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(EQ1) How did the forces of nationalism compete with sectional interests in the economic and judicial struggles

of the period?

After the War of 1812, the country experienced a surge of nationalism that overpowered much of the sectionalism that had been perpetuated prior to the war. Especially clear in the economic sector, the Bank of the United States was revived and the American System was created. John Marshall also ruled in an unerringly federalist style, somewhat forcing nationalism judicially. However, some sectional issues were too deviant to be suppressed, such as that of the balance of slavery and that of Federalists in New England. With the introduction of a newly revived Second Bank of the United States, nationalism was pushed forward with the ability to invest directly in the national government. The Bank also furthered Hamiltons idea of a national debt, which in itself, is the belief in the national government, or a modified form of nationalism. Also prominent in the economic system of the time was the American System, which grew out of the flood of British products being offered at artificially low prices. The System had a high rate of tariff designed to foster home industry and protect against market dominance by a foreign power. It also invested the profits from the tariffs into the country, creating infrastructure. Overall, the economic growth of the time was based on fostering the American economy to a point that it would be self-sufficient. John Marshall, the epitomizing Federalist Supreme Court Chief Justice, ruled in a manner with so little variance that the only real surprises in his rulings came from the creativity in which he pushed Federalist ideology. Marshall consistently held up Federalist approaches to the law, which in turn, forced states to abide by a more nationalistic demeanor. Most notable is Mulloch vs. Maryland, in which Marshall struck down states rights and gave the Federal government the

ultimate power to create and destroy institutions. Again with Cohens vs. Virginia, Marshall ruled that the Court could review any and all state decisions, effectively causing the states to bow to the federal government in every instance. However, there were serious threats to the unification of the United States during the same period. Even during the War of 1812, Federalists in New England pushed for the radical measure of secession, showing the stark contrast between the aristocratic class of New England, which was used to, in effect, oligarchic rule, and the rest of the country. Also evident was the issue of slavery, which was brought to a simmer with the Missouri Compromise. The Compromise illuminated the fact that tension had grown too high around the subject and that eventually something would occur that would cause a major spat. The sectional differences between the different parts of the United States were major; however, they could not have been avoided. During the same time, though, nationalism surged ahead, drafting behind the War of 1812. The spirit of nationalism was perpetuated through both the people in their new, more identifiable identity as American, as well as by the government, which took measures that ensured a more cohesive unit.