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Ma{instvo2(2),85-92,(1998)H.DROGAN:GUD1S.64.3AADVANCED100MW...

GUD 1S.64.3A ADVANCED 100 MW COMBINED CYCLE POWER PLANT


Hartrnut Drogan, Siemens Power Generation SUMMARY

PROFESSIONAL PAPER

Thehighlyefficientsingle-shaftGUDpowerplantdesignwiththeModelV64.3Agasturbineisoptimizedtoreducelifecyclecostandtolowerenvironmentalemissions. Itachievesanoutputofmore100MWatagrossefficiencyofabout54%nadservesthepower generationaswellasthecogenerationmarket. The flexible plant design allows for customized solutions to be designed for meeting user-specific demands.Furthermoretroughtitsmanyyearsofsupplyingturnkeypowerprojects,Siemensisexperiencedinprovidingadditionalservicessuchasprojectdevelopmentandfinancingaswellasoperationandmaintenance.

Keywords:

GUD 1S.64.3A - ENERGANA OD 100 MW SA KOMBINIRANIM CIKLUSOM


Hartrnut Drogan, Siemens Power Generation REZIME

STRU^NI RAD

Uciljusmanjenjatro{kovaproizvodnjeizaga|enjaokolineoptimiziranajevisokoefektivnaGUDenerganasajednimvratilomisagasnomturbinommodelaV64.3A. Ovaenerganaposti`eizlaznusnaguod100MWuzukupnuefikasnostod54%islu`izaproizvodnjuenergijeiopskrbudrugihenergetskihproizvo|a~a. Fleksibilnaizvedbaenerganeomogu}ujedaseuobi~ajenarje{enjadizajnirajutakodasemo`eudovoljitispecifi~nimzahtjevimakorisnika.[tavi{e,godinamarade}inaprojektovanjuenerganapoprincipu"klju~uruke",Siemensjestekaoiskustvoupru`anjudodatnihuslugakao{tosurazvojifinansiranjeprojekta,kaoifunkcioniranjeiodr`avanjeenergana.

Klju~nerije~i:

1. INTRODUCTION
SiemensGUDcombnedcyclepowerunitsfeaturingModelV64.3gasturbinesarebeingoperated successfully worldwide since 1990. The reference recordincludes28gasturbineV64.3.whichhave accumulated more than 202.000 operating hours and more than 8.800 starts. Individual engines havebeeninoperationformorethan40.000operating hours. In addition to these operating units, another 15 units are under construction or on order. Today,evenmoreadvancedGDUunitsincorporatingthenewV64.3Agasturbineinbothsingleand

1. UVOD
Gasne turbine V64.3 koje rade u sklopu Siemensovih GUD energana sa kombiniranim ciklusom uspje{norade{iromsvijetaod1990.godine.Prema referentnim podacima ukupno 28 gasnih turbina V64.3jeupogonu,pri~emujeostvarenovi{eod 202.000 radnih sati uz vi{e od 8.800 pokretanja. Svaki agregat pojedina~no je u pogonu vi{e od 40.000 radnih sati. Pored ovih koje su ve} u pogonu,jo{15turbinaovogtipasekonstruirailije naru~eno. Trenutno su na raspolaganju jo{ kvalitetnije V64.3A gasneturbine(sajednimilisavi{evratila)koje

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Figure1.ModelV64.3Aadvanced70MWgasturbine Slika1.ModelV64.3Agasneturbineod70MW

multiple shaft configurations are availabie. Four units have been sold and are under construction aswell,withthefirstunitsalreedyundercommissioning. Thisarticlefosusesonthespecificfeaturesofthe newV64.3AsingleshaftconfigurationGUD1S.64.3A.

radeusklopuGUDenergana.^etiriturbinesuve} konstruirane i prodane, a prve od njih su ve} u pogonu. U ovom ~lanku dat }e se specifi~nosti izvedbe novog modela V64.3A konfiguracije sa jednim vratilomzaenerganuGUD1S.64.3A.

