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INTRODUCTION

Human resource management is a comparatively new and rapidly growing profession in India. It deals with the management of people and is based upon very old and wellestablished disciplines such as economics, psychology, anthropology, sociology, political science, etc. Most decisions made in health-service institutions involve people and therefore, human resource management plays a very important role in achieving the primary aim of hospitals of rendering the highest quality of care to the patients. Health-service institutions have organized professional associations which maintain standards of performance and behavior embodied in a code of ethics. It provides competent service with integrity and works for the welfare of the human beings whom it serves. Human resource management has been recognized as a profession by academicians and industrialists because it has acquired all the qualifications of a profession and has proved its worth. It is the process of acquiring, training, appraising, & compensating employees, & of attending to their labor relations, health & safety, & fairness concerns. HRM is also a management function concerned with hiring, motivating, & maintaining people in an organization. It focuses on people in organizations. Human resource management in hospitals has now become a necessity and it has to achieve effective utilization of human resources, desirable working relationships among all employees, maximum employee development, high morale in the organization and continuous development and appreciation of human assets. The productivity of the organization depends significantly on employee job satisfaction. It not only influences the maximum work force but greatly improves the sense of morale and commitment towards the organization amongst the employees. Conducive work environment is one that gives workers a sense of pride in what they do. However, employers that implement monetary as well as non-monetary initiatives to increase employee satisfaction definitely reap the benefits of reducing lethargy, absenteeism and lower employee turnover rates with greater organizational citizenship behavior and commitments.

CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK
In order to meet the commitment of the employees job satisfaction the organization supposes to apply HRM theory into practices. According to the theoretical evidence on the relationship of HR practice with organizational effective indicates that HR practice influence employee commitment and other HR performance measure, which then lead to organization effectiveness. Several elaborations of HRM practices have been studied in the previously research such as Bradley, Petrescu and Simmons (2004) give the term of HRM practices as define the following set of variables: work organization, supervision, employee involvement/voice, recruitment and selection, training and learning, and pay practices. Along the same line, Pfeffer (1994) identify the HRM practice such as employment security, selectivity in recruiting, high wages, incentive pay, employee ownership, participation and empowerment, promotion from within, training, and skill development. In addition, Delerly and Doty (1996) utilize the seven variables of HRM practices which are internal career opportunities, formal training system, appraisal measures, profit sharing, employment security, employee voice mechanisms, and job design. The term job satisfaction is commonly referred in the context of employees behavior at work. Job satisfaction can be understood more clearly in the context of employees extent of satisfaction in general in his total work/professional life situations. Job satisfaction has been defined as a pleasurable emotional state resulting from the appraisal of ones job, an affective reaction to ones job; and an attitude towards ones job. Weiss (2002) has argued that job satisfaction is an attitudinal concept but points out that researchers should clearly distinguish the objects of cognitive

evaluation which are affect (emotion), beliefs and behaviors. This definition suggests that we form attitudes towards our jobs by taking into account our feelings, our beliefs, and our behaviors. Scherhorn et al define job satisfaction as the degree to which individuals feel positive or negative about their jobs. It is an attitude or emotional response to ones tasks as well as to the physical and social conditions f the work place. Job satisfaction is motivational and leads to positive employment relationships and high levels of individual job performance.

According to Locke and Henne the definition could be the pleasant emotional state which flows from someone realizing his/her motives in the work Job satisfaction is simply how people feel about their jobs and different aspects of their jobs. variable. Greenberg and Baron defined work satisfaction as employees cognitive, affective and evaluative reactions directed towards their work. Work satisfaction is an affective orientation towards anticipated outcome. Job satisfaction has been defined as According to Abu-Bader affective state describing feelings about ones work. It is the extent to which people like (satisfaction) or dislike

(dissatisfaction) their job. As it is generally assessed, job satisfaction is an attitudinal

individuals expect from their work and what they actually derive. Defined in that way job satisfaction enters into interaction with goal setting theories of motivation. Job satisfaction can be considered as a global feeling about the job or as a related constellation of attitudes about various aspects or facts of the job. The global approach and the facet approach can be used to get a complete picture of employees job satisfaction. Facets are specific elements of a job, such as challenge a job

provides, the physical environment in which work is constructed, and the salary received. People may have different evaluative responses toward each facet of the job. According to Werner job satisfaction has five facets, which can be put together to measure a Job Descriptive Index (JDI) as follows: The work itself responsibility, interest and growth Quality of supervision technical help and social support Relationship with co-workers- social harmony and respect Promotion opportunities - chances for further advancement Pay - adequacy of pay and perceived equity vis- a- vis others

Research tends to divide the characteristics of work into two broad categories: extrinsic variables and intrinsic variables. In 2959 Herzberg made the distinction between the intrinsic s rewards form the job and the extrinsic rewards from the job. The intrinsic factors refer to a jobs inherent features; people are external to the job itself, such as pay. The distinction between intrinsic and extrinsic work factors, rewards, motives, needs, etc. remains to be useful tool in studies of many researchers

According to Schermerhon the importance of job satisfaction can be viewed in the context of two decisions people make about their work. The first is the decision to belong - that is, join and remain a member of an organization. The second is the decision to perform - that is, to work hard in pursuit of high levels of task performance. Job satisfaction can also affect turnover or decisions by people to terminate their employment. There are important reasons why the researcher should be concerned with job satisfaction. The first is that people deserve to be treated fairly and with respect. Job satisfaction is to some extent a reflection of good treatment. It can also be considered as an indicator of emotional well being or physiological health. The second reason is that job satisfaction can lead to behavior of employees that affects organizational functioning. functioning. Furthermore, job satisfaction can be a reflection of organizational Differences among organizational units in job satisfaction can be

diagnostic of potential trouble spots. Dissatisfied workers are more likely to provide inferior services, the physical and mental status, and the social functioning of these workers can be affected substantially by the level of their job satisfaction. However, as Schermerhorn points out, job satisfaction alone is not a consistent predictor of individual work performance. There are number of dimensions which effect job satisfaction. Value system possessed by an individual and the culture supporting the value system in the organization can be called as an important and basic for job satisfaction. However some of the important factors that determine job satisfaction of the employees in the organization are as under: a) Work Content: Content of the work itself is a major source of satisfaction. The work must be challenging. It should lend itself opportunities to use employee skills, ability and experience. The content of the work should be encouraging and interesting and have variety inbuilt in it so that it is not boring. Positive feedback from the job and autonomy has been considered to be important for motivation of employees. Too tough or job having two little challenge brings frustration and feeling of failure hence the job should be moderately tough so that the individual has to stretch his ability, imagination and skills. Once such job is completed successfully, the workers get a great sense of satisfaction.

b) Pay and promotion policy: Salary and wages play decisive part in the study of job satisfaction. Equitable rewards are multi-dimensional in nature. The benefits are of varied nature namely pay, perks and rewards are associated with motivation of employees. Pay system and promotion policy of the organization must be just, unambiguous and in line with the prevalent industry norms and employee expectations. Employee wages and salary must ensure him the social status and should be able to fulfill the expectations. Individual must perceive salary administration and promotion policy as being fair. Organization should ensure that their policies are growth oriented and incremental in nature so that employees take on an additional responsibility voluntarily. Apart from financial benefits, organization must provide adequate perks and non-financial benefits so that they are motivated and display high level of satisfaction. c) Supportive working condition: Working conditions have a modest but lasting effect on job satisfaction. Due to fast development of technology, it is necessary that the organizations are operating on upgraded technology, latest systems and procedures. The layout of work place must be ideally suited from operational point of view and the employees should display great degree of satisfaction. The place should be neat and clean with necessary facilities as per Factories Act. Light, ventilation, cleanliness, enough space for work, immediate availability of supervision, adequate latest tools and generally good surrounding will definitely add to job satisfaction. If the work place were closer to home, it would add to employee retention. d) Work group: The concept of work group and work teams is more prevalent today. Work group of multi skilled persons with one goal will be able to function effectively if they are friendly and co-operative. The work group serves as a source of support, comfort, advice and assistance to individual worker. A good work group makes the job more enjoyable. The factor of work group support is essential for job satisfaction. If the reverse conditions prevail, the people may not be able to get along with each other and the level of job satisfaction will be reduced. e) Supervision: Supervision is one of the moderate factors, which affect job satisfaction. Qualified supervisors should be available for advice, guidance and problem solving. Supervisors should be placed close to the place of work and should be available. They should take

