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eq CG JdG e d qGE q J IdG
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q dh G Yqh qJ CG
G e jq Pa jQGb Rq oJ a q dGh qd oJ qdGh FdG q dG
SEd dG
G eh qdG SEG EG qdH qdG
q hCG SG
q
.gZh FGh q G q a qdG
n oG JdG qCG qEG .d FGQ h d qdG GRdG e g JdG qCG G e
.dEG VoCG FT H dPh AGdG e b q J qc q oJ jc FGH q j
IOY f
,SEG e Iq e H IQhQdG qG JdG qq c qjJ Qq f dh
q
ga Yqd q dH eq CG .qdG AG Kj qdG dP j JU a IQhQdG
.H oJ qdGh fhG JdG q d q G dG
q ITe
g e QH ,dh .Sq dG e jd q edG IG JdG q gCG q J ,PEG Gg
e J CG qdG QGdGh QNCG EG qf h f CG q H SG Sh qe
IQhQdH G AdG EG CN Hq J qCG M e eq dG edG
q YGb GMG Y
,jMh QfG hM q j CG c NG M q j CG
.e
q IQhQdG fc GPEG UN
q
.JdG RZ SG LGh QG ,Gd

SCG

.dG
gcP OQh qdG Oq GG Oq Y -1
q
HLEG qY ? G GQhQdG JdG Y Lj qdG q Fj dG dG g e -2
.dG
e SH
q
? IQhQdG QN JdG Y Lj qdG q FjdG dG g e -3
? FGq dG jc IOq jQGdG JH jo GP -4
18

dG AG
AG QOe
IG AG q gCG
q dH AG e
dH AG e
hdG AG
(1) dG
e AG Y aG
q
(2) dG
e AG Y aG
q

3
4
5
6
7
8
9

YHQCG KK qjh VQCG S Y Fg qH AG Lj dG je e

? VQCG Y IG eO AG QhO g e
? dSG q M ndjo c
? dG
q e jM S g e
19





AG QOe

Iq G Gh FdG G
HCGh AJCG
qCGh Ae hH VQCG Y IM qCG j
q dG
.dG e a OLe AG
? QOe g eh ? AG Lj jCa
dG G hCq G eq CJCG CG q Y ,HLEd
.FKh H bCG K a YCG dG
S S S

SCG
.GdGh QdGh G o
q J G , jOhCGh Q fCG IO L e G .G GdGh OhdG
WH h G b Y IOLe G .VQCG

qL IH

Je qbCG
: dG hG
o p cr CG
:1OY hG jOhCG

IdG
q G

QHBG

OhdG

QfCG

q fG G dG AG
QG

20

: 2OY hG dBG L b q fdG cdG fGq N HCG dG dG G IO OGh AG OLh e


HhQhG
G jRJh S
SG
dG
dG
q FjdG dG
Ad

Ad jq RdG dG
AJCGh eq CJCG
,(jq CG H ) jW Iq e Me G Y hCG dG
q Y HWdG f eY ? dP aC
q G c .qe UCG (e hCG qS) dG i qCG Mf
? jq RZ dM Y dG AG CG jo CG ,dGh FdG dG EG aVEH MCGh q LCG
jc e e b IU Y VCG OedG HCG dG P FedG S dG

q S hCG N H .AG d Vh e cJCGh


.dG QRCG UCG G qCG MCG ,YS
f e IU M nYo K VCG ,QRCG EG dG q J S a eh (1 bQ Y) hCG G Y AG e GdG H SCGh G
CG MCa ,(3 bQ Y) ddG Y hdG eh (2 bQ Y ) fdG Y jdG
.Ae Gb Y S dGh1bQ dG e q d dH qEG qj dG

SCG
.FedG SdG jc QRCG dG AYEH Md AG j
q
.AG QH q j h qjRdG dG Y G
q AG Lj 21

IG AG q gCG

4
q FGdG Oq GG AG

HCGh AJCG
(... dhGa -d -JH) Z Y hCG jq RZ Hhe hJCG eY
? Ae L HhG J CG j Gg a .AGJQH TCG
MCGh q LCG
jc e e IU M e IMGh
q c VCGh IU Y K LCG
: e GdG H SCG qK ,SdG
. 1 bQ dG JdG Y .2 bQ dG jq dG . 3 bQ dG RZ he G
q d e IU b VCG ,HGQ Y h
.FeqdG SqdG jc e b ba TQC
q Gh
.qS b e q dG H bCG ,eN Y h ,GNCGh
dPh QRCG dG SdG jc e NCj , 5h 2 bQ dG GYe
(4 bQ Y) d dH Hh ,3h 2 ,1 bQ o d dH G
SCG
.Ae FGdG Oq GG ZCGh HhG
q c
Je q bCG
.e MGh
q c eCG hCG f IQY HH ddG fdG
q U e q JCG
.Ae FGdG
q c.Ae ddG c j 22

.AG e N SCG e .AG e Gc LdG Hq e j .AG e dN qaG cGdG .AG e N dG -

q G FdG AG
AJCGh eq CJCG
? c
q H L KEG hCG q G dG e q J qc dH TCG GP ?G Y dG HJ GP ? dG e G q jh ,dG EG MU dG dG q j GP MCGh q LCG
Gg j ,FedG SdG jc Y J dG e Gb oL e GPEG .dG QRCG NCG
ndG G NCj ,e f Qh Y Y SdG jc TQ e GPEG .qaG dG e YS cCH QRCG

SCG
.dGh GGh fEd SSCG G
g AG
q
Je q bCG
.Id
q QhV AG qCGh Ae j fEG L qCG oJ U IgX cPCG

23

UG

: dG FjdG G Y IaH dG OLe AG 


WH h OhdG h QfCG h QdGh G FS SSCH g ...VQCG
K) G bh JG H Yh Iq G QdG U gh ... (Lh
.G
q QH gh .FGdG Oq GG ZCGh HhG
q c OLe AG 
.Id jQhV IOq e g dHh q M Fc d SSCG G
q g AG 

24

f Y YC
q G
q CG
1

OY j

: GQdG e Se g a IOLG ZGdG p cnCGh dq dG fdG Hc r YnCG


.qFG - cCG - WG - AG - OhdG
q - fEG L - dG - dG QHBG
e ,L j qdG ......... q c e.......................... j -1
.MU dhj qdG HhGh ..............
jOhCGh ........... UH qJh ,fOH IOq e ........... OQGG -2
.qdG
q QHBGh ...........................h
QGe Y ,IOQdG ............. IOLGh ddG G b ........... qj -3
.dG
q
2

OY j

p qK g c ddG GQdG Hc r Yp nCG


Y HG GQdG e qc m S SGH rU
Qn Oe q qdGh QdG Y HG YG SG IQdH ,k e q qdGh dG
.d
qW Y 
SQG qG Ae 
cdG Gq N 
On dG 
dG
q 
fdG dG
q e 
IO OGh 
jdG Ae 
VQCG WH 
e Ae 
G 
qW Ae 

25

3 OY j
.e U n e
q c eCG * k eY r V
n q K ddG fdG Hc r Yp CG
: OLe AG
.q FGdG Oq GG
q c 
.FGdG
q
q c 
.qjRdG HhG qc 
.qaG cGdG 
4 OY j
NOEG H WG MG Hc r Yp CG q K ddG fdG dG
q MG q J
.Uf Y eRdG jdG
: qdG AG
.OdGh qdGh QeCG qJh q Fja M K Y Lj 
.bH RZh U hCG e FS 
.VQCG S e 30% qEG qj 

.QeCG hf e qc e
q
5 OY j
:dq dG eCG AG Y Lj qdG q FjdG dG ocPCG
dG
q -aq dG AGg Ae - e - iqdG - jG bQ - dG
q - dG
q
6 OY j
.QH dM Y G
q OLe AG qCG poJ G bGdG e eCG r cPCG
7 OY j
.OhdG q J dG d r jr Qe r co PoCG -1
.
q dG dSG b G J a o s oJ fEd n NBG GREG r co PoCG -2
? REG dP eh OhdG Z dM G J e g e -3
26

qJCG
: We c -1
eSG dG
q e dG OdG OGdG q G dG Y
n q J d p n en dM Y q J dGh SCG
qb e o L j qdG Vq dG UN
H jo q V
q
: j c as G dH q aCG jOhCG u Yh dG
q ofCG ,AG
.GQqdG FS Y jDhq dG qf a dG
q fMCG j - I
.VQCG Lh e q dG WG IOLG d U - II
.(G U ) q G FdG e f - III
.VQCG WH IOLG d U - IV
.(G U ) eq Y H FGdGh
q AG a j AfEG - V
.AG e dG j q W AGZ - VI

? dG OdH dEG aq J qdG Ig qdG oJ qdG AG QhO g e -

27

q dH AG e

SdH AG e
AJCGh eCJCG
QfCG ,QeCG e Fg q c S KEG MhCG e aL e a h jOhCGh
e jdG e je T OhdG
q f d
e qJCG q G Ae j dP ZQ .Hq dG GfCG
? G q c .aU OhdG J
g cjh c VM LG jJ EG jq dG Ie MU Cj GP ? e qj CG b jW Id
MCGh LCG

HJh eQ

1 OY H

eq dG e N dEG VCG q K AG e q c SCc


o SCG .G SGH
q dG qNCGh jG HJh
H dG SCG g iQCGh Y
Ae
q dG jG oqeCJCG .MCG e
q c
q SCGh Jfe
q eo
e qc EG AKCG ofCGh (bO hCG bO) eq dG e gOd g c jG oJCG .e Gq J e j
.JUNh
JW OY e q JCGh q FdG dM Y jG
q
o UCG -

2 OY H
.qG Ae e b QNG r nHfCG SCG NC
q Gh jq dG e b q dG h dG e b hCq G fCG jRCG .jG
28

p QCoG j e HJCG AKCG .bdG d ocJCGh eG EG HfCG L


.QbCGh r jd
.W e cCG e fe
g rGE qJCGh jG e qd qFdG dG gTCG q

jRh Ae
G
H ITe
q

jRh Ae
G
b
q

ch Ae
G
H ITe
q

ch Ae
G
b
q

SCG
.fG Z jGh fG jG : Yf LeCG .Jfe
q e KG H q J CG IOq G d dG G g fG jG Gh AG ,dGh AG : eCG
bCG Y KG H q J CG IOq G d dG G g fGZ jG .Jfe
q e
.dGh AG ,jq dGh AG ,MdGh AG : eCG
.r d Hb r FdG qEG f m fe je Y r FS e M e GPEG b KCG dG SJ
o bdG d g c fe Z N cJ GPEG hCG fG Z jG fe
q H H f dG jdG g q J .SCdG
.SJ q Y e dG
.aU kAe p Y Ae e f CG oj SdH Je qbCG
,H AG ,dG MH AG ,q dH AG ,H AG
n p eo GPEG ? LeCG J e MGh
q c f Y q JC aG CG s Y j GPe
29

TdH AG e
AJCGh eCJCG
j jG c GPEG U Ae Y G d n J qfEG qK H SdG qY
.Zh dc
AG e
q
q NG eLCG
? U Ae Y d
o VCGh
o SCG iNCG l jW GkPEG g dCG
MCGh q LCG
Te
q

TQ

Te

hCG npb e U JH Y Y
n MCG d TJ bQh a HCGh b MCG ,
q qdG pa
SCG K HG Sq dG qe g c ro
q a
.dG SC
n c ,mG Yh IODJh H a
q dG SCdG dG Gb bJ HJCG .NCG
q JCGh q Yf e q JCGh q dG n e hJC
q G.TdG bQh Y H e Y
SCG

Z j dG
q dG Y FdG
q dG f CG SdG Y IOjR .TdH fe
.
k TQ q jo mU
l FS TdG q Y f Je q bCG
aC
q Gh (q dG gTCG hCG) FHc RL SGH Ib MC
q G
.jdG H IdG OGYEG MGe qc
30

ScQEG
AJCGh eCJCG
?Tq d AdG hO k aU JH Y H MC
q G CG iNCG jW g dCG
qcCJCGh HBG
IQOb g dG J Y qcQCGh JdG GQY
q M H bCG
.a
q c e mU m Y p Jh kITe
q qdG
q c RGaEG Y
SBG
.SqdG qj qbT Q M jS GQhO fe Z m je orSn
.ScQE
k G jdG g q oJ
Je q bBG
qdG Y JQb aC
q Gh q dBG ddG
q M H bCG
.dG
UG
.Gk p Y hj fG Z jG qCG M aU fG jG hj 
.fe k LeCG H e o
u J d HdG FGdG
q
q c
fe
a Y YJ l q Y
q
l o oW ScQEGh Tq dGh SdG 
.fG Z LeCG
.G d TdGh SdG n jo 

31

dH AG e

6
G AG

AJCGh eCJCG
j M ,jG f
q eo
q c H f CG Tq dG h SdG n q H qfCG
? EG dG
q a ,e dG AG TQ
MCGh q LCG
HG dG
q Y SG cd H bCG
qS
Ae
( H be hCG) QhO
q S e q Gh
QhO
de
,SCch Oq eh mQhOh
IQdG
,Qhq dG dG AG SCG
,dG a SCdG VCGh Qhq dG a Oq G qcQCG
,j AG JCGh (bGhCG)
q dG qTCG
Os G AG Gb bJ b H gTCa Oq G qTCG dG AG CGj eY
,SCdG
,QhdG jj dG AG
q c
q j CG EG dG UGhCG
SCdG Y M dG AG q c d eh QhdG b H q q JCG
.bhJC
q Gh
O
q eo

SCG
.dH fG FdG
q jG fe
q H H dG jo .kIQb dG
o n e FdG
q q jo .e Z lAe dG AG IQb Je q bCG
? GP ? dG Ae IQb Y qG Ae IQb J g
32

q dG AG
AJCGh eCJCG
AG j g q JCG CG H dH AG Y G a EG UJ
q CG H
.IOq oG dH qFe Z iNCG lFT Gh dG
q
MCGh HCG
Ae hCG gq dG Ae J M H bCG .iNCG Jf hCG OQdG
Gg W e qJCG qcdG FGQ Y IOjR .p dG AG
SCG
.IMGh IOq e e j
q q dG G d q dHh H Y jG f
q eo
q c a EG k M dG q Y Oq DJ .q f qe Ae
t c
Je q bCG
: CG e GdG q JCGh dq dG fdG CGbCG
.d FGQ h d fe je q dG AG .e Z JQob qC q f q G Ae .mU lAe q dG AG UG
jG f
q eo a TdGh SdG r n q Y e dG q Y eJ
.H Y
Y r q f L e N g ,fe Z hCG fe c AGS ,jG
.
q bCG
.q f k L q jo IMGh IOq e e
q eo dG L
q c
.dc m soe Am e tc d rdh ,x f lAe dG AG IQob
33






f Y YC
q G
q CG
1

OY j

: feo Z iNCGh feo LeCG EG dq dG LeCG q U


q dG hCG OGdG Ae -H qeo QZj -G H QZj -RZ he
r o SG d q eo hH Z Ae -QK cc -gdG Ae -dG Y
.SO W hJ
2

OY j

: j q Sjo ZGdG cCGh dq dG UG fdG Hc YCG


gR -foe -p Y -dG -J -SdG -U -f
q oe IOq e -dG
.OQdG
e.......... je g q de SG b dG
q j dG G
q dG .q Fbh SC Gr Yn oJ ............. h AGh ..........
.dG SGH .......... Ae Y........ Ae e f .dG q M EG...........h AG e je J OQdG Ae ........ qj 3

OY j

GP qc J q M SG GQdH ZGdG q Yh dq dG UG fdG Hc YCG


: dO
.fG Z jG............ H d..........h .......... n jo .foG Z d ........... Y........ fo
q G d q Y jW TdG .Sd jW qfC........Y jq dG q dG GQdG
q J .FGdG
q e...... Z hCG ..... jG f
q eo ...... a Y ...... q Y YJ 34

OY j

.e U n e qc eCG * k eY rV
n qK ddG fdG Hc r Yp CG
.r KG r f
q eo e cCG iMG GPEG feo Z jG jo .TdG q Y J q f L Tq dG .J q Y EG fe je
q c n
r of CG .aU FGS TdGh IQodG -

OY j

* eY VH U QN
q c Oq M q K IOq oG GQG GP dq dG fdG Hc YCG
: HG fG
: `d TdG j -1
.dG H Y fG jG f
q eo a .dG H Y foe Z je qc fe
q a .LeCG d dG fo
q G Y FdG
q fo
q G a .feo Z j FdG
q fo
q G e fo
q G
q c a AG J -2
:Y dH hG dG AG H f
q f Ae .fe FS je .dG e N Ae dGh TdGh SdG -3
.LeCG f
q oe H d W .fG LeCG H d J q Y .jG J qc qJ q Y .hG Ae e q dG AG GSG eeo Q 35

OY j

.IG e aUCG IQq dG QZ b e


.e MGh
q c QhO q Hh r KG r de cPCG

OY j

hCG qjdG edG oJ GdG e gdG d


Gh Gh ICH Lh eQ) q dG
e b (Ae hL S AGq L e cGJ
q oJ dG Wh IOY (... q N hCG jq jM)
.q dG
r pe
UGoe H AG S dG qY qJ
dPh p G YVG jq dG edG q q c Y
M GQhO cM G L e RGdH
.f
: SCG
G Y f dG jG U q H -1
g EG jH q dG edG Y AG
q U Y
? fe Z hCG fe
e q dG d g IG jdG qCG KCG -2
? ScQEH e g edG

36

H q LCG
T Q qb REG
: ddG Gq H OhJC
q G
.H iNCG e cCG gGMEG io
q G QdG e Y a e q c hCG (dG be fGL Lj dG e) q LLdG dG e d .qG
. qd Hb SH AZ .OSCG Qhh AGZ hCG AW .QqdG e SCch jr M : dG Q qdG CG
.IdG dG b (LLq dG dG
q hCG) qG a e bQ W VCG .qG H H GdG MCG q K IdG dG IdG
q dG NOCG .On SCG bQh fGL Y dCG hCG OSCG AH IdG dG NGO gOCG .f EG e Ak e jG CeCG .IdG
q dG NGO jG VCG .jG Ae Sh AH qKCj f U H qoe SCdG VCG d LQG fG Y q T MCGh r dG a SdG AdG HCG .IdG
AdG j J Y IQOb Ic
q c ,a e VCG .HG IQdG
q c SdG
: dG
.dG q TC G RG VYCG SdG Ad NGq dG LdG Y AG e Gb QX MCG ILh Iq e H .IQdG c qoG SCdG Jh SCG q d Y MJ ggTCGh
.de Z qfCG MCGh qG AG e Y M e hJC
q G ,SCdG NCG Iq e H 37

hdG AG

hdG AG UGe
AJCGh eCJCG
.d FGQ h nd mU
l FS hdG AG ? d
l dU UGG H Ae
q c qCG j g ? q f L hdG AG g qcCJCGh HCG
.e Ae IQhQb Y G bdG Y oc e CGbCG Ae) d dG G Yf M H bCG CG j dG UGG Yh (...qG G ,q G
.
q U k e J q M d J
SCG
.q dG AH d q dh mU Al e hdG AG H e k b mq c hdG AG j j dG e q N e q f G eCG
.gZh ShdGh
Je q bCG
:WG e dG a q JCGh dq dG fdG CGbCG
.hdG AG q eo jG IOq e OLh .d dU q M Ae
q c.a IOLG eCH d U iNCG Y qfe e J .d dU G Ae 38

q dG dGh OhdG e e
AJCGh eCJCG
?d
q AG q MU e qCG CG c ? e qdH CG FGq dH CG GH hCG qdH g
d TdH hCG SdH dG J g ? HhT OhdG hG AG j
dG e qaoG IG G d oJ c ? d U oJ d q dG

