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n n Z

-I : Z

(a , b ) Z !(q, r ) Z IN / a = b q + r
. 0 r b
c ) (q, r
a . b
a d b q r
.
- -II : Z
c a b .Z
a ) k Z / b = ka . a / b (b
a Z
:
a /a
d
2
*
n
(a , b ) Z n IN : a / b a / b e
b a a = b f (a , b ) Z 2 : a b
*

(a , b, c ) Z 3 5
d b (, ) Z 2 : d a + b d / a

-III :

a b [n ] a b = kn (k Z) n a b c

d
e
f
5

] a b [n ] ac bc [n
] a b [n ] a + c b + c [n
] a b [n
] ac bd [n

] c d [n
] a b [n
] a + c b + d [n

] c d [n

-IV :
a b d . Z
d c a b d a : . d b
d a b
a b :
a b ) pgdc (a , b ) (a ; b
db d = a b da
e
f
5
6
7
8
9

d ' a
d' a b

d ' b
a b a b = 1
(a' , b') Z 2 / a' b' = 1
d =ab
' b = d.b 'a = d.a
d = a b (u, v ) Z 2 / d = ua + vb
(bezout) a b = 1 ua + vb = 1
b c a c
ab c

a b = 1
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:
: .

d / ab
(Gauss) (a , b, c ) Z 3 :
d/bl
d a = 1
a b = 1
a bc = 1 cc
(a; b; c ) Z
a c = 1
2

(n , m ) IN * : a b = 1 a n b n = 1 cd

[a = bq + r / 0 r b] a b = b r

ce
-V :
a b m . Z
m c a a / m b b / m
d a b
a b :
a b ) ppcm(a; b
b/m e m = a b a /m
a c
(a , b, c ) Z 3 :
(a b ) c f
b c
(a , b, c ) Z 2 : (a b )(a b ) = a.b 5

-VI :
c a d . Z d a
d a -1 1 -a a :
d a
1 -1 .
/ :
1 -1 0 : . . p .
n
pa pa
e
f

p b p ab p a

p a 1 a 2 ....... a n i {1,...., n} : p a i 5

pa = p p a

p a p a =1

-VII :

a b IN . a b :
a : b
a = bq 0 + r0 0 r0 b
* r0 = 0 :
b a : . a b = b :
* 0 r0 b :
b . r0
b = r0 q 1 + r1 . 0 r1 r0 b
* r1 = 0 :

o o Z

r0 b : . a b = b r0 = r0 :
* r1 0 :
r0 . r1

r0 = r1q 2 + r2 . 0 r2 r1
*
.
- VIII

c n 1-1
:
n = p11 p 2 2 ........ p r r

)( = 1

p1 : p 2 ..... p r
.
1 2 ...... r
.
d

a = pi

i =1

b = pi

:
: .

X :
c x :x 2
b :
b = a n .x n + a n 1 .x n 1 + .... + a 1 .x + a 0
a n 0 ]i [0 ; n ] : a i [0 ; n - 1
:

) (n

) (n

b = a n a n 1 ....a 1a 0

a n a n 1 ....a 1a 0 b
. x
d :
) x = a n a n 1 .....a 1a 0 (b ) y = c m c m 1 .....c1c 0 (b
m n : . y x :
e :
) x = a n a n 1 .....a 1a 0 (b ) y = c n c n 1 .....c1c 0 (b
c i +1 = a i +1 c n 1 = a n 1 c n = a n
c i a i x y a i c i

i =1

) p i .
i ; i IN 1 i; j n:
) inf ( i ;i

a b = pi

) sup ( i ; i

i =1

a b = pi
i =1

- IX :Z/Nz

(a ; b ) Z 2 : a b[n ] a - b = k.n c
"" .
d : (x Z) x

}] x = {y Z / y x [n

}x = {x + k.n / k Z
e ""
Z / nZ Z / nZ = 0 ; 1 ;...; (n - 1) :

) (

x ; y Z / nZ Z / nZ :
x + y=x + y ; xy=xy

)
(Z / nZ ; + ; ) h

Z / nZ ; + g .

n .
a i a n = 1 Z / nZ
) ( x Z / nZ / x a = a x = 1 :


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