2. V64.3A GAS TURBINE DESING


TheV64.3AgasturbineisderivedfromtheV64.3 gas turbine. The 5400 rpm model V64.3 was introducedin1990.asthefirstofSiemensVx4.3 gasturbinefamilydesignedforagasturbineinlet temperature 1120 oC (according to ISO 2314) and rated at 60 MW. Equipped with a reduction gear to be connected either toa 50 or 60 Hz generatoritachievesasimplecycleefficiencyof 35,2%. In 1993. Siemens sterted the development of the new Vx4.3A gas turbine family for 50/60 Hz systems and at the beginning of 1994. for the smailestmemberofthefamily-theV64.3Amodel (figure 1.) a joint development project between SiemensandAnsaldowasestablished.

2. KONSTRUKCIJA GASNE TURBINE V64.3A


Model V64.3A gasne turbine je izveden iz modela V64.3.ModelV64.3sa5400ob/minuvedenje1990. godine kao prvi iz Simensove familije gasnih turbina Vx4.3 koja je konstruirana za ulaznu temperaturu od 1120 oC (prema ISO 2314) sa snagom od 60 MW. Opremljenasazup~astimreduktoromprekokojegse spajasageneratoromod50ili60Hz,ovafamilijaostvarujeefikasnostpociklusuuiznosuod35,2%. Godine1993.Siemensjeotpo~eosarazvojemnove familije gasnih turbina Vx4.3A za sustave od 50/60 Hz. Po~etkom 1994. godine uspostavljen je zajedni~ki razvojni projekat izme|u Siemens i Ansaldo kompanijazakonstrukcijunajmanjeg~lanaovefamilije,odnosnomodelaV64.3A(slika1).

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The main targets relevant for all Vx4.3A models weretofurtherincreasethespecificpoweroutput andefficiencyandtoreducetheNoxemision. TheV64.3Amodeloperatingot90Hzisascaled down gas turbine derived from the larger 50 Hz and60Hzmodels.Itisbasedonthesamewell proven major desing principles of the Vx4.2 and Vx4.3familiyas: -DisktyperotorwithcentertierodandHirth serration -Twooutboardbearings;oneatcompressorend (airintake)andtheotheratturbineend(exhaust gasoutlet) -Gearboxwithgeneratordrivenfromthecoldend oftheengineaswellasasimpleaxialexhaust gasdiffuser. Asmanycomponentsaspossibleweretakenfrom theexistingV64.3enginewhileeliminatingtheexternalcoolingairandboostersystem.Thissignificant developmentstepwaspossiblebyutilisationofPratt &Whitnwy'saeroenginetechnologyfortheturbine bladecooling. The bearing span between compressor and turbine bearing as the rotor remained basically unchanged. Thus the major difference between V64.3andtheV64.3Amodelwastheintroduction ofanannularcombustionchamber.Replacingthe two horizontal combustion chambers by the HBR (HybridBurnerRing)combustorprovidesamore compact desing with smaller unit width and reduceddemandforcoolingair. The simple cycle gross electrical output of the newgasturbineamountsto70MW,atISOconditions,withagrossefficiencyof36,5%andNox emissionlowerthan35ppm.

OsnovniciljeviuvezisasvimmodelimaVx4.3Abili sudasejo{vi{epove}aizlaznaspecifi~nasnaga iefikasnost,kaoidasesmanjiNoxemisija. ModelV64.3Akojiradina90Hzjeizvedenizve}ih modelasa50i60Hz.Njegovakonstrukcijasezasniva na istim, dokazano dobrim, principima dizajniranjaprimijenjenimnafamilijamaVx4.2iVx4.3,kao {tosu: - Rotor oblika diska sa centralno postavljenim vratilomisaHirthozubljenjem, -Dvavanjskale`aja;jedannakrajukompresora(na ulaznomotvoruzazrak)idruginakrajuturbine(na izlaznomotvoruzaizlaznegasove), -Reduktorsageneratoromkojisepokre}ehladnim krajemma{inekaoijednostavniaksijalnidifuzorza izlaznegasove. Izpostoje}eV64.3ma{ineuzetoje{tojemogu}e vi{e komponenata uz istovremenu eliminaciju vanjskogzrakazahla|enjeisustavazapokretanje.Ovaj zna~ajanrazvojnikorakjebioomogu}enprimjenom Pratt&Whitnwytehnologijezra~nihma{inazahla|enje lopaticaturbina. Razmakizme|ule`ajevakompresoraiturbinekaoi sam rotor ostali su u osnovi nepromijenjeni. Stoga jeglavnarazlikaizme|uV64.3iV64.3Amodelabilo uvo|enje komore za sagorijevanje oblika prstena. Zamjena dvije horizontalne komore za sagorijevanje sa HBR komorom (Hybrid Burner Ring -prsten za kombinirano sagorijevanje) omogu}uje mnogo kompaktnijuizvedbumanje{irineisasmanjenompotrebomzazrakomzahla|enje. Ukupna izlazna elektri~na snaga ciklusa ove nove gasne turbine iznosi 70 MW pri ISO uvjetima rada saukupnomefikasno{}uod36,5%,uzNoxemisijumanjuod35ppm(funtiuminuti).