(LH) YSG H Ae GqN

qcCJCGh HCG

qh Sd VM
IO OGh Y qV

H dPh Ge Hh FKh H bCG S q WdG cd ce bCG EG IQjR


dSG b s oG G a ndoJ G jRJh
j dG G MGe
q c EG
o q JCGh d
.d U j q M g hG AG dEG

MhCG

qe

T f
jRdG

hRhCH dG

HdG

dG dH TdG

SdGh

aL A dG

eqdH TdG

39

SCG
: MGe Y q J bO j CG q H HhT dG AG
n jo d
2 mm EG 0,5 mm e gb hGJ Y GP HGZ H : HdG .qoG joGh FdG LCG e q dG
o Ae hG OGdG Ae qoj
,aq eo q oJ ( e dG jc ) Ad oJ IOq e H : SdGh t q dG FGq dG a ,AG dY GJ dGh q fGhdG FGdG H J FGf J
q
.H Hn oG AG dEG q e dG dG VG b SJh
q j ,qoG jG ch SJ dG FGq dG e AG qj d : TdG : Me Y TJ
( 150 cm EG 80 cm e r S)
o Yq dG eq dG e Ta Y : eq dH TdG 
.G IUh U FGT e qJ q AG qj

q c e dNh aU AG q o dG e To
q G Gg H : qdG dH TdG 
.jq p G FGdG
dG (Hhe -Sha) KGG e eq dH TG
AG d : hRhCH dG 
s
hRhCG RZ a tn jo dnG Z bGnGh qoG FGhq dG Y Ad hCG
dH TdG j dG Gg qCG W jo : Me
b q c aVEH dPh q Ff AG H s jo Me NBG g : aL A dG 
jRdG Gb qj dG FdG Gq G fHh aL Ae e ShQeh
.Gq G e N c d
q U oG q M EG j q M
Je q bCG

q d q qdG dG e qaoG IG G J g
U J q M OhdG
q d J dG G MGe
? d
.Y ASEG j dG MGG e q JCG ,dP Z c EG

40

dG Ae e
AJCGh eCJCG
AdG q j HdG G GH G g c b GZ q FG OQGG fc GPEG ? dP c .dG Ae EG
qcC JCGh HCG
EG Lq dH F Kh H bCG
T ,q dG G , n nG
....ffG
HdG G dG Ae d e

SCG
.LoCG Ae
q CG hCG dG Ae H hdG AG Y f CG .SG VdHhCG dH eG dG q J .
n G T
u jo AZY AG j SG VdG qj cCG o d dG AfCG eo Iqce G d IMh 12500 gj e g : Me
.MGdG dG G AG e q e e e 20 e
Je qbCG
? GP ? J Oq HhT dG Ae j g
UG
.HhT d q dG AG 
jfGh dG eCG gh qfG eCG H
hdG AG j 
n
... jdGh SJdGh jOdGh QdGh
.q c q Hh jj dG eCG f q H d
q ddG
q AG Yf q J 
.J q d d dSG OGjo W Ae
q c j 
41

8
(1) dG
e
AG
Y
aG
q
gWh KG
G
q
AJCGh eCJCG
? fMCG WG H G q M hCG dG dG V HUEG S e S e dG q J qc YEG FSh J dG dG U J
q c GP ? dG VY
qcCJCGh HCG
: GG dG CGbCG S KCG
q CG dP Y j d qfCG qe gh q hH AG j fEG c
jM Y IQOb fc dG qC MG Gg e GHCG qj H ,G Y
Oq Jh G UN
IG QH
q
q G q J bh dG eq CG .H f
qedG JM qFdG OGG e dG S WGG a Cj dG fCG
dSG W dG IOYEG L Y Lhh LM VdG QU SDG h
.VQCG WH h dG FG hd
Ld YTEG LQNh G AG j
q jh fEd q edGh
q dG
H ee J c ,IQGH GQqdG

q c e qdG q jh ,AdG f YdG


q
KG
q G G e FdG q dG J
dPh , W G H GRG aE H
o q S QHBG eq EG jH
dG S Y dG qoe e AGOS H hCG Vd M
dG c ,QfCGh jOhCG f Q
VGeCG e jdG J
q EG cSG Oq Da
q d hCG d dU Z AG j
...GddGh G q Mh dG dc
42

jo h QTCGh G ihGJh ISCH VQCG OCG


q jo M MdG eq CG
dG OGG J q J PEG ,IMGh o dG GH q dG YCG Y
.qdG IFGh jOhCGh QfCG a
q G A hCG q dG Ae H GdG
c ,q FGdG q G cGG dG jdG f dc KG
q eh
J IdG TT Y gGfh Y f dG Jqeh dG IcGdG Y j
d bq dG d q VY OGM H dG Ae S Y AGOS YH Jh
q

q GVH YCG RGdG


q a dG AG qjh WGdG a IOq G
... qjdG FdG
: dG
q q SCG
:
q qdG e SCG -1
,Ad KG
q SEG ,SEG J Ad KG
q Oq GG .dG
q W ?
q q dG e USG qdG IdG g e -2
SCG
:fEd IOq e fCG Y f AG J
q
,q qdG JLM Y Va q ej fCG .jObG iNCGh q YU fCG .q Fc OGe SSCH g KG
q OGG
.WH hCG VQCG S Y AGS FG fh J
q KG
q G q J




Je q bCG
.Ad KG
q q dG SEG e eCG KK cPCG

43

(2) dG
q e AG Y aG 9
KG
G e
q
AJCGh eCJCG
.Ic LMG qCG M b fOH FG OQGG ? FG fh Y ad GkPEG dG
q e
? G b qcJ GP ?q dG q GP ? dSG h q dG q e ge ?J c
qcCJCGh HCG
q bC qe IQjR cQH dPh ,Ge Hh FKh H bCG
.oG G dEG J dG G MGe
q c EG
o q JCG q M SQe e J
e
e

2
edG dGREG
Gh

jdG dGREG
dGh

LM
e
ICG
q dhCq G

eQ
e
Iq e

dG f
IOYE hCG
SG

ICG
jq fqdG

hCG G f
HdG d

qLddG G

dG
q LCG M

fqdG SdG

jdGh edG dGREG

ICG

hCq G SdG

44

SCG
Y soJh q dG q G G s oJ ,
q q dG e qdG AG j 
: MGe N
.a qdG LCG e h G Ic dG
q LCG e qdG -1
a qdG dGh
q jq dG dGREG q K c VM Sq dH G h eq dG dGREG -2
.AG S Y
cGJh VG b EG ddG jG J q dG H :hCq G Sq dG -3
.q dhCq G ICn M
n q J ICn M
n d
q
: q LddG G -4
q Zh IGq e j Y VG MCG EG q dhCq G IC n G e d G G q
.KG
r e jdG Y AdG e INCG g qa ,jdH
: fqdG Sq dG -5
.jdG KJ AGq L e fG
ICG SJ qdG g qJ
q
dPh ,N
Gg 
q CG hH e qf CG Is e e Y f
q
.YGQdG H
q d dSH hCG dG jH
: 1 Me 
SdG e qq dG dc eCG GPEG
H e g c) G dGh
noJ (fOH jG dG q
jOhCGh Oh dG
q I q G G
Y ILGG OQGG Y d
jJ IOYE QHBG hCG VQCG S
.VQCG WH q FG qdG
ICG e : 2 Me 
H G f J) d Ic VGMCG qjfqdG ICn Gh qdhCq G ICn G s oJ
SEd U J q M Jh gdh ( 5 % q Mh10 % EG 99 % e q d
.Vd Cq oJ q e OeQ EG jH e qq d hCG Hq d
s Oc
45

Je q bCG
e dG f QeCG eh G G jJ jG q j GP ?GdG
? G
q d MdG Iq G G SH IOY n jo GP UG
: qcCe l eCG TH
q SEG ,FG fh Y ad 
.dSEG ObEG e q H .
q q dG e q G Y dG Y .dG e h G fEd IOq e fCG Y f AG J
q 
FXh e n dG p oJ
n FGH qj W Ae
t c Ke
q Ak e q j 
.qJG
:EG J q q G G J 
.ddG Oq GG a qJ q dhCG e H AG d Kq e Y AdG q J qjfK e .q LdH e G g q J dd .jdG

46

f Y YC
q G
q CG
1

OY j

: d eo U dq dG GQdG
-IPe -Id jq QhV -IN - f
q eo -IY -FGQ hH -GG IM -aU
.K
q oe -He
.G G q oJ fK Y EGh HhdG G q oJ Y EG q U
2

OY j

.e U n e qc eCG * eY rV
n qK ddG fdG Hc r Yp CG
.d dU jdG Ae .hT Ae EG dG Ae
q oj CG oj .AG q G eCG e GdG e .J qY EG j CG q H HhT dG
q AG oj d .dG
q q j e
q CG hH OGdG ITe G G jJ .J q e H d U M G G oJ 3

OY j

: j q Soj ZGdG cCGh dqdG UG fdG Hc YCG


-q dG - q dG G -J -dG
q - G G - jM - G - eCG
.hdG
.SG......... N GPEG d U ........ J Y Yj dG jJ b.............
q c ........ Y UG .dG
q e q FG OQGG ............
.q fG.......... H eh ........ AG e fe je .......... AG 47

OY j

q M SG dG hCG GQdH ZGdG cCGh dq dG UG fdG Hc YCG


: dO GP qc J
jj dG q fG eCG ............ q H hdG AG ........... q J -1
.a f ..........h
g e gh hdG AG q eo H q eo g e ......... e g -2
.Gq L IU .......`H IOLe fc dh G qU Y .........
Vq j.........h QHBGh........h Q fCG e hH.......... jJ -3
.WH hCG ......... Y AGS d
q FG hG
5

OY j

eY VH U QN qc Oq M qK IOq G GQG GP ddG fdG Hc r Yp CG


: SG fG *
: jdGh edG dGREG -1
.hdG AG MGe e Me .G d q LddG G Me J .hRCH dG Me J .G G J q Y NBG g : hRhCH dG -2
.hdG AG Y q dG dH TdG VJ
q CG q Y .G G eo jq QhV q Y .q dG G IOLG KGG Y j .edH TG
q dG AG IOLG qjG FGdG Y j : dG Ae -3
.hdG AG aJ YoJ .e SG VdHh dH eG q J .dH dG G qc qJ 48

OY j

SG b QeCG e d fGq H RG fOH q dG GOdG e


b qdG M IQGOEG e df d dSG qfeEG e qqd .Ye
.
q dH Iq G FGdG
q
q c e gN
q e qcCdG
? FGdG J W g e -1
MU H j CG j dG dG oG g e ,FGdG J Z IQU -2
? d a U hG G Ae j q M H G

Kh SCG
oG dG e SG
,SG ObG EG YJ YdG L G Y dG IOjR EG
OQGG IOL Y nG j q FGY H W n ae G G
o jJh
e qG e jdG KpMoCG dd .jQhV GeCG dG W e FG
.MG e AH G
q c J G g qCG qGE ,dG
e q gCG MdG dG jo ,dP ZQ
G J q Jh . nd G dG

q d GQ e Mq dG H EG d H
T WGh Q TCH YhQG MG
Gh dG
q d n n oJ qfCG qEG MdG
e Md SM cCG YGQdG g qC
WG Y IOjR C dGh idG YGQdG
U e
.G H jq Q IQU cSG e q J dG
q dG
dSG qCG qEG dG
q Ye
q Q oG dG e oJ dP Y IOjR
g CG e H GOh j jq dG WG KG gGh FGG
q d
.eo ZQ
q dG Y W e G G
c jhH qEG G qc oG dG e SG j d qdHh
.bO q J eo H dG q
Y Hh bRdG IFah dG bGd jJ Y
fJ dG e GSG IOYEG M
49

SCG
.TH
q AG SG IQhV H qj e dG HG -1
.ndoG dG e eGSG Oq Y -2
? ndoG dG qjQ qj eY G
q Y Yoj dG e -3
? e Z oG dG G
q Q j dG dG dG g e -4

H q LCG
W Ae Iqeo q
jo ,d dU Ae EG ( ... q W Y Ae ,q S Ae ,OGh Ae ) eq N Ae MC
q G d
: dqdG MGG qe Iqoe q CG CG
: q dhCq G G
: ddG Oq GGh Gq H OhJC
q G
f EG L bC
q G ,ZQah Ic e Ae GQhQb K -KG SCc bQ Tb ) dG e Tb b -e IMGh
q d YCG q dH MCGh
.IQ qb , qe S - (dG N hCG dG N e qT
a e q c , edG e q c ,(edCG jc ) aq e IOq e ,G Ae .dG e dh f
HdG
N Ae
IQhQb f ren Y dG T b b HCG 
FL
IR
p o
qe J b dH cCGh , qG S SGH HQ orMCGh
dH HdG
.HZ Y
q
WG
.HG IQdG
q c SCc a HdG VCG 
IdG jH MG TdG qCG MCG ,dG Tb b a q G AG
q UCG 
... ddGh c
SdGh q qdG
Ae
jc
H
HdH ndG AG j dG SCdG qUCG
n
G
jedCG
jc e GdG H q K G Ae e GdG
.FGdG SJ q M bdG H d cJCGh ,edCG
50

q dG dH Tq dGh eq dH Tq dG
c AH G JQhQdG f e
q c ga q SCG
EG f a fqdGh eQ hCG CeCG qK dG d e
Gg cCGh ,SCc Y e vc VCGh dG e cCG
c dH Teh
edH T
q
u eo Y
q b
TJ
TJ
eqdH
H
.HG IQdG
q
dHh q dG dG a Tq dG
AG
q UCG dP Hh eq dG a Y G
q
q UCG
.mU Ae Y MCG
.d
q U doG AG jo dHh ,aL Ae e Gb VCG ,INCG Me

51

VQCd G
q dG
Wh Jq e : AGdG J
q
AGdG J
q e q G
hRhCG W

13

OLh KEG : G
q dG

14

G
q dG b

15

Jfeh
AGdG
q

G
q dG d FS RL

10
11
12

AdG dG) G
q d FGSG e

AdG dG) G
q d FGSG e

e .UN
bEG Y fPCG ie Y Oq M CH fMCG IFdH aG j 
q
? dP S
dG g e .zG
jq dG G
OOq J 
q dG{ IQY jq G IdH UG
q
q
? OLh f ch G
q
?f dG CG fEG g ,gQX q J qdG e ? AGdG Ke
q qJ a 
52

10
OLh KEG : G
dG
q

(1 dG)

(2 dG)

AJCGh eCJCG
G) G dG d S aC
q G n 
dG G dP hCG SGG j d
H (q dG GhOCG H d G
(1.dG) ? U
HfCG oj e jhOCG e g 
Mjo e IMGdG i hJ Yh ,jq QqH
Y G
gdG e j AGhdG qCG
q
c H qEG H fCG an W MCG c Y
(2.dG) ? dP aC
q G .dG dG
IQ qdG TG qdG Y IQdG aC
q G n 
(3. dG) ? dG ga Y Hq dG VH

(3 dG)

( 4.a dG)

( 4.b dG)

MCGh q LCG
SG SCdG : hCG H
: ddG Gq H OhJC
q G
.(qT Zj b hCG) ZQa SCc
.dG hCG SCdG ga d ac OHCG GP SGq c Qh b
.Ae qc SCdG CeCG 
(4.a .dG) QdG H e SCdG qZCG 
dG
q H fe QdG b Y q TCGh H SCdG eCG 
.aH SCdG fCG qK iNCG
g a QdG b e aH j SCG 
EGh q M dG e AG fe fe q e INCG
.(4.b .dG) b SCdG eCG
? dG e AGh dG e QdG e dG e
53

dG bQhh qG IG : fK H
: ddG Oq GGh Gq H OhJC
q G
.jJ 30 cm W GP e SdG e ( AB ) qe Ie (A1B1C1D1) U bQh dhW a I G VCG 
(A2B2C2D2) dG e
e c AL j H
(jJ AC = 20cm W)
e Heh dhd ee
MC OdG SG
q
( 5.a dG)
.( 5.a dG) (e A2B2) YVCG
.W INCG g a Id (CB ) RQdG AG Iq Hh jq OY VCG 
WCGh HCG q K fe EG IG YCG 
AG H qe dhdG a dG bQh
j CG Y UG e IG e AC
dGh dG bQd (A1B1) dG
( 5.b dG) He dhd (A2B2)
c Id (CB) RQdG AG VCG 
qCG MCa (Iq Hh jq OY) HdG Iq G
( 5.b dG)
.dhdG EG IOhe UCG qfCch hJ IG
? dP aC
q G n
G dG : dK H
: ddG Oq GGh Gq H OhJC
q G
(e RZ he Y) edCG e ZQa Y jM (c e hCG H be) J RL (IHEG hH) 5 mL S GP .jJ 20 cm dW SdG e S .jJ 30 cm e
q c W G e b .OQH Ae 54

( 6.a dG)

c SdG S SGH G dG HQCG 


.jq OQR Y M b cCG Ggh 6.a dG
.jJ dG q M EG GOQH Ae jG CeCG 
G SGH (jJ 5mL) AG e b q c SCG 
.dG q M EG
q SCG qK edCG Y
Sh e edCG Y q TCG q G jq OQdG SGH 
(6.b dG) OQdG jG Ae ITe fCG q K
.fGL
q c e dG a
? dP aC
q G n

( 6.b dG)

M e aC
q G

S Yh hCG HdG AG fGh QdG b S Y J dG LCG Y j G


q AGdG qCG H qEG fdG HdG IG
jh SG SCdG AG q d sbe Z RGJ QH j QH H j
.dhdG a IG RGJ NG Y
Qd G Jh dG e AGdG hN dG qY qJ ddG HdG NGO Ga a ,OQdG AG dG f KEG FdG dG EG QhH OY dG AG
QG e AGd V q LQNh dG NGO H RGJ NG Y q G dG
.dG fa NGdG e ehe
q CG Z dG fGL Y
SCG
G
q dG q oj V G
q H j dG LCG qc Y AGdG qj 
.'' pa ' `H dEG Qjh
.HH jh AGdG OLH j pa G
q dG 
: Me
.IOq e Jh GKCJ G
q d 
ah p aG e
G IQY r c e hCq G
n G pa ed fG
q
q c 
.G
q d ' pression atmosphrique ' fdG
55

Je q bCG

(7 dG)

MGdG HbCGh He W OhJC


q G
c eG q M NBG e
Qb Y VCG q K (7 dG)
H qCG d .G SGH eEG
.HH qEG H Y qa e dP
? dP aC
q G n

: Me
' QH Ic nf H'' KdG SH
n jo qWG j
(Les hmisphres de Magdebourg)

56

G
q dG b

11

d G
q dG q Hb
AJCGh eCJCG
Gj { jq G GdG fMCG n G IQdH OG e ?ehQdG g e 
? zG
q d (nJe hCG) ne fOH Y cj
Hh jG
q GdG G zSHdGh QqG{ GQdH OG e 
? ...990 ,1025 ,1013 b e OGYCG
MCGh q LCG
: ddG Gq H OhJC
q G
.10cm Y
q j gb ga hP bH (e b hCG) fdH qe N HhG hd J dc WqT . 25cm X10cm Sb jq qe Qh b .(scotch) e jT AGZ L . 30 cm X 20cm X 2cm OHCG (1) q N d
30 cm X 20cm X 0,5cm OHCG (2)
q N d
Y OhNCG GMEG Q
q dG e WCG 
(1) d cCG LdG V Y W
.aM e IMGh e 3cm H Yh
Y
n G OhNCG (2) dG q KCG 
bdG
H 1 dG c (1) dG Y
b q KCG q K jee MdG j
3cm
( 1.a dG)
q NGdG LGdG Y jq qG QdG
Y aW q H dPh bdG Y
q ie Y Sh j H (2) d
(1a dG) H dG d q G LGdG
57

q K bdG ga Y fd dG AZ
q eCG 
N SGH dPh ME H dEG q TCG
.(1.b dG) qG
Y He AGLCG HQCG EG WqdG bCG 
bQ SCG Y MCa dG ie
.e MGH MCG eh
( 1.c dG)
( 1.b dG)
AdG a H MG dG dG VCG 
ga ce ie Y d W j H
AdG Y dG dP q KCGh b dG
( 1.c dG) H
VCGh (1) dG W Y bdG VCG 
db d dG dG JCj H be
e Gq L jbh jq qG QdG b Sh
( 1.d dG)
.(1.d dG) ej CG hO
Ve Y CGj CG e HJCGh d g c Y M dG cdG JCG 

q bCG Y dG Jq e H jq CG H Iq bG dPh ,d q G dG
b Y Iq e qc TDq hCG: (e dG EG gdG b dG h QdG e Y)
MGh Ve q j dG W qCG MCa q G dG Ve jq qG QdG
.hCq G bG e H fOCG NBGh H YCG be H j H