personal interest in the affairs of employees both on personal and official level. Supervision is related to leadership. In Defense Services the leadership is so proactive that the leader carry on him details of each soldier under his command. The details include dependants of soldiers family, their economic position, details of children, the class they study, home address and other demographic details, soldier take his boss as guide and philosopher who is always available to him for advice. Such supervision improves the morale and job satisfaction of employees. The concept of supervision has changed. What is in vogue and in practice today is self-serviced teams and work group. The group prefers more freedom of work in relation to work hours, time management, frequent breaks between work hours and autonomy as long as job is completed in time. Flater organizational structure therefore has come into practice. Steps in command structure have reduced. There is a participative management and work has to meet the established standards in terms of quality and quantity. The levels might have been reduced but not the value of supervision as a factor of job satisfaction. f) Personality job fit: Individuals should be assigned the job that suits their interest. Recently it has been seen that MBA graduates are satisfied with their job if they get the job related to the specialization they have chosen during the MBA degree. Persons having analytical approach should be assigned job in R&D department so that their level of job satisfaction increases. IMPORTANCE OF STUDYING JOB SATISFACTION IN A HEALTH CARE INSTITUTION Hospital personnel have difficulties in meeting the needs of their patients if their own needs are not met; therefore hospital managers have responsibilities to both staff and patients. According to the literature, job satisfaction in health care organization is related to many factors; optimal work arrangements, the possibility to participate actively in the decision making process, effective communication among staff and supervisors and to be able to express freely ones opinion. Collective problem solving and the attitude of management are also important to the satisfaction of the employees. Job satisfaction can be increased by attending to motivating factors, such as making work more interesting, requiring more initiative, creativity and planning. This is especially relevant when budget constraints limit increases to pay and benefits.

Managers who grasp the importance of factors affecting the well being of staff are more likely to gain improved performance from the various groups of hospital staff. It is of utmost importance to seek the opinions of employees and include them in decision making and problem solving processes. This will improve satisfaction

among the employees and make them feel that they are part of the organization. THE INTEGRATION OF JOB SATISFACTION IN MODERN QUALITY SYSTEMS Offering the highest quality of health care services possible to as many people who need them, within a given environment of social, material, financial and human resources is the main goal of health care systems and of every single health care organization or unit within an organization. Achieving this goal requires a committed and high quality workforce in healthcare organizations and systems.Therefore quality systems and quality awards, whether generic ones or designed specifically for healthcare systems, increasingly address continuous human resources development, availability of highly motivated and quality-oriented staff, as a pre-condition for the quality system of an organization to be certified, recognized or awarded. Examples of well-known quality systems are the ISO 9001 quality management requirements, National Accreditation Board for Hospitals & Healthcare Providers (NBAH), etc. Due to the anticipated significant impact of human resources management on quality of services and its increasing coverage in formalized quality systems, it is essential, that a healthcare establishment pays attention to the quality of human resources in early stages of development of a quality system. Attending to job satisfaction of staff is then a fundamental component of human resource quality. In particular many researchers have demonstrated strong positive correlations between job satisfaction of medical staff and patient satisfaction with the services in these health care settings. Consequently, by creating an environment that promotes job satisfaction, a health care manager can develop employees who are motivated, productive and fulfilled. This in turn will contribute to higher quality patient care and patient satisfaction. INTERRELATION THEORIES Both job satisfaction and motivation are the objects of investigation of diverse field of organizational and psychological science, which incorporate aspects of clinical OF JOB SATISFACTION AND MOTIVATION

psychology, social psychology, psychometrics and also broader social and organizational studies. Researchers have been dealing with human motivation at workplace from two viewpoints, which also differ on the adherence to job satisfaction. The first is a top down approach, which is rather the topic of organizational studies and origins from a managerial viewpoint. It expects to find answers to the question: how should I motivate my workers to perform well? this approach deals mainly with externally controlled (or directed) motivation. It is related to categories and methods of job design and deals more with external (or environmental or impersonal) characteristics of motivation up to the viewpoint, that a worker by its nature is lazy and negligent, and therefore should be motivated mainly by means of rewards, bonuses and punishments. The staff member is an object, who should be motivated by different means to perform well. In this relation McGregor identified two fundamentally different sets of assumptions, held by managers. The conventional view was labeled by McGregor as Theory X and the modern one as Theory Y. Theory X presumes that an average employee

inherently dislikes work and related physical and mental efforts and whenever possible shall make attempts to avoid it. Therefore employees must be directed, coerced, controlled and/or threatened with punishment to achieve goals of the organization. Employees attempt to get out of responsibility and seek external

direction whenever possible. Most workers consider security of job more important than other work related factors and will express little ambition. Method of; motivation, based on theory X can be called as carrot and stick method. In contrast, theory Y keeps the view point, that goals of an individual and of the organization can be integrated. Managers supporting theory Y believe that

subordinates work hard, are cooperative and have positive attitudes. The expenditures of physical and mental effort in work are as natural as play or rest. The manager should complement the employees effort and creativity through gaining their commitment to the organizations goals, which entails allowing self-direction and discretion, reinforced through a system of feedback and rewards. The top down approach traditionally deals more with various job design method as job specialization and simplification, rotation, enlargement, enrichment. Job

satisfaction is involved indirectly, as much as implementation of job design methods influences the satisfaction with the job.

The other approach is the more personalized bottom up approach, which studies properties of staff members, their behavior at workplace, motivators, dissatisfies and other properties of job environment. It is a topic of psychology (up to the studies of animal models) and/or organizational (or occupational) psychology and deals mainly with autonomous motivation, having the goal to get answers to questions: how an employee feels her/himself at the workplace (and outside it0 as he does? The staff member is a subject who has (or has no) motivational to perform as he/she does because of a combination of internal and external factors, which should be investigated, measured and improved as much as possible and practical. Meanwhile the job satisfaction or different facts of it appear as indirect constituents of motivation in the first approach; these are closely linked and intertwined with the second approach to (or meaning of the) motivation. In this relation motivation

theories apply in most of their part to job satisfaction and vice versa. As an illustrations of this close relationship can serve Maslows theory of motivation through hygiene factors (dissatisfiers) and Latham/Lockes goal-setting theory with established connection between motivation, self - regulation and job satisfaction. Job satisfaction and motivation, however, are separate topics. Satisfaction can be seen as a result of acting in accordance with motivation. Then the degree of job satisfaction is a measure of level of satisfactions of needs and motives on workplace as independent variables. It is also suggested, that motivation, including motivation at workplace, reflects peoples search for positive meaning and job satisfaction reflects the degree to which this meaning is found and that motivation is a component, which links job characteristic to job satisfaction.

INDUSTRY PROFILE
Until the early 1980s, government run hospitals and those operated by charitable organization. From the last two decade there seen the mushrooming of corporate and privately run hospitals. Most large trust and corporate hospitals have invested in modern equipment and focus on super specialties. The private sector accounts for 70 per cent of primary medical care and 40 per cent of all hospital care in India. They employ 80 per cent of the countries medical personnel. The corporate hospital sector is most evolved in the south while charitable or trust hospitals proliferate in the west. However, the north and east showing a growing trend

in private hospital expansion. Key therapeutic areas are cardiology, nephrology, trauma or critical care. Hospital are not profit making, they are social institution to make available to society the required medical services. Today hospitals are a place of diagnosis and treatment of human ills. Hospital industry is an important component of the value chain in India. Hospital rendering services are recognized as healthcare industry. It is growing at an annual rate of 14 per cent. The size of an Indian healthcare industry is estimated at Rs.1, 717 billion in 2007. It is estimated to grow by 2012 to Rs.3163 billion at 13 per cent CAGR. The private sectors accounts of nearly 80 per cent of the healthcare market, while public expenditure includes of 20 per cent. The country had 15,393(2009) hospitals, which had Rs 8.75 lakhs hospital beds. According to WHO report, India needs to add 80,000 hospital beds each year for the next years to meet the demands of its growing population. Medical tourism is changing the face of traditional healthcare industry in India. Indias cost advantage and explosive growth of private hospitals, equipped with latest technology and skilled healthcare professionals has made it a preferred destination for medical tourism, according to Ministry of Commerce and industry, Indian medical tourism that was valued at $350 million US dollar in 2006, is estimated to grow into $7 billion US dollar by 2012. PRESENT STATUS OF THE INDUSTRY: With time the classes and quality of hospitals have changed a lot. Today most hospitals are trying to provide all kinds of ultra facilities and are in the process of making states of the art hospitals. Hospitals provide the infrastructure facility to healthcare On the basis of objective: Teaching and research General hospital Special hospital

On the basis of ownership: Government hospital Semi-government hospital Voluntary organization Charitable trusts

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On the path of treatment: Allopath Ayurveda Unani Homeopath Others

