Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 168

UNIVERSITATEA CONTANTIN BRNCUI, TG.

-JIU FACULTATEA DE TIINE JURIDICE I LITERE

ASISTENT UNIVERSITAR DRD. PAICU ADINA

Ghid de Limb Englez (Teorie i aplicaii practice)

NOTA AUTOAREI Acest suport de seminar se adreseaz n principal studentilor i celor care urmeaz cursuri de nvare a limbii engleze, prezentnd noiunile de gramatic ntr-o manier clar i concis. Studierea principalelor noiuni de gramatic este cu att mai uoar cu ct acestea sunt structurate n capitole i subcapitole. Un alt aspect care face mai plcut studierea noiunilor de gramatic sunt textele existente la nceputul fiecrui capitol i care pot fi citite i traduse n limba romn acest lucru favoriznd i studierea vocabularului aferent. La sfritul fiecrui capitol de gramatic exist o parte practic cuprinnd o serie de exerciii cu grade diferite de dificultate care ajut la fixarea respectivelor noiuni.

Ist YEAR OF STUDY GRAMMAR

UNIT I: THE VERB FOCUS: 1. TYPES OF VERBS 2. VERBAL FORMS 1. TYPES OF VERBS Verbele din limba englez pot fi mprite n mai multe categorii: 1.1.Verbe auxiliare 1.1.1. DO 1.1.2. BE 1.1.3. HAVE 1.2. Verbe semi-auxiliare 1.3. Verbe modale 1.4. Verbe modale 1.5. Verbe semi-modale 1.6. Verbe regulate i neregulate 1.7. Expresii verbale

1.1. THE AUXILIARY VERBS (VERBELE AUXILIARE) A. EXPLICAII GRAMATICALE B. EXERCIII Categoria verbului este una dintre cele mai importante categorii din gramatica limbii engleze. Verbele din limba englez au mai multe sub-categorii printre acestea fiind verbe auxiliare i verbe semiauxiliare. Aceste verbe auxiliare i semiauxiliare pot avea valori diferite. De exemplu, to have, to be i to get sunt folosite att ca verbe principale cu neles de sine stttor dar, n acelai timp, pot s i piard nelesul de baz atunci cnd nsoesc alte verbe n alctuirea timpurilor verbale compuse. n acest caz ele adopt nelesul verbelor pe care le nsoesc. VERBELE AUXILIARE pot fi mprite n:
A. Verbe auxiliare de timp: to have, shall/should, will/would. B. Verbe auxiliare de mod: shall/should, may/might, to let. C. Verbe auxiliare de aspect: to be, will/would. D. Verbe auxiliare de diatez: to be, to get.

Eg. 1: I have done it. I have a box. Eg. 2: They were here yesterday. Are you from this part of the country?
4

Verbele auxiliare au anumite caracteristici: 1. Atunci cnd fac parte din anumite structuri gramaticale ele i pierd nelesul de baz i l iau pe cel al structurilor din care fac parte. Eg.: I am going home after I finish my lectures. 2. Au aceleai categorii gramaticale de diatez, mod, timp, persoan sau numr ca i verbele pe care le nsoesc. Eg.: Mary was given a rose. You are writing a novel now.
3. Verbele auxiliare sunt folosite n rspunsurile scurte i ntrebrile disjunctive:

Eg.: 'Do you like this book?' 'Yes, I do.' You are going to go there, arent you? 4. Trebuie tiut faptul c verbele auxiliare sunt folosite att cu formele lungi ct i cu cele contrase. Formele lungi sunt folosite mai ales n engleza oficial n timp ce formele scurte pot fi ntlnite mai mult n engleza de zi cu zi. Eg.: 'Excuse me, do you have a pen?' 'Yes, I have'. Today, I dont have time for shopping.

Formele contrase ale verbelor auxiliare la afirmativ nu pot fi folosite n urmtoarele situaii: n rspunsuri scurte: Eg.: 'Has he got a new bike?' 'Yes, he has.' n propoziii interogative: Eg.: Where did he go? n partea final a propoziiilor disjunctive: Eg.: He wasnt there, was he?
A. TO BE

Cel mai des ntlnit verbul copulativ este TO BE. Aa cum am explicat mai sus, TO BE are sens de baz, el nsemnnd a fi. Atunci cnd este asociat cu alte pri de vorbire l adopt pe al acestora. Este folosit ca verb principal, verb auxiliar (de aspect i diatez), verb copulativ i echivalent modal: Forma afirmativ este: am, are, is, is, is, are, are, are. Formele interogativ i negativ ale timpurilor prezent i trecut se construiesc fr ajutorul auxiliarului DO: Eg.: I am a good student.
6

Are you coming with us? He is not the right person for you. Ca verb auxiliar, TO BE este folosit: La construirea, mpreun cu participiul trecut al verbelor noionale, formelor aspectului continuu. Ca verb copulativ, n afar de ntrebuinrile obinuite, el este folosit la prezent sau la trecut, cu participiul trecut al ctorva verbe intranzitive ca: to come, to go, to set etc. Eg.: The guests were all gone. The postman is coming. Ca echivalent modal avnd sensul de a trebui sau a urma, este folosit la timpurile prezent i trecut ale modului indicativ mpreun cu infinitivul lung al verbelor noionale pentru a exprima: 1. un aranjament cu caracter viitor: Eg.: You are to be visited by your friend next week. 2. o necesitate, o obligaie: Eg.: He is to write a book. 3. La persoana a-III-a singular i plural mpreun cu prezentul verbului de conjugat pentru a arta un ordin:

Eg.: You are to report to the commander at 12 a.m.

B. TO HAVE Este folosit ca verb principal, verb auxiliar de timp i echivalent modal. Forma afirmativa este: have, have, has, has, has, have, have, have. Spre deosebire de verbul To Be, interogativul i negativul verbului To Have se formeaz att cu ajutorul lui DO ct i singure: Eg.: The children have an interesting idea. Have you participate to this show? I have not come here for nothing. Do you have pencils? 1. Verbul HAVE este folosit la interogativ i negativ cu forma TO DO atunci cnd

este considerat verb principal cu sensul de a avea artnd c deinem ceva pentru o perioad scurt de timp sau cu sensul de a primi, a lua. Eg.: You didnt have to come here for this. Did you have to behave like this? 2. Verbul HAVE poate fi folosit cu sensul de a mnca, a se simi bine, sau a lua: Eg.: I had already eat. She had the time of my life.

3.

Atunci cnd este folosit ca verb auxiliar, TO HAVE ajut, la fel ca i TO BE, la

formarea timpurilor compuse cum ar fi: prezentul continuu, trecutul continuu, viitorul continuu, prezentul perfect, mai-mult-ca perfectul etc. Eg.: She has come often. John has been reading this book since weve gone. 4. Se folosete ca echivalent modal, cu sensul de a trebui, combinat cu infinitivul

lung al verbelor noionale, pentru a exprima o obligaie sau o necesitate atunci cnd nlocuiete timpurile lips ale lui must. Eg.: He has to participate to lectures. TO DO Este folosit doar ca verb principal cu sensul de a face i ca verb auxiliar. Forma afirmativ este: do, do, does, does, does, do, do, do. Formele interogativ i negativ se construiesc cu ajutorul aceluiai verb. Eg.: I do this every day. Do you do this work often? You didnt do anything wrong. Verbul TO DO este folosit ca: 1. ajutor n formarea propoziiilor interogative i negative att la timpuri prezente ct

C.

i la timpuri trecute.

Eg.: Do you like this book? I did come here for nothing. 2. n ntrebri de confirmare sau infirmare Eg.: Mary participates to this party, doesnt she? 3. pentru a sublinia ceva evident Eg.: I do want to help you. 4. la construirea formei negative a modului imperativ a verbelor principale inclusiv a

lui TO BE. Eg.: Dont do this ever again! Do they work as much as before? Did you came here yesterday? 5. verbul TO DO poate fi folosit cu sensul sau de baz de a face i n acest caz

este aproape ntotdeauna urmat de terminaia ing. Eg.: Jane is bakeing a cake.

ATENIE! Aa cum am spus mai sus verbul to do poate fi folosit i cu sensul de a face o aciune. n acest caz trebuie subliniat diferena de sens ntre acesta i verbul make.
10

n general verbul do are sensul de a se implica ntr-o activitate: Eg.: What are the children doing? They are making little cookies. n timp ce verbul make are sensul de a face ceva: Eg.: What is Tom making? He is making a model of a plane. Aceste dou verbe pot aprea i n expresii de tipul: DO Do bussiness; do harm; do good; do ones best; do the garden; do a good job; do the shopping; do a favour; do the washing up; do repairs; do ones duty; do someone a good turn; do an exercise; do ones hair; do homework; do an examination; do justice; do research; do something for the living etc. MAKE Make a journey; make an experiment; make a speech; make the best of it; make an attempt; make an attempt; make a mistake; make fun of someone; make a complaint; make arrangements; make a bargain; make the beds; make a fuss over; make a nuisance of oneself; make an progress; make an impression; make a profit; make an accusation, make an appointment; make a proposal etc. 1.2. THE SEMI-AUXILIAR VERBS (VERBELE SEMI-AUXLIARE) Aa cum am specificat mai sus verbele TO BE, TO HAVE sau TO DO pot fi folosite ca verbe semi-auxiliare atunci cnd ajut la formarea diferitelor timpuri verbale. n limba englez mai putem ntlni i o serie de construcii verbale care pot fi
11

considerate ca semi-auxiliare. Acestea sunt: be about to, be bound to, be certain to, have got to, fail to, tend to, happen to, turn aut to, be going to, be sure to, have to, come to, get to, appear to, seem to, proved to etc. EXERCISES (EXERCIII)
1.

Make up sentences using the following prompts, according to the model. (Alctuii propoziii folosind cuvintele urmtoare, conform modelului): wrong/right; busy/available; interested/bored; pretty/ugly; new/old; ill/healthy.

MODEL: I(not) wrong. I am not wrong. I am right. 1. He.(not) busy. 2. We(not) interested. 3. They..(not) pretty. 4. You(not) new.
5. She (not) ill. 1

2. Give short answers to the following questions. (Dai rspunsuri

scurte la urmtoarele ntrebri): MODEL: Is your teacher an interesting person? Yes, he is. No, he isnt.
1

Olea Ciuciuc, Eugenia Tnase, Curs de Englez General, Ed. Teora, Bucureti, 1998, pag.14

12

1. Is this Marys book? 2. Are they at home in the evening?


3. Are these the architects papers?

4. Have the Browns a beautiful house?


5. Is your son a student?

6. Can you translate the text? 7. Has Mrs. Johnson a new car? 8. Can Margaret speak Japanese?
9. Are these your apartments?2

3.

Read the passages and underline the forms of the verb TO BE. (Citii acest

pasaj i subliniai formele verbului TO BE):


1. My name is Alex Scott. I am a high school student. 2. My favorite subject is computer science. Computers are useful. They are also fun.

There are also many games that I like to play on my computer.


3. I have a sister. Her name is Betty. She is also sixteen. We are twins. 4. Betty and I are students in the same high school. Bettys favorite subject is

Spanish. Spanish is a beautiful language.


5. Our family is from northern California, but we live in San Diego. San Diego is in

the southern California.


6. The weather is generally worm in southern California. There is some snow in the

mountains but hardly any in the valleys. In the valleys it is usually sunny and hot. That is why the movie industry is here. And the Scott family!

Olea Ciuciuc, Eugenia Tnase, Curs de Englez General, Ed. Teora, Bucureti, 1998, pag. 31

13

4. Talk or write about the Scott family using the words below. Supply the right

forms of the verb BE. (Vorbii sau scriei despre familia Scott folosind cuvintele de mai jos. Completai cu formele verbului BE):
1. Alex Scott is 16 years old. 2. Alex.a high school student. 3. Alexs favorite subject.computer sciences. 4. Computersimportant to Alex. Computers.also fun.

5. There..many computer games that Alex likes to play. 6. Betty ..Alexs sister. She .also 16. 7. Alex and Betty.twins.
8. Theystudents in the same high school.

9. The Scotts..from northern California. 10.They.in San Diego now. 11.San Diego..in southern California. 12.The weatheralways warm in southern California.
5. Ask your partner questions using the words below. Have your partner answer

your questions. (Punei ntrebri colegului folosind cuvintele de mai jos. Colegul vostru va rspunde la ntrebri):

Model: Whats your name? My name is.. 1. How old/you? 2. What/your favorite subject? 3. Why/this your favorite subject?
14

4. Where/you from?
5. Where/your parents from?

6. What/the population of your town/village?


7. What/the weather like in your area in winter/summer?

6. Write down yours partners answers to the questions above. Use your notes to

describe your partner to the class. (Scriei rspunsul colegului vostru la ntrebrile de mai sus. Folosii-v de acestea pentru a v descrie colegul celorlali colegi): Model: This is my partner. His/Her name is.. . He/She isyears old.
7.

Read this passage, translate it and say which are the forms of the verb BE. (Citii acest fragment, traducei-l i spunei care sunt formele verbului BE):

FACTS ABOUT THE UNITED STATES


1. The United States is the fourth largest country in the world, in area. It has an area

of over 9 millions square kilometers. There are fifty states in the United States. Alaska is the largest. Rhode Island is the smallest.
2. The United States is the third largest country in the world, in population. Its

population is over 260 million. The largest state is California with a population of 35 million. Alaska, which is the largest state in area, is one of the smallest states in population. Its population is about one half million.
3. In general, the climate of the United States is temperate. There are differences,

however, from east to the west and from south to the north. In the northern half of the
15

country, there is snow in winter. In the southern half, there is less snow or no snow at all. The East Coast is better than the West Coast. In the southwest, there are some dry, semiarid areas.
8.

Make true sentences about yourself. Use the words below and suitable adverbs of frequency: always, often, usually, seldom, sometimes, occasionally, never. (Alctuii propoziii despre voi. Folosii cuvintele de mai jos i adverbele de frecven): Model: late Im never late.

busy idle impatient nervous

quiet shy talkative aggressive

generous punctual polite self-confident.3

9.

Fill in the blanks with the suitable forms of the verb TO BE. (Completai spaiile libere cu formele corespunztoare verbului TO BE):

1. Westudents at the Banking College. 2. Ia hard-working type of person. 3. They.not my enemies, they..my friends. 4. She...a very good typist. 5. You..in the seminar room right now.
6. My girl-friend..a good dancer.
3

Georgiana Gleanu-Frnoag, Debora Parks, Exerciii de Gramatic Englez, Timpurile Verbale, Ed. Paralela 45, Bucureti, 2000, p. 19-27

16

10.

Change the long, verbal forms into short ones. (Scriei formele verbale contrase corespunztoare exemplelor de mai jos): Model: He is not my colleague. Hes not/He isnt my colleague. They are my colleagues. Theyre my colleagues.

1. She is my friend. 2. Are you not an assistant to the General Manager? 3. They are not interpreters, they are translators.
4. I am always early, I am never late for school. 5. Its a new college, it is not an old one.

6. Are they not your teachers?


11. Transform these sentences into interrogative ones. (Transformai urmtoarele

propoziii n ntrebri): Model: He is a hard-working student. Is he a hard-working student? 1. They are both famous doctors.
2. The color of my pen is blue.

3. I am always at home after 8 a.m. 4. She is present.


5. You are at the office before 9 a.m. 6. We arent guilty. 17

12.

Give short answers to the following questions and translate them into Romanian. (Dai rspunsuri scurte ntrebrilor de mai jos i traducei-le n limba romn):

Model: Are all students present? Yes, they are. Is the teacher nervous? No, she is not. 1. Is Betty a good student? Yes,.. 2. Are you at home now? Yes,
3. Are you a French citizen? No,

4. Is this your English book? Yes,


5. Is Mrs. Srbu your new neighbor? Yes,

6. Are you at home in the afternoon? No,..


13. Translate into English. (Traducei n limba englez):

1. Suntei la serviciu azi? 2. Colega mea este o mare iubitoare de animale. 3. Mine dup-amiaz nu sunt acas. 4. Suntei ceteni britanici? 5. Toi prietenii mei sunt romni. 6. Nu sunt sigur de rezultatele eforturilor mele. 7. Dac suntem ateni la curs ne este mai uor s rezolvm exerciiile. 8. Nu suntei la cursuri?
18

9. Profesorii notri sunt foarte exigeni.


10. mi pare ru, am ntrziat.4

UNIT II FOCUS: PRONUMELE 2. CLASIFICARE 2.1. PRONUMELE PERSONAL 2.2. EXPLICAII GRAMATICALE 2.3. EXERCIII 2. CLASIFICARE Pronumele n limba englez poate fi clasificat n: 2.1. Pronumele personal 2.2. Pronumele posesiv 2.3. Pronumele self 2.4. Pronumele demonstrativ 2.5. Pronumele interogativ 2.6. Pronumele relativ 2.7. Pronumele indefinit 2.1. PRONUMELE PERSONAL
4

Olea Ciuciuc, Eugenia Tnsescu, Curs de Englez General, Ed. Teora, Bucureti, p. 21-23.

19

2.2. EXPLICAII GRAMATICALE Ca i n limba romn, pronumele personal arat persoanele care particip la un dialog (vorbitorul, interlocutorul) sau nlocuiete obiectul despre care se vorbete, are categoriile gramaticale de persoan, numr i caz i poate ndeplini funciile sintactice de subiect, nume predicativ, atribut i complement. n limba englez, pronumele i verbul sunt singurele pri de vorbire care au categoria gramatical a persoanei: Eg.: I am a teacher. He is a chemist. Aa cum bine tim n limba romn nu este ntotdeauna nevoie s fie prezent pronumele atunci cnd sunt folosite verbe. n limba englez, din contr, nu este propoziie fr pronume, el fiind singurul indicator al celorlalte persoane. ATENIE! n limba englez pronumele I se scrie ntotdeauna cu liter mare. Eg.: I come here all the time. Pronumele he/she sunt folosite cu valoare generic n propoziii care exprim un adevr universal.

n ceea ce privete categoria gramatical a genului, aceasta este vizibil numai la persoana a-III-a singular. Eg.: He will come tomorrow.
20

She is the best. Pronumele personal, persoana a-III-a, singular, it este folosit numai pentru lucruri i animale. Acest pronume nu are traducere n limba romn deoarece nu exist. Se traduce prin menionarea lucrului sau animalului respectiv. Eg.: It drinks milk every day. The cat drinks milk every day. Exist anumite verbe n limba englez care se folosesc cu pronumele personal it. Acestea sunt: find out, forget, know, manage, mind, refuse, remember, show, tell, try, understand etc. Eg.: It was forgoten for a thousand years. It mai poate fi folosit ntr-o fraz pentru a introduce evenimentele care urmeaz. Eg.: It is a shame you participate to this pharse. It is incredible: that man survived the crash. Mai putem ntlni acest pronume n propoziiile care nu au subiect clar definit pentru a introduce vremea, distana sau timpul. Eg.: It is still snowing outside. It is near this house.
21

Pronumele personal pentru persoana a-III-a, numrul plural este they. Acesta are aceeai form pentru feminin i masculin i nelesul lui poate fi dedus numai din context.

Eg.: They are building a house. The workers are building a house. They are washing every day. The girls are washing every day. ATENIE: Exist dou excepii de la regulile generale: It este nlocuit de pronumele personal he/she atunci cnd avem o pisic, cine etc. pe care le considerm membrii ai familiei noastre. Eg.: He is just a puppy. My brother and I love him very much.
2.

1.

He/She sunt folosite pentru a nlocui unele substantive animate sau inanimate care sunt de obicei neutre. Eg.: The ship/She left. Pronumele personal are dou numere: singular i plural
22

a. b.

Formele de singular ale pronumelui personal sunt: I, You, He, She, It. Formele de plural ale pronumelui personal sunt: We, You, They.
ATENIE: Pronumele personal you aceeai form pentru singular i plural. n limba englez

nu exist forme anume pentru pronumele de politee aa c aceasta form este folosit n acest scop. You se traduce prin dumneavoastr, dumneata, tu sau voi.

EXERCIII: 1. Translate the following sentences into Romanian and say which personal

pronouns are found in them. (Introducei urmtoarele propoziii i spunei ce pronume personale se gsesc n ele):
1. I know you are highly interested in modern technique and you hope to

become an engineer. 2. Dora prefers design to anything else. She is found of inventing beautiful shapes of all sorts of practical objects. 3. We are going to explain what a laser means. We have learnt of lot about that wonderful discovery of modern times and we are really fascinated. 4. The laser is a device that generates an intense, highly concentrated beam of light. Could you think that the laser is able to perform even medical operations? 5. Our friends Jack and Jill are often talking about the possibility of reaching some planet belonging to another solar system of our galaxy. They have already thought how to manage everything. You may guess that this is science fiction for the time being.
23

6. The essence of life is just the same for both plants and animals. It is something we cannot detect though we know about the existence of vital acids and their activity.
2.

Translate the following sentences into English, observing how the pronouns became necessary in this language. (Traducei urmtoarele propoziii n limba englez, observnd cum pronumele devin necesare n aceasta limb):

Trim pe o planet minunat. Este cea mai prielnic vieii dac o comparm cu celelalte planete ale sistemului solar. Ne putem bucura de condiii excepionale de lumin i cldur. Radiaiile care vin de pretutindeni sunt moderate. De care factor suntem protejai mpotriva lor? n primul rnd de existena nveliului gazos al Pmntului. De aceea trebuie s pstrm acest nveli cu foarte mult grij. Nu se cuvine s-l subiem sau s-i stricm echilibrata sa compoziie cu nimic. Natura este totui mai puternic dect noi i a creat de-a lungul milioanelor de ani condiii de via pe care nu le putem schimba fr a schimba viaa nsi, ceea ce este imposibil.
3.

