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GEOMETRIC DIMENSIONING AND TOLERANCING

1.0 INTRODUCTION 1.2.2 ISO 1101

1.1 SCOPE 1.3 INDEX

This standard specifies and describes the Index to the various sections can be found on page
principles of geometric dimensioning and two.
tolerancing as applied to engineering drawings.
1.4 REPLACED STANDARDS
1.2 REFERENCES
This standard replaces the following company
The following standards were used as reference to standard:
establish this standard.
Ford New Holland WS 49.06
1.2.1 ANSI Y14.5M

NAME
STD GEO DIM & TOL
ENGINEERING
SPECIFICATION
ALL C TD 111649 980310
ALL B EDF 110394 970723 THE INFORMATION HEREON IS THE CONFIDENTIAL FRAME OF
1 69
REL A EDF 104739 950123 AND PROPRIETARY PROPERTY OF NEW HOLLAND
FRAME NO. REV BY ECN NO. DATE NORTH AMERICA, INC. AND/OR NEW HOLLAND PART NUMBER

APP. DRAWN TD MAR 1998 CANADA, LTD. ANY USE, EXCEPT THAT FOR
KHH JUL 97 CHECKED WHICH IT MAY BE LOANED, IS PROHIBITED. 86508251
PROCEDURE / DRAFTING FNHA-3-B-072.00

INDEX

Section Title Page

1. Symbology .......................................................................................................................... 3
1.1 Geometric Characteristics and Symbols ............................................................................. 3
1.2 Other Symbols (Relating to Geometric Tolerancing) ........................................................... 3
1.3 Identifying the Tolerance Zone............................................................................................ 6
1.4 Feature Control Frame & Datum Feature Symbol Placement ............................................. 7
1.5 Use of Notes ....................................................................................................................... 7
2. Datum Referencing ............................................................................................................. 8
2.1 Datum & Datum Feature ..................................................................................................... 8
2.2 Referencing Datums According to Importance.................................................................. 10
2.3 Datum Targets .................................................................................................................. 16
3. Tolerances of Form........................................................................................................... 21
3.1 Straightness Tolerance ..................................................................................................... 21
3.2 Flatness Tolerance ........................................................................................................... 24
3.3 Circularity (Roundness) Tolerance.................................................................................... 25
3.4 Cylindricity Tolerance........................................................................................................ 25
4. Tolerances for Profile Control ........................................................................................... 28
4.1 Profile Tolerance............................................................................................................... 28
5. Tolerances for Orientation Control .................................................................................... 35
5.1 Angularity Tolerance ......................................................................................................... 35
5.2 Parallelism Tolerance ....................................................................................................... 38
5.3 Perpendicularity Tolerance ............................................................................................... 41
6. Tolerances for Runout Control .......................................................................................... 47
6.1 Circular Runout Tolerance ................................................................................................ 47
6.2 Total Runout Tolerance .................................................................................................... 47
7. Tolerances of Location...................................................................................................... 52
7.1 Position Tolerance ............................................................................................................ 52
8. Free State Variation .......................................................................................................... 68
8.1 Specifying Circularity in a Free State with Average Diameter............................................ 68
8.2 Specifying Restraint for Non-rigid Parts ............................................................................ 69

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SYMBOLOGY
1. SYMBOLOGY. Wherever possible, the use of internationally accepted symbols is recommended rather than
the use of notes. This eliminates the translation of notes into other languages and also eliminates the possibility of
misinterpretation of the note. This section establishes the symbols for specifying geometric characteristics and other
dimensional requirements on engineering drawings in accordance with ANSI Y14.5M and ISO 1101.

1.1 GEOMETRIC CHARACTERISTICS AND SYMBOLS


TYPE OF REFER
SYMBOL CHARACTERISTIC
TOLERANCE TO
STRAIGHTNESS 3.1
FOR INDIVIDUAL FORM FLATNESS 3.2
FEATURES CIRCULARITY (ROUNDNESS) 3.3
CYLINDRICITY 3.4
FOR INDIVIDUAL OR PROFILE PROFILE OF A LINE 4.1.2
RELATED FEATURES PROFILE OF A SURFACE 4.1.2
ANGULARITY 5.1
ORIENTATION PERPENDICULARITY 5.3
FOR RELATED PARALLELISM 5.2
FEATURES RUNOUT CIRCULAR RUNOUT 6.1
TOTAL RUNOUT 6.2
LOCATION POSITION 7.1
CONCENTRICITY * ——
* THIS CHARACTERISTIC WILL NOT BE USED BY NEW HOLLAND

1.2 OTHER SYMBOLS (RELATING TO GEOMETRIC TOLERANCING)

REFER TO

OR DATUM FEATURE SYMBOL 1.2.1

DATUM TARGET SYMBOL 1.2.2

FEATURE CONTROL FRAME 1.2.3


DIAMETER (CYLINDRICAL TOLERANCE ZONE WHEN USED WITH
FEATURE CONTROL SYMBOL) 1.3

MAXIMUM MATERIAL CONDITION (MMC) ** 1.2.4


M
REGARDLESS OF FEATURE SIZE (RFS) 1.2.5
S
PROJECTED TOLERANCE ZONE 1.2.6
P
BASIC (EXACT) DIMENSION

** FOR NEW HOLLAND APPLICATIONS UNLESS OTHERWISE SPECIFIED: POSITION TOLERANCE AND RELATED
DATUMS APPLY AT MMC. OTHER GEOMETRIC TOLERANCES APPLY RFS. NEW HOLLAND WILL NOT USE THE
SYMBOL ON DRAWINGS SINCE IT IS NOT INCLUDED IN THE ISO STANDARDS.
S

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1.2.1 Datum feature symbol


The datum feature symbol consists of a frame containing the datum identifying letter.
The letter is preceded and followed by a dash. The symbol frame is associated to the
datum feature by one of the methods described in 1.4 for feature frames. Each
datum feature requiring identification shall be assigned a different letter with the
letters “I”, “O”, “Q”, and “X” omitted.

MIN. 5 MM GRAPHIC MIN. 8 MM BOARD


* MIN. .2 IN } DRAWINGS MIN. .3 IN } DRAWINGS

1.2.2 Datum target symbol


The datum target symbol is a circle divided horizontally into two halves. The
lower half contains a letter identifying the associated datum, followed by the
target number assigned sequentially starting with 1 for each datum.

Where the datum target area is a circular area, the area size may be entered
in the upper half. Otherwise, the upper half is left blank.

Where the datum target is a point, the location is indicated by an “x” and
the other half of the datum target symbol is left blank.

1.2.3 Feature control frame. Geometric characteristic symbols, the tolerance value, and datum reference letters, where
applicable, are combined in a feature control frame to express a geometric tolerance.

A geometric tolerance for an individual feature is specified by means of a feature


control frame divided into compartments containing the geometric characteristic
symbol followed by the tolerance.

MIN. 5 MM
GRAPHIC MIN. 8
MM BOARD

* MIN. .2 IN } DRAWINGS MIN. .3 IN } DRAWINGS

Where applicable, the tolerance is preceded by the diameter symbol


and followed by the maximum material condition symbol.

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1.2.3 Feature control frame (continued)

Where a geometric tolerance is related to a datum, this relationship is


indicated by entering the datum reference letter in a compartment
following the tolerance.

Where a datum is established by two datum features (for example, an axis


established by two datum diameters) both datum reference letters, separated
by a dash, are entered in a compartment.

Where more than one datum is required, the datum reference letters are
entered into separate compartments in the desired order of precedence.

Datum reference letters need not be in alphabetical order in the feature


control frame.

A composite feature control frame is used where more than one tolerance
is specified for the same geometric characteristic of a feature or features
having different datum requirements.