ON THE BASIS OF THE SIZE THERE ARE Teaching hospitals- generally have 500 beds, which can be adjusted in tune with number of students District hospital- generally have 200 beds, contingencies Taluk hospital- generally has 50 beds that can be raised to 100 depending on the requirement. FUTURE PROSPECTUS OF THE HOSPITAL INDUSTRY Indian hospital market is estimated to touch US $77 billion by 2013 Hospital industry accounted for 5.1 per cent of the countrys GDP in 2006 Private hospitals to form a large share of the healthcare spend and would increase to US $ 33.6 billion in 2010 from US $14.8 billion in 2002. Share of private expenditure as a percentage of total expenditure on hospital has grown from 60 per cent to nearly 80 per cent over the last decade Sector estimated at about US $ 38 billion and expected to grow at a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 15 per cent for the next years. OVERVIEW OF HEALTHCARE SECTOR IN INDIA: Indias healthcare sector has made impressive strides in recent years. It has transformed to a US$ 17 billion industry and is surging ahead with an annual growth rate of 13 per cent a year. The healthcare industry in India expected to grow in size to Rs. 270,000 crores by 2012. The healthcare industry employs over four million people, which makes it one of the largest services sectors in the economy of our country. Healthcare is dependent on the people served; Indias huge population of a billion people represents a big opportunity. People are spending more on healthcare. The rise in literacy rate; the higher level of income; and an increased awareness through the deep penetration of media, has constituted to greater attention being paid to health. which can be raised to 300 in

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Corporation like the Tatas, Apollo Group, Fortis, Max, Wockhardt, Piramal, Ispat, Escorts have made significant investments in setting up state-of-the-art private hospitals in cities like Mumbai, New Delhi, Chennai and Hyderabad. Good Healthcare in India is in extreme short supply and it is this gap that Corporate are looking to plug. Most users of healthcare prefer private services to government ones. The private healthcare segment has grown into a formidable industry estimated to be Rs.8, 00,000 crores. Using the latest technical equipment and the services of highly skilled medical personnel these hospitals are in a position to provide a variety of general as well as specialists services. India is well positioned to tap the top end of the global healthcare industry because of the facilities and services it offers, and by leveraging the brand equity of Indian healthcare professionals across the globe, said Vinod Khanna, Union Minister of state for External affairs. The Government of India places top priority to healthcare in the national agenda. It is very serious about encouraging indigenous R& D and creation of human capital. This would improve the quality of life of our people, leading to greater socio-economic progress of the country. CHALLENGES OF HEALTH CARE INDUSTRY A. Health Infrastructure in Public Sector Issues in regard to public and private health infrastructure are different and both of them need attention but in different ways. Rural public infrastructure must remain in mainstay for wider access to health care for all without imposing undue burden on them. Side by side the existing set of public hospitals at district and sub-district levels must be supported by good management and with adequate funding and user fees and out contracting services, all as part of a functioning referral net work. This demands better routines more accountable staff and attention to promote quality. Many reputed public hospitals have suffered from lack of autonomy inadequate budgets for non-wage O&M leading to faltering and poorly motivated care. All these are being tackled in several states are part of health sector reform, and will reduce the waste involved in simpler cases needlessly reaching tertiary hospitals direct. These, attempts must persist without any wavering or policy changes or periodic denigration of their past working. More autonomy to large hospitals and district public health authorities will enable them to plan and implement decentralized, flexible locally controlled services and remove the dichotomy between hospital and primary care services. Further most preventive

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services can be delivered by down staging to a public health nurse much of what a doctor alone does now. Such long-term commitment for demystification of medicine and down staging of professional help has been lost among the politicians bureaucracy and technocracy after the decline of the PHC movement. One consequence is the huge regional disparities between states, which are getting stagnated in the transition at, different stages and sometimes, polarized in the transition. B. Financing related Issues Fair financing of the costs of health care is an issue in equity and it has two aspects, Firstly how much is spent by Government on publicly funded health care and on what aspects? And secondly how huge does the burden of treatment fall on the poor seeking health care? Health spending in India at 6 per cent of GDP is among the highest levels estimated for developing countries. In per capita terms it is higher than in China Indonesia and most African countries but lower than in Thailand.PHC approach was also intended to test the extent to which non-doctor based healthcare was feasible through effective down staging of the delivery of simpler aspects of a care as is done in several countries through nurse practitioners and physician assistants, physician assistants etc can each get trained and recognized to work in allotted areas under referral/supervision of doctors. This may indeed be more acceptable to the medical profession than the draft NHP proposal to restart licentiates in medicine as in the thirties and give those shorter periods of training to serve rural areas. Such a licentiate system cannot now be recalled against the professions opposition nor would people accept two level services. C. Shape of Private Sector in Medicine Over the last several decades, independent private medical practice has become widespread but has remained stubbornly urban with polyclinics, nursing homes and hospitals proliferating often through doctor entrepreneurs. Tertiary hospitals in major cities are in many cases run by business houses and use corporate business strategies and hi-tech specialization to create demand and attract those with effective demand or the critically vulnerable at increasing costs. Standards in some of them are truly world class and some who work there is outstanding leaders in their areas. But given the co modification of medical care as part of a business plan it has not been possible to regulate the quality, accountability and fairness in care through criteria for accreditation, transparency in fees, medical audit, accountable record keeping, credible

grievance procedures etc. such accreditation, standard setting and licensure systems are

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best done under self regulation, but self regulation systems in Indian medical practice have been deficient in many respects creating problem incredibility. Acute care has become the key priority and continues to attract manpower and investment into related specialty education and facilities for technological improvement. Common

treatments, inexpensive diagnostic procedures and family medicine are replaced and priced out of the reach of most citizens in urban areas. Public health spending accounts for 25 per cent of aggregate expenditure the balance being out of pocket expenditure incurred by patients to private practitioners of various hues. Privatization has to be distinguished from private medical practice, which has always been substantial within our mixed economy. What is critical however is the rapid commercialization of private medical practice in particular uneven quality of care. There are complex reasons for this trend. i.The high scarcity cost of good medical education. ii.The reward differential between public and corporate tertiary hospitals leading to the reluctance of the young professional to be lured away from the market to public service in rural areas iii.There is the compulsion of returns on investment whenever expensive equipment in installed as part of practice. D. Regulatory Issues 1. Consumer Protection Act (COPRA) 2. Medical Council of India and State medical Councils (SMCs) 3. The Nursing Homes Act

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RESEARCH DESIGN
INTRODUCTION
The aim of this chapter is to present the clear idea about the procedure followed in the study. Here I wish to put forward a purpose for which this study has been undertaken, the procedure adopted and all that helped towards data collection to meet the requirement of the study. The study is aimed at knowing the profile of the corporate and entire general activities of the hospital and research center. This study helps to know the various activities and functions of the hospital and research center. The study was conducted at the environment of A J Hospital & Research center.

OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY:


The main objective of the study is to understand the level of job satisfaction among the employees of A J Hospital & Research center. Below are some of the sub objectives. To understand the level of employee satisfaction and factors which make the employees desirable with respect to company policies, working conditions and other factors.

To find out the satisfaction level regarding the job factors. To analyze employee loyalty towards company and to understand the commitment of management towards employees, in terms of trust empowerment etc. To analyze the relation between job satisfaction and the performance of A.J. hospital employees. To study the areas of improvement & give suggestions for future improvement.

SCOPE OF THE STUDY:


The development of any of the organization is mainly depending on the satisfaction level of the employees so that they can perform well in the organization. The company can analyze the level of employee satisfaction in their organization. The company can improve the working conditions, environment and other policies to satisfy the employees based on the results of this survey. They can implement these suggestions to overcome many problems faced by the organization. I can understand how actually an organization works and can get more insight on the concept of job satisfaction. It provides me a great opportunity to relate theoretical concepts learnt in

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my course to the actual happenings in the organization. I can get an opportunity to provide suggestions. Job Satisfaction is considered as a key issue by the entrepreneur where efforts are taken and programs are initiated. So every organization is giving higher priority to keep their employees with satisfaction by providing several facilities which improves satisfaction and which reduces dissatisfaction. It is said that satisfied employee is a productive employee, any kind of grievance relating to organizational or personal to a greater extent influence on the job.

RESEARCH METHEDOLOGY

Source of Information:
The sources of information for the study are employees and employer. I have used primary and secondary source of information. Primary Source: Primary source is a term used in a number of disciplines to describe source material that is closest to the person, information, period, or idea being studied. .It includes primary data, which are collected for the first time for my study in AJ Hospital & Research Center. Primary Source Data collected by me are: Questionnaire Method: A Set of questions printed in a definite order was given to the respondent personally. The respondent answered the questions in the questionnaire on their own without being aided. Personal Interview: Personal interviewing is the best method for collecting qualitative information. Along with the questionnaire method I had conducted personal interview with employees and the HR manager of AJ Hospital & Research Center to know more about the organization and the satisfaction level of employees. Secondary Data/Source: Secondary data refers to the data which has already been collected by someone else and which has already published. Secondary data which was collected by me are from various journals, books, magazines, newspapers and websites of AJHRC.

