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Ghanshyam Thori

Geography Notes


Continent Asia Europe South America Africa North America Oceania Urbanization by Continents: SN Continent 1. South America 2. Europe 3. North America DEMOGRAPHY: Density person/sq. km 108 101 21 20 14 3

Urbanization 78 74 68

S.no 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

Country Russia Canada United States China Brazil Australia India Argentina Kazakhstan Sudan

Top 20 Countries by Area Area (lakh sq km) S. N Country 170 11. Algeria 99 12. Dem. Rep of Congo 96 13. Mexico 95 14. Saudi Arabia 85 15. Indonesia 76 16. Libya 32 17. Iran 27 18. Mongolia 27 19. Peru 25 20. Chad Worlds Most Populous Countries Population S.N Country in million 1,306 14 Germany 1,080 15 Egypt 295 16 Ethiopia 241 17 Turkey 186 18 Iran 162 19 Thailand 144 20 France 143 21 United Kingdom 128 22 Dem. Rep of Congo 127 23 Italy 106 24 Korea, South 87 25 Ukraine 83

Area (lakh sq km) 23 23 19 19 19 17 16 15 12 12

S.N 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13

Country China India United States Indonesia Brazil Pakistan Bangladesh Russia Nigeria Japan Mexico Philippines Vietnam

Population In Million 82 77 73 69 68 65 60 60 60 58 48 47

Ghanshyam Thori

Geography Notes

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Contributions of Important Geographers Megalopolis concept Jean Gottman Conurbation Concept, Wrote Cities in Evolution Patrick Geddes Polar Front Theory J. Bjerknes Anticyclone term Sir Francis Galton Equilibrium Theory of tides Issac Newton Dynamic Theory of Tides Laplace Progressive Wave Theory William Whewell Canal Theory G. B. Airy Stationary Wave Theory of Tides R. A. Harris Process of Precipitation Bergeron First used the term Ecology Tansley Father of Ecology Haeckel First used the term plate J. T Wilson Coined the term Antecedent Stream J. W. Powell Classification of clouds Luke Howard Ice crystal Theory Tor Bergeron Collision-Coalesce Theory George Simpson & Mason Glacial Control Theory of Coral reef formation Daly Subsidence Theory of Coral reef formation Darwin Stand Still Theory of Coral reef Murray Concept of grade G.K. Gilbert Law of Stream number/Length R. E. Horton Location Allocation Models P. Haggett Law of Retail Gravitation W.J. Reilly Concept of Threshold & Range B.J.L. Berry Introduced the concept of Possibilism Lucien Febvre Coined Areal Differentiation Hartshorne General System Theory Ludwig von Bertalanffy Developed Hythergraph G. Taylor Polyconic Projection Ferdinand Hessler Globular projection S.J. Fournier Minerals & Their Largest Producers Madagascar South Africa, Australia South Africa, Canada. South Africa, Russia South Africa, Republic of Congo & Australia Canada, Australia Canada, USA, Australia, Niger, France, South Africa Canada, Russia, Australia, USA. China, USA, India, Russia China China, Brazil, Australia.

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Graphite Gold Platinum Chromium Diamond Zinc Uranium Nickel Coal Steel Iron Ore

Ghanshyam Thori 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. 34. Cement Manganese Paper Hydro Power Tungsten Asbestos Natural Gas Flax Tantalum Bauxite Lead Cadmium Antimony Uranium (Reser.) Zirconium Titanium (Rutile) Iron Copper Tin Silver Mercury Sulphur Rock Phosphate

Geography Notes China China, South Africa, Australia. Canada Canada, USA, (Norway highest %age User) China, Thailand, Korea Canada Russia, Zambia, Zimbabwe Russia, Canada, Algeria, Iran Russia Australia Australia, Guinea, Jamaica & Brazil. Australia, China, US Canada China Australia, Kazakhstan, Canada, South Africa Australia Brazil *Australia* China, Brazil, Australia Chile, United States, Canada, Armenia, Zambia, Zaire China, Indonesia, Peru, Brazil, Malaysia Mexico, Peru, Chile & Poland. Spain, China, Italy. Mexico, USA & Poland USA, Peru (Guano).

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21.

Agricultural Commodities & Their Largest Producer Milk India Coffee Brazil, Vietnam Tobacco China, turkey Pork China Rice (export) Thailand, Vietnam Rice China, India Banana India, Brazil Banana (Export) Costa Rica, Jamaica, Honduras, Columbia Maize USA, China Wheat China Cork Portugal Palm Oil Malaysia Fresh Water Fish Russia Barley Germany, Canada, Russia, France Tea (Exporter) Sri Lanka Rubber Thailand, Indonesia, Malaysia Paper USA Pulp (Export) Canada Paper (Export) Canada Sugar India, Brazil, Cuba Sugar (Export) Cuba

Ghanshyam Thori 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. 34. 35. 36. 37. 38. 39. 40. 41. 42. 43. 44. 45. Oil Palm Oil Palm (import) Cotton Cotton (export) Mangoes Manila Hemp (Abaca) Raw Silk Tobacco Oranges Oats Millets Rye Sorghum Pulses Sugarcane Tea Dates Olives Wine (Exporter) Wine (Producer) Coconut Grapes Potato Soyabeens

Geography Notes Malaysia, Indonesia India China, USA, India, Pakistan, Uzbekistan in that order. USA India Philippines (75%) China, Japan, India, Korea. China, USA, India USA, Brazil Russia India Russia USA India Brazil India, China Iran, Egypt Spain *Algeria* Italy, France Indonesia, Philippines, Italy, France China U.S.A, Brazil Sobriquets

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20.

Island of Cloves Land of Lilies Land of Golden Fleece Port of Five Seas Island of Pearls Hermit Kingdom Land of Golden Pagoda City of Canals Holy Land Herring Pond City of Golden Gate City of dreaming Spires Land of Canals Empire city Land of Cakes Land of Eskimos Island of Pearls Granite City Garden of England Cockpit of Europe

Zanzibar Canada Australia Moscow Bahrain Korea Yangoon (Myanmar) Venice Palestine Atlantic Sand Francisco Oxford Netherlands New York Scotland Greenland Bahrain Aberdeen, Scotland Kent Belgium

Ghanshyam Thori 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. City of brotherly Love City of Magnificent Distances Gateway of tears Textile Capital of Russia Manchester of Japan Emerald City The pearl of the Antilles Philadelphia Washington DC Bab-el-Mandab Ivanovo Osaka (Textile) Ireland Cuba

Geography Notes

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Highest Peaks In Various Regions/ Mountain Chain Africa Mt. Kilimanjaro North America Mt. McKinley Europe Mt. Elbrus Antarctica Mt. Vinson Asia Mt. Everest Oceania Mt. Carstensz South America Mt. Aconcagua Australia Mt. Kosciusko Urals Mt. Gora Naradnaya Alps Mt. Mont Blanc Andes Mt. Aconcagua Rockies Mt. Elbert Appalachians Mt. Mitchell South West Asia (Elbruz Chain) Mt. Demavand

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18.

Important Places/Regions & Their Locations Llanos Tropical Grasslands of Venezuela Campos Tropical grasslands of Brazil Iberian Peninsula Spain Katanga basin Democratic republic of Congo Canterbury Plain Largest lowland area of New Zealand Chaco / Gran Chaco Low, flat, arid region covering Argentina Paraguay & Bolivia. Kra Peninsula Malaysia Parana region Brazil Largest producer of wheat, corn cotton Matto grosso Thick jungle in west central brazil north of Bolivia. Dogger bank Shallow fishing area in north sea, 100km off UK Grand bank Shallow fishing area off new foundland, Canada Georges bank Near bay of fundy & Gulf of Maine Nordic Countries Norway, Iceland, Greenland, Denmark. Ob, Yenisey & Lena Major rivers of Russia Sarawak, Sabah, Labuan These three states make up east Malaysia. Yucatan Peninsula Mexico Ozark Plateau heavily forested upland region, between the Missouri and Arkansas rivers Sinai Peninsula In north eastern Egypt.

Ghanshyam Thori

Geography Notes

S. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14.

Miscellaneous Data of Various Nations Country/ Urban Hydro Nuclear Thermal Region % Elect % % % Canada 75 60 USA 10 Britain 24 Italy 50 Norway 90 New Zealand 75 Switzerland 74 Japan 76 32 France 77 Lithuania 78 Germany 30 Australia 80 90 S. E. Asia 20 Russia 60 Tribes of the World

Forest % 25

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23.

Kalmuks Kirghiz Gauchos Mestizos Ostyaks Pygmies Boro Semang Papuans Bushmen or San Bedouins Masai Kirghiz Saami or Lapps Yuti Chukchi Yakuts Aleut Yuit Inuit Samoyed Punan Afrikaner/Boer

Inhabit the Altai mountains & nearby areas - pastoral Occupy the Tien Shan & adjacent Pamirs Cowboys of the pampas of Argentina & Uruguay. People of mixed white & Indian parentage West Siberian tribe Congo basin Zaire, Congo, Gabon. Amazon basin-sub group of red Indians. Malaysia New Guinea Kalahari Namibia, Botswana, Angola Nomadic Arabs in Africa & Middle-East East Africa Kenya, Uganda Central Asia. Muslim by faith Norway, Sweden, Finland Also known as Laplanders Siberia Far Eastern Siberia Tundra region of Russia Aleutian Islands Siberia Greenland, Canada & Siberia West Siberia Borneo Dutch race in S. Africa

Ghanshyam Thori 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. 34. 35. 36. 37. 38. 39. 40. 41. 42. 43. 43. 44. 45. 46. 47. 48. 49. 50. 51. 52. 53. 54. 55. Afridis Veddas Bantus Berbers Maori Bindibu Cossacks Magyar Croats Flemish Finns Hamites Hottentots/khoi khoi Kaffris Kikuyu Masuds Mestizos Amerinds Mulatto Moors Semites Tartar Zambas Zulus Akka Oromo or Galla Uygur Kubu Fulani/Fula Buryat Aeta Ainu Yanomamo

Geography Notes N. West Pakistan Racial stock of Sri Lanka Central & southern Africa Swahili is Bantu derived language. Morocco, Algeria & Tunisia New Zealand Western Australia Russia around black & Caspian Sea Inhabitants of Hungary Croatia Belgium European Tundra N-W Africa Dark skinned muslims Tropical Africa S. Africa known as martial race Kenyas most populous ethnic group Waziristan region, Pakistan People of mixed Indian & European blood in Latin America N. America People of mixed European & Indian blood Mixed European & black blood in South America Mixed tribe of Arabs & Berber people of Morocco Jews & Ethiopians Turkic people of eastern Europe & central Asia People of African & Native American Indian in S. America People of Bantu family inhabiting South Africa Democratic republic of Congo African people of hamitic origin in Ethiopia & Kenya Turkic people inhabiting N-W china & Kazakhstan. Inhabitants of Sumatra Cattle herders of Nigeria, Senegal, Guinea or Chad Largest ethnic minority in Siberia inhabiting buryat republic. Mongoloid racial stock found in Philippines (indigenous) Caucasoids of Japan. Indigenous people of Brazil & Venezuela

Largest Producers of Fish in the World, 2001 S.no 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Country China Peru USA Japan Indonesia WORLD Prod in Million tons 16.5 8 4.9 4.7 4.2 92.4

Ghanshyam Thori

Geography Notes

Worst deforestation rate of primary forests, 2000-2005 S.N Country Deforestation Rate % 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Nigeria Vietnam Cambodia Sri Lanka Malawi Indonesia 55.7 54.5 29.4 15.2 14.9 12.9

Highest average annual deforestation of primary forests, 2000-2005 in hectares 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Brazil Indonesia Russian Federation Mexico Papua New Guinea - 3,466,000 - 1,447,800 - 532,200 - 395,000 - 250,200

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Total forest cover in hectares - 2005 Russian Federation 808,790,000 Brazil 477,698,000 Canada 310,134,000 United States of America 303,089,000 China 197,290,000 Highest total forest cover as a percentage of total land cover, 2005 Suriname 94.7 French Guiana 91.8 Micronesia (Federated States of) 90.6 American Samoa 89.4 Seychelles 88.9 Minerals & Their Ores Haematite (Fe2O3), Magnetite (Fe304), limonite & Siderite Millerite, Pentlandite Pyrolusite, Braunite, Psilomelane Stibnite Rutile Chromite Pitchblende (UO2) 8

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

Iron Nickel Manganese Antimony Titanium Chromium Uranium

Ghanshyam Thori 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. Lead Thorium Zinc Mercury Beryllium Cobalt Lithium Magnesium Potassium Silver Sodium Tin Galena Thorianite, Monazite, Allanite, Ilemnite Calamine, Sphalerite Cinnabar Beryl, chrysoberyl Smalitite, Cobaltite Spodumene Magnesite, Dolomite, Kieserite, Carnallite. Carnallite (KCl.MgCl2.6H2O) Argentite Chile Saltpeter (NaNO3) Cassiterite

Geography Notes

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Major Discontinuities within the earth Conrad Discontinuity Between outer & inner crust Mohorovicic Discontinuity Between crust & mantle Repetti Discontinuity Between outer & inner mantle Weichart-Gutenberg Discontinuity Between mantle & core Lehmann Discontinuity Between outer & inner core.

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Important Mining Centers Of The World Cleveland Iron Ore (U. K.) Ungava & Belle Island Iron Ore (Canada) Carajas Iron Ore (Brazil) Yampi Sound Iron Ore (Australia) Paraburdoo Iron Ore (Australia) Bilbao Iron Ore (Spain) Nikopol Largest manganese mines of world (Ukraine) Chuquicamata copper (Chile) Morenci Copper (Arizona - largest in US) El Chino copper (New Mexico) Katanga copper, cobalt, uranium, cadmium, tin, gold, silver (DMC) Mount Isa Silver, lead, zinc & copper (Australia) Broken Hill Silver, Lead & Zinc Witwatersrand Gold (S. Africa) Kalgoorlie Gold (Australia) Fushun Manchuria (Coal) Donetz Coal (Ukraine) Kuznetsk Coal (Russia) Karaganda Coal (Kazakhstan) Mesabi range Iron ore (Northern Minnesota) Pittsburg iron & steel capital of the world (Pennsylvania) Port Louis Sugar industry (Mauritius) Anshan iron & Steel (China) Lille Textiles (France) Yallourn Coal (Australia)

Ghanshyam Thori 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. 34. 35. 36. 37. 38. 39. 40. 41. 42. 43. 44. 45. 46. 47. 48. 49. Ipoh Tula Chiatura Chilean desert Pilbara Bomi Hill Niger Montana Kra Peninsula Iron Knob Minas Gerais Jos Plateau Ozark Bingham Chihuahua Rum Jungle Krivoi Rog Sudbury Kinta Valley Weipa Gippsland Flin Flon Catavi Braden

Geography Notes Tin (Kinta Valley, Malaysia) Iron ore (near Moscow) Manganese (Georgia) Caliche (Chile Saltpeter-NaNO3) Iron ore (Australia) Liberia (Iron Ore Uranium accounts for 75 per cent mineral export Copper ( USA) Tin (Narrowest point of Malaysia) Iron ore (Australia- Now almost exhausted) Iron Ore (Brazil) Tin (Nigeria) Lead-Zinc Ores (USA) Copper (United States largest mine) Important mining town of Mexico Iron, Lead, copper, silver. Uranium (Australia) Iron Ore (Ukraine) Nickel (Canada) Tin (Malaysia) Bauxite (Australia) Lignite(Australia) Mining centre in Manitoba, Canada Bolivia Chile (Copper) Important Isopleths Equal magnetic declination Equal amount of sunlight. Thunderstorm at the same time Same mean winter temperature Same mean summer temperature Isopleth of Anomaly Equal travel time from a common center. Or Contour lines Amount of Snow Isopleths of seasonal phenomena Surface to which artesian water can rise Equal frost A line representing continuous value on map Equal cloudiness Simultaneous seismic activity Or contours Equal thickness of geological strata Same wind speed Equal ratio of summer rainfall to annual rainfall

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Isogones Isohel Isobront Isocheim Isothere Isanomal Isochrones Isohypse Isonif Isophene Isopotential Isorymes Isarithm Isonephs Co-seismal lines Isohypse Isopach Isotach Isotherombrose


Ghanshyam Thori 20. 21. 22. 23. Isochasm Isodynamic Isogen Isokeraunic Equal frequency of aurorae Equal magnetic intensity Equal birthrates Equal occurrence of thunderstorms

Geography Notes

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Places & Their Importance Yorkshire woollen textile Lancashire cotton textile Glasgow ship building Sheffield Cutlery & steel works Lorraine Iron ore (France) Lyon Silk Industry (France) Silesia Coal (Poland) high grade Lodz Manchester of Poland Hamburg Ship Building (Germany) Stuttgart Automobile (Germany) Munich Instruments (Germany) Karl Marx Stadt Textile (Germany) Sambre-Meuse Coal (Belgium) Marseilles Oil Refinery Baku Capital city of Azerbaijan & chief refining center. Chicago Biggest railway junction Detroit Automobile Seattle Aircraft Cadiz Cork (Spain) Changchun Automobile & machine tools (China) Chelyabinsk Iron & Steel (Russia) Dresden Optical, Photo & Graphic instruments (Germany) Dusseldorf Iron & Steel (Germany) Essen Iron & Steel (Germany) Essex Engineering works (England) Kharkov Machine building & Engineering (Ukraine) Kiev Engineering (Ukraine) Magnitogorsk Iron & Steel (Russia) Nagoya Cotton & Ship building (Japan) Nizhny Tagil Iron & Steel (Russia) Venice Glass Industry Vienna Glass Industry Philadelphia Locomotives (USA) Plymouth Shipbuilding (USA) Yenang Yang Oil Drilling (Myanmar) Gorky / Nizhny Novogorod Engineering Industry. Belfast Ship building (Ireland) Types of Delta 11

Ghanshyam Thori 1. 2. 3. 4. Arcuate Delta Digitate or Bird-Foot Delta Estuarine Delta Cuspate or Tooth-Shaped Delta

Geography Notes Nile, Ganga, Rhine, Hwang Ho, Volga, Indus, Mekong, Rhone, Danube. Mississippi Elb, Ob, Seine, Narmada, Tapti, Mackenzie, Hudson, Amazon, Rhine Tiber in Italy, Ebro of Spain.

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Major Natural Regions Equatorial Lowland Equatorial Highland Equatorial High Plateaus Tropical Eastern Margin Tropical Interiors Tropical Western Deserts Warm Temperate/Subtropical Western Margins Warm Temperate/Subtropical Eastern Margin Warm Temperate/Subtropical Interior Lowland Warm Temperate/Subtropical Interior Plateau Cool Temperate Western Margin Cool Temperate Eastern Margin Cool Temperate Interior Lowland Cool Temperate Interior Highland Cool Temperate High Plateau Polar Lowland Polar Highland

Amazon Type Malay Type Ecuador Type Monsoon Type Sudan Type Sahara Type Mediterranean Type China Type Turan Type Iran Type European Type St. Lawrence Type Prairie Type Altai Type Tibet Type Tundra Type Ice Cap Type

S. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16.

Desert Sahara Gobi Patagonian Rub Al Khali Great Sandy Great Victoria Chihuahuan Takla Makan Sonoran Kalahari Kyzyl Kum Thar Simpson Mohave Nafud Desert Dasht-I-Kavir

Major Deserts Location Northern Africa Mongolia/Northeastern China Argentina Southern Arabian Peninsula Northwestern Australia Southwestern Australia Mexico/Southwestern United States Northern China Mexico/Southwestern United States Southwestern Africa Uzbekistan India/Pakistan Australia Southwestern United States Arabian Peninsula Iran Planets & satellites Deimos, Phobos 12

1. Mars

Ghanshyam Thori 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Jupiter Saturn Uranus Neptune Pluto Ganymede, Callisto, Europa, Io Titan, Tethys, Rhea, Iapetus, Dione Oberon, Titania, Umbriel, Ariel Triton Charon

Geography Notes

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12.