( 2.b dG)

(2.a dG)

M e aC
q G
q G dG be QG SG Y
q jo
AdG c bdG q dH d
,Y q e d dG dG qCG
d q G dG q sCG j Ggh
(2.adG) AdG q J Y f YCG EG
q Y f a SCG EG cq eq CG
d q dG Ggh ,(2.bdG) AdG
: q e G
q dG qCG Y dO AdG
58

dP VfG Y f a Ho q eq CG ,G
q d JQG Y f AdG o q J
.dG
qCG SGH npKoCG Se ILCG npoSG H a fQeh GqdG J jd
.d Hb q Fja QGe G
q dG
SCG
d Hb q Fja QGe G
q dG

G
q dG d G ILCGh GMdG
qcCJCGh HCG
: dG dG dG CGbCG 
e hDj dgCG c q L e LJ djG q MdG fQa je qCG `H
Rh qc e fc qdG qCG qEG qdG jW Y HdG e AH Ohd
dG
q
Gg T dh ,q dG q FG IFG ie EG dH Ge 10.33 G JQG
a d ' db'' dG EG Y HdG dG Lj L q G
G
q
Lj IgdG d dG dG qCG qGE
FjdGh VjdG dG EG a dG
JQG VaG M db J ' qjQW''
a G
q dG OLH G dP
NQq CG HdG ie Y HH 1643 S
: j c
fCHh FdG e q c H jH OhJ
q
Ca ,qHe S eh e dW q LLR
Ma jG f
n q K FR fCG
q j CG EG fCG j F dG CG
dG e 76 cm JQG Y q G S
.( 3 dG) jG OLG Fd q G
(4 dG)

(3 dG)
59

hCq G g dHh ehQdH q G G


q dG b RL jQW NG Gg
S ie Y FdG e jJ 760 mm hj dG G
q dG SH b e
.dG
gh ,(6.adGh 4dG) FdG ehQdG U Y TQW cG YS dh
fdG dG NG a MdG ehQdG d
FSdG ehQdG Y SdG dG ' a''
Y e j
q RL gh (6.bdGh 5 dG)
e Y Lh GP AG dG e ZQa q f e
KCJ dH q jh q j bdG dG
(5 dG)
.G
q dG q J
FSdG ehQdH hCG FdG ehQdH AGS G
q dG b j UH eq CG
qG qC dPh ,b IMc ( hPa ) SHdGhCG ( mbar)QqG SG s jo
.SSCH dG b IMh g ( mm )
: dG EG LdH 
.gcPCGh G
q dG d IMh e cCG g qCG qJCG -1
.G
q dG b d G ILCG GfCG Oq MCG -2
.G
q dG d iNCG ILCGh GMh g EG qcCJCGh iNCG LGe OYH HCG 

SCG
.G
q d SG cCG dG JMh gQq Gh SHdG 
.'' mbar ' `H QqG EGh ' hPa ' `H SHdG EG ejo
.'' mm Hg ' `H dEG ejo G
q dG d iNCG IMh g FdG e qG 
ehQdGh ( 6.adG) FdG ehQdG a ,ehQdG g G
q dG b RL 
... ( 6.c dG)
q G ehQdGh (6.b dG) FSqdG

( 6.a dG)

( 6.b dG)
60

( 6.c dG)

G
q dG b

dG H HGdG

MU ITdG

MCGh q LCG
.iNCG Y IMH dG b e e MGh
q c q GehQH KH OhJC
q G
.(7 dG) QbCGh RL
q c dEG j qdG G
q dG b bdG f CGbCG 
QbCGh (e YS 6) YS Iq Y q e H dh dG f qdG H bCG 
.(7 dG)

(7 dG)
61

qMCG

996h 1013 H G
q dG b MhGJ dG q Y H UdG IdG
dHh ,FdG e dH 74h 76 Hh SHdH 996h 1013 ,QqH
.760 mmHg `pd dch 1000 hPa `pd aGG 1000 mbar GM G
q dG b hJ
dG qEa SHdG hCG QqH G
q dG b q AGS iNCG Mf e
.1 mbar = 1 hPa : qEa dHh f g qjOdG
: qCG j FdG qGh SHdH SoG n p dG fQ eq CG
760 mmHg J 1000 hPa
SCG

760 mmHg aGj eh 1000 mbar hj e gh 1000 hPaM G


q dG b
aGj e gh 1013 mbar

.jJ
OdG G
q dG hj dG S ie : e
. 760 mmHg

Je qbCG
pa=f(z) dG SdG q j
dG b QJ
q HG dG
OYH z JQG dH pa G
q
i ( z=0)U JQG
.dG S
dG SdG SH -1
: pa=f(z)
b Y JQG KCJ Oq MCG -CG
.G
q dG
qCG Y GPEG JMQ GFdG a q dG JQEG q e b Y HCG -
. pa=300hPa hj g G
q dG q e
62

Y GPEG ( Mont Everest) jaG L q b Y G


q dG b Y HCG -O
.jJ z = 9km hj YJQG qCG
HdG g qCG VaG GPEG jQW H FdG OY JQG b Y HCG -2
.jaG L q b Y CG
UG
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OY j

.gQO AGdG Ke
q H HQCG q K GQdG e dq dG YG fCG
KG
q
jdG cCG K
hRCG ScCG
UUdG
HdG cCG OMCG

QOG
adG BG
q FHc Gqde
YU
GQq S

OY j

.IQq dG q TG AKCG jdG GMG gRj


q bCG Y OGe K cPCG -1
.e Oe NGO IQq dG q eo J Y Y f dG H e Oq M -2
4

OY j

.jdG cCG H AGdG J


q dSG q j dG ILCG e de cPCG -1
.HLEG qY ? LhCG jdG cCG H AGdG J
q j a
q CG -2
84

OY j

dG
q Qh je L G hRCG cCG K cJ Gq J q j dG hG
.LfEGh fG OY f Y aG e

94 93 92 91 90 89 88 87 86 85 84 83 dG
45 38 38 34 35 28 24 27 25 21 22 20 1 je
15 19 20 22 23 26 24 32 31 42 52 48 2 je
.AGdG J
q (2)h (1) jG fe ge ie hG N e q H -1
.dP Qq H ? dG
q e q G Y Y jG e
q CG -2
? dG
q e q d fG UCG Y MJ jW e g -3
6

OY j

cd edG q G q J HG dG SdG q j
(AGdG e q oG G hRhCG q c) hRhCG
.jOh hCG T N ,q Se
je
q
YdGh dG dG Sq dG Y OYH Oq M -1
.LhCG a hRhCG cJ j dG QdG e
.VG H Y OYH
q U e qcCJh dP
q jo e bG -2

Kh SCG
dG
adG IgX
q
e Zh IOhdG IjT UC IQGH j L
q Z VQCd j d
e GAL
iNCG GRZh HdG cCG K RZ OLh EG SSCH dP Ljh
q
IgX qfEG : VQCd dG
q qdG ie IQGM EG d
q h dG
q q TCG
.q G dG e gh (adG IgX hCG) QGG SfEG
85

JQG H dG cCG K fEG qGE


q j q fEG dG AGq L e q e
Y jh q dG adG IgX jGJ
beh Yq e q Ne H GVG dP
Gh UG dG e eq dG Qh
VQCd q G dG
AGq L e dG ie JQGh fdGh
... dG qdG S qfJ
j a .Lq dG G SG e q H
q q dG Y Lq dG q NG Gq G g eCG
S IKDG GRdG GRGaEG e q G QGbE WH dhO 159 LEG 1997 jO 11
H IOhOG GRdG g H q G hq dG edGh QGG SfEG Y
.2012 h 2008 S H e 5%

SCG

.
e SG -1
q oe Z RZ HdG cCG K CG j e dG
q
? G
q HdG cCG K RZ RGaEG GaEG qj GPe -2
? IgdG g bJ IQH dG T fG d qj dG e -3

H q LCG
HdG cCG H T NG
.Qa QqH SCc e T VCG 
a T
q Qo CG q K qN dG EG SCdG CeCG 
K j TdGh
q G o LGJ .be GTW
q G
.a dG
q GMG j dG HdG cCG

jhH SCG
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86

dGh G
G
dG

ee S GP GhCG

MCG e GcCGh ShDc

YGdG Y e GG SG qoj e

dG jRGe e eCG

? dG g eh G g e
? Gh IOq G q c H bdG g e
? jRGG J
q GPh GG g e
87

16
17





16
G jJ

AJCGh eCJCG
q dG Y IOjR Ic iNCGh IU ATCG iJ dG j q Y AJCGh M eq CJCG
.dGh dH H
MCGh q LCG
.FS
q CG j jM Sh SCc VCG 
.IOhe q b a VCGh Ae SCdG CeCG 
dG AG q c a SCG CG hMCG q K aCGh q dG NCG q K MCG e
q SCG 
.SCdG e W

.V

SCG
.AdG e GM j Oe L
q c
JdG H d ejo h L qj dG AdG
q
o j QGe g G 

d Hb QGe G
AJCGh eCJCG
GPeh (VdG IQhQb) YVdG
Y G jQdG dP j GPe 
q
? bQCG J J
88

jRJh S q fdG cdG Y j eY 


q bQ b OGq dG e
q jo Qhq dG dH G
.( m3 ) q oG H Oq M
? OGq dG j GPe
? bQCG J J GPe
Hh o dGh jQG dG e j dG Y
n oJ 
... 1,5L ;75cL ; 50cL ; 1L : Y c a GhCG
? HdG J J GPe .ITe Y J hCG
Cj ,dG e IU q c AGT hJ eY GP
j q K Qq e Q SGH gJ EG FdG
? q dG
MCGh q LCG
CGbCG .Qq e Q ZaCG q K ,Ae gDeCGh e ' 20mL ' IQY Y c q b LCG
. 20mL dH fQbCGh Ad dG dG gGe q SG dG LQdG b
SCG
.d Hb QGe G 
: g SG cCG G b GMh 
. m3 eQh q eo G .IOY GRdGh FGd dH L eQh dG ( 1 L = 1000mL : qe dG e qdG j)
.mL eQh qG q
.SSCG G FGdG q c MCG H SJ dBG Qq oG QG 
AfEd dG (G hCG) FdG IOG e idG q dG M g AfEG Sn 
.jj CG

89

MCGh q LCG
jH fq 1L
e A e S IQhQ b C eCG
AfEG iG
q c SCG q K e Sq dG
MCG e
q SCGh1dm3 S dG q eo
SCG
.1dm3 M Oj IOq G e 1L M
Je q bCG
. 33cL IQY RZ he Y Y c
?(cm3) q e dG H dOJ dG dG g eh ,jq OdG dG J q GPe

Qq oG QG SGH FGdG MCG b


MCGh q LCG
QNCG Qq G QG SGH FGdG MCG b Y q C 
.AG e q d 47mL G e
FdG
q UCGV= 47mL G GP AG e q dG J Ab 
dh 47mLie H q M100mL Sn P Qq e Q
T NCG QG AG Od dG dG qCG MCG
j dG qCG
o Y GPEG
q UCG HoG IQdG Y eSG r SdG e
q Ca ,q dg
? dG dG IYb ie J CG
Qq e Q SH q K 250mL S Qq e Q SH dh HdG f YCG 
.50mL S
.qOCGh REG jQCG SdG EG q JCGh H a KdG SdG QbCG 
90

SCG
IYb i HG LQdG bQ jH Qq eo Q VG FdG
q M Sjo 
.Fd dG dG
P Qq e Q SG jo FdG e q e bOh je H d 
. Sn UCG
Je q bCG
? G Qq oJ GP 
K VG q J . 1mL M AGhH jG M dG eCG AGhq dG Uh 
.10mL S ddGh 5mL S fdG , 2mL S hCG
? dSG
q jo
q CG

dG
q LCG MCG b
AJCGh eq CJCG
MCG qCG f SdG jdHh VjdG IOe SQO e EG LdH
,W) gOHCG SH SJ CG dG q SdG TCG GP dG LCG
c GPEG dP EG dG e dh .Fe M IYb Jh (...T ,VY
? H H q j dG
q G
MCGh q LCG
a=2cm
. V

b q eo T YCGh dG e b LCG 
V=8cm3 dG b M b OMCG V=a3 IYdG H
q
M GP AG e qc 50mL Sn Qq oe Q qUCG 
q oG dG b H NOCG K e V1=30mL
gGe q j dG LQd V2 dG CGbCG q K QG
.QG Ad dG dG
91

QbCGh V2h V1 SH dG d V G bCG 


.8cm2dH Y M dG dG
YCG qK T qZCGh QG e dG b NCG 
dG Wb M iNCG Iq e bCGh HdG f
.HS Y M dG dH fQbCGh
AGLCG Iq Y EG dG J H HdG f BG YCG 
MCG H fQbCGh AGLCG Y M bCGh
.HdG
q

SCG
EG V1 e Ad dG dG ie qJ SGH U V G b 
.a G SfG KG Qq e Q V2
V= V2 V1

.F H hCG T q J Y U L M q j 
Je q bCG
bC
n G CG oOQCGh 50 mL S K Qq e Qh 25 mL S Qq e Q
q d c e GPEG 
? f
q OCG Y MCG d QNCG Q
q CG ,Ib e M
EG 22 LQdG e 25 mL S QG AG ie JQG e GPEG G M b g e 
? 23 LQdG

92

17

dG

dG jJ
AJCGh eCJCG
a ZG YdG q c H LM jd FdG j AGTh H qY qc 
edG Y j e dZ adG qCG qEG G G j fMCG dP Ge
? GZdG j GPa .GG SH dPh GZdH
3320 kg = dMh 3380 kg = ZQa HdG rpK : JQdG e
q c J GPe 
? MdG e jCG fG eq e q G q fdG dG Y n pco bh
? MdG Qhe eY G ( 3,5 t) edG J GPe 
q dG j ,q FGdG
q dH J dG jq dG eGdG H 
dG g U e .( )gGdG S b G eo q FGZ Uh
? GZdH
MCGh q LCG
jG e hCG d G f d Jc NBG 
Ge c Y e qc VCG .edCG e fdGh
f GG IHEG afGh
q NG RGq dG qCG MCa
? dP S e .jjG IdG
UCG d fK jq jM IH edCG Ic HCG 
MCG e
q SCG .HdG f YCGh hCG e M
.dd J Y HCGh
bdG SG qCG e q JCGh fhdEG fGe qTCG 
qc Y qjjG IdG VCG.dG
q Y q e
.SG Y J dG jq OdG dG CGbCGh
93

Ic S H INCG H dG f YCG 
idG jq jG IdG SH q K edCG
H a Y M dG qjOdG dG QbCGh
HdG M e e TJ g EG qCGh
.fqdGh hCG
SCG
d eojh dG q oj NBG Fja QG IOG e q c qc J
G Y IOjR 
q
.M hCG m JqdG H
.Mh W q H G c q J 
: d Hb q Fja QGe dG 
.( kg )`H d oejh GZdG g dG IMh 
1t = 1000 kg : ( t)
q dG GZdG Ye e 
:g GZdG AGLCG e 
1kg = 1000 g : (g) GdG 1kg = 1000000 g : (mg) GG :GG g dG b dBG 
hCG) GG - (n Ge hCG ) SdG - aHhQ Ge - hdEG GG g 
... feq dG q b - ehq dG (q dG
Je qbCG
dG GdG e Ic
q c c b YCG
dP h HdG
q QdG SG dG
.aHhQ Ge SGH
aHhQ Ge

94

SG Z dG hCG FdG
q IOq G e q c c b
AJCGh eCJCG
dG
q h FdG Y jH OG g e .jOdH G S dG J 
? feq dG b Y dG Vh Y
G fqdG qdG Y j gAGT hf dG cdG c H qdG q j eY 
GG c EG q j c ? dP j GPe .jdG QdH q j e aHhQ
? q fhdEG
MCGh q LCG
: 1 HdG
: j bCG hdEG Ge SGH (e Y) FdG
q e q d m dG d
a dG S dG A fEG VCG 
. m1 b
q SCG q K c bCGh GG
dG bCGh A fEG dG qUCG 
. m2b
q SCG q K AfEGh d q G
.m2 h m1 ae Y OYEH m dG MCG 
: Me
V e GPEG Gd bdG SG Y m d jq OdG dG ITe CGbCG CG
GG qc Y QdG AfEG Vh H dG Qq R Y
: 2 HdG
ib dM GP fGe SCG AG e d c d
: MGG f qJCGh 1kg e cCG
1L S Iqoe LM hdEG GG qc Y VCG 
.dG Qq R Y VCG q K
qN q M EG (G qe Ae) q f Ae LG
q UCG 
GG Se Y J dG jq OdG dG
q SCG q K dG
.HdG dH dG f QbCGh q G Ae SH dh HdG f YCG
95

SCG
:r fRh e q H FS IOq hCG Se Z U IO m dG d 
.Qa gh AfEd m1 dG d fRh .q G IOG q c j gh AfEd m2 dG d fRh m = m2 m1

.GMGh eGZc dG AG e d c hJ 
Je qbCG
GP bdG e qq c H rqa c d j e qeCG n YSCG rCG oOQCG
.hdEG Ge SGH 600 g hJ c
.174 g dG GG Se Y X GG qc Y QdG AfEG Vh eY
? G REG qCG qM dP H H bCG CG q Y j c GPe
UG

.G dP j dG AdG q M g Oq G G M
.e L o
q J dG IOq G q c H q oJ q Fja QGe dG
.d Hb Fja GQGe dGh G
.1dm3 M Oj IOq G e 1L M
.GMGh eGZc dG AG e d c hJ
.dG Oq GG Hh FGdG MCG d Qq G QG jo
.F H hCG T q J Y U L M q j

96









f Y YC
q G
q CG
1

OY j

: q ddG dG e U H
q c eCG * eY V
.G d IMh cm3 q e dG 
.MGh d S AfEG 1200 cm3 M Ae
q f CG 
.GMGh Gd hj 1000 mL M 
.dG d oJ IM mL G 
.Ae H Qq e Q SGH dhdG Ic M Sj 
.Ae H Qq e Q SGH qS b M Sj 
2

OY j

? AGhO q b OGq S ceo go dG IQ qdG J n pd -1


n pd .G d dG Hq Q IOY J aqTh LQq e q SH ShDc g -2
? ShDdG J J
? MCd b r dBG LQq G SCdGh IQ qdG f CG g -3
3

OY j

dG n G
q HdG edG e ja CG
.HG
? ZQa Qq G QG c g e -1
? M g e h FdG c g e -2
? FdG dP e MGh e c g e -3
97

OY j

.100 mL S Q aq J
. 33 bQ LQO db Fd
q dG dG ie q Sa ,FS QG NGO Vh
? NGO FdG
q M g e ,LQO 50 EG e QG CG Y
5

OY j

q c c J CG OQCGh 100 mL S Qq oe Qh hdEG Geh M Y jd


.240 mL hj M GP G e
.OQCG e RE q Y jW bG
6

OY j

Y Vh q .RGdG qNa ZQa kAfEG aHhQ Ge sc iMEG Y Vh -1


.jL e RGdG M 2 g h 10 g , 20 g , 50 g gQb GQY iNCG qdG
? AfEG c g e
ZQdG qdG Vh Gd jL RGJ Y dh jR AfEG NGO S -2
.1 gh 100 g , 200 g gQb GQY
? jdG c g e
7

OY j

SdG c KG fRGJ aHhQ Ge SGH fCG


.HG
? ZQdG q dG c g e -1
? IMGdG
q dG c g e -2
g e .
q c 14 CG feEH q dG qCG Y -3
?
q c 14h q dG c

98

OY j

WhG QhdGh SCdG QG Y IOjRh LQq G jq QqdG jq G GhCG e


100 mL S U e GhCG J
q c d qCG Vd .Iq oG LGh QNEG ch
? FGdG q c MC b Bc G GhCG g f CG g -1
? S e UCG M
q CG GhCG H f CG g -2
? GMGh M qEG H J CG dG fBG g e -3
IOG e 100 mL d b
q OCG Y 100 mL S Iq G LH f GP q H
. 100 mL d QNEG ch WhG Qhq dGh SCdH fQe dPh FdG
9