3. MAXIMUM EFFICIENCY OF COMBINED CYCLE PLANTS


The single shaft GUD powwer plant utilizing the Model V64.3A gas turbine was developed especiallyforcustomerswhodemandhighestpossible efficiency from a reliable, medium size combined cycleplant.Thepowerplantsareprimarilydeplyed forthecontinuousbase-loadnadmidrangeoperating modes with the option of steam extractions forindustrialprocessesaswellasdistrictheating.

3. MAKSIMALNA EFIKASNOST ENER GANA KOMBINIRANOG CIKLUSA


GUDenerganasajednimvratilomkojakoristimodel V64.3A gasne turbine razvijena je specijalno za kupce koji zahtijevaju najve}u mogu}u efikasnost koju mogu pru`iti energane kombiniranog ciklusa srednje veli~ine. Energane su prvenstveno napravljenezakontinuiranooptere}enjeizaradusrednjim uvjetima sa mogu}no{}u uzimanja pare za industrijskeprocesekaoizazagrijavanje.

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Combined cycle blocks equipped with the advanced V64.3A gas turbines are capable of achlevingagrosselectricalefficiencyofabout54% atISOconditions.Incogenerationapplicationsafficiencies(fuelusagefactors)ofabout90%arepossible.Thisplantperformanceisthemostcompetitive for a 100 MW rated combined cycle power unitofferedonthemarkettoday.

Blokovi kombiniranog ciklusa opremljeni sa pobolj{anim V64.3A gasnim turbinama u mogu}nosti sudapostignuukupnuelektri~nuefikasnostoko54% pri ISO uvjetima. U operacijama zajedni~kog generiranja energije mogu}e su efikasnosti (zavisno od kori{tenoggoriva)uiznosuodoko90%.Performanse ove energane su trenutno tr`i{no najkompetitivnije u ranguenerganakombiniranogciklusasnage100MW.

4. GENERAL BENEFITS OF SINGLE SHAFT GUD POWER PLANTS


the single shaft GUD power block concept constitutes the latest development in combined cycle powerplantequipmenttomaximizeoperatingreliability. One gas turbine together with the associated heat-recovery steam generator, one steam turbine and one electrical generator are locked together tofromaninvariablesingle-trainoperatingsystem. The logical consequence is to standardize the peripheralequipmentsoastominimizeredundant systems without reducing plant operating availability. This greatly simplifies the control logic, ensuringoptimizedoperationduringfullyautomaticstart-up,loadingandshut-downoftheunit. The standard GUD 1S.64.3A single-shaft combined cycle power plant can be built in less than two yearstherebymaximizingtheprojectreturnstothe plantowner. The advantages of the single-shaft GUD 1S.64.3A conceptcanbeappliedfor50Hzor60Hzelectricpowergeneration.Atransmissiongearboxisutilizedtotransformthegasturbinerotorspeedof90 Hz down to the required generator and grid frequency.

