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The Navier-Stokes Equations

Adam Powell May 7, 2004

Below are the Navier-Stokes equations and Newtonian shear stress constitutive equations in vector form, and fully expanded for cartesian, cylindrical and spherical coordinates. The momentum equation is given both in terms of shear stress, and in the simplified form valid for incompressible Newtonian fluids with uniform viscosity.

Vector Form These are the equations written using compact vector notation.

The continuity equation (conservation of mass):

Dt

+ ρ∇ · u = 0

The motion equation (conservation of momentum):

Shear stress constitutive equation:

D u

ρ

Dt

= −∇ p − ∇ · τ + ρ g

τ = µ u + u T 3 ∇ · u

2

(1)

(2)

(3)

The simplified motion equation for an incompressible Newtonian fluid with uniform viscosity:

D u

ρ

Dt

= −∇ p + µ2 u + ρ g

1

(4)

Cartesian Coordinates For a general fluid in cartesian coordinates:

mass :

xmomentum

:

y

momentum

:

z

momentum

:

Shear stress constitutive equation:

ρ

+ (ρu x ) + (ρu y ) + (ρu z )

∂t

∂x

∂y

∂z

= 0

ρ u x ∂t

∂p

∂u x

∂x

∂u x

∂y

∂u x

∂z

=

=

=

+ u x

+

u y

+

u z

∂x ∂τ xx

∂x

ρ u y ∂t

∂p

∂y

ρ u z ∂t

∂p

+

u x

∂τ yx ∂τ zx

∂u y

∂x

∂y

+

u y

∂z

∂u y

∂y

+

+

F x

u z

∂u y

∂z

+ F y

u z

∂u z

∂z

+ F z

∂τ xy ∂τ yy ∂τ zy

∂x

+

u x

∂y

+

∂u z

∂x

u y

∂z

∂u z

∂y

+

∂τ xz ∂τ yz ∂τ zz

∂z

∂z

∂y

=

µ 2 u x

2

∂x 3

= µ 2 u y 2

3

∂y

∂z

∇ · u

∇ · u

τ xx

τ yy

τ zz

τ xy = τ yx

τ xz

=

τ zx

τ yz = τ zy

∇ · u

= µ 2 u ∂z z 2

=

=

=

=

µ u ∂y x

+

∂u y

∂x

∂u z

∂x

∂u z

∂y

∂z

µ u ∂z x

+

+

∂x

µ u ∂z y

∂u x + ∂u y + ∂u z

∂y

3 ∇ · u

(5)

(6)

(7)

(8)

(9)

(10)

(11)

(12)

(13)

(14)

(15)

For a Newtonian incompressible fluid in cartesian coordinates:

xmomentum

:

y momentum

:

z momentum

:

ρ u x ∂t

ρ

ρ

∂y u z ∂t

∂p

+

∂z

∂u x

∂u x

∂y

∂u x

∂z

=

+ u x

+

u y

+

u z

∂x

∂p

∂x + µ 2 u x

u y ∂t ∂p

+

+

∂x

+

+

+

+

+

2 u x + 2 u x

∂y 2

∂z 2

u y

∂u y

∂y

+

u z

+ F x

∂u y

∂z

=

+ F y

∂u z

∂z

=

+ F z

∂x 2

u x

∂u y

µ 2 u y ∂x 2 ∂u z

+

u x

∂x µ 2 u z ∂x 2

2 u y + 2 u y

∂y 2

∂z

2

u y

∂u z

∂y

+

u

z

2 u z + 2 u z

∂y 2

∂z 2

2

(16)

(17)

(18)

Cylindrical Coordinates For a general fluid in cylindrical coordinates:

mass :

r momentum :

θ momentum :

z momentum :

Shear stress constitutive equation:

ρ + 1 r (ρru r ) + 1 θ (ρu θ ) + z (ρu z ) = 0

∂t

r

r

ρ u ∂t r + u r

∂p

∂r ρ u θ ∂t

u r

∂u r

∂r

∂u θ

∂r

u θ

r

∂u

r

u 2 + u z

r

τ

θθ

∂u r

∂z

=

+

θ

∂θ

∂τ

∂θ r

u r u θ

r

∂u

θ

∂θ

+

1 r (rr ) + 1

r

+ ∂τ rz

∂z

+ u z

∂u θ

∂z

+ F r

=

r

+

u θ

r

+

1

∂p

1 r (r 2 τ rθ ) + 1

r

2

∂u z

∂r

+

u r

+

u θ

r

∂u

z

∂τ θθ + ∂τ θz

r ∂θ

∂z

∂u z

=

+ F θ

r ∂θ ρ u z ∂t

∂p

∂z

∂θ + u z ∂z

∂τ θz + ∂τ zz

r ∂θ

∂z

1 r (rz ) + 1

r

+ F z

τ rr

τ θθ

τ zz

τ rθ = τ θr

= µ 2 u ∂r r

2

3 (∇ · u )

=

=

=

µ 2

1 ∂u θ r ∂θ

+ u r 3 (∇ ·

r

2

3 (∇ · u )

2

u )

µ 2 u ∂z z

µ r

∂r u r θ

+ 1

∂u r

r ∂θ

τ rz

=

τ zr

τ θz = τ zθ

=

=

∇ · u =

µ u ∂r z

+ ∂u r ∂z

µ u θ

∂z

+ 1

∂u z

r ∂θ

1 r (ru r ) + 1

r

∂u θ + ∂u z

r ∂θ

∂z

For a Newtonian incompressible fluid in cylindrical coordinates:

ρ u r ∂t

∂u r

∂r

u θ

∂u r

u 2 + u z

θ

∂u r

=

r

momentum

:

θ

momentum

:

z momentum

:

+ u r

+

r

∂θ

r

∂z

1 2 u r

2

∂u θ + 2 u r

r 2 ∂θ 2

r 2 ∂θ

∂z

2

u r u θ

∂u θ

=

∂r r

∂p

+ µ

∂r ρ u θ ∂t

∂p

1

r ∂θ ρ u z ∂t

∂p

+

∂u θ

u r

∂r

+ µ

∂r r

∂u z

∂r

+

u r

u θ

r

1 ∂ r ∂r r ∂u z

∂z

+ µ

1 r (ru r ) +

+

u θ

r

∂u θ

∂θ

+

1 r (ru θ ) +

+

∂r

∂u z

∂θ

+

+ F r

+ F θ

r

+ u z

∂z

1 2 u θ

+

2 ∂u r + 2 u θ

r 2 ∂θ 2

r 2 ∂θ

∂z 2

+

u z

∂u z

∂z

=

1 2 u z + 2 u z

r 2 ∂θ 2

∂z 2

+ F z

3

(19)

(20)

(21)

(22)

(23)

(24)

(25)

(26)

(27)

(28)

(29)

(30)

(31)

(32)

Spherical Coordinates For a general fluid in spherical coordinates:

r

mass :

momentum

:

θ

momentum

φmomentum

:

:

ρ +

∂t

r 2

1 r ρr 2 u r +

r

2

∂u r

+

u

θ

1

1

r sin θ

∂u r

θ (ρu θ sin θ ) +

+

u

φ

∂u r

θ (τ rθ sin θ ) +

u φ

∂u θ

+

r sin θ

u θ 2 + u 2

φ

φ (ρu φ ) = 0

= p ∂r

τ θθ + τ phiφ

u φ cot θ

+

+

r

r

= 1

(33)

(34)

ρ u r + u r


∂t

∂r

r

∂θ

r

sin θ ∂φ

r

1

1

∂τ

r

sin θ ∂φ

u θ u φ

r

1

1

r r 2 τ rr +

+ u r

∂u θ

+

+ F r

∂p

r ∂θ

sin θ

r

u θ

∂u θ

+

sin θ

∂u φ

ρ u θ

∂t


∂r

r

∂θ

1

r

sin θ ∂φ

(35)

1

r 2

r r 2 τ rθ +

∂t

∂u φ

+

r

u θ

1

r 2

r r 2 τ rφ + 1

r

∂τ θφ + τ

τ φφ cot θ

r

=

1

+ F φ

+ F θ

θ (τ θθ sin θ ) +

+

+

u φ

∂u φ

r sin θ ∂φ

+ u φ u r

r

r

u θ u φ cot θ

r

2 τ θφ cot θ

ρ u φ + u r


φ ∂p (36)

∂r

r ∂θ

∂τ θφ

∂θ

r sin θ ∂φ

1

r

r sin θ

∂τ φφ + τ

sin θ ∂φ

r r

Shear stress constitutive equation:

τ rθ

τ rφ

τ rr

τ θθ

τ φφ

= τ θr

=

τ φr

τ θφ = τ φθ

∇ · u

=

=

=

=

=

=

=

µ 2 u r

2

3 (∇ · u )

∂r

µ 2

1 ∂u θ

+ u r 3 (∇ · u )

r

2

r ∂θ

µ 2

1

∂u φ

+ u r

r

u θ cot θ

r

sin θ ∂φ

r

+

µ r

∂r u r θ

+ 1

∂u r

r ∂θ

µ

1 ∂u r

r sin θ ∂φ

+ r

∂r u r φ

2 3 (∇ · u )

µ sin θ

r

∂θ sin θ + r sin θ ∂φ

u

φ

1

∂u θ

1 r (r 2 u r ) +

r

2

1

r sin θ

θ (u θ sin θ ) +

1 ∂u φ

r sin θ ∂φ

(37)

(38)

(39)

(40)

(41)

(42)

(43)

4

For a Newtonian incompressible fluid in spherical coordinates:

r

momentum

:

θ

momentum

:

φmomentum

:

ρ u r ∂t

+µ

ρ u θ ∂t

+µ

∂u r

∂r

u θ

r

∂u r

u

φ

∂u r

u θ 2 + u 2

φ

= p ∂r

2 u r

+ u r

2

+

∂θ

1

r sin θ ∂φ

θ sin θ u r +

∂θ

r

1

φ

∂u θ

+

+

 

(44)

(45)

1

r sin θ

φ ∂p (46)

∂p

r 1 r 2 r 2 u r +

2

+ u r

∂u θ

∂r

+

u θ

r

+

+ F r

= 1

2 u θ

r 2 sin θ

∂u θ

+

u

r 2 ∂θ sin θ

+ F θ

1

1

r 2 sin 2 θ ∂φ 2

u φ cot θ

r

1

u θ u φ

r

∂θ

r sin θ ∂φ

r ∂θ

r 2 ∂r r 2 ∂u θ

1

∂r

θ (u θ sin θ ) +

+ u φ u r

+

r 2 sin 2 θ ∂φ 2

u θ u φ cot θ

=

+

∂u r 2 cos θ ∂u φ

2

r 2 ∂θ

r 2 sin 2 θ ∂φ

∂u φ

∂r

+ u θ

r

ρ u ∂t φ + u r

∂u φ

∂θ

+

u

φ

∂u φ

r sin θ ∂φ
r sin θ ∂φ
r sin θ ∂φ

r sin θ ∂φ

r r

+µ

r 2 ∂r r 2 ∂u φ

1

∂r

+

r 2 ∂θ sin θ

1

1

θ (u φ sin θ ) +

1

2 u φ

r 2 sin 2 θ ∂φ 2

+

2

∂u r 2 cos θ ∂u θ

r 2 sin θ ∂φ

r 2 sin 2 θ ∂φ

+ F φ

5