OY j

VYh QeCG 8 Qb W GP ZQa b Yb OLG cCG M Y HG


dG AGdG d G G e 21% f j fCGh Y ,QeCG 3 JQGh QeCG 6
.YdG j

qJCG
fe q c 
.(e) d q UN I
.G d IMh II
.G GHCG e H III
.dG d IMh IV
.qHPH SG bG HG IQdG MU d V
OdG S SG fe Y f dG dG
n Vh EG -1
G SG QRCG
1
I
3
6
II
.Y f dG
2
III
? QhO g e -2
4

5
8

IV
V

? fCG e 
.aHhQ Ge 1670 S YNG ,aHhQ je
o dho
. 8 EG 1 e qbG hG JH a d h SG ae OQCG EG
99

Jh
q JUN
q : IOq d q FjdG G
dSEGh dG
dG AG IQhO

21
22

FdGh
dG
q
q LCG UN
q
jq RdG LCG UN
q
QfGh q dG

qH qaj QGaq Ae j

18
19
20

G e Hg

dG WG J dG J e In n
r en

dG IN q idG Gb

? ch jCGh e : idG 
?VQCG Lh Y j Ae EG VQCG WH e qaG QGdG
q AG j dG e 
? dG WG qEG LJ GPh ,InG g e 
? QX S eh dG g e 
100

FdGh dG LCG q UN 18
AJCGh eCJCG
Hb g e a , Fja M K Y dG IOLe IOq G qCG G e
e eh FdH n jo h a qd Hb g e eh ,dH n jo h Gh qd
.RdG gh d m KCH qGE n jo
?IOq d dG FjdG G H H q CG iNCG UN
g dCG dh
q
MCGh q LCG
M GP AG e q c
q UCG q K 250mL S SCc VCGh dG e b hJCG 
.hCq d m K mK SCc 150mL
qUCGh dG b e MGh fCGh 250mL S rKe QNG nHopH JBG 
r n Mh AG q ch dG b nT QbCG q K ,SCdG IOLG AG q c dG
.SCdG Y fc e e
SCG q K (e qSq b) SG dG LCG e Y s e UCG 
! q e T G AYEG hMCGh L
100mL S ShDc KK LCG 
qdG
q e hCG CeCGh
Y ddGh qaL eQ fdGh
Y
eQ
S
IM Y qc ZaCG qK ,JH
JH

q SCGh100mL S q Wh QGhO
.MCG e
SCG
.UN

l M Se U
q
l Th UN
q
o L
q d 
q dh ,UN
l M SG Z dG LCG hCG FdG IOq G e q q c
q
q d 
.jj dG AfEG nT k FGO qJ M UN
m T
q
q CH qJ
: Me
.SG dG
SG Z dG IOq G q M e q M
t G UH
q
q c q J
101

Je qbCG

: Se Z U LCGh Se U LCG EG ddG dG Oq GG q UCG 


IOGH ,bO ,Ie ,IMGh
q co ,SdG e q q c ,
q odG e Sq e Y
.G e H ,G IQf ,dhW ,jG
? GP ? 500mL S SCc AG e Gd
q UCG CG g 
MCGh q LCG
100mL S

H qQqH jM
q Wh bQhO
100mL S

250mL S SCc

Ae IA

Ie

Ae

1 T
N
bdG

Sc

2 T

3 T

1 HdG

q Wh bQhO a VCGh j
k M
o LCG 
250mL S SCc QhdG aCG CG hMCG 
.MCG e qSCGh kAe kIA
2 HdG
AG q q c J q M fCG .Ak e a
q UCGh j
k M
o LCG 
AG S e e Ie q bCG q K QGSG dM
Iq Y qdG f Qq cCGh 1.dG c Z hO
.Iq e
q c NBG Y
n Gq e
.gOGeG Y IG k FGO ej AG qCG MCG
? cGq dG AG U
o T GkPEG g a
N qCG MCG ,cGQ Ae b T U UQ ZCG 
.j q K LQCj bdG
q
V LCGh jhGdG Fb e Sc
k AG S e q bCG 
bCG q K a J CG hO AG U eJ IdG
2.dG g c bdG
q N e IdG dG
.fG dG Y j bdG
q N qCG MCa
c jr G deEG H dh H dG f YCG 
.kHS M Y MCG e QbCGh .3.dG
AG S ne GkPEG g eh ? bdG N e SG e
? cGq dG
SCG

a ,jj AfEG
r J rGE w n e d d qC FS qfCH FdG Oq GG UJ 
.S dM
.kqaCGh k n qe k U (cGQ hCG) cS FS qc qj 
102

jq RdG LCG q UN 19
jq RdG Oq GG q UN
AJCGh eCJCG
? G G hCG JdG RZ q J EG q dH qdG q feEG aC
q G n
MCGh q LCG
.gb FGO q j AG qCG MCa dG GhCG AG e b
q UCG 
VCG q K i
q eo QH q SCGh
q eo RZ H bQhO NBG 
Qh
.HG dG c NBG QhO ga db ga
iq oe
ALQCG
q c Z RdG qCG MCG H QdG SCG
? dP aC
q G .bQhq dG
SCG
f Gd .d G AdG ALQCG qc J qfEG ,UN
M hCG T GRd d
q
.QfEd Hb GRdG qGE
MCGh q LCG
.AGg iNCGh Ae gGMCG CeCGh LCG 
G Y VCGh UEH Ae IAG G ga q SCG 
.eY e hCG G J feEG e q JCGh G Qb
IOjR .AGg IAG G SH dh HdG f YCG
dG c d G JCG fK Me h dP Y 
.MCG e qSCGh ,HG
SCG

dG qjRZ Os G jhG GAdG MCG qJ ,FdG


q OGG Y Y 
.fEd Hb GRdG qEG f Gd
103

.s UCG n M Rd hG AdG La dG p ao qc RdG fG hj 


.fEd Hb RdG qEG f q dHh

UEH RZ
MCGh q LCG

: q b JdG RZ e q c Y C
q G d
,Ae dG e cCG DeCGh jM LCG 
,jG Ae fCG q K Z MCGh Ae dG CeCG 
K jG Ae NOCGh fdG a e JdG RZ IQhQH G fCG eCG 
q dG aCG AG S f J ba Igh ,b q H j RdG LCG
.ga f fCG a L
q hCGh
q bT Vh gh
.qjQJ AG ie j H qdG NGO YJ RdG ba gTCG 
q K q dG ZCGh IQhQdG e RdG q J HCG ,HG q dG Y MCG eY 
.AG e LNCG
: Me
.jdG H HdG cCG Kh cCG e iNCG GRZ Y CG CG
SCG

.AG NBG EG AfEG e CG ,UEH GRdG H f jo


Je qbCG

p nCG
.H bCGh HdG UCG :AG q b Y Y M dG RdG q c b
UG
.UN
q
lTh UN
q
lM Se mU
o m L qd 
.UN

q
l T d d dh UN M FdG
q OGd 
.qaCGh qe T cGq dG FdG rU
n qJ 
fEGh Qfd s HH jq RdG Oq GG q J ,FdG
q OGG Y Y 
.fEd qdHh
.UEH GRdG H 
104

QfGh q dG

20
dG AG q
AJCGh eCJCG

n q Yo e GPEG dG H Vh OH
n jo GP LqdG AG jJ f eY 
? QqdG e IQhQb
? dP aC
q G npH .AG q j IOhdG IjT AdG d 
q c e GPEG IAGQq dG hCG aGdG QqH Y QG e jDhQ OQdG AdG J GP 
? IQq dG hCG dG Y
MCGh q LCG
p OoCG ,( sG AG e e 5 mL) q dG AG e q q c QNG fCG SCG 
Ae N
.cGh GQG fCG
,bdG f h (eh K) Ou oe N fCG VCG 
.0 AG IQGM LQO b CGbCGh np G qTCG , t0 = 0 dG
c bO
q c JQGM LQO
q SCGh QGSH AG q MCG 
CGj eYh ,jdG AKCG AG Y Lj dG dG e q JCG
UGhCG qdh GG SG Y qcCG q dG AG

q c q H KK hCG r bO q M EG IQGG LQO J


.fCG AG q c
Ge SGH Gh d dLEG dG bCG q K Ou G e QNEG fCG NCG 
AG c b SCG GGh QGGh fCG oc e qc nb ah ,hdCG
.q dG b AG H fQbCGh q G
105

= f(t) dG

SdG CG 
qHCGh jqe bQh Y
q MGe
q c Y
.AG

SCG
.Gk q FjdG dG
Gg q j : IOhdG KCH K EG AG j
q
q
. 0C EG JQGM LQO J eY dG AG q j
J q J dd . 0C `pd jhe Jh q dG AG IQGM LQO q J q q dG AKCG
.dG AG q IQGM LQO dG
AG Ljh q LQO e cCG JQGM LQO
r en GOe FdG dM Y AG Lj
.q LQO e
q bCG JQGM LQO fc GPEG a dG
q dM Y
.dGh
FdG dM Y AG Lj q dG AKCG
q
.q dG AG c q J








dG AG q
MCGh q LCG
q YCGh JMe qc qSCG ,de A q dG AG V
q oe dh hCG HdG YCG 
. t edG e IQGG LQO QJ
q q j hL
.q dG Y dG AG IQGM LQO Qd
q dG SdG CG 
.q dG AG q Y Y G
H dG SdG QbCG 
q
106

SCG
.H dG EG JQGM LQO J eY q qdG dG AG CGj 
.q Y k HK dG AG IQGM LQO nJ q dG AG Y Y 

dG AG QfG
AJCGh qeCJCG
.G hj QdG h ,AG q j IOhdG IjT AdG d 
? dP aC
q G
.jdG j dG G bQ Y G T
q n oj IOQdG WG H 
? dP e jdG e
MCGh q LCG
.Gh dG e K H QNG fCG NBG 
b CGbCGh np G qTCG ,Ja Ae fCG VCG , t0 = 0 dG ,bdG f 
. b AG Vho dG QGG Y AG IQGM LQO
107


q SCGh fCG dG IQG LQdG Qq J HJCG 
dG Y Lj dG dG
q SCG c bO
q c b
q c qc HhP H KK hCG rbO q M EG dG AKCG
.fCG dG
c bCG q K JdG AG jM e QNEG fCG NCG 
dG QbCGh ,M b jW Y K c dG AG
.dhCq G dG H
.dG H FdG
q dM AG M SH QbCG 
= f(t) dG SdG CG 
q HCGh jqe bQh Y

q MGe
q c Y
.FS Ae EG dG

SCG

FjdG dG
Gg q j : IQGG LQO JQG KCH FS Ae EG dG j
q
q
.GQk fG
.dG QfEG LQO qfEG 0C EG JQGM LQO JJ eY dG j 
LQO dG J q J dd .0C `pd jhe Jh IQGG LQO q J QfG AKCG 
.dG AG QfG IQGM
.QfG LQO e
q bCG JQGM LQO fc GPEG a dG
q dM Y AG Lj 
.j M qCG M QfG AG c qJ 

108

dSEGh dG

21

AJCGh eCJCG
? (AGdG VH) d dG dG f
q 
? iNCG ceCG K EGh ceCG QeCG EG J
ch dG J
q
q c 
MCGh q LCG
.GQG a ZCG CG H q f Ae H bQhO NBG 
b CGbCGh np G qTCGh AG J CGHCG , t0 = 0 dG ,bdG f
.AG IQG 0 q dhCq G LQdG
b
q SCGh Qhq dG AG IQG LQdG QJ
q HJCG 
AKCG Ad dG GQdG
qSCG c bO qc
q
.AG Z e FbO H q M EG dG
,Qhq dG ga a jq QqH SCc fCG AG Z A KCG 
.SCd NGq dG fG Y qJ Ae Gb qCG MCG
? dP S e

q c EG Y TCGh J Y q dG AG IQGM LQO Qd


q = f(t) dG SdG CG
.QH EG FS e AG
q MGe

109

SCG

FS e Ad FjdG dG
dP q j : dG QH EG q dG AG j
q
q
.GJ RZ EG
.100C EG JQGM LQO J eY AG
q j 
.100C `pd jhe Jh q dG AG IQGM LQO q J e AfEG dG AKCG 
.AG Z IQGM LQO dG J q J dd
Ljh fZ LQO e qbCG JQGM LQO fc GPEG a FdG dM Y AG Lj 
.fZ LQO e cCG JQGM LQO fc GPEG a jq RdG dM Y AG
.jq RdGh FdG dM Y AG Lj dG AKCG 

hCG) dSEG FjdG dG
dP q oj : jdG FS EG dG AG QH j
q
q
.(qJ
. 100C EG JQGM LQO J eY AG qj 
.fZ IQGM LQO f g dG AG qJ IQGM LQO 

MCGh q LCG
MCG .QdG qYCG q K AG e Ib Y SCGh TdG Qh e Hq eo b bC
q G
.AG H hJ Iq e H h q j TdG Qh qCG
? dP aC
q G
SCG
: J hH Md QHo EG FS e AGd VhG AG j
q
.G
dP q jo
q J FjdG dG
q
Je qbCG
.d dG dG aC
q G

110

UG
.IOhdG KCH U dM EG FS dM e d
q g AG q 
.IQGG KCH FS dM EG U dM e d
q g dG QfG 
.QfG IQGM LQO f gh HK dG AG q IQGM LQO 
.dSEG IQGM LQO f gh HK dH dG AG J IQGM LQO 
jo dHh ,HK Z dG AG q IQGM LQO dG AG Y Y 
.Ihd GQe IQGG LQO K
.iNCG EG q Fja dM e IOq G
q Y G c q J 

111

dG AG IQhO

22

AJCGh eCJCG
iNCG hCG dM gh g dM qfEG ,VQCG Lh Y IH OLe AG qCG f
,jOhCGh QfCG ,Gh QdG FS SSCH gh ,dG JM e
... QG h fGq G ,OhdG h GdG
H H d cSG ZQh dG q TCG e d UGG
q dG ZQ
GedG e Qe 1,4 dG GP FdG AG q c qCG SGQdG KCG ,MCG
dG e jJ QG fh GQe 4 e VQCG S Y IOLGh q oG
.qJ
? e dG T dG
q qCG dh dG FG hd QGSG Gg aC
q G
qcCJCGh HCG
HdG ShQdG e dG AG M ee e cG e Y OYH
J qMCG GdG T Y hCG G AGS VdG FKh H REHh
: VQCG Y FGO GJ h IG eGO H dG IgdG

112

SCG
.Ad q dG IQhdG H FG fh VQCG 
.G Yjh AG
q j dG q TCG h AGdG 
.dG a
Gb T qj IOQH QdG q e qc 
q
: Me
.q J CG dG J
q dG Gd IOhdG jJ jCG G YCG
K hCG Ae AdG a c j CG EG HSCGh ejq CG dG qj jq dG 
.GOn Hn hCG
qod VQCG WH EG NBG AL jh e AL
q j GdG G Ae qoj eY 
.QdGh QfCGh jOhCG f e dG jh q aG dG
Je qbCG
? dG AG IQhO VQCG WH TJ dG G ge aC
q G
UG

Y fc ch Fg q H VQCG S Y GOLe AG Gj 
.dG H qj dG IQhdG H dG je e G e jJ
dG Y jq G IOG g OLh d qJ CG AG IQhd j 
.dH
q dh q d Hb dh FdG q dG Hh FdG

113

f Y YC
q G
q CG
1

OY j

.U eo
q c eCG * eY V q K ddG fdG Hc r Yp CG
.Ae dG 
. 0C EG JQGM LQO J eY q j q dG AG 
.jq RZ dM EG FS dM e AG
q g qdG 
.FS dM EG U dM e AG j
eY AG M q j 
q
.c q J Ad q FjdG dG q J eY 
.q dG AKCG dG AG IQGM q J 
.FG fh MEG VQCd eCG dG AG IQhO d 
.iNCG EG IQq b e dG AG IQhO MGe J 
2
OGq S

OY j

.dG q M EG AG e b
q f -1
?AG a QNG fCG j GPe
fCG q fh dG Y bq f -2
Mf .f q K AG NGO fh
.fCG NGO YH Nj AG qCG
? dP J
q
.gHh HdG b AG M Qb -3

114

OY j

.JQGM LQH Ad q FjdG dG H HQCG


0 C

FS Ae

15 C

qoe Ae

-20 C

OH f Ae
q dG

OY j

q c VH qJ dGh ()h () ,(CG) dq dG QdG fCG AG


q J SGQd
: RGe aHhQ Ge r qc iMEG Y YVe GhCG AGd AG e
? ( CG) HdG
q J e Y -1
? e e AfEG c d Mf CG GPe -2
AG q c hJ () AfEH IOLG AG q c -3
.() AfEH IOLG
? Y G
dG jJ J
q
q c
? H dG J
q ,QdG g Y OYH -4
5

OY j

Y GG dG SdG
q j
e q c IQGM LQO q J
.edG Qh AG

115

: q H ,SdG dP Y OYH
.f CG OjORG AG IQGM LQO fc EG -1
.ITdG bdG q K fdG bq dG AG Y Lj dG q FjdG dG -2
.iNCG EG q Fja dM e AG
q bSG dG q edG Iq G -3
.Ad q FjdG q
q dG dP SG -4
6

OY j

ja CG QfG AKCG dG IQGM q J SGQd


HG dH G H dG e dG e
TT Y jdG Se q H SHh
: dG dG SdG Y SG

? dG g q J Se ? q FjdG dG q J e Oq j IQGM LQO


q CG -1
? dG c j
jJ q eR
q
q CG -2
? dG HhP CGj
q CG -3
? e FdGh
q dG dM Y AG a LGj dG qedG Iq G g e -4

116

e b
dG
IqG

OY j

dG Ad q SSCG fGq d SQ HG dG q

q c AG Y Lj dG q FjdG dG g e -1
QH
? HQCG fGq G J e Gq N
AG
HQCG fGG H AG IQhO G H eQr oCG -2
dG FjdG q dG SG Iq e
q c q e

.NBG EG Gq N e AG q L
GHh
8

OY j

MGe q J HG IQdG
.dG AG IQhO
IQhO a q J I a Qq M
e dG AG
IQdG Y q G JdH
:dq dG dHh
-QH -Q eCG -S
- L - T -Q fCG
.j

117

Kh SCG
jG
q VQGdG
.HT eh Gh GdGh QfCG e jdG ceCG dG j
q
jH q jQJ QdG AKCG cG dG IQGG VQCG J dG J ea
AG QH qa ,eJ dG AGdG W EG e IOhdG g q h Oa ,TEG
.qT Z c G
,AGdG j dG
q ,Gq L bO Ae Gb EG jh
q
e JJh ,AGdG qeo J qfEG q M EG bO idG o
q J dG GdG gh
EG h .AH VQCG f GdG J g AGdG S GPEGh .a cM
q bC QdG
M j H q jQJ OGOJ IOhda ,fhG JQGM a T J VQCG
OYh GdG
q J IQGG LQO JQG GPEGh .WS YS OGOJh GdG
EG AG Gb d
q ,fhO a dG EG IQGG LQO fG GPEGh .aqT AGdG
.U q j Qe L
S e jdG AGda .VQCG S Y GH G W a
dG
q
q eq CG
.AG QH e GQGe eM G
q Jjh fRh
q a ,JQGM KCH
q jo VQCG
W jW OU GPEGh .VQCG Y HG qc JQGM NdG
q AGdG Gg jh
T Y AG QH qJ Gc fG eh .JQGM fG e OHCG q FGg
Z VQCG f dG jh .HS q Jh jdG KCH J Gq L bO Gb
dG IQq G q FGdG GQq dG dch ehJ AGdG W qCG PG Gq L AH Wg qCG
q FGg W OU Ea ,dG g jdG S e GPEGh .VQCG e dEG JJ
qq dG j eYh .IOQH H eGUG Qa qd dY JQGh fK
q J SCG
GPEGh .G qfEG ,VQCG Y a M jh dG Ae Gb q J YH
.GPGPQ o G n q So bOh IU GdG fc
J
q dG q FG GdG q J dG hO e EG G IQGM LQO g Y
G IQGM LQO J eYh .K VQCG Y a d dG dG dG
H qJh q f Ic n a AG Gb qJ q a H dG hO EG
.OdG d
q q a IjdG IOhdG

