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The Navier-Stokes Equations

Below are the Navier-Stokes equations and Newtonian shear stress constitutive equations in vector form, and fully expanded for cartesian, cylindrical and spherical coordinates. The momentum equation is given both in terms of shear stress, and in the simpliﬁed form valid for incompressible Newtonian ﬂuids with uniform viscosity.

Vector Form These are the equations written using compact vector notation.

The continuity equation (conservation of mass):

Dt

+ ρ∇ · u = 0

The motion equation (conservation of momentum):

Shear stress constitutive equation:

D u

ρ

Dt

= −∇ p − ∇ · τ + ρ g

τ = µ u + u T 3 ∇ · u

2

(1)

(2)

(3)

The simpliﬁed motion equation for an incompressible Newtonian ﬂuid with uniform viscosity:

D u

ρ

Dt

= −∇ p + µ2 u + ρ g

1

(4)

Cartesian Coordinates For a general ﬂuid in cartesian coordinates:

mass :

 x−momentum : y −momentum : z −momentum :

Shear stress constitutive equation:

 ∂ρ + ∂ (ρu x ) + ∂ (ρu y ) + ∂ (ρu z ) ∂t ∂x ∂y ∂z

= 0

ρ u x ∂t

∂p

∂u x

∂x

∂u x

∂y

∂u x

∂z

=

=

=

+ u x

+

u y

+

u z

∂x ∂τ xx

∂x

ρ u y ∂t

∂p

∂y

ρ u z ∂t

∂p

+

u x

∂τ yx ∂τ zx

∂u y

∂x

∂y

+

u y

∂z

∂u y

∂y

+

+

F x

u z

∂u y

∂z

+ F y

u z

∂u z

∂z

+ F z

∂τ xy ∂τ yy ∂τ zy

∂x

+

u x

∂y

+

∂u z

∂x

u y

∂z

∂u z

∂y

+

∂τ xz ∂τ yz ∂τ zz

∂z

∂z

∂y

=

µ 2 u x

2

∂x 3

= µ 2 u y 2

3

∂y

∂z

∇ · u

∇ · u

τ xx

τ yy

τ zz

τ xy = τ yx

τ xz

=

τ zx

τ yz = τ zy

∇ · u

= µ 2 u ∂z z 2

=

=

=

=

µ u ∂y x

+

∂u y

∂x

∂u z

∂x

∂u z

∂y

∂z

µ u ∂z x

+

+

∂x

µ u ∂z y

∂u x + ∂u y + ∂u z

∂y

3 ∇ · u

(5)

(6)

(7)

(8)

(9)

(10)

(11)

(12)

(13)

(14)

(15)

For a Newtonian incompressible ﬂuid in cartesian coordinates:

 x−momentum : y −momentum : z −momentum :

ρ u x ∂t

ρ

ρ

∂y u z ∂t

∂p

+

∂z

∂u x

∂u x

∂y

∂u x

∂z

=

+ u x

+

u y

+

u z

∂x

∂p

∂x + µ 2 u x

u y ∂t ∂p

+

+

∂x

+

+

+

+

+

2 u x + 2 u x

∂y 2

∂z 2

u y

∂u y

∂y

+

u z

+ F x

∂u y

∂z

=

+ F y

∂u z

∂z

=

+ F z

∂x 2

u x

∂u y

µ 2 u y ∂x 2 ∂u z

+

u x

∂x µ 2 u z ∂x 2

2 u y + 2 u y

∂y 2

∂z

2

u y

∂u z

∂y

+

u

z

2 u z + 2 u z

∂y 2

∂z 2

2

(16)

(17)

(18)

Cylindrical Coordinates For a general ﬂuid in cylindrical coordinates:

mass :

r momentum :

θ momentum :

z momentum :

Shear stress constitutive equation:

ρ + 1 r (ρru r ) + 1 θ (ρu θ ) + z (ρu z ) = 0

∂t

r

r

ρ u ∂t r + u r

∂p

∂r ρ u θ ∂t

u r

∂u r

∂r

∂u θ

∂r

u θ

r

∂u

r

u 2 + u z

r

τ

θθ

∂u r

∂z

=

+

θ

∂θ

∂τ

∂θ r

u r u θ

r

∂u

θ

∂θ

+

1 r (rr ) + 1

r

+ ∂τ rz

∂z

+ u z

∂u θ

∂z

+ F r

=

r

+

u θ

r

+

1

∂p

1 r (r 2 τ rθ ) + 1

r

2

∂u z

∂r

+

u r

+

u θ

r

∂u

z

∂τ θθ + ∂τ θz

r ∂θ

∂z

∂u z

=

+ F θ

r ∂θ ρ u z ∂t

∂p

∂z

∂θ + u z ∂z

∂τ θz + ∂τ zz

r ∂θ

∂z

1 r (rz ) + 1

r

+ F z

τ rr

τ θθ

τ zz

τ rθ = τ θr

= µ 2 u ∂r r

2

3 (∇ · u )

=

=

=

µ 2

1 ∂u θ r ∂θ

+ u r 3 (∇ ·

r

2

3 (∇ · u )

2

u )

µ 2 u ∂z z

µ r

∂r u r θ

+ 1

∂u r

r ∂θ

τ rz

=

τ zr

τ θz = τ zθ

=

=

∇ · u =

µ u ∂r z

+ ∂u r ∂z

µ u θ

∂z

+ 1

∂u z

r ∂θ

1 r (ru r ) + 1

r

∂u θ + ∂u z

r ∂θ

∂z

For a Newtonian incompressible ﬂuid in cylindrical coordinates:

ρ u r ∂t

∂u r

∂r

u θ

∂u r

u 2 + u z

θ

∂u r

=

 r −momentum : θ −momentum : z −momentum :