Replace the subject nouns with feminine personal pronouns according them a sentimental value. (nlocuii pronumele subiecte prin pronume personale la feminin, acordndu-le un aspect sentimental):

1. The ship weighed anchor.


2. Our car has been painted again.

3. The sea is sometimes green. 4. Romania is a picturesque country.


24

5. Life is a wonderful phenomenon. 6. The airplane takes off at half past two. 4. Translate into Romanian the following sentences, in which the pronoun it was

used to indicate the time, the weather, the distance or is used as an impersonal expression. (Traducei, n limba romn, urmtoarele propoziii n care pronumele personal it este folosit pentru a indica timpul, vremea, distana ori este folosit ca i construcie impersonal):
1. What time is it? Its five past two.

2. Its a fine weather today.


3. Its rather worm at the seaside.

4. It is raining in the mountains. 5. It is freezing hard at the North Pole. 6. It is five miles to the next port. 7. It is possible to us to improve our English. 8. It is necessary for them to know it perfectly well if they what to get that job. 9. It seems the temperature of the Globe is increasing.
10. It appears the Sun will get its usual explosions very soon.5

Mariana ranu, Limba Englez, Sintez Gramatical complet prin enunuri i exerciii, Ed. Corint, Bucureti, 2002, p. 8891.

25

UNIT III FOCUS: ARTICOLUL 1. TEXT CU ARTICOLUL 2: EXPLICAII GRAMATICALE 2.1 CLASIFICARE: 2.1.1 ARTICOLUL HOTRT 2.1.2 ARTICOLUL NEHOTRT 2.1.3 ARTICOLUL ZERO 3: EXERCIII 1. TEXT CU ARTICOLUL Program Early To get up To turn on Teams Entertainment To provide News Piece of news Bathroom Cold Shower Morning Opportunity To practice Tunes To rub Face Neck Towel Blood To run To feel s. adv. v. v. s. s. v. s. s. s. adv. s. s. s. v. s. v. s. s. s. s. v. v. = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = Program Devreme A se scula A porni Echipe Divertisment A furniza tiri tire Baie Rece Du Diminea ans A practica Acorduri muzicale A freca Fa Gt Prosop Snge A alerga A simi
26

Anything Can To occur During To practice Neighborhood Soon Breakfast Unfortunately Heavy Ride Riser To wake up Downtown To miss Newspaper Anyway Drive

pr. v. v. prep. v. s. adv. s. adv. adv. s. v. s. v. s. v. s. adv. s. v.

= = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = =

Orice A putea A se ntmpla n timp ce A practica Vecintate Curnd Mic dejun Din nefericire Greu; aglomerat Plimbare A clri Matinal A se trezi Centru A rata Ziar Oricum Impuls A conduce

PHRASES To keep fit = a fi n form To have a breakfast = a servi micul dejun Out of habit = din obinuin To take a ride = a face o plimbare

TEXT: Read and translate this text in Romanian. (Citii i traducei acest text n Romn): MY DAILY PROGRAM:
27

My program starts very early every day. The first thing I do is get up and turn on the radio. I like listening to the Radio Total in the morning because they have young teams for entertainment and provide the latest news in an optimistic way. Next, I go into the bathroom and if it is not very cold, I have a shower to start my energetic morning and to have the opportunity of practicing some of the modern tunes from the radio. If it is a cold morning, I just rub my face and my neck with a special towel to make my blood run faster and soon I feel ready for anything can occur during that day. My favorite activity in the morning is to practice jogging in my neighborhood. I often meet my friends and talk about this and that while running. A cold shower comes next and soon I have breakfast. Like all the people who want to keep fit, I usually, have a heavy breakfast. It gives you the energy you need for a busy day. If I do not have enough time for jogging, I go to the office by bike. Unfortunately, the traffic is too busy for a morning ride. I am an early riser so I usually wake up at 6 oclock. I go to my office at 8 a.m. and go back at home at 4.30 p.m. I work 8 hours a day, which mean 40 hours a week. Sometimes in the afternoon, I go downtown to see a film or a play. I watch TV every evening and I never miss talk shows. I buy a newspaper every day, out of habit, but I do not have enough time to read it. Anyway, I read the daily horoscope, which gives me the drive for the everyday activities, of course, if it is optimistic. If not, I simply do not believe it!6 2. EXPLICAII GRAMATICALE 2.1 CLASIFICARE:

Olea Ciuciuc, Eugenia Tnsescu, Curs de Englez General, Ed. Teora, Bucureti, p. 38.

28

Articolul constituie un mijloc de individualizare a obiectelor i fenomenelor. El nu este o parte de vorbire de sine stttoare ci nsoete substantivul. n limba englez articolul are urmtoarele forme: articolul hotrt: the articolul nehotrt: a sau an articolul zero 2.1.1 ARTICOLUL HOTRT: THE Articolul hotrt n limba englez are urmtoarele tipuri de pronunare:
a.

the se pronun [] naintea sunetelor consonantice

Eg.: the pupil; the house


-

naintea sunetelor semi consonantice reprezentate de obicei prin literele: u, y, w.

Eg.: the university, the window, the year, the one.


b.

the se pronun [i(:)]

naintea sunetelor vocalice

Eg.: the artist

29

naintea lui h mut:

Eg.: the honor; the heir; the hour; the honest man. Articolul hotrt identific un membru anume al unei clase i este folosit n mai multe situaii:
1. Articolul hotrt este folosit cu substantive al cror neles este dedus din

context. Eg.: the door, the window, the table, the wind, the sky, the ground, the town hall, the police station, the hospital, the radio, the press, the telephone, the sun, the moon, the stars. Close the window, will you? The wind blows so hard tonight. Can you tell me who is on the phone? The telephone is a marvelous invention. Tonight, the moon will be full.
2. Articolul hotrt apare naintea unor substantive care sunt reprezentante ale

unei categorii de obiecte, fiine sau animale: Eg.: The hall was occupied at its full capacity.
3. Articolul hotrt nsoete i substantive care apar n menionri anterioare:

Eg.: I saw this house last month. The house was still in construction yesterday.

30

4. Cea mai folosit ntrebuinare a articolului hotrt este cu numele proprii.

Acestea sunt nsoite de articol atunci cnd n structura lor apare un adjectiv sau un substantiv adjectival sau o construcie prepoziional.

Eg.: the United States of America the University of Craiova ATENIE: n cazul denumirilor de instituii alctuite din doi termeni i prepoziia of, articolul the apare chiar dac unul din termeni este omis. Eg.: the (river) Thames, the Tate (Gallery), the Pacific (Ocean) etc.
5. Articolul hotrt nsoete urmtoarele clase de nume proprii: substantive la

plural, denumiri geografice, nume de instituii, de ziare sau de nave etc. Eg.: the Alps, the Danube, the Thames, the Atlantic Ocean, the Sahara, the Lido, the National Theatre, the British Museum etc.

2.1.2 ARTICOLUL NEHOTRT: A, AN Cele dou forme ale articolului nehotrt sunt a i an. A nsoete cuvintele care ncep cu o consoan sau semiconsoan.

31

Eg.: I want to buy a magazine. An nsoete cuvintele care ncep cu un sunet vocalic sau h mut. Eg.: an arhitect, an orange, an hour etc. For this project I must see an arhitect. Articolul nehotrt ndeplinete urmtoarele funcii:
1. Este folosit pentru a introduce o noiune, un obiect sau o persoan care este

necunoscut asculttorului. Eg.: It was an interesting novel, the one I read last week. A man came and introduced himself to us.
2. Articolul nehotrt mai este folosit atunci cnd cel sau cea despre care se

vorbete este reprezentantul unei clase i nu este definit concret prin comunicare: Eg.: I saw a cat yesterday on the roof.
3. Articolul a sau an poate nlocui ca valoare numeralul one. n aceast situaie

el se folosete cu substantive numrabile la singular de obicei n serii numerice: Eg.: She has a dog, three cats and a bird.

32

4. El mai este folosit i cu numerale (n locul lui one):

Eg.: a/one hundred; a/one thousand 2.1.3 ARTICOLUL ZERO Substantivele nenumrabile, numrabile la plural sau numele proprii pot aprea ca nensoite de articol: Eg.: She drinks coffee every day. Dar, de fapt, el este prezent i se numete articolul zero. Ca i articolul nehotrt sau hotrt i articolul zero are anumite funcii: 1. Atunci cnd este folosit cu substantive nenumrabile, articolul zero indic o cantitate nedefinit: Eg.: You can buy vegetables and fruits at this supermarket. 2. Este des ntlnit n proverbe i n limbajul tiinific: Eg.: This supersonic broke the sound barrier. 3. Atunci cnd nsoete substantivele numrabile la plural, articolul zero arat membrii unei clase: Eg.: Cats and dogs love to play.
33

4. Articolul zero este des ntlnit cu numele proprii: Eg.: Peter is his best friend. Exist anumite categorii de nume proprii care sunt nsoite de articolul zero: Nume de persoane Eg.: Peter, Dr. Smith, lord Nelson etc. Numele membrilor familiei: Eg.: father, mother etc. Diviziuni de timp: zilele sptmnii, lunile anului sau srbtori etc. Eg.: Monday, May, Womans Day Denumiri geografice: nume de orae, ri, continente, lacuri sau muni etc: Eg.: Europe, Austria, Everest Nume proprii nsoite de substantive comune denumind cldiri, strzi sau poduri etc. Eg.: Bran Castle, Westminster Abbey, Oxford Street, London Bridge etc.

34

3.
1.

EXERCIII What is the right form of the indefinite article for the following nouns? (Care este forma corect de articol nehotrt?): Eg.: example an example, course a course

brother; economy; record; Eskimos; picture; dance; Australian; language; issue; problem; bussiness; English; newspaper; youth; student; village; Italian; story; family; leaf, way etc. 7
2. Read the following nouns and insert the corresponding indefinite and definite

articles. (Citii urmtoarele substantive utiliznd articolul nehotrt i hotrt corespunztor): programme; early-riser; breakfast; after-noon; friends; shower; talk-show; newspaper; horoscope; energetic afternoon; day; blood; evening; activity; neighbourhood.
3. Insert the right article where necessary. (Utilizai articolul corespunztor

acolo unde este cazul): 1. I am ..politician. 2. capital of.England is.London. 3. They are ..teachers.
4. .University of Bucharest is in.center of the city.

5. Times is one of ..most interesting newspapers in.United Kingdom and ..Northern Irland.
7

Olea Ciuciuc, Eugenia Tnsescu, Curs de Englez General, Ed. Teora, Bucureti, p. 21

35

6. I always havebreakfast in..morning.

7. To

study

in.Athens

is

one

of.

most

desirable

things

for..archaeologists. 8. He hasnt got punishment I think he deserves.


9. ..car like that seems to be very cheap. 10. He isright man for this job. 11. My husband is..difficult man. 12. They want to become.pilots.

4. Choose a job from the right column for each of the following people. (Alegei

din coloana din dreapta o slujba corespunztoare fiecrei persoane de mai jos): E.g.: Mr. Thomson is a businessman. Mr. Thomson Mrs. Johnson Mr. White Mr. Blackwell Sir James Mrs. Anderson Lady Ann Mr. Lloys Mrs. McCavin Ms. Danvers Accountant Electric fitter Mnufacturer Businessman Assistant Dean Writer Banker Porter Inventor

5. Turn the following sentences into the plural. (Transformai urmtoarele propoziii la plural): E.g.: I am a teacher. We are teachers.
36

1. She is an economist. 2. Are you an assistant or a journalist? 3. An option is something you agree or disagree with. 4. He is an Englishman. 5. The engineer is not in the office. 6. A banker is a man who deals with the money. 7. The bookkeeper isnt in. 8. Is an accountant a good mathematician? 9. Mr. McCloud is a trainer, he is not a trainee.
6. Turn the following sentences into the singular. (Transformai urmtoarele

propoziii la singular): 1. We are students. 2. The men are businessmen and the women are businesswomen. 3. The Browns are doctors. 4. Are you mechanics or drivers?
5. The Steinbecks arent politicians.

6. All my friends are officeworkers.


7. Loan officers are people who lend money.

8. Are your parents university lecturers? 9. They arent foreigners, they are strangers.

7. Insert

the

right

article.

(Completai

spaiile

libere

cu

articolele

corespunztoare): I havecar. It is .beauty. I like all.big cars but my car is.little one. Some people likespead; this is.cause of many accidents that occur nowadays.

37

..question is: what is to be done in order top revent them? .legislators are people who can answer this question. 8

8. Use the definite article the before the following geographical names. (Folosii

articolul hotrt the naintea urmtoarelor denumiri geografice): .Carpathians, .Alps, ..mont Retezat, ..Atlantic Ocean, ..Pacific Ocean, .Mediteranean Sea, Danube, Mississippi, ..Colorado, ..British Ilands, ..Shetlands, ..hebrides, ..Balea,..Como, .Ontario, .Panama,.Suez,..Gibraltar.

9. Say if the following sentences are true or false. (Spunei dac urmtoarele propoziii sunt adevarate sau false):
1. The European Regional Airlines Association deals with Europes air transport

system.
2. Today we are going to see the Antipa Museum. 3. The British Museum displays many interesting objects from remote countries.

4. The Intercontinental Hotel is the highest building in Bucharest.


5. We will get more electricity from the Cernavoda Atomic Power Station in the near

future.
6. The Titanic was a huge liner; its sinking could not be forgotten by anybody.

7. An old Romanian ship was called the Transylvania. 8. Have you ever read the Times? 9. Or have you read the Wall Street Journal?
8

Olea Ciuciuc, Eugenia Tnsescu, Curs de Englez General, Ed. Teora, Bucureti, p. 40-42

38

10.The Nelson Monument in Trafalgar Square is very tall.


11. The Victoria Memorial can be seen in front of the Buckingham Palace. 12. The European Council has settled a great number of international affairs.

13.A lot of people have received important supplies from the Red Cross.

10.Translate the English using the definite article the. (Traducei n limba englez folosind articolul hotrt the): 1. Soarele nostru i planetele lui fac parte dintr-o galaxie a Universului. 2. Luna reprezint un satelit natural al Pamntului. 3. Cosmosul nu i-a artat nc toate secretele.
4. Publicul a ascultat conferina despre zborurile spaiale cu mult atenie.

5. Punctele cardinale sunt: nord, sud, est i vest.

11. Translate into Romanian using the definite article the. (Traducei n limba

romn folosind articolul hotrt the):


1. We must not expect to get a reward for the good we do.

2. The beautiful has always been an ideal in art. 3. Some contemporary painters, sculptors and musicians have changed their ideas concerning the beautiful by addressing the irrational.
4. The hand is a perfect tool able not only to achieve the most complicate things, but

also to express our ideas and feelings by means of gestures. 5. They reflect the activity of the brains and the feeling of the hart as well.

39

12. Use the definite article the, to show a species or a category. (Folosii articolul

the pentru a desemna o specie sau o categorie):


1. .skylark may be the symbol of the morning.

2. .nightingale could mean a poetical night.


3. bear, .the fox, .wolf, all of them are animals to be found both in the

fables and in the fairy-tales. 4. trout lives in cold mountain rivers. 5. .bee is a hardworking insect. 6. .butterfly has got wonderful colors on its wings.

13. Translate and then read the following dates using the article the. (Citii i traducei urmtoarele date, folosind articolul hotrt the). 4 februarie, 20 martie, 5 aprilie, 12 iulie, 9 septembrie, 18 noiembrie.

14. libere):

Use the definite article the before the numerals to complete the sentences. the naintea numeralelor pentru a completa spaiile

(Folosii articolul hotrt

1. the first meridian of the world can be seen at Greenwich: it is just a steel

rail in the yard of the Observatory.


2. World War One (.the first World War) and World War Two (second

World War) meant awful periods in the history of the mankind. 3. Elisabeth I (..first) was an important queen of England. She was the daughter of Henry VIII. (.eight)
40

15.

Complete the following sentences with your own ideas, observing that they

include groups of words in which was used the definite article. (Completai cu propriile idei cele ce urmeaz, observnd c includ grupuri de cuvinte n care s-a folosit articolul hotrt): the day after tomorrow; ..the day after yesterday; ..all the year round; ..the right time; ..the time being; pass the time; ..the street;.the bottom of the lake. ARTICOLUL NEHOTRT 16. Fill in the following expressions. (Completai urmtoarele expresii):

.egg;.arm;umbrella;..wing; year; .university.

17.

Translate into English. (Traducei n limba englez): 1. Citim despre farfurii zburtoare n toate publicaiile tiinifico-fantastice.
2. tim o mulime de lucruri despre computere, dar nu le putem nelege. 3. Fizica modern se ocup de atomi, electroni ncercnd s descopere structura

materiei. 4. Laserul genereaz raze puternice.


5. Aparate electronice de toate tipurile vin n sprijinul omului modern.

6. Totui ceasurile electronice nu mai sunt la mod.

41

18.

Fill in the blanks with the indefinite article. (Completai spaiile libere cu

articolul nehotrt): 1. The pupils welcomed ..Englishmen in their school. 2. He was accompanied by .Scotsman.
3. Frenchwoman has brought toys, sweets and cloths for the orphan pupils of a

school in Trgovite.
4. We met. Swede at an international congress.

5. Spaniard told us about his fascinating country.


6. .Greek has come to Constana transporting some goods from Egypt.

7. .Pole has invited us to see Poland.

19.

Fill in the following sentences with names of professions using the indefinite

article before them. (Completai urmtoarele propoziii cu nume de ocupaii i profesii folosind articolul nehotrt naintea lor):

1. Toms father works in an office, he is. 2. His mother works in a hospital, she is.
3. Toms elder brother reads law, he is

4. Toms younger sister knows how to play the piano, she will be.. 5. Toms grandfather worked in the army, he was.

20.

Use the indefinite article instead of the numeral one in the following sentences.

(Folosii articolul nehotrt n locul numeralului one n urmtoarele propoziii):

42

1. I have bought one doll and two teddy bears for my little nice.

2. My friend has bought one magazine for herself and three newspapers for her family. 3. Fetch one knife and four carrots, please.
4. The painter has used several brushes for his oil color and one big palette.

21.

Say which from the following sentences express truths and underline the

indefinite article. (Spunei care din urmtoarele propoziii exprim adevruri i apoi subliniai articolele nehotrte):
1. We like to be on holiday once a year only.

2. The violin and the violoncello are of a size.


3. You must take care not to break the dishes when washing up. 4. Many friends have gathered in that narrow room to dance.

5. Do you take a fancy to wear shorts in winter?


6. It is a pity not to attend a good concert.

7. They drove at a speed of 60 km. an hour.


8. You cannot kill many flies at a blow. 9. They were in a nice mood when they lost their way in the wood. 10. Yesterday a comet appeared all of a sudden. 11. We are in a hurry to eat all the chocolates we find in a box. 12. We cannot make a comparison between summer and winter.

22.

Answer the following questions and explain the exceptions. (Rspundei al

urmtoarele ntrebri i explicai excepiile):


1. Have you ever been to Great Britain?

2. Is Warwickshire the province in which Shakespeare was born?


43

3. Have you seen Holland? 4. Have you visited Hague? 5. Have you read anything about Argentina? 6. Can you show me the Sudan and the Congo on the map of Africa?
7. Washington or New York is the capital of the United States.

8. What do you know about the climate of Canada?

23.

Translate into English. (Traducei n limba englez): 1. Ne sculm de diminea n fiecare zi a sptmnii.
2. Duminica uneori plecm din ora, n special primvara i toamna cnd vremea este

ct se poate de plcut n ara noastr. 3. Ne dorim s facem excursii lungi n zilele clduroase din iulie i august.
4. Dar suntem gata s pornim ctre muni n decembrie cnd este ger i zpada este

strlucitoare.9

Mariana ranu, Limba englez, Ed. Corint, Bucureti, 2002, p. 23-26.

44

UNIT IV FOCUS: ADJECTIVUL 1. TEXT CU ADJECTIVUL 2. EXPLICAII GRAMATICALE 2.1. CLASIFICAREA ADJECTIVELOR 2.2. ORDINEA ADJECTIVELOR 2.3. ADJECTIVE I ADVERBE 2.4. COMPARAIA ADJECTIVELOR 3. EXERCIII

1. TEXT CUPRINZND TIPURI DE COMPARAII ALE ADJECTIVELOR

Abroad Adjective Airplane Attentive Care Community Comparison Contribution Development Engine To grow, grew, grown Healthy Hospital Joyful

adv. s. s. adj. s. s. s. s. s. s. s. v. v. adj. s. adj. adj.

= = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = =

n strintate Adjectiv Aeroplan Atent Grij 1. Comunitate 2. Colectiv Comparaie Contribuie Dezvoltare Motor 1. A crete 2. A dezvolta Sntos Spital 1. Bucuros 2. Vesel
45

Life Medical Motor Musician To owe, -ed Patient Philosopher Plant Power-station Press-reporter Profession Research-work Satisfaction Science Sculptor To send sent sent Visit PHRASES:

s. adj. s. s. v. v. s. adj. s. s. s. s. s. s. s. s. s. v. s.

= = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = =

Via Medical Motor Muzician A datora A deine 1. Pacient 2. Rbdtor Filozof Uzin Central electric Reporter Profesie Munc de cercetare Satisfacie tiin Sculptor A trimite Vizit

To pay somebody a visit a face cuiva o vizit To give somebody (medical) care a acorda cuiva ngrijire (medical) Anything else orice altceva To grow older a mbtrni Hes perfectly right are perfect dreptate TEXT: Read and translate this text in Romanian. (Citii i traducei acest text n Romn): Maria: Good-afternoon, everybody. Adrian: Good-afternoon, Maria. You look very happy today.
46

Maria: Well, yes, I am. One of my patients paid me a visit today to thank me for the care I gave him when he was in my hospital. He looked so healthy and strong again and so joyful that it really made me happy. Liza: You have a nice job, Maria. I think it is much nicer to be a doctor than everything else. Maria: Of course, I love my job very much, but I think it is also interesting to be an engineer and build factories and bridges and power stations or big ships and airplanes. Alexandra: When I was younger I thought that the most beautiful thing was to be a cinema or theatre star. But, I cant say that I dont love my job, now. I write letters in French, I type texts in Russian. Now, I am learning English. And I find it is very satisfying to be able to read books in foreign languages. George: I think the most interesting thing is to be a journalist, especially if you are sent abroad as a press reporter.You can then learn everything about the whole world. Victor: The nicest thing, I think, is to be a teacher. When you grow older you see thousands of people around you who were taught by you and who owe something to you. Eva: As a teacher, I love my profession but I think theres nothing which brings more satisfaction in life than research work, which means your contribution to the development of science.10

2. EXPLICAII GRAMATICALE 2.1. CLASIFICAREA ADJECTIVELOR Adjectivul din limba englez se clasific n:

10

Virgiliu tefnescu-Drgneti, Adrian Nicolaescu, Victor Hanea, Limba Englez Curs Practic, Ed. tiinific, Bucureti, pag. 270-271

47

1. Adjective proprii. Acestea nsoesc de obicei substantivele acordndu-le acestora

valoarea unui nume propriu. Eg.: French language, Chinese towns, American landscape ATENIE! Acest tip de adjective se scrie ntotdeauna cu litere mari.
2. Adjectivele descriptive. Acest tip de adjective arat calitile sau defectele unui

obiect sau ale unei persoane. Eg.: a beautiful house, a ugly face
3. Adjective cantitative. Aa cum sugereaz i numele aceste adjective indic

cantitatea: much, none, some any, enough, all, whole, half, few etc. Eg.: They say you have enough prouves. The whole world wated the news.
4. Adjectivele demonstrative: this, that, such, the same, the other, these, those, a, an,

any, a certain, such, some, another. Eg.: I never see such odacity before. Certain facts were presented there.
5. Adjective interogative: which, how, what, whose etc.

48

Eg.: What questions should I ask? Whose hat is it? 2.1. ORDINEA ADJECTIVELOR n general, n propoziia englez, adjectivul care nsoete un substantiv st ntotdeauna naintea substantivului pe care l determin. Eg.: an old lady, a short song n cazul n care dou sau mai multe adjective nsoesc un substantiv locul lor n propoziie este urmtorul: 1. la adjectivele care descriu obiecte se ncepe cu numrul acestora apoi urmeaz nsuirile, vrsta, marimea, forma, culoarea, materialul. Eg.: Many, interesting, new, all shaped, multicolored, silk cloths were sitted on chairs.
2.

la adjectivele care descriu o persoan se ncepe cu numrul, apoi calitile/defectele, nlimea, vrsta i se termin cu locul de provenien.

Eg.: In that room were five, beautiful, tall, young, international models. Un alt lucru care trebuie reinut este urmtorul: n limba englez locul adjectivelor n propoziie poate depinde i de forma adjectivelor. Mai precis, adjectivele scurte sunt aezate naintea adjectivelor lungi. Eg.: The book had an abrupt, unexpected ending.
49

ATENIE! Exist i cteva excepii de la regula general n ceea ce privete locul adjectivelor n propoziie. De exemplu:
-

adjectivele care intr n alctuirea unor nume proprii pot s stea dup substantiv.

Eg.: attorney general, court martial, by all means possible etc. - cnd aceste adjective intr n alctuirea numelor proprii: Eg.: Alfred the Great, William the Conqueror
-

cnd anumite cuvinte se temin n: - body, -one, thing adjectivul st dup.

Eg.: Look over there! That woman must be someone important. Did you see something nice there? 2.3. ADJECTIVE I ADVERBE De multe ori, n limba englez, adjectivele au aceeai form cu adverbele. Eg.: John is such a nice person. adjectiv This car is nice. adverb Ele pot fi transformate n adverbe clasice dac li se adaug terminaia ly.
50

Eg.: Nicely done you two! Trebuie menionat faptul c adjectivele i adverbele chiar dac au aceleai forme nu au ntotdeauna i acelai sens. Eg.: John felt bad at the thought he abandoned his mates. (guilty) After failing the examination she felt badly a whole week. (unhappy) n cazul verbelor: be, become, taste, feel, look, smell, sound exist anumite diferene n folosirea lor ca adjective sau adverbe. Ele sunt folosite ca i adjective atunci cnd actiunea se refer la subiectul propoziiei i ca adverbe atunci cnd actiunea propoziei se refer la verb. Eg.: The girl tastes the coffee she wants to buy. The coffee tasted by John was good. 2.4. GRADELE DE COMPARAIE ALE ADJECTIVELOR Adjectivul n limba englez ca i n limba romn exprim calitatea unui obiect: an interesting lecture i are categoria gramatical a comparaiei. Spre deosebire de limba romn unde adjectivul se modific n funcie de gen, numr, caz i comparaie, n limba englez nu se schimb n funcie de aceste categorii ci numai n funcie de comparaie. Eg.: El este un biat inteligent. He is a clever boy. Ea este o fat frumoas.
51

She is a beautiful girl. Categoria gramatical a comparaiei are n limba englez ca i n limba romn trei grade de comparaie: 1. GRADUL POZITIV Arat forma obinuit a unui adjectiv aa cum se gsete ntr-un dicionar. Eg.: nice, short, clever, exciting, beautiful etc. 2. GRADUL COMPARATIV Compar calitile sau defectele a dou sau mai multe adjective la diverse grade. n limba englez exist dou tipuri de comparaie: A. Comparaia scurt B. Comparaia lung A. Comparaia scurt se aplic n cazul adjectivelor care au maxim patru silabe n timp ce comparaia lung se folosete n cazul adjectivelor care au mai mult de patru silabe. Comparaia scurt adaug terminaia er pentru gradul comparativ i the i est pentru gradul superlativ. Eg.: small smaller the smallest = mic big bigger the biggest = mare short shorter the shortest = scurt, scund
52

happy happier the happiest = fericit

ATENIE! 1. Adjectivele terminate ntr-o consoan precedat de o vocal scurt dubleaz consoana respectiv: Eg.: big bigger the biggest fat fatter the fattest 2. Adjectivele terminte n y precedat de o consoan transform y n i: Eg.: dry drier the driest
3. Adjectivele terminate n e sau ee pierd e final naintea lui er sau est.

Eg.: nice nicer the nicest


4. Exist unele adjective care au fie numai comparaie scurt sau numai comparaie

lung. Adjective ca: fit, huge, calm, just, keen, kind, plain rare, stiff, vague etc. se compar n mod scurt n timp ce adjectivele de genul active, civil, common, hostile, constant, prudent, pleasant or sudden prefer comparaia lung. Tot n aceast ultim categorie se ncadreaz i adjective de tipul: carefull i different. B. Comparaia lung are urmtoarele subdiviziuni: Comparativul de inferioritate
53

Se formeaz prin adugarea cuvntului less naintea adjectivului i a cuvntului than dup adjectiv. Eg.: This film is less interesting than the other. Comparativul de egalitate Se formeaz prin adugarea expresiei asas la adjectiv. Eg.: He writes as beautiful as his sister. Comparativul de superioritate Se formeaz prin adugarea cuvintelor the most n faa adjectivului. Eg.: It is the most beautiful thing I ever seen. 3. GRADUL SUPERLATIV Gradul superlativ se formeaz n funcie de numrul de silabe din care este alctuit adjectivul. Adjectivelor monosilabice precedate de the li se adaug sufixul est. Eg.: great the greatest cheap the cheapest long the longest
54

Adjectivele formate din dou sau mai multe silabe sunt precedate de the most. Eg.: the most frightening the most beautiful the most important Adjectivele compuse formeaz gradele de comparaie astfel: Cnd primul element este un adjectiv care i pstreaz sensul acesta se schimb la comparativ i superlativ: Eg.: well-known better-known the best-known ill-paid worse-paid the worst-paid Cnd cele dou elemente formeaz un tot din punct de vedere al sensului, comparaia se realizeaz cu more i the most. Exist n limba englez o categorie special de adjective care nu formeaz gradele de comparaie ca restul adjectivelor. Acest tip de comparaie poart numele de comparaie neregulat a adjectivelor. Acestea sunt: good better the best = bun bad worse the worst = ru ill worse the worst = bolnav much more the most = mult many - more the most = muli, multe far further the furthest = departe (n spaiu i timp) old older the oldest = btrn, n vrst (folosit pentru fiine i lucruri)
55

old elder the eldest = btrn (folosit pentru fiine, n contexte ce sugereaz gradul de rudenie)

3. EXERCIII (EXERCISES):
1.

Put the adjectives in brackets in the correct order. (Punei adjectivele din parantez n ordinea corect):
1. Do you have.car? (a, racing, new)

2. The museum has..mirrors. (beautiful, very, some, Venetian, old) 3. blouse isnt in the wordrobe. (green, nice, silken, her)
4. ..names are Richard Christian. (first, sons, his, two) 5. She isdoctor. (woman, English, young, a, pleasant)

6. I hate..ladies. (three, ugly, those, old, boring) 7. .books are on sale this week. (or, new, geography, old, and, good, bad) 8. ..classes end at 8 oclock. (teachers, the, interesting, afternoon) 9. ..blouses are for you. (up-to-date, silk, three, these) 10. Mr. Brown is wearing ..suit. (long, a, becoming, very, grey)
11. Peter has already read..books. (English, several, easy, very)

12.acts were presented in a Romanian film. (Michael, courageous, brave, the, Braves, and) 13. Id like to have..teacher as you. (good, so, intelligent, and, a) 14. .laugh was heard. (musical, a, malicious, but) 15.This museum has.paintings. (Spanish, old, very, valuable, many) 16.I bought a pair of.shoes. (leather expensive Italian handmade) 17.Im looking for.clock radio. (white, a, Taiwanese, cheap, for my bedside table)
56

18. The car he drives is..sports car. (well-maintained, second-hand, a, with a low

2mileage)
19. I have in my dining room ..dining-table (well-plished, beautiful, the, antique,

mahogany, English) I bought from John. 20.I lost.trainers (canvas, American, a pair of, grey and red, which I use for jogging) 21.We live in a.cottage (stone build, small, old, country)
22. Im going to buy a..dress (cotton, summer, pink and white, for my holiday)11

2.

Choose the correct word (adjective or adverb) according to the meaning.

(Alegei cuvntul corect (adjectiv sau adverb) n funcie de sensul propoziiei):


1. That was a ..mountain. (high, highly)

2. Treat him..(fair, fairly) 3. Birds can fly.in the sky. (high, highly) 4. Still waters run.(deep, deeply)
5. He was.shocked. (deep, deeply)

6. The swan in the lake. (deep, deeply) 7. The book cost..(dear, dearly) 8. He loves his son(dear, dearly) 9. He acted (cool, cooly) 10.This is a ..task. (hard, hardly) 11.He worksfor the exams. (hard, hardly) 12.He has..worked this week. (hard, hardly) 13.He was..to me. (kind, kindly) 14.Boxers are not allowed to hit..(low, lowly) 15.His position is..(low, lowly) 16.That was..a good attempt. (pretty, prettily)
11

Mihai M. Zdrenghea, Anca L. Greere, A Practical English Gramar with exercises, Ed. Clusium, 1999, Cluj-Napoca, pag. 91

57

17. Ill sell you the car (cheap, cheaply) 18.Send this letter..(express, expressly) 19.You played me..; you shall pay for it. (false, falsely) 20.I did not; you accused me ..(false, falsely) 21.I got off first in the race but managed to come..(last, lastly) 22.And,..Id like to thank all those who helped me. (last, lastly)
23. Weve been receiveing a lot of junk mail(late, lately)

24.I dont think youve been treated very.. (just, justly)


25. Ifell off the edge of the platform! (near, nearly)12

3.

Using the expression as..as to indicate the quality, translate into English

the following sentences. (Folosind expresia as..as pentru a indica egalitatea traducei n limba englez urmtoarele propoziii): 1. Dicionarul meu este tot att de gros ca i dicionarul tu. 2. Explicaiile crii tale de gramatic sunt tot att de interesante ca i explicaiile din cartea mea.
3. Exemplele pe care le dai tu sunt tot att de uoare ca i exemplele pe care le dau

eu. 4. Show the forms of the comparative and superlative of the adjectives in

brackets. (Spunei care sunt formele de comparativ i superlativ ale adjectivelor din paranteze): a. A poplar is (tall than an apple-tree). b. Peonies are (big) than roses. c.
12

A garden with flower-beds is (nice) than a simple lawn.

Mihai M. Zdrenghea, Anca L. Greere, A Practical English Gramar with exercises, Ed. Clusium, 1999, Cluj-Napoca, pag. 102

58

d. e. f. g. h. 5.

Gardening is (easy) than agriculture. Which is (tall) column in London? Which is (merry) English song you know? Are sunflowers the (big) flowers growing in Romania? Diamonds are (expensive) than rubies.

Translate into English. (Traducei n limba englez): 1. Rspunsurile lui Dick au fost cele mai inteligente. 2. Albastrul este o culoare mai comun dect violetul. 3. Romeo este cel mai chipe tnr din Verona.
4. Domnul Brown este un negutor mai cinstit dect domnul Smith.

5. ti care este trectoarea cea mai ngust din Carpai? 6. Este un lucru mai nobil s taci dect s pronuni vorbe rele drept rspuns.
7. Una dintre cele mai plcute zile din viaa studenilor a fost serbarea dedicat

teatrului englez.
8. Este o atitudine mai politicoas s spui thank you dect thanks. 9. Se pare c iarna este mai sever n emisfera nordic a pmntului.

10. Cel mai simplu lucru este s spui adevrul. 11. Afiul a devenit mai galben din cauza soarelui. 6. Write the correct forms of comparative and superlative of the following

adjectives. (Scriei formele corecte de comparativ i superlativ ale urmtoarelor adjective): Eg.: determined-more determined-the most determined Accustomed; pleased; endeavoring; hardworking; appreciated; organized.
59

7.

Translate the following sentences into English. (Traducei urmtoarele

propoziii n limba englez): 1. Lucrarea lui Tom a fost mai puin interesant dect cea a lui Victor. 2. Poate c a fost cea mai puin interesant dintre toate lucrrile. 3. Luna este mai puin interesant dect pmntul. 4. Muntele Omul este mai nalt dect muntele Ceahlu. 5. Oltul este unul dintre cele mai lungi ruri din Romnia. 6. Arcul de Triumf din Bucureti este mare, dar nu tot att de mare ca cel din Paris. 7. Muntele Retezat este unul dintre cei mai nali muni din ara noastr. 8. Oltul este mai lung dect Prahova. 9. Dunrea este mai puin adnc dect Marea Neagr. 8. Put the following words in the necessary order. (Punei cuvinte urmtoare n

ordine):
1. More than beautiful Our and garden than is their larger garden.

2. That more interesting meci than was the shorter other one but. 3. And more lasting That pair of shoes than her sisters she bought was cheaper. 4. The T-shirts thinner worn by than were their teams and our more expensive. 9. Translate into Romanian. (Traducei n limba romn): 1. Jack is the tallest of the twins. 2. Pussy seems the milder of our cats.
3. Peter is the more skillful of the two sculptors.13
13

Mariana ranu, Limba Englez, Sintez Gramatical complet prin enunuri i exerciii, Ed. Corint, Bucureti, 2002, p. 5964.

60

10.

Read the following text and notice the use of the comparative of equality.

(Citii urmtorul text i observai folosirea comparativului de egalitate): As pretty as a picture as ugly as sin. As sour as lemon as happy as a grin. As brave as a lion as sly as a fox. As weak as a kitten as strong as an ox. As thin as a shadow as solid as a brick. As hungry as a bear as full as a tick. As heavy as a lead as light as a feather. As steady as a rock as uncertain as the weather. As hot as an oven as cold as ice. As rich as Croesus as poor as a church mice. As blind as a bat as deaf as a post. As cool as a cucumber as warm as a toast. As brittle as glass as tough as a gristle. As neat as a pin as clean as a whistle. As dull as the dishwater as bright as a button. As generous as the day is long as greedy as a glutton.

61

11.

Give the comparative of superiority to the following adjectives. (Spunei care

este comparativul de superioritate al urmtoarelor adjective): Sweet; lazy; fond; unhappy; clumsy; good; bad; old; far; fresh.
12. Give the comparative of

inferiority for the following adjectives. (Spunei

care este comparativul de inferioritate al urmtoarelor adjective): Rapid; little; interesting; cold; tall; clever; intelligent; far; ill; quick.
13. Give the superlative to the following adjectives. (Spunei care este superlativul

urmtoarelor adjective): Amazing; old; near; little; high; quick; captivating; obsolete; good; fast.
14. Fill in the blanks with the correct forms (comparative or superlative) of the

adjective in brackets:
a.

He is the (great) man I have ever met. Your composition is much (good) than mine. The weather today is (bad) than yesterday. This is the (boring) movie I have ever watched on TV. Parents are usually (conservative) than their children.

b. c. d. e.

15.Fill in the blanks with the correct forms (comparative or superlative) of the adjective in brackets: a. I missed the (exiciting) part of the party.
62

b. I have (much) homework than you do. c. We have (demanding) customers today than we had in the past. d. The Dead Sea is the (low) place of the world. e. (Many) of the women were wearing evening dresses.
16.

Translate into English. (Traducei n limba romn): 1. Eu nu sunt la fel de interesant ca i colegii mei. 2. ntr-o economie de pia bncile sunt mai puin importante dect banii.
3. Cele mai bune piese de teatru se transmit pe programul 1.

4. Cartierul Ferentari este cel mai murdar din Bucureti. 5. Care este grupa cu cel mai mic numr de studeni? 6. n aceast regiune este mai mult zpad dect n restul rii.
7. Prietena mea a fost la munte. Erau foarte multe cabane acolo. 8. Care este cel mic numr de ani din familia ta? 9. Cine cheltuiete mai puin n familia ta? 10. Eu nu am mers la mare. Era prea mult soare.14

14

Olea Ciuciuc, Eugenia Tnsescu, Curs de Englez General, Ed. Teora, Bucureti, p.131-132.

63

UNIT V FOCUS: ADVERBUL 1: TEXT CU ADVERBUL 2: EXPLICAII GRAMATICALE 2.1. TIPURI DE ADVERBE 2.2. FORMA ADVERBELOR 2.3. COMPARATIA ADVERBELOR 3: EXERCIII

1.

TEXT CUPRINZND EXEMPLE DE ADVERBE

Tram To stand Noise Suddenly To cross

s. v. s.

= Tramvai Crossing = A sta in picioare To carry = Zgomot To move on Rails Useful


64

s. v. v.

= Intersectie = A transporta = A se deplasa

adv. = Brusc v. = A traversa

A merge mai departe s. = Sine adv. = Folositor

Wheel To go off

s. v.

= Roata = A deraia

To remember

v.

= A-i aduce aminte

PHRASES: To fell behind = a rmne n urm For a long time = pentru mult timp To go back = a se ntoarce At that time = n acest timp TEXT: Read and translate this text in Romanian. Identify the adverbs in the following text. (Citii i traducei acest text n romn. Identificai adverbele n textul de mai jos):

WHAT IS MORE USEFUL? Once a tram, a trolley-bus, a car and a bycicle met at crossing. As they were waiting for the green light, they began to talk. The car said to the bycicle, Why do people use you? You are so slow! When you do not move you cannot stand you fall on your side. I have four wheels and I move very quickly and I can carry not one man, but five. I am more useful than you. It depends on when and where, said the little bycicle. Then the tram began to speak. I am more useful than you it said to the car. You can carry five people and I can carry more than one hundred. I am more useful than you.
65

It depends on when and where, said the bycicle again. Then the trolley-bus spoke. I think I am more useful, said the trolley-bus to the tram. You make so much noise! I am better than you. It depends on when and where, said the bycicle for the third time. At that time they saw a green light. They began to move. They wanted to see which of them was the quickest. Soon the bycicle fell behind. The other three moved on, but as the tram and the trolley-bus had to stop, they fell behind the car too. Then suddenly the tram went of the trails and had to stop. And the trolley-bus said to the train, I hink you will stay here for a long time. I do not need any rails. Good-bye! And it ran on. But soon it came to its last stop and had to go back. At that time the car was moving very quickly. It came to a place were there was a bridge across a river. But some men were repairing the bridge and the car had to look for a place to cross the river. When it came to a village on the other side of the river, it saw the the bycicle there. How did you cross the river? asked the car. The men who were repairing the bridge left a little place for me to cross the river. And so here I am. Do you remember what I said? It depends upon when and where.15

2.