SCG

dG Oq M q K ,FSCG cH dPh dG OQh dG AG IOq e CG


q c Y HG -1
.G
q CG J e
q c Y Lj dG Ad q FjdG
.dG
gcP OQh dG Ad q FjdG dG
Oq M -2
q
q
118

dG AG IQhO
Q dGh G AG H dG J
Op f hCG qoe g e qc q Jh QfCGh GdGh
dG dG) dGh q q dG gJ c HdG Y

q j Ggh (GQhCG S e AG dG dN j
.AGdH Ae QH T Y d VQCG S e AG
IdG H eG NdG AG dG GQq J J
.dG G W EG Gg AG QHh AGdG aH VQCG
OJ ,G dG e IOQH W EG QdH nq G AGdG GQq J J eY
Mh H e GdG g J .Ae Gb EG a AG QH q c
Ae Gb fe (QdG GQq P , dG M) AGdG jj dG bdG LCG
.dG J qfEa AGdG GdG g e Ic c J eYh .cCG
IjL Z qJ c J hCG
q J dG da ,dM Y dG q J
.AdG q dG n FGO kLP qoJ Ggh
EG J qM cCa cCG dG AG Gb M j ,AGdG HWQ OGORG qc
dG j gYh ,dP e cCG nr M
n
o jdG e J n p dG e LQO
.On Hn hCG K hCG e T Y VQCG IdG S EG AdG e AG Gb J M
. IQGG LQO Y j Ggh
dG qdG e qeh FGO S g dG AG IQhO CG dG g e
G aZ dch ,WH h VQCG IdG S Y AG j q J
.VQCG Id dH pLGJ ceCG n J dHh
Gk jL Ak e d CG J q dh AG
n qJ CG ,dG AG IQhd
CG Ad dh l HK oqch n dG e on oj h n rj WH Aa .kqaVEG
.NB e eh iNCG EG dM e j
q
q H GdG T Y q HdG SQG e PNCe f

SCG

.dG AG IQhO MGe


q c dG e
r SG -1
dGh
AG M
q
q c a o co J dG AG IQhO q q J SQ
r bG -2
.IQcG IQhq dG J H dG KhM eh qFjdG

jhH SCG
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119

WedG

1
fG
FHdG QqdG

120

fG
q YUGh q dG fG
dG
G b

23
24
25

YdG
q ec 500 b EG YS J We Qb

? hO jq jM qS Y WG QdG S aC
q G
IH ae Y gQchC ILG QdG H hCG LGdG G j c 
? GedG BH QJ

121

q YUGh q dG fG 23
dM e fG
?JSG g e ? G hCG ? SQG ? dG ? M e fe iQCG jCG
? iNCG An TCGh e H q eCG c
? fd iNCG SG Y qdJ (M e CSCG hCG)
n FKh Y oHCG
M e
q SCGh H b e UCG : MCGh TCG f dCG
.
q e qJh

q dG fG
AJCGh eCJCG
IOGH J c AJCGh HG IQdG EG fCG
.G e dG Gg S Y jG

MCGh q LCG
q of c ? dG IOLG QMCG GfCG ZCG e AdG f MCG g
? G e dG dP H j e
? dG H q J iNCG Ao TCG LJ g
SCG
J Yn oJ ,jG e IdG np dG dG QMCG e f dG Lj
.npfe hCG We GQMCG QMCG
JG M : e
122

: Me
AGH IQG cJ hCG jdG e
n ceCH jG Le WG M
.JG f e jG eH aG VQCG W
LCG hCG We LCG qc a UG
H q J LCG Iq Y dM e
q
.opfen hCG n eo

q YUEG fG
MCGh eCJCG
fG e Y HG IQdG Y gTCG
.G
eh W g e H e Oq MCG CG SCG g
? fEG U e g
SCG
.q YUG fe g dG fG Y IOjR 
: IOq e VGZC TCG YUG fG qoJ 
.... OGL IhM ,U b
: Me
jc SSCG n OG ke mb e n cCG e pfG U e fEG
n qnJ
.iNCG OG e je hCG (PdG hCG) dG

IOq Gh fG
MCGh q LCG
K ,IQdG Y gGQCG qdG jq OG ATCG eq CJCG
.dhdG Y e LCG CG hMCG
e f
q c e e q bCG eY MCG GPe
? ATCG J
123

: M e M p coCG q K dG hG SQ YCG 
G Hj Oq Ge

G Hj Oq Ge

............................ ............................ ............................ -

............................ ............................ ............................ -

SCG
.gZ hO jdGh ndG ,jc Ou GG H opfG p nJ
MCGh q LCG
,jf b ,bCG : M e ATCG LCG 
e e qc u bCG q K ,..... rTp
G L e q dG GQq e p G
,eeCG fG e ,a e) G
(... G fG e
p
? G e Yj dG ATCG g e
H S e e JMe HJ g
? iNCG
. LGM q LCG ? H G j eY YdG j g
SCG
LhG OG e gZh jc q dG OG H W e pfnG noJ 
.Pdc
p
eY dZ j YdG Gg CG dG e ,OG J e YJ nfnG qEG f 
.j LM AGQh p G j
: jJ
LhG hCG q dG OG H e Ho Y YdG Y Ql Ob L
t c pe q j
124

Je q bCG
: G j g
? edCG IOGH ? q dG jG e b ? dG
q e S -

UG
jc OG H e H Y Y j m L
s c k pe u of
.dGh dHdGh
.W fe a q We GQMCG dG
mq YU VGZC
TCG k YUG npfe BG
n
o eG poJ
.IOu e

125





24

dG

KCdH dG
MCGh q LCG

qdG jG : 1 H
? p H n G jG IOGH Y q JCG 
.gTCG e UCGh jG IOGH e We b u bCG 
JdG M HG dG eSG Q dH bCG 
: dEG QG
ae Yh IOGdG e IU ec a pe qYCG : hCq G .cq j
.H dG jG e b VYCG : fK .np G p HoCG : dK dG jG : 2 H
.Pa H qdG jG b jH bCG 
.HdG HdG MGe H boCG 

SCG

hO n NBG pe QhL
n e GPEG pe EG PdG e hCG u dG jG e b j
q
.KCdH nn r qfEG a ,ee
n
.q M hCG q bh no r qEG a , p G Y OHEG Y u dG jG o r hj 
no qEG a e hj q dh uKDG G Y OHEG Y PdG j 
.FGO PdG
.YUG e Y PdG e f FGdG H 

126

MH dG
MCGh q LCG

5 cm

P dG dG e U 6 hCG 5 bCG 
eb
q CGh (LGQq O eGa M e NBG)
.e IHEG T
e IHEG J b SCG H
q MCG 
Iq Y dP GQq e qJEG H ad aW
jG IOG H I HEG ZCG q K Gq e
.MCG e
q SCGh

SCG
H W h fG e MH iNCG OG Hh PdG j 
.Y gOHEG
.YUG fe Y G e q iNCG jW g MH dG 
UG
Y n j q d ,pe Qphj eY KCdH q dG jG on rn j 
.q M hCG q bh n qEG f .uKDG p G Y OHEG
Y n v qc j h e Qhj eY jCG KCdH PdG j 
.FGO qEG f .uKDG p G Y OHEG
.OHEG n r H o ne hJ h mpe e MH PdG o n en p jo 

127

G b

25

G WG KCdG cGe
AJCGh eq CJCG
G IOLG fG e gZh G IHEGh G dG W eCJCG
(... dG
q ,dG) H q j e q YCGh UdG IHEG dP
MCGh q LCG
Y FGLCG e AL
q CG : LNCG q K jG IOGH e ec IHEG ZCG 
? q dG H dP q g ? IOGdG
.dG
q EG j e qc W CG HEG e Y qdH MCG 
.MH e H 6 cm dW jq Pa S e Hq dG YCG 
SCG
fe Y hCG jG IOGH Y WG KCdG gQGH q j aW jq OdG fd
.G b e MGh c q j .bCG EG iNCG

fG bCG GfCG
AJCGh eq CJCG
hCG d G Y QOb e
q c g ? fH G b EG en jo GP
? d
MCGh q LCG
j H dG fG Y q dH q JCG
EG qj dG e MGh q c W Y
g .q dG Sq dG e e q LCG ,dG
eY VCG dc j EG ? dG f d
.dG EG q G dG Y dG dH
128

SCG
Q q SG K ce ie Y e b N W b qY GPEG 
: Gd ,L - T G cM jf
EG o G G b q j h dG
n dG dG EG o G G b q j
.HG ndG G
.NBG Y j H MGh
q c
q jo G b H jd 

GC q G G H
AJCGh eq CJCG
? H Y e r n b a g 
? MGh b P e Y G g 
MCGh q LCG
S U dG G IHEG NBG 
.dG b Y eY VCGh
.Wb HqH f EG dP H bCG
jG IOGH IM Y T c ZCG 
? MCG GPe .LNCG q K
GPe .T
q c e HqdH dG Oq LCG 
CG fe 4 q K 2 Y
q g ? MCG
? Z jPa b 4 q K 2

q G bCG f HdH Oq MCG 


M SQCGh fc GPEG Y
.F b q UCG IHEG be
SCG
.H Y b a qfCG CGq oG G H J 
c
q c jo M b GP ee e QhH qj G e AL
q c
. b dG
129

fG H YdG
AJCGh eq CJCG
? dG
q f e NBG e (oe b) e e Yj c 
? NBH MGdG j q M TCG e T
q CH gMCG jJ j g 
? c ? H aJ hCG P hM q J g 
? TCG Y hCG ibCG H Yq dG j e 
? GU Y QG
QGG cQG ne pe YCG CG g 
q

MCGh q LCG
e fd SCG hCG (e h O) r G W e W
q c Y eY VCG 
.gq dG
hG GDdG Y HLEd c a r e SG CG g AJCGh q LCG 
? b H QGG
.FeR j e e QbCGh q e qaCG
edG f Vh H jr NBG e YJ jYCGh dK e e HdG YCG 
? dG IYdG ae e dP q g ? aW Y
? eRL H G GDdG Y HLEd NBG M Y HCG 
SCG
We b CG Y H Y qKD J We ib j We b
q c
.IYdG M dPh aJ EG qeGE h P EG qeGE LJ WG YdG qc.K
b Pjh q dG f e b aj
130

f Y YC
q G
q CG
1

OY j

H
q c eCG * eY VH dPh WG e n dG fdG ddG FdG e s J
.U
qfJ qjf b
q CG G j 
KCdH SdG e b j 
PdG e IHEG Y U 
MH j h KCdH PdG j 
.dG e Nh WN IHEH IHEG YU 
.FGO qdG jG h bh dG jG 
2

OY j

: dG GDdG Y HLEG b qJh q L


: G j g
? d hCG IQd Sc jT 
? jG CGU 
? dG UUQ 
3

OY j

: SG dH a IOLG ZGdG p cnCG q K g c GG q dG Hc r YnCG


G ,Oq GG e .............`dGh ,..............`dG ,............ Oq GG fG
dG j dG
q dG ,....... bh .......... b d b hP
............. b e ajh NBG .............
........... G q M b NCj e dH....... Oq Ge Z
131

OY j

eCG eR UH fH Va UH d J qdG G
q U e qcCq dG q OGQCG
? GP ? U q H b e qCG iJ g .fQG b
5

OY j

qd dH (B)h ( B)hCq d dH (A)h ( A) : b e


q d fe KK JRM
.dqd dH (C)h ( C)h
: ' j''h ' aj'' dG e Sj q dG hG CG
C

aj

(2)

(1)

Y gj e e H e (2)h (1) jQe Hq b -1


.HPj qfCG Ma (CG) Sq dG
: qb H AWN g e qdqdG G qH
. GQG 
. Z GQG 
. Z (2)h (1) 
. Z (1)h (2) 

(1)

Se g e e H e jQG BG q f -2
.Gaj g GPEa .()
.q b H U g e HdG
q G q H

(CG)

(2)
()

OY j

132

OY j

fG Yh jq jG LCG Y GH
q dG dG
q Vh IHEG NCJ
q f .dG EG q G HG SdG
hCG b G IHEG J e
q VdG M qdG jG e b
.eSG
H q Vh
q c q Hh Sq dG fG
.G IHEG NCJ dG jG qJG
8

(1T)

OY j

.b e MGh qd fGSG e JRM


hCG IdG
q eG e GOY b
q c Y Vh
a H e G Hq b .(1T) HHq dG
.(2T) eG adG Y IOLG eG
? MGh e Y
q g
? HLEG TG ? b e d c H HLEG fc GPEG

(2T)

133

Kh SCG
eGdG Y WG
OG b SOdG dG) hb e jGhdG H M WG IgX rp ocG
.WG QMCG jW Y (jJ

n f qCG IYt dG MCG M M jfe q oJ ffj mIn e dP q qfEG jo


.G H LGG G e f Y eY IH
q j p n r n G FGM
dP HGdG e IgdG J fch
dG GG e d MhCG e bdG
zn G G{ k n e e n dG An dG
aj c dGh QdG YCG IOLG
qCG hQq j G f c Pr EG , eG dG oIQ
q dG

t c e
r p o bG e HbG e GPEG n cGe
ojh sn a
q jM g e tch gee
.Y
r en
t c
hb Iq Y in e Yh eGdG pn dG IQ
q dG
n SG H x M EG j
u e Gg
zWN{ jh
jG
q
n SG q j Gfc r a ,pcGe p r U mIja jd
.H m pH
n r H ,pcn G Ap GLCG n L

SCG
IgX SG Y GQOb j fG qCG Y
e SG -1
q j e dG
q
.WG
? cGe U jG j eGdG dG IQ
q dG c GP -2

134

jdG
YdG fG
q
l We
d mq f nOe Iq Y cG e OG YU o K
l UN
q
q n dG
n q
hCG Pn dG WG JUH J OG e mLeCG pIq Yh dH dc l eq g
op oj WG e UCG oYn J nOe e kje qCG onMGh .s dG dHdG
.lFGO l neh pfG e
l YJ d nj rG
: JBc o cJh fJ o SG m je e Ye ke H n G pfG
t L
o
.Sf 3%h dHc 24% ,f 14% ,jM 51%
dG
r n X bh jjG IOq e e l Ye pfG e iNCG GfCG H
o
p
pIH
noJ .pIgq dG pn oJh pq Nh We
q qJ a ,VG dG e dG

s CG gDhYG p mq aN ms e IOq m h x We e e jjG opfe


.ptn
n J b a mZe m T

SCG
.HLEG qY ? q We UN OG
q d g -1
? IMGh q f IOq e e e
g e q YUG fG e g g -2
q
.q YUG fd Je cPCG -3

135

AHdG
q FHdG IQGdG
gGh JGKCJ :FHdG Qq dG
FHdG Qq dG Iq T
FHdG Qq dG Iq T b
dH IQGO FHdG QqdG Iq T qUN

26
27
28
29
30

qdG FGVCH fJ j IQU

? zGQf jG d dM{
q dG fGdG J
q c qj dG e 
? AHc hH q edG JM J c 
136

q FHdG IQGdG

26
M e AHdG
MCGh eCJCG

S eCG Y HCGh ... G ,QdG


q ,G M e fCG 
.q edG IG AHdG
.AHdH qJ dG ILCd eCG q LCG
IQGOEG ,dG) e
q c AHdG QhO g e 
? (... q eo
e a J e M ILCG q UCG 
.f
SCG
q edG JM AHdG f
dG ,IQfEG : e VGZCG Iq d
qdG
q JCG ,cq G J
... q SdGh

AHdG SG q c
MCGh q LCG
. qe qL OH e J hMCG 
.G TG Y cq dG SQCG 
e r S q K (CG) Sf S aVEG H Sq dGh HdG o YCG 
() rTq ch SqdG
137

? () Sq dG e Sh q fGSG qaL GOY e


r G f J hMCG 

()

()

(CG)

SCG
p Y wc ,eJ qfG DhGLCG fc GPEG G oj 
OdG naW e ,IM
.
q G

q G OdG naH IM Y
q c dUe q fG DhGLCG fc GPEG G jo 
.SdG e SCH

q oGh qdoG
AJCGh eq CJCG
g G IQfEH fG dG HdG
q QdG 
?
q L OY Y j cJ Lj
djEG Oq q G J g 
?NBG
? Gh
q G OdG H dG g e
SCG
.FHc qde G OdG 
.qd UhCG GPEG qEG FHc RL J 
G qEG a qdG H Ohj
q dG AHdG j q d AHdG jo G 
.q eo
138

q JCGh HCG
.H dG
q LhCG M q L
o CGh q FHdG GqdoG e GfCG Y HCG
.HJ LhCG M q LCGh qG e GfCG Y HCG

q e




Gqdeo

? j q M SG H HQ j qde
q c f e c 
? qjOY H j qM SG qdH HQ j qe qc f e c 
SCG
e qc UhCG GPEG qEG FHc q e j .b q e
q dh b qde
q d 
.qdG f e MGh H n b
H q J q FH dG GqdG H 
(-)h (+) neH dZ H q f
.dH hCG
g (+) eY j dG dG qEG f 
.ddG
q dG g (-) eY j dG dG qGE h LG dG

q FHdG IQGq dG jJ
AJCGh eq CJCG
.b e SG dG FHdG G qjhj Iqoe SGH qJCG 
? q LQG AGLCH k Ue
q NGq dG AGLCG SQCG c 
n
? q LLdG HoG QhO g e 
139

MCGh q LCG
qCG g .q N Tq c e QHh aH G dG Y Lq dG a hMCG 
? U o SQ e

eM
G

j q M cq dG AGLCG q KCGh eSG Hq dG CG 


.G
dG e .A j q M G dd
q a hMCG 
? eG NGO M
dd Z

.G r n bh b H Sq dG f q HCGh eG AGLCG L Gq L eq CJCG 


.HdG
q cqdG G qJCG CG hMCG ? AHdG q jCG e ? G oj e
SCG
.H q fe SCH Ue e r So e G qcj 
.jo eY q J LQG AGdGh dG
q H Lq dG
o jn 
Y q K G OdG r n H q fe Tq H UG q fG SCG Y AHdG q o 
dUe q fe S qjo
q dG .ed ddG r p dH UG G So
.FHdG IQGq dG q of
IQGO Se FHc qd Ue j GPEG j CG FHc q o jo 
.e q FHc

RGdGh bGq dG
AJCGh eq CJCG
WGdG e PqdG H qeCJCG 
.q FHdG
g e ? Wb c j c 
? q FHc IQGO QhO
140

MCGh q LCG
p rfCG 
Y gTCG e e U d Y cdG
? GP ? G j g .IQdG
q
() (CG)
(CG) jQG H q FH dG IQGq dG Z hMCG 
,M b) OGe e b e ,()h
GPEG qSCGh (... ,Qh ,Pa S ,Of b
. CG j G c
QdG e qd
.
q G To
q G QdG e qd e HdG YCG 
TG
Z H qdG f e HdG YCG q K
de Ae
.dG AG
.dRdG AGLCGh AHd bqdG AGLCG Oq MCG 
.L e Wb e SCG ? HdG
q cq d U e Wb aVEG Y QbCG g
.qTCGh JQJ
q e CG
SCG
OGe e fe
L GQG e e GPEG ()h (CG) H IdG Y AHdG q 
q
.LCG qH AHdG q h qe
AHdG Qhe dG LCGh bGq dG q oJ AHdG Qh J dG LCG qGE 
.RGdG q oJ
.a hCG q FHdG IQGdG Z qdG Xh IQGq dG UY e Y WdG 
Je q bCG
: HdG QdG M e M qdG hG cCG 
RGdG
bGdG
............................... -1
............................... -1
............................... -2
............................... -2
............................... -3
............................... -3
............................... -4
............................... -4
141

q FHd q fdG SdGh RedG


AJCGh qeCJCG
.H hdGh dG
q LhCG q JCGh dGG Sq dG EG fCG 

Sq dG J GP .q FHdG GQGq dG SQ J ReQ e q j e q LCG 


? (2) hCG (1) dG e bGdG jq dG Y a (3) dG Y
SCG
H a .qY Y qoeh qoe qfH eSQh GReQ SGh qdG j 
.AHdG Ge eG H OoJ IM
q n eo d
: Sq dG oG YGdGh Req dG d eCG g 
edG
FHdG dG
OdG f e FHdG qdoG
WdG
hCG

