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DIES AND WAX PATTERNS

INTRODUCTION
The wax pattern is a precursor of the finished cast
restoration that will be placed on the prepared tooth. Careful handling and manipulation of the wax pattern is required to obtain an accurate casting

DIE
It is the positive reproduction of the form of a prepared

tooth in any suitable substance

DEFINITIVE CAST
A replica of the tooth surfaces, residual ridge areas, and/or other parts of the dental arch and/or facial structures used

to fabricate a dental restoration or prosthesis

REQUIREMENTS OF A DIE
Reproduce the preparation exactly All surfaces should be adequately duplicated

Avoid voids in the margins


Adequate access to margin is imperative Adequately rigid

DIE MATERIALS
Type IV (high strength) dental stone. Type V (high strength and expansion) dental stone

Resin strengthened gypsum products


Resin dies epoxy, polyurethane

Electroplated dies
Flexible die materials

SELECTION CRITERIA
Dimensionally accurate cast strong and resistant to abrasion Easy to section and trim

Compatible with separating agent


Accurate surface detail reproduction Contrasting colour Easily wettable by wax Type of restoration needs to be considered

DIE MATERIALS

DIE SYSTEMS
1. REMOVABLE DIES

2. SOLID CAST WITH INDIVIDUAL DIE


3. ALTERNATIVE DIE SYSTEMS

REMOVABLE DIES
Advantages Simple to fabricate a cast and die Maintains fixed and immovable relationship between the abutments

Easier to obtain physiologically harmonious restoration


contours when fabricating wax pattern.

Disadvantages
Wax pattern should be transferred from one to the other. Can be used only with elastomeric impressions

REQUIREMENTS OF REMOVABLE DIE SYSTEM


Dies must return to their exact original positions. Dies must remain stable, even inverted. Cast containing the dies must be easy to mount on an articulator.

METHODS OF REPOSITIONING DIE


PREPOUR TECHNIQUE
Devices are oriented into the impression before pouring the stone

POST POUR TECHNIQUE


Devices are oriented into the impression after pouring the stone.

DOWEL PIN
A metal pin used in stone casts to remove die
sections and replace them accurately in the original position

TYPES OF DOWEL PINS


Tapered, flat-sided brass dowel pin Flat-sided, stainless steel dowel pin Curved, single dowel pin

Single dowel
Double dowel Two separate dowels

Horizontal contact tracks and vertical ribs

STRAIGHT DOWEL PIN


Commonly used for many years. Brass dowel pin is used Advantages Resists horizontal displacement Removable die facilitates wax up and ceramic build up No special equipments required Disadvantages Technical skill is needed

CURVED DOWEL PIN


Incorporated into the impression before or after the
stone is poured.

SOLID CAST WITH INDIVIDUAL DIE


(MULTIPLE POUR TECHNIQUE)
Impression obtained Ist pour prepared teeth area; set; separated ;trimmed into die 2nd pour entire arch mounted on articulator (Definitive cast) Wax pattern started on die ,transferred to articulated casts refinement of axial contours After completion pattern is returned to die before investing

ADVANTAGES
Simple Minimal trimming of definitive cast Gingival tissue guide when contouring restoration

DISADVANTAGES
Difficult to transfer complex wax patterns Seating pattern on definitive cast 2nd pour larger Only be used with elastomeric materials

CHOICE OF CAST AND DIE SYSTEM


Operator preference Solid cast technique simplifies cast and die fabrication waxing and porcelain becomes difficult Dowel and removable die system less manipulation of wax pattern; reduces chances of breakage during transfer; porcelain handling easier

Impression removed from mouth

Washed under running water

Blow dried, inspected

Disinfected

PRE POUR TECHNIQUE


Position dowels pre pour with bobby pins and sticky wax Measure proper proportions of stone and water
Hand spatulation; vacuum mix

Small quantities prepared area in increments


Rest of impression filled to a height of atleast 5 mm beyond free gingival margin

POST POUR TECHNIQUE

SOLID CAST MULTIPLE POUR


Stone mass is built upto height of 25 mm

First pour has set; cast is separated and repoured

First pour sectioned into individual dies

SECTIONING REMOVABLE DIES


Trim buccal and lingual sulcal areas adjacent
to removable areas Mark intended saw cuts in pencil Saw cuts parallel or converge Avoid undercuts Carefully position saw blade Not touch prepared tooth margin or proximal contact 0.007 to 0.01

DIE PREPARATION

DITCHING THE DIE


Ditching or trimming the die defines the position of the margin and acts as a guide to gingival contour when the restoration is being waxed.