EXPLICAII GRAMATICALE Ca i n limba romn, adverbul din limba englez este partea de vorbire care

determin, n principal, un verb i care arat caracteristicile unei aciuni, mai precis locul, timpul sau modul n care se desfoara aciunea. Exist totui i cazuri n care adverbele modific sensul adjectivelor, altor adverbe, substantivelor sau chiar a unor propoziii:
15

Monica Milcoveanu, Engleza Rapida, Ed. Steaua Nordului, Bucuresti, 2008, pag. 157-158

66

Eg.: He acted bravely. Nicely done you two! This song is very nice. 2.1. TIPURI DE ADVERBE Adverbul din limba englez are urmtoarele tipuri: 2.1.1 Adverbul de mod 2.1.2 Adverbe de loc 2.1.3 Adverbe de timp 2.1.4 Adverbe de frecven 2.1.5 Adverbe de opinie 2.1.6 Adverbe interogative 2.1.1 ADVERBUL DE MOD Este unul dintre cele mai cunoscute i mai des folosite adverbe datorit terminaiei ly. Aceast terminaie a devenit de altfel marca adverbului din limba englez. Adverbul de mod aa cum i arat i denumirea arat modul n care se desfoar o aciune i rspunde la ntrebarea: how? Eg.: He solved the problem fast and cleany. The night came and the stars shine brightly. Adverbele de mod pot fi, la rndul lor, mprite n:

67

Adverbe de mod clasice: abruptly, accuratly, badly, beautifully, brightly, briskly, careslly, casually, clearly, closely, confortably, correctly, distinctly, dramatically, easily, faitfully, fiercefuly, fluently. Eg.: He watched the case closely. She easily followed the signs. He spoke fluently many foreign languages. The girl raised her head fiercefully. Adverbe de mod care arat sentimentele persoanei care face aciunea: angrily, bitterly, oldly, calmly, cherfully, furiously, gladly, gloomly, greatfully, hapilly, impatiently, miserably. Eg.: The boy entered boldly into the room. He answered bitterly to our question. He always behave calmly.

2.1.2 ADVERBUL DE LOC Acest tip de adverbe ofer informaii despre locul n care are loc aciunea dar i despre direcia sau destinaia acesteia. Adverbele de loc rspund la ntrebrile: where? where to? from where? which way? etc. Adverbele de loc pot fi la randul lor clasificate n: Adverbe de loc care arat locaia: abroad, ahead, anywhere, around, ashore, away, downstairs, upstairs, everywhere, here, there, inland, midway, nearly, nowhere etc.
68

Eg.: He travels abroad each year. Ahead is the building we are looking for. She went upstairs. They are everywhere. He was here a minute ago. Adverbe de loc care arat destinaia: ashore, home, inside, near, next door, outside etc. Eg.: He came home a minute ago. It is near. She lives next door. Adverbe de loc care arat direcia: ahead, along, back, backwards, forward, left, clockwise, east, north, south, west etc. Eg.: The house is strait ahead. You must go forward. ATENIE! Exist de asemenea, o categorie de prepoziii care pot fi folosite ca i adverbe: above, behind, below, beside, between, opposite, here and there, in front of, next to, under etc.

2.1.3 ADVERBE DE TIMP


69

Adverbele de timp arat dou lucruri: timpul/perioada exact cnd a avut loc aciunea i n acest caz rspund la ntrebarea: when? i lungimea aciunii n materie de timp, ntrebrile fiind: since when?, for how long? Atunci cnd ne referim la adverbe de timp exacte indicatorii de timp sunt zilele, lunile sau anii: yesterday, today, tomorrow, Sunday, Wensday, in 1980, last week sau anumite momente ale zilei, evenimente concrete din an ca: at noon, in the afternoon, in the evening, at luch, at dawn, at night, on Christmas, on Easter, on New Years Eve etc. ATENIE! Un lucru important de reinut este ordinea diferitelor adverbe de timp din propoziie. n limba englez adverbele de timp pstreaz urmtoarea ordine: TIME + DAY + DATE + YEAR TIMP + ZI + DAT + AN Eg.: Our group will still meet at 12 oclock sharp, on Sunday, August 22nd 2009. You have an appointment with our project manager at 8 oclock, Monday morning, July 4th 2009. Exist n limba englez un adverb de timp des folosit i anume ago. Acest adverb are form de trecut dar el indic ntotdeauna o aciune prezent i mai mult trebuie nsoit de repere temporare.

70

Eg: He received a disturbing letter 4 months ago. Dac vrem subliniem faptul c aciunea a avut loc n trecut, ago trebuie nlocuit cu before. Eg.: The children met before lunch. Alte adverbe de timp des folosite n limba englez sunt: all day long, any more, no longer, briefly, forever, over night. Exist i expresii adverbiale de tipul: after, before, during, for, from....to...., in, since, until etc. Eg.: He worked all day long. The flowers flourish over night. They continue to wolk from dask till down. n limba englez adverbul for indic n general lungimea de timp a unei aciuni. Dar exist i situaiile n care vrem s subliniem ntr-un mod oarecum exagerat c aceast aciune a durat prea mult. Eg.: I waited you for ages! Your studies lasted four years! Dac aciunea nu este definit clar din punct de vedere temporar se folosesc adverbe ca: about, almost, around, more than, nearly etc. Eg.: The events happened almost 80 years ago. Locul adverbelor de timp n propoziie este la nceput sau la sfrit de propoziie.
71

Eg.: Last summer, I went to the seaside. He returned home last month. 2.1.4. ADVERBE DE FRECVEN Acest tip de adverbe arat ct de des sau de rar are loc o aciune: often, seldom, rarely, never, ever etc. Eg.: He often participates to the race. Sometimes, it rains in this region. The girl had that reaction rarely. Adverbele de frecven rspund la ntrebarea how often? i se clasific n dou categorii:
A. Adverbe de frecven bine definite sunt acel tip de adverbe care indic timpul

concret al unei aciuni: daily, nightly, monthly etc. n general, acest tip de adverbe este aezat la sfritul propoziiei. Eg.: I shall give you the report hourly. The boy worked daily.
B. Al doilea tip de adverbe de frecven sunt cele indefinite: usually, commonly,

generally, normaly, constantly, permanently etc. Eg.: John usually runs in the park. The Browns normally go to the seaside but this year they went to
72

the mountains. Locul adverbelor de frecven indefinite este dup verbul to be ori dup alte timpuri verbale. Exist totui anumite adverbe de frecven care sunt aezate la nceputul propoziiei pentru a sublinia ceva. Acestea sunt: never, ever, in no circumstances, only by, only when etc Eg.: Never, has he behave like this. In no circumstances, must he have this building. Only by chance, we saw him. 2.1.5. ADVERBE DE OPINIE Aceste adverbe arat opinia cuiva despre un anumit eveniment de care a auzit sau la care a participat. Aceste adverbe pot avea grade diferite de intensitate.
a.

Sigurana sau incertitudinea n legtur cu un eveniment: certainly, clearly, definitely, evidently, maybe, perhaps, probably, really etc. Eg.: He is certainly at home. He clearly did not understand anything. Evidently, she missed the event. Perhaps, tomorrow will be better. It is not important, really.

b.

Dimensiunile discursului cuiva: anyhow, anyway, briefly etc. Eg.: Anyhow, he reacted like he always does.
73

It is not your problem anyway. I will present my paper briefly.


c.

Adverbele de opinie arat ce crede vorbitorul despre ceva: absurdely, agreably, curiously, fortunately, frankly, happily, hopefully, ironically, sadly, unnecessarly etc. Eg.: What you say is absurdely. Curiously, they did not reply. Fortunately, the people saw the accident. Sadly, he could no longer move his leg. What you did was unnecessarely.

2.1.6. ADVERBE INTEROGATIVE Adverbele interogative sunt folosite n general n ntrebri privind circumstanele unui eveniment. Aceste adverbe sunt: where? when? why? how? Eg.: When did all this happened? Where is that place? I wonder why did he react like this? 2.2. FORMA ADVERBULUI Din punct de vedere al formei adverbele din limba englez pot fi:

74

a. Cuvinte simple sau compuse: here, soon, then, when, how, abroad, anywhere,

somewhere, well etc. Eg.: We will stop here for the moment. The pakage will arrive soon. How will you solve this problem? This couple often travels abroad. Put it anywere.
b. Locuiuni adverbiale: in the morning, at dawn, in the distance

Eg.: I see the house in the distance. In the morning, everything is bright.
c. Sufixul ly adaugat la un adjectiv: badly, briefly, sudenly, loudly, beautifully,

usually, slowly etc. Eg.: He moved the box slowly. She felt badly about what happened. He informed briefly his superior. Her performance was beautifully. Adugarea acestui sufix la adjectiv implic anumite modificri cum ar fi:
-

Adjectivele care se termin n e l pstreaz atunci cnd terminaia -ly este adugat. Eg.: extreme extremely
75

large largely This subject seems extremely interesting. It was a largely debated oppinion. Exist i excepii de aceast regul. De exemplu adjectivul true pierde e-ul final atunci cnd terminaia -ly este adugat. Aceeai situaie se aplic i n cazul adjectivului whole wholly. Eg.: He seemed truly disturbed by the current situation. - Adjectivele care au terminaia le o modific astfel: e ul este nlocuit cu y: Eg.: gentle gently She lifted the child gently. - Adjectivele care se termin n l precedat de o vocal, l pstreaz i adaug ly: Eg.: It was a beautifully interpreted play. You finally came!
-

Adjectivele care se termin n y la adugarea terminaiei ly l transform pe acesta n i: Eg.: This exercise was easily resolved. They participated to this project happily. ATENIE!

76

Exist, n limba englez, o clas special de adjective care pot fi transformate n adverbe pstrndu-i forma iniial sau adugnd terminaia ly. Adugarea acestei terminaii poate schimba sensul adjectivului. A. Adverbe cu acelai neles: 1. bright/brightly Eg.: His face was bright/brightly. 2. dear/dearly Eg.: This will cost him dear/dearly. 3. fair/fairly Eg.: This story was fair/fairly true. B. Adverbe cu neles diferit:

1. close/closely: close = aproape; closely = folosit descriptiv Eg.: The little girl walked close to her mother. I will supervise this project closely.
2. deep/deeply: deep = adnc din punct de vedere literar ct i figurat; deeply =

folosit figurat cu sensul din toat inima/sufletul

77

Eg.: The pit was deep. We are deeply greatful for your deed. 3. direct/directly: direct = arat n general modul de a ajunge undeva i este asociat n general cu verbe de micare ca: to go, to went; directly = are sensul de imediat, chiar acum. Eg.: This road is direct. You will come directly here!
4. easy/easily: easy = nseamn uor dar este foarte des ntlnit n expresii de

tipul: take it easy; go easy; easily = cu uurin Eg.: It went easy. I hope next time will be the same. You may easily interpret her attitude.
5. hard/hardly: hard = cu mare efort; cu mare atenie; hardly = de-abia; puin

probabil Eg.: It is hard for me to see her. I hardly see her.

2.3. COMPARAIA ADVERBELOR Comparaia adverbelor nu este diferit de cea a adjectivelor. Ca i acestea, adverbele au dou categorii: adverbe scurte de tipul: early, fast, high, late, long, near care formeaz comparativul prin adugarea terminaiei er la comparativ i the i est la
78

superlativ i adjective lungi care formeaz comparativul cu more i superlativul cu the most. Eg.: It was late in the afternoon when he came. This morning he arrived later than usual. Ca i n cazul adjectivelor, exist adverbe care nu se pot compara dup regula general, ele avnd forme speciale. Acestea sunt: Well better the best Bad worse the worst TIPURI DE COMPARAII EXEMPLE A. COMPARAIA SCURT ADVERBUL: LATE Gradul pozitiv: I went late to the show. Gradul comparativ: He came later that evening. Gradul superlativ: The children wake up the latest. B. COMPARAIA LUNG ADVERBUL: FLUENTLY Gradul pozitiv: He speaks fluently severeal foreign languages. Gradul compartiv de superioritate: This candidate speaks more fluently than others.
79

de egalitate: English is spoken as fluently as French today. de inferioritate: Her brother speaks less fluently than his sister. Gradul superlativ: For an outsider you speak German very well.

3. EXERCIII
1. Completai spaiile libere cu urmtoarele cuvinte. Spunei cnd sunt folosite ca

adverbe sau ca adjective. (Fill in the blanks with the following words. State when they are used as adverbs or adjectives): monthly, last, better, wide, sudden, best, lively, lovely 1. Im a ......player than you are. 2. I pay my rent.... 3. Open that window....... 4. My name is .....on the list. 5. He made a .....move and got up. 6. Do your......to try and help him. 7. They performed in a .......manner. 8. She is a .........teacher, all children take her.
2.

Traducei n englez. (Translate into English): 1. M-am purtat prostete, te rog iart-m. 2. A dat un rspuns obraznic.
3. De-abia mi-am dat seama despre ce vorbea.

4. Nu este cazul s m priveti att de neprietenos.


80

5. Voi cere s vd actele n cursul acestei diminei. 6. Se pare c tot nu a priceput. 7. Nu voi putea ajunge dect la 5. 8. Nu voi putea ajunge la 5 ci doar la 6.
9. Nu l-am vzut de foarte mult timp, dac m gndesc bine nu l-am vzut de cnd

am terminat facultatea, deci l-am vzut ultima oar acum 15 ani. 10. n timpul discursului s-a ridicat i a plecat. 11.Tot nu a terminat s se aranjeze pentru petrecere. 12. M ntlnescu cu John a doua zi. 13. Sistematic uit s sting lumina la baie. 14. S-ar putea s aib dreptate. 15. Nu mi-e deloc fric. 16. Cel mai probabil asta se va ntmpla.
17. Contrar tuturor ateptrilor, el a luat examenul. 18. Este un student mult mai bun dect se spune despre el.16

3. Formai adverbe de la urmtoarele adjective. (Form adverbs from the following adjectives): Abrupt, aimless; anxious; attentive; bitter; brave; cautious; confortable; coward; early; efficient; equal; fast; fatal; frearless; friendly; glad; good; hard; hopeful; humble; immediate; kind; late; lively; lovely; loyal; long; lucky, mental; merry, motherly; near; noble; noisy; patient; poor; proud; right; scornful; sensible; silly; simple; skilful; steady; straight; sudden; suitable; sweet; terrible; truthful; wrong.
4. Completai urmtoarele propoziii alegnd cuvntul potrivit din propoziie.

(Complete the following sentencs by choosing one of the words in brackets):


16

Mihai M. Zdrenghea, Anca L. Greere, A Practical English Grammar with exercises, Ed. Clusium, Cluj, 1999, pag. 470-471

81

1. My sister plays the piano (good/well). 2. The boy is very (careful/carefully).


3. This table has a (smooth/smoothly) surface.

4. These girls speak English (fluent/fluently). 5. They looked at us (amazing/amazingly). 6. I do not know why they looked (unhappy/unhappily). 7. That music sounded too (noisy/noisily). 8. My brother feels (bad/badly). 9. The doctor felt my arm (careful/carefully). 10.The tourist remaind (calm/calmly) in spite of the thunderstorm. 11. Mark was working (diligent/diligently) on the project. 12. The boy became (sick/sickly) after eating those sasages. 13. The foodin this restaurant always tastes (good/well).
14. The woman tasted the meat (cautious/cautiously).

5. Folosii un adverb n rspunsul vostru, ca n model. (Use an adverb in your response, as shown): Model: Peter is a slow worker. Yes, he works slowly. 1. George is a bad actor.
2. Alice is a fast swimmer.

3. Mary is a fluent speaker. 4. Lucy is a good teacher. 5. Susan is a careful typist. 6. Christine is a noisy eater. 7. George is a bad worker.
82

8. Ben is a dangerous driver. 9. Philip is a persuasive speaker. 10. Jack is a dilligent student.
6. Write these sentences again. Put the words in brackets in the right place. (Citii

propoziiile din nou. Punei cuvintele din parantez la locul potrivit.): 1. She answers to my letters. (rarely) 2. The shops close on Saturday afternoon. (always) 3. We work after 6 oclock. (never) 4. We spend our holidays abroad. (sometimes)
5. Do you buy gramaphone records? (ever)

7. Translate into Romanian paying attention to the use of adverbs. (Traducei n

limba romn fiind ateni la folosirea averbelor):


1. He rightly refers his success to the good training he has had. 2. I am afraid the new machine does not work right.

3. Did I guess wrong or right? 4. He directed me wrongly. 5. The aeroplane flew high over the ocean. 6. A computer is a highly complicated piece of machinery. 7. This book of English grammar and exercises is for students at a fairly advanced students. 8. A sportsman should always play fair. 9. We were sitting close to the door. 10. She resembles her mother closely. 11. The delegation arrived late in this evening.
83

12. I have not been to the theatre lately. 13. This is just what I wanted. 14. Just listen to him. 15. He may be justly proud of his succes. 16. Do not go far away; stay somewere near. 17. We have nearly run out of potatoes. 18. The gate was wide opened. 19. The two parties differ widely in opinion. 20. The carstopped short only some inches from the pedestrian. 21. I met him shortly. 22. His lecture will begin at ten oclock sharp. 23. The road turns sharp(ly) to the right. 24. He drove his car clear of the blazing petrol. 25.It is clearly impossible to talk him out of his plans. 26. She was sleeping sound(ly) on the couch.
27. Last week Dinamo were soundly beaten by Steaua.

28. He worked hard over the weekend. 29.They can hardly expect me to do all that work in one week. 30. Do not speak so fast.
31. Many people should eat and drink less.

8.

Supply the correct forms of the adverbs in brackets. (Spunei care sunt formele corecte ale adverbelor din parantez):
1. The Browns were (quiet) watching television.

2. All of a (sudden) three robbers appeared. 3. The robbers were (extreme) polite. 4. They (quick) bound up the couple in their chairs.
84

5. Then they (careful) placed cushions behind their heads to make them more

(confortable). 6. Then they search the house (thorough). 7. (Sad) Mrs. Brown watched her jewel box being emptied.
8. When she was asked if anything in the box was of a sentimental value to her, she

said (tearful), Yes - everything.17

UNIT VI PART I
17

Monica Visan, Metoda rapida de invatare a gramaticii limbii engleze, Ed. Viitorul Romanesc, Bucuresti, pag. 115-116

85

FOCUS: 1.3. VERBELE MODALE 1.3.1: TEXTE CU VERBELE MODALE 1.3.2: EXPLICAII GRAMATICALE 1.3.2.1 INTRODUCERE 1.3.2.2 CAN, MUST, MAY 1.3.2.3 ALTE VERBE MODALE 1.3.3: EXERCIII

1.3.1

TEXT CUPRINZND EXEMPLE DE VERBE MODALE

Along Among Another To ask for Aunt Auntie Behind Can

adv. prep. adj. nehot v. s. s. prep. v.

= nainte = Printre = (un) alt; = = = = (o) alt A cere Mtu Mtuic n spatele,

Complete Dictation Difficulty To feel Gentleman Interesting Joke Lady

adj. s. s. v. s. adj. s. s. s. s. s.

= Complet = Dictare = Dificultate, = = = = greutate A simi Domn Interesant Glum

ndrtul = A putea,

= Doamn = A lsa = Doamn (numai la V.) = Expresie

To change v. To come v. along May v.

a fi n stare de = A (se) schimba To leave = A merge Madam mpreun = 1. a putea a avea voie 2. a fi posibil = 1. A avea neles de 2. A nsemna
86

Phrase

To mean

v.

Polite

adj.

= Politicos

To mind Mine

v. pron. pos.

= A da atenie la; To strike a-i psa de = Al meu, a mea, Time ai mei, ale mele = A trebui; a fi necesar = Nepot (de unchi / mtu) = Urmtor; urmtoare = Nefumtor Tomorrow To want

v. s.

= A bate = Timp

Must Nephew

v. s.

adv. v.

= Mine = A vrea

Next Nonsmoker

adj. s.

Without The other

prep adj. nehot

= Fr Cellalt, cealalt, = Ceilali, celelalte

Permission s.

= Permisiune

PHRASES: You mean vrei s spui (c) Ladies and gentlemen doamnelor i domnilor In that case n acest caz I dont mind nu-mi pas; nu m deranjeaz I say, Victor ascult Victor To be interested in a se interesa de From time to time din cnd n cnd Next time data viitoare To take a dictation; to do a dictation a scrie o dictare As usual ca de obicei
87

TEXT: Read and translate this text in Romanian. (Citii i traducei acest text n Romn): The clock strikes five and the lesson begins. ADRIAN: Can I smoke here? EVA: You mean may I smoke here? ADRIAN: Yes, youre right. Well, then: May I smoke here? EVA: What do the ladies say? ALL THE OTHER LADIES: Yes, he may. ADRIAN: Thank you, ladies, very much. DAN: Ladies and gentlemen is the complete phrase. ADRIAN: Must I also ask for permission from the gentlemen? DAN: Of course you must, if you want to be polite. There may be non-smokers among them, too. So you mustnt smoke without their permission. But you have their permission, so you may smoke. ADRIAN: Thank you, ladies and gentlemen. GEORGE: May I open the window behind you Alexandra? I dont like cigarette smoke. ALEXANDRA: Yes, you may. But in this case I think I want to change my place. PAUL: You can change it with mine if you like. I dont mind an open window behind me. MARIA: I say, Victor, tell your sister she can come and see me tomorrow evening. I have an interesting English book to show her. VICTOR: May I come along with her? You know I am very much interested in English books. MARIA: Certainly you may. Its a pleasure.