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Sampling Method: In this sampling method I have made use of random sampling method. After careful observation I have selected 50 employees (appraises) on random basis to give equal chance to the respondents who belong to different departments.

LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY:


Some of the limitations of my study at AJ Hospital & Research Center are as follows Within a limited time period a lot of information had to be collected. The employees attitude and opinion may change in future, so future relevance to the study cannot be assured. Some respondents have not answered the questions seriously. Some respondents felt hesitated to express their opinion. Hence attaining accurate result is not possible. The analysis part is done with the available data gathered. As AJHRC is a large hospital and many employees were busy all the time, it was not officially possible to cover all the employees. As the top management employees are very busy and time conscious, it was not possible to meet them personally and to have discussion with them. Due to the limitation of the time the research could not be made more detailed.

REVIEW OF LITERATURE
Job satisfaction has been discussed in a number of ways, but all definitions generally construe it as a multi dimensional concept which measures a workers positive emotions / attitude towards his/her job (Locke, 1976). Job satisfaction is simply how people feel about their jobs and different aspects of their jobs. In the past, job satisfaction was approached from the perspective of needs fulfillment that is, whether or not the job met the workers physical or psychological needs. If the worker is satisfied with his/her needs, there is probably job satisfaction. If he/she is not, there is probably job dissatisfaction. One good example of such need satisfaction is the theory designed by Maslow. Maslows theory (1954) asserts that job satisfaction is experienced when the job fulfills mans basic needs. Mans needs are divided into two categories: deficiency needs and growth needs. Deficiency needs consists of physical needs, safety and belonging while growth needs consists of self esteem and self actualization. These needs are fulfilled in a hierarchical order so that

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the basic physical, safety and belongingness needs are fulfilled first; esteem and self actualization needs are fulfilled after. Herzberg is another theorist who uses the needs satisfaction to explain job satisfaction. According to Herzberg (2003) job satisfaction can be achieved by using two factors theory: motivation and hygiene. Hygiene issues can minimize job dissatisfaction but do not cause job satisfaction. Hygiene factors include company policies, supervision, salary, interpersonal relations and working conditions. They are variables related to the workers environment. On the other hand, motivation factors intrinsic to the job and job content have the power to increase job satisfaction. The motivation factors are achievement, recognition, the work itself, responsibility and advancement. But the needs approach has been de-emphasized because today most researchers tend to focus on the cognitive processes rather than on underlying needs. Job satisfaction is now generally assessed as an attitudinal variable. Locke (1976) defines job satisfaction as a pleasurable or positive emotional state resulting from the appraisal of ones job or job experiences and job satisfaction is attained when ones values are compatible with ones needs. For the purpose of this study, the concept of job satisfaction as proposed by Locke is used. Job satisfaction is a topic which is concerned by both the people, those who are working in organizations and for the people who study them. It is the variable which is studied most frequently in organizational behavior research, and it is also a fundamental variable in both research and theory of organizational experience range from job design to supervision (Hong et al., 2005). As Job satisfaction is a major concern for the organizational research. On the other hand organizational performance and employee satisfaction are also the key components which are affected by this (Willem et al., 2007). What employee feels and perceived about its job and what are their experiences on work, does they feel positive or negative about job, this all relates to job satisfaction (Kim et al., 2005; Willem et al., 2007). Job satisfaction is the extent to which the employee is satisfied with his present work due to how many his needs and wants satisfied (Finn,2001). Job satisfaction can also be explained as the agreeable emotional condition resulting from the assessment of ones job as attaining or facilitating the accomplishment of ones job values (Yang, 2009). Job satisfaction in traditional model mainly focuses on what an individual feels about his/her job or pleasure feeling about job (Hussami, 2008; Crossman and Abou- Zaki, 2003). Job

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satisfaction and dissatisfaction not onlydepends on the nature of the job, it also depend on the expectation whats the job supply to an employee (Hussami, 2008). Lower convenience costs, higher organizational and social and intrinsic reward will increase job satisfaction (Mulinge and Mullier, 1998; Willem et al., 2007). Job satisfaction is complex phenomenon with multifacets (Fisher and Locke, 1992; Xie and Johns, 2000), it is influenced by the factors like salary, working environment, autonomy, communication, and organizational commitment (Lane, Esser, Holte and Anne, 2010; Vidal, Valle and Aragn, 2007; Fisher and Locke, 1992; Xie and Johns, 2000). An important aspect of job satisfaction is that when people have to make a choice where they want to work it also influences their intent to stay with the organization at current position (Lane, Esser, Holte and Anne, 2010). If employees are more satisfied with their job it will enhance their ability of creativity and productivity, it is also directly correlated with the customer satisfaction (AL-Hussami, 2008). In the past much of work has already been done by the researchers on the organizational commitment and the job satisfaction and they also developed the relationship between job satisfaction and the organizational commitment (Yang, 2009; Lane et al., 2010; Namasivayama and Zhaob, 2007) that job satisfaction leads to organizational commitment. There is also compelling evidence to the organizational commitment impact on job satisfaction (Namasivayama and Zhaob, 2007). As previous researches showed relationship between organizational commitment and job satisfaction (Yang, 2009). Wong et al. (2001) concluded that if there is lack of satisfaction and commitment in an organization it would increase the turnover intention of employees. According to Al-Hussami (2008) the low wages and less job satisfaction are the major components that are affecting the retention. The supervisory support, lack of respect and motivation are also the attributes of the job dissatisfaction. The previous analysis showed that there is positive correlation existed between job satisfaction and organizational commitment (Schwepker, 2001; Namasivayama and Zhaob, 2007; AlHussami, 2008; Wong et al., 2001). While in individualistic culture there is greater probability that the job satisfaction influence organizational commitment greatly (Wong et al., 2001). It might be possible that employee is not satisfied with his/her job but remain loyal to their organizations. Generally, if an employee is satisfied with supervisor, coworkers, pay policies and future promotion s/he will be committed to their organizations and satisfied with their jobs (Reed, Kratchman and Strawser, 1994). Wong et al. (2001) described that there are three relationships among

19

organizational commitment, job satisfaction and employee turnover intentions, 1) job satisfaction impact on organizational commitment and in the end this will affect employee turnover, 2) job satisfaction used as a mediator between organizational commitment and turnover intention, 3) impact of job satisfaction and organizational commitment on each other and their affect on turnover intention. This study mainly focuses on the organizational commitment impact on job satisfaction and employee retention. Both the organizational commitment and the job satisfaction are interrelated, but of discernible, attitudes. Organizational commitment is supposed to provide the people with constancy, thoughts of belonging and durable (Lane et al., 2010; Reed et al., 1994) than job satisfaction because on the other hand job satisfaction is associated with immediate work environment (Reed et al., 1994). Amah (2009) stressed that job satisfaction was found to have a direct negative relationship with turnover intention. These results indicate that the effect of job satisfaction on turnover can be enhanced in two ways; namely, when employees find congruence between their job and their self identity, and when involvement in such jobs enhances their overall life satisfaction. On the other hand, turnover can be considered as cost of running a business. As mentioned by Khilji and Wang (2007) reported that the impacts of labor turnover on a hotels bottom line could be classified into direct costs and indirect costs. Direct costs are essentially financial consequences that include administrative costs as a result of increased recruitment and training expenditure of new employees.

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COMPANY PROFILE

ORIGIN OF THE TRUST Laxmi Memorial Trust was established in the year 1992 by the well known industrialist and philanthropist Mr. A. J. Shetty in memory of his beloved mother, late Laxmi Shetty. The trust has established a multi campus network of Medical, Paramedical and Management education institutions. These institutions enjoy a high reputation, well known for their academic excellence, discipline and conducive academic environment. The trust has been active in the field of medical education for the last fifteen years. MEMBERS OF THE TRUST The Trust is constituted under the charitable trust act. The members are: Mr. A. J. Shetty Mrs. Sharada Shetty Mr. Prashanth Shetty Dr. Prashanth Marla Dr. Amitha Marla

INSTITUTIONS RUN BY THE TRUST A. J. Institute Of Medicals Sciences A.J. Institute Of Dental Sciences Laxmi Memorial College Of Physiotherapy Laxmi Memorial College of Nursing Laxmi Memorial Institute of Nursing Laxmi Memorial Institute Of Paramedical Sciences Moti Mahal College Of Hotel Management A. J. Institute Of Management A. J. Institute Of Hospital Management

A.J. HOSPITAL AND RESEARCH CENTRE AJ Hospital was set up with the objective of providing world class healthcare facilities and to make the best of the heath care available in the coastal region of Karnataka.