Gaseous Hypothesis Nebular Hypothesis Planetesimal Hypothesis Tidal Hypothesis Meteoric Hypothesis Binary Star Hypothesis Fission Hypothesis Cepheid Hypothesis Supernova Hypothesis Interstellar Dust Hypothesis Nebular Cloud Hypothesis Protoplanet Hypothesis

Hypothesis of the origin of Earth Kant Laplace T.C. Chamberlain & F. R. Moulten James Jeans & Harold Jeffreys Lockyer H.N. Russel Ross Gun A.C. Banerji F. Hoyle Otto Schmidt Von Weizsacker Gerald Kuiper Percentage Area of various bodies

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Pacific Ocean Atlantic Ocean Indian Ocean Land

35.4 % 18.4 % 14.5 % 29.2 %

1. 2. 3.

Pacific Ocean Atlantic Ocean Indian Ocean

Major Trenches in the Ocean Aleutian trench, Tonga trench, Philippine trench, Peru-Chile trench, Mariana Trench (near Micronesia) Puerto Rico trench, South sandwich trench, Romanche trench Java trench Submarine Canyons in various oceans Atlantic Ocean Indian Ocean 1. Oceanographer Canyon 1. Indus Canyon 2. Hudson Canyon 2. Ganges Canyon 3. Wilmington Canyon 3. 4. Norfolk Canyon 4. 5. Congo Canyon 5. 6. San Francisco Canyon 6. 7. Mississippi Canyon 7. 8. 8. Basins of the Oceans South Antilles basin, Cape basin, Agulhas basin 13

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

Pacific Ocean Tokyo Canyon Bering Canyon Columbia Canyon Juan De Fucca Canyon Monterey Canyon Arguello Canyon Scripps Canyon Coronados Canyon


Atlantic Ocean

Ghanshyam Thori 2. 3. Indian Ocean Pacific Ocean Mascarenes, Sulu, Celebes, Banda basin Caroline, Solomon, New Hebrides, Guatemala basin

Geography Notes

Major Ridges & Rises in various Oceans Pacific Ocean Atlantic Ocean Indian Ocean 1. Catham rise 1. Rio Grande rise 1. Carlsberg ridge 2. Galapagos rise 2. Walvis ridge 2. Laccadive-Chagos ridge 3. Nazca ridge 3. Reykjanes ridge (Iceland) 3. Chagos-St Paul ridge 4. South Tasman rise 4. Sierra Leone rise 4. Kerguelen-Gausberg ridge 5. Louisville ridge 5. Para rise 6. Juan de fuca ridge (N-E P) 6. New foundland rise 7. Gorda ridge ( N-E P) 7. Wyville Thomson ridge 8. Explorer ridge 8. Dolphin rise 9. Austral Marshall Gilbert 9. Challenger rise 10. Carneige ridge 11. Cocos ridge 12. Norfolk Island ridge 13. Caroline-Solomon ridge Lomonsov ridge & Gakkel ridge is in arctic ocean. A B C D E H Koppens Classification Tropical Climate Steppe Climate S Dry Climate W Desert Climate Mild Humid (Mesothermal) Climate Tundra climate T Snowy forest (Microthermal) climate Ice Cap climate F Polar Climate Precipitation in all months f Undifferentiated highland climate m Monsoon type Dry season in winter w Dry season in summer s Dry hot; mean ann. Temp >18 C (B only) h Dry cold; mean ann. temp < 18 C (B only) k Third Letter Hot summers in which the warmest month has a mean temperature of above 22 C. Used in C & D climate Warm summers in which the warmest month has a mean temperature of below 22 C. Used in C & D climates Cool short summers with fewer than four months having a mean temperature above 10 C. Used in C & D climates Very cold winters in which the mean temperature of the coldest month is below -38 C. Used in D climate only. Types of Climate Under Koppens Scheme 14

1. 2. 3. 4.

a b c d

Ghanshyam Thori Af Am Aw BS BW Cf Cw

Geography Notes

Tropical Rainforest Cs Mild humid climate with dry summer Tropical monsoon Df Snowy forest climate with on dry season Tropical savanna Dw Snowy forest climate with dry winter Steppe climate Ds Snowy forest climate with dry summer Desert climate ET Tundra climate.0<Warmest month< 10 C Mild humid climate with no dry season EF Perpetual frost. Less than 0 C throughout Mild humid with a dry winter Thornthwaite Scheme 1931 Thornthwaite identified 5 humidity zones on the basis of P/E (precipitation effectiveness or efficiency) index. P/E index = 11.5 (r/T 10) ^9/10 where r is mean monthly rainfall in inches & t is mean monthly temperature in degree F. Similarly Thermal efficiency or temperature effectiveness can be computed using T/E ratio = (t 32)/4 Where t is the mean monthly temperature in degree F.


Humidity zones based on P/E index Wet 127 Humid 64-127 Sub humid 32-63 Semi arid 16-31 arid <16


Humidity Zones based on T/E index Tropical 127 Mesothermal 64-127 Microthermal 32-63 Taiga 16-31 Tundra 1-15 Frost 0

r s w d

Third letter Rainfall adequate in all season Rainfall deficient in summer Rainfall deficient in winter Rainfall deficient in all season

E.g. ABr mesothermal wet climate with adequate rainfall in all seasons. Thornthwaite 1948 Classification Moisture index (Im) = (100S- 60D)/PE Where S represents monthly surplus of moisture & D represents monthly deficit of moisture. Thermal efficiency index is simply the potential evapotranspiration expressed in centimeters. Humidity zones based on moisture index A Perhumid >100 cm B1 B4 Humid 20 to100 cm C2 Moist Subhumid 0 to 20 cm C1 Dry subhumid -33.3 to 0 cm D Semi arid -67 to -33.3 E Arid -100 to -66.7 Thermal zone based on thermal efficiency A Megathermal >114 B1 B4 Mesothermal 57 to 114 C2 Microthermal 42.7 to 57 C1 Microthermal 28.5 to 42.7 D Tundra 14.2 to 28.5 E Frost < 14.2


Ghanshyam Thori

Geography Notes

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Composition of the Earth Earths Crust Whole Earth Oxygen 46.6 Iron 35 Silicon 27.7 Oxygen 30 Aluminium 8 Silicon 15 Iron 5 Magnesium 13 Calcium 3.6 Nickel 2.4 Sodium 2.8 Sulphur 1.9 Potassium 2.6 Calcium 1.1 Magnesium 2.1 Aluminium 1.1 Mountains & Geological Periods Feno-Scandian mountains, North west highlands Formed during Silurian & Devonian period. E.g. Scottish highlands, Appalachians, Aravallis Formed during Permian period. E.g. Spanish Messeta, mountains of Iberian peninsula, Brittany of France, Vosges, Black forest, Mendips, Harz (Germany). Formed during tertiary period. E.g. Rockies, Andes, alps, Carpathians, Pyrenees, Caucasus, Balkans, Himalayas , Sierra Nevada, Zagros & Elburz (Iran), Verkhoyansk mountains Mountain Types Ruwenzori Mountain range in Central Africa, Black forest, Vosges, bohemian massif and the Sierra Nevada in the south-western USA. Himalayas, Aravalli, Appalachians, Alps, Rockies, Andes. Aravalli, Rajmahal, Nilgiris, Satpuras, Western Ghats. Henry mountain, USA

1. 2. 3.

Pre-Cambrian Mountains Caledonian Mountains Hercynian Mountains


Alpine Mountains

1. 2. 3. 4.

Block Mountain Fold Mountains Relict Mountains Dome Mountain

Waterfall Angel Falls Yosemite Falls Mardalsfossen-South Thukela (Tugela) Falls Cuquenan Sutherland

Highest Waterfalls of the World Location Venezuela United States Norway South Africa Venezuela New Zealand 16

Total drop (m) 979 739 655 614 610 580

Ghanshyam Thori Worlds Largest Lakes Asia North America Africa North America North America Burundi (N), Zambia (S), DMC (W) North America Asia Asia North America

Geography Notes

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

Caspian Sea, Lake Superior Lake Victoria Lake Huron Lake Michigan Lake Tanganyika Great Bear Lake Lake Baikal Aral Sea Great Slave Lake

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

Lake Balkash Lake Titicaca Lake Nyasa Lake Ladoga Lake Onega Lake Rudolf Lake Torrens Lake Vanern Lake Urmia Lake Mobutu

Other Important Lakes Kazakhstan Bolivia-Peru Malawi, Mozambique, Tanzania Russia (N-W) Russia (N-W) Kenya Just South of Lake Eyre in S. Australia Sweden Iran Uganda Principal Gases in the atmosphere Nitrogen 78.084 Oxygen 20.947 Argon .934 Carbon Dioxide .0314 Neon .0018 Helium .0005 Methane .0002 Krypton .00011 Hydrogen .00005 Xenon .0000087 Heterosphere Molecular Nitrogen layer Atomic Oxygen layer Helium layer Hydrogen layer

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

1. 2. 3. 4.

90-120 km 200-1100 km 11000-3500 km 3500-10000 km

5. 6. 7.

Albedo of Some Surfaces Fresh Snow Cover 80 % Clouds 70-80% Sand 20-30 % 17

Ghanshyam Thori 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13.

Geography Notes

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Grass 15-30 % Dry Ground 15-20% Wet Ground 10 % Forest 5-10% Water (Solar Elevation > 60) 3-5% Water (Solar Elevation 25-30 % Various Measuring Instruments Lysimeter Evapo-Transpiration Anemometer Wind Psychrometer Humidity Planimeter Area on Maps Pantograph Enlargement & Reduction of Maps Parallax Bar Measuring elevations from topographical maps. Abney level Measuring angles in a vertical plane Clinometer Angles in vertical plane Dumpy level Measure angles both in horizontal & vertical plane Theodolite Measure angles both in horizontal & vertical plane Spectroradiometer Measures spectral reflectance at different wavelengths. Stereoscope View photos in 3D view. Channelises one image to one eye. Opisometer/ Meilograph Measuring length of curved lines on a map. Eidograph Enlargement & Reduction of maps Alidade A sighting device or pointer for angular measurement used in plane table survey. Aneroid Barometer Used for measuring altitude as pressure decreases with height Sextant Used to measure angle of objects located on the field

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16.

Mistral Bora Blizzard Purga Bise Levanter Pampero Papagayo Haboob Friagem Buran Norther Etesian Surazo Norte Tehuantepecer

Important Local Winds of the World Cold Winds Blows in Spain & France from N-W to S-E. Common during winter Blows along the shores of the Adriatic sea. Snow laden wind in Snow laden wind in Russian tundra. Much like Buran. An extremely cold wind in France Blows in strait of Gibraltar between Spain & Morocco. Pampas of S. America Costa Rica, Mexico, Nicaragua. Sudan Amazon Valley Eastern Russia & central Siberia Texas, Gulf of Mexico & western carribean Eastern Mediterranean. Cold wind blowing from Argentinean pampas & Patagonia. A strong cold northeasterly wind which blows in Mexico. This is a violent, squally wind from north or north-east in S. Mexico. Hot winds


Ghanshyam Thori 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. Fohn Chinook Harmattan Brickfielder Black Roller Shamal Norwester Sirocco Simoom Santa Ana Yamo Zonda Tramontane Samun Karaburan Berg Shamal Austru Almwind

Geography Notes Warm & dry local winds blowing on leeward side of Alps in Switzerland. Warm & dry local winds blowing on leeward side of Rockies in USA Blowing from east & northeast towards west in Sahara Victoria province of Australia Great plains of USA Mesopotamia & Persian Gulf New Zealand From Sahara over Mediterranean. Known as khamsin in Egypt, Chili in Tunisia, Gibli in Libya, Levech in Spain & Leste in Madiera & Morocco. Warm & dry dusty wind in the Arabian desert S. California blowing out of Santa Ana canyon A warm & dry wind in Japan A warm & dry wind of the Andean valleys in Argentina A warm wind of central Europe. Warm wind in Iran Hot dusty wind in central Asia Tarim basin, Mongolia. A hot dry wind blowing from interior in South Africa. A hot wind of Iraq and the Persian gulf Dry blows from the lee side of the mountains in Romania (much like fohn). Local name of fohn that blows in Hungary & Poland over Tatra mountains. Soil Classification

Soil Name Alfisol

Common Characteristics Moderately weathered, having a medium to high base saturation & have a subsoil accumulation of clay. Most develop under forest Desert soils with little or no organic content but significant calcium. Affected by salinization. Soil Type with little or no horizon development. Found in young formations (lava, sand-dunes etc)

Fertility High

Typical Location Parts of Canada, U.S & Europe Deserts River valleys, flood plains & deltas Mountain & other geologically young formation Swamps & bogs Great American plains. Pampas & Steppes Amazon basin & Congo basin Coniferous areas in cool climate. Temperate

Aridisols Entisols

Low Low to Moderate Moderate to low

Inceptisols More significant horizon development than entisols but less than others. Used for cultivation of sugarcane & coffee Histosols Mollisols Organic soils found in bogs, swamps & wetlands Dark coloured with upper horizons rich in organic matter. Geographically associated with aridisols Infertile, acidic, deeply weathered soils with contain clays of iron & aluminium oxide Sandy soils which develop under forests particularly in coniferous areas. They are acidic & have accumulation of organic matter & iron & aluminium oxides. These are acidic, deeply weathered soil of tropical &

Very High

Oxisols Spodosols

Low Good




Ghanshyam Thori subtropical areas with clay accumulation in the B horizon. Not as intensely weathered as oxisols Clay soils which expand when wet & crack when dry. Soil where permafrost lies within 2 m of the surface Contain ash & volcanic glass require fertilizers Good Poor Poor

Geography Notes humid & tropical regions. Seasonally dry Periglacial areas Near volcanoes

Vertisols Gelisols Andisols

S 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29.

Changed Geographical Names Old Name New Name Old Name Abyssinia Ethiopia 29. Angora Aden Yemen 24. Basutoland Bechuanaland Botswana 25. Batavia British Honduras Belize 26. Constantinople Dahomey Benin 27. Cape Canaveral Formosa Taiwan 28. Christina Leningrad St. Petersburg 29. Congo Persia Iran 30. Constantinople Mesopotamia Iraq 31. Dutch East Indies Batavia Jakarta 32. Dutch Guiana South-West Africa Namibia 33. Japan Tanganyika/Zanzibar Tanzania 34. Malaya Upper Volta Burkina Faso 35. Manchukuo Gold Coast Ghana 36. Mesopotamia Stalingrad Volgograd 37. Nyasaland Azrak Azov 38. Rangoon Ister Danube 39. Rhodesia Paulus Meotus Volga 40. Salisbury Raha Blue Nile 41. Ascension Albion England 42. Bohemia Euxine Black Sea 43. Cilicia Mare Internum Mediterranean Sea 44. Ellice Islands Taprobana Sri Lanka 45. French Guinea Northern Rhodesia Zambia 46. Portuguese Guinea Southern Rhodesia Zimbabwe 47. British Guinea Leopoldville Kinshasa 48. French West Africa New Hebrides Vanuatu 49. West French Africa Manchukuo Manchuria 50. Dutch Guyana Sea of Herkend Indian Ocean 51. Cities Located on Rivers Country City Egypt Lahore Netherlands Lisbon Belgium Liverpool Turkey London Iraq Montreal 20

New Name Ankara Lesotho Djakarta Istanbul Cape Kennedy Oslo Zaire Istanbul Indonesia Surinam Nippon Malaysia Manchuria Iraq Malawi Yongon Zimbabwe Harare Saint Helena Czech Republic Turkey Tuvalu Guinea Guinea Bissau Guyana Mali Mauritania Surinam

City Alexandria Amsterdam Antwerp Ankara Baghdad

River Nile Amsel Scheldt Kizil Tigris

River Ravi Tagus Mersey Thames Ottawa

Country Pakistan Portugal England England Canada

Ghanshyam Thori Bangkok Belgrade Berlin Bonn Bristol Budapest Cairo Canton Chittagong Chungking Cologne Glasgow Hull Hamburg Karachi Khartoum Menam Danube Spree Rhine Avon Danube Nile Canton Karnaphuli Yang-tse-kiang Rhine Clyde Humber Elbe Indus Nile Thailand Yugoslavia Germany Germany England Hungary Egypt China Bangladesh China Germany Scotland England Germany Pakistan Sudan Moscow Nanking New Orleans New York Paris Philadelphia Quebec Rangoon Rome Shanghai Tokyo Vienna Warsaw Washington Moskva Yang-tse-kiang Mississippi Hudson Seine Delaware St. Lawrence Irawadi Tiber Yangtze-kiang Sumida Danube Vistula Potomac

Geography Notes Russia China USA USA France USA Canada Burma Italy China Japan Austria Poland USA


Ghanshyam Thori

Geography Notes

MISCELLANEOUS FACTSI 1. Netherlands is the most densely populated country of western Europe. 2. France is the second largest nuclear energy producer after USA 3. World Average of Urbanization is 43%. 4. Portugal is one of the least urbanized European countries only 30 %. 5. Iceland, U.K., Belgium, Netherlands & Spain 90% Urbanization 6. Latifundia Europe, Haciendas Latin America, Ranches USA, Stations Australia, Entancias in South America. 7. Primary sector red collar; secondary sector blue collar; tertiary sector pink collar; quaternary sector white collar; quinary services gold collar. 18. Nigeria has the highest rate of deforestation in the world & brazil looses the maximum forest area. 19. Shifting cultivation is known as Ladang in Malaysia, Caingin in Philippines, Humah in Indonesia, Chena in Srilanka, Milpa in Africa & Central America & Taungya in Myanmar. 20. Santos is the major coffee port of Brazil accounting for 3/4th of the export handling. 21. Mocha coffee is from Yemen. 22. India is a net importer of copper. 23. The only area in the world where zinc is mined without lead is the Franklin Furnace area in New Jersey State of USA. 24. Republic of Congo is the largest producer of industrial diamonds. 25. Nearly three-fourths of the electric requirement needs of south American countries are met hydroelectricity. 26. Benelux countries include Belgium, Netherlands & Luxembourg. 27. Atlanta is the busiest airport in the world, followed by Chicago airport. 28. Israel is the most urbanized country in the world with >90% urban population. 29. Orinoco river of Venezuela rises in the Guiana highlands & passes through llanos. 30. Shrublands chaparral in California, macques in Mediterranean region, the caatinga of northeastern Brazil, and the mallee of Australia, which is dominated by low-growing eucalyptus. through


Ghanshyam Thori

Geography Notes

31. South of the Great European Plain, a band of dissimilar geological structures sweeps across Europe, creating the most intricate landscapes of the continentthe Central European Uplands. Throughout this region the forces of folding (the Jura range), faulting (the Vosges and Black Forest mountains), volcanism (the Massif Central, or central highlands, of France), and uplift (the Meseta Central, or central plateau, of Spain) have interacted to create alternating mountains, plateaus, and valleys. 32. Islamabad is situated on Potwar plateau. 33. Period of rotation is the longest for the planet Venus & shortest for Jupiter. Venus takes longer time to complete one rotation on its axis than one revolution around the sun. Mercury & Venus do not have any satellites. Mars has two satellites & Pluto has one. 34. Venus is closest planet to earth. Venus is also the hottest planet in the solar system perhaps due to its slow rotation causing longer exposure of a particular area to sun. 35. The period of revolution of planets increases outwards without any exception. The linear distance of a degree of latitude on an average is 69 miles. The length of longitudes outside tropics varies widely. Vernal equinox is on March 22 & autumnal equinox on September 23. 36. Earth is the densest of all planets & Saturn has the least density. Earth is almost twice the radius of mars & roughly equal to Venus. Uranus is slightly bigger than Neptune. 37. Caledonian movement (e.g. Scottish highlands) & Hercynian movement (Harz mountain range in central Germany) took place during Devonian period & Permian period respectively. 38. Pleistocene epoch is best known for emergence of humans & Great Ice age. 39. Annual range of temperature is the difference between the mean monthly temperatures of the warmest & the coldest months. The difference is not between highest & lowest temperature. 40. In absolute humidity the denominator is dry air while in specific humidity it is moist air. The temperature at which an air parcel gets saturated at its present moisture level is called dew point. 41. Stratiform or layered clouds; Cumuliform or globular clouds. Cirrus or highest clouds & Alto or medium clouds. Nimbus or rain bearing clouds. Stratus clouds are very close to ground surface. 42. Cirrocumulus clouds form mackerel clouds & cirrostratus clouds produce haloes. Alto-cumulus are called sheep clouds. Rain falling from nimbo-stratus but not reaching ground is called virga. Low clouds less than 2 km high are stratus, cumulus, stratocumulus & nimbostratus & these are the only ones which give precipitation. 43. Slope of the warm front is much gentler (1:100 or less) than cold front (~1:50). In the warm front precipitation is gradual but of long duration. In cold front precipitation is short but in the form of heavy downpour.