4. OP]E PREDNOSTI GUD ENERGANA SA JEDNIM VRATILOM


KonceptGUDenergetskogblokasajednimvratilom predstavljanajnovijedostignu}eurazvojuenergana kombiniranogciklusausmislumaksimiziranjaradne pouzdanosti. Uizvedbisuzdru`enigasnaturbinasageneratorom pare,parnaturbinaijedanelektri~nigeneratortako da formiraju nepromjenljivi radni sustav sa zajedni~kim pogonom. Logi~na posljedica ovoga jeste standardizacijaperiferneopreme{toomogu}avaizmjenu sustava bez smanjenja radne raspolo`ivosti energane.Ovouvelikopojednostavljujeupravljanjei omogu}ava optimizaciju tokom cijelog rada od pokretanja, optere}ivanja pa do zaustavljanja radne jedinice. Standardna GUD 1S.64.3A energana kombiniranog ciklusa sa jednim vratilom mo`e se izgraditi za manjeoddvijegodinetakodasesredstvaulo`ena uprojekatbrzovra}ajuvlasnikuenergane. KonceptiprednostiGUD1S.64.3Aenerganesajednim vratilom mogu se koristiti za proizvodnju elektri~neenergijeod50Hzi60Hz.Reduktoruprijenosu slu`i za smanjenje brzine rotora gasne turbinesa90Hznapotrebnufrekvencijugeneratorai mre`e.

5. GUD 1S.64.3A POWER BLOCK FEATURES AND BENEFITS


Figure 2. depict a 100 MW dual-pressure non reheartGUD1S.64.3Aunit.Thesteamconditionsat base-load operating conditions were carefully optimizedtominimizethepowergeneratingcosts. Theaircooledgeneratorislocatedbetweenthegas turbinenadsteamturbine.Eachturbinehasitsown axial-thrust bearing which maintains moving blades in optimal position relaive to the stationary blading underalloperatingconditions.Inthiswayminimized inbothturbomachines.

5. IZVEDBE I PREDNOSTI GUD 1S.64.3A ENERGETSKOG BLOKA


Slika2.prikazujeenerganuGUD1S.64.3Asnage100 MW, pare visokog i niskog pritiska i bez ponovnog zagrijavanja. Parametri pare u uvjetima rada pri normalnomoptere}enjupa`ljivosuoptimiziraniuciljuminimiziranjatro{kovaproizvodnjeenergije.Izme|ugasne turbineiparneturbinesmje{tenjezrakomhla|enigenerator.Svakaturbinaimasvojvlastitiaksijalnile`ajkoji prisvimradnimuvjetimadr`ipokretnelopaticeuoptimalnom polo`aju u odnosu na stacionarni. Na ovaj na~inminimiziranesuuobjeturbo-ma{ine.

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Figure2.GUD1S.64.3Ablockschematic;dualpressuresteamcycle Slika2.[emablokaGUD1S.64.3A;ciklusparedvojnogpritiska

Figure3.Typicalwarmstartofa100MW,singleshaftblock Slika3.Toplopokretanjeblokasajednimvratilomod100MW

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Asybchronousbetweenthegeneratorandsteamturbinethegasturbineplusgeneratortobestartedup in an optimum manner the gas turbine is initially operatedinthesimple-cyclemodewhilewarmingthe heatrecoverysteamgenerator(HRSG),pipeworkand steam turbine valves before the steam turbine shaft is acoelerated. The clutch automatically engages when the steam turbine shaft revolves at the same speedasthegeneratorshaft.Thenthesteamturbine can be loaded (figure 3.). Also, this arrangement together with the 100% steam btpass systems providesformaximumoperatingflexibilityoftheplant. Theclutchalsoactsasafullylubricatedgear-tooth coupling to enable unrestarined axial movement of theHPsystemturbinerotorrelativetothegeneratorrotor. Successfuloperationexperiencewithnumeroussynchronous clutches connected to Siemens gas turbineshasbeengainedsince1971. Inthecoldstart-upmodethesteamturbineisable toreachnearlyfullloadwithin120minutesstarting fromthepointwhensufficientsteampurityhasbeen established. Fullloadinthewarmstart-upmodecanbeperformed within 80 minutes. The short runup time provides the plant owner with great flexibility in timing plant dispatch for intermediate load and optimizing unit down time for base load plant operation. The gas turbine at the one end of the singleshaft arrangement is a standard Model V63.3A desingwithanextendedaxialdiffuserwhichcan be directly connected in line with any type of HRSG. TheTLRIgeneratorisrated140MVA,10,5kVat acoolanttemperatureof40oC.Ithasahorizontal split casing with a MICALASTIC-insulated stator winding which ensures exceptionally high operatingreliabilitywithlowmaintenancerequirements. Thesingecasingreverseflowsteamturbineatthe other end shaft can be supplied with various extraction points to meet the customer's neds for any process steam and district heating demands. The desing of the frame mounted turbine allows the use of a simple axial diffuser which is connected directly to an axial-flow staem condenser. This configuration minimizes the steam turbine exhaustlosses.