Where a feature or pattern of features controlled by a geometric tolerance


also serves as a datum feature, the feature control frame and datum feature
symbol are combined.

1.2.4 Maximum material condition (MMC)

The maximum material condition symbol is specified in a feature control


frame when the tolerance value is applied to the maximum material condition
of the associated feature.

h
=
T
EXT HEIGHT IN FEATURE
CONTROL FRAME

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1.2.4.1 Effect of maximum material condition. Where a geometric tolerance is applied a MMC, the tolerance is limited to
its specified value if the feature is produced at its MMC limit of size. If the actual size of the feature is not its MMC, then
the allowable tolerance will increase equal to the difference between the feature’s actual size and its MMC. This principle
also applies to a datum feature if it is referenced at MMC. The axis or centerplane of the datum feature may deviate from
the axis or center plane of its datum by an amount equal to the difference between its actual size and its MMC.

1.2.4.2 Position tolerance and its related datums will apply at MMC unless otherwise specified. It is not required to
show the symbol M in the feature control frame for this application since this note is specified in the general tolerance
block on all drawings.

1.2.5 Regardless of feature size (RFS). The symbol will not be used on drawings since it is not an accepted
S
worldwide symbol and may be eliminated.

1.2.5.1 Effect of RFS. Where a geometric tolerance is applied on a RFS basis, the tolerance is limited to its specified
value regardless of the actual size of the feature. Likewise, referencing a datum feature on a RFS basis means that a
centering about its axis or center plane is required, regardless of the actual size of the feature.

1.2.5.2 RFS applies to the geometric tolerance, datum reference or both where no material condition is specified unless
otherwise specified in the general tolerance block on the drawing.

1.2.6 Projected tolerance zone

Where a projected tolerance zone is applied to a position or orientation


tolerance, a frame containing the projected tolerance zone symbol
preceded by the zone height is placed below the feature control frame.

1.3 IDENTIFYING THE TOLERANCE ZONE. The diameter symbol ∅


will precede the tolerance value where the tolerance value represents the diameter of a cylindrical zone. No identification
symbol is required where the tolerance zone is other than a diameter, as this tolerance value represents the distance
between two parallel lines or planes, or the distance between two uniform boundaries.

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1.4 FEATURE CONTROL FRAME AND DATUM FEATURE SYMBOL PLACEMENT. To relate the feature control
frame and datum feature symbol to its associated feature, use one of the following methods.

(a) Add the feature control frame or datum feature symbol below or after a leader-directed callout or dimension
directed to the feature.

(b) Use a leader from the feature control frame or datum feature symbol to the feature.

(c) Locate a side or end of the feature control frame or datum feature symbol on an extension line from the
feature if the feature is a plane surface.

(d) Locate a side or end of the feature control frame or datum feature symbol on an extension line of the
dimension line relating to a feature of size.

1.5 USE OF NOTES. Situations may arise in which the geometric requirement desired cannot be totally defined by
use of symbols. In these situations a note may be used, either separately or to supplement a symbol, to describe the
requirement.

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DATUM REFERENCING
2. DATUM REFERENCING. Where the geometric tolerance requirement of a feature is related to another feature or
features, a datum reference is used. This section defines methods of establishing those datums and the interpretation of
them.

2.1 DATUM AND DATUM FEATURE

Surfaces of parts produced by normal manufacturing methods


will, if magnified, have some irregularity in the surface. The
actual part surface designated is the datum feature and the
true geometric counterpart of that surface establishes the
datum. The datum is the origin of the dimensional
relationship between the toleranced feature and the related
feature.

2.1.1 Datum feature selection. Datum features are selected to control the relationship between features of a part to
insure proper fit, function, and assembly of parts. Where practical, corresponding features on mating or related parts
should be selected as datum features. A datum feature should be accessible on the part and be of sufficient size for
practical usage.

2.1.2. Datums are used, as applicable, to control profile, orientation, runout, and location. Refer to 1.1.

2.1.3 Datum feature symbol placement

Application to a plane surface

Where a plane surface is to be used as a datum feature, the datum


feature symbol is located on an extension line directed to the surface
or by a leader line directed to the surface. When using a triangle on
an extension line to designate a plane surface, the triangle should not
be centered on a dimension line.

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2.1.3 Datum feature symbol placement (continued)

Application to a feature of size

Where the datum feature is a feature of size,


whether a cylindrical surface or two parallel
planes, the datum feature symbol must be clearly
related to the size dimension or to the feature.
When using a triangle to designate a feature of
size, the triangle must be centered on the
dimension line.

Partial surfaces as datum features


For some design requirements, only a portion of a surface is required to be designated as a datum feature. In these
situations, a chain line located by basic dimensions is used to identify that portion of the surface.

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2.1.4 Compound datum features. Two datum features may be used to established a single datum. To accomplish this,
each datum feature or portion of datum feature is designated with its own datum feature symbol. The datum reference
letters, separated by a dash, are then shown in a single compartment of the feature control frame.

A single datum plane can be established by simultaneously contacting the high points of two surfaces.

A single datum axis for two coaxial diameters can be established by simultaneously contacting the high points of both
surfaces.

2.2 REFERENCING DATUMS ACCORDING TO IMPORTANCE. A feature can be referenced to up to three plane
surfaces simultaneously if required. When this is done, and order of precedence must be defined in the feature control
frame according to the importance of each plane to the toleranced feature. This first datum referenced is the most
important or primary datum. The second datum referenced is the secondary datum and the third datum referenced is the
tertiary datum. Refer to 1.2.3.

Datum reference frame

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2.2.1 Positioning a part on a datum reference frame. A part positioned on a datum reference frame must contact the
primary datum plane at a minimum of three points, the secondary datum plane at a minimum of two points, and the tertiary
datum plane at a minimum of one point.

Shown below is a part with two ∅77..20 holes which must be located within ∅0.2 at MMC to a primary (D), secondary (E)
and tertiary (F) datum. To satisfy this geometric tolerance requirement, the finished part, when dropped over two ∅6.8
(∅7.0 MMC-0.2 total tol.) pins, must contact datum plane D a minimum of three points, datum plane E a minimum of two
points, and datum plane F a minimum of one point.

Shown below is an inspection fixture that would check this


part according to the specified geometric tolerance.

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2.2.2 Positioning parts with a cylindrical datum feature on a reference frame. The datum established by a cylindrical
surface is the axis of a true cylinder as established by inspection equipment. A cylindrical datum feature is always
associated with two theoretical planes intersecting at right angles on a datum axis: therefore, a cylindrical datum feature
uses two of the planes on a datum reference frame.

Shown below is a part with four ∅11 10.8 holes which must be located within ∅0.8 at MMC to a primary (K) and secondary
.2

(M) datum. To satisfy this geometric tolerance requirement, the finished part, when dropped over four ∅10 (∅10.8 MMC-
0.8 total tol.) pins, must contact datum plane K a minimum of three points and must fit within a ∅76.4 (MMC) datum M
boundary.

Shown is an inspection fixture that would check


this part according to the specified geometric
tolerance.

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2.2.3 Angular orientation. Where it is important to establish the angular orientation of a part about the datum axis, a
tertiary datum feature is referenced in the feature control frame.

In the example shown below, angular orientation of the two planes intersecting through datum B is established by the
center plane of slot C, the tertiary datum feature.

The illustration below shows the development of the theoretical datum reference frame for the position tolerance shown
above.

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2.2.4 Effect of datum sequence and material condition. Where datums specified in sequence include a feature of size,
the material condition at which the datum feature applies must be determined. The effect of its material condition and
order of precedence should be considered relative to the fit and function of the part. As previously stated, position
tolerances and their related datums will apply at MMC unless otherwise specified. Other geometric tolerances will apply
RFS unless otherwise specified.