Ghanshyam Thori the eastern coast as the former is coastline of submergence & latter is emergence. 45. Flat-topped seamounts are called guyots (pronounced gee-o).

Geography Notes

44. One fathom = 1.84 meters. The width of the continental shelf on the western coast of India is broader than

46. Mariana trench, off the island of Guam, Emden Deep off Philippines, & kuril trench in which lies the famous Tuscarora Deep & Mindanao deep (Mindanao, island of the Philippines, the second largest, after Luzon and southernmost of the country's islands) are prominent in Pacific. 47. The Mid-Atlantic Ridge breaks the ocean's surface in several places, forming seven islands or groups of islands. From north to south, these islands include Iceland, the Azores, Saint Peter and Saint Paul Rocks, Ascension, Saint Helena, Tristan da Cunha, and Bouvet. 48. Strait of Hormuz, linking the Persian Gulf on the west, with the Gulf of Oman and the Arabian Sea on the east. Bab el Mandeb connecting the Red Sea with the Gulf of Aden. 49. Salinity is equatorial areas is lower than in the tropical areas. Its lowest in polar areas. Great Salt lake in Utah has a salinity of 220 %, Dead Sea has 240 %, & Lake Van in Asia Minor has 330 %. 50. Lake Laguna De Bay (Philippines), Lake Biwa (Japan), Lake Tiberias (Israel & Syria), Lake Asad (Syria), Lake Sevan (Armenia) 51. From the equatorial region, water density tends to rise in the tropics. From the tropics to the middle latitudes there is a decline & it increases again in polar areas due to temperature decline. 52. Kuril Island - small volcanic islands in far eastern Russia, separating the Sea of Okhotsk from the Pacific Ocean. Faroe Island is under Denmark. Orkney Islands lie north of Scotland. 53. In 24 hours & 52 minutes every place will have two high tides & two low tides. Two successive high tides are about 12 hours & 26 minutes apart & the time difference between the high tide & the following low tide is about 6 hrs 13 minutes. The extra 52 minutes are caused due to revolution of the moon around the earth in the same direction i.e. west to east. The tidal magnitude at a given meridian will be more in the low latitudes & lesser in the higher latitudes due to the greater centrifugal force on the equator. 54. O, A, E, B & C & R are the soil horizons from top to bottom. The removal of soil minerals & colloids from the upper horizons is called Eluviation & deposition in lower horizons is Illuviaton. 55. Rich, dark soils called Chernozems. They lack the leached E horizon. Soils in cooler continental climates (coniferous forests) are known as Podzols, a soil type that is not very fertile but rich in humus due to cold climate. The leaching action of heavy rain and water runoff removes many of the nutrients from podzols. Lateritic soils, one of the least fertile soil types are found in wet & hot climate (Tropical Forests). Gleization is the pedogenic regime of warm water-logged areas. Glei soils are rich in organic material &


Ghanshyam Thori seasonal drought.

Geography Notes

the soil changes to blue colour due to reduction of iron minerals. Calcimorphic soil develop in areas of

56. Hydroponics, term applied to cultivation of plants in nutrient solutions without use of soil. 57. Pyramid of energy can never take an inverted form, the other two (biomass & number) can. 58. Boreal forest refers to the Taiga vegetation comprising coniferous trees. The Mediterranean type of vegetation is also called Sclerophyll forest (e.g. Chaparral). 59. Serengeti National Park is located in northern Tanzania. Asuncion is the capital of Paraguay & Montevideo is the capital of Uruguay. Paraguay is landlocked. 60. Elephant grass is found in Savanna & Buffalo grass is typical of Steppe grasslands. 61. The period of revolution & rotation of the moon is the same i.e. 27.3 days. The shortest route between two places on the surface of the earth is along the great circles i.e. longitude. 62. Orogenetic forces producing mountains are horizontal & epeirogenetic forces are vertical. 63. Block mountain black forest, Old fold mountain Appalachian, young fold mountain rocky, relict mountain Scottish highlands 64. Arenaceous rock (having sandy features) Sandstone, Argillaceous rock (having clayey features) Shale, Plutonic rock (intrusive igneous rock) - Gabbros & dolerite, Volcanic rock (extrusive igneous rock) Andesite, Rhyolite, Basalt. Sedimentary rock Ironstone. Slate results from the metamorphosis of shale or clay. Basaltic magma is fluid & granitic is viscous. 65. A basin-shaped depression surrounded by mountains is called bolson. In a karstic region, a steep natural shaft which emerges at the surface is called Ponor. A steep-sided hill, of roughly circular cross-section, characteristic of karst topography is called hum. 66. A broad slope of alluvial material at the foot of an escarpment is called Bajada. From the eroded angular peaks of more resistant rocks, alluvial fans lead away to deposit large slopes of debris, called bajadas, at the base. These slopes level off to form low basins called playas. Salt covered playa beds are called Salinas. 67. The deposition of sediment building up a sand bridge that connects the island to the mainland. The sand bridge is called a tombolo. 68. The inclination of a fault from the vertical is called hade & it is complimentary to dip. The horizontal displacement is called heave. Rake angle measures the slip. 69. Erosion of the ground beneath and at the sides of a snowbank, mainly as a result of alternate freezing and thawing is called nivation. 70. An area of shifting desert sand-dunes, esp. in the Sahara is called erg.


Ghanshyam Thori

Geography Notes

71. The trades are strongest in winter season. The primary divisions of koppen classification are based on mean monthly temperature & mean precipitation & evaporation. The secondary divisions are based on seasonality of rainfall. 72. Temperate cyclones generally develop over land. 73. Ninety East Ridge is situated in Indian Ocean. The mid Atlantic ridge comprises the Dolphin rise on the north & challenger rise to the south separated by Romanche deep. It is known as Wyville Thompson ridge between Iceland & Scotland. The ridge becomes quite extensive to the south of Greenland & Iceland & is called Telegraphic plateau. 74. Globigerina ooze is the most abundant in Atlantic Ocean. Warm Agulhas current flows in the Indian Ocean in southerly direction & Cold Falkland current in Atlantic Ocean towards north. 75. Azov Sea, inland sea, connected with the Black Sea by the Strait of Kerch. 76. Magnetic declination is the difference between true north (the axis around which the earth rotates) and magnetic north (the direction the needle of a compass will point). 77. A traveler crossing the International Date Line from west to east gains a day & from east to west loses a day. 78. Earth is the fifth largest planet & Pluto the smallest. Pulsars are sources of powerful, pulsating radio waves in space which are rapidly rotating neutron stars. Quasar stands for quasi-stellar object & is a compact object that looks like a point of light but emits more energy than a hundred super giant galaxies. 79. Earths history has two main divisions or eons: the Cryptozoic Eon & Phanerozoic Eon. The cryptozoic eon is divided into Hadean, the Archean & the Proterozoic eras. The Phanerozoic Eon is divided into Palaeozoic, Mesozoic & Cenozoic eras. 80. Amphibolite is a metamorphic rock & is formed by metamorphosis of igneous rocks such as basalt & gabbro. Chert & flint are sedimentary rocks. Clastic rocks are mechanically formed. Hornblende is igneous while hornfel is metamorphic. 81. Cratons form the cores of most continents and consist of inactive geological areas more than 2 billion years old with thick crust and deep roots extending into the mantle beneath. 82. Because North America and Africa were connected, the Appalachians form part of the same mountain chain as the Atlas mountains in Morocco. 83. Inselbergs (bornhardts) eventually erode & degenerate into what are called Kopjes. 84. Isoclinal Fold is one in which both limbs are approximately parallel. Recumbent Fold: A fold with a nearly horizontal axial plane. Monocline: When folding takes place in very small magnitude or at a very small angle a monocline is formed. Here the limbs are almost horizontal producing simple flexure.


Ghanshyam Thori

Geography Notes

85. The Peru-Chile trench marks where the Nazca plate is being subducted beneath the South American plate. The volcanic activity and uplift of the Andes are a result of the subduction. 86. There are 26 oceanic trenches in the world: 3 in the Atlantic Ocean, 1 in the Indian Ocean, and 22 in the Pacific Ocean. 87. Examples of cinder or ash cones are Mt Jorullo of Mexico & Mt Izalco of San Salvador. Most of the famous volcanoes have composite cone. Mt. Etna of Sicily is an example of parasitic cone. Caldera (Lake Toba of Sumatra is most famous example). Maar is a broad, low relief crater that is caused by a phreatic eruption or explosion caused by groundwater contact with magma. 88. Kilauea, the world's most active volcanic crater, located on central Hawaii Island. 89. Mt Etna of Sicily, Mt. Vesuvius of Naples & Mt Stromboli, the northernmost & Mt Vulcano the southernmost of the seven Lipari Island are all located in Italy. 90. The classification of volcanoes in order of increasing intensity of explosion is: Hawaiian type, Stromblian type, Vulcanian type, Vesuvian type, Pelean type. 91. Fluid basaltic lava forms pahoehoe lava flow & viscous forms blocky aa lava flow. Mt Hood & Mt Rainier & Mt. Vesuvius are dormant volcanoes. Mt Meru (Tanzania) & Mt Elgon (Kenya-Uganda border) are extinct volcanoes. 92. Laccolith is mushroom shaped causing the crust over it to form a dome. Lopoliths are saucer shaped with concave side upwards & Phaccoliths are lens shaped deposits in anticlines & synclines. 93. Thawing of slopes in the summer may move soil downslope to produce solifluction, or flowing soil terraces. Rockfalls produce a deposit called talus at the base of the cliff. 94. Sequent Streams are those which are well adjusted to the geological structures & follow the regional slope. Insequent streams do not follow regional slopes. 95. Centrifugal drainage is also known as radial drainage (e.g. Sri Lanka). In barbed pattern the tributary flows in opposite direction to the master stream & such pattern usually develops due to river capture. Annular/Circular drainage pattern is different from centrifugal pattern.


Ghanshyam Thori Annular Drainage pattern Consequent Resequent

Geography Notes

96. Abrasion or Corrasion is with the help of erosional tools. Attrition refers to the wear & tear of erosional tools in themselves. 97. Block disintegration is due to different material. Granular disintegration is due to different colour. Shattering is due to rain shower over heated rocks. Sheeting & cambering refers to the development of horizontal & vertical cracks due to unloading. Spalling is development of platy rock fragments due to unloading. Flaking results from differential heating of outer & inner layers of a rock. After flaking the wind peels off the layer & this is known as exfoliation. 98. Structural benches are formed due to differential erosion of soft & hard rocks while river terraces are produced due to valley-in-valley topography by rejuvenation. Victoria fall on Zambezi river is a result of faulting & Yosemite falls California is due to glaciated hanging valley. 99. Alluvial fans have a gentler slope as compared to cones. Sometimes neighboring cones & fans meet to form Piedmont alluvial plain or Bajada. 100. Yazoo Channel meets the original river at deferred junction.

Miscellaneous Facts - II 1. Davisian cycle ends in peneplain, Pencks in endrumpf & kings in pediplain. Kings cycle basically deals with the evolution of landforms in arid & savanna regions.

Obsequent 28


Ghanshyam Thori

Geography Notes

2. Penck cycle has three stages. Aufsteigende Entwickelung means a phase of waxing (accelerating) rate of landform development where the slopes of the valley sides are convex in plan. Gleichformige Entwickelung means uniform development of landforms. Absteigende Entwickelung means wanning development & parallel retreat of slope continues 3. Boschungen is the upper steep part & haldenhang is the lower part with lesser inclination. Thus the intersection of boschungen & haldenhang produce a sharp knick. Ultimately the boschungen are reduced to inselbergs. 4. Monadnocks are also known as unakas & mosores. 5. Sinkholes < Swallow Holes < Dolines <Jamas < Uvala < Polje. All these karst landforms are differentiated just on the basis of size. Uvala results from subsidence of large roof over underground courses. Ponores are vertical pipelike passages that connect caves & swallow holes. Hums are residual hills analogous to monadnocks in fully developed karst topography. Lappies are bare terra rosa having crevasse like pinnacle structure formed where relief is considerable. 6. Speleothems is the term collectively used for all types of deposits in caverns. Dripstones growing sidewards from stalactites & stalagmites are called helectites & helegmites. Helectites of globular structure are called globulites & banded calcareous deposits are called tavernites. 7. Longshore Drift is movement of sand parallel to the shoreline, in the along-the-shore direction. The process arises when waves approach the shore obliquely. The swash moves the sediment particles up the beach at this angle, while the backwash brings them away fom the beach. This has the net effect of gradual movement of the particles along the shore. 8. Notch is formed as a depression at the base of a cliff due to wave attack. Blowholes formed at roof tops sometimes enlarge & cause the roof top to fall forming Geos or inlets. 9. Big sand bars usually parallel to the beach are called offshore or longshore bar. If the bars are formed such that there one end is attached to the beach & the other end is projecting into the sea, they are called spits. Hooks are curved spits & a bar connecting two land masses is a Tombolo. 10. Old man of Hoy is the most famous wave cut stack located in Orkney Islands, North Scotland. 11. Rias (ria coast) is form when sea levels rise or plate tectonics cause coastal levels to fall. When this happens valleys which were previously at sea level become submerged. The result is often a very large estuary at the mouth of a relatively insignificant river. 12. Dalmatian coast are found in Italy & Dalmatian area of Croatia where ranges are parallel to coast 13. Gulf of Aqaba, northeastern arm of the Red Sea, separating the Sinai and Arabian peninsulas. 14. Negev Desert is in Israel.


Ghanshyam Thori 15. Pedestal or Mushroom rock is also known as Gour in Sahara & pilzfelsen in Germany.

Geography Notes

16. Inselbergs or Bornhardts are isolated hills rising abruptly from virtually level plain. Demoiselles have resistant rock cap at the top. Zeugens have horizontal rock strata & yardangs have vertical. Ventifact with a single face is called einkanter, zweikanter (2 faces) & driekanter (3 faces). 17. Areas of shifting sand-dunes is called erg. Barchans are also known as transverse dunes. 18. Glacial loess of N. America is called adobe & that of Europe is called limon 19. When a basin is more or less rimmed by mountain (inter-montane basin), it is called a bolson. The basin is characterized by centripetal drainage which leads to formation of salty lakes called playas in N. America, Shatts in Sahara, Mamlaha & Khabari in the Arabian desert. 20. The whole slope between the mountains to the playas is called pediment. 21. When two cirques converge cutting back it is called col. A cirque lake is called tarn. Paternoster lakes are formed at the foot of glacial stairways. A nunatak is a mountain top that is not covered by land ice, and protrudes out of a surrounding glacier. Roches moutonnees is a residual rock hummock whose upstream is smoothened by abrasion & downstream is roughened by plucking. Riegel marks the outcrop of a highly resistant rock layer. They have plucked downside. 22. Eskers or Osser or Oss is a stratified deposit. If the ice front halts at regular intervals, beaded eskers are formed. Kames are small hills which are deposited by meltwater near or at the edge of the retreating ice sheets. 23. Kettles are depressions in the outwash plain. Large kettles are clotted with numerous low mounds called hummocks. Drumlins are elongated hummocks of boulder clay (basket of egg). 24. Protalus rampart is the accumulation of debris formed due to rockfall from the cliff.

25. 26. Varve is the yearly deposit of sediment forming distinctive layers. It is most frequently used to refer to deposits formed in lakes on the margins of glaciers. 27. Pingos are ice mounds formed due freeze thaw action in periglacial environment. Palsas are low permafrost mounds with cores of layered segregated ice and peat, similar to a pingo. Talik refers to an


Ghanshyam Thori piles of rock on the top & clitters on the sides formed due to congelifraction 28. Borneo is the 3rd largest island in the world after Greenland & New Guinea. Climatology:

Geography Notes

unfrozen section of ground found above, below, or within a layer of discontinuous permafrost. Tors are

1. Mother of pearl or nacreous clouds are found in stratosphere. Noctiluent clouds are found in Mesosphere. Division of Ionosphere (60-640 Km) 1. 2. D layer E layer 60-. Km 99-130 km Reflects signals of low frequency radio waves only. Disappears with sunset. Called Kenley- Heaviside layer. Reflects medium & high frequency radio waves. Produced by ultraviolet photons reacting with nitrogen. Disappears with sunset. Associated with very high velocity winds & created under special circumstances. Reflects VHF waves Produced by reaction of UV photons with O2. Disappears with night. Consists of F1 & F2 layers collectively called Appleton layer. Reflects medium & high frequency radio waves. Persists day & night but not detectable as F layer reflects all the waves reflected by this layer. Interaction of UV photon with nitrogen produces free electrons here.

3. 4. 5. 6.

Sporadic E Layer E2 layer F Layer G layer

110 km 150 km 1550-380 km 400 km & above

2. The auroras are maximum when the sun is very active. Hence they are opposite of sun spot cycle. Inside the magnetosphere are the Van Allen radiation belts concentrated in two bands at about 3000 km & 16000 km. 3. According to Weins displacement law, hotter the object smaller the wavelength. According to Stefan Boltzman law influx of radiation is proportional to the fourth power of absolute temperature of the radiating body. 4. Heat Budget: Out of the 100 units of incoming solar radiation, 35 units (27-clouds, 2-snow, 6-atmosphere top) are reflected back as albedo. Out of the remaining 65 units, 14 units are absorbed by atmosphere & 51 units by earth surface. The earth radiates back 17 units directly into space & remaining 34 units are absorbed by atmosphere. The atmosphere than radiates back the 48 units absorbed by it. 5. Green house gases include CFCs, Nitrous oxide, water vapour & ozone. CFCs account for 25 % of green house effect & methane for 15 %. Carbon dioxide leads with 55 %. 6. The greatest range of temperature occurs at latitude 60 N. 7. The major types of inversion are: radiation, air drainage, frontal, advection, subsidence. Advection inversion generally occurs when a warm air passes over cold water surface. 31

Ghanshyam Thori 8. Highs are Siberian, Hawaiian & Siberian. Lows are Aleutian & Icelandic.

Geography Notes

9. Anemometer is used for measuring the speed of wind. Beaufort scale deals with the wind speed & ranges from calm wind to hurricane. 10. Jet streams are fastest during winter season. They blow from west to east. 11. A mist becomes a fog when visibility is reduced to less than a km. Dry adiabatic rate is 10 C per 1000m & moist adiabatic rate is 6 C per 1000m. Stability occurs when the dry adiabatic rate is higher than the normal lapse rate & instability occurs when normal lapse rate is greater than the dry adiabatic lapse rate. If normal lapse rate is lower than wet adiabatic rate it leads to absolute stability & vice versa. 12. Sleet is partially melted snowflakes while hail refers to small balls of ice. Rime refers to very small super cooled droplets which strike ground & tend to freeze immediately on impact. 13. Four principal forms of airmasses are continental polar (cP), maritime polar (mP), continental tropical (cT), and maritime tropical (mT). Thermodynamic modification results in airmasses becoming warm represented by W or cold (K). Mechanical or dynamic modification causes it to become stable (s) or unstable (u). 14. Baroclinic zone is where distinct air mass regions exist & where Fronts separate warmer from colder air. Barotropic is region of uniform temperature distribution with lack of fronts. Temperate cyclones are formed under baroclinic condition & tropical under barotropic condition. 15. Anticyclones are larger than cyclones. Airflow converges aloft in anticyclones & diverges in case of cyclones. Katabatic wind blows from mountains to valley & anabatic vice versa. Oceanography: 16. The Peru-Chile trench is the longest in the world. The only difference between ridge & rises is that ridges are steep sided while rises are gently sloped. 17. Juan de Fuca Strait, is the arm of the Pacific Ocean between Washington & Vancouver. 18. Thermocline is the transition layer between the mixed layer at the surface and the deep water. The various salts in the sea in order of decreasing quantity are NaCl, MgCl, MgSO4, CaSO4. 19. Danube, Dneiper, & Dneister all fall into black sea reducing it salinity. 20. Water moves from areas over which there is a low pressure to areas over which there is a high pressure. 21. The pelagic zone includes those waters further from the land, basically the open ocean. It is divided into neritic zone (having a depth of 200metres) & the oceanic province (separated from the neritic province by the edge of the continental shelf). The benthic zone refers to the sea bottom itself & is divided into littoral zone & deep sea zone. The two zones have their frontier at a depth of 200 meters. Benthos (plants such as


Ghanshyam Thori fishes & whales.