Dabisenaoptimalanna~inpostiglasinhronizacija izme|ugeneratoraiparneturbine,kaoigasneturbine i generatora, gasna turbina u po~etku radi u prostom ciklusu ~ime se zagrijava generator pare (HRSG),cijeviiventiliparneturbinesvedoksene ubrza vratilo parne turbine. Spojka se automatski uklju~uje u trenutku kada se vratilo parne turbine okre}eistombrzinomkaovratilogeneratora.Nakon toga se parna turbina mo`e opteretiti (slika 3). Tako|e,ovakvaizvedbazajednosastopostotnimbajpas-sustavomzaparuomogu}ujemaksimalnuradnu fleksibilnostenergane. Spojka radi na principu potpunog podmazivanja ~ime se omogu}uje aksijalno pomjeranje HP sustava rotora turbine u odnosu na rotor generatora. Uspjeh u ugradnji sinhronih spojki u Siemensove gasneturbineposti`esejo{od1971.godine. Pri hladnom pokretanju parna turbina je u mogu}nostidasepotpunoopteretiurokuod120 minuta od trenutka kada se postigne dovoljan kvalitetpare. Pri toplom pokretanju potpuno optere}enje se posti`e za 80 minuta. Kratko vrijeme pokretanja omogu}uje vlasniku energane veliku fleksibilnost u rasporeduisporukeenergijezasrednjaoptere}enja, kaoioptimiziranjevremenazastojaagregatapriradu podosnovnimoptere}enjem. StandardnaizvedbamodelaV63.3Apredstavljagasnu turbinukojasenalazinajednomkrajukonfiguracije sa jednim vratilom i ima aksijalni difuzor koji se mo`edirektnopovezatiulinijusabilokojimtipom HRSG. Generator TLRI daje 140 MVA i 10.5 kV pri rashladnoj temperaturi od 40 oC. On ima horizontalno rastavljivoku}i{tesaMICALASTIC-izoliranimstatorom koji omogu}uje izuzetno visoku operativnu pouzdanostimalezahtjevezaodr`avanjem. Parnaturbinasapovratnimtokommo`esenadrugom kraju vratila dodatno opremiti raznim izuzima~ima pare u cilju zadovoljenja potreba kupaca pare za proizvodne procese ili za zagrijavanje. Izvedba turbine postavljene na okviru omogu}ujeupotrebujednostavnogaksijalnogdifuzorakojisedirektnospajasaparnimkondenzatorom aksijalnog toka. Ovakva konfiguracija minimizira gubitkeparneturbinenaizlazu.

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6. GUD POWER PLANT LAYOUT


As per figure 4 the GUD block is accommodated within its own compact structural steel building of simple,rectangulardesingprovidingoptimizedmaintenanceconditions.Asanalternative,ahouse-packagedesingwithaweatherproofenclosurecovering generatorandsteamturbineisalsoavailable. The 70-ton traveling crane spans the 20-m-wide main bay and runs the fuil 48 m length of the building.Ithasthecapacitytoliftthecompletegas turbineintotheproperpositionandisusedforall inspection on the steam turbine as well. Such a high-capacitycraneshortenstheinitialerectiontime andlatermaintenanceoutagestoanabsoluteminimum.Formajorinspectionofthe180tongenerator, it is moved sideways on sliding bars out of the power train until the rotor can be pulled by meansofthetravellingcrane. Theair-intakefilterhouseislocatedbesidetheturbine hall. At an elevation of 7 m above ground level reduced dust loading of the intake air is assured.Thisfeatureextendsthefilterlifetimeand increasestheplantpoweroutput.Thefilteredairis led into the gas turbine compressor by way of a steelductcontainingthesilencer. The single shaft train machinery is located at a lowelevationwithitsaxisonly2,4mabovegrade. This obviates the necessity for a costly high bay foundation.Instead,thegeneratorrestsonawalltypefoundation,whereasthegasturbineandthe steamturbinearemountedongradelevel,which reduces costs and shortens the time needed to constructthebuildingandtoinstalltheequipment. Sincethereisnobasemant,apitisprovidedto accommodate the main condensate pumps sufficientlybelowthecondenserhotwelltoensuresatisfactorycondensateextraction. The2,4melevationofthesingle-shaftturbine-generatorgrantsreadyaccesstoallthemachinery.The terminalsatthetopofthegeneratorareconnected tothemainstep-uptransformerbyphase-insulated busbarswhichrunsidewaysthroughtthebuildingat anelevationofabout6m. Exceptforthepowertrainlubeoilskid,thegasturbineauxiliarysystemsarelocatedinpre-assembled containers, which rest on foundations outside the turbinehall.