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AJ Hospital and Research Center is a 700-bedded super-specialty hospital, specializing in more than 20 major medical disciplines, embracing new technologies to offer high level healthcare that matches the best in the country. Hospital is supported by a team of highly qualified and experienced doctors, nursing, and paramedical staff. AJ Hospital and Research Center came into existence in 2001, with the objective of providing world class healthcare facilities in Mangalore. It was AJ Shetty's dream to make the best of healthcare available in the coastal region of Karnataka. AJ Hospital is completing 11 years of its service to the society. MISSION The hospital constantly strives to:

Achieve customer satisfaction by compassionate attitude and quality healthcare services

Provide comfortable and a risk free environment for the patients Bring quality healthcare within the financial reach of every individual Attain excellence in medical education and research Provide comfortable and safe working environment for the employees

VISION AJ Hospital and Research Center is committed to bring quality medical care of the highest standard within the reach of every individual. To realize this dream of quality healthcare for all, the hospital strives for excellence in medical services, health education, and research. QUALITY POLICY AJ Hospital & Research Center is committed to achieve customer satisfaction by excelling in service & patient care AJ Hospital & Research Center is also committed to practice safe & ethical medicine by deploying best of technology SERVICES/FACILITIES OFFERED

Patient care. All categories of beds ranging from general ward to super deluxe (suites) are available.

Emergency care. Equipped emergency/trauma care is available with well-trained doctors and support staff.

International services. Catering to a good number of overseas patients.

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Corporate services. Empanelled to provide healthcare to the employees of large corporates in Mangalore.

MEDICAL MILESTONES/KEY ACHIEVEMENTS Cardiac: Many first of its kind interventional procedures as well as surgeries have been done, and is being ranked as one of the most sought after referral centers for cardiology in this region. The cardiac surgery department has been performing complicated surgeries with excellent results. Neurology: AJ hospital has established an advanced, state-of-the-art, comprehensive stroke unit, where thrombolytic therapy (both intravenous and intra arterial) is being carried out by the neuro intervention unit. The stroke unit was launched in May 2008. Highest number of stroke patients fully recovered with total reversal of paralysis and are leading a normal life. Plastic, reconstructive, and aesthetic surgery: Conducted many first of its kind and critical reconstructive surgeries with excellent results. Post surgery, patients have resumed to their normal activities. Urology/nephrology: First hospital to carry out the renal transplant at Mangalore. CORPORATE TIE-UPS: The corporate clientele include Bharati Shipyard Limited, Campco, Canara Bank, Coast Gurad, Corporation Bank, Gwasf Quality Castings (P) Ltd., HDFC, HPCL, Hindustan Unilever Limited, IOCL, Ircon International Ltd., Karnataka Bank Ltd., KPCL, Karnataka Fire & Safety Department, Karnataka Police, L & T, MCF, MMTC Ltd., MRPL, Punjab National Bank, RMC Readymix, Sampoorna Suraksha, Shipping Corporation of India, State Bank of India, State Bank of Mysore, state government employees, Tecnimont ICB Pvt. Ltd., United Breweries, Vijaya Bank, Vijayananda Printers Ltd., and Wartsila India Ltd.. The hospital is also recognized for treating beneficiaries covered under various government schemes and has tie-up arrangement with insurance companies/TPAs. AJ Hospital runs outreach clinics in the suburbs of Mangalore. ACCREDITATIONS:

ISO 9001-2000 certification by TUV NABH - under process.

EXPANSION OF SPECIALTIES Oncology: Plans to install latest linear accelerator for cancer therapy along with brachy therapy unit

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Healthcare conferences AJ Hospital regularly conducts Continued Medical Education and social awareness programs. At present the hospital has the following super specialty services: Intervention cardiology & cardiac surgery Urology, Andrology, Nephrology & Renal transplantation Plastic, Microvascular & Cosmetic Surgery Neurology & Neurosurgery Neonatology & Peadiatric Surgery Gastroenterology Sports Medicine & Joint Replacement & Arthroscopy Pulmonary & Critical Care

The hospital is also equipped with exclusive 64 slice multi detector CT Scan, MRI & Colour Doppler Digital Cath Lab Nuclear Medicine for isotope studies Center for Urodynamic studies & Lithotropsy Dialysis and CRRT Machine Round-the-clock ultra modern clinical lab facility in association with Gokula

Metropolis The hospital has all the basic specialty services of General Surgery, General medicine, Paediatrics, Obstetrics, Pulmonary Medicine, Anesthesiology, ENT, Ophthalmology, Dermatology, Psychiatry, Dentistry & Physiotherapy. SWOT ANALYSIS OF THE ORGANIZATION Strengths Opportunities Weakness Threats

4.1 Strengths: Quality of doctors, nurse and staff. Medical facilities, equipments and infrastructural facilities. Ambience and the general atmosphere of the hospital. Attitude of the staff, even the menials (human touch). Specialization.

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Reasonable pricing. Brand name.

4.2 Weaknesses: The patients are completely at the mercy of the doctors. Non-clinical staff training is impossible.

4.3 Opportunities: More training to the staff to improving their medical knowledge. To improve the developed facilities. To become more specialized in various fields. Hospital is located near the Mangalore city.

4.4 Threats: The government is reducing the grants given to hospitals they are making it impossible to the poor people. Increasing competitions. Unawareness among public about all the facilities. Protection from terrorism.

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Chart No 3.1 - ORGANIZATION CHART


PRESIDENT

MEDICAL DIRECTOR

DIRECTOR ADMINISTRATION DIRECTOR FINANCE HRD A/C DEPT.

OPD WARDS OT ALLICUS CLINICAL LAB RADIOLOGY CSSD PHYSIOTHERAPY EMERGENCY WARD CATHLAB REHABILITATION CENTER PHARMACY NUCLEAR MEDICINE SAFETY & BLOOD BANK MARKETING DEPT. SECURITY TRANSPORT NURSING DEPT. LAUNDRY HOUSE KEEPING DIETARY DEPT. STORES MRD RECEPTION BILLING

SUPPORTIVE DEPARTMENTS

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ANALYSIS & INTERPRETATION


Job satisfaction is the favorableness or unfavorableness with which employees view their work. It expresses the amount of agreement between ones expectations of the job and reward that the job provides. The study of employees satisfaction helps the hospital to maintain a standard and increase productivity by motivating the employees. This study reveals the level of satisfaction of employees and also the areas of dissatisfaction. At AJ Hospital & Research Center the main criteria for measuring job satisfaction level of employees are: Commitment Organization commitment can be defined as affiliation of employees to the organization and involvement in it. Here the management is trying to understand whether the employees are happy with the work at hospital, whether they recommend any of their friends or relatives to work in this organization, whether they are feeling AJ Hospital & research Center is a great place to work and whether they are held accountable for their work. Job content and design By this analysis they are able to understand whether the employees know what is expected of them from their job and whether their supervisor adjust their responsibilities to meet the needs of the organization more effectively. Team work This analysis will help the management to know whether AJ hospital & Research Center promotes team work, whether the employees feel themselves as part of a team and to know whether there is cooperation and free flow of information among the employees. Participative decision making When employees participate in the decision-making process, they improve understanding and perceptions among colleagues and superiors, and enhance personnel value in the organization. By this analysis the management of AJ Hospital is trying to whether the employees feel that management recognizes employees participation in decision making related to their job, whether the employees are involved in important decisions that affect them, whether the supervisor is considering

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others opinion while making important decisions and whether multiple levels of employees share in the decision making process. Staff development By staff development criteria the management is trying to understand whether HR department conducts training programs for each department, whether the employees are continuously learning and trying to improve themselves and whether managers support professional development of employees. Training Training helps the employee to get job security and job satisfaction. The more satisfied the employee is and the greater is his morale, the more he will contribute to organizational success and the lesser will be employee absenteeism and turnover. In this analysis the management will be able to know whether employees feel that AJ Hospital & research center invests in employees through training and development, whether the employees feel that the training they receive is relevant to their job, whether the employees are provided with a variety of training opportunities and whether the training opportunity is available to everyone.
Performance

Performance management practices can have a positive influence on the job satisfaction and employee loyalty. By this criteria of job analysis management is trying to understand whether employees feel that AJ Hospital & Research Center encourages employees to work to the best of their abilities, whether they feel a sense of personal accomplishment from their work, whether their salary increment on performance based and whether non-performing employees are held accountable. Performance appraisal system Organizations need to have an open appraisal system to provide feedback and opportunities for open discussion with employees on their performance, because they have immense potential to grow and develop. This system can create a healthy working climate and employee motivation. This analysis help the management helps to know whether the supervisors give employees constructive feedback and whether the performance appraisal is effective in promoting quality work. Patient / customer care By this analysis the management can understand whether employees feel that they receive the support that they need to provide excellent patient/customer service, whether the employees strive for patient/customer to obtain a positive and memorable

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experience and whether the training they receive reinforces patient/ customer service focus. Remuneration Pay is important but the perception of individual about pay is more important. People with positive mind set seem to be much satisfied with pay as compared to people with negative affectivity. This analysis is included to know whether the employees are happy with the pay/receive and whether the employees fell they are getting pay according to their job performance. Employee Welfare facility Labor welfare entails all those activities of employer which are directed towards providing the employees with certain facilities and services in addition to wages or salaries. By using this criteria management is trying to understand whether management provides conveyance facility to the employees, whether the canteen quality is provided with reasonable rate and whether the hostel facility provided helps the employee. Grievance handling By grievance handling criteria the management of AJ Hospital & research Center is trying to understand whether the employees are feeling that the management has a good policy of handling grievance, whether the grievance are timely taken up, whether HR department handles the grievance to their satisfaction, whether the employees can take up any of their problems to HR Department, whether the employees get good counseling from the HR department and whether HRD is approachable for consultation as well as for counseling. For the purpose of the study, out of 650 employees in the hospital 50 were randomly selected (excluding housekeeping staffs). The data were collected with the help of questionnaire method.