L
q CoG dG hP G
UG dG
FHc S hO SQ S WJ
FHc S e SQ S WJ
142

jq PHdG cGdG
MCGh q LCG
f qFHc He KK J c 
? MGh L OHh bdG
GQGq dG L HdG
q Req dG eh qfH SQCG 
.q dGh REG EG QhG b G
L UG
SCd OdG f SCG g
q
SCG OY M qjYJ qfCG ? GQGq dG
.G
.JMe q LCG ? dG
q H qc HG J g
SCG
dG IQGdG g Uo
q G SCG e OY fOCH oJ dG IMdG q FHdG IQGq dG 
Ue cdG e Y
q c .gUY OY G SCG OY a hj
IQGO cq dG e q dG Gg j
q .gGS hO IQGq dG j Yh j H
.(q dH hCG) q J
e cCH Ue UdG H r nb e b qc qCG iNCG cdG qc 
IQGq dG qEG fh RGq dH cJ : cq dG e q dG Gg q j .MGh Y
.Yq e
.hOe cq dG qEG gY fh IQGq dG f cdG e Yq dG L 

hOe cJ

RGdH cJ

143

dH cJ

.dH FHdG GQGdG qEG f d fCG e j e


q c : Me

J
MCGh eq CJCG
.LGQq H IOLG qFHdG AGLCG Y q JCG 
? q eh qde e Lh c
? LGQq dG qde j c
AdG hCG eeCG G H Uj dG SCG OY g e
? IQGq dG oJ c ? q W dP LCG g ? qdq d G
.LGQq dH UG FHdG cd qfH SQ CG 
hCG G OY e d LGQq O qde SCG c
? G
.M e CSCGh HCG ? GG f Y AHdH I IQq dG J CG g
SCG
EG MGh S Y AHdG j IFdG hCG aG hCG IQq dG c LGQq dG 
fh .qdG dG jd G dG jh dG e bfG RL
q c
.Hq dG Jh SCG f fqah b dH
.ILCG L H G dG g LGQq dG hCG IQq d G dG 

IQG IQGq dG
MCGh q LCG
.IQdG
q Y gTCG e e HdG CG 
e eJ Sf S e b VCG G j eY 
.b CG OdG r n
n U
.Sq dG d q dHh d q dH MCG e
q SCG 
? MCG GPe ? Iq oe H OdG S Y qc VCG 
.j e
q SCG q K Sq dG S SCG 
144

SCG
IQGO Y dH f bh qFHdG IQGq dG b qJ SqdG S qEG f 
.OdG b H dG
q bCG Gq e AHdG a j IQe
JQGh (...q G qbJ ,G AfG) ILCG qJ IQGq dG b q j 
.dH e QqJ jZ EG dG
q IQGM LQO
H dG e QGM d aL GOY f eY dP N : Me
.jM EG Oq DJ b q dG qEG .IQq S jq QH a cJ hCG G Hq dG

UG
.FHc q e
q d dH dc h ,b FHc qde
q d
.qd Ue j GPEG j CG FHc q

q CG hH H H dUG q oGh SCG S g oG q FHdG IQGdG


.qdeo r n H Hq dH gaW jh fG
.qdeo Y jeo h eo fc GPEG qEG IQGO AHdG j
.bGq dG q J AHdG Qh J dG OGG hCG LCG qGE
.RGdG q J AHdG Qh J dG OGG hCG LCG qGE
qdeo n H dUe gaW j bGf S e J
oG q FHdG IQGq dG
q
.FHc
.Y qoe YGbh ReQ SH qFHdG IQGq dG SJ
: gUY cGdG e Yf SH q FHdG IQGq dG J
.MGh Y H e Y n b e
q c a Hjo dG dP g dG cdG Y e cCH e Y n b e
q c a Ujo dG dP g RGdH cdG .MGh

145

f Y YC
q G
q CG
1

OY j

: dGG IQdG Y gJ dG GQGq dG qfH SQCG -1

: q dc q fH eSG GQGq dG CG -2

OY j

Gg dh
q G a j dG J dq dG SdG e fCG -1
.UCH NCG
.G AfG S SdG bd dH a
q -2

3
a

OY j

eRqdG UG SCG SH cCGh dq dG TCG fCG


.G j qM

146

OY j

.UCH fdh
q IG HG SG cdG q H

OY j

.e G a H bh q dG Sq dG eq CJ
? d G SCG AYEG g -1
? G eS e qcCd H dG QdG
q CG -2
? G OdG Qa e qcCd H dG QdG
q CG -3
6

OY j

UUQ ,LR ,edCG ,AGg ,Sf , qe ,jM ,N : dqdG Oq GG Fb fCG


.de Ae ,Ae ,b
.e bGq dG GS V
7

OY j

.Wb SH eSG IQGq dG J dH qqdG jf


? IQGq dG B dG hCG A dG WdG Vh j g -1
.WdH IQGq dG q fH SQCG -2
8

OY j

.Hc IOYCG H ddG G z(`)e{ hCG z(`)e{ n c SH CG


WdG j eY FHdG Qq dG q dH IQGO
IQGO q J a bf LCG S e fG
IQGq dG qGE
q
IQGO q J RY GAL q J dG IQGdG qGE
147

G Z

OY j

.Zh q dd GU Me if HG SdG Y
Qqd bqdG AGLCG MCH q dh SdG fCG -1
.dRdG AGLCG NCHh FHdG
.Z G J dK SH cCG -2
10 OY j

(B)h (A) GOYh (2)h (1) Me JRM


: HG Sq dG Y q G QdH d SG
.jq CG Oq M ? dG Ve jOdG MCG qCG SG g -1
.jq CG Oq M ? MG MCG qCG SG g -2
11 OY j

dhe SCG KK e SdG Y gj dG bqdG dG j


q
a qdG Y q d jW OjEG jo g .dG f e
.c TG ? S
q d HG
12 OY j

H GP TGh HG SdG Y gJ dG IQGq dG q fH SQCG


.e G
13 OY j

H GP TGh HG SdG Y gJ dG IQGq dG qfH SQCG


.e G
14 OY j

G H NG GdG
q e GOY HG IQdG
q Y gf
e q jW qa .Sd ddGh
dG
q
q dH e
.gRa
148

Kh SCG
G OdG

IcQ
qjce
Sf
fR
d

1795 S zda{ FjdG dG n pb e NG OY hCq G


Sq e Sq dGh fq dG e UGbCG e e
OY hCq G ch
q
qdG e Ub iS NBGh UdG H j H a
.q M FH e

SCG

.OdG b Oq MCG CG hMCGh HG Sq dG eq CJCG -1


? GP ? q fe J CG g ? jq cG Icq dG QhO g e -2

? je e g
FHdG G
( SWANN) zGS{ W e 1879 S q FHc He hCq G YNG
HG hCG fc .IG jdG (EDISON) zjOCG{h GfCG
e S a Vh AGdG e Zeo q LLR Ic e f
q eo q FHdG
.HdG
LQO aj c bh .dG N e He SCG j jOCG c
.LLq dG Vh b
q J q M JQGM

149

gqJGh JGKCJ : FHdG Qq dG 27


FHdG Qq dG
MCGh q LCG
Wb

.WdG SGH IQGq dG Z Y G j


.a Y G Cj
SCG

q oG EG OdG e gY j AHdG qCGh e IQGq dG qCG d


o jo G Qf
.IQGq dG FHc Qq J OLh j G qEG a G g dG
: Me
OLh e dP dh GQf G q j qCG Vh b OdG c GPEG
.IQGdG J FHc Qq J
.FHdG QqdG a j qde Y J e IQGO qc

FHdG Qq dG GKCJ
QGG KCdG
MCGh q LCG

QGG KCdG q J q FHc ILCG

e J dG q FHdG I LCG H
q JCG
,IGe : G qedG HQB IQGM e Lf
.... ,e ,d q
? ILCG J IQGM FHdG Qq dG qdjo jCG
? OdG G GQf FHdG Qq dG j c
150

SCG
qEG a gj dG bq dG LCG IQGM LQd YJQEG FHdG Qq dG jo
.jq QGM GKCJ hCG e FHdG Qq d
.a j dG bqd HY FHc QqJ OLh j QGG KCdG
L
q CdG q M EG FHdG Qq dG Qhe Y G S IQGG LQO JJ
.GQf q j gYh
WG KCdG
MCGh q LCG
.dG
q q YCGh IG Y (UH hCG) IHEG VCG
MCG j eh OY a e q FHc IQGO CG
Y j e qSCG qK IHEd jRGoe a UG SCG
? IQGq dG Z
.HdG YCGh dG d dH dG G q ZCG
? IHEd GfG cCG Y MCG c
SCG
Qd qEG a Hn b LJ IHEG GfG j bf FHdG QdG j eY
.We GKCJ FHdG
ba GQq e jo eY ibCG jh e dG
q q f eY jGj IHEG GfG
.L -T Hh
.IQGO FHc Qq J OLh d J UdG hCG n G IHEG
FdG KCdG
MCGh q LCG
? S NGH Lj g .Iq o q K IOq G dH q e eq U eq CJCG
I LCG H eq dG J LGJ Y q JCG CG h MCG
? dSG e dG g e .q FHdG
151

g .OdH q dG Uh q c GMG e q G q FHdG IQGq dG CG


CG eY IQGH TCG g ? OdH Uh f eY q dG j
? qoG q dG
.q dG H VY
q GPEG OY e gRjo dG IQGG e QbCG
qdoJ CG hO GQf q J q FHc iNCG He LJ g
? jObG He q oJ GP ? IQGM

SCG
Qq d FdG KCdG qfEG :FHdG Qq dG o j e Y GQf oG q dG qj
.FHdG
.q dG NGO L
q Ceo S e Qq dG Gg j
.e IQGO FHdG Qq d e oG q dG
hO ( 4,5 V) f e qaL q H Hq dG oG q dG q j : Me
.jbh
IQGq dG oJ CG Y GqdoG e qdG dP SG OQCG GPEG
.jJ 200 ehe J (IQdG Y gJ e e) bGh heo
FdG KCdG
MCGh q LCG
: IQdG Y gTCG e e dqdG HdG CG
de Ae SCc JQe a JOhdG `````Ue ``NBG qdeo hCG ( 4,5 V )
q L OY .GOhdG
? IQGq dG Z Y SCdG MCG GPe
? SCdG e J dG FGq dG cJ GPh AG d qj c

152

SCG
.aL Ae EG FHdG QqdG dG AG
q
.bq dG FGdG H j eY Fc KCJ FHdG Qq d qGE
MCGh q LCG
.GOU FHc pe CeCG
.G H e H Qd HfCG fCG
.G j e eq CJCGh IQGq dG ZCG
? fCG
q c RdG e G f Y MCG g
? GRZ cCG jo dG OhdEG UhCG qdo d b
q CH
.
q G OdG b Y H HdG YCG
? HfCG RdG q c qJ c
SCG
LG dH UG G OhdEG ie Y j dG FdG KCdG qGE
.qdG OhdEG ie Y j dG FdG KCdG Y j
.(OJdG hCG) G qdG q ojh (OfCG hCG) G hCq G OhdG q oj

FHdG Qq dG G
MCGh q LCG
.HoG dG
q Y eSG IQGq dG CG
.MCGh WdG ZCG
qdoG n b Y e HdG YCG
? KCJ
q d q dH MCG GPe
153

SCG
GfG dP ojh WG KCdG oj oe IQGO qdoe nb f eY
.G IHEG
.G ie Y FdG KCdG jo e IQGO qdeo n b f eY
FHdG Qq d qCG fQbCG GPEG qEG FdG hCG WG KCdG Y J
ne IQGO FHdG Qq dG j : JBc Y p qJoCG q eo gG eo IQGO
.ddG
q b EG qoe LG b e qdoG QN
: Me
.q e G Qhj L OH q FHc cq eo HQ GPEG
OdG r n b Y GPEG cG qJG q qG Qhj
.G
.WG KCdG SH FHdG q oG j
AJCGh eCJCG
? IQGO FHdG Qq dG G EG q fdG Sq dG hCG TCG Y eQCG n pH

SCG
.SCG MCG Y H q eo H IQGO FHc Qq J OLh EG ejo

154

UG

.qjQGM GKCJ oj bf c FHdG QqdG j 


.q We GKCJ o j bf
q H G AdG FHdG Qq dG jo 
.gj dG bq dG FGdG
q q Fc GKCJ FHdG Qq dG jo 
.qLCJ hO bGdG H qFV GKCJ FHdG Qqd 
Ljh qdo d LG dG e j a ,gqJG FHdG Qq d qGE 
.ddG
q b EG IQGq dG Y

155

FHdG Qq dG Iq T

28
FHdG Qq dG q J
MCGh q LCG

f e

e qbGh SCG eSG HQCG QdG GdG Y CG


.UdG
.Iq e
q c jhGq dG CGbCG
.e
q d AdG Ib
q jYCG
.e
q d IQfEG Ib
q M Q HQCG q dRJ hCG jq YJ qJQCG
4

EG

G1

G2

GSG qL OY : G1

L1

L0

L0

L1

qe
q L OY : G2
2

1
G2

G1

L0

L0

? H qd jGhdG Jd qdH MCG GPe


4

OY HdG

156

jhGdG b

SCG
OGORGh qEG e IQGO qe
q L OH GSG
q G OdG VY
q qc
Qq d qEG a ,j dG FHdG Qq d WG KCdG OGORGh e IQfEG Ib
q
.qaj qdG qdG H Je Iq T FHdG
hCG e Qf ij : JGKCJ jbh qEG IQGO FHdG Qq dG Iq T OGORG qc
... bf d IQheo eo IHEG GfG

Iq dG qdG
MCGh q LCG
p rfoCG
Sq dG Y HG IQGq dG o
bh jhGq dG jYCG : Me WGdG
q c
.Hd q dH IQfEG
.1 jhGdG jYCGh (1) WdG ZCG
Vh (1) AHEG e (2) WdG ZCG
.2 jhGdG jYCGh eo
.NBG J MGdG WGdG Z UGhCG
? IHEG GfG jhGR q J ch HG IQfEG EG q dH MCG GPe
? Hd cdG Gg oG SG g e
SCG
.dH IQGO HG e OY MGREG hCG NOEH FHdG Qq dG Iq T J r jo
IQGO HG OY OGORG qc OGOJ FHdG QqdG Qd IQGq dG ehe qEG f
.dH
.Iq eo ehe SH dH IQGO FHdG Qq dG Iq T qdG
157

IQGq dG Iq G ehG SG
MCGh q LCG
.IQdG
q Y goJ dG e (ndu e hCG) Iq eo ephe AGLCG eq CJCG
Qq dG d e Y q JCG CG h MCG
.b H FHdG
? dGq dG j Y Iq dG qJ c
ehe
,(A) KdG bCG Y q JCG CG hMCG
Iqe
Y q oG eq dG Y q G (C)h (B)
.Iq oG eho d

SCG
.fheo h qbH oe IQGO FHdG QqdG Iq T qdG e qoJ IqoG ehoG
e
q c q J dG Iq qG eho d MCGh TCG e IOq eo GfCG g
.a qdG Oo GoG Iq dG

dG
AJCGh eq CJCG
SCG NBG H h f bf SCG qFHdG GQGq dG H oJ GP
? SdG e S
? IQGq dG f f bf H S bf VY
q d o j GPe
? dW QGSG e b Aj eY bf S QGG KCdG qj c
158

MCGh q LCG
.RdG SdG Y jRCGh LGQq q dG oG UG dG e 20 cmbCG
.dq dG HdG bc SCGh dG q fG G e GMGh NBG
MCG hCG IQqS qjQH : oe qFHc IQGO CG
(55W)IQq d jdG AGVC e ,G Gqde
o
.cP S dG SdG Nh Iq eo eheo h
IQGq dG ehoG J e Y MCG GP e
?(AB) bq d dH
dG FHdG QqdG Iq T dG dP q j g
SG fOQCG GPEG Iq dG J Y f CG jo c ? jq OY IQfE G qj
? IQGq dG f
(AB)bq dG IQGM LQO oJ c .HdG YCGh KK q K N SG q LCG
? jdG
SCG
SCG IQGG LQO JJ eo IQGO FHdG Qq dG Iq T JJ eY
.dG
q e cCG e dG UG
hCG FGM q q dGh RdG SdG TG q M EG IQGG LQO J CG jo
.bq dG QfG EG
dG FHdG Qq dG Iq T q d c b GP Ue SCG SG j
.go o j

FGG e jbdG
MCGh eq CJCG
de eq CJCG G hCG G UdG JCG GPEG
.ILCG H NGO AHdG
: Qq dG go o j dG UdG Y q JCG CG hMCG
.IdG ,WdG
.IdG AGLCG Y q JCG CG hMCG
159

SCG
f a Qq dG Iq T JQG H GMEG hCG q dG e I LCG j
.IQG ieo Jq T Ho Y Qq dG gQfH J Iq eo GU
.QdG f e IH qEG IU jJ j UGoe jbh eCd

160

FHdG Qq dG Iq T b 29
dG IMhh FHdG Qq dG Iq T b RL
AJCGh eCJCG

J J dGh G IqaoG FHdG Qq dG b ILCG Y q JCG CG hMCG


.YCG IQdG Y goJ dG
.Y eSoG Req dG a hMCGh e
q d eeCG LdG Gq L q CG
? Qq oG dG Y G A eQ e e
? dG dBG r nb d j GP
SCG
. I H d oejh d Hb Fja QGe Iq dG
.Ag IMdG eQh eCH FHdG Qq dG Iq T SJ
.eeCG q jo FHdG Qq dG Iq T b RL
A
: g qfdG SdG eeCG eQ
: e eCG AGLCG fMCG jo
1mA = 0,001 A 1A = 1000 mA : (mA) eCqG 1A = 0,001 mA 1mA = 1000A : (A) eCGhG
161

? HECG eeCG SCG c


Y hCG qdeo r n H eeCG b Uj
N dP qEG .IQGO FHc Qq J o j
.q Ff H dBG GYEG
MCGh q LCG
q eo h eh qdeo e J
dH IQGO CG
q
.q oG Qhjh G o a eM Y q eo U
eo eeCG Y jL e ZCG q K IQGq dG aCG
.q aVEG Ueo S
HQ YCG q J EG ? dG EG IHEG cq g
.MCGh IQGq dG be J hO eeCG
.IHEG eeCG q SG dG jQdG IAGb hMCG
?Qq J Iq T EG jQdG OY MC
q G c
SCG
Uh S SHh gUY qH e qJ IQGq dG cH eeCG oj
dG Mf e eeCd ((+) ed eG hCG) MCG dG Uh e VEG
dG Mf e ((-) ed eG hCG) OSCG dG Uhh qdd LG
.qdd ddG
q
q eo hCG FHc qdeo r n oH ITe eeCG GMCG e M
q CG Uj
.FHc QqJ o oj
EG IHEG q oJ dG idG Iq dG gh (C) QdG e q dG j Qq dG Iq T IAGd
: IHEG eeCG q SG dG ( n) jQdG jeh (N) jQdG CG Qq oG qdG jf
n C : IYdG eh C QdG e n/N AL hJ I QdG IT
I=
q q
N
: Me
bh Le b RG Gd qCG j fMCG (-)h (+) ed eeG M
.dS
162

Je q bCG
Y F H c Q q J j g -1
.dP Qq H ?eeCG
? G QdG g e -2
q S Y eeCG d j -3
hP NBGh jQJ 100 hP gMCG
Ou M r qd
q dSH .jQJ 30
.FHdG Qq dG Iq T
? SEG aCG qdG
q CG -4