6. IZGLED GUD ENERGANE


Kakosevidisaslike4.,GUDblokjesmje{tenu sopstvenoj hali jednostavnog pravougaonog dizajna kojiomogu}avaoptimalneuslovezaodr`avanje.Kao alternativa,naraspolaganjujeiizvedbazatvorenog tipa sa za{titom koja pokriva generator i parnu turbinui{titiodklimatskihdejstava. Pokretna dizalica nosivosti 70 tona koja se kre}e du`20m{irinepotpunoopslu`ujesvih48mdu`ine zgrade.Onimadovoljnunosivostdapodignekompletnugasnuturbinunapotrebnuvisinuikoristise tako|e za sve preglede parne turbine. Tako velika nosivostdizaliceskra}ujepo~etnovrijemepodizanja inaknadnezastojeradiodr`avanjanaminimum.Pri generalnom pregledu 180 tona te{kog generatora, on se pomjera izvan prenosa ustranu po kliznim polugama,arotorsemo`eizvu}ipomo}upokretne dizalice. Ku}i{te filtera za usisavanje zraka je smje{teno izvan haleturbine.Postavljenjemnavisinuod7miznadnivoa zemlji{taosiguravasesmanjenjesadr`ajapra{ineusisavanogzraka.Ovakvaizvedbaprodu`avavijektrajanjafiltera i pove}ava produktivnost energane. Filtrirani zrak seuvodiukompresorgasneturbinepomo}u~eli~ne cijevikojajeopremljenazvu~nimprigu{iva~em. Vratilo agregata je smje{teno relativno nisko tj. osavratilajenavisiniodsamo2,4miznadpodloge.Ovootklanjapotrebuizgradnjeskupihvisokih temelja za halu. Generator stoji na svojim temeljima, dok su s druge strane gasna i parna turbina postavljene na zemlji {to smanjuje tro{koveiskra}ujevrijemeizgradnjehaleiinstaliranja opreme. Po{to nema podzemnih prostorija, obezbije|ena je rupa u koju se smje{taju kondenz pumpe dovoljno nisko ispod kondenzatora da bi se osigurala zadovoljavaju}a ekstrakcija kondenzata. Postavljanje vratila sustava turbina-generator na visinuod2,4mobezbje|ujeneometanpristup~itavom agregatu.Terminalinavrhugeneratorasupovezani sa glavnim transformatorom putem fazno izoliranih provodnikakojiidudu`zidovahalenavisiniodoko 6m. Osimopremezapodmazivanjeprenosa,svaostala pomo}na oprema gasne turbine nalazi se u monta`nimobjektimanasopstvenimtemeljimaizvan haleturbine.

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The low and intermediate-voltage switchgear and electronic control hardware are accommodated in separate factory-preassembled compartments. They are installed on foundation outside the building closetothemachinehouse.

Uklopnicizauklju~enjeniskeisrednjevisokevolta`e kao i elektronski kontrolni sustav nalaze se u monta`nim kabinama oko glavne hale. One su postavljenenatemeljimaizvanhaleneposrednodo ma{inskeku}ice.

Figure4.GUD1S.64.3Ablockarrangement;longitudinalview Slika4.IzgledblokaGUD1S.64.3A;pogleduzdu`bloka

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