The illustration below shows the different effects that changing the material condition of the datum features and the
sequence of the datum references has on the allowable finished part.

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2.2.4.1 Datum features designated RFS. Where a datum feature of size is designated as RFS, the datum is determined
by physical contact between the surface or surfaces of the feature and inspection tools.

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2.2.4.2 Datum features designated MMC. Where a datum feature of size is designated at MMC, the datum is the
equivalent of the MMC limit of size of the datum feature.

2.3 DATUM TARGETS. Due to distortion caused by welding, forming, casting, etc., the entire surface of some
features cannot be used effectively to establish a datum. Where this condition arises, the important points, lines, or areas
of contact of that feature should be used to define the datum for that feature. These points, lines, or areas are called
datum targets.

2.3.1 Datum target symbols (Refer to 1.2.2)

Datum target points


The symbol “X” is used to indicate a datum target point on a surface. The “X” is located by dimensions on a direct view of
the surface, or where there is no direct view it is located on two edge views.

Datum target lines


A datum target line is indicated by the symbol “X” on an edge view of the surface and a phantom line on the direct view.
Where the length of the datum target line must be controlled, its length is dimensioned in the direct view.

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2.3.1 Datum target symbols (continued)

Datum target areas


Where it is necessary to designate areas of flat contact rather than points to assure proper establishment of a datum, a
target area of the desired shape is specified. The datum target area is indicated by section lines inside a phantom outline
of the desired shape. If the datum target area is a diameter, its size may be specified in the upper half of the datum target
symbol; otherwise, the desired shape is controlled by dimensions on the drawing. Where a circular target area is too small
to show it on the drawing. it may be represented by an “X” and its diameter specified in the datum target symbol.

Single datum target areas (partial datums)

In some situations, one datum target area is of sufficient size to be used to determine the datum and is also the only area
of the surface that is important when referenced to a geometric tolerance. In such instances, that target area is shown and
dimensioned on the drawing. The symbol should be used to designate it.

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2.3.2 Datum planes created by datum targets. A primary datum plane is established by at least three target points or
areas not on a straight line or by at least three points of contact within a single datum target area. Secondary datum planes
are established by two target points or areas, and tertiary datum planes are established by one target point or area.

The illustration below shows the establishment of a primary datum plane from three datum target areas.

2.3.3 Dimensioning datum targets. Locating dimensions and size dimensions, where required, can be expressed in the
form of either basic dimensions or toleranced dimensions. Where basic dimensions are used, tooling or gaging tolerances
are assumed to apply.

The illustration below shows three perpendicular planes established by three points on the primary datum feature, two
points on the secondary datum feature, and one point of the tertiary datum feature.

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2.3.4 Step datums. A datum plane may be established by targets located on stepped surfaces

In the illustration below, a basic (gage) dimension defines the offset between the target points while a toleranced
dimension controls the distance between the surfaces.

2.3.5 Circular target lines and cylindrical target areas. On rotating cylindrical parts, it is sometimes necessary to apply
the geometric tolerance for a feature to only a portion of or circular line on a cylindrical datum surface. In these situations,
a circular target line or cylindrical target area should be designated. An example of this would be the bearing area of a
shaft.

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2.3.6 Restraining of parts to a datum plane. Restraining is the application of a force to the free state condition of a part
in order to simulate its actual assembled condition. In some situations, it is important to tolerance a feature of a part to the
part’s restrained condition rather than its free state condition. This is accomplished by adding a note to the feature control
frame.

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TOLERANCES OF FORM
3. TOLERANCES OF FORM. This section defines the methods of dimensioning and tolerancing to control the form
of a feature or element of a single feature. Since form tolerances apply only to a single (individual) feature or element of a
single feature, they are not related to datums. The geometric form characteristics are straightness, flatness, roundness
(circularity), and cylindricity. (Refer to 1.1)

3.1 STRAIGHTNESS TOLERANCE. Straightness is a condition where an element of a surface or an axis is a straight
line. A straightness tolerance specifies a tolerance zone within which the considered element or axis must lie. The
straightness tolerance is shown in the view where the elements to be controlled appear as a straight line.

3.1.1 Straightness — individual line elements

A straightness tolerance directed by a leader to the surface of the feature controls


individual line elements of the surface. This control requires each line element to be
within two parallel straight lines, separated by the specified tolerance.

Example

In the example to the right, each line element of the surface must lie within
two parallel lines (0.02 apart) where the two lines and the nominal axis
share a common plane. The feature must always be within the specified
limits of size and the boundary of perfect form at MMC. The allowable
deviation from straightness will become less than the specified
straightness tolerance (for example, when the actual size of the feature is
∅19.99, the straightness deviation is 0.01 maximum).

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3.1.2 Straightness — axis control

A straightness tolerance directed to a size dimension, either by


attachment to the dimension line or by placement immediately adjacent
to the dimensional value, controls the straightness of the axis of the
feature. This control requires the axis of the feature to lie within a
cylindrical tolerance zone equal in diameter to the tolerance. This
method permits the straightness tolerance to exceed the MMC limit of
size.

Example — straightness of a feature of size — RFS (recommended)

Where a straightness tolerance is applied to a feature of size RFS, the


axis or centerline of the actual feature size must lie within the specified
cylindrical tolerance zone (∅0.04). Additionally, each circular element
of the surface must be within the specified limits of size. NOTE —
Straightness tolerance always applies RFS unless otherwise specified.

Example — straightness of a feature of size — MMC

Where a straightness tolerance is applied to a feature of size at


MMC, the axis or centerline of the actual feature must lie within
the specified cylindrical tolerance zone (∅0.04) at MMC. As the
feature departs from MMC, the allowable straightness tolerance
increases equally to the feature’s departure from MMC. See the
chart for examples. Additionally, each circular element of the
surface must be within the specified limits of size.

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3.1.3 Straightness — unit length and total. In order to prevent an abrupt surface variation over a relatively short length
of a feature, a straightness tolerance may be applied on a unit basis. When using unit control, a maximum straightness
tolerance for the feature should always be specified because of the large variation that could occur if not controlled overall.

Example — straightness per unit length and total — RFS

In this example, the diameter of the tolerance zone over any


20 mm length of the feature is 0.01 while the diameter of
the tolerance zone over the total length of the feature is
0.04. Additionally, each circular element of the surface
must be within the specified limits of size.

3.1.4 Straightness — plane surfaces

Straightness may be applied to control line elements in a


single direction or two directions on plane surfaces. It is
designated by a leader line in a direct view of the surface
that shows the direction the tolerance is to be applied. In
this example, each longitudinal element of the surface must
lie between two parallel lines 0.05 apart in the left view and
0.1 in the right view.

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3.2 FLATNESS TOLERANCE. A flatness tolerance defines the permitted deviation of a surface from a theoretically
flat plane.

The feature control frame for a flatness tolerance is attached to a surface by


either a leader line directed to the surface or by locating it on an extension line
to the surface.

Example

In this example all the surface variation must lie within two parallel
planes separated by the specified flatness tolerance (0.08).

If the surface is associated with a size dimension, the flatness


tolerance may not exceed the size tolerance.

3.2.1 Flatness — unit area and total. In order to prevent an abrupt surface variation in a relatively small area of a
feature, a flatness tolerance may be applied on a unit basis. When using unit control, as flatness tolerance for the entire
feature should also be specified because of the large variation that could occur if not controlled overall.

Example

In the feature control frame to the right, any 30×30 area of the surface it is directed
to would have to lie between two parallel planes. 0.1 apart, and the entire surface
would have to lie between two parallel planes 0.4 apart.