88

EVA: Now, friends, I think we must have a dictation today. You cannot only speak here. From time to time you must also write. All of you may not like it but we must do this too. Our teacher wants us to do it. ADRIAN: Cant we leave it for the next time? I feel I cant dictation today. LIZA: You mustnt say that Adrian. I am sure you can do a very good dictation, as usual. You may be a little tired today because we know you work very hard, but we are sure you can do it all right. EVA: All right then. Let us begin. Dictation. (Everybody begins to write.)18 1.3.2. EXPLICAII GRAMATICALE 1.3.2.1 INTRODUCERE Verbele modale, constituie un capitol extrem de important n gramatica limbii engleze contemporane. Ele exprim modalitatea, adic atitudinea vorbitorului fa de coninutul propoziiei respective care poate s fie necesar, probabil, posibil, de dorit, obligatoriu etc. Cele 9 verbele modale n limba englez sunt urmtoarele: CAN / COULD = a putea, a fi n stare de, a fi capabil s. MAY / MIGHT = a putea, a permite, a da voie, a-i fi permis s, a fi posibil MUST = a trebui, a fi obligat s SHALL / SHOULD = a trebui, a se cuveni NEED = a trebui, a fi necesar DARE = a ndrzni s
18

Virgiliu tefnescu-Drgneti, Adrian Nicolaescu, Victor Hanea, Limba Englez Curs Practic, Ed. tiinific, Bucureti, pag. 142-143

89

WILL / WOULD = a vrea, a dori OUGHT (TO) = a trebui USED TO = obinuia s Din punct de vedere al formei verbele modale au anumite particulariti:
1.

nu au infinitiv lung (particula to). Spre deosebire de alte categorii de verbe din limba englez, verbele modale nu apar niciodat nsoite de aceasta. Ex.: I can speak Spanish fluently. All the students must translate the text.
2. nu i schimb forma n funcie de persoan. Mai precis, nu adaug terminaia

(e)s la persoana a treia singular. Ex.: She can come. He must write the lesson. 3. formeaz interogativul fr ajutorul verbelor auxiliare, inversnd verbul modal cu subiectul: Ex.: May I have a glass of water, please? Must I enter there? 4. formeaz negativul cu ajutorul adverbului not aezat dup verbul modal:

90

Ex.: I cannot watch this film. It is too violent for me.

ATENIE! n limba romn pot exista mai multe negaii n aceeai propoziie, n schimb, n limba englez, nu se poate folosi dect o singur negaie n propoziie: I tell you nothing, They cant say anything. Ex.: You must not say a word. You may not like it. 5. verbele modale sunt defective. Acest lucru presupune lipsa anumitor forme

pentru timpuri trecute sau viitoare. n general, forma de baz a verbelor modale: can, must sau may este folosit numai pentru timpul prezent. Atunci cnd aceste forme trebuie folosite la alte timpuri verbale cum ar fi trecut sau viitor, ele sunt nlocuite de anumite construcii verbale care prin alctuirea lor permit aceast trecere. Aceste construcii verbale poart numele de echivaleni modali i ei sunt: CAN TO BE ABLE TO MUST HAVE TO MAY BE ALLOWED TO / BE PERMITTED TO ATENIE!

91

Formele could, might, would, should sugereaz o atitudine mai reinut din partea vorbitorului, o form politicoas de a exprima ceva, fiindc sunt mai puin directe n propoziiile interogative i atunci cnd adresm invitaii. Ex.: Would you please send us a fax with your offer? Could you call on me this afternoon, please? Might I use your phone? 1.3.2.2 CAN, MUST, MAY A. CAN COULD: Acest verb modal este unul dintre cele mai des folosite n limba englez i se traduce prin: a putea, a fi n stare de, a ti, a se pricepe la. n limba englez verbul modal can este asociat cu verbul modal may, amndou indicnd acelai lucruri. Difer numai exprimarea i gradul de incertitudine. De exemplu:
-

Can/Could exprim o posibilitate cert n timp ce May/Might exprim o posibilitate incert mai precis o bnuial sau o presupunere. Ex.: He can resolve this problem quickly. Mary may come later this evening.

n propoziiile negative Can neag modalitatea n timp ce May are sens de permisiune refuzat. Eg.: He can not say anything bad about this person. He may not go there.
92

Exist i situaiile n care may l poate nlocui pe can pentru a exprima permisiunea. n aceast situaie trebuie reinut faptul c may este mai formal, mai politicos n timp ce can este des folosit n limbajul familiar. Eg.: Can I open the window? May I open the window? Can/Could are urmtoarele caracteristici:

Forma CAN este cea a modului Indicativ. Forma de negativ a lui CAN variaz n funcie de engleza britanic sau cea american. n cea britanic este folosit forma CANNOT n timp ce n cea american este mai des ntlnit forma desprit CAN NOT.

Forma COULD este o form de trecut i are ca form de negativ COULD NOT.

EXCEPIE! NOT poate fi separat de CAN cnd se intenioneaz negarea verbului nsoitor, cnd este necesar o subliniere sau o separare a cuvintelor cu neles negativ. Eg.: Can/Could you not interrupt, please? CAN exprim capacitatea fizic sau intelectual de efectuare a unei aciuni prin urmare este nsoit mereu de verbe de percepie fizic cum ar fi: feel, hear, notice, perceive, see, smell, taste and touch sau mintal: believe, forget, imagine, recall, remember, think etc.

93

Ex.: Tom can speak French. I can lift the heavy box. I can feel the cold. I can only imagine her joy. Can mai poate fi folosit i cu verbe de tipul guess, tell, see sau know Ex.: I can guess the right answer. I can tell she was very mad. sau de verbele get, become sau seem folosite mai ales n avertismente. Ex.: Things can get worse here. John cannot seem to understand anything. Can/could pot fi folosite cu stri emoionale ca: nencredere, mirare, nedumerire sau surpriz: Ex.: It cannot be true! How could you say such things? Aa cum am mai spus forma can este folosit numai la timpul Prezent. Atunci cand aciunea a avut loc n trecut sau va avea loc n viitor aceasta form nu mai poate fi folosit deoarece nu arat aceste transformri. n aceast situaie, can trebuie nlocuit cu o construcie care s reflecte acest lucru. Dac aciunea a avut loc n trecut exist dou moduri de a exprima acest lucru: Aciunea a avut loc ntr-un trecut foarte aproape de momentul vorbirii. n acest caz, este folosit forma COULD.
94

Ex.: Tom could go to a party last week. Aciunea a avut loc ntr-un trecut mai ndeprtat. Prin urmare, se folosete echivalentul modal al lui can to be able to. Trebuie reinut faptul c folosirea acestui echivalent modal este determinat de existena unor intervale de timp concrete cum ar fi: yesterday, for an hour, at 8 oclock etc. Ex.: I can skate now. I was able to skate yesterday. We were able to skate for an hour. I could skate when I was a child. Dac aciunea va avea loc n viitor can va fi nlocuit cu will able to. Eg.: Kate will be able to win this competition next year. - verbul CAN este adeseori folosit n locul verbului MAY, n vorbirea familiar, pentru a exprima cerea, refuzul sau acordarea permisiunii sau pentru idea de a-i fi permis ceva cuiva. Eg.: Can I open the window? / May I open the window? Can I take it? / May I take it? He cannot accompany you. You can go and give her the gift.
-

exprim o posibilitate, mai precis realizarea unei aciuni care depinde de anumite nprejurri concrete. Eg.: I can do what you say.
95

It is so ugly outside. We cannot leave the party. - exprim o cerere, rugminte politicoas: Eg.: Can you wait a few minutes? - forma could + infinitivul perfect este folosit pentru a exprima capacitatea nerealizat de efectuare a unei aciuni n trecut: Eg.: She could have helped me. (But she didnt) 2. COULD este forma de trecut a lui can i are aceeai form pentru toate persoanele

la Indicativ i Condiional. Cnd este urmat de Infinitivul simplu se traduce prin: putea, tia, era n stare de. Eg.: He could do that last week. - forma negativ este COULDNT. - ntrebuinat la prezent COULD sugereaz o atitudine mai reinut din partea vorbitorului iar n propoziiile interogative sau atunci cnd adresm invitaii reprezint o forma politicoas. - Aa cum am mai spus att could ct i to be able to sunt forme de trecut. Trebuie s subliniem cnd folosim could i cnd folosim to be able to. COULD arat o aciune obinuit n trecut n timp ce to be able to arat ceva concret, ceva ce am reuit s facem.
96

Eg.: His brother could learn everything very fast. She was able to earn to skate last year. - Formulele CAN i COULD sunt mai uzuale n vorbire n timp ce BE ABLE TO sun formal. I can guess what you want to say. I can tell from this moment that the plan will not work.

1.3.3 EXERCIII 1. Construii propoziii cu CAN sau CANT. Dai rspunsul potrivit. (Build up

sentences with CAN or CANT. Give the right answer.) Model: to speak English; (not) to speak English. Can you speak English Mary? Yes, I can. Can you speak French Mary? No, I can not. Mary can speak English but she cannot speak French. 1. to swim 100 meters; to run 1000 meters. 2. to play tennis; to play baseball. 3. to lift 25 kilos; to lift 100 kilos. 4. to coke only omelets; to cook well. 5. to play only piano; to play the violin. 6. to ride a bike; to drive a car.
97

7. to type; to do shorthand. 8. to do easy exercises at English; to do hard exercises at English. 9. to help ones friend today; to help ones friend tomorrow. 10. to do the work now; to do the work next week. 2. Completai spaiile goale cu CAN (Prezent), COULD (Trecut) sau SHALL /

WILL BE ABLE TO (Viitor). (Put CAN (in the present), COULD (in the past) and SHALL / WILL BE ABLE TO (in the future) in the following sentences): 1. ..you stand on your heady? Yes, I..when I was at school, Inow. 2. When I have passed my driving test, I ..hire a car from our local garage. 3. At the end of the month the Post Office will send him an enormous bill which he.not pay. 4. I ..remember the address. ..you not even remember the street? 5. When the fog lifts, we. see where we are. 6. Youve put too much in your rucksack; you never ..carry all that. 7. When I was a child I (not) understand adults, and now that I am an adult I.(not) understand children. 8. Dont try to look at all the pictures in the gallery. Otherwise when you get home you not.remember any of them. 9. When I first went to France, I .read French, but I .(not) speak it. 10. ..you type? Yes, Itype but I do shorthand. 11. Im locked in. Iget out. 12. I think Icome next week. I am very busy these days.

98

3.

Completai urmtoarele propoziii cu CAN sau CANT apoi traducei-le n

limba romn. (Fill up the following sentences with CAN or CANT and then translate them in Romanian): 1. .you read an English book? Yes, I 2. .you read all the English books? No, I. 3. Granny..read without glasses. 4. .Bob lift the box? Yes, he.. No, he 5. If you have money, you.. buy things. 6. If you have only little money, you..buy things. 7. What.you buy if you have no money? You.buy anything. 8. ..you see her face? No, I ..see her face. 9. . you see the clock? Its over the door. What time is it? 10. Everybody..fall ill. 11. John.write because he has ink, paper and pen. 12. ..we send a letter without a stamp on the envelope? No, we.. 13. This man..see; hes blind. 14. It was a long time ago; I.remember it now. 15. Blind men.see. They..see anything. 16. Deaf men..hear. They..hear anything. 17. Ido all the exercises as theyre quite easy. 18. Iforget our walking along the river on that wonderful evening. 19. you taste anything particular in the soup? No, I 20. I..smell something burning. 4. n propoziiile care urmeaz, folosii CAN sau CANT mpreun cu unul dintre

aceste verbe: hear, look, read, see, understand, walk. (In the following sentences use CAN or CANT with one of these verbs: hear, look, read, see, understand, walk):

99

1. Im afraid my grandfather is deaf. He..what you want. 2. I have to wear glasses. Ivery well. 3. The manager likes books with large print. He.them more easily. 4. David uses a wheelchair. Hevery far. 5. Aunt Betty is quite happy living alone. She..after herself. 6. Its too noisy in here. I.. what you are saying. 7. David is very tired. He.any more. 8. Turn on the light please. Iread. 9. Im sorry but Ihim. He speaks so quickly. 10. My father has marvelous eyes; he.the tiniest details. 5. Traducei n limba romn. (Translate into Romanian):

1. Nu tiu s joc baseball. 2. Poi s faci aparatul acesta de radio s mearg? 3. Te pricepi la ah/tii s joci ah? 4. David poate s alerge 100 de metrii n 13 secunde. 5. n camerele acestea nu pot s ncap toi musafirii. 6. Fiind aa de mare sala asta poate servii ca loc de ntrunire/edin.19 B. MUST HAVE TO NEED: - Verbele modale MUST, HAVE (TO) exprim necesitate i obligaie. a. Must cu aceeai form la toate persoanele, are valoare de Indicativ prezent i viitor

n funcie de adverbul de timp care l nsoete. - Must exprim o obligaie sau o concluzie logic i se traduce prin a trebui s.
19

Ion Vladoiu, Verbele modale englezesti, ed. AN-DA, Bucuresti, pag. 83-84

100

- Antonimul lui MUST este NEEDNT des folosit n engleza britanic sau DONT NEED TO care este caracteristic englezei americane. Ambele exprim absena obligaiei i se traduc prin: nu trebuie s, nu este nevoie/necesar s. Cu ajutorul acestor forme se formuleaz deducii negative. Eg.: He need not bring that present. It is not an anniversary. - Forma negativ a lui MUST este MUSTNT i exprim o obligaie negativ. 1. Must exprim obligaia vorbitorului de a efectua o aciune: Eg.: I must attend all my classes to graduate this faculty. n timp ce forma have to exprim o obligaie obinuit, repetat i provine din exterior, de la altcineva: Eg.: You have to be punctual every morning. 2. must exprim deducia logic: Eg.: She must be at home. She left an hour ago. 3. verbul must este des utilizat n articole de lege, regulamente etc. pentru a exprima obligativitatea respectrii lor. Forma negativ exprim interdicia. Eg.: All the citizens of Romania must comply with the laws as derived from the ratified Constitution. Pedestrians must not cross the street when the traffic light is red.
101

4. Must exprim probabilitatea i este ntrebuinat pentru a exprima concluzii logice, fiind tradus prin: cred (c), n mod sigur, de bun seam, precis (c), probabil (c).. Eg.: Your daughter must have a problem. Mr. Brown must be older than Mrs. Brown. Mr. Green must be a rich man. John has got a new job in London. So he must go there every day. 5. Must mai exprim reproul fa de o aciune din prezent, exprimat prin forma interogativ: Eg.: Must you always react like this? 6. exprim sfatul, recomandarea: Eg.: You must do as he says! 7. exprim invitaii cu caracter formal sau oferte n situaia de gazd sau musafir: Eg.: You must use my typewriter whenever you need to. You must come and visit us sometime. Must puternic accentuat este folosit n engleza britanic pentru a exprima ceea ce trebuie neaprat fcut i se regsete sub forma unei recomandri sau a unui sfat ferm adresat subiectului propoziiei. Eg.: You must hurry if you want to catch the train.
102

2.

NEED Need are un regim mai special n limba englez deoarece este doar un verb semi-

modal. Aceast denumire se refer la faptul c exist dou aspecte ale acestui verb: unul de verb obinuit to need (a avea nevoie de, a-i fi necesar, a-i trebui) i unul modal, des ntlnit n engleza britanic, folosit numai n propoziiile negative i interogative. Eg.: People usually need the company of other people. Do you need anything before I leave? ATENIE! - Forma negativ, neednt poate fi urmat doar de un verb la infinitiv: NEEDNT DO. Ea exprim absena necesitii i reflect doar opinia vorbitorului. Eg.: You need not go to the shops; there is enough food. - forma DONT NEED TO folosit n engleza american, exprim absena necesitii mai precis nici persoanele nici evenimentele nu fac obligatorie efectuarea unei aciuni. - NEED este folosit pentru a exprima absena necesitii efecturii unei aciuni mai ales la forma negativ i se traduce prin nu e nevoie, nu e cazul: Eg.: You need not buy a gift for us. dac rspunsul este pozitiv se folosete must:

103

Eg.: Yes, you must. dar dac rspunsul este negativ se folosete neednt: Eg.: No, you neednt. - need i neednt sunt urmate de infinitivul scurt: Eg.: You neednt come.

1.3.3 EXRCIII 1. Completai spaiile goale cu MUST sau MUSTNT. (Put MUST or MUSTNT

in these sentences): 1. You..work hard if you want to learn good English. 2. Youcross the road without looking left or right. Its dangerous. 3. The exam is next month. I..learn harder. 4. You. forget your umbrella. Its going to rain. 5. Westay here any longer. We.go to the station now, or well miss our train. 6. Iphone Susan tonight. I havent spoken to her for a long time. 7. Youlisten to the teacher or you wont understand the lesson. 8. Its seven oclock. Shall we go? Wemiss the concert. 9. Youread this book. Its fantastic. 10. Its an important match for us. We.play well and win it.

104

2.

Completai propoziiile urmtoare folosind forma corect a lui HAVE TO i a

cuvintelor din parantez. (Complete these sentences using the correct form of HAVE TO and the words in brackets): 1. I (leave) now. Ive got an appointment at the dentists. 2. You (study) the literature when you were at school? 3. You (not/come) with me now if you dont want to. 4. I (not/work) hard because the job was very easy. 5. I (do) this work now, or can I do it tomorrow? 6. I (run) to school because I was late. 7. I (go) to an important meeting yesterday. 8. You (show) your passport when reached the border? 9. I (pay) in cash next week, or can I give you a card? 10. I want to be an airline pilot. What qualifications you (have) to be a pilot? 11. You (not/decide) today. You can tell me tomorrow. 12. I arrived late yesterday because I (wait) a long time for the bus. 13. We (work) on Saturday mornings. Thats our job. 14. Tim (do) some washing-up today; its his turn to help the kitchen. 15. Im not content with my present results. I (work) harder from now on. 3. Transformai urmtoarele propoziii n propoziii negative. (Make these

sentences negative): 1. Tom and Pam must come tonight. 2. Mary has to stay at home. 3. Bob has to go to the country. 4. She must speak to my sister about our trip. 5. You have to drive slowly here.
105

6. I must get up early tomorrow. 7. The children must play in the street. 8. They have to go to school every day. 9. We must begin work before ten. 10. They have to be very punctual. 4. Transformai propoziiile de mai sus n propoziii interogative folosind Do/Does

have to? i dai rspunsuri scurte cu Da sau Nu. (Turn them into interrogative using Do/Does have to? And give short answers with Yes or No) 5. Transformai propoziiile de la exerciiul numrul 3 n propoziii negative

folosind forma neednt. (Make negative sentences from exercise 3 using need not). 20

UNIT VI (CONTINUARE) PART II FOCUS: 1.3. VERBELE MODALE 1.3.1: TEXTE CU VERBELE MODALE 1.3.2: EXPLICAII GRAMATICALE 1.3.2.2 CONTINUARE: MAY 1.3.2.3 ALTE VERBE MODALE 1.3.3: EXERCIII
20

Ion Vladoiu, Verbele modale englezesti, ed. AN-DA, Bucuresti, pag. 152-158

106

1.3.1. TEXT CUPRINZND EXEMPLE DE VERBE MODALE Along Among Another To ask for Aunt Auntie Behind Can adv. prep. adj. nehot v. s. s. prep. v. = nainte = Printre = (un) alt; = = = = (o) alt A cere Mtu Mtuic n spatele, Complete Dictation Difficulty To feel Gentleman Interesting Joke Lady adj. s. s. v. s. adj. s. s. s. s. s. = Complet = Dictare = Dificultate, = = = = greutate A simi Domn Interesant Glum

ndrtul = A putea,

= Doamn = A lsa = Doamn (numai la V.) = Expresie

To change v. To come v. along May v.

a fi n stare de = A (se) schimba To leave = A merge Madam mpreun = 1. A putea A avea voie 2. a fi posibil = 1. A avea neles de Phrase

To mean

v.

Polite

adj.

= Politicos

To mind Mine

v. pron. pos.

2. A nsemna = A da atenie la; To strike a-i psa de = Al meu, a mea, Time ai mei, ale mele = A trebui; a fi necesar = Nepot Tomorrow To want
107

v. s.

= A bate = Timp

Must Nephew

v. s.

adv. v.

= Mine = A vrea

(de unchi / Next Nonsmoker adj. s. mtu) = Urmtor; urmtoare = Nefumtor Without The other prep adj. nehot = Fr Cellalt, = cealalt, Ceilali, celelalte Permission s. PHRASES: You mean vrei s spui (c) Ladies and gentlemen doamnelor i domnilor In that case n acest caz I dont mind nu-mi pas; nu m deranjeaz I say, Victor ascult Victor To be interested in a se interesa de From time to time din cnd n cnd Next time data viitoare To take a dictation; to do a dictation a scrie o dictare As usual ca de obicei = Permisiune

TEXT: Read and translate this text in Romanian. (Citii i traducei acest text n Romn): The clock strikes five and the lesson begins.
108

ADRIAN: Can I smoke here? EVA: You mean may I smoke here? ADRIAN: Yes, youre right. Well, then: May I smoke here? EVA: What do the ladies say? ALL THE OTHER LADIES: Yes, he may. ADRIAN: Thank you, ladies, very much. DAN: Ladies and gentlemen is the complete phrase. ADRIAN: Must I also ask for permission from the gentlemen? DAN: Of course you must, if you want to be polite. There may be non-smokers among them, too. So you mustnt smoke without their permission. But you have their permission, so you may smoke. ADRIAN: Thank you, ladies and gentlemen. GEORGE: May I open the window behind you Alexandra? I dont like cigarette smoke. ALEXANDRA: Yes, you may. But in this case I think I want to change my place. PAUL: You can change it with mine if you like. I dont mind an open window behind me. MARIA: I say, Victor, tell your sister she can come and see me tomorrow evening. I have an interesting English book to show her. VICTOR: May I come along with her? You know I am very much interested in English books. MARIA: Certainly you may. Its a pleasure. EVA: Now, friends, I think we must have a dictation today. You cannot only speak here. From time to time you must also write. All of you may not like it but we must do this, too. Our teacher wants us to do it. ADRIAN: Cant we leave it for the next time? I feel I cant dictation today. LIZA: You mustnt say that Adrian. I am sure you can do a very good dictation, as usual. You may be a little tired today because we know you work very hard, but we are sure you can do it all right.
109

EVA: All right then. Let us begin. Dictation. (Everybody begins to write.) 21

1.3.2 EXPLICAII GRAMATICALE: 1.3.2.2 MAY MIGHT MAY i MIGHT au acelai regim cu CAN i COULD, ele artnd posibilitatea sau permisiunea. Acest verb este folosit mai mult n stilul formal, oficial pentru a exprima: urare, dorin; speran sau temere; mirare, nedumerire; iritare sau repro; sugestie sau scop etc. MAY are aceeai form la toate persoanele, la singular sau la plural - forma negativ este MAY NOT. - se traduce prin s-ar putea, e posibil s. MAY/MIGHT exprim: MAY
1. cererea sau acordarea permisiunii ntr-o form mai oficial dect CAN:

Eg.: 'May I go?' 'You may go.'