Geography Notes

kelp, sponges) are organisms that live on the ocean floor while nektons are swimming animals such as

22. The east pacific rise is known as albatross plateau extending from north of New Zealand to the Californian coast. 23. Oozes are pelagic deposit in the form of liquid mud. There are divided on the basis of content into calcareous ooze (lime) & siliceous ooze (silica). Calcareous ooze is further divided into pteropod ooze & globigerina (most widespread) ooze. Siliceous ooze is divided into radiolarian (formed of shells of foraminifera) & diatom ooze. 24. Red clay is the most widely spread pelagic deposit & consists mainly of hydrated silicate of Aluminium & oxides of iron. Neritic deposits consists of dead shells of plants & animals. 25. Atlantic Ocean: The warm North Atlantic Drift (NAD) gives rise to the Irminger Current south of Iceland which travels along western and northwestern coasts of Iceland until it meets East Greenland Current. Another branch of NAD flows along Norway coast forming Norwegian current. Falkland current brings the cold waters of the Antarctic sea northward up to Argentina. 26. Pacific Ocean :Kuroshio (or Kuro Siwo) Current of Pacific is similar to the gulf stream of Atlantic. One branch separates from Kuroshio current & enters the sea of Japan as Tsushima current. The Cold Oyashio (or Oya Siwo) Current (similar to Labrador current) is also known as Kurile current & it flows through the Bering Strait in a southerly direction. The cold Okhotsk current flows past Sakhalin to merge with Oya Siwo current near Hokkaido Island & later mergers with the warm Kuro Siwo current producing dense fogs. The north pacific drift continues later as Aleutian current which divides into two parts the northern branch becomes Alaska current while the southern branch becomes California cold current (similar to Canary cold current of Atlantic). Cromwell current also called pacific equatorial undercurrent is a submarine river & flows towards east. Mindanao current is a southward flowing boundary current along the Philippine coast. 27. Indian Ocean: One branch of the south equatorial current moves southward through the Mozambique Channel to form the Mozambique Current. This current joins the Agulhas Current & moves to the southern tip of Africa. During the northeast monsoon season the Somali Current flows southward & During the southwest monsoon the current develops into an intense northward jet 28. La Nina is opposite of El Nino & intensifies the Humboldt Current. El Nino causes drought conditions in India, Southern Africa, Australia & heavy rains in Chile, Colorado. The El Nino events of 1982 & 1997 were severe. The Southern Oscillation, a more recent discovery, refers to an oscillation in the surface


Ghanshyam Thori regions

Geography Notes

pressure (atmospheric mass) between the southeastern tropical Pacific and the Australian-Indonesian

29. Tahiti is the largest and most important of the Society Islands, in the southern Pacific Ocean. The chief town on the island is Papeete which is also the capital of French Polynesia. 30. In gravity waves (large waves) the restoring force is gravity while in capillary waves (ripples caused by winds) the restoring force is surface tension. Swell refers to long crested waves with longer periods which have traveled out of their source areas. Surf refers to a belt of nearly continuously breaking waves. Internal waves are caused due to density differences. Seiches are standing waves (e.g. Lake Geneva). Biogeography 31. Field capacity refers to 50 % water & 50 % air. Leaching produces increasingly acidic & mineral deficient soil. Laterization (now called Ferralization) occurs in humid tropics where heavy rain & uninterrupted warmth give rise to a deeply weathered layer. Melanization refers to darkening of soil profile while Leuciniation refers to lightening of the colour both in A horizon. Induration refers to hardening of soil & Audification refers to the accumulation of H ions mainly in surface horizons. 32. The surface horizon is usually referred to as the O layer; it consists of loose organic matter such as fallen leaves and other biomass. O horizon is further divided into 3 sub horizons. The layer of plant material on the soil surface is classified as: the L horizon (fresh litter); the F horizon (decomposing litter); the H horizon (well decomposed litter) 33. Below that is the A horizon, containing a mixture of inorganic mineral materials and organic matter. Next is the E horizon, a layer from which clay, iron, and aluminum oxides have been lost by a process known as leaching (when water carries materials in solution down from one soil level to another). Removal of materials in this manner is known as eluviation, the process that gives the E horizon its name. Below E horizon is the B horizon, in which most of the iron, clays, and other leached materials have accumulated. The influx of such materials is called illuviation. Under that layer is the C horizon, consisting of partially weather bedrock, and last, the R horizon of hard bedrock. Hence the horizons are L, F, H, A, E, B, C & R from top to bottom. 34. Aridisols (23 %), Inceptisols (16 %), Alfisols (13.5 %) & Entisols (11 %) Coverage. 35. Epiphytes are abundant in tropical rainforest (Selva) which have little undergrowth. 36. Gross primary productivity less that is used in respiration is net primary productivity. Only 1 % of the suns energy reaching the earth is used by plants through photosynthesis. The mean productivity of the world is around 300 gm/sq.m/year.


Ghanshyam Thori thousand plant species are found in India.

Geography Notes

37. 15 lakh species of animals & 2.5 lakh plant species on earth. Out of which 75 thousand animal & 15

38. The most commonly used Freon is Freon-12, or dichlorodifluoromethane (CCl2F2). Freon-11 is Trichlorofluoromethane (CCl3F). 39. Solonchak soils are defined by high soluble salt accumulation & formed from saline parent material under conditions of high evaporation. Pedocals are soils of arid regions and are characterized by calcite (CaCO3) cementation due to upward movement of water (evaporation). Pedalfers are soils of humid regions and are characterized by highly leached clays due to downward movement of water. Extreme pedalfers are called laterites. 40. Ferrous group includes iron, chromite, manganese, & nickel. Non-Ferrous group has copper, lead, zinc, tungsten, aluminium, vanadium etc. 41. The largest number of sheeps & goats are both in China. 42. Coal, Petroleum & electricity are respectively known as black, liquid & white gold. 43. Czechoslovakia separated into the Czech Republic and Slovakia. Yugoslavia was created by joining various regions (Serbia, Croatia, Slovenia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Macedonia, Montenegro), and then split again 44. Intercropping refers to the growing of more than one crop on the same field while mixed cropping refers to the growing of a variety of crops on different fields. 45. Weir canal connects Lake Erie & Ontario. Worldwide jet stream that occurs in winter is the sub-tropical jet stream. 46. Port Said lies towards the red sea side on Suez Canal. Purus, Sao Francisco & Madeira are all large rivers of Brazil. 47. Oder Niesse line is the boundary between Poland & Germany. 38th Parallel between North & South Korea. 49th Parallel between USA & Canada. Maginot line between France & Germany. 48. Micronesia includes the Commonwealth of the Northern Marianas, Guam, the Republic of Palau, the Marshall Islands, Kiribati, Nauru, and the Federated States of Micronesia. Micronesia lies to the north of Melanesia & to the North-West of Polynesia. 49. Melanesias westernmost island is New Guinea. Stretching east and south of New Guinea are the countries of Solomon Islands and Vanuatu, the French territory of New Caledonia and Dependencies, and the nation of Fiji Islands (commonly known as Fiji).


Ghanshyam Thori

Geography Notes

50. Polynesia consists of American Samoa, the Cook Islands, Easter Island, French Polynesia, Hawaii, New Zealand, Niue, the Pitcairn Islands, Samoa (formerly Western Samoa), Tokelau, Tonga, Tuvalu, and the Wallis and Futuna Islands.

51. Apiculture refers to rearing of honey bees. Silviculture refers to growing & tending of trees as a branch of forestry. Connate water (also called fossil water) refers to water trapped in the interstices of rocks during their formation. Phenology is the study of seasonal changes upon animal & plant life. 52. Hall Herault process is used in the extraction of Aluminium from its ore. 53. South China sea is the largest sea.

Analysis of Mocks 1. Cuestas or Homoclinal Ridge, physical feature that has a steep cliff or escarpment on one side and a

gentle dip or back slope on the other. This landform occurs in areas of tilted strata and is caused by the differential weathering and erosion of the hard capping layer and the soft underlying cliff maker, which erodes more rapidly. Cuestas with dip slopes of 4045 are usually called hogback ridges. A mesa is an elevated area of land with a flat top and sides that are usually steep cliffs.


Ghanshyam Thori

Geography Notes

2. A sandur (plural sandar) is a plain formed by meltwater from glaciers. Sandar are usually wider than their length, and consist of soft sediments, which are criss-crossed by braided streams of meltwater. 3. Regolith is a layer of loose, heterogeneous material covering solid rock. Peridotite, igneous rock

composed of pyroxene, olivine, and hornblende. It is the rock that makes up the earth's mantle. Very sudden cooling of volcanic magma results in formation of volcanic glass called obsidian. The extrusive equivalent of granite is rhyolite & gabbro is the intrusive equivalent of basalt. 4. Entrenched & intrenched meanders are one & the same & it is ingrown meanders which grow on assymetric valley. 5. Tephra & pyroclastic material are the same & refer collectively to volcanic materials. 6. A glacier with a negative budget is a receding glacier & that with positive budget is advancing. 7. Rectangular inselbergs are called koppie or kopje. 8. Gloup is a blow hole, where a chimney has developed behind the cliff face, often above a cave, and spray is blasted out during high seas. 9. In a braided stream, the main channel divides into a number of smaller, interlocking or braided channels. Streams with high sediment loads that encounter a sudden reduction in flow velocity generally have a braided channel type. 10. Rise of land or fall of sea level is called negative movement & is connected with rejuvenation. 11. Jura mountains were formed during Mesozoic period. 12. Researchers now recognize five glaciations in the Quaternary period: Donau, Gunz, Mindel, Riss and Wurm (in that order from old to new). Their names derive from water courses in the North Slope of the Alps. These glaciations are included in the first period of the Quaternary: the Pleistocene. The second period of the Quaternary, the Holocene, starts at the end of the last glaciation (Wurm), about 10 thousand years ago. Mindel falls under middle Pleistocene. 13. Solifluction is the slow downslope flow of soil and sediment that is saturated with water 14. Both P waves & S waves (shear, transverse) are collectively called body waves. While Surface waves include Rayleigh waves (vertical and longitudinal) & Love waves (transverse horizontal). 15. A strike slip fault is also known as wrench fault. The scientific study of rivers is called Potamology. Colluvium is the loose deposits of rock, usually located at the foot of a slope or cliff, having been brought there under the influence of gravity (mass wasting). Talus includes angular fragments of rock below cliffs and steep slopes. Colluvium includes slope wash. 16. Evidences of earliest known life have been found to archaeozoic period.


Ghanshyam Thori valley & Niagara fall is due to alternate bands of resistant & soft rocks.

Geography Notes

17. Victoria fall is due to faulting. Livingstone fall is at the edge of a plateau. Yosemite fall is a hanging

18. Reg is a surface covering of coarse gravel, pebbles from which all sand and dust have been removed by wind and water. 19. Billow clouds are created when different layers of wind flow at different velocities resulting in unstable turbulence between the layers. The common name for this instability is Kelvin-Helmholtz instability. Billow clouds provide a visible signal to pilots of potentially dangerous turbulence.

Essential Extra Reference 1. Koeppens & Thornthwaite classification of India (Geo Notes-Page 77,80 Vol-1) 2. World Population Data (K. Siddhartha Ensemble-Appendix Geo of India-page 13) 3. Isostasy, Map references.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Gonds Bhils Santhals Minas Oraons Mundas Tribal Groups of India Largest tribe found in M.P., Jharkhand, A.P., Orissa & Maharashtra. M.P, Gujarat, Rajasthan, A.P., Karnataka, Tripura West Bengal, Bihar-Jharkhand & Orissa Rajasthan & MP. Account for 50% tribal population of Rajasthan Bihar-Jharkhand, M.P.-Chattisgarh, Orissa, West Bengal & Maharashtra. Speak Kurukh Language Jharkhand, Chattisgarh, Orissa, West Bengal & Tripura 38

Ghanshyam Thori 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. 34. 35. Khonds Tharu Chenchu Todas Lahaula Adivasis Badagas Baiga Bakkarwals Bhotias Bhuia Birhors Gaddis Gujjars Irula Kanikar Katkari Kharia Khasa Lahualas Moplahs Sabra Kol Kolam Kotas Murias Uralis Varlis Yurva

Geography Notes Orissa is mainland. Also found in Bihar, AP, MP, West Bengal. Uttaranchal & MP Andhra Pradesh Nilgiri Hills. Classic example of polyandry. Himachal Pradesh Bastar district, Chattisgarh Nilgiri region, Tamil Nadu M.P. J&K Uttaranchal, Sikkim & West Bengal M.P. M.P., Chattisgarh, Jharkhand & Orissa Himachal Pradesh J&K & Himachal Pradesh Tamil Nadu Tamil Nadu M.P. M.P. Jaunsar region, Uttaranchal Lahual region, Himachal Pradesh Muslims of Malabar district, Kerala M.P. M.P. & Maharashtra Andhra Pradesh Nilgiri Hills Bastar District, Chattisgarh Kerala Maharashtra, Gujarat, Dadra & Nagar Haveli Tamil Nadu

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

Khasis Mikirs Kukis Angami Ao Apatani Chutra Garos Jaintia Sema

Tribes of the North East & Andaman Nicobar Meghalaya & Tripura Assam Manipur, Assam, Nagaland & Tripura Nagaland Nagaland Arunachal Pradesh Assam Meghalaya & Assam Meghalaya & Assam Nagaland 39

Ghanshyam Thori 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. Lushai Lepchas Abors Chakma Chang Gallong Jarawas Onges Shompens Sentinelese Great Andamanese Mizoram & Tripura Original Tribals of Sikkim Arunachal Pradesh Tripura A Naga tribe Tribe of Arunachal Pradesh

Geography Notes

Andaman & Nicobar. Negrito Andaman & Nicobar. Negritos racial stock. Andaman & Nicobar. Belong to mongoloid stock like nicobarese & inhabit Great Nicobar. Andaman & Nicobar. Inhabit sentinel island. Negrito Negrito

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17.





Major Formations & their Periods Holocene Pleistocene Pliocene Upper Siwalik Miocene Oligocene Eocene Paleocene Cretaceous Deccan Traps Jurassic Triassic Permian Carboniferous Devonian Silurian Ordovician Cambrian Vindhyan, Cuddapah, Dharwar, Archean systems

1. 2.

Siwaliks Lesser Himalayas

Important Ranges of the Himalayas Dafla, Miri, Abor, Mishmi (all in Arunachal), Dhang range, Dundwa range, Churia ghat hills (Nepal), Jammu Hills Pir Panjal range, Dhaula Dhar range, Nag Tibba range, Mussorie range, Mahabharat range. Mountain Passes Burzil pass, Zozi La pass Bara Lacha pass, Shipki La pass Thagla pass, Niti pass & Lipu Lekh Nathu La pass, Jelep La pass Bomdila Pass. 40

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

J&K Himachal Uttaranchal Sikkim Arunachal Pradesh

Ghanshyam Thori

Geography Notes Major Rock Systems Primarily Gneiss & granites. Found in Peninsular India, M.P, Jharkhand & Rajasthan. Named after cuddapah district of AP. Found & named after Vindhyas. Stand over Cuddapah rocks. Contains limestones, sandstones, shale & slate Formed in middle carboniferous period. Chhotanagpur is main. Cretaceous period. Important formations of this period are Rajasthan desert, Indo Gangetic alluvium, Rann of Kachchh, Karewas of Kashmir (flat topped mound). Forests & Their Species Teak, Rosewood, Ebony, Ironwood, Bamboo, Canes, Champa, Sal, Mahua, Sandal & Sheesham Khirni, Jamun, Khokko, Ritha, Tamarind, Neem, Toddy Palm, Cane. Teak, Tendu, Sal, Amaltas, Palas, Rose-wood, Axlewood, Bijsal, Khair, Satinwood, Ghant, Pepal & Semal Sundari tree, Nipa Friticans (a Palm), Epiphytes. Oak, Deodar, Celtis, Maple, Chestnut. Rhododendron, Birch, Fir, Spruce, Plum Various Revolutions in Indian Economy

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

Archean System Dharwar System Cuddapah System Vindhyan System Gondwana System Deccan Traps Tertiary Systems Quarternary Formations

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Tropical Evergreen Tropical Dry Evergreen Tropical Dry Deciduous Swamp Forests Himalaya Temperate Alpine

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

Yellow Revolution White Revolution Blue Revolution Pink Revolution Brown Revolution Grey Revolution Golden Revolution

Oil Seeds Milk Fish Shrimp Masaaley Wool Horticulture

S. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

River Indus Jhelum Chenab Ravi Beas Sutlej

Kms 2900 400 1180 725 470 1050

Rivers: Origin & Length Origin Characteristics Mansarovar Shyok, Dras, Gartang, Nubra, Hunza, Zanskar, Shigar. Kabul, Kurram, Tochi, Viboa, Sangar. Verinag Flows through Wular lake & along Indo Pak border. Bara-Lacha Largest Indus tributary. Formed by Chandra & Bhaga. Rohtang Pass Flows through Chamba valley. Beas Kund Flows through Kullu valley & joins Satluj near Harike Rakas Lake Passes through Ship kila. Govind Sagar lake at


Ghanshyam Thori 7. Ganga 2525 Gangotri

Geography Notes Bhakra Bhagirathi meets Alaknanda at Devprayag. It splits into Bhagirathi-Hugli & Padma below Farrakha in Malda distt. Tons, Giri, Asan, Hindan, Rind, Sengar, Enters Ganga plain at Paonta Sahib. Gandhisagar dam at Kota. Banas (left), Kali & Sind (right) Joins Ganga at Sonpur near Patna Its main stream is Arun. Joined by Sun kosi from the west & Tamur Kosi from the east Joins Ganga near Kanauj Along Indo Nepal border it is called Kali. Joins Ghaghara. It is the last left bank tributary of the Ganga Joins Ganga at Patna Barakar is main tributary. Joins Hugli Meets Ganga at Chapra. Lucknow situated on its bank. Kathna & Sarayan tributaries. Receives Dibang & Lohit on left bank & then known as Brahmaputra. Burhi Dihing, Dhansari & Kalang (left) & Subansari, Kamang, Manas & Sankosh. Forms Sivok Gola Pass in Darjeeling. Meghna is the name of Brahmaputra after its confluence with Surma. Surma is distributary of river Barak. Tel, Ib, Seonath, Hasdeo, Mand, Jonking

8. 9.

Yamuna Chambal

1300 960

Yamunotri Mhow Everest & Dhulagiri Everest & Kanchenjunga Kumaon Hills Milam Glacier Darjeeliing Hills Amarkantak

10. Gandak 11. Kosi 12. Ramganga 13. Sarda (Saryu) 14. Mahananda 15. Son 16. Damodar 17. Ghaghara 18. Gomti 19. Brahmaputra 2900 730 600

540 1180

Mapchachungo glacier Pilibhit Distt Near Mansarovar

20. Tista 21. Surma 900

Chitamu lake (Tibet)

22. Mahanadi 23. Godavari 24. Krishna 25. Cauveri 26. Narmada 27. Tapti 28. Sabarmati 29. Brahmani 30. Subarnarekha

850 1465 1400 800 1300 724 320 800 400

Penganga, Wardha, Wainganga, Sabari, Idravati, Manjra & Pranhita. Mahabaleshwar Koyna, Yerla, Verna, Panchganga, Dudhgana, Musi, Tungabhadra, Bhima Brahmagiri Amravati, Hemavati, Akravati, Herangi, Shimsa, Hills (Coorg) Lakshmantirtha, Lokpavani, Kabbani. Amarkantak Burhner, Banjar, Shar, Shakkar, Dudhi, Tawa, Hiran, Baran Betul Distt Parna, Veghar, Girna, Bori, Panhara, Betul Mewar Hills Formed by confluence of Koel & Sankh. Baitrani joins later S-W of Ranchi

Sihawa (near Raipur) Nashik


Ghanshyam Thori 31. Luni 320 Arawallis

Geography Notes Ends in Sahni marshes. Sarsuti, Bundi, Sukri, Jawai join it.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16.