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3.3 ROUNDNESS (CIRCULARITY) TOLERANCE. A roundness tolerance defines the permitted deviation of any
circular element of a feature from a theoretically true circle. Any circular element must lie between two concentric circles
whose radius difference is equal to the specified tolerance.

Example

In this illustration, each circular element of the


surface must lie within two concentric circles,
one having a radius 0.25 greater than the
other. Additionally each circular element of
the surface must be within the specified limits
of size. Also, the roundness tolerance may
not exceed the size tolerance.

3.4 CYLINDRICITY TOLERANCE. A cylindricity tolerance defines the permitted deviation of any circular element of a
cylindrical feature from a theoretically perfect cylinder. Any circular element of the feature must lie between two concentric
cylinders whose radius difference is equal to the specified tolerance.

Example

In this illustration, the cylindrical surface must lie between two


concentric cylinders, one having a radius 0.25 larger than the other.
Additionally, the surface must be within the specified limits of size.
Also, the cylindricity tolerance may not exceed the size tolerance.

NAME PART NUMBER


STD GEO DIM & TOL
REV. FRAME OF
ENGINEERING SPECIFICATION C 25 69 86508251
PROCEDURE / DRAFTING FNHA-3-B-072.00

3.5 EXAMPLES WITH FORM TOLERANCES APPLIED

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ENGINEERING SPECIFICATION C 26 69 86508251
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3.6 EXAMPLE WITH FORM TOLERANCES AND RUNOUT TOLERANCES APPLIED

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TOLERANCES FOR PROFILE CONTROL


4. TOLERANCES FOR PROFILE CONTROL. This section defines methods of dimensioning and tolerancing to
control the profile (outline) of a part or portion of a part. This control can be applied to either a single line element on the
profile surface or to the entire surface.

4.1 PROFILE TOLERANCE. A profile tolerance defines a tolerance zone controlling the form of line elements or
surfaces of a part outline or portion of a part outline as related to its own perfect counterpart. This control can be applied
to a related datum if applicable.

4.1.1 Application of profile tolerances

Dimensions

Basic dimensions are used to dimension the outline or portion of the outline
to which profile tolerances apply. These basic dimensions represent the
true geometric shape to which the profile tolerance is applied. Where there
are many basic dimensions, the note “untoleranced dimensions are basic”
may be used and the boxes around the dimensions may be omitted.

Line element control

A line profile tolerance directed by a leader to the part outline controls


individual line elements of the part outline on the part surface.

Total surface control

A surface profile tolerance directed by a leader to the part outline controls


the total surface of the part outline.

All around or between points

Where the profile tolerance applies to the entire


part periphery, the symbol ∅ is applied to the
leader. See (a). If the tolerance applies to only a
portion of the part periphery, it should be
designated as shown in (b).

NAME PART NUMBER


STD GEO DIM & TOL
REV. FRAME OF
ENGINEERING SPECIFICATION C 28 69 86508251
PROCEDURE / DRAFTING FNHA-3-B-072.00

4.1.1 Application of profile tolerances (continued)

Profile tolerance — no datum reference

Where profile tolerancing is used only for feature form control, no datum
reference is specified. This indicates that the feature is to be compared to
its perfect counterpart without any positioning to a datum.

Profile tolerance with datum reference

Where a profile tolerance for a feature or features is related to another


feature, that other feature should be specified as a datum. This requires
the tolerance zone to be fixed in orientation to that datum.

Bilateral tolerance zone

Where no indication of tolerance zone is shown on the drawing, the profile


tolerance is understood to be a bilateral tolerance. This means that the
tolerance zone is centered on the perfect profile of the feature or features.

Unilateral tolerance zone

Where the tolerance zone is to apply to either one side or the other of the
perfect profile, the zone is indicated by a phantom line adjacent to the side
of the profile that the tolerance zone is to be on and by arrowheads
indicating the zone. The phantom line should be drawn parallel to the
profile and need only be long enough to clearly indicate to which side of the
profile the tolerance must be.

NAME PART NUMBER


STD GEO DIM & TOL
REV. FRAME OF
ENGINEERING SPECIFICATION C 29 69 86508251
PROCEDURE / DRAFTING FNHA-3-B-072.00

4.1.2 Interpretation of profile tolerances

Profile of a line element

Where a line profile tolerance is specified,


any line element of the designated surface
must lie within the specified tolerance zone
(0.3).

Profile of a surface

Where a surface profile tolerance is


specified, the entire surface that is
designated must lie within the specified
tolerance zone (0.3).

NAME PART NUMBER


STD GEO DIM & TOL
REV. FRAME OF
ENGINEERING SPECIFICATION C 30 69 86508251
PROCEDURE / DRAFTING FNHA-3-B-072.00

4.1.3 Profile tolerances in part applications

Profile toleranced surface located by a toleranced dimension

Where a profile toleranced surface is


located by a toleranced dimension only,
the profile tolerance zone (0.3) may lie
anywhere within the tolerance zone
established by the locating dimension
(±1). The actual surface profile must lie
within the profile tolerance zone (0.3).

Profile toleranced surface located by a toleranced dimension and related datum

Where a profile toleranced surface is


located by a toleranced dimension and
referenced to a datum, the profile
tolerance zone (0.3) may lie anywhere
within the tolerance zone established by
the locating dimension (±1) but must
maintain its orientation to the referenced
datum ( ). The actual surface profile
–A–
must lie within the profile tolerance zone
(0.3).

Profile tolerance for coplanar surfaces

Where two or more surfaces have all their elements in one plane, the
flatness of that total plane can be controlled by a surface profile note.
The profile tolerance establishes a tolerance zone (0.1) defined by two
parallel planes within which all elements of the indicated surfaces
must lie.

NAME PART NUMBER


STD GEO DIM & TOL
REV. FRAME OF
ENGINEERING SPECIFICATION C 31 69 86508251
PROCEDURE / DRAFTING FNHA-3-B-072.00

4.1.3 Profile tolerances in part applications (continued)

Profile toleranced surface located by a basic dimension to datum surface

Where a profile toleranced surface is located


by a basic dimension, the profile tolerance
can be applied either bilaterally or unilaterally.

Where a bilateral profile tolerance is applied


to a feature or features, the tolerance zone
(0.3) is equally disposed about the true profile
of the designated surface at the basic
dimension.

Where a unilateral profile tolerance is applied


to a feature or features, the tolerance zone
(0.3) is all located to either the outside or
inside of the true profile of the designated
surface at the basic dimension.

NAME PART NUMBER


STD GEO DIM & TOL
REV. FRAME OF
ENGINEERING SPECIFICATION C 32 69 86508251
PROCEDURE / DRAFTING FNHA-3-B-072.00

4.1.3 Profile tolerances in part applications (continued)

Profile tolerance all around

Where a profile tolerance is applied all


around (∅), the tolerance can be applied
bilaterally or unilaterally (the illustration shows
a bilateral tolerance). The actual outside
surface profile must lie within the specified
tolerance zone (0.8).

Where it is necessary to relate the tolerance


zone to another surface, that surface can be
specified as a datum.

NAME PART NUMBER


STD GEO DIM & TOL
REV. FRAME OF
ENGINEERING SPECIFICATION C 33 69 86508251
PROCEDURE / DRAFTING FNHA-3-B-072.00

4.1.3 Profile tolerances in part applications (continued)

Profile tolerances to control alignment


Where two or more parts are shown to align in a weld assembly or assembly, the allowable misalignment (determined by
design and function) can be one of three conditions. Bilateral and unilateral profile tolerances can be used to express
these allowable conditions.