2. exprim o cerere, rugminte politicoas:

21

Virgiliu tefnescu-Drgneti, Adrian Nicolaescu, Victor Hanea, Limba Englez Curs Practic, Ed. tiinific, Bucureti, pag. 142-143

110

Eg.: May I use your phone? - folosirea lui might cu acelai sens indic un grad mai mare de nesiguran: Eg.: Might I use your phone? (A putea s dau un telefon?) 3. exprim posibilitatea: Eg.: He may be here now. MIGHT Este folosit pentru: 1. exprimarea unei posibiliti mai ndeprtate. 2. exprimarea unei cereri insistente sau atunci cnd vorbitorul este iritat de nendeplinirea unei aciuni trecute: Eg.: You might have asked my permission before doing that.

EXERCIII:

111

1.

Completai spaiile libere cu may sau can. (Fill in the blanks with may or can):

1. It..rain in the afternoon; youd better take an umbrella. 2. Bob.be sleeping now; lets not disturb him. 3. If we are waiving him, hegive us a lift. 4. Diana..swim very well. 5. You.catch a cold if youre going out in the rain; its already autumn. 6. Her daughter .be three or four, I dont know for sure. 7. Do you know where I..find a drugstore? 8. We ..find mum when we get there. 9. She..pass the examination; she has worked hard all the summer. 10. She..pass the examination, but we doubt about it. 11. Tom isnt going to eat it; Iwell give it to the dog. 12. Nobody knows how people first came to these islands. They.have sailed from South America on rafts. 13. ..you tell me if there are any letters for me this morning? 14. If we give him a blood transfusion, we.be able to save his life. 15. He..have got to the station by now. 16. Everybody..be taken ill. 17. Everybodybe ill, not only these two boys, if they ate the same cake. 18. Anyonelearn English if he/she tries hard enough. 19. Johnbe at the races this afternoon. 20. Jane.not like the color. No, shenot. 2. Completai spaiile goale folosind might sau might not i verbele din parantez.

(Complete these sentences, using might or might not and the verbs in brackets): 1. I (buy) her this doll for her birthday party. She likes dolls.
112

2. Take the jersey with you. It.(be) cold tonight. 3. We..(go) to Switzerland this winter, but we havent booked yet. 4. I..(go) by car because there will be a lot of traffic. 5. They(come) to the party this evening. Theyre very busy. They have a lot of things at home. 6. What are you going to do tonight? Im not sure. I..(stay) at home. Im tired. 7. I know Helen is at school today. But I dont know where she is at the moment. She.. (be) at the gym, or she ..(be) in the chemistry lab. 8. Dont worry to much about that mistake. It(be) important. 9. Ill try to change the time of my flight, but it ..(be) possible. The planes are often full at this time of the year. 10. You .(find) a good hotel if you go to the main street there are lots of hotels there. 3. Completai cu pronumele potrivit i may (not) sau might (not) precum i cu

verbul din parantez. (Put in an appropriate pronoun and may (not) or might (not) plus the verb in brackets): 1. The sky is full of clouds. (rain) later. 2. Dont give it to Susan. . (like) it. 3. .(be) late tonight. I have a lot of work to do. 4. Im thinking of learning Spanish. . (go) to evening classes at the University. 5. I wonder why Bob is late. Well there (be) a lot of traffic. 6. Its a long way to go in a day. We think. (break) the journey somewhere. 7. Alexandra is pleased that shed got an interview for a job. (get) the job of course. 8. The caravan is a bit small for all of us. (sell) it and buy a bigger one. 9. Dont think that suitcase is too heavy for you? .. (drop) it. 10. . (be) out of town as the gate is locked.
113

4.

Completai urmtoarele propoziii cu may sau (not) be allowed to, folosind eu

sau noi, sau alte pronume personale. (Complete these sentences with may or (not) be allowed to, using I or we, or other personal pronoun): 1. .use your typewriter this afternoon? Mine is out of order. 2. .smoke in the cinema hall? Im afraid you cant. 3. .cross the road here? 4. .ask you a question? 5. .go in this park? 6. .read your letter from Susan? 7. Granny says.go swimming whenever we like. 8. Ive got an interview tomorrow morning. .record it on tape? 9. She couldnt come because she ..to. 10. feed the animals at the Zoo yesterday its forbidden. 11. Passengers..take one bag onto the plane. 12. I thinkjoin you. 13. ..go in if youre under 18.
6.

Traducei n limba englez. (Translate into English):

1. Pot s ntrzii un pic mine diminea? 2. I s-a acordat permisiunea s consulte toate crile din biblioteca colii. 3. Nu permite nimnui s o strige pe numele mic, cu excepia prietenilor apropiai. 4. Nu este nelept ce ai fcut, dac mi se ngduie s-mi spun i eu prerea. 5. mi permitei s v dau un sfat? 6. Nu cred c avem voie s pescuim aici. 7. E posibil s vin cu voi.
114

8. S-ar putea s nu fie acas la ora aceea. 9. Nu intra nc s-ar putea s fie altcineva nuntru.
10. De ce nu o asculi? S-ar putea s spun adevrul.22

1.3.2.3 ALTE VERBE MODALE SHALL AND SHOULD Shall i Should pot fi folosite att ca verbe auxiliare de timp sau mod n engleza oficial mai ales n Marea Britanie ct i ca verbe modale artnd obligaie, datorie sau interdicie. Forma SHALL este folosit n general la modul Indicativ, timpul Prezent i se traduce cu a nu vrea s... Forma negativ este SHALL NOT. Atunci cnd aceast form apare de n compania unor verbe ca: asume, be afraid, be sure, believe, doubt, expect, hope, etc. arat un viitor care nu poate fi controlat de noi. Eg.: I shall asume that he was here. I shall come and visit you tomorrow. Atunci cnd este folosit ca verb modal, shall este caracteristic englezei britanice mai ales la forma interogativ. Engleza american prefer forma should I la toate persoanele. n general, atunci cnd se folosete forma shall I... se solicit sfaturi, dispoziii sau instruciuni etc. Eg.: What shall I give you? Shall I buy this blouse or the other? Shall I serve you with tea or with a juice?
22

Ion Vladoiu, Verbele modale englezesti, ed. AN-DA, Bucuresti, pag. 127-129

115

Shall we listen this concert? Lets eat at the restaurant tonight, shall we? Forma SHOULD este o form de trecut i este folosit de regul cu verbe ca: like, prefer, love, care, hate, prefer i wish etc. Ea arat absena sau prezena necesitii sau obligaiei. Ea este folosit n stilul formal al englezei britanice, n emisiunile postului BBC, sau n sus-estul Angliei. SHOULD poate aprea n construcii de tipul: IF..SHOULD (DO) artnd un grad mai mare de improbabilitate. O alt forma a lui SHOULD este aceea de verb modal i arat necesitatea i obligaia n form de sfat sau recomandare. Eg.: You should go there; you may actually have some fun. If I should do this it might not came out as we planed. SHOULD este des ntlnit n engleza britanic formal n propoziii subordonate care ncep cu THAT i care arat ct de important este o aciune sau care redau preri personale, reacii la aflarea unor aciuni, comenzi, ordine, porunci, sfaturi, necesitate, insisten etc. Eg.: He should attend that social event. It is important that she should be there at 8 oclock. I hope that nothing should spoil our work. He ordered that the plain should lend immediately. Michael insisted that they should take some extra precaussions. It is amazing that the witnesses shouldnt say a word about the incident. It is strange that the girl should reacted like this.

116

WILL, WOULD Aceste dou verbe intr n categoria verbelor auxiliar-modale i exprim: voina; consimmntul sau refuzul; dorina sau preferina; promisiunea sau amenarea; comand, ordin sau intruciuni; insisten, ofert sau rugmini politicoase. Ele arat aciuni care au loc n viitor sau impun o condiie. Eg.: I will go to the seaside next summer. WILL este des folosit i ca verb modal i exprim voin, refuz, hotrre, comenzi, promisiuni i ameninri, rugmini, invitaii, obiceiuri etc. Eg.: I will accompany you. I will accomplish all my goals. She will not say a word. You will obey my commands. WOULD este i el folosit ca verb modal pentru a arta dorina sau preferina cuiva pentru ceva sau varinta pliticoas de a solicita ceva. Eg.: I would like a slice of your birthday cake. Would you like to come in? I wish he would be here. I would have liked to come with you. WOULD mai arat ceva ce o persoan obinuia s fac n trecut.
117

Eg.: In the old days people would behave more politely then today.

FOCUS: VERBELE MODALE (continuare) PARTE PRACTIC

A. CAN COULD BE ABLE TO


1. Folosii can pentru a exprima capacitatea de a efectua o aciune n prezent sau

viitor. ( Use can to express the ability to perform an action in present or in future):
2. The boy (..not) reach the sweets because they were on a top shelf. 3. The singer (..not) sing tomorrow because he had a cold. 4. I () stay in bed later as I didnt go to work yesterday. 5. You (.) easily recognize her; she has got blonde hair and blue eyes. 6. They () come right now; they have finished their work. 7. I (..) smell something burning in the kitchen. 8. It was so cold outside I (.not) walk the dog for more than 20 minutes. 118

9. Mozart (.) play the piano when he was 5 years old.

2.

Folosii can i cerei permisiunea. (Use can to ask for permission): Eg.: Can I use your dictionary?

to go now. to open the window. to use Eurocard. to get a travelers check. to spend all the money on books. to phone her. 3. Scriei trei lucruri: (Write three things):

- pe care le putei face acum (can) - pe care nu le putei face acum (cannot) - pe care le puteai face cu ani n urm (could) - pe care le vei putea face n curnd (will be able to) - pe care nu le vei putea face cnd vei fi n vrst (will not be able to)
3. Folosii urmtorul tabel pentru a exprima permisiunea la timp trecut cu could.

(Use the following table to ask permission in the past): Eg.: I could leave the office earlier last Monday. To leave the office To spend his friends To buy whatever she wanted whenever she wanted on her birthday when he was not in town
119

To sell To look To use 5.

the week-end the old watch at the picture

earlier last Monday in the mountains to get some money

Folosii forma could pentru a exprima o cerere politicoas. (Use the form

could to ask something politely): Eg.: You/show/the way Could you show me the way?
1. You/help/with the language. 2. You/carry/the bag. 3. You/bring/some tea. 4. You/read/the notice for me.

B. MAY MIGHT BE ALLOWED TO


7. Folosii verbul modal may pentru a cere permisiunea. (Use the modal verb

may to ask for permission): Eg.: You may ask for permission to sit by the window. May I sit by the window? 1. You enter a crowded cafeteria and see a vacant seat. Ask for permission to sit down. 2. You are late at a class and you want to come in. Ask for permission to come in. 3. You want to see a TV show and it is off. Ask for permission to see it again.
4. You want to take off your coat because it is too hot in that room. Ask for permission

to take off your coat.

120

5. You want too see a sweater that you intend to buy. Ask for permission to see a sweater.
8. Folosii may sau echivalentul lui modal pentru a exprima permisiunea n

prezent, trecut sau viitor. (Use may or his similar construction to express permission in present, past or future):
1. When I was younger I (.not) to got o a disco. 2. People (.not) touch the exhibits in a museum. 3. I (not) get my driving license until I was 18. 4. You (..) join the army when you are 18. 5. He (.) drive a motorbike next year.

8.

Completai spaiile libere cu may/might sau could (not) i cu forma de Infinitiv

prezent sau trecut a verbelor din parantez. (Fill in the blanks with may/might or could (not) and the present/past Infinitive of the verbs in brackets): 1. I.never (see) you again, so keep this as a souvenir from me. 2. Your cousin ..(be) in the garden now. 3. Granny.(come) this evening, but I dont think she will. 4. If he knew our new address, he(come) and see us. 5. It(rain) tomorrow, but I hope it will not. 6. Helen(be) on the next train. We.very well (wait). 7. If we got there early, we..(get) a good seat. 8. Grandpa said it..(snow) tonight. 9. I wonder why they didnt go. The weather..(be) too bad. 10. Prices(go up), so we ought to buy now. 11. You ought to attend his lectures you (learn) something.
121

12. Wed better be early; there (be) a crowd. 13. Dont loose the dog it.(bite) your guests. 14. His map.. (be) out of date. 15. I hope you..(be) right. 16. She has refused, but she..(change) her mind if you asked her again. 17. We..(have) to stay here all night. 18. I saw them in the street but they didnt stop to talk with me. They(be) in a hurry. 19. Why did you swim in that river? Its very dangerous (drown). 20. Dont tease that dog. It..(bite) you. 21. If you hurried, you ..(catch) the train. 22. If you had hurried indeed, you.(catch) the train. 9. Traducei n limba romn. (Translate into Romanian):

1. The teacher doesnt allow his students to eat sweets in class. 2. Maggie and Mary do allow their little sister to play with their dolls. 3. Get to work you have my permission to do it. 4. He could leave earlier because his boss gave him permission. 5. I dont know if mum lets me go out this afternoon. 6. Did she have your permission to go? 7. There can be no excuse for it says Mr. Brown. 8. Dont let the fire go out. 9. I wont allow him to go swimming this afternoon. 10. Im sorry but you are not allowed to visit these rooms. 11. Does your teacher allow you to come to school without having your homework done? 12.They talked to the prisoner as they were given permission.

122

10.

Alctuii propoziii cu fiecare form a verbului modal may. (Build up

sentences with each form of the modal verb may). C. MUST HAVE TO NEED
10. Transformai urmtoarele instruciuni n propoziii coninnd verbele modale

must sau mustnt. (Change the following instructions into sentences containing the modal verbs must or mustnt). 1. Do attend all classes. 2. Dont take school books home with you.
3. Dont make a noise in the corridors.

4. Arrive for lessons on time.


5. Dont write on school books.

6. Bring your own pens and paper.


7. Dont talk in class.

8. Air the classrooms at break. 9. Play in the schoolyard.


10. Dont fight each other.

12. Cu urmtoarea list de activiti alctuii propoziii astfel nct ele s exprime ceea ce trebuie s facem, ceea ce trebuie s nu facem sau pe care alii nu sunt nevoii s le fac. (Following is a list of activities. Some of them we MUST DO, some we MUST NOT DO, and others we DONT HAVE TO DO. Make appropriate sentences for each of them): Ex.: 1. improve our English We must improve our English.
123

2. enter the classroom after the lesson begins We mustnt enter the classroom after the lesson begins 3. leave the classroom during the breaks We dont have to leave the classroom during the breaks. 4. stand up when the teacher arrives 5. cross the street when the light is red 6. be in time for school 7. be late for school 8. do your homework 9. buy expensive clothes 10. go swimming 11. obey the law 12. disturb your neighbors 13. visit the neighbors
17. n fiecare din urmtoarele propoziii cineva va face ceva. ntrebai dac

persoana sau persoanele n cauz trebuie s fac acel lucru, ateptnd un rspuns negativ i dnd un rspuns negativ. (n each of the following sentences somebody is going to do something. Ask if the person or the persons concerned need do things, expecting a negative reply and give a negative reply.) Ex.: 1. Tom is going to climb the apple tree. There are a lot of apples in a basket. Need he climb the apple tree? No, he neednt.

124

2. Lucy is going to telephone. Lily is expecting her. 3. Dan is going to eat pilaf. He doesnt like rice. 4. Susan is going to invite Julia to a party although she doesnt like her. 5. Barbara is going to wear an evening dress. All the other girls are wearing casual dresses. 6. George is standing. There are enough chairs for everybody. 7. The boys are going to finish the exercise. They can finish it tomorrow, if they like. 8. Mother is going to wash the dishes. Alice can wash them later. 14. Alctuii propoziii folosind forma HAD TO. (Build up sentences using the

form HAD TO) Ex.: 1. carry luggage They had to carry their luggage themselves. 2. chop firewood. 3. fetch water 4. clean rooms 5. wash clothes 6. cook meals 7. make beds 15. Traducei urmtoarele propoziii n limba englez folosind verbele modale nvate. (Translate the following sentence into English using the modal verbs) 1. tii s noi? Nu, dar voi ti la sfritul cursului. 2. Nu pot s scriu cu stiloul asta. Pot s-l mprumut pe al tu? 3. Poate rmne i el aici? Nu, nu are voie, e prea mic.
125

4. Pot s vin i eu cu dumneavoastr? Da, ne poi nsoi. 5. Am putut iei n grdin dup ce a stat ploaia. 6. Anul acesta am ore dup amiaz. n fiecare zi trebuie s fiu la coal la ora 12 fix. 7. Trebuie s merg la Braov sptmna viitoare.23

IIst YEAR OF STUDY UNIT VII FOCUS: TIMPURILE VERBALE 1. THE SIMPLE PRESENT TENSE (PREZENTUL SIMPLU) 1.1: TEXT CU PREZENTUL SIMPLU 1.2: EXPLICAII GRAMATICALE 1.2.1 FOLOSIRE 1.2.2 FORMARE 1.3: EXERCIII

1.1.

TEXT CUPRINZND EXEMPLE DE PREZENT SIMPLU

Another 1pr. adj. Superpower s. Craft s. Most


23

= = = =

Alt, alta Superputere Meteug ndemnare Marea majoritate

To estimate v. To identify v. Themselves pr. Census s.

= = = =

A estima A identifica nii Recensmnt

adj.

Ion Vldoiu, Verbe modale englezeti, Ed. AN-DA, Bucureti pag 82 84; 127 129; 152 - 158

126

Reader Like

s. = adv. =

Cititor Ca

Near To be scattered

adj. v.

= =

Aproape A fi mprtiat A fi rspndit Printre A vrea A cuta ceva A cuta ceva Cu siguran Vis Cumva

To set out Search To find To be displeased To know To feel Hope Few PHRASES:

v. s. v. v. v. v. s. adj.

= = = = = = = =

A porni Cutare A gsi Ai displcea A ti A simi Speran Puin

Throughout To want To look for To look for Certainly Dream Somehow

prep v. v. v. adv. s. adv.

= = = = = = =

In the same time = n acelai timp As in terms = n termeni; referitor la To look for = a cuta The very subject = chiar subiectul Just over half = puin peste jumtate To live on = a tri pe By use = prin obinuin

TEXT: Read and translate this text in Romanian. (Citii i traducei acest text n Romn): INDIANS OR AMERICANS
127

America is not just another country. It is a superpower but, in the same time, we can speak about it in terms of its population centers, economic statistics, educational systems, arts and crafts, politics and problems etc. Most readers, like most tourists, set out in search of America wanting to find what they are looking for and are very displeased with their guides if they dont find it. We all know and feel that America that dream and that promise, those myths, legends and hopes is somewhat different. The very subject of America attracts opinions and judgments as no other country does. The United States is one of the few countries that have no official language or languages. English is the common language by use but it is not the national language by law. About 30 million Americans speak a language other than English at home. It is estimated that some 20 million people in the United States may have some Indian blood. However, only about 1,4 million people identify themselves as Indian (American Indian, Eskimo, etc) in the 1980 census. Just over half of these live on or near federal reservations. The rest is scattered throughout the population. No Indian has to stay in a reservation. Less than 30 Indians were city residents in 1940 and today are over 700, 000. Nineteen metropolitan areas have 5,000 or more Indians; the Los Angeles urban complex has about 82,000. Over 10 percent of the more than 200 Indian reservations have 5000 or more Indians, the largest being the Navajo with some 166,000 Indians. Most of the 500 or so tribes and groups recognized by US Government have few members. In only five states (Alaska, Arizona, New Mexico, Oklahoma and South Dakota) Indians make more than 5% of the population. All American Indians are citizens of the US.24

24

Olea Ciuciuc, Eugenia Tnsescu, Curs de Englez General, Ed. Teora, Bucureti, p. 78

128

EXPLICAII GRAMATICALE 1.2.1 FOLOSIRE Timpul Prezentul Simplu (The Simple Present Tense) este unul dintre cele mai importante noiuni de gramatic din limba englez i, prin urmare, va fi primul studiat n acest suport de seminar. n ceea ce privete timpurile verbale exist o deosebire important ntre timpurile verbale romneti i cele englezeti: aspectul. Spre deosebire de timpurile verbale romneti, cele englezeti au aspectul simplu i continuu. n limba englez exist urmtoarele timpuri verbale: 1. TIMPUL PREZENT (THE PRESENT TENSE) Prezentul Simplu The Simple Present Tense Prezentul Continuu The Present Continuous Tense 2. TIMPUL TRECUT (THE PAST TENSE) Trecutul Simplu The Simple Past Tense Trecutul Continuu The Continuous Past Tense 3. TIMPUL VIITOR (THE FUTURE TENSE) Viitorul Simplu The Simple Future Viitorul Continuu The Future Continuous Tense Alte Forme de Exprimare a Viitorului
129

Timpul Present Tense Simple exprim o aciune general (mai precis obiceiuri, evenimente sau fapte care se repet urmnd un anumit model) sau adevruri general valabile cum ar fi proverbe sau lucruri de necontestat. Adverbele care nsoesc de obicei acest tip de prezent sunt: every day/month/year, always, usually, often, sometimes, seldom, ever, never, once a day etc. Prezentul Simplu mai exprim i o stare de fapt: Eg.: It is always cold in winter. He usually runs two hours in the park.
-

comentarii la radio i televiziune:

Eg.: Today the temperatures rise to 60 degrees.