+ u r

+

r

∂θ

 r ∂z 1 ∂ 2 u r − 2 ∂u θ + ∂ 2 u r r 2 ∂θ 2 r 2 ∂θ ∂z 2

u r u θ

∂u θ

=

∂r r

∂p

+ µ

∂r ρ u θ ∂t

∂p

1

r ∂θ ρ u z ∂t

∂p

+

∂u θ

u r

∂r

+ µ

∂r r

∂u z

∂r

+

u r

u θ

r

1 ∂ r ∂r r ∂u z

∂z

+ µ

1 r (ru r ) +

+

u θ

r

∂u θ

∂θ

+

1 r (ru θ ) +

+

∂r

∂u z

∂θ

+

+ F r

+ F θ

 r + u z ∂z 1 ∂ 2 u θ + 2 ∂u r + ∂ 2 u θ r 2 ∂θ 2 r 2 ∂θ ∂z 2

+

u z

∂u z

∂z

=

1 2 u z + 2 u z

r 2 ∂θ 2

∂z 2

+ F z

3

(19)

(20)

(21)

(22)

(23)

(24)

(25)

(26)

(27)

(28)

(29)

(30)

(31)

(32)

Spherical Coordinates For a general ﬂuid in spherical coordinates:

r

mass :

momentum

:

θ

momentum

φmomentum

:

:

ρ +

∂t

r 2

1 r ρr 2 u r +

r

2

∂u r

+

u

θ

1

1

r sin θ

∂u r

θ (ρu θ sin θ ) +

+

u

φ

∂u r

θ (τ rθ sin θ ) +

u φ

∂u θ

+

r sin θ

u θ 2 + u 2

φ

φ (ρu φ ) = 0

= p ∂r

τ θθ + τ phiφ

u φ cot θ

+

+

r

r

= 1

(33)

(34)

ρ u r + u r

∂t

∂r

r

∂θ

r

sin θ ∂φ

r

1

1

∂τ

r

sin θ ∂φ

u θ u φ

r

1

1

r r 2 τ rr +

+ u r

∂u θ

+

+ F r

∂p

r ∂θ

sin θ

r

u θ

∂u θ

+

sin θ

∂u φ

ρ u θ

∂t

∂r

r

∂θ

1

r

sin θ ∂φ

(35)

1

r 2

r r 2 τ rθ +

∂t

∂u φ

+

r

u θ

1

r 2

r r 2 τ rφ + 1

r

∂τ θφ + τ

τ φφ cot θ

r

=

1

+ F φ

+ F θ

θ (τ θθ sin θ ) +

+

+

u φ

∂u φ

r sin θ ∂φ

+ u φ u r

r

r

u θ u φ cot θ

r

2 τ θφ cot θ

ρ u φ + u r

φ ∂p (36)

∂r

r ∂θ

∂τ θφ

∂θ

r sin θ ∂φ

1

r

r sin θ

∂τ φφ + τ

sin θ ∂φ

r r

Shear stress constitutive equation:

τ rθ

τ rφ

τ rr

τ θθ

τ φφ

= τ θr

=

τ φr

τ θφ = τ φθ

∇ · u

=

=

=

=

=

=

=

µ 2 u r

2

3 (∇ · u )

∂r

µ 2

1 ∂u θ

+ u r 3 (∇ · u )

r

2

r ∂θ

µ 2

1

∂u φ

+ u r

r

u θ cot θ

r

sin θ ∂φ

r

+

µ r

∂r u r θ

+ 1

∂u r

r ∂θ

µ

1 ∂u r

r sin θ ∂φ

+ r

∂r u r φ

2 3 (∇ · u )

µ sin θ

r

∂θ sin θ + r sin θ ∂φ

u

φ

1

∂u θ

1 r (r 2 u r ) +

r

2

1

r sin θ

θ (u θ sin θ ) +

1 ∂u φ

r sin θ ∂φ

(37)

(38)

(39)

(40)

(41)

(42)

(43)

4

For a Newtonian incompressible ﬂuid in spherical coordinates:

 r −momentum : θ −momentum : φ−momentum :

ρ u r ∂t

+µ

ρ u θ ∂t

+µ

∂u r

∂r

u θ

r

∂u r

u

φ

∂u r

u θ 2 + u 2

φ

= p ∂r

2 u r

+ u r

2

+

∂θ

1

r sin θ ∂φ

θ sin θ u r +

∂θ

r

1

φ

∂u θ

+

+

 (44) (45) 1 r sin θ ∂φ ∂p (46)

∂p

r 1 r 2 r 2 u r +

2

+ u r

∂u θ

∂r

+

u θ

r

+

+ F r

= 1

2 u θ

r 2 sin θ

∂u θ

+

u

r 2 ∂θ sin θ

+ F θ

1

1

r 2 sin 2 θ ∂φ 2

u φ cot θ

r

1

u θ u φ

r

∂θ

r sin θ ∂φ

r ∂θ

r 2 ∂r r 2 ∂u θ

1

∂r

θ (u θ sin θ ) +

+ u φ u r

+

r 2 sin 2 θ ∂φ 2

u θ u φ cot θ

=

+

∂u r 2 cos θ ∂u φ

2

r 2 ∂θ

r 2 sin 2 θ ∂φ

∂u φ

∂r

+ u θ

r

ρ u ∂t φ + u r

∂u φ

∂θ

+

u

φ

∂u φ

r sin θ ∂φ

r r

+µ

r 2 ∂r r 2 ∂u φ

1

∂r

+

r 2 ∂θ sin θ

1

1

θ (u φ sin θ ) +

1

2 u φ

r 2 sin 2 θ ∂φ 2

+

2

∂u r 2 cos θ ∂u θ

r 2 sin θ ∂φ

r 2 sin 2 θ ∂φ

+ F φ

5