NAME PART NUMBER


STD GEO DIM & TOL
REV. FRAME OF
ENGINEERING SPECIFICATION C 34 69 86508251
PROCEDURE / DRAFTING FNHA-3-B-072.00

TOLERANCES FOR ORIENTATION CONTROL


5. TOLERANCES FOR ORIENTATION CONTROL. This section defines methods of tolerancing to control the
orientation of features to other features. The orientation tolerances are angularity, perpendicularity, and parallelism. They
may also be referred to as attitude tolerances. When specifying orientation tolerances, the considered feature is related to
one or more datum features. Orientation tolerances apply RFS unless otherwise specified.

5.1 ANGULARITY TOLERANCE. Angularity is the condition of a surface or axis at a specified angle (other than 90º)
from a datum plane or axis. The angularity tolerance is the distance between two parallel planes, inclined at the specified
angle to a datum plane or axis, within which the tolerance surface or axis must lie.

5.1.1 Application of angularity control

Angularity for a plane surface


Where an angularity toleranced surface is located by a toleranced dimension, the angularity tolerance zone (0.3) may lie
anywhere within the tolerance zone established by the dimension, but must maintain its relationship to the referenced
datum ( ). The actual profile of the surface must lie within the angularity tolerance zone (0.3).
–A–

Angularity for an axis (RFS)


Where an angularity tolerance is applied to a feature of size, the axis or centerplane of that feature of size may lie
anywhere within the tolerance zone (0.5) established by the angularity tolerance in relationship to the referenced datum.

NAME PART NUMBER


STD GEO DIM & TOL
REV. FRAME OF
ENGINEERING SPECIFICATION C 35 69 86508251
PROCEDURE / DRAFTING FNHA-3-B-072.00

5.1.1 Application of angularity control (continued)

Loose control of angularity between features


For drawing purposes, features are sometimes shown on the same centerline or at 90º when in actual function a liberal
angular relationship is allowable between those features. In such cases, the angular tolerance may be expressed in
degrees instead of decimals.

Position of these features in relation to the axis of the shaft is controlled by the standard shop practices manual: however,
if a tolerance different from that specified in the standard shop practice manual is required, it must be specified in the form
of an additional positional (!) tolerance.

No control of angularity between features.

Where the angularity between features may vary freely,


a symbol may be used to designate that no angularity
control is needed.

Angularity control between some features

On some parts the angularity between some features


must be controlled while the angularity between others
may vary freely. This can be designated as shown.

NAME PART NUMBER


STD GEO DIM & TOL
REV. FRAME OF
ENGINEERING SPECIFICATION C 36 69 86508251
PROCEDURE / DRAFTING FNHA-3-B-072.00

5.1.1 Application of angularity control (continued)

No angularity control specified

Where features are located on centerlines and no


angularity control is specified, the angular relationship
between the features shall be ±1º.

NAME PART NUMBER


STD GEO DIM & TOL
REV. FRAME OF
ENGINEERING SPECIFICATION C 37 69 86508251
PROCEDURE / DRAFTING FNHA-3-B-072.00

5.2 PARALLELISM TOLERANCE. A parallelism tolerance defines the permitted deviation from a theoretically exact
parallel condition.

A parallel tolerance specifies:

A tolerance zone defined by two planes or lines


parallel to a datum plane or axis within which the
considered feature (axis or surface) must lie.

A cylindrical tolerance zone parallel to a datum


axis within which the axis of the considered feature
must lie.

5.2.1 Application of parallelism control

Parallelism tolerance defined by two planes

Where a parallelism tolerance for a surface or line is


referenced to a datum surface, the designated line or surface
must lie totally within the tolerance zone established by two
parallel planes separated by the specified tolerance. This
tolerance zone in turn may lie anywhere within the size
dimension of the part but must always remain parallel to the
referenced datum.

NAME PART NUMBER


STD GEO DIM & TOL
REV. FRAME OF
ENGINEERING SPECIFICATION C 38 69 86508251
PROCEDURE / DRAFTING FNHA-3-B-072.00

5.2.1 Application of parallelism control (continued)

Parallelism tolerance defined by two planes (continued)

Where a parallelism tolerance for an axis is referenced to a


datum surface, the designated axis must lie totally within the
tolerance zone established by two parallel planes separated
by the specified tolerance. This tolerance zone in turn may lie
anywhere within the size dimension of the part but must
always remain parallel to the referenced datum.

Parallelism tolerance defined by a cylindrical tolerance zone

Where a parallelism tolerance for an


axis is referenced to a datum axis, the
toleranced axis must lie totally within a
cylindrical tolerance zone equivalent to
the specified tolerance. This cylindrical
tolerance zone in turn may lie
anywhere within the size dimension of
the part but must always remain
parallel to the referenced datum.

NAME PART NUMBER


STD GEO DIM & TOL
REV. FRAME OF
ENGINEERING SPECIFICATION C 39 69 86508251
PROCEDURE / DRAFTING FNHA-3-B-072.00

5.2.1 Application of parallelism control (continued)

Parallelism tolerancing at MMC (effect of MMC)

Where a parallelism tolerance is applied to a feature of size


at MMC, the tolerance zone within which the axis or
centerplane of the feature of size must lie is the specified
tolerance when the feature of size is at its MMC. As the
feature of size departs from its MMC, the tolerance zone
increases; however, the tolerance zone still must lie within
the size dimension of the part and must always remain
parallel to the referenced datum.

NAME PART NUMBER


STD GEO DIM & TOL
REV. FRAME OF
ENGINEERING SPECIFICATION C 40 69 86508251
PROCEDURE / DRAFTING FNHA-3-B-072.00

5.3 PERPENDICULARITY TOLERANCE. A perpendicularity tolerance defines the permitted deviation of a surface,
axis, or centerplane from a theoretically exact 90º datum plane or axis. A perpendicularity tolerance specifies:

A tolerance zone defined by two parallel planes


perpendicular to a datum plane within which the surface of
a feature must lie.

A tolerance zone defined by two parallel planes


perpendicular to a datum plane within which the centerplane
of a feature of size must lie.

A tolerance zone defined by two parallel planes


perpendicular to a datum axis within which the axis of a
feature of size must lie.

A cylindrical tolerance zone perpendicular to a datum plane


within which the axis of a feature of size must lie.

A tolerance zone defined by parallel, straight lines


perpendicular to a datum plane or datum axis within which
an element of the surface must lie (radial perpendicularity.)

NAME PART NUMBER


STD GEO DIM & TOL
REV. FRAME OF
ENGINEERING SPECIFICATION C 41 69 86508251
PROCEDURE / DRAFTING FNHA-3-B-072.00

5.3.1 Application of perpendicularity control

Plane surface to a datum plane

Where a perpendicularity tolerance for a surface


or line is referenced to a datum surface, the
designated surface or line must lie totally within the
tolerance zone established by two parallel planes
separated by the specified tolerance and at 90º to
the referenced datum. This tolerance zone must
lie within the size dimension of the part.

Plane surface to two datum planes

Where a perpendicularity tolerance for a


surface is referenced to two datum surfaces,
the surface must lie within the specified
tolerance zone perpendicular to each datum
when the part is resting on at least three points
on the primary datum plane and touching at
least two points on the secondary datum
plane. This tolerance zone must also lie within
the size dimension of the part.

Feature of size (rect.) to a datum plane

Where a perpendicularity tolerance for a rectangular


feature of size is referenced to a datum plane, the
centerplane of that feature must lie within the
tolerance zone established by two parallel planes
separated by the specified tolerance and at 90º to the
referenced datum. Also, the feature centerplane must
be within the location dimension.

NAME PART NUMBER


STD GEO DIM & TOL
REV. FRAME OF
ENGINEERING SPECIFICATION C 42 69 86508251
PROCEDURE / DRAFTING FNHA-3-B-072.00

5.3.1 Application of perpendicularity control (continued)

Feature of size to a datum axis

Where a perpendicularity tolerance for


a cylindrical feature of size is
referenced to a datum axis, the axis of
that feature of size must lie within the
tolerance zone established by two
parallel planes separated by the
specified tolerance and at 90º to the
referenced datum axis. Also, the axis
of the feature must lie within the
location dimension.