-

comentarii sportive:

Eg.: The goal-keeper misses the ball and one more goal is scored.
-

declaraii:

Eg.: The army declares state of emergency in that state.


-

titluri de ziare:

Eg.: John (the football player) transfers to the English team.


130

1.2.2 FORMARE Din punct de vedere al formei, Prezentul Simplu este identic cu infinitivul scurt. Ceea ce l difereniaz de alte timpuri verbale este terminaia s sau es care se adaug la persoana a-III-a, nr. singular. Aceast terminaie implic anumite schimbri n structura verbului cum ar fi:
1. Verbele care se termin n ss; -ch; -sh; -x adaug terminaia es care se pronun

[iz] Eg.: I confess he confesses I push I teach I box he pushes - he teaches - he boxes

2. Verbul to go primete terminaia es care se pronun [z], n schimb verbul to do

care primete aceeai terminaie se pronun n mod diferit: Eg.: I go he goes I do he does
3. Verbele care se termin n y precedat de o consoan transform y n i i adaug

es care se pronun [z]: Eg.: I cry he cries I try he tries

131

n schimb, cele care se termin n y dar este precedat de o vocal adaug numai un s i se pronun [z]: Eg.: I buy he buys I play he plays Acest timp verbal are trei forme: afirmativ, negativ i interogativ. Formele interogativ i negativ au nevoie de verbul auxiliar to do pentru a se forma. De exemplu, pentru a forma negativul se adaug forma do sau does ntre subiect i forma de infinitiv scurt a verbului de conjugat i negaia not. Eg.: They do not want to enter there. She does not say a word. Forma interogativ este format prin inversarea lui do/does cu subiectul: Eg.: Do you do this often? Does he always react like this? O alt subdiviziune a timpului Prezentul Simplu este Prezentul Istoric mai rar folosit n limbajul de zi cu zi dar foarte des ntlnit n povestiri, prezentri istorice, naraiuni sau pentru a dramatiza o situaie sau un eveniment: Eg.: To make England more prosperous, Elisabeth Tudor wants to find a peaceful answer to the English Reformation. The Queen also encourages merchant expansion. She recognizes Spain as her rival and enemy. Glume sau alte povestiri:
132

Eg.: The lord tells his butler to call him a taxi. The butler, who never contradicts his master, says: Yes sir, you are a taxi. Activiti programate oficial sau aciuni care fac parte dintr-un program stabilit pentru viitorul apropiat. Eg.: The train for Liverpool leaves in five minutes. On July the 1st our school organizes a trip to the Old Valley. The students who go on this trip have been told that the coach leaves at 7 a.m. sharp. ATENIE! n limba englez exist anumite categorii de verbe care folosesc numai aspectul simplu precum: 1. Verbe de percepie senzorial: to see, to hear, to smell, to taste, to touch, to feel, to notice etc. Eg.: Your cake tastes good. Spring flowers smell sweet. I feel tired after the days work. 2. Verbe care se refer la capaciti mintale: to think, to understand, to know, to suppose, to realize, to remember, to recollect, to recall, to forget, to expect.

133

Eg.: I think he did not do any mistakes. . 3. Verbe care se refer la sentimente: to adore, to love, to hate, to appreciate, to desire, to detest, to fear, to forgive, to hope, to like, to mind, to want, to wish etc Eg.: We simply adore this cat. 4. Verbe care se refer la situaii permanente: to belong, to consist, to contain, to cost, to include, to look, to measure, to own, to posses, to require etc. Eg.:This book belongs to the Central Library. Unele din verbele de mai sus au mai multe sensuri:
1. to see a vedea: I see you.

a ntlni, a vizita: We are seeing some friends tomorrow.


2. to think a crede, a considera: I think you are right.

a plnui: We are thinking to plant a garden. to consider a crede, a considera:We consider your paper to be the best. a se gndi: Im considering to send you away as a punishment for what you have done.
3. to expect a spera: I expect more from you. 134

a atepta: They are expecting the concert unpatiently.


4. to feel stare permanent: I feel this blouse so soft on my skin.

o aciune cu un singur scop: Im feeling this dress to see if it fits me.


5. to smell stare permanent: I can smell the flowers now.

o aciune temporar cu un anume scop: Im smelling the parfume to see if it suits me.
6. to taste stare permanent: I tasted his food and it is always too salty.

o aciune temporar cu un anume scop: Im tasting the babys juice to see if it is sweet enough.
7. to look a prea: Her coat looks rather shabby.

a privi: What are you looking at? a cuta: Granny is looking for her glasses. a rsfoi: George is looking through a magazine to find a picture he saw the other day.25

EXERCISES (EXERCISES):
1.

Construii propoziii conform modelului, care s aib legtur cu propoziiile de mai jos, cu ajutorul cuvintelor din parantez. (Build up sentences which are related with the sentences below, with the words in brackets):

25

Ioana Maria Turai, Gramatica limbii engleze, Ed. Corint, Bucureti, 2006

135

Model: I always watch TV after dinner. (never during dinner) I never watch TV during dinner. 1. Our children dont play in the street. (usually in the park not far from our house) 2. Mrs. Jones goes shopping on Tuesdays and Fridays. (seldom at weekends) 3. As a rule, my parents leave for work at 7.30 a.m. (never so early on Saturday or Sunday) 4. How often do you go on trips? (once a month) 5. Romanian families spend a lot of money on heating their homes in winter. (in summer any money) 6. People who live in the country keep their doors locked by night. (never by day)
7. Do you ever go to work by taxi? (sometimes when Im late)

8. Children usually have a cup of milk for breakfast. (not for lunch as a rule) 9. Bill often rides his bike on his way to work in fine weather. (never in rainy weather) 10.Professor Johnson delivers a course on Public Health every Wednesday. (not on any other day)
2. Situaie. (Situation): Bob White a fost chemat la un interviu cu directorul unei

firme. El trebuie s i rspund la ntrebri. Acestea sunt rspunsurile lui Bob. (Bob White has been accepted for an interview with the manager of a big company. He has to answer the managers questions. Here are Bobs answers). 1. I am an engineer. 2. I am a graduate in Automatics. 3. I can speck two foreign languages, German and French. 4. This is the first job I am applying from.
136

5. I live in this town. 6. No, I am not married yet. 7. I have a driving license but I dont have my own car.
8. I enjoy traveling so I am eager to represent the companys interests wherever I

might be sent if I am offered the job.26 3. Put in the correct form of the Present Progressive. (Completai spaiile libere cu forma corect a structurii Prezent Simplu): 1. I (write) an article on the French Revolution. 2. What (Julien) do now?
3. My neighbours (shake) the carpets right now.

4. Nobody (listen) to what he has to say. 5. She (try) to finish the report now. 6. They (talk) to each other in this very moment. 7. The president (visit) our town today. 8. Our friends (draw) up the plan right now. 9. Everybody (look) at her now. 10.What you (think) about right now?
4. Turn the following sentences into the question form and then into the negative

form. (Transformai urmtoarele propoziii la interogativ i negativ): Model: The baby plays now. Does the baby play now? The baby does not play now.

26

Ioana Maria Turai, Gramatica limbii engleze, Ed. Corint, Bucureti, 2006

137

1. We write our homework. 2. It snows every week. 3. She feels better. 4. Nobody listen him.
5. Her cousin plays the violin.
27

5.

Put in the correct form of the Present Tense Simple. (Completai spaiile libere cu forma corect a timpului Prezentul Simplu):

1. I (think) he (be) right. 2. They (study) in the morning. 3. Mother (play) the piano very well. 4. We (go) to the opera once a month. 5. You (think) it is the best idea? 6. Each of us (have) an English book. 7. We (do) our homework easily. 8. She (love) smart clothes. 9. Parents (be) always interested in their childrens future.
10. Where she (get) such ideas from? 11. How often (go) to this supplier? 12. Nobody (seem) interested in my project.

6.

Turn the following sentences into interrogative ones. (Transformai urmtoarele

propoziii la interogativ): 1. This is a wrong address. 2. He understands Japanese.


27

Olea Ciuciuc, Eugenia Tanasescu, Curs de Engleza Generala, Ed. Teora, Bucuresti, 1998, pag. 75-76

138

3. We never stay at home on Sunday morning. 4. She goes to church every week. 5. My colleagues study a lot. 6. I like listening to a talk show every evening. 7. Some of my friends speak perfect French. 8. Credit cards are a very convenient instrument of payment. 9. Maria thinks she is very lucky. 10.My best friend loves Chinese food. 11.Nobody in my family works in a bank. 12.Those houses look very old. 7. Turn the following sentences into the negative form. (Trecei urmtoarele

propoziii la negative.) Model: They work until late. They do not / dont work until late. 1. We receive messages from them every two hours. 2. I live in the country. 3. They go for a walk in the park every Saturday. 4. You go to bed late every night. 5. She leads a quiet life in this old district of the town. 6. There are seven important sights Id like you to visit in this region. 7. Students work as hard as they should. 8. We generally eat more during the holiday. 8. Put the time expressions between the brackets in the right place. (Introducei

adverbele din paranteze la locul corespunztor):


139

1. We visit him. (often) 2. I speak to him. (hardly ever)


3. They go to the theatre. (rarely)

4. These bankers play tennis. (twice a week) 5. She comes to work early. (usually)
6. I stay at home alone for Christmas. (never)

7. We do our English homework. (almost every afternoon)


8. People who smoke think about their health. (seldom)

9. I receive a letter from him. (every two months)


10. Every student loves to sleep late. (in the morning)

9.

Translate into English. (Traducei n limba englez):


1. Copii mei nva de diminea.

2. Sunt multe caiete pe pupitre.


3. Crile mele sunt aici, dar unde sunt ale lor? 4. Nu deschidei fereastra, v rog!

5. Hai s mergem la cinema! 6. Anca trebuie s ne dea un rspuns.


7. Care dintre fete este sora lui? 8. Cu ce se ocup soul dumneavoastr?

9. Mie mi plac traducerile pentru c m ajut s-mi corectez greelile. 10.Cum arat fiul lor? 11.Rochiile elegante se fac din mtase? 12.Ct este ora ? Este 4 i un sfert. Ceasul dumneavoastr merge bine ? Nu tiu. Cred c este puin nainte.
140

13. Ce se vede prin fereastra pe care v uitai?

14.n spatele casei lor se afl un bazin de not.


15. Cum sunt zilele de var din Romnia?

16.Brbatul care vorbete acum este vecinul meu. 17.Ea seamn cu mama ei.
18. Cnd este aniversarea zilei dumneavoastr de natere? 19. Plou? Nu. Dar cred c o s plou n curnd. 20. Ci ani sunt ntr-un secol?

21.Doamna din stnga mea citete ziarul n acest moment. 10. Read the following in the third person singular. Do not change the object if it

is plural. (Citii urmtoarele propoziii la persoana a-III-a singular. Nu schimbai subiectul propoziiei dac este la plural):
1. They wish to speak to you. (He)

2. Buses pass my house every hour.


3. They help their father. (He)

4. We change planes at Heathrow. 5. You watch too much T.V.


6. They worry too much. (He)

7. The park closes at dusk. 8. He misses his mother. 9. The children like sweets. 10.He finishes work at 6.00. 11.He lives beside the sea. 12.He bullies his sisters. 13. The stove heats the water. 14.She has cooked breakfast.
141

15.She carries a sleeping bad. 16.He usually believes you. 17.She dances in competitions. 18.You remember the address.
19. She plays chess very well.

20.He worries about her. 21.These thieves work at night. 22.He leaves home at 8.00 every day. 23.Ann arranges everything. 24.She agrees with you. 25.Their dog barks at night. 26.Their neighbors often complain. 27.Tom enjoys driving at night. 28.He engages new staff every spring. 29.Tom looks every well. 30.They sell fresh grape juice here. 31.He charges more than other photographers. 32.She cuts her husbands hair. 33.They pick the apples in October. 34.The last train leaves at midnight. 35.He relaxes during weekends.
36. She refuses to discuss it.28

UNIT VIII FOCUS: TIMPURILE VERBALE (CONTINUARE)


28

A.J. Thomson, A.V. Martinet, A Practical English Grammar, Exercises 1, Ed. Oxford University Press, Bucureti, 2008, pag. 49-51.

142

1. THE PRESENT CONTINUOUS TENSE (PREZENTUL CONTINUU) 1.1: TEXT CU PREZENTUL CONTINUU 1.2: EXPLICAII GRAMATICALE 1.2.1 FORMARE 1.2.2 FOLOSIRE 1.3: EXERCIII

1.1.

TEXT CUPRINZND EXEMPLE DE PREZENT CONTINUU

Season Sultry Threatening Storm To follow To hail Beside To pick Strawberries Apricots Frost Unbearable To froze Layer Icicle Eave Snowfall

s. adj. adj. s. v. adv. prep. v. s. s. s. adj. v. s. s. s. s.

= = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = =

Sezon Cloud nbuitor Sign Amenintor Thunder Furtun A urma A cadea grindina De altfel A culege Cpuni Caise Frig, ger Insuportabil A nghea Strat urure Strain Ninsoare To improve Rainbow To show up Ripe Cherries Peaches Bitterly Cold Ponds Roof To glisten To hang Seed To slide

s. s. s. v. s. v. adj. s. s. adv. adj. s. s. v. v. s. v.

= = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = =

Nor Semn Tunet A se face frumos Curcubeu A aprea Copt Ciree Piersici Extrem Rece Eleteu Acoperi A strluci A atrna Smn A aluneca

PHRASES:
143

To rain cats and dogs = a ploua torenial As far as Im concerned = n ceea ce m privete TEXT: Read and translate the following text. (Citii i traducei urmtorul text): Betty: Ann, what is your favorite season? Ann: Summer. Yours? Betty: Winter. But why do you like summer? As far as Im concerned, I hate sultry heat and the days when the sky covers with threthening clouds, signs of thunder storms which follows. Or do you like when its raining cats and dogs or when its hailing? Ann: Of course I dont. But after that the weather improves. The rainbow showed up in the sky lets us know about it. Besides, summer is the best season for holiday, you must admit. Dont tell me you dont like going to the mountains or to the seaside in summer. Everybody does. Betty: I do, of course, but.. Ann: And youre a vegetarian. Well, in summer there are so many fruits, ripe and ready to be picked: cherries, strawberries, peaches, apricots. I really cant see what could like about winter. It is so bitterly cold; sometimes the frost and the cold winds are unbearable. The rivers, lakes and ponds are frozen. Betty: How cant you see the lovely scenary?! The roofs of the houses and the trees which are all covered by a layer of snow! The snow glistens in the sun, and so do the icicles hanging from the eaves. Beside, this layer of now is not only beautiful but also useful, as it protects the seed of plants from the frost. In my opinion nothing in the world compares to the first snowfall. The image of the
144

large snowflackes falling from the sky is absolutely wonderful. But I am not the only one who loves winter. Many people do, people who enjoy skating, skiing, not to mention the children whose joy of making snowmen, sliding and throwing snowballs to one another cant be described. As you see, for me the winter is not just cold and frost. Ann: Well, I guess youre right. Anyway, Im sure Ill always like the summer best.29

1.2.

EXPLICAII GRAMATICALE 1.2.1 FORMARE O alt form a prezentului este timpul Prezentul Continuu. Acest timp este format din verbul auxiliar TO BE la prezent i participiul prezent al

verbului de conjugat terminat n ing. El este n general nsoit de adverbe de timp ca: now, in this moment, this year, today etc. Timpul Prezentul Continuu are trei forme: Afirmativ: subiect + am/are/is + participiul prezent + ing Eg.: He is coming. Negativ: subiect + am/are/is + not + participiul prezent + ing Eg.: Jim is not going anywhere. Interogativ: am/are/is + subiect + participiul prezent

29

Olea Ciuciuc, Eugenia Tanasescu, Curs de Engleza Generala, Ed. Teora, Bucuresti, 1998, pag. 88

145

Eg.: Is Susan a pleasant girl? Forma ing atunci cnd este adugat verbului l modific pe acesta: 1. Verbele terminate in e pierd terminaia i adaug ing: To have having To drive driving To make making To save saving To make taking 2. Verbele terminate n ie transform terminaia n y i adaug ing: To die dying To lie lying To tie tying 3. Verbele terminate ntr-o consoan precedat de o singur vocal accentuat dubleaz consoana nainte de sufixul ing: To begin beginning To forget forgetting To get getting To rub rubbing 4. Verbele terminate n l dubleaz consoana i adaug sufixul ing: To compel compelling To control controlling To fulfill fulfilling To travel traveling
146

5. Verbele terminate in y adaug sufixul ing n toate cazurile: To buy buying To cry crying To obey obeying To play playing To say saying To try trying30

1.2.2 FOLOSIRE Prezentul Continuu este folosit n urmtoarele situaii: 1. Aciuni care se desfoar fie n prezent, fie n momentul vorbirii, fie n general: Eg.: What are you doing today? Whats the baby doing? Hes tearing up a 5 note.
2. Exist i situaia n care timpul Prezentul Continuu este folosit pentru a arta

calitatea sau starea sufleteasc a unei persoane: Eg.: English is easily forgotten when it is not spoken continuously. He was feeling weakened all the time.

30

Ioana Maria Turai, Gramatica Limbii Engleze, ed. Corint, Bucureti, 2006, pag.341

147

Not: Dac ntr-o fraz exist dou aciuni care au loc n acelai timp, la timpul Prezentul Continuu, numai o singur form de participiu se adaug aceasta fcnd parte din cel deal doilea verb: Eg.: John was planting and watering a flower in the same time.
3. Prezentul Continuu este folosit n aciuni care au loc n prezent i care includ

momentul vorbirii. Acest aspect este adesea nsoit de adverbe i locuiuni adverbiale de timp ca: today/this morning/afternoon/evening/year/month etc. Eg.: We are having an exam today. We have just handed the written papers and now we are waiting for the results.
4. Acest timp mai poate indica o aciune care se desfoar ntr-un viitor apropiat

fiind folosit n general cu verbe de micare ca: tomorrow, next Monday, next week, these days, soon. Eg.: Paula: What are you doing this week-end? Sue: I am going on a trip. And you, what are you doing? Paula: Im staying at home. Im waiting for my son who is comming from a long journey. 5. Iritarea fa de o aciune sau situaie: Eg.: The two women are always gossiping about their neighbours whenever they meet. VERBE CARE NU SUNT FOLOSITE CU TIMPUL PREZENT CONTINUU

148

Exist n limba englez o categorie de verbe care nu pot fi folosite cu timpul Prezent Continuu ci numai cu timpul Prezent Simplu. Ele pot fi grupate dup cum urmeaz:
A. VERBE DE PERCEPIE (care reflect aciuni involuntare): feel, hear, smell,

see, notice, observe, look, taste. n schimb verbe ca: gaze, listen, look at, observe (watch), stare i watch implic o folosire deliberat a simurilor i pot fi folosite cu timpul continuu: Eg.: Watch! Im watching but I dont see anything unusual. He is listening to a tape, but he is wearing earphones so nobody else hears it.
B. VERBE CARE EXPRIM SENTIMENTE I EMOII: admire (respect),

adore, apreciate (value), care for (like), desire, detest, dislike, fear, hate, like, love, mind (care), respect, value, want, wish. Timpul continuu poate fi folosit cu verbul admire cu sensul de a privi cu admiraie, cu verbul apreciate cu sensul de a-i crete valoarea, cu verbul care for cu sensul de a avea grij de, enjoy i cteodat love/like cu sensul de a se simi mai bine. Eg.: Hes enjoying his holiday in the Artic zone. He hates turistic places and he doesnt mind the cold.
C. VERBE CARE ARAT ACTIVITATEA MENTAL: agree, apreciate

(understand), assume, believe, expect (think), feel (think), feel sure/certain, forget,
149

know, mean, perceive, realize, recall, recognize, recollect, remember, see (understand), see through someone (panatrate his attempt to deceive), suppose, think (have an oppinion), trust (believe/have confidence in), understand.
D. VERBE INDICND POSESIA: belong, owe, own, posses.

E. VERBE AUXILIARE 1.3.


1.

EXERCIII: Construii propoziii conform modelului, care s aib legtur cu propoziiile de

mai jos, cu ajutorul cuvintelor din parantez. (Build up sentences, according to the model, which are related with the sentences below, with the help of the words in brackets): Model: I always watch TV after dinner. (never during dinner) I never watch TV during dinner. 1. Our children dont play in the street. (usually in the park not far from our home)
2. Mrs. Jones goes shopping on Tuesdays and Fridays. (seldom at weekends ) 3. As a rule, my parents leave for work at 7.30 a.m. (never so early on Saturday

and Sunday) 4. How often do you go on trips? (once a month)


5. Romanian families spend a lot of money on heating their houses in winter. (in

summer any money). 6. People who live in the country keep their doors locked by night. (never by day)
7.