Various Central Institutes in India Wildlife Institute of India Salim Ali centre for Ornithology & Natural History Central Sheep Breeding Farm Central Tobacco Research Institute National Ship Design & Research Centre Civil Aviation Training College National Institute of Aviation Management & Research Indira Gandhi Rashtriya Udan Academy National Remote Sensing Agency Postal Staff College of India Central Poultry Training Institute Central Institute of Coastal Engineering for fisheries Central Institute of Fisheries education Lal Bahadur shastri college of advanced maritime studies & research Hindustan Photo films Survey of India

Dehradun Coimbatore Haryana Rajamundhry, A.P. Vishakhapatnam Hyderabad Delhi Fursatgunj (U.P.) Hyderabad Ghaziabad Hessarghatta, Karnataka Bangalore. Mumbai Mumbai Ooty. Dehradun

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

Various Policies & Programmes in India Forest Policy 1894, 1952, 1988 (revised) Indian Board for wildlife formed 1952 Wildlife Protection Act 1972 Project Tiger 1973 Operation Crocodile 1975 National Wildlife Action Plan 1983, Revised 2002-2016 Environment Protection Act 1986 Rhinoceros project 1987 Project Elephant 1992

Energy Resources of India 35. Coal 36. 37. Jharkhand Orissa M.P (Former) Jharia, Bokaro, Giridh, karanpura, Ramgarh, Daltonganj, Aurangabad, Hutar, Deogarh, Rajmahal Talcher, Rampur Central Indian Coalfields -Singrauli, Sohagpur, Johilla, Umaria Satupura Coalfields - Pench, Kanhan, Pathkhera North Chhattisgarh - Chirmiri-Kaurasia, Bisrampur, Jhillmili, Sonhat, Lakhanpur, Sendurgarh, lakhanpur-Ramkola South Chhattisgarh-Hasdo-Arand, Korba, Mand-Raigarh Raniganj, Darjeeling 43


West Bengal

Ghanshyam Thori 39. 40. 41. Tetiary coal 42. 43. 44. 45. 46. Petroleum 47. 48. 49. 50. 51. Natural 52. Gas 53. 54. 55. 56. 57. 58. 59. 60. Uranium 61. Thorium Andhra Pr. Maharashtra Meghalaya Assam Arunachal Pr J&K Rajasthan North-East Gujarat Mumbai High East Coast Other Mumbai Gujarat Assam Tamil Nadu Tripura Rajasthan Arunachal Pr Himachal Pr West Bengal

Geography Notes Singareni, Kothgundam, Tandur Chanda-Wardha, Kamptee, Bander Daranggiri, Cherpunji, Laitryngew, Mawlong, Langrin, Pendengru, Longoi, Waimong Makum, Jaipur, Nazira Namchuk-Namphuk Kalakot, Mohogala, Metka Palana (lignite) & Khari Digboi, Naharkatiya, Moran, Rudrasagar, Galeki, Hugrijan, Nigru, Borholla Ankeleshwar, Kalol, Nawagam, Kosamba, Kathana, Barkol,Mehsana, Sanand, Lunej, Aliabet island Bombay high, Bassein Narimanam, Kovillapal, Amlapur, Rawa Jaiselmer, Jwalamukhi Area (Punjab) Bombay high, Bassein Jagatia, Gogha Nahorkatiya & Moran Neypaltur, Mangamadam, Avadi, Virugambakam Baranura, Atharnure Barmer, Charaswala Non Chick, Mia-Pung, Laptan pung Jwalamukhi, Kangra Medinipur Jaduguda (Jharkhand), Bhatin, Narwapahar under Uranium Corportation in India are the only mines worked at present Beach Sands (Kerala), Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pr, Orissa

Mineral Resources of India 50. 51. 52. 53. 54. 55. 56. Iron Ore Chhattisgarh 24 % Goa (21%) Karnataka (20%) Jharkhand (17 %) Orissa (15 %) Maharashtra Andhra Pr. Dalli, Rajhra (Durg), Bailadila, Raoghat, Aridongri Sanquelim, Sanguem, Quepem, Satari, Ponda, Bicholim Bellary, Hospet, Sandur Noamund, Gua Gurumahisani, Sulaipat, Badampahar (Mayurbhanj), Kiriburu, Meghahataburu, Bonai (Sundargarh). Chandrapur, Ratnagiri, Bhandara Karimnagar, Warangal, Kurnod, Cuddapah, Anantpur district 44

Ghanshyam Thori 57. 58. 59. 60. 61. 62. 63. 64. 65. 66. 67. 68. 69. 70. 71. 72. 73. 74. 75. 76. 77. 78. 79. 80. 81. 82. 83. 84. 85. 86. 87. 88. 89. Copper Tamil Nadu M. P (46%) Rajasthan (33%) Jharkhand (21%) Karnataka (38%) Orissa (17%) M.P. (10 %) Maharashtra (8%) Orissa (44 %) Jharkhand (18 %) Maharashtra (13%) Chhattisgarh(11%) M.P. (11 %) Gujarat (8 %) Tamil Nadu (4 %) Orissa (97 %) Karnataka (2.3 %) Maharashtra (%) Jharkhand (%) Andhra Pr (%) Rajasthan (80 %) Orissa (11%) Andhra Pr (8 %) Rajasthan (99 %) Sikkim Karnataka (67 %) Jharkhand (26 %) Andhra Pr (7 %) Andhra Pr (42 %) Bihar Jharkhand32 Rajashtan (25 %) Karnataka Orissa

Geography Notes Tirthmalai, Yadapalli, Killimalai, kanjamalai, & Gondumalai Balghat (Malanjkhand) Khetri (Jhunjhunu & Alwar) Singhbum Bellary, North Kanara, Shimoga Kendujhar, Sundargarh, Koraput, Kalahandi, Bolangir Balghat Nagpur & Bhandara Koraput, Kalahandi, Sundargarh Gumla, Lohardaga, Ranchi, Palamau Kolhapur, Ratnagir Bastar, Bilaspur, Surguja district Mandla, Satna, Jabalpur, Shahdol Jamnagar, Kachchh, Junagarh Salem, Nilgiri Sukinda, Kendujhar, Dhenkanal ditricts Hassan Chandrapur Purbi & Paschmi Singhbum district Khammam Zawar region (Udaipur), Dariba, Rajura





Zinc Gold

Zawar a. Pipli khan to Barla khan b. Mochia, Magra, Balaria Kolar, Hutti gold fields (Raichur), Gulbarga Subarnarekha, Sona, Sanjai, South koel, Garra rivers Ramgiri Gold Fields (Anantapur district)


Zawar Cuttack, Kyonjhar, & Maiyurbhanj


Non Metallic Minerals 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Limestone Dolomite Phosphate Kaolin Mica Gypsum Steatite Magnesite M.P, Chattisgarh, Andhra Pradesh, Rajasthan Orissa (Birmitrapur in Sundergarh District-largest in India), M.P & Chattisgarh Rajasthan (Udaipur) Uttaranchal (Dehradun), M.P. (Jhabua), U.P. (Lalitpur) Kerala is largest producer. Andhra Pradesh, Jharkhand (Kodarma-Large) & Rajasthan Rajasthan & J & K. Rajasthan. It is also called soapstone/ Potstone. Tamil Nadu 45

Ghanshyam Thori 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. Pyrite Graphite Diamond Beryllium Salt (NaCl) Marble Zircon Kyanite Antimony Asbestos Beryllium Sulphur Tin Bihar is sole producer Orissa, Rajasthan M.P. (Panna) Rajathan, Jharkhand Gujarat (60%), Tamil Nadu & Maharashtra Rajasthan Beach Sand of Kerala Singhbum distict in Jharkhand-largest. Used as refractory material Punjab Karnataka & Rajasthan Rajasthan Tamil Nadu Bihar, Jharkhand Multipurpose Projects & Hydro-Electric Projects in India 56. Project Damodar Valley Project

Geography Notes

57. 58. 59. 60. 61. 62. 63. 64.

Rihand Dam Nagarjunasagar Project Tungabhadra Project Gandak Project Kosi Project Beas Project Mayurkashi Project Indira Gandhi Canal

65. 66. 67. 68. 69. 70. 71. 72. 73. 74. 75.

Narmada Valley Project Pochampad Project Tehri Dam Parambikulam Project Mata Tella Dam Kangsbati Project Rajasthan Canal Project Kadana Project Tata Hydroelectric Scheme Koyna Hydroelectic Dam Sivasamudram

State West Bengal & Jharkhand. It includes Maithon & Tilaiya Dam on Barakar river in Bihar, Konar Dam (Konar river) & Panchet Dam (Damodar). Rihand Uttar Pradesh Krishna Andhra Pradesh. Consists of two canals Lal Bahadur Canal (Left) & Jawahar canal (Right). Tungabhadra JV of Andhra Pr & Karnataka. Gandak JV between UP, Bihar & Nepal Kosi JV of Bihar & Nepal Beas Includes Pong Dam Mayurkashi Mayurkashi is a tributary of Hugli. It consists of Rajastan Feeder Canal (taking off from Harike Barrage, 204 km long, fully lined masonry canal) & Rajasthan main canal (445 Km) Involves Sardar Sarovar dam in Gujarat & Narmada sagar (or Indira Sagar) dam in M.P. Godavari Andhra Pradesh. Bhagirathi Uttaranchal. Implemented with Soviet Aid. Highest rock fall dam in the country. JV between Tamil Nadu & Kerala. Hydro-Electric Projects Betwa Near Jhansi in U.P. West Bengal Sutlej, Beas JV of Punjab & Rajastan. Ravi water is also used. Mahi Gujarat Indravati Maharashtra. Called Bhivpuri dam. Koyna Maharashtra Cauvery Falls Karnataka 46

River Damodar

Ghanshyam Thori 76. 77. 78. 79. 80. 81. 82. 83. 84. 85. 86. 87. 88. 89. 90. 91. 92. 93. 94. 95. 96. 97. 98. 99. 100. 101. 102. 103. 104. 43. 105. Pykara Hydro Elec Project Mettur Project Papansam Scheme Sabargiri Hydel Project Idukki Project Sholayar Project Machkund Power Project Srisailam Power Project Balimela Hydro Project Umiam Project Salal Hydro Project Thein Dam Project Banasagar Project Jayakwadi Project Kakrapara Project Mahi Project Malprabha Project Pallivasal project Poochampad Rajghat Dam Project Sarda Sahayak Hansdev Bango Project Tawa Project Ukai Project Purna Project Rana Pratap Sagar Jawahar Sagar Dam Gandhi Sagar Dam Chibro Dool Hasti Nathpa Jhakri Pykara Cauvery Tambraparni Pampa Periyar Sholayar Machkund Krishna Sileru river Umiam Chenab Ravi Son Godavari Tapi Mahi Malprabha Mudirapujha Godavari Betwa Ghagara Hansdev Tawa Tapi Purna Chambal Chambal Chambal Tons Chenab Satluj Damodar

Geography Notes Tamil Nadu (along Nilgiris) Tamil Nadu Tamil Nadu Kerala Kerala Kerala. JV between Kerala & Tamil Nadu Orissa. JV between A.P & Orissa Andhra Pradesh JV between A.P & Orissa Meghalaya J&K Punjab JV between MP, UP & Bihar Maharashtra Gujarat Gujarat Karnataka Kerala Andhra Pradesh Uttar Pradesh M.P. M.P. Tawa is tributary of Narmada Gujarat Maharashtra Rajasthan (Rawatbhata) Rajasthan (Kota) Churasigarh Fort at MP-Rajasthan border Uttar Pradesh J & K. Himachal Pr. Biggest hydel power project in India West Bengal

106. Panchet Dam

Thermal Power Projects in India 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Kothagundam Project Dhuraran Project Satpura Power Station Korba Project Talcher Power Station Obra Power Station Bhusawal Power Station Hardauganj Power Station Singareni Coalfields Kheda district Andhra Pradesh Gujarat M.P. Chhattisgarh Orissa U.P. Maharashtra U.P.

Talcher Obra


Ghanshyam Thori 9. 10. 11. 12. Bandel Power Station Chandrapura Power Station Kolaghat Power Station Bakreshwar (Birbhum) Station Soils & Their Properties 1. Alluvial Soils 22 West Bengal Bihar West Bengal West Bengal

Geography Notes


Regur/Black Soils



Red & Yellow Soils 28


Laterite Soils


5. 6.

Arid Soils Saline Soils

6.13 1.29


Peaty & Organic



Forest Soils


Most fertile, Sandy loam in texture, Rich in Potash, Phosphoric Acid, Lime & Organic matter Deficient in Nitrogen & Humus Also classified as Chernozem. Clay content 50% Rich in iron, lime & Aluminium Poor in Nitrogen, Phosphorus & organic content Known as omnibus group. Rich in oxides of iron Poor in Nitrogen, Phosphorus & Humus Not very fertile. Typical of tropical region with heavy rainfall Rich in iron oxide & potash Poor in nitrogen, phosphate & calcium Rich in phosphate Poor in Nitrogen & humus Known as Usara, Reh or Kallar Contain a large proportion of Sodium, Potassium & Magnesium Poor in Nitrogen & Calcium Normally heavy & black in colour. Highly acidic. Rich in organic matter Poor in phosphate & potash Acidic with low humus content Poor in potash, phosphorus & lime Sobriquets

1. 2. 3.

Bolton of the east Manchester of South India Granary of South India

Ahmedabad Coimbatore Thanjavur



Prod % 15 14 13 11 35



W. Bengal UP Andhra Pr Punjab UP

Agricultural Crops of India Prod Yield Rainfall (Mil Kg/Ha cm T) 87 1900 125-200 cm

Temp Deg C >23 C


Deep Fertile Clayey or loamy soil Light loam



80 cm

10-25 C


Ghanshyam Thori Punjab Haryana M.P. Jowar Maharashtra Karnataka M.P. Bajra Rajasthan UP Gujarat Maharashtra Maize U.P. Karnataka Rajasthan Bihar/MP Barley UP Rajasthan MP Ragi Karnataka TamilNadu U.P. Pulses M.P. U.P. Rajasthan Gram M.P. Rajasthan U.P. Tur/Arhar Maharashtra U.P. M.P./Gujar. Sugarcane U.P. Maharashtra Tamil Nadu Karnataka 20 172 11 47 20 10 33 18 16 14 15 15 11 10 44 30 7 60 13 8 25 20 17 40 31 12 22 20 15 43 14 13 10

Geography Notes Sandy Loam Clay Loam 7.7 770 30-65 cm 27-32 C Black clayey soil



40-50 cm

25-30 C

Light sandy Shallow black Red upland soil Well drained alluvial or red loamy soil Light soil



50-75 cm

21-27 C



70-90 cm

10-18 C






35-50 cm

20-25 C

Drained loamy soil Range of soil



40-80 cm

20-25 C


70 tonne

150 cm

20-25 C

Deep rich loamy soil




Commercial & Plantation Crops of India State Prod Prod Yield Rainfall Temp % (Mil Kg/Ha Cm Deg C T) Gujarat 28 11.6 226 50-75 cm 21-30 C Million Maharashtra 15 Bales Andhra Pr 11 170 Kg Haryana 10 W. Bengal 75 10 1960 125-200 cm 25-35 C 49


Black Soil

Light sandy or

Ghanshyam Thori Bihar Assam Orissa Tobacco Andhra Pr. Gujarat U.P. Groundnut Gujarat Andra Pr. Tamil Nadu Sunflower Karnataka Maharashtra Andhra Pr. Soyabeen M.P. Maharashtra Rajasthan Tea Assam W. Bengal Tamil Nadu Coffee Karnataka Kerala Tamil Nadu Rubber Kerala Tamil Nadu 14 9 1 31 29 23 33 15 22 47 23 17 75 13 9 55 22 15 71 21 8 90 Million Bales 180 kg .65

Geography Notes Clayey Loams


50 cm

15-38 C



50-100 cm

20-30 C

Well Drained Friable sandy loams Sandy loam, red, yellow, black soil Loamy soils

1.3 5


50 cm

15-25 C


50 cm

14-24 C

Friable loamy Acidic Soil Well drained deep friable loams or Acidic Forest soil Well drained friable forest loam Deep, well drained loams



150-250 cm

25-30 C



150-250 cm

15-28 C



300 cm

25-35 C

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

Ground Nut Rapeseed & Mustard Seasum Linseed Castorseed Soyabeen Sunflower Coconut

Oilseeds Andhra Pradesh, Gujarat, Tamil Nadu Rajasthan (45%), U.P, M.P. Gujarat (28 %), W. Bengal U.P, Maharashtra Gujarat (82%) Madhya Pradesh (75%), Maharashtra, Rajasthan Karnataka (47%), Maharashtra (23%), Andhra Pradesh (17%) Kerala (45%), Tamil Nadu (28 %)

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Black Pepper Chillies Turmeric Ginger Cardamom Arecanut

Spices Kerala (97 %) Andhra Pradesh (37%) Andhra Pradesh (56%) Kerala (22), Meghalaya (20%) Karnataka (57%) Karnataka (41%), Kerala (30%) Horticultural Crops 50

Ghanshyam Thori 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Mango Banana Cashew Orange Grapes Guava Apple Potato Onion

Geography Notes UP (32), Bihar (13) Andhra Pradesh. Accounts for 40 percent of all fruits Maharashtra (28%), Gujarat (10%), Andhra Pradesh. Jalgaon district alone supplies more than 80 % of Maharashtras Banana Kerala (31%), Maharashtra (18%), Andhra Pradesh (14%). Cashew is a genus of Brazil. Largest foreign exchange earner Maharashtra, M.P, Karnataka. Genus from China Andhra Pradesh, Maharashtra. Native plant of Armenia. Grapes are imported in India. U.P., Bihar. Native plant of Tropical America J & K, Himachal Pr, Uttaranchal U.P (35%), West Bengal (33%) Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh

Types of Crops Rice, Maize, Jowar, Ragi, Bajra, Tur, Moong, Urad, Cotton, Jute, Seasum, Groundnut, Soyabeen, Rabi Crops Wheat, Barley, Jowar, Rapeseed, Mustard, Linseed, Lentil, Gram, Peas Zaid Crops Sown during march to June. E.g. Water Melon, Melon, Cucumber, Vegetables, Moong, Urad. Jowar is both a Kharif & Rabi Crop. Kharif Crops National Parks of India 1. Wandur National Park Andaman & Nicobar 2. Kaziranga National Park Assam 3. Manas National Park Assam 4. Palamau National Park Jharkhand 5. Hazaribagh National Park Jharkhand (Rhinoceros) 6. Dachigam National Park J & K Kashmir Stag (Hangul) 7. Hemis National Park J&K 8. Kishtwar National Park J&K 9. Silent Valley National Park Kerala 10. Eravikulam National Park Kerala 11. Bandhavgarh National Park M.P. 12. Kanha National Park M.P. 13. Madhav National Park M.P. 14. Pench National Park M.P. 15. Shivpuri National Park M.P. - Birds 16. Indravati National Park Chhattisgarh 17. Keoladeo National Park Rajasthan 18. Ranthambore National Park Rajasthan 19. Desert National Park Rajasthan 20. Sariska National Park Rajasthan 21. Namdapha National Park Arunachal Pradesh 22. Marine National Park Gujarat 23. Pin Valley National Park Himachal Pradesh


Ghanshyam Thori 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. 34. 35. 36. 37. 38. 39. Bandipur National Park Nagarhole National Park Bannerghatta National Park Tadoba National Park Boriveli National Park Balpakram National Park Nokrek National Park Nandan Kanan National Park Chandka Elephant Reserve Simlipal Tiger Reserve Corbett National Park Rajaji National Park Valley of Flower N. Park Nandadevi National Park Dudhwa National Park Govind National Park

Geography Notes Karnataka Karnataka Karnataka Maharashtra Maharashtra (or Sanjay Gandhi National Park) Meghalaya Meghalaya Orissa Orissa Orissa Uttaranchal Uttaranchal Uttaranchal Uttaranchal U.P. U.P.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19.