NOTE: The perpendicularity tolerance does not control the intersection of the
feature axis and the datum axis. If this control is required, a position tolerance
should be used instead. See 7.1.3.

Perpendicularity for an axis at a projected height

In some situations (holes for dowel


pins, tapped holes for bolts, etc.) it
may be necessary to control the axis of
a hole for a distance beyond the datum
surface equal to the thickness of the
mating part. This is accomplished by
specifying a perpendicularity tolerance
at a projected height. The feature axis
must lie within the specified cylindrical
tolerance zone which is perpendicular
to and projects from the referenced
datum plane for the specified height.
Also, the axis of the feature over the
projected height must lie within the
location dimension.

NAME PART NUMBER


STD GEO DIM & TOL
REV. FRAME OF
ENGINEERING SPECIFICATION C 43 69 86508251
PROCEDURE / DRAFTING FNHA-3-B-072.00

5.3.1 Application of perpendicularity control (continued)

Cylindrical feature of size to a datum plane

Where a perpendicularity tolerance for a


cylindrical feature of size is referenced
to a datum plane, the axis of that feature
must lie within the specified cylindrical
tolerance zone which is at 90º to the
referenced datum plane. Also, the axis
of the feature must lie within the location
dimension.

Perpendicularity for a line element of a surface to a datum plane


Where a perpendicularity tolerance is applied to any line element of a surface in relationship to a referenced datum plane,
any line on that surface must lie within the specified tolerance zone which is perpendicular to the referenced datum plane.
Also, any line element of the surface must lie within the location dimension. This approach can also be used to control
perpendicularity of radial elements to a datum axis.

NAME PART NUMBER


STD GEO DIM & TOL
REV. FRAME OF
ENGINEERING SPECIFICATION C 44 69 86508251
PROCEDURE / DRAFTING FNHA-3-B-072.00

5.3.1 Application of perpendicularity control (continued)

Perpendicularity tolerancing at MMC (effect of MMC)

Where a perpendicularity tolerance is applied to a cylindrical feature of size at


MMC and referenced to a datum plane, the axis of the feature must lie within a
cylindrical tolerance zone that is perpendicular to the datum plane. The diameter
of the cylindrical tolerance zone is the specified perpendicularity tolerance when
the feature is at its MMC. As the feature departs from its MMC, the diameter of
the cylindrical tolerance zone increases accordingly.

Shown to the right is an inspection gage that would check this part.

5.4 CONTROL OF FLATNESS BY ORIENTATION TOLERANCES. Where an orientation tolerance (angularity,


parallelism, or perpendicularity) is applied to a plane surface, the flatness of that surface is also controlled within the
tolerance zone specified by the orientation tolerance. An additional flatness tolerance is specified only where a more
limiting flatness control of that surface is required.

NAME PART NUMBER


STD GEO DIM & TOL
REV. FRAME OF
ENGINEERING SPECIFICATION C 45 69 86508251
PROCEDURE / DRAFTING FNHA-3-B-072.00

5.5 EXAMPLES WITH ORIENTATION TOLERANCES

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STD GEO DIM & TOL
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TOLERANCES FOR RUNOUT CONTROL


6. TOLERANCES FOR RUNOUT CONTROL. This section defines methods of tolerancing to control the runout of a
feature or single element of a feature to another feature or combination of features. The features controlled by runout
tolerances are located either around a datum axis or perpendicular to a datum axis. A datum is always required. The
runout tolerances are circular runout (single element of a surface) and total runout (total surface). Runout tolerances
always apply RFS.

6.1 CIRCULAR RUNOUT TOLERANCE. A circular runout tolerance specifies the maximum allowable deviation from
perfect form of a line element of a surface as it rotates 360º about a datum axis.

6.2 TOTAL RUNOUT TOLERANCE. A total runout tolerance specifies the maximum allowable deviation from perfect
form of an entire surface as it rotates 360º about a datum axis.

6.3. ESTABLISHING DATUMS FOR MEASURING RUNOUT

Datums for measuring runout should be selected


according to the function of the part. Generally for
a shaft they will be the bearing diameters, since
they determine the center of rotation of the shaft in
actual application.

Where the shaft is supported by two bearings on the


same diameter, the datum for measuring runout
should be designated by datum targets centered on
the bearing mounting area. This will simulate actual
part function.

NAME PART NUMBER


STD GEO DIM & TOL
REV. FRAME OF
ENGINEERING SPECIFICATION C 47 69 86508251
PROCEDURE / DRAFTING FNHA-3-B-072.00

6.4 FULL INDICATOR MOVEMENT — CIRCULAR RUNOUT AND TOTAL RUNOUT

Runout is the full indicator movement (FIM) of a measuring device as


the part is rotated on its datum axis. Reading direction is taken
normal (90º) to the toleranced surface.

NOTE: FIM is the term used internationally and should replace total
indicator reading (TIR) which is a United States term.

Circular runout is the FIM on a single location on the surface over one
revolution.

Total runout is the FIM as the indicator traverses the total surface
while maintaining the normal attitude, measuring one continuous
tolerance zone.

NOTE: Total runout also controls straightness of the feature within


the continuous tolerance zone.

6.5 APPLICATION OF CIRCULAR RUNOUT

Circular runout can be applied to a cone, a perpendicular plane


surface, or a radiused groove in addition to a cylinder. In the
illustration shown, each circular line element taken normal (90º) to
the indicated surfaces must lie within 0.05 FIM when the part is
rotated 360º on datum axis A–B.

NAME PART NUMBER


STD GEO DIM & TOL
REV. FRAME OF
ENGINEERING SPECIFICATION C 48 69 86508251
PROCEDURE / DRAFTING FNHA-3-B-072.00

6.6 APPLICATION OF TOTAL RUNOUT

Where total runout is applied to a cylindrical surface, the


entire surface must lie within the specified total runout
tolerance when rotated on the datum axis. In the illustration
shown, the entire surface must lie within 0.1 FIM while the
part rotates on datum axis A and the indicator transverses
the total surface and maintains normal attitude. This same
procedure applies to conical surfaces and again the indicator
transverses the total surface maintaining normal (90º)
attitude to it.

Total runout applied to datum surfaces

Where datum features are required by function to be included in the runout control, runout tolerances must be specified for
these features. This will indicate any misalignment of the individual datum feature axes to each other. In the illustration
shown, the entire surface of each datum feature must lie within 0.02 FIM while the part rotates on datum axis A–B.

Total runout can also be applied to a portion of a surface as


shown to the right.

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STD GEO DIM & TOL
REV. FRAME OF
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PROCEDURE / DRAFTING FNHA-3-B-072.00

6.6 APPLICATION OF TOTAL RUNOUT (continued)

Plane surfaces perpendicular to a datum axis

Where total runout is applied to a plane surface that is perpendicular to


a datum axis, the entire surface must lie within the specified total
runout tolerance when rotated on the datum axis. In the illustration
shown, the entire surface must lie within 0.1 FIM while the part rotates
on datum axis A and the indicator transverses the total surface and
maintains normal attitude.

NOTE: The concavity and convexity of this surface is also controlled


within the specified total runout tolerance.

6.7 APPLICATION OF RUNOUT CONTROL TO MULTIPLE DATUMS

A multiple datum for runout control may be used as follows:

In some situations due to part function it is important


to control runout to a plane surface as well as to an
axis. This is illustrated by the example to the right.