? bdG eeCG SCG c


Y dSG YGb a g dh dG SG cCG bq dG eeCG UCG
.dGh
q dG dG
MCGh q LCG
Ge q oG q bdG dG R L eq C JCG
.j dG RedGh
J hMCG ? eeCc J c
.XdG d
a V
q eo HdG
q q FHdG IQGq dG f CG
.bdG eeCH HEG eeCG
e Nj dG dG Y q JCG CG hMCG
j dG dGh (A) edG j gh Qq dG
.(COM) edG j gh Qq dG e
IMdG Y q JCGh Qq dG Iq T b CGbCG
.QdGh G
?Iq dG GQY qS NBG EG cCa cCG q K UCa UCG QY SG Y j GPe
.Iq dG d IAGb
q OCG Y q JCG CG hMCG
? (COM)h (A) eeCG r n b HQ YCG eY MCG GPe
.IQGq dG f EG dH fqdG dH hCG dG QbCG
163

SCG
jq dG H dG j FHdG Qq dG Iq T d bdG G S
: dd d q dhCG
(A) XdG QNG .Iq d cCG QdG QNG Y eCG c GPEGh (COM) dG e jh (A)dG e FHdG Qq dG Nj
e bq dG eeCG q Gg .(-) eY bQCG S Qj Y j dP
.Jq T EG aVEH IQGO FHdG Qq dG G Y q dG
eh ,jq HEG ILCG Y Y g q SCG Y IAGdGh
q OCG q bdG dG ILCG
.kc ncCG a dP
Je q bCG
(HG IQdH)
SG bdG eeCG QYg e
q
: gQb Iq T d
I1 = 150 mA
I2 = 1,5 A
I3 = 50 mA

q idG Iq dG
AJCGh eCJCG
.3,5 V- 0,3 A : JYb Y HG Req dG e aCG CG hMCGh GU Me eq CJCG
? (12 V) IQq S jq Q qH QcG G Hf eY S GPe
e Y e CGbCGh fhdEG G IdG GdG
q e qY NBG
G jM c ? dP e OG e ...1,5 A ; 0,2 A ; 0,5 A : e eY
? IH
164

SCG
q J .qjOY H TG e q

IN b GP qoe QqJ I
q T FHc qoe qd

.''SEG n dG'' dG J
.IM bCG Gq M Iq dG q J GPEG j hCG TEG Y qoG qj
Qq dG Iq T J eY a IOLG IQGq dG bh QfEG d q oJ IU
q c
.IF Y eSG Iq dG hoJ hCG FHdG
IN < IF < IM : dc IF QH INCG g QNG j IH e e j
q
q o
OGq dG

bGdG WdG

Iqe GU

SCG S
UG

BG
qdG qFHdG

G FHdG dG

165

FHdG Qq dG Iq T q UN
dH IQGO

30

dH IQGO FHdG Qq dG Iq T K
MCGh q LCG
.q bQ GeeCGh HK Qq J qdeo eo q fH eSG HdG CG
.
q SCGh Qq dG Iq T CGbCG
q K(B)q K (A): IQGq dG e iNCG f EG eeCG fCG
e f
q c jL e Qq dG Iq T CGbCGh ... (C)
? qJ g .IQGq dG
SCG
.go j dG q FHdG IQGq dG f L HK FHdG Qq dG Iq T
.qdoGh q oGh SCG IQGq dG o j FHdG Qq dG f
.q e Z IQGq dG eeCG Ve

? IQGq dG FHdG Qq dG j c
MCGh q LCG
KK e HG SdG Y qoG IQGq dG CG
.qdG f e eeCG ILCG
.QbCGh eeCG qc Iq dG CGbCG
dH a Yh IQGq dG Z Y j GPe
? qoe JJ NBG J MGdG j g ?GeeCG Y
SCG
.IQGq dG f L eGeh Z Y Qa IQGO FHdG Qq dG jS
.a Y IQGq dG f L jq Qa FHdG Qq dG jS j
166

? UdG JJ M Iq dG q J g
MCGh q LCG
Ggh q oH G HdG
q IQGq dG Vq YCG
.f H NCG
qJ g .QqdG Iq T qSCGh HdG
q QqdG YCG
? AT
SCG
.gUY JJ q j eY eo IQGO FHdG Qq dG Iq T qKCJ

? IQGq dG UY W M Iq dG q J g
MCGh q LCG
. q G HdG
q IQGq dG VYC
q G
? KdG GeeCG
q S dG Fq dG g e
? HdG
q HdG
q G Iq dG f CGbCG g
G VYC
q Gh IQGq dG fe EG oG YCG
.(20 ) R eh
? HdG
q
q oG Iq dG f CGbCG g
? KdG GeeCG HEG QdG
q c cq c
.(9 V) NBH (12 V) qdoG jJ H HdG YCG
SCG
dUG d fo
q G UdG f q of eY IQGq dG FHdG Qq dG Iq T q J
.qdoH
f Y aoG e qdoG f q f eY IQGO FHdG Qq dG Iq T q J
.q oG
167

? WdGh q oG q dG H dG e
MCGh q LCG
M HoG hG eSG GQGq dG CG
.dEG QoG JdG
FHdG Qq dG Iq T H
q d dH
q SCG
.IQGq dG o j dG
Qhq dG f d q oG q dG qGE dG Rj g
? G qc dPh Wdc IQGq dG
? dP eeCG d q jo c
SCG
G a
n e q dG c GPEG Me eo q d jhG q FHdG IQGdG oJ
.G WdH dG J J Rjh (q dG G) ToG Z
Qq dG Iq T q J eo WH Qf e j q e eq U e IQGO Vo
q f eY
.eo WH e J Rj Gd ,IQGq dG FHdG
UG

.q e I Iq H FHdG Qq dG j ,qdeo H eo q FHc IQGO 


.(A)geQh eCG JMh d Hb Fja QGe Iq dG 
.IQGq dG q J
o Uj
n dG eeCH FHdG Qq dG Iq T SJ 
qKCJ h d fo
q G UdG W M FHdG QqdG Iq T qJ 
.IQGq dG JH

168

f Y YC
q G
q CG
1

OY j

Kjo dG KCq dG g e ? OdG G FHdG Qq dG Kj dG KCdG g e


? FHdG Qq dG Iq T iJ eY GKCdG Gg q j c ? q
2

OY j

: Sj ZGdG q Y q K dq dG G Hc YCG
.Iq dG d....... f .(...... geQ) .......`dH FHdG Qq dG Iq T SoJ
Gg HQ Iq H Rj .......... h ......... : Yf G OLe RG Gg
CG j .FHc QqJ a j ............. hCG ............ H ITe RG
.
q bCG Y GMGh ......... q J q FHc IQGO ........... RG dP qcjo
3

OY j

Wb ,OY e ,qde : dqdG UdG q J dH H qFHc IQGO CG


.dq eh
.I
n G IQGq dG q fH SQoCG -1
Qq dG e Nj dG dG Y MCH qYh Iq dG d IQGq dG GRL VCG -2
.RG dP QqdG e j dG dG Y OSCHh
4

OY j

: G jd SG bQCH cCG q K dq dG G Hc YCG


1A = ...... mA ; 2A = ........ A : 230 A = ....... A
1,2 mA = ...... A ; 320 mA = ............. A
21000 A = .......... mA
169

OY j

: eSG IQGq dG q FHc Qq J g g


? Fh E H ? Dh C H ? B h A H
.HGL qY
6

OY j

dG FHdG Qq dG Iq T b jf dq dG eSG IQGq dG


Y ? C CG B CG A dG eeCG f g .q G j
.HGL
7

OY j

.L - T G JHE jRGe e bf EFh AB


: G qdGh D ,D ,EF , AB qJ HQCG -1
.G f JHEG Jh eq dG q j H -CG
JHEG GfG jh eq dG q j H -
.ce
? IQGq dG J dG FHdG Qq dG GKCJ g e -2
8

OY j

.L2 Qf e ibCG GQf q j L1 . Me L2h L1


.Qq dG G jo e IQGq dG Y V -1
? G f Qq dG j g .qdG r b f -2
? GP .YTEG ibCG G Oq M
9

OY j

OGG FHdG Qq dG Iq T OSCG Qq oG qdG Y CGbG


.QG HEG eeCH b
170

10

OY j

: dqdG GQdG bQ eeCG j


20A ; 2 A ; 200 mA ; 20 mA ; 2 mA ; 0,2 mA

: dq dG Iq dG jOe bG jJ j QY
q CG Y
? 160 mA ; 0,15 A ; 10 mA ; 10 A ; 0,3 A
11

OY j

.HG dG Y IQG
IQGq dG qeCJ
q
? GP .(-) eY bq dG Qj Y j -1
? G j dG FHdG Qq dG Iq T g e -2
? CG UEG e IQGq dG SQ YCG -3

12

OY j

.eq U q jo GY Vh hCG IQGO -1


? q dG Gg eQ g e Oq M .q G Qhjh G j : IQGq dG AHdG q q d VdG dP .qdd ddG
q dGh LG dG
q dG iY UdG
q CG .FHdG Qq dG qbJ .q dG G fq Z fK IQGO -2
? IQGq dG QqdG LQE b HQ J j
? G f gY q G Qhj g
Iq `T hCG IQGq dG CG`f .U `cJ GeeCG `H `e IQGO q`c `SQCG -3
? GP ? fdG IQGq dG I Iq dG g e . I=0,35 A

13

OY j

. b r n q Vh eeCG d dq dG JQdG eq CJ
171

.(0,3 A) QdG Y jJ : hCG q VdG


.LQO 30 e jh
( = ) eY j dG OSCG qdG Y Iq dG CGf
q
.(1A) QdG Y jJ : fqdG qVdG
.LQO 100 e j
q h ( = ) eY j dG OSCG qdG Y Iq dG CGf
IHEG q J eY qVdG c FHdG QqdG Iq T J hCG jJ H -1
? IMGh LQH
? eCqGh A eCH dM
q c Qq dG Iq T g e -2

172

Kh SCG
AHdG
MGQ He e e q dG AHdG g fEG dEG UJ
q dG acG qgCG e
ej c eW W h ,FJh aJh de IQfEG j ,JOSh
.JLM ZCG Ab h ,JBGh ILCG e jdG J
a AHdG f UN
hJ Oq GG qC qfe SCG SGH AHdG oj
q
c R dG hCG AOdG bq dG eh
q dGh jGh S q dc q G bq dG
.Lq dGh SdGh
hO a dG hCG jG hCG Sdc dRY Oq G AHd bq dG SCG
q oJh
AHdH fOhJ
q dG SCG a GPEGh .eJ dG LCG EG Qq dG q J
jDhQ dh qdoG r nH qj e rS e qdDoeh dh qfCG Mf dRe
FHdG Qq dG fG EG dH OLe qfCH K e ZdH eo FHdG Qq dG
.TG Y BGh ILCGh IAVEG Y HG qJ
fEH GN TJ
q H FHdG Qq dG SG qjo jGG g
q c ZQ dh
q FHc S e
q GPEG H j dG BGh ILCHh
Gd G oJ CG h Y Gq g q J IjT YH oj
Sc dP hO d d W MEG
q c NCG Lho
fh QdG
q he dG QqdG n rne qSH GOGq S
...BG j GdG
q SGh MUEG AKCG UG dBG S

SCG

H q FHdG BGh I LCG UEG J dG GhOCG q J -1


? dP S e .q N hCG q SH
GKCJ cPCG.d KCH OLh Y q dG dh FHdG Qq dG jDhQ jq -2
.FHdG QqdG
? FHdG Qq dG Y Lq dG G Od gPJG j dG WMG g e -3
173

H q LCG
: MC
q G
Rhj G GdCG S) IQdG Y qdc
q T H G e Y
(1 cm) (GMGh GS
g dc
q G ehG e J qdG q dG e 60 cm dW ehe S
.FHdG dG jM hCG ( 400 W -220 V ) dG q
.SdG RdG e GOq ,30 cm dWh 1,4 mm b ,(EF) dG SdG e S
.ee HQCG
b) dG G e (jXe FL e fe
qfG QGQRCG e f) dc
q
(15 mm

wT

:CG
MC aCG qK .(30 cm AL qc dW) jhe FL EG hG dG bCG
(15 mm ) .ZCG S Y

174


q d RGe e (EF) SdG Sh (CD) dG dG ee HQCH q KCG
.d dH Xe Vh h NGq dG e dG
`ae Y `H dG q `H `FL `V H ddG e dGq dG UCG
q J CG j qdG fdG Y dG H fe FHdG Sq dG jh1cm
.D h C H dH
e j q j q M dPh ,dGq dG fGL MCG Sh dH GQe q TCG
.dH
q dG Y dG QN
: G qcCJCG
.dq G TG e cCJCGh q dG cdG CG

175

qJCG
: fe qc
fe (e - qde - IU - AHc - KCJ) ddG dG
n Vh EG -1
.Y f dG dG dG OdG S SG
? Iq e hCq gOYG bh eh jJ g e -2

? fCG e
Y d WCG 1775 S q fdG d j dh Fja fCG -1
.FHdG Qq dG Iq T b IMh
GdG b JG ,JM Y jG ae OQCG EG -2
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176

Le Y
q e Fb
(HY
q Ne)
vase
vase dversement
clairage lectrique
dtente
tube
tube essais
tube dgagement
tube en verre
tube coud
ampoule de mdicament
propagation de la lumire

dviation
dissoudre (se)
solubilit
fusion
fondre
compression
rflexion
vases communicants
ozone
initial

AfEG
a AfEG
FHc (IAVEG hCG) IQfEG
fG
fCG
QNG fCG
fG fG
LLR fCG
e fCG
AGhO HfCG
AdG QfG
GfG
qfG
dfG
QfG
fG
fG
SfG
be mGhCG
hRhCG
hq CG

GC
aiguille aimante
sens
sen non passant
sens du courant
sens direct
amplitude
saumtre
mono
combustion
frottement
calcination
outil, instrument
altitude
centrifugation
liqufaction
extraction
extraire
polarisation
continuit
dduction

bar
baromtre
par (en) excs
par (en) dfaut
vapeur
bue
paraffine
vis
permanganate
bronze
bromure
batterie
dimension
poulie
critallisation
cristal

cylindre

QH
ehQH
IOjdH
dH
QH
se QH
aGH
ZH
eH
fH
ehH
jQH
roH
IH
IQrH
IQqH

rayonnement
convention
transvasement
transvaser
cadre
horizontal
machine
lectrode en charbon
lectron
lectronique
incliner
hydratation
ampre
amprmetre
absorption
ammonium
177

IHEG
G
qdG qJG
QdG G
Te qJG
qJG
(q eh de hCG) LCG
OMCG
GMG
MG
GMEG
IGOCG
(q oY hCG) JQG
ScQEG
dSEG
(GSG hCG) USG
SG
SG
jQGSG
SG
fGSEG
TEG
UG
UEG
UCG
QWEG
aCG
dBG
a OhdEG
hdEG
hdEG
eCG
geEG
eCG
eeCG
UeG
feq CG

cJ
cJ
J
tJ
pJ
J
qJ
J
jJ
J
tJ
oYJ
hJ
jJ
J
CGs J
tJ
J
DaJ
J
qJ
orJ
K
S
Ot
t
o VJ
Se VJ
qbJ
jJ
RGJ
oaGJ
FHc QqJ
he Qq J
e Qq J

combinaison
concentration
chauffage
fuite
nomenclature
dispersion
incertitude
classification
dfinition
strilisation
variation
raction
dcalage
drivation
distillation
distillation fractionne
contraction
valuation
quivalence
grandissement
condensation
lectrisation
symtrie
contact
dilatation
dliquescence
osmose
osmose inverse
dcroissent
floculation
quilibre
concordance
courant lectrique
courant alternatif
courant continu

butane
coupelle, creuset
soucoupe
borate
boussole

effet
effet calorifique
effet lumineux
effet chimique
action mutuelle
effet magntique
notation
corrosion
interprtation
vapration
vaporisation
justification thorique
exprience
exprimentation
exprimentalement
dshydratation
solidifier (se)
solidification
conglation
cavit
prpartion
analyse
analyse quantitative
lectrolyse
analyse qualitative
dilution
graduation
division

constant, fixe
indformable
dioxyde
bichromate
bivalent

rH
JH
JH
(rU hCG) JH
GQH
UH

Structure

flux

HK
dG HK
cCG K
ehdG K
DadG FK

frquence
dcantation
filtration
montage en srie
montage en parallle
178

KCJ
QGM KCJ
FV KJ
Fc KCJ
Oe KCJ
We KCJ
TCJ
cBJ
jhCJ

t J
J
f jJ
H
j
j
t
s
t

qc
FHc
Yf
J
jQJ
jQJ
qaJ
OOt J
SJ
TJ
dH cJ
RGdH cJ

UUQ N

fil plomb

IFGO
FGO
dH IQGO
RGdH IQGO
FHc IQGO
ne IQGO
Me IQGO
IQe IQGO
fH SGQO
sQO
LQO
IQGM LQO
dO
AG IQhO
QhO
Wh Qn hr O
QhO

cercle
circulaire
circuit srie
circuit parallle
circuit lectrique
circuit ferm
circuit ouvert
court circuit
tude graphique
graduer
degr
temprature
index
cycle de leau
ballon
erlenmeyer
cyclique, priodique

tableau
particule
objet
corpuscule
dssecher
appareil
dispositif exprrimental
potentiel
atmosphre

tat
acide (nom)
ampoule dcanter
ampoule de lampe
pastille
volume
minimum
fer doux

Q
liaison
dpt
mou
graphe, reprsentation graphique
filtrat
filtrer
humidit
mtronome
symbole

ferrite

HGQ
SGQ
N
r Q
H SQ
(TQ hCG) MTQ
q TQ
HWQ
UqbQ
eQ

chaleur
critique
calorie
faisceau
sensible
sensibilit
conservation
analyser
hydrolyse

fiole jauge

dGR
OhQdG jhGR
YS LR
jOQr nR
jdGgR

curseur
angle dincidence
verre de montre
pince
fleur de soufre

cuve, bac
cristallisoir

caractristique (ou proprit)

verticale (nom)

S
liquide
couler

FM
dM
eM
SJ HM
e HM
r M
o
M
fOCG qM
p
(nd hCG) qd jM
jpjpM
IQGM
pM
Ijr n M
er pM
Sq M
SM
rM
sM
ICnrnM
Ise Lr M
VM
Iqe jr M

cran

GQP
IqQP

atome

QGL
hL
A
r L
Oq e L
L
qL
RL
j RL
L
L

paroi

P
bras

dG FK

diple

linaire

FS
S

diluer une solution


cellule
179

q UN
bT qN
qN
qN
qN

QU
IU
GOU
IQU
U

robinet
fusible
soude
image
formule

energistrer
burette
chauffage lectrique
bouchon, obturateur

surface

V
q L V
AV

brouillard
presseion atmosphrique
lumire

mnisque
capacite, contenance
chane, srie

fil de connexion

AaW
bW
jQGM bW
T bW
FV bW
FHc bW
FGg bW
nW
jW
jW
Y jW
Qr W

q W

flottant
nergie
nergie calorifique
nergie solaire
nergie humineuse
nergie lectrique
nergie olienne
borne, extrmit
mthode
mthode analytique
procd
phase
longitudianl

chelle
chelle centsimale
filament
paisseur
coulement

T
ionique
cran
vertical
toile
laiton
charge lectrique
intensit

IgX
OY X

condition normale

tincelle
aspirer

isolant
manipuler
facteur
compteur
nombre ngatif
nombre positif
lentille
organique
aromatique
nud
rciproque
capsule
opration
pile

IOQT
qOQT
TT
bT
T
n n T
FHc T
IqT
IQGT
nT
T
qYT
WqT
qT

q n T
T
cT

ion

phnomne

q S
M
q S
FHc
q S
OGqS
S
g S
p S
S
q Ue S
qS
Fe qS
r o S
rS
S

alliage

rayon

RY
dH ndY
peY
OGq Y
dS OY
pLe OY
SY
qY
qY
IY
qY
dc ,Y
qY

L
OY
q

radial
paille
transparent
fente
figure
pointe

U
CGU
(qM S hCG) rU
surface libre
U
plaque,lame, lamelle
HU
duret, rigidit
o U
solide
rn U
rigide
diode LED (ou lectroluminescente)
q p eo q U
rouille