Wildlife Sanctuaries of India Pakhal Wildlife Sanctuary Andhra Pradesh Parambikulam Wildlife Sanctuary Tamil Nadu Srisailam Wildlife Sanctuary Andhra Pradesh Garampani Wildlife Sanctuary Assam Kaimur wildlife Sanctuary Bihar (largest) Dandeli Wildlife Sanctuary Karnataka Periyar Wildlife sanctuary Kerala National Chambal Wildlife Sanctuary M.P., U.P & Rajasthan Great Indian Bustard Sanctuary Maharashtra (Ahmednagar) Gomardha Wildlife Sanctuary Chhattisgarh Harike Headworks Punjab Jaldapara Wildlife sanctuary West Bengal Sultanpur Bird Sanctuary Haryana Raganathittu Wildlife Sanctuary Karnataka Madumalai Sanctuary Tamil Nadu Pulicat Sanctuary Andhra Pradesh Chandraprabha Wildlife Sanctuary U.P (Varanasi) Ranganthitoo Bird Sanctury Karnataka Vedanthangal Bird Sanctuary Tamil Nadu

1. 2. 3. 4.

Cow Buffalo Sheep Goats

Breeds of Cattle Gir, Sahiwal, Red Sindhi, Deoni (Andhra Pr.), Nagori, Rathi, Siri, Malvi, Tharparkar. Exotic breeds Holstein, Friesian, Jersey, Brown Swiss. Murrah, Bhadawari, Nagpuri, Mehsana, Jaffrabadi, Surti, Nali-Ravi. Jaisalmeri, Pugal, Bikaneri, Marwari, Kathiawari. Jamnapuri, Barbari High Yielding Varieties of Seed 52

Ghanshyam Thori 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Wheat Rice Maize Jowar Ragi Cotton

Geography Notes Kalyan Sona, Sonalika, Arjun, Lerma, Sharbati Sonora, WL series. Padma, Jaya, IR-8, Hamsa, Krishna, Cauvery, Annapurna Ganga-101, Deccan Hybrid CSV-1 to CSV-7 Sharda V-797, Hybrid 4,5, Digvijay, Varalaxmi, Sanjay, Deviraj, Virnar. Roads, Railways & Waterways in India 67700 Km Broad Guage 137000 Km Meter Guage 12 Lakh Km Narrow Guage 15 Lakh Km Total Railway guage 30,000 Km No of Trains 33 Lakh Km No of Stations 14500 Km Electrified route

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

National Highways State Highways District Roads Village Roads Border Roads Total Roads Total Waterways

46800 km 13000 km 3100 km 63200 km 13500 7100 28%

1. National Waterways-1 2. National Waterways-2 3. National Waterways-3

National Waterways Allahabad-Haldia stretch of the Ganga-Bhagirathi-Hoogly system Sadiya-Dhubri stretch of the Brahmaputra system The west coast canal from Kottapuram to Kollam along with the Udyogmandal & Champakar canals (All in Kerala).

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Indian Railways, Headquarters 1. Nothern Raiway Delhi 2. Southern Railway Chennai 3. Eastern Raiway Kolkata 4. Western Railway Mumbai (Churchgate) 5. North-Western Railway Jaipur 6. North-Central Railway Allahabad 7. North-Eastern Railway Gorakhpur 8. North-East Frontier Railway Guwahati 9. East Coast Railway Bhubaneshwar 10. East Central Railway Hazipur 11. West Central Railway Jabalpur 12. Central Railway Mumbai (V.T) 13. South-Central Railway Secundarabad 14. South Eastern Railway Kolkata 15. South-Western Railway Bangalore 16. South-East Central Railway Bilaspur India Pipelines Naharkatiya Oilfield in Assam to Barauni refinery in Bihar via Noonmati First pipeline Barauni-Kanpur pipeline for transport of refined petroleum Haldia-Maurgram-Rajbandh pipeline Ankleshwar oilfield to Koyali refinery in Gujarat Mumbai High Koyali pipeline Hajira-Bijapur-Jagdishpur (HBJ) pipeline (1750 km). Extended from Bijapur to Dadri in U.P.


Ghanshyam Thori 7. Kandla to Luni in U.P via Delhi for LPG transport (1250 Km) Airways-Internatioanal Airports Chhatrapati Shivaji International Airport (Sahar) Indira Gandhi International Airport Anna International Airport (Meenambakam) Subhash Chandra Bose International Airport Sardar Vallabh Bhai Patel International Airport Raja Sansi Airport Needumbassery International Airport Dabolim International Airport Lokapriya Gopinat Bardoli International Airport Rajiv Gandhi International Airport Trivandrum International Airport Nedumbassery International Airport.

Geography Notes

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12.

Mumbai Delhi Chennai Kolkata Ahmedabad Amritsar Bangalore Goa Guwahati Hyderabad Thiruvananthapuram Kochi

Indias Foreign Trade 27 % 1. Gems & Jewellery 1. Petroleum, Oil, Lubricants (POL) 2. Pearls & Precious stones 9% 2. Readymade Garments 3. Gold & Silver 8.5 % 3. Chemicals 4. Capital goods 12 % 4. Cotton Textile 5. Electronic goods 9% 5. Machine & Transport 6. Chemicals 7% 6. Agricultural Exports 7. Edible Oils 3% 7. 8. Coke, Coal & briquettes 2% 8. Fish & Fish products lead agricultural exports accounting for 3.1 % of the total value. Indias major trading partners USA 11.6 % UAE 5.0 % China 5 .0% UK 4.4 % Belgium 4.1 % Germany 3.9 % Japan 3.1 % Switzerland 2.7 % Hongkong 3.4 % Singapore 3.0 %

17 % 13 % 11 % 8% 6% 13.5 %

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

City Agra Badrinath Cuttack Dibrugarh Ferozpur

Cities located on Rivers River Yamuna Alaknanda Mahanadi Brahmaputra Sutlej 54

State UP Uttranchal Orissa Assam Punjab

Ghanshyam Thori Guwahati Hyderabad Jabalpur Kanpur Kota Lucknow Ludhiana Nasik Pandharpur Patna Sambalpur Srinagar Surat Tiruchirapalli Varanasi Vijaywada Brahmaputra Musi Narmada Ganga Chambal Gomti Sutlej Godavari Bhima Ganga Mahanadi Jhelum Tapti Cauvery Ganga Krishna Assam AP MP UP Rajasthan UP Punjab Maharashtra Maharashtra Bihar Orissa J&K Gujarat Tamil Nadu UP AP

Geography Notes


Iron & Steel

2. 3. 4.

Cotton Textile Sugar Industry Aluminum Industry Copper Smelting

Industries of India IISCO has 3 plants at Kulti, Hirapur & Burnpur. Visvesvaraya Iron & Steel Co is located on the bank of Bhadravati river in Karnataka. Hindustan Steel Limited (HSL) at Bhilai, Durgapur & Bokaro. 4% of GDP. 3.5 Crore population employed. HINDALCO (Renukoot), INDAL (Alupuram, Hirakud, Belgaum), Madras Aluminium Company (MALCO, Mettur), BALCO (Korba), NALCO (Koraput) HCL is the main player & operates Khetri copper complex, Indian copper complex (Ghatsila, Jharkhand), Malanjkhand copper project (Balghat, M.P.), Taloja copper project (Raigad, Maharashtra). Centers are Titagarh, budge-budge, Haora, Rishra, Serampore, Bhadreshware, Shyamnagar. Its varieties are Mulberry (88%), Eri (9%), Tassar (2%), Muga (1%) Punjab, Maharashtra & U.P account for 75% production. Dhariwal is most important centre. Others are Amritsar, Ludhiana, Kharar. Heavy Engineering Corp Ltd (Ranchi), Tungabhadra Steel Products Ltd (Karnataka), Bharat heavy plates & Vessels (Vishakhapatnam) Mining & allied machinery corporation (Durgapur). HMT (Bangalore, Pinjore in Haryana, Kalamassery in Kerala, Hyderabad, Ajmer & Sri Nagar), Heavy Machine Tools (Ranchi), Machine Tools Corp of India (Ajmer), National Instruments Factory at Kolkata. TELCO in Mumbai, Ashok Leyland in Chennai, Bajaj Tempo (Pune). Defense vehicles are produced at Jabalpur. Hindustan Insecticides Ltd (Delhi, Kerala & Rasayani, Maharashtra) Hindustan Organic Chemicals Ltd (Rasayani, Raigad & Kochi) Top manufacturing states are M.P, Chhattisgarh, Andhra Pr & Raj. Jamul is largest plant of M.P. & Sawai Madhopur leads in Rajasthan India is 3rd largest player after Italy & U.S. 55


6. 7. 8. 9.

Jute Textile Silk Textile Woolen Textile Heavy Industry

10. Machine Tools

11. Automobiles 12. Pesticides 13. Cement Industry 14. Leather Industry

Ghanshyam Thori 15. Glass Industry 16. 17. 18. 19.

Geography Notes

20. 21.

22. 23.


Bahjoi & Naini (Both in U.P.) are famous for glass sheets & Firozabad for bangles. Paper Industry Rajmundhry (Andhra Pr), Ballarpur (Maharshtra), Titagarh (Bengal) Bhadravati, Dandeli (Karnataka), Hoshangabad (M.P) Liquor Industry U.P. has more than 50% installed capacity. Maharashtra, A.P are others. Aircraft industry Important centres are HAL-Bangalore, Lucknow, Hyderabad, Others are Koraput (Orissa) & Nasik. Railway Chittaranjan Locomotive works (Electric engines) West Bengal Equipments Diesel Locomotive works Varanasi Integral Coach Factory Perambur, Tamil Nadu Rail Coach Factory Kapurthala, Punjab. Diesel Componets Works - Patiala Railway wheels & Axels - Yalahanka (Banalore) & Durgapur. Ship Building Hindustan Shipyard (Vishakhapatnam), Garden-Reach Shipbuilders (Kolkata), Mazagaon Dock (Mumbai), Goa Shipyard (Vasco). Pharmaceuticals IDPL Rhishikesh, Hyderabad, Gurgaon, Chennai, Muzzafarpur Hindustan Antibiotics Ltd Pimpri, Pune first public sector undertaking in this industry Zinc & Lead Hindustan Zinc Ltd at Debari, Rajasthan (both zinc & lead) Fertilizers FCI-Sindri Industry National Fertilizers Limited Nangal Hindustan Fertilizer Corp Ltd- Namrup (Assam), Durgapur. Rashtriya Chemicals & Fertilizers Ltd Trombay, Thal Gujarat, Tamil Nadu, U.P & Maharashtra are the 4 largest in order. Heavy Electricals BHEL (Bhopal, Tiruchirapalli, Ramchandrapuram in A.P, Jammu, Bangalore, Hardwar). Ms ABL at Durgapur. Hindustan Cables Factory (Rupnarainpur, Bengal), Indian Telephone industries (Bangalore), Bharat Electronics (Bangalore), Electronics corporation of India (Hyderabad)

4. 5.

Mumbai-Pune rgion Hugli Industrial Belt

Industrial Regions of India Tata hydel stations at Khopali, Bhivpuri, Bhira & koyna Solapur, Satara, Sangli & Ahmednagar From Naihati to Budge-Budge along left bank & Tribeni to Nalpur along right bank. Other centres are Serampur, Rishra, Shibpur, Kakinara, Shamnagar, Titagarh, Sodepur, Bansbaria, Belgurriah, Triveni, Belur. 56

Ghanshyam Thori 6. 7. Bangalore-Tamil Nadu Ahmedabad-Vadodara

Geography Notes Pykara project supplies electricity. Salem, Madurai, Tiruchirapalli, Mettur, Mysore, Mandya. Dhuvaran Thermal power station, Uttaran gas power station, Ukai hydro project. Koyali, Anand, Khera, Surendranagar, Rajkot, Surat, Valsad, Jamnagar Chaibasa, Dhanbad, Sindri, Hazaribagh, Asansol, Durgapur, Dalmianagar, Ranchi, Daltonganj. Faridabad, Modinagar, Ambala, Agra, Mathura

8. 9.

Chhotanagpur Region Gurgaon Delhi Meerut

Six Largest National Highways National Highway Route NH 7 Varanasi-Kanyakumari NH 6 Kolkata & Dhule via Raipur, Nagpur. NH 5 Baharagora-Chennai NH 2 Delhi-Kolkata NH 8 Delhi-Mumbai NH 17 Panvel-Edapally (Karnataka) Important National Highways Delhi to Amritsar via Ambala & Jallandhar Jallandhar & Uri via Jammu, Srinagar & Baramula Ambala to Shipkila on Indo china border Pipra to Nepal border Barasat-Bongaigaon-Indo Bangladesh border Numaligarh-Indo Burma border. Agra to Mumbai via Gwalior Chennai with Thane Important Industrial Centers of India Ferozabad Glass Bangles Mirzapur Pottery Jaipur Gems Industry Trivandrum Wood Carving Kadi Mineral Oil Korba Aluminium Bhatinda Fertilizers

Lengh Km 2369 1932 1533 1490 1428 1270

NH-1 NH-1A NH 22 NH 28 A NH 35 NH 39 NH 3 NH 4

456 460 68 61 436

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

Racial Profile of India 1. 2. 3. 4. Negritos Proto-Australoid Mongoloids Mediterranean Only on Andamans & Nicobar Includes Tribal group of central & southern India. Veddahs, Maleveddahs, Irulas, Sholgas considere true representative. Garo, Khasi, Jaintia, Lipchas, Chakmas, Murmis, Naga & Dafla Divided into: Palaeo-Mediterranean (or Dravidians) inhabiting 57

Ghanshyam Thori

Geography Notes southern parts of India & True Mediterranean inhabiting northern & western part of the country. Characterized by broad heads. Coorgis & Parsis are representative. They are divided into Alpinoids, Dinarics & Armenoids Inhabit parts of north India. They are mostly represented among the upper castes in northern India esp in Punjab Demographic Profile of India

5. 6.

Brachycephals Nordics/Indo-Aryans

S. Parameter 1. Population (1027 million) 2. Population Density (324 per/Sq km) 3. Popln Growth 4. Growth Urban population 5. Growth rural population 6. Proportion of Urban Populn 7. Average size of Villages 8. Sex Ratio (933)

Top in Parameter U.P, Maharasthra, Bihar, W. Bengal & Andhra Pr. Delhi (UTs) West Bengal (904), Bihar (880), Kerala, U.P, Punjab. Delhi Nagaland (64%), Sikkim Arunachal Pradesh Dadra & Nagar haveli Nagaland Goa (50%) Kerala (~15000 people) Kerala (1058) Pondicherry Orissa Orissa Kerala (91%), Mizoram, Goa, Maharashtra, Himachal Pradesh Lakshadweep (UT)

Bottom in Parameter Sikkim, Mizoram, Arunachal Pradesh & Goa Lakshadweep (UT) Arunachal Pr (13), Mizoram, Sikkim Andaman & Nicobar. Kerala (9.4%) Kerala Tamil Nadu Arunachal Pradesh (5%) Dadra & Nagar Haveli Arunachal (~200) Haryana (861), Punjab & Sikkim Daman & Diu Kerala (6 per thousand) Kerala Bihar (47%), Jharkhand, J&K, Arunachal Pr, U.P. Dadra & Nagar Haveli (UT)

9. Death Rate 10. Infant Mortality Rate 11. Literacy

Miscellaneous Facts A. Physiography: 1. India is the seventh largest country in the world. The north south extent is 3214km & E-W 2933 Km. The mainland coastline is 6100 km long & including islands it is 7516 km long. Its geographical area is around


Ghanshyam Thori north latitude.

Geography Notes

33 lakh sq km (or 328.72 million hectares). The southernmost point (Indira Point) is 6 degree 30 minutes

2. Narcondam & Barren Island are volcanic islands of India. Most of the sandalwood of India comes from Karnataka. 3. The northernmost Himalayan ranges are called central Himalayas or Himadri. Beyond this range lies the Tibetan or Tethys Himalayas beyond with lies the Indus Tsangpo suture zone. To the south of the central or the Inner Himalayas lies the lesser or lower Himalayas or Middle Himalayas & is separated from the Greater Himalayas by a structural zone called Main Central Thrust. In between the Lower Himalayas (Middle Himalayas) & the Shivaliks lies the Main Boundary Thrust. 4. The Indus Suture Zone, ISZ (or Indus-Yarlung-Tsangpo Suture Zone) defines the zone of collision between the Indian Plate and the Ladakh Batholith to the north. Between the Pir Panjal & the Zaskar range lies the valley of kashmir. Karakoram range, Ladakh range, Zaskar range from north to south. Important peaks of the Zaskar range are Kamet (highest), Nanda Devi & Gurla Mandhata. 5. The peaks above 8000 m in the himalayas in descending order are Mt Everest, Kanchenjunga, Makalu, Dhaulagiri, Mansalu, Cho Oyu, Nanga Parbat, Annapurna. Raman Peak is situated in Arabian Sea 6. The transhimalayas include the Karakoram & the Laddakh range. Karakoram range has its highest in peak K2 (or Qagir named after Chinese occupation). The highest peak of Kailash range is Mt. Kailash & that of Ladakh range is Mt. Rakaposhi. 7. The purvanchal (NE Himalayas) are divided into Purvu-NEFA (composed of Mishmi Hills & Patkai Bum), Naga hills (Saramati is highest peak), Manipur Hills, North Cachar hills, Mizo hills (earlier known as Lushai hills) & the Tripura hills. 8. The Garo, Khasi, Jaintia & the outlying Mikir & Rengma hills are structurally parts of peninsular plateau separated from the Indian peninsula by the Malda gap. 9. Bhabhar (in Punjab or Duars in Assam) lies to the north of Terai & is a pebble studded region which causes many steams to get lost underneath which re-emerge in the Terai belt. Khadar is known as bet in punjab & Bhangar comprises of Kankars. The northern part of the punjab plains adjoinin the shivaliks have witnesses intense erosion throgh boulder clanned streams called Chos. 10. In the pujab plain the area between rivers is called Doab & the river bluffs are called Dhayas. The thar desert has numerous features like dhrian (shifting sand dunes), sar (saline playa lakes), rohi (fertile tracts formed by rivers west of Aravallis) & dhands (alkaline lakes). 11. The east coast (or Coromandel coast) also known as Utkal ghat in orisssa & Payant ghat in Andhra & Tamil Nadu has two lagoon lakes (Pulicat lake north of Chennai & Chilka lake). The eastern ghats are


Ghanshyam Thori

Geography Notes

broader whant the western ghats. Western ghat is divided into kathiawar, konkan & Malabar coast. It consists of Kayals (lagoons & backwaters largest being Vembnad lake). In karnataka the ghats are known as Kanara plain. Physiographic divisions of the Peninsular Upland 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. North Central Uplands South Cental Highlands Eastern Plateau Western plateau South Deccan Meghalaya Mikir Uplands Western Ghats Eastern Ghats Aravalli Range, Rajasthan Uplands, Madhya Bharat Pathar Malwa plateau, Vindhyan Scarplands, Vindhyan range, Narmada valley Chotanagpur Plateau, Baghelkand plateau, Mahanadi basin, Dandakaranya, Garhjat Hills Maharashtra plateau, Satpura range Karnataka plateau, Telangana plateau Meghalaya plateau, Mikir Hills

12. Madhya Bharat pathar is made of ancient vindhyan sediments through which the Chambal river has formed badland. To the further east lies Bundelkhand upland. 13. North of Mahanadi lies the Baghelkhand plateau which is drained by tributaries of Son river. The Chotanagpur plateau composed of granites & gneisses forms Jharkhand & is drained by Damodar. It has three lava hills of the Dalma, Porahat & Rajmahal. South of Chattisgarh basin (also called Mahanadi basin) lies a region of rugged topography called Dandakaranya plateau. Garhjat hills are also called Orissa highlands & have their highest peak in Mehendragiri. 14. The Satpura range has three parts: Rajpipla hills in the western part, Mahadeo hills (highest peak Dhupgarh near Panchmarhi) in the central part & Maikala range (highest peak Amarkantak) in the eastern reaches. Dhupgarh is the highest peak in entire Satpuras. 15. The Telangana or Andhra plateau has two parts: the Telangana & Rayalseema upland. 16. The highest peak of Anaimudi is the central point from which the three ranges radiate: Cardamom hills to the south, the Anamalai to the north & the Palni to the northeast. Thalghat (Kasara to Igatpuri), Bhorghat (between kalian & lonavala) & Palghat are the gaps in Sahyadris. Western ghats are block mountains formed by the downwarping of a part of the land into the Arabian sea & are steeper towards west. Cochin is connected to interior through the Palghat gap. 17. The Eastern Ghats are also known as Mehendragiri in Orissa. The Nilgiris in Tamil Nadu are the meeting point of the Eastern Ghats, Western Ghats & southern hills. Its highest peak is Dodabeta & it also includes Ooty hill station. Southwards of Nilgiri & separated from them by the Palghat gap are the Annamalail Hills.