In other situations, the cylindrical surface referenced


as a datum may be of insufficient length to properly
determine a datum axis so a plane surface is used in
conjunction to it to properly orient the part. This is
illustrated by the example to the right.

NAME PART NUMBER


STD GEO DIM & TOL
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6.8 EXAMPLES OF RUNOUT TOLERANCES

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STD GEO DIM & TOL
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TOLERANCES OF LOCATION
7. TOLERANCES OF LOCATION. This section defines methods of tolerancing to control the location of a feature of
size in relationship to another feature. The tolerances of location are position, concentricity, and symmetry; however the
only one used by New Holland will be position.

7.1 POSITION TOLERANCE. A position tolerance defines a zone within which the center, axis, or centerplane of a
feature of size is permitted to vary from its theoretically exact position. Position tolerancing provides a method of location
to ensure assemble-ability and interchangeability at maximum tolerance.

7.1.1 Conventions related to positional control

Exact relationship

Basic dimensions are used to establish the exact location of the


tolerance zone of a feature of size to its datum or to another position
toleranced feature of size.

Features shown at 90º have an implied exact 90º relationship between


their tolerance zones when a position tolerance is specified.

Material condition
All position tolerance will be applied at MMC for the designated features of
size and their related datums unless otherwise specified. A note is included
in the title block of each drawing stating this. The symbol will not be used
M
with the feature control frame for position tolerance since through use of the
note it is understood to apply.

Tolerance zone
Where the symbol ∅ precedes the tolerance value, the tolerance zone is
cylindrical in shape.

Where no ∅ symbol is specified, the tolerance value represents the distance


between two parallel planes.

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STD GEO DIM & TOL
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PROCEDURE / DRAFTING FNHA-3-B-072.00

7.1.2 Benefit of position tolerancing

Coordinate system versus position system

The top figure shows a part dimensioned by the coordinate


system. Under this system the tolerance zone within which
the axis of the hole must lie is a square (or rectangular)
zone equivalent to the specified dimensional tolerance.
This tolerance zone must be small enough so that hardware
will always fit between it and its mating part when both are
at MMC. This tolerance zone is constant and does not
increase as the holes depart from MMC, so the potential for
increasing tolerance is not used.

The bottom figure shows the same part dimensioned by the


position system. Under this system the tolerance zone
within which the axis of the hole must lie is a cylindrical
zone specified by a position tolerance. The diameter of the
tolerance zone can be equivalent to the across corner
dimension of the coordinate tolerance, thus providing 57%
additional tolerance at MMC in the four segments of the
diameter as shown. Additionally, as the holes depart from
MMC toward their LMC, the diameter of the tolerance zone
increases accordingly. This provides “BONUS
TOLERANCE” without affecting fit up to mating parts.

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STD GEO DIM & TOL
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7.1.2 Benefit of position tolerancing (continued)

Further illustration

The top figure further illustrates the allowable location of


the holes in the part shown on the previous page.

The bottom figures show a gage that would check the


hole location to the allowable tolerance. Functional
gaging techniques are fundamentally based on the
MMC position concept; however gages are not
mandatory to fulfill MMC position inspection.

NAME PART NUMBER


STD GEO DIM & TOL
REV. FRAME OF
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PROCEDURE / DRAFTING FNHA-3-B-072.00

7.1.3 Application of position tolerance

Series of holes
Where a series of holes are located by a position tolerance, the axis of each hole when at MMC must lie within a
cylindrical tolerance zone equivalent to the specified tolerance diameter. Each cylindrical tolerance zone must be
centered on the perfect center distance between holes. As the holes depart in size from MMC toward their LMC, the
diameter of the cylindrical tolerance zone will increase accordingly.

Additionally
A series of holes that are position toleranced to
each other can also be position toleranced to datum
features by the use of a composite feature control
frame. In such situations, the centers of those
zones in relationship to each other must fall within
the cylindrical tolerance zones established in
relationship to the referenced datums. The centers
of the holes must fall simultaneously within both
tolerance zones.

NAME PART NUMBER


STD GEO DIM & TOL
REV. FRAME OF
ENGINEERING SPECIFICATION C 55 69 86508251
PROCEDURE / DRAFTING FNHA-3-B-072.00

7.1.3 Application of position tolerance (continued)

Series of holes (continued)


Where the same tolerance is required between holes in a series and between those holes and other features, a single
feature control frame can be used with the related features referenced as datums. In such situations, the axis of each hole
at MMC must lie within a cylindrical tolerance zone equivalent to the specified position tolerance. Each cylindrical
tolerance zone must be centered on its perfect location in relationship to the datum features. As the holes depart in size
from MMC toward their LMC, the diameter of the cylindrical tolerance zone will increase accordingly.

NAME PART NUMBER


STD GEO DIM & TOL
REV. FRAME OF
ENGINEERING SPECIFICATION C 56 69 86508251
PROCEDURE / DRAFTING FNHA-3-B-072.00

7.1.3 Application of position tolerance (continued)

Bolt circle — punched holes

It is a common practice for a number of holes to be


located on a bolt circle that shares a common axis
with a related cylindrical feature of size. In such
situations, a position tolerance will be assigned to
the holes on the bolt circle with the related
cylindrical feature referenced as a datum. In the
example to the right, the axis of each hole at MMC
must lie within the specified cylindrical tolerance
zone which is centered on perfect dimensions in
respect to datum plane A and the MMC of datum D.
As the holes depart in size from MMC toward their
LMC, the diameter of the cylindrical tolerance zone
will increase accordingly. Also as the diameter of
datum feature D departs from MMC toward LMC,
the allowable position will be affected.

NAME PART NUMBER


STD GEO DIM & TOL
REV. FRAME OF
ENGINEERING SPECIFICATION C 57 69 86508251
PROCEDURE / DRAFTING FNHA-3-B-072.00

7.1.3 Application of position tolerance (continued)

Bolt circle — punched holes (continued)

The figures to the right show a gage that would


check the hole locations of the part on the previous
page to the referenced datums by the allowable
tolerance.

Additionally

*NOTE: (See preceding page also.) If the


angular rotation of the hole pattern to other
part features is not critical, it will be controlled
by the implied 90º angle with the angular
tolerance specified in the title block applied.
If a more restrictive tolerance to control
rotation to a part feature is required, that
feature should also be referenced as a
datum. See the example to the right.

The figures to the right show a gage that


would check the hole locations in the above
part to its position tolerance.

NAME PART NUMBER


STD GEO DIM & TOL
REV. FRAME OF
ENGINEERING SPECIFICATION C 58 69 86508251
PROCEDURE / DRAFTING FNHA-3-B-072.00

7.1.3 Application of position tolerance (continued)

Bolt circle referenced to a machined datum

Where holes on a bolt circle are position


toleranced to a machined feature of size, the
virtual condition of that feature of size must be
considered. Shown to the right is an example of
such a part and shown below is an example of a
gage to check the part.

NAME PART NUMBER


STD GEO DIM & TOL
REV. FRAME OF
ENGINEERING SPECIFICATION C 59 69 86508251
PROCEDURE / DRAFTING FNHA-3-B-072.00

7.1.3 Application of position tolerance (continued)

Projected tolerance zone


Where the variation in perpendicularity of a threaded hole or dowel pin hole could cause interference between the screw or
pin and the mating part, a projected tolerance zone may be specified. Where a projected tolerance zone is specified, the
projected axis of the hole must lie within the specified cylindrical tolerance zone for the height above the part surface that
is specified with the feature control frame. The leader for the callout must be directed to the side of the part that the
projected zone must be. A projected tolerance zone should be considered when the mating part is of sufficient thickness
that an assembly problem could exist.

