this circuit? ANSWER: 0.689 Correct Part C What is the impedance of the circuit? ANSWER: 354 = Correct Part D What is the rms voltage of the source? ANSWER: 159 = Correct Part E What average power is delivered by the source? ANSWER: 49.0 = Correct Part F What is the average rate at which electrical energy is converted to thermal energy in the resistor? ANSWER: = 49.0

Correct Part G What is the average rate at which electrical energy is dissipated (converted to other forms) in the capacitor? ANSWER: 0 Correct Part H What is the average rate at which electrical energy is dissipated (converted to other forms) in the inductor? ANSWER: 0 Correct

## Resonance in an R-L-C Circuit

In an L-R-C series circuit, the resistance is 320 ohms, the inductance is 0.400 henrys, and the capacitance is 1.60102 microfarads. Part A What is the resonance angular frequency of the circuit? Hint A.1 Definition of the resonance angular frequency Hint not displayed Hint A.2 Relationship between current and voltage amplitudes Hint not displayed Hint A.3 What is an expression for impedance? Hint not displayed Hint A.4 Finding the formula for the resonant frequency Hint not displayed Express your answer in radians per second to three significant figures. ANSWER: 1.25104 = Correct Part B The capacitor can withstand a peak voltage of 560 volts. If the voltage source operates at the resonance frequency, what maximum voltage amplitude can the source have if the maximum capacitor voltage is not exceeded? Hint B.1 Voltage across a capacitor Hint not displayed Hint B.2 Current at the resonance frequency Hint not displayed Express your answer in volts to three significant figures. ANSWER: 35.8 = Correct

Problem 31.68

A resistance , capacitance , and inductance are connected in series to a voltage source with amplitude and variable angular frequency . Part A If , the resonance angular frequency, find the maximum current in the resistor. Express your answer in terms of the variables , , , and . ANSWER: = Correct Part B Find the maximum voltage across the capacitor. Express your answer in terms of the variables , , , and . ANSWER: = Correct Part C Find the maximum voltage across the inductor. Express your answer in terms of the variables , , , and . ANSWER: = Correct Part D Find the maximum energy stored in the capacitor. Express your answer in terms of the variables , , , and . ANSWER: = Correct Part E Find the maximum energy stored in the inductor. Express your answer in terms of the variables , , , and . ANSWER: = Correct