Excessive trimming does not give the

correct emergence profile and may


lead to an over-contoured or bulky crown.

DITCH BELOW MARGIN

LINE THE MARGIN

APPLY DIE HARDENER ABOVE AND BELOW MARGIN LINE

FIRST RELIEF COAT

ADDITIONAL RELIEF COATS

BLOCK OUT WAX

Thickness of die hardener are:

Cyanoacrylates: 1.0 to 2.5um Acrylic lacquers: 4.0 to 10um

DIE SPACER
Applied to die to increase cement space between axial walls of prepared tooth and restoration Formulated to maintain constant thickness Should not coat entire preparation 1 mm space from the margin must be maintained Available as a paint on or pen type application

Die spacer is needed to provide space for the luting agent (cement) during cementation of the finished crown. When applying the die spacer over the preparation leave the area 1mm above the margin line free of spacer. Close adaptation of the crown and cement (or luting agent) No disintegration and dissolution of the luting agent at the margin.

LUTING AGENT SPACE


The ideal space for the cement is suggested at 20 - 40m for each wall. So the internal diameter of the crown may be 40 - 80 m larger than the prepared tooth. There needs to be space otherwise the restoration will not seat properly. Each dentist and laboratory have their own standard thickness within this specified range.

INCREASED THERMAL AND POLYMERISATION SHRINKAGE

METAL REMOVAL FROM FITTING

SOLID CAST WITH

INDIVIDUAL DIES

SURFACE

INCREASING LUTING SPACE


INCREASED EXPANSION OF INVESTMENT MOLD INTERNAL LAYER OF SOFT WAX IN WAX PATTERN

DIE SPACERS

MARKING MARGINS
Precise marking of preparation margin is crucial Color used for marking should contrast wax Ordinary lead pencil not recommended Marked margin can be coated with cyanoacrylate; blown dry

Side of colored pencil used to keep line width


minimal

ALTERNATIVE DIE SYSTEMS


DVA MODEL SYSTEM PINDEX SYSTEM

DI-LOK SYSTEM
DIVESTMENT TECHNIQUE

ACCUTRAC (VENEERS)
ZEISER SYSTEM

PINDEX SYSTEM
Post-pour technique is used
Reverse drill press is used to create a master cast The machine accurately drills parallel holes from the under side of the

trimmed cast
Dual pin, tri plus pin

DI LOK TECHNIQUE
A snap-apart plastic segmented trays with internal orienting

grooves and notches is used

Impression is poured; di-lok tray filled Cast trimmed to horse shoe configuration

Tray filled with second mix and cast seated


Die stone set- locking and curved arms of the tray are removed Saw cuts made 3/4ths through stone; resulting die is trimmed Cast and die reassembled in tray; mounted on articulator

ACCUTRAC
Used in laminate veneers
Removable die system Modification of a plastic tray with internal orientation grooves and notches

DIVESTMENT TECHNIQUE
Investment material itself is used for making a die. Die is directly incorporated into the investment with the pattern. This technique is mainly used for patterns that are not removable from the die

Disadvantages Master cast may not articulate with the opposing cast properly (because of high setting expansion). Seating the cast for interocclusal records can be a problem. Needs another cast and die for finishing and polishing purposes because the die is destroyed while casting.

DIESTONE+INVESTMENT DIVESTMENT
A commercial gypsum bonded material that contains die material and the investment medium in comparable composition Commercially available as Divestment

It is mixed with a colloidal silicate liquid.


