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What happened to equivalence?

Anthony Pym

Intercultural Studies Group Universitat Rovira i Virgili Plaa Imperial Trraco 1 43005 Tarragona Fax: (++ 34) 977 55 95 97

Basic equivalence?

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Basic equivalence?

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Basic equivalence 2

Natural equivalence vs. Directional equivalence

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Types of directional equivalence


Formal vs. Dynamic (Nida) Semantic vs. Communicative (Newmark) Anti-illusory vs. Illusory (Levy) Overt vs. Covert (House) Adequate vs. Acceptable (Toury) Documental vs. Instrumental (Nord) Resistant vs. Transparent (Venuti) Ut interpres vs. Ut orator (Cicero)
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A necessarily binary theory?

Yes, because theories of equivalence always oppose function to form.

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A non-binary theory?

Werner Koller (1979): Five frames for these equivalence relations:


denotative (based on extra-linguistic factors), connotative (based on way the source text is verbalized) text-normative (textual and linguistic norms), pragmatic (with respect to the receiver of the target text) formal (the formal-aesthetic qualities of the source text).

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Equivalence defines translation?


We know we have translation when: There are problems with footing: Mum says The alien I There are pseudotranslations

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Another non-binary theory

Otto Kade (1968): One-to-one equivalence One-to-many equivalence One-to-none equivalence

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A historical theory?

Equivalence presupposes languages with equal capacity to perform functions. Medieval theory does not presuppose equivalence. Nor does postmodern theory?

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Please translate
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