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Crash Course on Answering Communication Studies - Paper 1B

You are given 5 minutes before the extract is read to carefully read and internalize the questions that have been presented to you. The extract will be read to you twice, it is advised to scribble down some pointers to help you remember key things about the extract and notes to help you with your answers while the extract is being read the first time. The second time it is read, you are carefully internalizing the passage itself. Listen for literary devices and figures of speech and make note of them. 20 minutes will be given to you to fully answer the four questions you have been given.

(b) If part (a) asked for identification of devices, you will be asked to give examples of them. 3. If previously asked about the devices, or figures of speech you will be asked to comment on the effectiveness of one or more of them on helping the speaker achieve their purpose or point. 4. The fourth question is variable and can range from identification of emotions in the extract to physical descriptions.

How to begin effectively answering the questions posed.

To begin answering the question about the main point or purpose, you must have a clear understanding of the difference between the MAIN POINT and the MAIN PURPOSE in order to not get the question entirely wrong. What is the Main Point? The main point of an extract is the same as the main idea of the entire piece. It refers to those words/sentences that capture the essence of the overall piece of writing. The main idea is generally found in the first or last sentences of the introductory paragraph. However, sometimes it is not stated and has to be inferred from the passage A good topic statement does two things. First, it tells about an essay's topic. Second, it presents the writer's attitude, opinion, idea or point about that topic What is the Main Purpose? The purpose of a piece of writing is generally evidenced by the type of discourse used. It utilizes elements of exposition, description and narrative. It basically is why the extract was written.

General questions posed.

Questions will always vary to some extent but they usually always come in the following format irrespective of number. 1. (a) In a sentence of no more than 30 words, state the main purpose of the speaker. Alternatively, you can be asked to state the main point of the speaker in a sentence of no more than 30 words. (b) Give pieces of information (ranging in number from 2 5) that you used or that helped you to arrive at the main purpose or the main point as the case may be. 2. (a) You will be asked to give evidence from the passage that supports a statement for example: Identify FOUR details about Havana which support the claim that 'the years have taken toll on its architectural riches or you may be asked to identify devices used by the speaker in the extract.

Mistakes to Avoid in Examination.

DO NOT STAT the main point and the purpose as the same thing. They may be similar in content but how you state it in your responses should be clearly different: REMEMBER The main point is that.... The purpose is to.... Once you have written down enough points while the extract was being read, or you have a very vivid memory, identifying the pieces of information YOU used to arrive at either your main point or main purpose should be relatively easy. If you cannot remember the exact phrase, paraphrase it.

Verbal Irony (sarcasm is the tone of voice/writing) The contrast between what is said and what is actually meant. For example, He did an excellent job of making a mess. Irony of Situation This refers to a happening that is the opposite of what is expected or intended. For Example: The wedding of a son causes a marital breakdown for the parents. C. DEVICES OF COMPARISON METAPHOR Compares by stating the element is the item of comparison e.g. The lawyers claws were out and he would not stop until they drew blood, ANALOGY Extends a metaphor to compare a situation or particularly to explain a complex item by using a familiar item to structure the explanation. E.g. Exam preparation is like baking a cake all the ingredients must be used and preparations thorough before baking. Firstly the ingredients: study which is lightened with periods of recreation, physical health, managing stress. (The analogy would continue for several paragraphs even) SIMILE Compares two unlike objects using like, as, resembles, looked as though etc. e.g. His exam worries even after the event were as if a rat was gnawing at his brain. PERSONIFICATION Compares non-human, inanimate elements OR abstract concepts to using HUMAN qualities e.g. The building stared down at him daring him to enter OR Justice is never kindly but it is ruthlessly fair. If the qualities are not human then the comparison is a metaphor e.g. A beast of a car.

Identifying the figures of speech or literary devices should be easy as well if you wrote down enough pointers. Here are some devices/ language techniques (adapted from capecommstudies.blogspot.) that are commonly found within paper 1B. A. CONTRAST The two widely differing elements are contrasted using a common value to convey further information about one or both elements. The differences between them often intensify either their positive or negative qualities. They frequently will be opposites. For example the warmth of the Caribbean with the cold winter of the United States (comparison point temperature). Contrasts also can be metaphorical. B. IRONY Irony is the contrast between what is expected or what appears to be and what actually is. For example, A clumsy ballet dancer.

ALLUSION Makes reference to familiar classical, biblical, historical or other well known cultural events. For example: Writers often allude to Anansi-like cunning. D. DEVICES OF EMPHASIS

HYPERBOLE Exaggerates qualities of an element or an overstatement (sometimes for comedic effect). For Example: I am so hungry I could eat a cow.

Commenting of the effectiveness of the device would just be to state why you think the writer used that particular device to draw attention to the main point or purpose. E.g. In the extract about how people react during an earthquake, the literary device simile was identified. It was used to describe the reaction of the people to that of scampering ants in the presence of the earthquake to show the panic and fright caused. Again once you wrote down enough information or remember enough key points the other question will simply be application of knowledge. E.g. for the extract about Havana and its old buildings, the question State FOUR details of the physical setting presented in this extract was asked. The model answer for this was:

REPETITION Uses repetition of either words, phrases or even a whole sentence. It only counts as repetition if the phrase or sentence has been used more than twice. The same point can also be stated in various ways. For Example: What if I do not make it, what if I cannot pass, what if I fail?

-cracked concrete
-elegant single-storey houses -brand-new smoked-glass shopping centres -battered buildings.

DEVICES USING SOUND Alliteration The repetition of initial consonant sounds barely blowing by Assonance The repetition of similar vowel sounds- grows below grounds Onomatopoeia - the word sounds like the sound- the hooting of the owls, the drip of water.