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Table 4.1: Table shows the gender wise classification of employees.

Gender Male Female Total

No. of Respondents 8 42 50

Per cent (%) 16 84 100

Chart no 4.1: chart showing gender wise classification of employees

Male

Female

16%

84%

Interpretation: It is evident from the above table that 84% of the respondents are female and about 16% of them are male who have responded the questionnaire. So we come to know that employees in AJHRC are female dominated.

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Table 4.2: Table shows respondents opinion about satisfaction with their work.

Nature Agree Disagree Un-decided Strongly Agree Strongly Disagree Total

No. of Respondents 38 0 1 11 0 50

Per cent (%) 76 0 2 22 0 100

Chart No: 4.2- chart showing respondents opinion about satisfaction with their work.
38

11

0 Agree Disagree

1 Un-decided Strongly Agree

0 Strongly Disagree

No. of Respondents

Interpretation: The above table 4.3 indicates that 76% of the respondents agree and 22% of the respondents strongly agree that they are satisfied with their work at AJHRC. From this it is very much clear that majority of the employees at this organization are satisfied with their work.

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Table 4.3: Table showing respondents opinion that whether there is adequate planning in the hospital

Nature Agree Disagree Un-decided Strongly Agree Strongly Disagree Total

No. of Respondents 44 1 1 4 0 50

Per cent (%) 88 2 2 8 0 100

Chart No: 4.3 chart showing the opinion of respondents that there is adequate planning in the hospital.
No. of Respondents 44

4 1 Agree Disagree 1 Un-decided Strongly Agree 0 Strongly Disagree

Interpretation: From the above table 4.3, it is clear that majority (88%) of the respondent agrees that there is adequate planning of the hospital objectives. Only 2% had disagreed to the statement. So we can infer that AJHRC has built appropriate corporate culture to achieve the mission and vision of the organization by involving each and every employee.

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Table 4.4: Table shows that whether the employee feels that they contribute to the hospitals plan and mission.

Nature Agree Disagree Un-decided Strongly Agree Strongly Disagree Total

No. of Respondents 38 1 1 10 0 50

Per cent (%) 76 2 2 20 0 100

Chart No: 4.4 chart showing employees opinion about whether they contribute to the facilities, plan & mission of the hospital.
No. of Respondents 38

10

1 Agree Disagree

1 Un-decided Strongly Agree

0 Strongly Disagree

Interpretation: As per the data depicted on the above table 4.4 it is clear that majority of the employees feel that they contribute to the plan and mission of the hospital. 76% of the employees agree that they contribute to the facilities, plan and mission while 20% strongly agree to this statement.

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Table 4.5: Table shows whether the employees are given enough authority to take decision they need.

Nature Agree Disagree Un-decided Strongly Agree Strongly Disagree Total

No. of Respondents 31 12 3 4 0 50

Per cent (%) 62 24 6 8 0 100

Chart No: 4.5 chart showing whether the employees are given enough authority to take decision they need.
No. of Respondents

31

12

4 0

Agree

Disagree

Un-decided

Strongly Agree

Strongly Disagree

Interpretation: According to the survey, data tabulated in table 4.5 shows that 62% of the respondents agree that they are provided enough authority to make decision they need to make. About 24% of the respondents disagree to the statement and 6% of them do not want to make any comments. And 8% of them are strongly agreeing with the statement.

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Table 4.6: Table shows the respondents opinion about whether the physical conditions are good in the hospital.

Nature Agree Disagree Un-decided Strongly Agree Strongly Disagree Total

No. of Respondents 31 3 2 13 1 50

Per cent (%) 62 6 4 26 2 100

Chart No: 4.6 chart showing the respondents opinion about whether the physical conditions are good in the hospital.
No. of Respondents 31

13

2 Un-decided Strongly Agree

1 Strongly Disagree

Agree

Disagree

Interpretation: By observing the table 4.6 we can get clear picture that there is good working condition at AJHRC. Out of 50 respondents 62% of them agreed and 26% of them strongly agree that there is good working condition at AJHRC. While 2% strongly disagree that there is good working condition at AJHRC.

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Table 4.7: Table shows whether the employees can count on being promoted if they do good work

Nature Agree Disagree Un-decided Strongly Agree Strongly Disagree Total

No. of Respondents 33 4 6 7 0 50

Per cent (%) 66 8 12 14 0 100

Chart No 4.7 chart shows whether the employees can count on being promoted if they do good work
No. of Respondents 33

6 4

0 Agree Disagree Un-decided Strongly Agree Strongly Disagree

Interpretation: the above table 4.7 indicates that 66% of the respondents agree that they can count on being promoted if they do good work while 12% of them do not know whether they will be promoted if they do good work and 8% of the respondents disagree with the statement.

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Table 4.8: The table shows the opinion of employees regarding the job is secure or not.

Nature Agree Disagree Un-decided Strongly Agree Strongly Disagree Total

No. of Respondents 34 7 3 5 1 50

Per cent (%) 68 14 6 10 2 100

Chart No 4.8 chart showing the opinion of employees regarding the job is secure or not.
No. of Respondents

34

7 3

5 1 Strongly Disagree

Agree

Disagree

Un-decided Strongly Agree

Interpretation: According to the survey, the data in table 4.8 shows that 78% (64% agree + 10% strongly agree) of the respondent feels that their job is secure while 6% of them hesitated to give any comments to the statement, whereas 16% (14% disagree + 2% strongly disagree) feels that their job is not secure.

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Table 4.9: Table shows whether the employees feel part of a team working towards shared goals of the organization.

Nature Agree Disagree Un-decided Strongly Agree Strongly Disagree Total

No. of Respondents 38 2 0 10 1 50

Per cent (%) 76 4 0 20 2 100

Chart No 4.9 chart showing whether the employees feel part of a team working towards shared goals of the organization.
No. of Respondents 38

10 2

0 Un-decided Strongly Agree

1 Strongly Disagree

Agree

Disagree

Interpretation: From the above table 4.9 we can infer that 76% of the respondents agree that they feel part of a team working towards shared goals. 20% of the respondents strongly agree and 4% of the respondents disagree, while 2% strongly disagree with the statement.

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Table 4.10: Table showing whether the employees like the type of work performed by them.

Nature Agree Disagree Un-decided Strongly Agree Strongly Disagree Total

No. of Respondents 36 1 0 12 1 50

Per cent (%) 72 2 0 24 2 100

Chart No 4.10 chart showing whether the employees like the type of work performed by them.
No. of Respondents

36

12

1 Agree Disagree

0 Un-decided Strongly Agree

1 Strongly Disagree

Interpretation: By observing the table 4.10 we can get a clear picture that 72% of the employees agree that they like the work done by them and 24% strongly agrees that they like their job. While 2% of the sample gave opinion that they strongly disagree that they like their job and 2% said that they disagree with the statement.

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Table 4.11: Table showing the opinion of employees that whether they feel valued at the hospital.

Nature Agree Disagree Un-decided Strongly Agree Strongly Disagree Total

No. of Respondents 35 2 3 9 1 50

Per cent (%) 70 4 6 18 2 100

Chart No: 4.11 chart showing the opinion of employees that whether they feel valued at the hospital.
40 35 30 25 20 35 15 10 5 0 Agree 2 Disagree 3 Un-decided Strongly Agree No. of Respondents 9 1 Strongly Disagree

Interpretation: From the above table 4.12 we can observe that, out of the total respondents 70% of them agree that they are valued at the hospital and 18% of them strongly agree. Only 4% respondents disagree and 2% strongly disagree that they are not valued at the hospital. 6% of the respondent didnt give any opinion.