Die is made from this and then wax pattern constructed on it, then assembly is invested in a mixture of divestment and water, this eliminates possibility of distortion of pattern. Setting expansion: 0.9%

Box in the impression on the tray carrier for pin paralleling

Place tray carrier with impression onto the slider with solid ZEISER base plate underneath

Z E I S E R S Y S T E M

Survey the required pin position and drill the pin holes

Push table down gently to definite stop position. Drill two holes per segment

Insert tapered pins into drilled holes and press down according to friction required

Pour up the impression with die stone

Load base plate with stone around pins. Invert plate; seat onto impression.

After approx. 20 minutes (stone) or 8 hrs (BLUESTAR) remove the impression from the tray carrier and separate the pour up from the base plate.

Trim the arch, clean, blow dry and reposition back onto base plate.

Precision die saw

DIE SYSTEMS

WAX PATTERNS

WAX PATTERN
A wax form that is the positive likeness of an
object to be fabricated

METHODS OF FABRICATING A WAX PATTERN

DIRECT TECHNIQUE
INDIRECT

Pattern is waxed on the prepared tooth in the patients mouth

TECHNIQUE

Pattern is waxed on a stone cast made from an accurate impression of the prepared tooth Most popular method

ADVANTAGES OF INDIRECT TECHNIQUE


Less chair-side time Better visualization of the restoration Ready access to waxing margins

INLAY WAX
Inlay casting wax is used for all wax patterns.

Inlay wax consists of:


Paraffin (40% to 60%).
Dammar resin to reduce flaking Carnauba resin, ceresin, candelilla wax to raise the melting

temperature.
Dyes to provide color contrasts

TYPE I WAX

Formulated for making intraoral wax patterns Medium hardness wax Resist flow at mouth temperature

TYPE II WAX

Formulated for fabrication of wax patterns extra-orally Softer wax; Have a slightly lower melting point Resist flow at room temperature

REQUIREMENTS OF GOOD INLAY WAX


1. Flow readily when heated, without chipping ,
flaking or loosing its smoothness 2. When cooled, it must be rigid

3. It must be capable of being carved precisely


without chipping, distorting or smearing. 4. Wax should be of some colour that will contrast with and easily distinguishable from the stone die

Stresses heating and manipulation Wax thermoplastic material relaxes as these stresses are released distortion

Distortion poor fit


To minimize distortion patterns should never be left off the die, and they should be invested as soon after fabrication

WAX PATTERN FABRICATION

ARMAMENTARIUM
PKT Waxing instruments( No.1,2,3,4,5) Wax spatula No.2 pencil Laboratory knife Bunsen burner Inlay casting wax

Die lubricant
Electric heating instruments(precise temperature control)

P K T
#1,2: Wax addition instruments #3 : Burnisher for refining occlusal anatomy #4,5: Wax carvers

I N S T R U M E N T S

Heat the instrument in Bunsen flame Touch it in wax and quickly reheat its shank in flame

Wax spatula used


for adding large amounts of wax

INTERNAL
SURFACE

WAX PATTERN REMOVAL AND EVALUATION

PROXIMAL SURFACES

P O S T E R I O R T E E T H W A X I N G

AXIAL SURFACES

OCCLUSAL SURFACES

MARGIN FINISHING

INTERNAL SURFACE
Die lubricant Flow wax onto die from well heated large waxing instrument Initial layer wax is fully molten; wax memory distortion Sufficient wax coping without breakage Proximal areas extra bulk grip and prevent distortion Trim wax

WAX PATTERN REMOVAL

PROXIMAL SURFACES
Flat or slightly concave from contact area to CEJ Overcontouring periodontal problems Undercontouring flossing ineffective

CONTACT AREAS
Posterior contact areas occlusal third

Maxillary 1st and 2nd molar middle third


Contact between mandibular teeth and maxillary molars central Lingual embrasures larger than buccal Gingival embrasures - symmetric

AXIAL SURFACES
Location of height of contour is particularly important Gingival third; mandibular molars in middle third Emergence profile: tooth surface gingival to its height of contour immediately adjacent to gingival soft tissues Flat or concave