Ghanshyam Thori

Geography Notes

18. The islands & passages from north to south are Coco Channel, North, middle & south Andamans, Duncan passage, little Andamans, Ten degree Channel, Car Nicobar, & Great Nicobar. In Lakshwadeep the sequence from north to south is Amindivi Island, Nine degree channel & Minicoy. B. Drainage: 19. Satluj, Ravi, Chenab, Jhelum, & Indus (Sri Ram called Jubiliant Indra) from south to north. Gomati, Ghaghara, Gandak, Kosi & Mahananda are from west to east. Chambal, Sind, Betwa, ken & Son are in that order from west to east. 20. Sanskrit names Indus (Sindu), Jhelum (Vitasta), Ravi (Parushini), Beas (Vipasa) & Satluj (Satadru). 21. In Bangladesh Tista joins Brahmaputra on the right bank from where it is known as Jamuna. 22. Subernarekha & Brahmani both arise in the Chhotanagpur plateau & lie to the north of Mahanadi. The Baitrani is another stream of this system & its source lies in the Keonjhar plateau. 23. Bharatuzha (or Ponnani) is the longest river of Kerala. Periyar is second largest & Pamba falls into the Vembanad Lake. The penner originates in Karnataka (Kolar) & flows through Andhra Pradesh. The Vaigai rises in kerala & receives diverted waters of the Periyar & ultimately joins Palk bay. 24. The dendritic pattern is best developed in the Indo Gangetic plains. Narmada flows between vidhyas & Satupura while Tapti lies to the south of Satpura. Dhuandhar falls (or marble falls) near Jabalpur on Narmada is famous. Pinnate pattern is found in Narmada & Tapti valleys. Naini Tal, Bhim Tal & Khewan Tal are Lakes of Kumaon. Kolleru lake is located in east Godavari district (A.P.). Loktak lake is in Manipur. Chitrakote falls is located on river Indravati in Bastar. 25. Cauveri is the least seasonal of all the rivers of the peninsular plateau. Karewas are lacustrine deposits of Kashmir. The Cardamom hills are part of Annamalai hills. 26. Lonar lake (Crater lake) is situated in Maharashtra. It is the largest crater in basaltic rock. Adams Bridge, is a narrow ridge of sand, mostly dry, which connects Mannar Island with Pamban Island C: Climate, Vegetation & Soil 27. Jet Steams are of two types: Westerly jet streams which blow from west to east at a height of 12 km & easterly jet steams which blow from east to west at 13 km above. The tropical easterly jet exists over India during summer & disintegrates during winter. 28. Kalbaisakhi in West Bengal, Bordoichilla in Assam & Mango Showers in Peninsula. Tropical Cyclones occur in India during monsoon period. The average annual rainfall in India is 125 cm & most of it is orographic in nature. 29. Tropic of Cancer passes through Mizoram, Tripura, W. Bengal, Jharkhand, Chhatisgarh, M.P. Rajasthan & Gujarat. Gulf of Mannar lies on the east coast of Tamil Nadu.


Ghanshyam Thori

Geography Notes

30. Other classifications of the climate of India were given by Subramanyam & Sivaramakrishnaiah (discomfortable to most comfortable), Kendrew & Stamp (18 C isotherm basis), BLC Johnson. 31. Jowar & Ragi are very popular on red soils. 32. Tropical Deciduous is the most widely distributed vegetation in India. Lakshwadeep has zero percent forest area & Andamans & Nicobar Islands have 87 percent. Mizoram, Arunachal & Nagaland have more than 80 percent forest cover. J & k has around one percent. Maximum Teak & Sal come from the forests of M.P & Chhattisgarh. 33. The term social forestry was first used by National Commission on Agriculture in 1976 & involves planting trees on farms among other things. 34. Kaziranga National Park, Keoladeo National Park, Nanda Devi Biosphere reserve, Sundarbans Biosphere Reserve are identified as having outstanding universal value. 35. The biosphere reserves of India in order of their establishment from oldest to recent are Nilgiri, Nanda Devi, Nokrek (Meghalaya), Great Nicobar Islands, Gulf of Mannar, Manas, Sunderbans, Simlipal (Orissa), Dibru-Saikhowa (Assam), Dehang-Debang (Arunachal), Pachmarhi, Khangchendzonga, Agasthyamalai 36. Magnetite occurs at Daltonganj in palamau district (Jharkhand). 37. Net sown area is around 46 % of total land in area. In India net sown area is 142 million hectares & total cropped area is 187 million hectares. Ludhiana has highest yields of wheat & west Godavari is most important for rice cultivation in Andhra Pr. Pearl fishing is done at Tuticorin. 38. The contributors to petroleum production are Mumbai (65 %), Gujarat (18 %), Assam (16 %) & Tamil Nadu (1.37 %). Same trend of states is there in case of gas production with a little different %ages. 39. Petroleum Refining is done at Guwahati, Barauni, Koyali, Haldia, Mathura, Digboi, Panipat, Chennai, Narimanam, Bongaigaon, Mumbai (HPCL, BPCL), Vishakhapatnam, Kochi, Numaligarh (Assam) & Tatipaka (ONGC-Andhra Pr). Tertiary coal is better than Gondwana coal. 40. Jharia coalfield (Dhanbad district, Jharkhand) alone accounts for 35 % of Indian production. 41. Only a few non-metallic minerals are significant in the mining economy. Limestone accounts alone for two-thirds of the total value under the group. 42. Nuclear power plants in India are at Tarapur, Rawatbhata, Kalpakkam, Narora (UP), Kaiga (Karnataka) & Kakarapara (Gujarat). Requirements for these reactors are fulfilled by the Nuclear Fuel complex located at Hyderabad & Heavy water plant at Vadodara. Eight heavy water plants are operational in India at Vadodara, Thal, Nangal, Tuticorin, Kota, Talcher, Hazira, Manuguro. A number of research reactors have


Ghanshyam Thori & Kamini.

Geography Notes

been built to carry R&D in this field which include Apsara, Cirus, Zerlina, Purnima (I, II, & III), Dhruva

43. India is fifth in wind energy after Germany, USA, Denmark & Spain. Asias largest wind farm is located at Lamba in Gujarat. Tamil Nadu has highest installation of wind turbines. 44. Geothermal energy Tattapani field (Chhattisgarh), Puga Valley (J & K), Manikaran Area (H.P.) 45. The farourable sites for ocean energy are Gulf of Cambay, Gulf of Kachchh & estuary of Hugli. Indias first tidal power plant is at Kandla. The fist solar energy plant & solar plant both are at Bhuj. 46. Hazira-Bijaipur-Jagdishpur pipeline transports liquid gas from the South Bassein offshore field off Mumbai to Jagdishpur and Aonla, deep in the mainland in Uttar Pradesh. 47. Cropped area in a year under consideration is known as net sown area. The gross cultivated area includes the net sown area used more than once a year. Cropping intensity is given by total cropped area divided by net sown area. 48. West Bengal produces three crops of rice every year viz Aus, Aaman & Boro. Arabica coffee is grown at an altitude of around 750-1500 metres & Robusta around 300-600 metres. 49. The largest producing state for silk is Karnataka (60%), Andhra Pradesh (17%), Assam & Bihar. The fertilizer consumption is highest for Punjab (185 kg/ha), followed by Tamil Nadu & Andra Pradesh. Orissa has the lowest consumption. 50. Irrigation in India Wells & Tubewell (56%), Canal (32%), Tank (6%) , Others (6.5%). Uttar Pradesh leads in Canal irrigation as well as Tubewell irrigation. Andhra Pradesh leads in Tank Irrigation. Tamil Nadu has developed highest proportion of its irrigation potential (95%). 51. The fish production in India during 2004-05 was around 6.4 Million Tonnes. Inland fisheries account for around 50 % of the total fish cash. Kerala leads in marine fish catch. 52. India with 18.5 crore cattle and 10 crore buffaloes ranks first in cattle and buffalo population in the world. India accounts for 15 % of worlds cattle & 57% of worlds buffalo population. 53. Mulching (ploughing in of crops), retting (fresh water treatment of Jute) & ratooning (using the same root for crop growth as in sugarcane) are some of the practices of agriculture. 54. Eutrophication is a process where water bodies receive excess nutrients that stimulate excessive plant growth choking weaker species & altering species composition. 55. The scientific name of Teak (Tectona Grandis) & Sal (Shorea Robusta). Sal is used for railway sleepers & Deodar for pencils 56. Ramsar Convention on Wetlands, signed in Ramsar, Iran, in 1971, is an intergovernmental treaty which provides for the conservation and wise use of wetlands


Ghanshyam Thori

Geography Notes

57. During the second five year plan, Iron & Steel plants were set up at Bhilai (Chhattisgarh), Rourkela (Orisaa), & Durgapur (W. Bengal) & two aluminium plants were established at Hirakud (INDAL) & Renukoot (Hinalco). During the fourth plan a steel plant was set up at Bokaro (Jharkhand). The Vishakhapatnam steel project is the first on-shore steel project built during 6th plan. The Bhilai & Bokaro steel plants were built with Russian collaboration & they are the two biggest in that order. 58. M/s Jessops, Kolkata & Bharat Earth Movers Limited, Bangalore also manufacture rail coaches & electrical multiple units. 59. India imports 40 % of its copper requirement from abroad. Most of the gold in India occurs in the form of veins in Dharwar schists. 60. Currency paper comed from Hoshangabad in M.P & defense vehicles from Jabalpur. Cochin shipyard is the largest in India & built with Japanese assistance. 61. The east-west corridor extends from Silcher in Assam to Porbander in Gujarat. Kerala has the highest density of roads & J&K has the least. Goa has the highest density of surfaced roads. Maharasthra is the state with highest road length followed by Tamil Nadu, M.P & U.P. 62. Konkan railway runs from Roha in Maharashtra to Mangalore in Karnataka (760 Km long). It has Asias longest rail tunnel. Rail route per unit area is highest in Punjab and least for J&K. Rail route per unit population is highest for Gujarat & lowest for Tripura. 63. Buckingham Canal in Andhra Pradesh & Cumberjua Canal in Goa were once very important. Grand Anicut canal is in Thanjuvar, Tamil Nadu. India has over two million square km of EEZ. Overall share of Indian Vessels in overseas trade is 32 % only. Maharashtra (53) has the maximum no of minor ports (184 in all), followed by Gujarat (40). 64. The ports are Kandla, Mumbai, Nhava Sheva, Mormugao, Mangalore, Kochi, Tuticorin, Chennai, Ennore (newest), Vishakhapatnam, Paradip, Haldia, Kolkata. Jawaharlal Nehru port has been developed at Nhava Sheva off the Mumbai port. Haldia decongests Kolkata & Ennore (25 Km north of Chennai & newest port) helps Chennai (Artificial shallow port) tackling its cargo. Paradip (Orissa) has the deepest harbour. 65. The New Mangalore port is used to export iron ore from Kudremukh & iron ore from Bailadila (Chhattisgarh) is exported through Vishakhapatnam port. Marmagao port is situated at the entrance of the estuary of river Zuari in Goa. Dandakarnya is known for iron-ore deposits. 66. Prasar Bharati was created by merging Door-Darshan & All India radio in 1997. Indian postal system is the largest in the world with more than 1.5 lakh post offices. Rajdani channel (yellow boxes) for letters emanating from Delhi for state capitals. Metro Channel (light blue box). QMS was introduced in 1975 & works on the basis of PIN numbers.


Ghanshyam Thori

Geography Notes

67. Indias imports stand at around 36000 crores & exports at 29300 crores. Trade deficit is around 6500 crores. Exports are around 10.7 % of GDP. It is just 0.6 % of world trade. Foreign Debt is around 18% of GDP. It is 8th largest debted country in the world. 68. India produces around 90 million tonnes of milk every year (Buffalo 50%, Cow 46%, Goats 4%). M.P has the largest number of cattle followed by U.P & Bihar & West Bengal. 69. Indias Diesel power stations are located at Naharkatiya (Assam), Barauni (Bihar), Dhuvaran (Gujarat) & Trombay. The first Fertilizer-manufacturing unit was set up in 1906 at Ranipet near Chennai. 70. General Fertility ratio is the number of live births in a year per thousand of women of normal reproductive age group. Replacement or reproduction ratio is the number of female babies born per thousand of female population in the reproductive age group. The infant mortality rate is expressed as the number of deaths of children below one year per thousand of live births. Maternal mortality rate refers to the number of female deaths due to maternity causes per ten thousand of live births. 71. Primary, Secondary & Tertiary sex ratio refers to the sex ratio at conception, Birth & Enumeration respectively. There is no doubt that more males are born than the females in case of all mammals including humans all over the world. 72. Percentage of Urban population in India is 27.78% & rural 72.22 %. Surat has the distinction of experiencing the highest growth rate among the 35 metropolitan cities during 1991-2001. Madurai grew with the slowest pace. Haryana experienced an increase in the population growth rate during the period 1991-2001. 73. Tamil Nadu has the highest urbanization among the top ten populous states. 74. Indias age composition is 0-15 years (36.5%), 15-59 years (56.7%) & above 60 (6.8 %). The dependency ratio is higher in rural areas than urban. 75. The sex ratio of the country is 933. Rural areas have more favourable sex ratio (946) compared to 901 of urban areas. Sex ratio registered sharpest decline during 1961-71. 76. In India the workers are: main workers (30.5 %), Marginal workers (8.7%) & non-workers (60.8%). Proportion of main workers (>183 days employment a year) is lowest in Kerala (26%) & highest in Arunachal Pradesh (38%). 77. Scheduled caste highest population in U.P followed by West Bengal. Punjab has the highest proportion of scheduled caste. There is no scheduled caste population in Nagaland & Andamans. Among UTs highest SC population is in Delhi. Madhya Pradesh has the highest tribal population followed by Maharashtra & Orissa. Goa (376 people only) has the least ST population. Punjab, Haryana have no ST population. Mizoram (95%) & Lakshadweep (93%) have the highest percentage of tribal population.


Ghanshyam Thori

Geography Notes

78. The scheduled languages arranged in descending order of the number of speakers is Hindi, Bengali, Teulgu, Marathi, Tamil, Urdu, Gujarati, Kannada, Malayalam, Oriya, Assamese, Sindhi, Nepali, Konkani, Manipuri, Kashmiri & Sanskrit. 79. North Indian languages including Gujrati, Marathi, Oriya, Bengali, & Assamese belong to Aryan group. Dravidian group includes Tamil, Kannada, Telugu & Malayalam. Austric languages are spoken by tribal groups of Meghalaya, Jharkhand & Western Satpura. Sino Tibetan languages prevalent in North eastern states: Tibeto Himalayan (Bhutia, Kinnauri), Arunachal (Aka, Dafla, Miri & Abor) & Naga-Myanmari (Bodo, Naga & Kuku group). 80. According to 2001 census: Hindu (80.5%), Muslim (13.4%), Christian (2.3%) & Sikh (1.8%). Hindu population proportion is highest in Himachal, Muslim in J&K, Christians in Kerala, Buddhist & Jain in Maharashtra 81. Overall literacy of India is 65.38 %. Male literacy is 75.85 % & Female 54.16 %. Lowest literacy levels are 47.53 % in Bihar to 90.92 % in Kerala. The proportion of children of eligible age group enrolled in primary schools is lowest in Uttar Pradesh & highest in Sikkim. Literacy is 80 % in Urban areas & 60 % in rural areas. 82. Environmental Imact I = PAT (population * Affluence * Harmful technology used in production). Poverty is higher in rural areas. Urban Population Distribution in Different Cities & Towns I II III 100,000 & More 50,000-99,000 20,000-49,999 61.48 12.3 15 IV V VI 10,000-19,999 5,000-9,999 Less than 5000 8.08 2.85 .29

83. For whole India, the average distance among villages is 2.52 km. Average density of villages is highest in West Bengal, Bihar & U.P in that order. The maximum proportion of no of villages fall in the 500-999 category (25%), followed by 200-499 (24.3%) & less than 200 (18%). However the maximum population percentage is in 2000-5000 (30%) & 1000-2000 (26%). 84. The 35 million cities of India support more around 38 % of the total urban population. Chhattisgarh & Orissa do not have million cities. 85. The proportion of slums population to total population is highest in Meghalaya (41%) & lowest in Kerala (1.8%). Among the million plus cities highest proportion of slum population is in Mumbai & least in Patna. Maharashtra has highest slum population. 86. India grew at a rate of 1.93 % during the period 1991-2001. The population of the country rose by 21.34 % during 1991 - 2001.


Ghanshyam Thori specific while National parks are habitat oriented. 88. Badrinath is situated on the banks of river Alaknanda.

Geography Notes

87. Human activities are allowed in Sanctuary but not in National parks. Moreover sanctuaries are species

89. Rabaris are pastoralists in Gujarat. The highest Christian population is in Nagaland. Largest number of villages is in U.P. Essential Extra Reference List of National highways (page 15.82 Indian Geograhphy TMH-Surendra Singh) Pratyogita Darpan page 287. Million cities of India (Geography Notes) Cities in India & their industry (E.g Firozabad glass), Cities situated on river banks. Refer TMH guide for tables to be pasted

Important Works of Geographers 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. Illiad, Odyssey Ges-Periodos Description of the earth Ekumene Geographica Almagest or Syntaxis (on astronomy) The outline of geography (consisted of Graticule for place location) Historia Naturalis De Chorographica A book of routes & realms Kitab-al-Ashkal Kitab-Miraj-al Dhahab, Kitab-al-Tanbhwal Ishraf, Kitab-Akhbaral-Zaman & Kitab-al-Ausat Kitab-al-Hind, Al-Qanum-al-Masudi, Tarik-ul-Hind, Kitab-alJamakhir, Ahal-al-Bagiya, Kitab-al-Saydna, Rashikat-al-Hind Amusement for Him who desires to travel around the world Rogers Book Rihlah Muqaddimah Introduction to world history Panch Siddhantika Siddhant Tatwavivek Introduction to Universal Geography Geography delineated forth in two bookes Homer Hecataeus Eratosthenes. Strabo Ptolemy Pliny Pomponius Mela Ibn Huakal Al Balkhi Al-Masudi Al-Biruni Al-Idrisi Ibn Batuta Ibn-Khaldun Varahmihira Kamlakar Cluvarius Nathaneal Carpenter Comte de Buffon Varenius Varenius

19. Histoire naturelle (compendium about earth & living things) 20. Geographia Generalis 21. Description regni Lapaniate et Siam


Ghanshyam Thori 22. Critique of Pure Reason, Critique of Judgement & Anthropology from pragmatic point of view 23. Ankundingung 24. General Natural history & theory of Heavens 25. Kosmos & Relation Historique 26. Erdkunde, 6 maps of Europe, Essays on Methodology Europe: A Geographical, Historical & Statistical Painting 27. Anthropogeographie, Political Geography 28. Das Ausland (editor) & Geschichte der Erdkunde. 29. Travel in the Columbian Andes, Geography: Its history character & methods , A geography of man , Transport geography, Economic Geography 30. Foundations of Regional Geography 31. Principles de Geographie Humaine 32. Geographie Humaine: Essai de classification positive 33. La Terra 34. Les Sciences Geographiques 35. Problems de Geographie Humaine 36. American history & its geographical conditions, Influences of Geographical Environment. 37. The pulse of Asia, Civilization & Climate, Principles of Human Geography. 38. The geography of the central Andes 39. Morphology of the landscape 40. Physiography 41. Heartland Theory , Britain & the British Seas & Democratic Ideals & Reality 42. The geographical pivot of history 43. Americas strategy in worlds politics Geography of the peace. 44. Geographic perspective on Urban systems 45. The quantitative revolution & theoretical geography 46. The makers of modern geography 47. Models in human geography, Locational Analysis in Human Geography & Frontiers of geographical teaching. 48. Geography: A modern synthesis 49. Handbook of commercial geography 50. Cities in Evolution 51. History of Civilization of England 52. Geographical introduction to history 53. Tableau de la geographie de la France 54. A Handbook of Physical Geography, Guiding principles of General Political Geography 55. Traite de Geographique Physique. 56. Atlas de France 57. Geography made easy, American Universal Geography 68

Geography Notes Immanuel Kant Immanuel Kant Immanuel Kant Humboldt Carl Ritter Friedrich Ratzel Oscar Peschel Alfred Hettner

Hettner Vidal Blache Jean Brunhes Elisee Reclus Camille Vallaux Albert Demangeon Ellen C. Semple Huntington. Isaiah Bowman Carl O Sauer. Rollin D. Salisbury Mackinder Mackinder Nicholas Spykman B.J.L. Berry Ian Burton R.E. Dickinson Hagget & Chorley Hagget Chisholm Partrick Geddes Buckle Lucien Febvre Blache A. Supan (German) De Martonne Margarie & De Martonne Jedidiah Morse

Ghanshyam Thori 58. 59. 60. 61. 62. 63. 64. 65. 66. 67. 68. 69. 70. 71. 72. 73. 74. 75. 76. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11.