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Table 4.12: Table shows whether there is a strong spirit of teamwork and cooperation among employees.

Nature Agree Disagree Un-decided Strongly Agree Strongly Disagree Total

No. of Respondents 34 3 1 10 2 50

Per cent (%) 68 6 2 20 4 100

Chart No 4.12 chart shows whether there is a strong spirit of teamwork and cooperation among employees
No. of Respondents 34

10 3

1 Un-decided Strongly Agree

Agree

Disagree

Strongly Disagree

Interpretation: The above table 4.12 clearly indicates about 68% of the employees agrees and 20% strongly agrees that there is a strong spirit of team work and cooperation among employees, whereas 6% disagree & 4% strongly disagree that there is strong spirit of team work and cooperation among employees.

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Table 4.13: Table shows whether employees are given enough recognition by management for work that is well done.

Nature Agree Disagree Un-decided Strongly Agree Strongly Disagree Total

No. of Respondents 30 9 5 4 2 50

Per cent (%) 60 18 10 8 4 100

Chart No 4.13 chart showing whether employees are given enough recognition by management for work that is well done
No. of Respondents 30

9 5 4 2

Agree

Disagree

Un-decided Strongly Agree

Strongly Disagree

Interpretation: Recognition given by the management for work that is well done is a motivation for workers to perform better. According to the survey data tabulated in table 4.13 we come to know that 60% of the respondents agree and 8% of the respondents strongly agree that they are recognized where as 10% does not want to comment and 18% disagree and 4% strongly disagree that they are recognized.

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Table 4.14: Table showing whether the communication from management is frequent enough

Nature Agree Disagree Un-decided Strongly Agree Strongly Disagree Total

No. of Respondents 31 10 4 4 1 50

Per cent (%) 62 20 8 8 2 100

Chart No 4.14 chart showing whether the communication from management is frequent enough
No. of Respondents

31

10 4 4 1 Agree Disagree Un-decided Strongly Agree Strongly Disagree

Interpretation: Effective communication is essential for innovation, good customer service, job satisfaction and rapid change. From the above table 4.10 we can get clear idea regarding the effectiveness of communication from management at AJHRC. 60% the respondents agrees that communication from management is frequent enough where as 20% disagree to the statement.

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Table 4.15: Table showing respondents opinion about quality is a top priority at hospital.

Nature Agree Disagree Un-decided Strongly Agree Strongly Disagree Total

No. of Respondents 36 2 2 10 0 50

Per cent (%) 72 4 4 20 0 100

Chart No 4.15 chart showing quality is top priority at hospital


No. of Respondents 36

10 2 2

0 Strongly Agree Strongly Disagree

Agree

Disagree

Un-decided

Interpretation: It is evident from the above table 4.15 that majority of the respondent (72%) agree and 20% strongly whereas 4% disagree and 4% does not know that quality is a top priority at the hospital. None of them strongly disagree the statement.

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Table 4.16: Table shows whether the supervisor asks for input from employees while making decisions.

Nature Agree Disagree Un-decided Strongly Agree Strongly Disagree Total

No. of Respondents 36 4 2 6 2 50

Per cent (%) 72 8 4 12 4 100

Chart No 4.16 chart showing whether supervisor asks for input from employees while making decisions
No. of Respondents

36

6 2 2

Agree

Disagree

Un-decided Strongly Agree

Strongly Disagree

Interpretation: from table 4.16 we can infer that majority of the respondents (72% agree + 12% strongly agree) agree that their supervisor asks their input while taking decisions. Only 8% disagree and 4% strongly disagree with the statement. Therefore we can say that there is cordial relation between employees and the supervisors at AJHRC.

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Table 4.17: Table showing whether the supervisor gives adequate support

Nature Agree Disagree Un-decided Strongly Agree Strongly Disagree Total

No. of Respondents 34 3 0 10 3 50

Per cent (%) 68 6 0 20 6 100

Chart 4.17 chart showing whether the supervisor gives adequate support
No. of Respondents

34

10

3 0 Agree Disagree Un-decided Strongly Agree

Strongly Disagree

Interpretation: As per the data depicted on the above table 4.17 it is clear that 20% of the respondents strongly agree and 68% of the respondents agree that their supervisor gives them adequate support where as 6% of them strongly disagree to the above statement.

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Table 4.18: Table showing whether the supervisor treats the employees fairly

No. of Respondents Agree Disagree Un-decided Strongly Agree Strongly Disagree Total 32 3 2 11 2 50

Per cent (%) 64 6 4 22 4 100

Chart No 4.18 chart showing respondents opinion about whether the supervisor treats them fairly

35 30 25 20 15

32

11 10 5 0 Agree Disagree Un-decided Strongly Agree Strongly Disagree No. of Respondents 3 2 2

Interpretation: from table 4.18 we can see that 64% of the respondents agree that the supervisor treats fairly which help them to work with relaxation. 20% of them strongly agree with the above statement where as 6% of them disagree and 4% strongly disagree with the statement.

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Table 4.19: Table shows whether the supervisor tells the employee when work needs to be improved.

Nature Agree Disagree Un-decided Strongly Agree Strongly Disagree Total

No. of Respondents 32 3 2 11 2 50

Per cent (%) 64 6 4 22 4 100

Chart No 4.19 - chart showing whether the supervisor tells the employees when work need to be improved.

35 30 25 20 32 15 10 5 3 0 Agree Disagree Un-decided Strongly Agree Strongly Disagree 2 11 2

No. of Respondents

Interpretation: As per the above table 4.19 it is clear that 64% of the employees agree that supervisor tells when work need to be improved where as 6% disagree and 4% strongly disagree to the statement.

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Table 4.20: Table shows whether the employees are provided with enough information by the hospital to do the job well.

Nature Agree Disagree Un-decided Strongly Agree Strongly Disagree Total

No. of Respondents 30 1 4 14 1 50

Per cent (%) 60 2 8 28 2 100

Chart No 4.20 chart showing whether the employees are provided with enough information to do the job well.
No. of Respondents 30

14

4 1 Agree Disagree Un-decided Strongly Agree 1 Strongly Disagree

Interpretation: The above shown table 4.20 clearly indicates that 60% of the respondents agree with the opinion that they are provided with enough information to do their job well. About 28% strongly agree the statement where as 8% does not want to comment with regard to the question.

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Table 4.21: Table showing whether the employees are satisfied with the initial training provided to them.

Nature Agree Disagree Un-decided Strongly Agree Strongly Disagree Total

No. of Respondents 39 2 1 7 1 50

Per cent (%) 78 4 2 14 2 100

Chart 4.21 chart showing whether the employees are satisfied with the initial training provided
No. of Respondents

39

7 2 Agree Disagree 1 Un-decided Strongly Agree 1 Strongly Disagree

Interpretation: Table 4.21 indicates that about 78% of the respondents are agreeing that the training program at initial stage was effective and 14% of the respondent strongly agree the statement where as 4% disagree and 2% is strongly disagree and 2% remained neutral.

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Table 4.22: Table shows whether employees feel their salary is fair for their responsibility.

Nature Agree Disagree Un-decided Strongly Agree Strongly Disagree Total

No. of Respondents 13 21 3 1 12 50

Per cent (%) 26 42 6 2 24 100

Chart No 4.22 chart showing whether the employees feel their salary is fair for their responsibility.
No. of Respondents

21

13

12

3 1

Agree

Disagree

Un-decided Strongly Agree

Strongly Disagree

Interpretation: Above table 4.22 indicates that 42% of the respondent disagree that salary is fair for their responsibility and 24% of them strongly disagree the statement. Whereas 26% agree and 2% strongly agree that salary is fair for their responsibility. 6% of the respondent does not want to comment regarding the statement.

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Table 4.23: Table showing whether the employees are satisfied with the benefits provided by the hospital.

Nature Agree Disagree Un-decided Strongly Agree Strongly Disagree Total

No. of Respondents 26 15 3 2 4 50

Per cent (%) 52 30 6 4 8 100

Chart No 4.23 chart showing whether the employees are satisfied with the benefits provided by the hospital.
No. of Respondents

26

15

4 2

Agree

Disagree

Un-decided Strongly Agree

Strongly Disagree

Interpretation: Benefits are significant and positive determinant of job satisfaction. As per the above table 4.23 we can infer that about 38% of the respondents are not satisfied with the benefits provided. Whereas 52% agree and 4% strongly agree that they are satisfied with the benefits.

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Table 4.24: Table shows whether the employees are happy with the working hours at the hospital.