Periodontal disease- axial contour modified to improve access for


plaque removal

Wax gingival surface axially smooth flat


profile Shape middle third of axial surface adjacent teeth as guide Add wax to join axial and proximal surfaces and smooth them; location and shape of mesial and distal transitional line

angles
Boley gauge

OCCLUSAL SURFACES
Nonfunctional cusps overlap vertically and horizontally Point contact between opposing teeth Sequential wax addition technique

CONE PLACEMENT

CUSPAL RIDGES SUPERIMPOSED

CONES, CUSPAL&TRIANGULAR RIDGES

SECONDARY AND MARGINAL RIDGES

COMPLETED OCCLUSAL WAXING

CUSP HEIGHT AND LOCATION


Position and height of cusps wax cones Mark central fossae of opposing teeth Position functional cusps occlude buccolingual center Mesiodistal location of cones;occlusal scheme Cusp height curve of spee

CUSP-MARGINAL RIDGE ARRANGEMENT


Functional cusp contacts opposing
occlusal surfaces on the marginal ridges or fossa of the opposing teeth. One-tooth to two-teeth arrangement. Commonly used occlusal relationship.

CUSP-FOSSA ARRANGEMENT
Functional cusp nestled into occlusal fossa of opposing teeth Tooth-tooth arrangement Rarely used Centric cusp contact occlusal fossa of opposing tooth at three points Developed by waxing two opposing quadrants simultaneously

Indications
Prevent Food impaction Centric relation closure forces near long axes of teeth improved Improved stability results from tripod contact for each functional cusp

Cusp fossa 1. Location of occlusal contact on opposing teeth Occlusal fossae only

Cusp marginal ridge Marginal ridges and occlusal fossae Tooth-to-two-teeth

2. Relation with opposing tooth 3. Advantages

Tooth-to-tooth

Occlusal forces are directed parallel with long axis of the tooth. These forces are near the center of the tooth, placing very little stress on the tooth Rarely found in natural teeth. Used when restoring several contacting teeth and teeth opposing them Full mouth reconstruction

Found in 95% of all adults. Can be used for single tooth restorations

4. Disadvantages

Food impaction, displacement of teeth if functional cusps wedge into lingual embrasure Most restorations in daily practice

5. Application.

Completion of axial contours -Give each cusp a triangular ridge towards center of occlusal surface(apex-cusp tip) -Secondary ridges : 2 to each triangular ridge;convex with grooves

MARGINAL FINISHING

Reflow margins; well adapted 1 mm wide zone from margin to prepared surface

POLISHING OF WAX PATTERN

ANTERIOR TEETH
Anatomic contour waxing metal ceramic restorations Lingual and incisal surfaces - overall arch form and occlusal requirements -concavity in lingual surfaces - Maximum intercuspation anterior teeth should be set just out of contact - Lingual surfaces non contacting

Labial surface - Mesiolabial and distolabial line angles

WAX CUT BACK


If ceramic veneer is to be prepared, once final contour of wax pattern is completed, pattern is cutback over an even thickness

Usually about 1 mm
Provide room for the porcelain fused onto

the cast metal substructure

WAXING CONNECTORS
Connectors that join separate components

created in wax just before margins finalized


Whether cast or soldered; shaped in wax for precise control

Optimal strength: connector large


Should not impinge and 1mm above crest of interproximal soft tissue Esthetic areas: connectors should be hidden behind ceramic veneer; lingual placement

REFERENCES
Fundamentals of Fixed Prosthodontics 3rd edition Shillingburg Contemporary fixed prosthodontics 4th edition Rosentiel Land Fujimoto Tylmans theory and practice of fixed

prosthodontics
Phillips Science of Dental Materials

Glossary of prosthodontic terms Butta .R, Tredwin C j, et.al, Type IV gysum compatibility

with five adition-reaction silicone impression materials


J Prosthet Dent 2005;93:540-4. Reports of Councils and Bureaus (1977) revised American Dental Association specification No. 19 for non-aqueous, elastomeric dental impression materials