180

da a

phnol phtaline

normalement

GMd Hb
Qfd Hb
fd Hb
fd Hb
d Hb
QfG Hb
fG q Hb
G q Hb
IQhQb
Sb
pWb
IYb
fb
Ub
jb
b

Qq

H
b
q
n b
IQqnb
IQob
ob
dS b
Le b
e b
b
nb
Ib
q b
b Sb
FHc Sb
r b
Qsb ,sb
SEG b
ne b

combustible (adj)
expansible
soluble
compressible
miscible
expansibilit
compressibilit
miscibilit
bouteille
mersurer
interrupteur
rgle
loi
disque
indice
tige
baguettede verre
barreau aimant
compte gouttes
distillat
ple
ple ngatif
ple positif
segment de droite
plot
entonnoir
canal
flacon
arc en ciel
arc lectrique
mesure
valuer
valeur nominale
valeur absolue

lment
masse marque
macroscopique

verre pied
dtecteur
indicateur color

RZ
qRZ

q GhZ
AZ
efZ
Z
r pZ
qdd rZ
nZ
fe Z
d Z

gaz
gazeux
colloidal
membrane
galvanomtre
bullition
culot
douille vis
immerger
htrogne
ininflammable

disjoncteur
vrole
ouverture
charbon
carboniser
carbonate
cramique
vide
hypothse
dnivellation
sparation
efficace
bulle
dissocier
mtal
fluorescine
lige
effervescence

becher

q OY
jOY
Y
sbe QY
qY

perpendiculaire

phosphate

QNG SCc
QNG SCc
Tc
s e Tc

ultraviolet
acier
voltamtre
orifice
181

p Ua
FGg a
r a

r a

s a
ra
qQqa
Ga
qVna
JQG a
r a
q a
Ya
qa
a
Sh Qa
`qa
GQn a
Sa
H a
Pa
da
gn oa

endothermique
pipette
homogne
croissant
identique
volatil
orthogonal, normale (direction)
variable
ractif (raction)
rcepteur
proportionnel
inversement proportionnel

alternatif
parallle
paralllogramme
paralllpipde
incandescent
idal, parfait
intervalle
oprateur
parcours
ensemble
microscopique
convexe
thermomtre
agitateur
comburant
moteur lectrique
carburants
lectrolyseur
solution
axe optique
transformateur
prouvette
laboratoire
conique
orbite
dure
mortier
amphotre
miroir

IQGd q Ue
q Ue
fe
YJ ,jGe
He
je
pee
qe
Ye
q e
Se
v Y Se
he
mRGe
VCG RGe
G RGe
qge
qe

u
in en
Y

r
s
QGpe
Gpe
poe
FHc q
bh
FHc
r pe

H Q
q
Qpe

qWh
QGne
Iqe
qnpe
nHe
IBGe

Qac
mhc
jc
Sf jc
Fe Sf jc
c
ac
Hc
ehc
qc
GQc
jQc
Tq c
N Tqc
qqc
QdG qc
npenrc
SCc ,c
Sc

q nc
GZc
Ac
Fc

camphre
caustique
sulfate
sulfate de cuivre
sulfate de cuivre anhydre

masse
densit
carbone
chromate
plateau
chlorate
chlorure
pince crocodyle
pince en bois
quantitatif
dose
lectro-aimant
verre
querre
cosmique
kilogramme
chimie
chimique

Fe
rod
Lhd
d

n d
d
Md

anhydre
difice
viscosit
bobine
luminescence
flamme
inflammable
plaque

indicateur
oxydant
eau saumtre
eau de chaux
eau douce
fluide
aqueux
matire, substance
182

q TDe
p
rcDoe
LCG Ae
G Ae
M Ae
Fe
qFe
IOq e

aimant
interaction
dtonnant
tournevis
concept
rsistance
grandeur
distill
section
concave
normalis
jauge
Equivalent
loupe
piston
densimtre
condenseur
condens
lectroscope
composants, contituants
observations courantes
multimtre
terrain de golf
saumure
alternateur
plat
uniforme
flau de la balance
courbe
direction
floculent
prise de courant
ballon dirigeable
lunette astronomique
manganate
brleur gaz
cathode
cation
prisme
bec bensen
gnrateur

n pe
Yn e
pbe

q pe
e
ehe
QGe
se
e
s e
s e
Se
Aae
Iue
e
e
ne
se
FHc e
fq e
eq Y Me
e
dG e
G f nne
he
e
e
GG nrpe
n eo

n r en
u e
QdG e
Oe
qa Qe
Ge
RZ e
e
(Le IOQT) e
QTe
H be
qde

chaudire
filtre
centre
concentr
centre de symtie
centre de gravit
centre optique
central
centripte
centrifuge
lastique
quartz
lasticit
mlange
trajectoire
poreux
porosit
mulsion
continu
plan
niveau
poudre
lectrode
plan (adj)
oscilloscope cathodique
lampe
lampe diode
lampe incandescence
anode
pompe
comprim
lumineux
absolu
quation
dosage
matriel
rhostat
minral
expos lair
complexe
talon
183

Lr pe
q Te
ce
sce
XdG ce
dG ce
qH ce
qce
HPL jq ce
IHf jce
pe
he
fhe
(N hCG) je
Qne
m e
ene
nre
q e
meo
ie
e
(OhrdEG hCG) M ie
soe
HHdG Ge
e
qU e
qge e
n pe

q pe
e
Aeo
ne
dnOe
Inje
Gqe
due
qe
AGd Vhe
se
Qe

pivot
unit
papier filtre
incidence
milieu isolant
mthode, outil, instrument

rcipient
combustible (nom)

nJh
IMh
TdG Qh
OhQh
RY Sh
Sh
AYh
Obh

gnrateur de courant lectrique

balance
balance automatique
niveau eau
chronomtre
mica
inclinison
fluidit

iodure

FHc qde
Ge
BG Ge
Ae Ge
ne
e
re
Ye

QhOj

Ae IQaf
bf
q bf
(n n T hCG) UCG Sf
jpnf
qf
f
f
Ic f
f
f
f
Ihf
nf
rf
n
P
IGf
SGf

q Yf
Gf

jet deau
conducteur
conductivit
laiton
flocon
relatif
texture
fiche (lecticit)
hmisphre
lame, lamelle
systme
isotope
puret
conduire
transfert
mode (le)
modle
noyau
pendule
qualitatif
nitrate

`g
Ldg
IAg
GQg
jdG hoQrg
dGhoQrg
chQg
fhQg

halogne
molcule
hydrate
hydrognosulfate
hydrognocarbonate
hydroxyde
hydronium

h
incident
fait exprimental
184

OQGh
j bGh

Le Y
q e Fb
(fa
Ne)
q
A
absolu

baguettede verre

ne
UeG
eM
Pa
Oe KCJ
Gpe
IHEG
npe
S
he
he
(q oY hCG) JQG
feq CG
eCG
eeCG
nHe
qJG
SJ HM
e HM
AGhO HfCG

Yf
q c
sM
OhQdG jhGR
Fe
npe
RL
qFe
FHc Sb
b Sb

q Y
nT
q L
IQq P
H Q

absorption
acide (nom)
acier
action mutuelle
agitateur
aiguille aimante
aimant
alliage
alternateur
alternatif
altitude
ammonium
ampre
amprmetre
amphotre
amplitude
ampoule dcanter
ampoule de lampe
ampoule de mdicament
analyse
analyse qualitative
analyse quantitative
analyser
angle dincidence
anhydre
anode
appareil
aqueux
arc lectrique
arc en ciel
aromatique
aspirer
atmosphre
atome
axe optique

VM
qQqH b
Ge
BG Ge
QhO
Oe
QH
ehQH
n b
jQH
H be
QNG SCc
ehdG K
DadG FK
d
GQH
n W
OGqS
UH
IQhQb
GQP
ehH
fH
V
RZ e
se QH
Ya
MqS
JH

bac
balance
balance automatique
ballon
ballon dirigeable
bar
baromtre
barreau aimant
batterie
bec bensen
becher
bichromate
bivalent
bobine
borate
borne
bouchon
boussole
bouteille
bras
bromure
bronze
brouillard
brleur gaz
bue
bulle
burette
butane

C
cadre
calcination
calorie
camphre
canal
capacite
capsule

caractristique (ou proprit)

185

QWEG
GMG
Ijr n M
Qac
Ib
p S
dc ,Y
q UN

carbonate
carbone
carboniser
carburants
cathode
cation
caustique
cavit
cellule
central
centre
centre de gravit
centre de symtie
centre optique
centrifugation
centrifuge
centripte
cramique
cercle
chane
chaleur
charbon
charge lectrique
chaudire
chauffage
chauffage lectrique
chimie
chimique
chlorate
chlorure
chromate
chronomtre
circuit lectrique
circuit ferm
circuit ouvert
circuit parallle
circuit srie
circulaire
classification
colloidal
combinaison

r a
Hc

s a
bh
e
(Le IOQT) e
mhc
j
q N

q ce
ce
dG ce
XdG ce
qH ce
ScQEG
IHf jce
HPL qjce
qQqa
IFGO
S
IQGM

r a
FHc T
Lrpe
J
FHc qS
Ac
Fc
GQc
jQc
ehc
ne
FHc IQGO
ne IQGO
Me IQGO
RGdH IQGO
dH IQGO
FGO
J
qGhZ
cJ

comburant
combustible (nom)
combustible(adj)
combustion
complexe
composants
compressibilit
compressible
compression
comprim
compte gouttes
compteur
concave
concentration
concentr
concept
concordance
condensation
condens
condenseur
condition normale
conducteur
conductivit
conduire
conglation
conique
conservation
constant
contact
contenance
continu
continuit
contituants
contraction
convention
convexe
corpuscule
corrosion
cosmique
couler
coupelle
186

peo
Obh
GMd Hb
GMG
se
fq e
fG qHb
fd Hb
fG
e
IQqnb
OGq Y
s e
cJ
sce
e
oaGJ
qJ
se
ne
OY X
bf
q bf
nf

qWh
rM
HK
S
p S
q e
jQGSG
fq e
tJ
UG
s
L
cBJ
tnc
S
JH

he Qq J
e Qq J
FHc Qq J
n eo
IQe IQGO
JH
IQqH
Ie rjM
IQrH
pM

q YJ ,jGe
r pZ
dGR
VM
AG IQhO
QhO
fGSEG

courant alternatif
courant continu
courant lectrique
courbe
court circuit
creuset
cristal
cristallisoir
critallisation
critique
croissant
culot
curseur
cuve
cycle de leau
cyclique
cylindre

diple
direction
disjoncteur
dispersion
dispositif exprrimental
disque
dissocier
dissoudre (se)
distillat
distillation
distillation fractionne
distill
division
dosage
dose
douille vis
dure

D
dcalage
dcantation
dcroissent
dduction
dfinition
degr
dliquescence
dnivellation
densimtre
densit
dpt
drivation
dshydratation
dssecher
dtecteur
dtente
dtonnant
dviation
dilatation
diluer une solution
dilution
dimension
diode LED (ou lectroluminescente)

cCG K
dG FK

n r en
p Ua
J
j RL
Ub
qa
q fG
IQob
J
CGs J
se
jQJ
Inje
QdG qc
qdd rZ
Iqe
HU

dioxyde

duret

hJ
SJ
bJ
SG
jJ
LQO
t
JQG a
e
ac
SGQ
jJ
t
L
Tc
fG
pbe
GfG
Ot
qN
J
roH
q p eo q U

E
eau douce
eau de chaux
bullition
chelle
chelle centsimale
clairage lectrique
coulement
cran
difice
effervescence
effet
effet calorifique
effet chimique
effet lumineux
effet magntique
efficace
lasticit
lastique
lectrisation
lectro-aimant
lectrode
187

M Ae
G Ae
Z
qS
Fe qS
FHc (IAVEG hCG) IQfEG
S
FM ,TT

r od
GQn a
KCJ
QGM KCJ
Fc KCJ
FV KJ
We KCJ
qa
fhe
pe
orJ
npenrc
(OhrdEG hCG) M ie

lectrode en charbon
lectrolyse
lectrolyseur
lectron
lectronique
lectroscope
lment
mulsion
endothermique
nergie
nergie calorifique
nergie lectrique
nergie olienne
nergie humineuse
nergie solaire
energistrer
ensemble
entonnoir
paisseur
prouvette
quation
querre
quilibre
quivalence
quivalent
erlenmeyer
talon
tat
tincelle
tude graphique
valuation
valuer
vapration
expansibilit
expansible
exprience
exprimentalement
exprimentation
expos lair
extraction
extraire

a OhdEG
FHc
FHc
r pe
hdEG
hdEG
FHc e
Y
nre
IQGd q Ue
bW
jQGM bW
FHc bW
FGg bW
FV bW
T bW
qS
Y
nb
r S
Qpe
dOn e
Sc
RGJ
DaJ
Aae
Wh nQhr O
Qe
dM
IQGT
fH SGQO
J
Qs b ,s b

t J
QfG Hb
Qfd Hb
H
j
j
AGd Vhe
(GSG hCG) USG
SG

n W

extrmit

peY
er pM
j bGh
qn T
p
(nd hCG) qd jM
jpjpM
f
T
UUQ N
q Ue rS
r o S
(TQ hCG) MTQ
TJ
q Te
q TQ
Ise Lr M
HK
q b
n d
GG
n r pe
jdGgR
jpnf
jJ
ue
AaW
Fe
Ye
Sh Qa
qaJ
fG
U
OtOJ
MG
tJ
IU
QfG

facteur
faisceau
fait exprimental
fente
fer doux
ferrite
fiche (lecticit)
figure
fil plomb
fil de connexion
filament
filtrat
filtration
filtre
filtrer
fiole jauge
fixe
flacon
flamme
flau de la balance
fleur de soufre
flocon
floculation
floculent
flottant
fluide
fluidit
fluorescine
flux
fondre
formule
frquence
frottement
fuite
fusible
fusion

G
galvanomtre
gaz
188

efZ
RZ

gazeux
gnrateur
gnrateur de courant lectrique
graduation
graduer
grandeur
grandissement
graphe

RZ
qde
FHc qde
jQJ
sQO
QGe
J
H SQ

initial
instrument
intensit
interaction
interprtation
interrupteur
intervalle
inversement proportionnel
iodure

H
halogne

ion

Ldg
Ic f
fe Z
fe
aCG
HWQ
geEG
GQg
dGhoQrg
jdG hQo r g
ICn rM
n
fhQg
chQg
q Vn a

hmisphre
htrogne
homogne
horizontal
humidit
hydratation
hydrate
hydrognocarbonate
hydrognosulfate
hydrolyse
hydronium
hydroxyde
hypothse

ionique
isolant
isotope

J
jauge

identique
image
immerger
incandescent
incertitude
incidence
incident
incliner
inclinison
indformable
index
indicateur
indicateur color
indice
inflammable
ininflammable

Se
Ae IQaf
f jJ

jet deau
justification thorique

K
kilogramme

GZc
L

laboratoire

(n n T hCG) UCG Sf
U
f ,U
e
qge e
qU e
SY
HGQ
`qa
qN
dSEG
FS
fb
qW
Iue
AV

Aoe
qa Qe

laiton
lame
lamelle

I
idal

hq GC
Sh ,IGOCG
Iq T
Yn e
jhCJ
pWb

vY Se
QhOj
IOQT

q OQT
RY
f

lampe

q e
He
IQU
nZ
gq e
qJ
OhQh
OQGh
eCG
re
dG HK
dO
q TDe
s e Tc
jb
d
d Z

lampe incandescence
lampe diode
lentille
liaison
lige
linaire
liqufaction
liquide
loi
longitudianl
loupe
lumire
luminescence
lumineux
lunette astronomique

M
189

dBG

q Y
Ge
dH ndY
c
sbe QY
Gqe
IqOe
(N hCG) je
AZ
g S
Sb
r b
a
jW
jW
UqbQ
e

r
RY Sh

q e
fOCG q M
IBGe
G qHb
d Hb
n
P
IAg
OMCG
RGdH cJ
dH cJ

q n pe
FHc q
rNQ
e

machine
macroscopique
manganate
manipuler
masse
masse marque
matriel
matire
mlange
membrane
mnisque
mersurer
mesure
mtal
mthode
mthode analytique
mtronome
mica
microscopique
milieu isolant
minral
minimum
miroir
miscibilit
miscible
mode (le)
modle
molcule
mono
montage en parallle
montage en srie
mortier
moteur lectrique
mou
multimtre

nomenclature
normale (direction)
normalement
normalis
notation
noyau
O
objet

niveau
niveau eau
nud
nombre ngatif

Oq e L
eq Y Me
OGq S
u
q Y
QGne
qY
gn oa
pee
HHdG Ge
o VJ
Se VJ
IGOCG
r a
p rcDeo
hRhCG

observations courantes
obturateur
oprateur
opration
orbite
organique
orifice
orthogonal
oscilloscope cathodique
osmose
osmose inverse
outil
ouverture
oxydant
ozone

P
paille
papier filtre
par (en) dfaut
par (en) excs
paraffine
parallle
paralllpipde
paralllogramme
parcours
parfait

N
nitrate

pLe OY
pJ
pee
jOY
se
TCJ
IGf

nombre positif

paroi
particule

Gf
ie
Ae Ge
IY
dS OY

pastille
pendule
priodique
permanganate
190

WqT
TdG Qh
dH
IOjdH
aGH
mRGe
G RGe
VCG RGe
inne
qe
QGL
ArL
roM
SGf
QhO
eH

perpendiculaire
phase
phnol phtaline
phnomne
phosphate
pile
pince
pince crocodyle
pince en bois
pipette
piston
pivot
plan
plan (adj)
plaque
plat
plateau
plot
pointe
polarisation
ple
ple ngatif
ple positif
pompe
poreux
porosit
potentiel
poudre
poulie
prpartion
presseion atmosphrique
prise de courant
prisme
procd
propagation de la lumire
proportionnel
proprit (ou caractristique)
puret

q OY
Qr W
da a
IgX
Sa
qL OY
jOrQnR
Tqc
N Tq c
q Ue
e
nJh
meo
soe
(U hCG) Md
e
qc
b
cT
SG
ob
dS b
Le b
qpe
m e
ene
L
e
IH

q L V
QdG e
QTe
Y jW
AdG QfG
Se
q UN
Ihf

R
radial

quantitatif

YT
T
TEG
Ye
oYJ
qe
AYh
q Y
SfG
IYb
q f
H r SQ
ehe
due
U
HU
QU
CGU

rayon
rayonnement
ractif (raction)
raction
rcepteur
rcipient
rciproque
rflexion
rgle
relatif
reprsentation graphique
rsistance
rhostat
rigide
rigidit
robinet
rouille

S
saumtre
saumatre (eau)
saumure
section
segment de droite
sen non passant
sens
sens direct
sens du courant
sensibilit
sensible
sparation
srie
solide
solidification
solidifier (se)
solubilit
soluble

Q
qualitatif

he

quartz

solution

qYf
q q c

soucoupe
191

(q eh de hCG) LCG
LCG Ae
G f nne
e
e b
qdG qJG
G
Te qJG
QdG G
SM
Sq M
r a
S
o U
t
s
dfG
fd Hb

(U hCG) JH

GOU
J
r H
IOq e
jc
Fe Sf jc
Sf jc
S
(q M S hCG) rU
eQ
K
f

soude
strilisation
structure
substance
sulfate
sulfate de cuivre anhydre

sulfate de cuivre
surface
surface libre
symbole
symtrie
systme

variable
variation
vase
vase dversement
vases communicants
vrole
verre
verre pied
verre de montre
vertical
verticale (nom)
vide
vis

T
tableau

viscosit

hL
IQGM LQO
dG e
f
QGpe
b
T
q pe
Qen
rf
q
T
UEG
UCG
fCG
fG fG
QNG fCG
e fCG
LLR fCG

temprature
terrain de golf
texture
thermomtre
tige
toile
tournevis
trajectoire
transfert
transformateur
transparent
transvasement
transvaser
tube
tube dgagement
tube essais
tube coud
tube en verre

volatil
voltamtre
volume

U
ultraviolet

H a
e
IMh

uniforme
unit

V
valeur absolue
valeur nominale
vapeur
vaporisation

e b
SEG b
QH
J
192

q e
t J
AfEG
a AfEG
be mGhCG
FGg a
SCc ,c
QNG SCc
YS LR
bT
bT qN
Ga
ZH
Lhd
je
da
M