Nature Agree Disagree Un-decided Strongly Agree Strongly Disagree Total

No. of Respondents 23 13 3 1 10 50

Per cent (%) 46 26 6 2 20 100

Chart No 4.24 chart showing whether the employees are happy with working hours.
No. of Respondents 23

13 10

3 1 Agree Disagree Un-decided Strongly Agree Strongly Disagree

Interpretation: Above table 4.24 indicates that about 26% of the respondents disagree and 20% of them strongly disagree that they are happy with working hours. Whereas 46% of the respondents agree and 2% strongly agree that they are happy with the working hours. 6% of them remained neutral.

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Table 4.25: Table shows whether the work life and personal life of employee is balanced.

Nature Agree Disagree Un-decided Strongly Agree Strongly Disagree Total

No. of Respondents 30 10 4 1 5 50

Per cent (%) 60 20 8 2 10 100

Chart No 4.25 chart showing whether the work life and personal life of employee is balanced.
No. of Respondents 30

10 4 1 Agree Disagree Un-decided Strongly Agree Strongly Disagree 5

Interpretation: With regard to the present study of measuring job satisfaction we can say that about 60% of the respondents agree and 2% strongly agree that their personal life and work life is balanced where as 20% of the respondent disagree and 10% strongly disagree with the above statement

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FINDINGS
The following are the main findings done through this study they are as follows: It is seen that majority of the employees are female (84%) The study reveals that 98% 0f respondents are satisfied with work. The study shows that 96% of the respondents opined that there is adequate planning at the hospital. 76% of the employees agree that they contribute to the facilities, plan and mission of the organization. Majority (62%) of employees agree that they have given enough authority to take decision they need to take. There is good working condition at AJ hospital & research centre. It is found that 80% of respondents feel that they can count on being promoted if they do good work. Majority (68%) of the respondents agree that their job is secure. There is good team work at the hospital It is found that 96% of respondents like the work they do at hospital. Majority of employees feel that they are valued at the hospital. It is seen that majority of employees opined there is strong spirit of team work and cooperation among subordinates or colleagues. The study has shown that majority of employees agree that they are recognized by the management for their work that is well done. It is also seen that there is enough communication from the management. The study reveals that quality is given top priority at hospital. Participative decision making is encouraged at the hospital The study has shown that majority employees agree that their supervisor treats them fairly. Majority of the respondent agree that their supervisor asks them when their work is needed to be improved. 88% of the respondent opined that they are provided with enough information by the hospital to do their job well. The initial training provided by the hospital is as much as needed for the employees. Majority of the respondents feel that their salary is not worth.

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52% of the respondents agree that they are satisfied with the benefits provided by the hospital. Only 48% of the employees are happy with their working hours. Out of 50 respondents 60% agree that their work life and personal life is balanced.

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SUGGESTIONS
After conducting a study on job satisfaction among the employees at AJ Hospital & Research Center, I have identified some facts based on questionnaire & interview. This may help the organization to increase the satisfaction level of the employees. Job satisfaction is an important criterion in service industry. As per my study it is found that majority of the employees are satisfied with their job but there are certain areas where the employees are not much satisfied. Job satisfaction is a very important determinant of the rate the turnover for any organization. Job satisfaction by itself is a largely effected by the attitude of employees towards monetary and non monetary rewards. Based on those findings the following suggestions have been made. In order to keep employees satisfied and retain them organizations should adopt the following practices. Training programmes should be conducted for both personal as well as technical development. Management should recognize talents and encourage them to grow in the organization. Use scientific methods to align jobs this will improve the satisfaction level in case of work load Reduce working hours to motivate the employees To provide more carrier opportunity promotional policy should be restructured Follow more open door communication policy Organize trips, family meet and fun games at work Give more attention for performance linked pay structure Performance based rewards and recognitions to improve motivation of employees. Organization can try and increase the level of workers participation in decision making. More attention should be given for overall development of employees welfare facilities Organization can motivate individual through proper counseling and guidance.

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Majority of the employees feel that wage & salary provided to them may have to be considered for hike. So the organization may consider of increasing it. Individual attention to employees regarding health matters may be considered on priority basis. Better communication may yield some more results. Supervisors may be considered for management training. Make senior management friendlier with subordinates. Improve quality of canteen. Try to give timely incentives to employees to motivate financially. Allocate sufficient number of employees to each department.

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CONCLUSION
Job satisfaction of employees in any organization is of paramount importance to achieve the targeted goals on a sustainable basis. It is observed that free cafeteria food and flexible programs are not enough. It is experienced that job satisfaction is attributable to high self confidence of the individuals. It varies from individual to individual. The proactive attitude together with physical and emotional resources which are brought by the employees to the workplace decides the degree of job satisfaction amongst them. They are not only satisfied with their jobs but they also feel competent in work and life, which are mutually reinforcing. The research on the subject has put forth that building of employees competencies and self confidence through training, feedback and recognition should be a permanent activity of the organization. It is noticed that high job satisfaction is closely related to the feelings of effectiveness on the job. Similarly, it can only be achieved effectively by encouragement of genuine self confidence of the employees. Such highly satisfied employees ultimately show extraordinary devotion for mission, vision and enthusiasm for work. They are excited to achieve mission driven changes within the shortest time. In order to face new challenges by the individuals and groups, constant encouragement and suitable rewards are essential from the management. High job satisfaction correlates strongly with the feelings of fun at work. Enhancement of performance through rest and recovery at the work place is also reported by top performers in almost every field. It is evident that monetary and non monetary ways to enhance employee job satisfaction have to be adopted by the organization depending on the prevailing circumstances.

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APPENDIX - I QUESTIONNAIRE
A STUDY ON JOB SATISFACTION OF EMPLOYEES AT A.J HOSPITAL, MANGALORE QUESTIONNAIRE I Fathimath Sayyida pursuing my final year M.B.A at A.J. Institute of Management (A Unit of Laxmi Memorial Education Trust (R)), Mangalore, affiliated to the Mangalore University. As a part of curriculum requirements I am conducting a survey entitled: A Study on job satisfaction of employees on AJ Hospital, Mangalore. I would be grateful to you, if you could spare a few minutes and fill up this questionnaire. I assure you that the information filled will remain confidential. Thank you Fathimath Sayyida

1. Name of employee 2. Gender

: : Male Female

3. Educational Qualification: 4. Designation :

JOB SATISFACTION SEGMENTS Kindly put a tick ( ) mark on the only answer from various alternatives given below: A Agree D - Disagree U Undecided SA Strongly Agree SD Strongly Disagree

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1.

I am satisfied Mangalore

with my work at AJ hospital,

SA

SD

2.

There is adequate planning of hospital objectives

SA

SD

3. 4.

I feel I contribute to the facilities, plan & mission I am given enough authority to make decision I need to make My physical working conditions are good If I do good work I can count on being promoted I believe my job is secure I feel part of a team working toward shared goals I like the type of work that I do

A A

D D

U U

SA SA

SD SD

5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

A A A A A A A

D D D D D D D

U U U U U U U

SA SA SA SA SA SA SA

SD SD SD SD SD SD SD

10. I feel valued at the hospital 11. There is a strong spirit of teamwork and cooperation among employees 12. I am given enough recognition by management for work that is well done 13. Communication from the management are frequent enough 14. Quality is a top priority at the hospital 15. My supervisor asks me for input to help make decisions 16. I feel that my supervisor gives me adequate support 17. I feel that my supervisor treats me fairly

SA

SD

SA

SD

A A

D D

U U

SA SA

SD SD

A A

D D

U U

SA SA

SD SD

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18. My supervisor tells me when my work needs to be improved 19. I am provided enough information by the hospital to do my job well 20. My initial training provided by the hospital was as much as I needed 21. I feel my salary is fair for my responsibilities 22. I am satisfied with the benefits provided by the hospital 23. I am happy with the working hours in the hospital 24. My work life and personal life is balanced

SA

SD

SA

SD

SA

SD

A A

D D

U U

SA SA

SD SD

A A

D D

U U

SA SA

SD SD

Please tell what the hospital can do to increase your satisfaction as an employee

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APPENDIX - II BIBLIOGRAPHY
Ashwatappa, K, Human resource and personnel management, TATA McGraw.-2008, Hill Publishing Company Limited, New Delhi, Pg (244 - 245) Dr. Rane D.B, Employee Satisfaction: An Essence Of Organization , HRM Review Journal, Vol. 11, Issue-7,2011,Pg (10 - 16) Goyal, R.C, Human Resource Management In Hospitals, Prentice hall Of India Pvt Ltd - 2002, New Delhi, Pg (113 - 126) Micheal, V.P, Human Resource Management & human Relation , Himalaya publishing House 2001, New Delhi, Pg (525 - 528) Subba Rao, P, Essential of HRM & Industrial Relationships, Himalaya Publications - 2005, New Delhi, Pg (480 - 482) www.articlebase.com www.citehr.com www.scribbed.com

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