Do you ever go to work by taxi? (sometimes when Im late)

8. Children usually have a cup of milk for breakfast. (not for lunch as a rule) 150

9. Bill often rides his bike on his way to work in fine weather. (never in rainy weather)
10. Professor Johnson delivers a course on Public Health every Wednesday. (not on

any other day)

2. Situation. (Situaie):

Bob White has been accepted for an interview with the manager of a big company. He has to answer the managers questions. Here are Bobs answers. Tell which were the questions he was asked and then give the answers. (Bob White a fost acceptat la un interviu cu directorul unei companii mari. El trebuie s rspund la ntrebrile directorului. Spunei ce ntrebri i s-au pus i apoi relatai rspunsurile): 1. I am an engineer. 2. I am a graduate in Automatics.
3. I cand speak two foreign languages, German and French.

4. This is the first job I am applying for. 5. I live in this town. 6. No, I am not married yet. 7. I have a driving licence, but I do not have my own car. 8. I enjoy travelling, so I am eager to represent the companys interests whenever I might be sent if I am offered the job. 3. Choose the correct form. (Alegei forma corect):
1. Does the scientist know how much his invention would cost/how much costs his

inventions?
151

2. Do you know where Janes purse is/where is Janes purse? 3. The children are/are going to school now. 4. Neither Bill nor his brother speaks/is speaking French. 5. We happen to meet quite often when we come/are coming out from work. 6. Tim never sleeps/is never sleeping more than six hours a night. 7. Drivers must never speak on thir mobile phone while they drive/are driving. 8. Mind the traffic lights before you cross/are crossing the road. 9. Ill find out the truth as soon as I get/am getting his letter. 10. I dont know where works his father/his father works.

4.

Fill up the following sentences according to the model, using the words in brackets. (Completai propoziiile de mai jos potrivit modelului folosind cuvintele din parantez): Model: a. Children enjoy staying in the open when spring comes. (so the grown-ups) Children enjoy staying in the open when spring comes, and so do the grown-ups. b. Taking too many pills doesnt make you good. (neither thinking about your illness all the time) Taking too many pills doesnt make you good and neither thinking about your illness all the time)
1. Teachers hold on to the idea that young people should be adviced what to do

in life. (so most parents) 2. I dont understand what you are getting at. (neither anybody present). 3. I loath walking in thee rain. (so my dog)
152

4. Tom pretends he doesnt know who has eaten the cookies. (so his sister) 5. The Smiths dont put out with loud music. (neither their neighbours) 6. My fellow workers dont take to our new boss. (neither - I) 7. The building of the new Townhall involves a huge sum of money. (so the renovation of an old one) 8. Harry cant stand by his promise. (neither - I) 9. This document doesnt set out any firm clausses. (neither the previuos one) 10. I assure you the manager doesnt intend to turn down your proposal. (neither any of us)

5. brackets

Build up questions derived from the sentences bellow, using the words in and the Present Continuous Tense. (Construii ntrebri derivate din

propoziiile de mai jos, folosind cuvintele din parantez i prezentul continuu.) Model: You are still fevresh. (why, take, medicine) Why arent you taking any medicine? 1. The Prestons are going on holidays. (your parents, join, them) .. 2. Its pouring with rain. (why, not open, umbrella) .. 3. I see you are packing your laggage. (where, go) .. 4. The baby is crying. (why, not feed) .. 5. Im leaving for work in a few minutes. (what time, the children, leave, school) ..
153

6. The children are playing in the street. (why, not call in) .. 7. Dinner is ready. (you, come, have it) .. 8. I want to read the todays newspaper. (still, read, you) .. 9. Jim is beating his little brother. (why, behave, badly) .. 10.Mary is talking with a young boy in the corner of the street. (who, boy, with) ...
6.

Reframe the following sentences, using the Present Continuous Tense, to express activities planed for the future. Some words would be omitted. (Reformulai urmtoarele propoziii, folosind timpul Prezentul Continuu, pentru a exprima activitii viitoare. Anumite cuvinte ar putea fi omise.) Model: We have bought tickets for tomorrows football meci. We are going to the football meci tomorrow.

1. The Archers have deceided to plant some trees in their garden this week-end. 2. Sheila has planned to change her job for a better one this year. 3. The Government has in view to allot a considerable sum of money for the modernization of schools this year. 4. The students have deceided to start a course on computers next week. 5. Jims parents have saved money to send him to a summer camp. 6. The greengrocer has just unloaded a hundred pounds of fruit to sell today. 7. As Dick hasnt enough money to buy a new car, he intends to buy a second hand one.
154

8. Mrs Wood, our history teacher, is ready to begin the first class of the day in a few minutes. 9. I hope that the pop star is willing to give autographs at the end of the show.
10. As I have taken my car to be repaired, I have deceided to walk for a day or two.31

7.

Put the verbs in brackets into the Present Continuous Tense. (Punei verbele

din parantez la timpul Prezentul Continuu)

1. She (not work), she (swim) in the river. 2. He (teach) his boy to ride. 3. Why Ann (not wear) her new dress? 4. The airplane (fly) at 2.000 metres. 5. What Tom (do) not? He (clean) his shoes.
6. This fire (go) out. Somebody (bring) more coal? 7. It (rain)? Yes, it (rain) very hard. You cant go out yet.

8. Why you (mend) that old shirt? 9. You (not tell) the truth? How do you know that I (not tell) the truth. 10. Who (move) the furniture about upstairs? Its Tom. He (paint) the front bedroom. 11. Mrs. Jones (sweep) the steps outside her house. 12.What you (read) now? I (read) Crime and Punishment.
13. It is a lovely day. The sun (shine) and the birds (sing).

14.Someone (knock) at the door. Shall I answer it? I (come) in a minute. I just (wash) my hands. 15.She always (ring) up and (ask) questions. 16.Why you (make) a cake? Someone (come) to tea?
31

Ioana Maria Turai, Gramatica Limbii Engleze, ed. Corint, Bucureti, 2006, pag. 343 -346

155

17.Where is Tom? He (lie) under the car. 18.Can I borrow your pen or you (use) it at the moment? 19.You (do) anything this evening? No, Im not. Well, I (go) to the cinema. Would you like to come with me? 20.We (have) breakfast at 8.00 tomorrow as Tom (catch) an early train. 21.Ann usually does shopping, but I (do) it today as she is not well. 22.Why do you (type) so fast? You (make) a lot of mistakes. 23.Mother (rest) now. She always rests after lunch.
24. They (dig) an enormous hole just outside my gate. What they (do) that for? I dont

know. Perhaps they (look) for oil. 25.What (make) that terrible noise? Its the pneumatic drill. They (repair) the road.
26. The children are very quiet. Go and see what they (do). They (cut) up some 5

notes. 27.What you (wait) for? I (wait) for my change; the boy just (get) it. 28.I cant hear what you (say); the traffic (make) too much noise.
29. She always (lose) her glasses and (ask) me to look for them.

30. Mother: What are you (look) at? Something (happen) in the street?
31. Child: Yes. The house opposite is on fire! Come and look!

Mother: I cant. I (bath) the babies. It is the Fire Brigade here? 32.Child: Yes. Fire engines (rush) up and the firemen (jump) up and (unroll) their hoses.
33. Smoke (pour) from the windows! People (stop) to watch. A policeman (try) to

move them on.


34. An old man (climb) out of the first floor window. A fireman (help) him! Two boys

(slide) down a rope! 35.A woman (wave) from the attic and a fireman (go) up a ladder to help her!
36. Now he (come) down again! He (carry a baby). The crowd (cheer)!

156

UNIT IX FOCUS: REVISION UNIT THE PRESENT SIMPLE TENSE VS. THE PRESENT CONTINUOUS TENSE (EXERCISES) TIMPUL PREZENTUL SIMPLU VS. TIMPUL PREZENTUL CONTINUU (EXERCIII)

157

1.

Put the verbs in brackets into the Simple Present or the Present Continuous Tense. (Punei verbele din parantez la timpul prezentul simplu sau continuu):

1. Cuckoos (not build) nests. They (use) the nests of other birds.

2. You can not see Tom now: he (have) a bath. 3. He usually (drink) coffee but today he (drink) tea. 4. What she (do) in the evening? She usually (play) cards or (watch) TV. 5. I will not go out now as it (rain) and I (not have) an umbrella. 6. The last train (leave) the station at 11.30.
7. He usually (speak) so quickly that I (not understand) him. 8. Ann (make) a dress for herself at the moment. She (make) all her own clothes.

9. Hardly anyone (wear) a hat nowadays. 10. Im afraid I have broken one of your coffee cups.
11. I (wear) my sun glasses today because the sun is very strong. 12. Tom cannot have the newspaper now because his aunt (read) it.

13.I am busy at the moment. I (redecorate) the room. 14.The kettle (boil) now. Shall I make the tea?
15. You (enjoy) yourself or would you like to leave now? I (enjoy) myself very

much. I (want) to stay to the end. 16.How you (get) to work as a rule? I usually (go) by bus but tomorrow I (go) in Toms car. 17. Why you (put) on your coat? I (go) for a walk. You (come) with me? Yes, Id love to come. You (mind) if I bring my dog? 18. How much you (owe) him? I (owe) him 5. You (intend) to pay him? 19. You (belong) to your local library? Yes, I do. You (read) a lot? Yes, quite a lot. How often you (change) the books? I (change) one every day.

158

20. Mary usually (learn) languages very quickly but she (not seem) able to learn modern Greek. 21. I always (buy) lottery tickets but I never (win) anything. 22. You (like) this necklace? I (give) it to my daughter for her birthday.
23. I will not tell you my secret unless you (promise) not to tell anyone. I (promise).

24. You always (write) with your left hand? 25. You (love) him? No, I (like) him very much but I (not love) him.
26. You (dream) at night? Yes, I always (dream) and because I (eat) too much

supper I (have) nightmares. 27. The milk (smell) sour. You (keep) the milk a long time? 28. These workmen are never satisfied; they always (complain). 29. We (use) this room today because the window in the other room is broken. 30. He always (say) that he will mend the window but he never (do) it. 31. You (know) why an apple (fall) down and not up?
32. You (write) to him tonight? Yes, I always (write) to him on his birthday. You

(want) to send any messages? 33. Tom and Mr. Pitt (have) a long conversation. I (wonder) what they (talk) about? 34. You (believe) all the newspapers say? No, I (not believe) any of it. Then why you (read) newspapers?
35. This car (make) a very strange noise. You (think) it is all right? Oh, that noise (not

matter). It always (make) a noise like that.


36. The fire (smoke) horribly. I cannot see across the room. I (expect) that the birds

(build) a nest in the chimney. Why you (not put) wire across the tops of your chimney? Tom (do) that sometimes but it (not seem) to make any difference.

159

2. Put the verbs in the brackets into the Simple Prezent Tense or Prezent

Continuous Tense. (Punei verbele din parantez la Timpul Prezentul Simplu sau la cel Continuu):
1. What Tom (think) of the Budget? He (think) it is most unfair.I (agree) with

him. 2. What this one (cost)? It (cost) forty pence. 3. You (hear) the wind? It (blow) very strongly tonight. 4. You (see) my car keys anywhere? No, I (look) for them but I (not see) them. 5. He never (listen) to what you say. He always (think) about something else. 6. This book is about a man who (desert) his family and (go) to live on a Pacific Island. 7. You (understand) what the lecturer is saying? No, I (not understand) him at all.
8. What you (have) for breakfast usually? I usually (eat) a carrot and (drink) a glass

of cold water. 9. When the curtain (rise) we (see) a group of workers. They (picket) a gate factory. 10.Why you (walk) so fast today? You usually (walk) quite slowly. I (hurry) because I (meet) my mother at 4 oclock and she (not like) to be kept waiting.
11. I (wish) that dog would lie down. He (keep) jumping up in my lap. I (think) he

(want) to go for a walk. 12. You (recognize) that man? I (think) that I have seen him before but I (not remember) his name. 13. Look at that crowd. I (wonder) what they (wait) for. 14. This massage has just arrive and the man (wait) in case you (want) to send a reply. 15. Stop! You (not see) the notice? I (see) it but I cannot read it because I (not wear) my glasses. What it (say)? It say These premisses are patrolled by guard dogs. 16. She always (borrow) from me and she never (remember) to pay me back.
17. You (need) another blanket or you (feel) warm enough? 160

18. It (save) time if you (take) the path through the woods? No, it (not matter) which

path you take. 19. I (save) up because I (go) abroad in July. 20. I (think) it is a pity you do not take more exercises. You (get) fat. 21. The plane that you (look) at now just (take) off from Paris. 22. Tom never (do) any work in the garden; he always (work) on his car. 23. What he (do) to his car now? I (think) he (polish) it. 24.That film (come) to the local cinema next week. You (want) to see it? 25. How Peter (get) on at school? Very well. He (seem) to like the life. 26.Why Mrs. Pitt (look) so angry? Mr. Pitt (smoke) a cigarette and (drop) the ash on the carpet. 27. This is our itinerary. We (leave) home on the 8th, (arrive) in Paris on the 9th, (spend) the day in Paris and (set) out that night for Venice. That (sound) most interesting. You must tell all about it when you (get) back. 28. This story is about a boy. Who (make) friends with a snake which he (find) in his garden. Then he (go) away but he (not forget) the snake and some years later he (return) and (look) for it. 29. He (find) the snake who (recognize) his old friend and (coil) around him affectionately. But unfortunately, the snake is now a full grown boa constrictor and its embrase (kill) the poor boy. 30. The snake (feel) sorry about this? I (not know). The story (end) there. 31. How you (end) a letter that (begin), Dear Sir? I always (put), Yours truly, but Tom (prefer) Yours faithfully. 32. What the word catastrophe (mean)? It (mean) disaster. 33. What you (wait) for? I (wait) for the shop to open. But it (not open) till 9.00. I (know) but I (want) to be early, as their sale (start) today.

161

34. Why you (smoke) a cigar Mrs. Pitt? You (not smoke) cigars as a rule. I (smoke) it because I (want) the ash. This book (say) the cigar ash mixed with oil (remove) heat stains from wood. 35. Who (own) this umbrella. I (not know). Everybody (use) it but nobody (know) who (own) it. 36. You (mind) if I (ask) you a question? That (depend) on the question. It (concern) your brother. I (refuse) to answer any question about my brother.32

3. Make questions at Present Tense using the verbs below and the noun answer.

(Alctuii ntrebri folosind timpul Prezentul Simplu, verbele de mai jos i substantivul rspuns): Eg.: 1. write Are you writing the answer now? 2. understand Do you understand the answer now? 3. know 4. read 5. wait for 7. check 8. repeat 9. have 10. look at 11. need 12. give 13. like 14. want 15. type 16. see 17. guess 18. recall

4.

Put the verbs in italics in the Simple or Continuous Present Tense to practice

the contrast between habitual actions and actions in progress now or planned for the near future. (Punei verbele din parantez la timpul prezentul simplu sau continuu pentru a exersa contrastul dintre aciunile obinuite i aciunile n desfurare n momentul vorbirii sau planificate pentru viitorul apropiat): Eg.: The children are drinking milk now.
32

Ioana Maria Turai, Gramatica Limbii Engleze, ed. Corint, Bucureti, 2006, pag. 52 - 54

162

They drink milk every morning.


1. I always (drive) my friends to the station.

2. Look! The train (get) in at this very moment. 3. We (go) to the soccer game tomorrow afternoon. 4. We usually (go) to the game when our team plays. 5. Mrs. Adams (do) her shopping on Mondays. 6. On Tuesday, she (see) her friend, Mrs. Dobbs. 7. Oh, no! It (rain) again. 8. It (rain) almost every day in October.

5. In pairs, ask and answer questions about television in your country. Use verbs in the Simple and Continuous Present Tense. (n perechi, punei i rspundei la ntrebri despre televiziunea din ara ta. Folosii verbe la Prezentul Simplu sau Continuu): 1. How many television channels do you have in your country? 2. Are television companies expanding their hours right now? 3. Are there any changes taking place in TV programming this year? If yes, which are these changes? 4. How much does a good television set cost? 5. Do you have a color or black and white TV? Give reasons for your choice. 6. How old is your TV set? When are you buying a new one? 7. In what roomof the house do you keep your television? 8. Who watches television most in your family? 9. How often do you watch television? 10.What is your favorite program? Describe the program
163

11.Are you watching your favorite program this week? If yes, on what evening? 12.Do you buy the TV program? If yes, how often do you buy it? 13. What information does the Tv program contain? 14.Does the public ever participate as the audience at the tapings of the TV shows? If yes, what kind of shows do they attend? 15.Are soap operas popular in your country? 16.Are they showing any this month? If yes, what are they about? 17. What do you think about television in general? Is it useful or harmful? Give reasons for your answer. 6. Put the verbs in italics in the Simple or Continuous Present Tense. (Punei

verbele din parantez la timpul prezentul simplu sau continuu): Dear Parents,
27. We (now, prepare) for our much-expected San Diego trip. Our big day will be

Tuesday, May 25th.


33. The day (begin) at 7.00 a.m. by checking-in at the school front office. At 7.30 a.m.

we (board) the train for the trip south. We (arrive) in Oceanside around 9.30 a.m. Next, we (board) a bus for the trip to the San Diego Wild Animal Park. 28.We (spend) all the day there. Our train back to Los Angeles (leave) Oceanside at 6.30 and (arrive) at Union Station at 8.30 p.m. 29.We (know) you (read) our schedule carefully and (wonder) why we (not return) on an earlier train. 30.Since the elementary students (study) plants and animals this term, we (think) it best to spend as much time as we can in the Park. 31.The trip (cost) $35.00 for each elementary student and $50.000 for each parent who (want) to join us.

164

32.We (look) forward to this exciting educational experience and (hope) you (share) our enthusiasm. Sincerely, Elementary School Teacher

7.

Put the verbs in italics in the Simple Present Tense to express sequences of

short (non-durative) actions. Note the use of the Continuous Present Tense for actions of comparatively longer duration. (Punei verbele din parantez la timpul prezentul simplu pentru a exprima aciuni scurte i care nu dureaz. Remarcai folosirea prezentului continuu pentru actiuni de lung durata):

Eg.: Caty is sitting at her desk. (bell, ring, go, open) Caty is sitting at her desk. The bell rings. She goes to the door and opens it.
1. The musician are tuning up their violins. (conductor, come, bow the audience, start

conducting)
2. Two candles are burning on the mantlepiece. (The old lady come in, go to the

fireplace, put out the candles).


3. It is raining. (Alex put on his raincoat, catch a bus, go to work) 4. Someone is approaching the house. (Judy hurry down the steps, run to the gate,

open the gate)


5. A door is opening to the left. (A man come in, greed everybody, sit down)

34.Put the verbs in italics in the Simple or Continuous Present Tense. (Punei verbele din parantez la prezentul simplu sau continuu):

165

I (think) it is going to rain now, but I (expect) it will clear up later. Betty (see) the principal tomorrow. She (have) an interview with him. I (not fear) what you (say); there is too much noise in the street. 'What are you doing?' 'I (taste) the soup.' 'What it (taste) like?' 'It (taste) delicious.' I can not understand your behaviour, Alex. You (be) extremely rude today. I (hear) that honey can be used as an antiseptic. The Scotts (have) lunch in town next Sunday. They (not think) of going away for the weekend. I (expect) a telephone call from Cathy this afternoon. I (see) you are impatient to leave. The Smiths are very happy; they (have) two lovely daughters and now a son has been born.33

BIBLIOGRAPHY Olea Ciuciuc, Eugenia Tnase, Curs de Englez General, Ed. Teora, Bucureti, 1998. Georgiana Galateanu-Farnoaga, Deborah Parks, Execiii si Teste de Gramatic Englez, Ed. Paralela 45, Bucureti, 2000. Mihai M. Zdrenghea, Anca L. Greere, A Practical English Gramar with exercises, Ed. Clusium, 1999.
33

Georgiana Galateanu-Farnoaga, Deborah Parks, Execitii si Teste de Gramatica Engleza, Ed. Paralela 45, Bucuresti, 2000, pag. 77-84

166

Mariana ranu, Limba Englez, Sintez Gramatical complet prin enunuri i exerciii, Ed. Corint, Bucureti, 2002. Virgiliu tefnescu-Drgneti, Adrian Nicolaescu, Victor Hanea, Limba Englez Curs Practic, Ed. tiinific, Bucureti. Ioana Maria Turai, Gramatica Limbii Engleze, ed. Corint, Bucureti. Ion Vldoiu, Verbele Modale Englezeti, Ed. AN-DA, Bucureti. Jean Brossard, Sylvie Chevalier, Gramatica Alfabetic a Limbii Engleze, Ed. Teora, Bucureti, 1998. Dumitru Chioran, Irina Panovf, Ioana Poenaru, Exerciii de Gramatic Englez, Ed. Teora, Bucureti,1955. Constantin Paidos, English Grammar, Theory and Practice, Ed. Polirom, Bucureti, 2001. Leon Levichi, Gramatica Limbii Engleze, Ed. Teora, Bucureti, 1994. Leon Levichi, Ioan Preda, Gramatica Limbii Engleze, Ed. Mondero, Bucureti, 1992.

CONTENT UNIT I: THE VERB................3 UNIT II: THE PRONOUN19 UNIT III: THE ARTICLE.26 UNIT IV: THE ADJECTIVE....46 UNIT V: THE ADVERB..66
167

UNIT VI: MODAL VERBS..88 UNIT VII: THE SIMPLE PREZENT TENSE....129 UNIT VIII: THE PREZENT CONINUOUS TENSE..146 UNIT IX: REVISION UNIT: PREZENT TENSE SIMPLE VS. PREZENT TENSE CONTINUOUS..161 BIBLIOGRAPHY....170

168

Centres d'intérêt liés