NAME PART NUMBER


STD GEO DIM & TOL
REV. FRAME OF
ENGINEERING SPECIFICATION C 60 69 86508251
PROCEDURE / DRAFTING FNHA-3-B-072.00

7.1.3 Application of position tolerance (continued)

Coaxial features

Where a cylindrical feature is given a position tolerance


to a cylindrical datum that shares the same axis, the
axis of that feature at MMC must lie within the specified
cylindrical tolerance zone. That cylindrical tolerance
zone is centered on the axis of the datum feature at
MMC.

As the toleranced feature or datum feature depart from


MMC toward their LMC, the cylindrical tolerance zone
will increase accordingly. Shown below is a gage that
would check this part according to the specified
tolerance and the illustration of the worst allowable
misalignment condition of the axis of the two bores.

NAME PART NUMBER


STD GEO DIM & TOL
REV. FRAME OF
ENGINEERING SPECIFICATION C 61 69 86508251
PROCEDURE / DRAFTING FNHA-3-B-072.00

7.1.3 Application of position tolerance (continued)

Coaxial features

Where cylindrical features of the same diameter are


shown on a common axis with a position tolerance
to each other, a pin equal to the MMC of the
features minus the specified ∅ tolerance zone must
pass through all features simultaneously.
Additionally, each feature must lie within the
specified dimensional tolerance.

Additionally

The position tolerance shown above controls only


the size of pin that the holes must accept. It does
not control the relationship of the axis of the holes
together to the rest of the part any closer than the
dimension tolerances. If a tighter relationship to
another feature is required, an orientation
tolerance can be added and referenced to the
related feature. In the example to the right, the
axis of both holes together must lie within a 1 mm
tolerance zone to datums A and B.

NAME PART NUMBER


STD GEO DIM & TOL
REV. FRAME OF
ENGINEERING SPECIFICATION C 62 69 86508251
PROCEDURE / DRAFTING FNHA-3-B-072.00

7.1.3 Application of position tolerance (continued)

Coaxial features (continued)

The same method can be used to position


tolerance cylindrical features of unequal
diameter that are shown on a common axis.
In this situation however, the note “2 holes
together” must be included with the feature
control frame. A step pin equal to the MMC of
each feature minus the specified ∅ tolerance
zone must pass through all features
simultaneously. Additionally, each feature
must lie within the specified dimension
tolerance.

Additionally

As on the previous page, the position tolerance


shown above controls only the size of pin that
the holes must accept. It does not control the
relationship of the axis of the holes together to
the rest of the part any closer than the
dimension tolerances. If a tighter relationship to
another feature or features is required, an
orientation tolerance can be added to the axis
and referenced to the related feature or features.
In the example to the right, the axis of both holes
together must lie within a ∅ 1 mm tolerance
zone to datums A and B.

NAME PART NUMBER


STD GEO DIM & TOL
REV. FRAME OF
ENGINEERING SPECIFICATION C 63 69 86508251
PROCEDURE / DRAFTING FNHA-3-B-072.00

7.1.3 Application of position tolerance (continued)

Bidirectional position tolerancing

Where the allowable tolerance between features is


different in one direction than the allowable tolerance
in its perpendicular direction, position tolerances can
be specified bidirectionally. As illustrated in the
figures to the right, the center of the slots must lie
within a rectangular tolerance zone equivalent to the
specified position tolerances when the holes are at
MMC. This tolerance zone is centered on the
centerplanes of the datum features. As the slots
depart from MMC toward their LMC, the tolerance
zone will increase accordingly.

NAME PART NUMBER


STD GEO DIM & TOL
REV. FRAME OF
ENGINEERING SPECIFICATION C 64 69 86508251
PROCEDURE / DRAFTING FNHA-3-B-072.00

7.1.3 Application of position tolerance (continued)

Holes in shafts
Where a hole in a shaft is position toleranced to the O.D. of the shaft, the axis of the hole at MMC must lie within a
cylindrical tolerance zone equivalent to the diameter of the specified position tolerance. The cylindrical tolerance zone
must be centered on and perpendicular to the axis of the shaft. As the diameter of the hole departs from MMC toward its
LMC, the diameter of the tolerance zone will increase accordingly. Additionally, the axis of the hole must lie totally within
the locating dimension tolerance.

Keyways, tabs, spline teeth, sprocket teeth, etc.


Where a tab, keyway, sprocket, or spline tooth, etc., are position toleranced to other part features, the centerplane of the
toleranced feature at MMC must lie between two parallel planes separated by the position tolerance. The tolerance zone
created by the two parallel planes must be centered on the perfect location to the MMC of the datum features.

Another way of expressing this requirement is to define the


boundary within which the part must lie (as shown below).

NAME PART NUMBER


STD GEO DIM & TOL
REV. FRAME OF
ENGINEERING SPECIFICATION C 65 69 86508251
PROCEDURE / DRAFTING FNHA-3-B-072.00

7.1.4 Calculation of position tolerances. This section defines the method of calculating the maximum position
tolerances that can be applied.

7.1.4.1 Mating parts with floating fasteners (clearance hole in each part)

7.1.4.2 Mating parts with fixed fasteners (clearance hole in one, other pinned or drilled and tapped)

Since the fastener is fixed in one part and only one part has clearance holes, the ∅0.8 is the total allowable sum of the
tolerance zones applied to both parts. The total allowable tolerance need not be divided evenly between the mating parts.
It should be divided in the most useful amounts for manufacturing. The position tolerance for these mating parts could be
∅0.4 and ∅0.4, ∅0.5 and ∅0.3, ∅0.6 and ∅0.2, etc.

NAME PART NUMBER


STD GEO DIM & TOL
REV. FRAME OF
ENGINEERING SPECIFICATION C 66 69 86508251
PROCEDURE / DRAFTING FNHA-3-B-072.00

7.1.4.3 Two or more fixed diameters aligning for a shaft

NAME PART NUMBER


STD GEO DIM & TOL
REV. FRAME OF
ENGINEERING SPECIFICATION C 67 69 86508251
PROCEDURE / DRAFTING FNHA-3-B-072.00

8. FREE STATE VARIATION. Free state variation is a term used to describe distortion of a part after removal of
forces applied during manufacture. This distortion is principally due to the weight and flexibility of the part and the release
of internal stresses resulting from fabrication. A part of this kind is referred to as a non-rigid part.

8.1 SPECIFYING CIRCULARITY IN A FREE STATE WITH AVERAGE DIAMETER

In some cases, it may be required that the part meet its tolerance requirements while in the free state. In such situations,
the maximum allowable free state variation should be specified with an appropriate feature control frame. Where form
control such as circularity is specified for a circular or cylindrical feature, the pertinent diameter is qualified with the
abbreviation AVG. An average diameter is the average of several diametrical measurements (usually not less than four)
across a circular or cylindrical feature. Illustrations (a) and (b) (simplified by showing only two measurements) give the
permissible diameters in the free state for two extreme conditions of maximum average diameter and minimum average
diameter, respectively.

NAME PART NUMBER


STD GEO DIM & TOL
REV. FRAME OF
ENGINEERING SPECIFICATION C 68 69 86508251
PROCEDURE / DRAFTING FNHA-3-B-072.00

8.2 SPECIFYING RESTRAINT FOR NON-RIGID PARTS

In some cases, it may be necessary to simulate the mating part interface in order to verify individual or related feature
tolerance. This is accomplished by restraining the appropriate features such as the datum features shown in the
illustration below. In this illustration, the runout of the ∅1391
1390 must be checked when the part is restrained to datums A and
B. Additionally in the part’s free state, the ∅1390 must be round within a 2.5 tolerance zone. The ∅1391
1391
1390 AVG would be
checked as described in paragraph 8.1.

NAME PART NUMBER


STD GEO DIM & TOL
REV. FRAME OF
ENGINEERING SPECIFICATION C 69 69 86508251