Geography Notes


The American Geography Nature of Geography Hartshorne Perspectives on the nature of geography Hartshorne The decision process in spatial context Julian Wolpert Regional geography of India R.L. Singh The geography of Puranas S. M. Ali The nature of Cities Harris & Ullman Explanations in Geography (b) Social justice & the city David Harvey All possible worlds Preston .E James The structure of scientific revolution Thomas Kuhn The economics of location August Losch Limits to growth Dennis Meadows The city in history Lewis Mumford Spatial Organization of society R. Morill (A) Some aspects of Medical Geography (B) Asia L.D. Stamp The development of social physics John Q. Stewart Intervening Oppurtunities S. Stouffer The isolated state Von Thunen Space & Place in human geography Yi-Fu Tuan The spirit & purpose of geography S. Woolridge Famous quotations Geography is concerned to provide accurate, orderly & rational Hartshorne description & interpretation of the variable character of earth suface. Man is the product of the earths surface. Ellen Semple Man is a geographical agent & not the least. Lucien Febvre There are no necessities but everywhere possibilities. Lucien Febvre. Mutually coordinated & not subordinated in space on Possibilism Hettner Climatic influences are persistent, often obdurate in their control Semple Routes through which people have migrated have impressed upon their Demolins. social characteristics Supreme achievements of civilization were bounded by climate Huntington. Everywhere man contributes in inverting the physiognomy of earth Brunhes Geography is the mirror & reveals essence of human existence & striving Yi Fu Tuan Humanism is a conviction that men & women can best improve their lives Ralph by thinking & acting for themselves & especially by excercising their capacity for reason. We should study the earth as if we were sitting in a balloon & looking Brunhes down upon it. Contributions of Greeks Father of Geography in Greek period. Wrote Illiad & Odyssey. Believed earth to be a circular floor surrounded by oceans on all sides. Boreas (N), Eurus(E), Notus (S), Zephyrus (W) winds Six Geometric Theorems. Earth disc floating in water. Water essence of all matter. Reported magnetism of a loadstone. Disciple of Thales. Introduction of Gnomon today called sundial. First to draw a map of the world to scale with Greece at center. Thales 69



2. 3.

Thales (624-548 B.C.) Anaximander

Ghanshyam Thori 4. 5. 6. 7. Democritus Pythagoras Hecataeus Herodotus

Geography Notes & Anaximander founded mathematical geography. Introduced a theory of origin of universe based on atoms in the void. Rotation of earth on its axis. Originated literary tradition in geography. First writer in Greek prose. Wrote Ges-Periodos. Laid the foundation of regional geography. Opposed Hecataeus. First great historian. Nile mud causes delta & winds blow from colder places to warmer places. Regarded Caspian sea as an inland sea. Considered earth as circular plate in water. First to draw a meridian on the world map. First to divide the world into three land masses- Europe, Asia & Libya Master of deductive reasoning. First to announce the concept of round earth located in the centre of the universe with celestial bodies revolving around it. Master of inductive thought. Accepted Platos concept of spherical earth & sought explanation for it (eclipse, pole star). Interested in mathematical geography Studied with Aristotle for only 3 years. Special interest was in meteorology. Father of Geography & coined the term Geography. Calculation of the circumference of the earth. Wrote Ekumene in which he accepted two torrid zone, two temperate & two frizid zones. He improved on Aristotle by giving mathematical boundaries to these zones. Interested mainly in physical geography. Succeeded Eratosthenes as chief Librarian. First to divide a circle into 360 degrees. Defined grid of latitude & longitude. Pointed equator as a great circle & longitude too. Wrested with the problem of showing curved surface area on a flat surface. Designed orthographic & stereographic projections. Invented Astrolabe to determine latitude using pole star. Discovered the precision of the equinoxes. Refuted the idea that equator region was uninhabitable. Wrote a book the Ocean & was considered an authority on oceanography. Roman Geographers Most of the earlier scholars works disappeared. Defended Homers work & discarded Herodotus. First correct explanation of Niles flood. 8 books on Europe, 6 books on Asia & one on Africa. Considered earth as oblong. Interested in political geography. He divided geography into physical, mathematical, political & historical. He was basically a regional geographer. Mathematical geographer & Astronomer. Earth was a sphere that remained stationery in the center while the celestial bodies moved around it (remained accepted till 17th century-Copernicus). Far ahead in map projections & map improvements. Considered India ocean to be enclosed on the south by unknown land (Terra Incognita). First to draw Bay of Bengal & Volga (Rha) on his map. Equatorial land was considered uninhabitable. Periplus of Scylax-shores of Mediterranean & Periplus of Arrian-


Plato (428-348 BC) Aristotle (384-322 BC)


10. Alexander 11. Theophrastus 12. Eratosthenes (276-194 BC)

13. Polybius 14. Hipparachus

15. Posidonius


Strabo (64 BC-20 AD)


Ptolemy (90-168 AD)


Pomponius Mela


Ghanshyam Thori

Geography Notes Black Sea (guidelines to ship captains). Widely quoted in works of Pliny the elder. Compedium of geography that dealt with a theory of culture. Food form virgin earth-Pastralism-Agriculture-Contemporary culture. Wrote Historia Naturalis General geographical account of the world. Contribution of Arabs Traveled extensively in last 30 years. Noted people in considerable numbers in equatorial regions. A book of routes & realms. Said that the Caspian is not connected to the Northern Sea by channel. First climatic Atlas of the world. Kitab-al-Ashkal Monsoon description. Described evaporation & condensation. Kitab-Miraj-al Dhahab, Kitab-al-Tanbhwal Ishraf, Kitab-Akhbar-alZaman & Kitab-al-Ausat. Divided the world into 7 regions based on languges. Division of world into 14 climatic regions. Noticed that meridians also affect climate. Southern hemisphere was open ocean Kitab-al-Hind- Geography of India in which he described significance of rounded stone. Tides caused by moons. Towards the south pole night ceases to exist. Himalayas source of perennial river Knowledge of Landforms Mountain streams cutting down the valley in Central Asia. Mountains are raised & immediately exposed to erosional process. Fossils- Nature efforts to create life ending in Failure Extensive correction of erroneous ideas handed down from Ptolemy Corrects idea of enclosed Indian ocean & Caspian sea as gulf. Position of Danube, Niger-Correction of several mountain ranges Confirmed Ibn Haukal that equatorial region was habitable. Served Mongol emperor at Delhi. Visited China, Ceylon, Sumatra, Maldives. Covered 75000 miles a world record. Descried the house types & building materials in deserts. Emphasized & wrote on man-environment relationship. Repeated the mistake of uninhabitable equatorial zone.

4. 5. 6.

Marcus Tarantius Varro Pliny Solinus


Ibn Haukal (943-978 AD) Al Balkhi Al-Masudi

2. 3.

4. 5.

Al-Maqdisi Al- Biruni (973-1039 AD) Ibn Sina or Avicenna



Al Idrisi at Palermo



9. 10.


Contribution of Indian Geographers 1. The first reference to Bhogol in Indian Literature is found in Suryasiddhanta & in the Padma Puranas a distinction has been made between Bhogol (Geography), Khogol (the space science) & Jyotishastra. 2. The ancient Indian literature has a reference of seven dwipas or continents. The southern dwipa was named Jambu. The Meru (Pamir knot) lying in the center of the Jambu was heaven. River Sita (Hwang Ho) lies on the eastern side of Meru. Other dwipas were kusu dwipa (Iran, Arabia), Plaska dwipa (Mediterranean), Puskara dwipa (Russia-east of Urals), Kraunca dwipa (area above black sea), Saka dwipa (Burma, Thailand, Vietnam, and Indonesia) & Salmali dwipa. 71

Ghanshyam Thori nor rises. Akshansa (latitudes) & Deshantara (longitude) were known.

Geography Notes

3. The spherical shape of the earth was visualized by the Aitareya Brahmana who stated that the sun neither sets

4. Vasanta (spring), prourit (rainy season), sarad (autumn) & hemanta (severe winter). The chapters of geography in Puranas have been called Bhuvankosh. Pre-Modern Period 1. 2. German geographer of 17th century. Wrote introduction to universal geography. Emphasized & wrote on regional geog. Varenius or German. Wrote Geographia Generalis. Laid down the foundation of the Bernhard Varen dichotomy of Systematic Vs Regional Geography. Divided general or (1622-1650) systematic geography into Absolute (terrestrial), Relative (Planetary-earth relationship with other parts) & the Comparative (location, navigation) parts. Advocated highest temperatures in tropics rather than equator. Believed in heliocentric concept of Copernicus, Kepler & Galileo. J.R. Forster & J. Father & son in that order. Accompanied Captain Cook on his voyage. Visited G. Forster Volga steppe on invitation of the Russian government. There method of working has been often named comparative method. Immanuel Kant German. Professor of Geography at the university of Konigsberg. Gave (1724-1804) philosophical dimension to geography. Gave logical classification (similar origin) & physical classification (same time). Physical classification gives the basis for geography & history. Identified physical geography as including not only natural features but also man. World as perceived by inner senses is soul & by outer senses is nature. Laid down the foundation of Exceptionalism in Geography i.e. geography & history are methodologically distinct from other sciences. Said that generalization in the form of laws is useless in geography & regarded it as as Idiographic. Geography was chorological & history chronological. Alexander Von Father of Modern Geography. Coined the term Cosmography & divided it Humboldt into Uranography (astronomy), geography (physical feature) & Concept of (1769-1859 AD) whole (visualized earth as inseparable whole). Affect of altitude, Temperature variation at same latitude with distance from sun, Map showing isotherms (invention), concept of Continentality, Coined the term Permafrost Extensive studies of Ecuadorian volcanoes, Concluded that graphite, gneiss are of volcanic origin, description of vertical zones of Andes, Humboldt or Peruvian current. Exact longitude calculation for Lima, established correlation between forest & rainfall. Lake Valenica in Venezuela was shrinking due to deforestation. Explored Orinoco & established its connection with Amazon. Explored virgin lands of Siberia. In his Relation Historique he laid down the foundation of plant geography. Divided regions of Latin America into botanical provinces. His Kosmos talked about universe & geographical thought since Egyptians. Believed in empirical, comparative & inductive method. Carl Ritter Was a teleologist. Gave the concept of Unity in Diversity. Stressed on land (1779-1859 AD) & water hemispheres, distinction between the rates of cooling of land & Cluvarius






Ghanshyam Thori

Geography Notes water. Defined geography as empirical science rather than deductive. Was a professor at university of Frankfurt & Berlin & founded the Berlin Geographical Society. He rejected the idea of Pure Geography(Reine Geography) & said that history & geography must always remain inseparable. Chiefly concerned with the studies of human geography. Identified each continent with a different race. He was an armchair geographer. Wrote Erdkunde meaning science of the earth. Asia & Africa covered but not Europe.


German School of Thought Worked at university of Munich & Leipzig. Application of Darwins concept to human species called Social Darwinism. Studied modes of life of Germans outside Germany. Published two books on N. America. Anthropogeographie talked about the effects of different physical features on the life of people. Coined the term Anthropogeography Protagonist of Determinism. Wrote Political Geography where he compared state to an organism & persuaded Germany to expand. It was his policy of Lebensraum or living space that urged to expand-Organic theory of State. It earned him the title of founder of political geography. He also gave the stages through which human society passes. 2. Oscar Peschel First professor at university of Leipzig after Ritters death. Editor of Das Ausland & wrote Geschichte der Erdkunde. Contributed very much to the development of geomorphology through a study of relief types. 3. Ferdinand Von First to identify Loess in China. His studies of China were published in Richthofen five volumes. 4. Alfred Hettner Disciple of Ratzel & Richthofen. Revived the concept of geography as chorology. Published Geography: Its history character & methods. Supported Possibilism. Geography as Landshatskunde (landscape science) became popular during his period. 5. Otto Schluter Hettner-Schluter controversy. It was Schluter who applied the term Landshaftskunde to describe the concept of geography. He objected to chorological definition of geography. 6. Albrecht Penck First use of the term geomorphology. Pencks ideas inspired Koppen. Other German geographers were Obst, Waibel, Sapper, Gustav Brown, Andree, Karl Haushofer & Walther Christaller. Friedrich Ratzel (1844-1904 AD) French School of Thought Founder of Human Geography. Pays as basic homogenous region to study as opposed to drainage basins. He developed the idea of Terrestrial Unity. Wrote, Principles de Geographie Humaine. Founded a journal called, Annals de Geographie. Gave the concept of Terrestrial Harmonies Man & his environment. Wrote Geographie Humaine: Essai de classification positive. He divided human geography into unproductive occupation of the soil, Plants & animal conquest & destructive exploitation. Disciple of Carl Ritter & a determinist. Wrote La Terra. Major work in physical geography. Son in law of Blache. Wrote Traite 73


Vidal de la Blache (1848-1918 AD)


Jean Brunhes

3. 4.

Elise Reclus De Martonne

Ghanshyam Thori 5. 6.

Geography Notes

de Geographique Physique. Camille Vallaux Wrote Les Sciences Geographiques. Albert Demangeon Devoted most of the time to editing Annals. Wrote Problems de Geographie Humaine. Interested in rural settlements. Other geographers were Gallois, Blanchard, Bauling, Jean Gottmann, A. Siegfried, J. Ancel American School of Thought Father of American Geography. One of the founders of the Association of American Geographers estd in 1904. Jefferson, Bowman, Huntington, Semple & Birmingham were some of his students. Coined the term Ontography to denote the organic half of geography. He added subsequent, obsequent & resequent to Powells 3 types of rivers. Advocate of Darwinism Professor at the Michigan State normal college in Ypsilanti for 38 years. Never accepted the concept of determinism. Concept of central place, primate city & civilizing rails. Disciple of Ratzel at Leipzig. Her first book was, American history & its geographical conditions. Her version of Ratzels Anthropogeographie was, Influences of Geographical Environment Worked on Mediterranean region for about 20 years. Published, The pulse of Asia. Wrote, Civilization & Climate in which he said that mans civilization could develop only in regions of stimulating climate. His book, Principles of Human Geography was a college textbook. Determinist in approach. Thesis on The geography of central Andes. Pioneered boundary studies Guatemala-Honduras dispute. Earlier determinist later possibilist. Wrote Geographic influences on American history. He was critical of people making generalizations about climatic influences on humans. Recognized as best teacher in the university. He published his ideas in Physiography. Activist of the possibilistic movement. Protagonist of Chorological Theme. Published, The morphology of the landscape in which he explained the concept of Landschaft. Did not deny determinism. British School of Thought Heartland Theory , Britain & the British Seas & Democratic Ideals & Reality They have authored Models in human geography, Locational Analysis in Human Geography & Frontiers of geographical teaching. Founder of Le Play society. Wrote City in Evolution. Gave the concept of urban conurbation. Assistant of Geddes at Oxford Wrote, Handbook of commercial geography. Wrote, General Geography.

1. 2.

Jedidiah Morse W. Morris Davis (1850-1934 AD)


Mark Jefferson


Ellen Churchill Semple (1863-1932) Ellsworth Huntington


6. 7. 8. 9.

Isaiah Bowman Albert Parry Birmingham Rollin D. Salisbury Carl O Sauer

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Malford Mackinder P. Hagget & Richard Chorley Patrick Geddes J. Herbertson Chisholm Robert Mill


Determinists & Possibilists Hippocrates, Aristotle, Strabo, Al Masudi, Ibn Haukal, Al-Idrisi,


Ghanshyam Thori (Ancient period) (Pre-Modern Period) Modern Period Possibilists

Geography Notes Ibn-Khaldun, J. Biodim, Motesquieu, Humboldt, Ritter, Haeckel, Buckle, Demolins Ratzel, Semple, Elise Reclus, Darwin, Huntingon, Taylor Lucien Febvre, Durkheim, Blache, Jean Brunhes, Hettner, Mark Jefferson Carl O Sauer, Isaiah Bowman, Barrow, Fleure (genre de vie).


Quantitative Revolution Radicalism










Various Paradigm Shifts & Approaches in Geography 1950s-1960s. Make precise statements about locational order. Use mathematical language (Cwg). No place for normative questions. Great emphasis on locational analysis. Developed as a reaction to quantitative revolution & positivism. Concerned with issues of social relevance like racism, poverty, inequality etc. In 1969, Antipode, a journal of radical geography was launched at Clark university. Marxism provided a firm theoretical base for the radical movement. Fall of USSR gave radicalism a blow. Cognition is the key. It treats man as a responder to stimuli. It has maintained strong positive ties with the positivist tradition & is still widely accepted within the positivist orientation. Julian Wolpert in Decision process in spatial context landuse in Sweden Pred devised a behavioral matrix on the basis of information availability & skill Huff developed the idea of understanding the consumer spatial behaviour. Haggerstand developed the idea of spatial diffusion of innovation. Lowenthal tried to study the goal motivations of a person & how he acts. K.R. Cox was the first to introduce behavioral concept in political geography. Peter Gould gave the concept of mental maps. W. Tobbler (Geometry of mind). Conceptual framework was given by downs (See fig) A conventional model of man-environment relationship was give by boulding. Sonnenfield proposed 4 levels at which the environment should be studied viz Geographical, Operational, Perceptual & Behavioural from outside to inside. Poteus recognized existence of (a) phenomenal environment (physical objects) (b) the personal environment (perceived images of real environment) (c) the contextual environment (culture, religion, beliefs). Developed as dissatisfaction from models of spatial science. The important proponents were Kirk, Tuan, Sauer, Vidal, Lowenthal, Wright. Woolridge claimed that historical geography must see countryside through the eyes of the farmer. Later John Wright introduced the term Geosophy as a part of his contention that geographical knowledge is part of mental stock of all humans. Lowenthal tried to study goal motivations of a person & how he acts. Kirk became popular later. However the term Humanistic geography was coined by Yi Fu Tuan in 1976. Tuan explored 5 themes of general interest to geographers viz (a) Geographical knowledge (b) Territory & place (c) Crowding & Privacy (d) Livelihood & Economics (e) Religion. Also called Empericism. It is anti-idealism. It excludes normative questions. It has been criticized by realists, Marxists, existentialists, behaviouralists. Proponents: Auguste comte , BJL Berry, David Harvey, William Bunge. It is an action oriented approach & led to the development of applied geography. It is modified form of Positivism. 75

Ghanshyam Thori 7. 8.

Geography Notes



11. 12. 13. 14.






Proponents: Pierce Functionalism Used by Jean Brunhes. Very popular these days e.g. Mumbai, Tatanagar can be explained on the basis of the functions they perform Existentialism Emphasizes that man is responsible for making his own nature. It emerges to challenge & even abandon purely objective, quantitative & deterministic analysis. It is the study of biography of landscape. Idealism It is in opposition to naturalism & materialism. According to this, it is possible to reconstruct logical sequence of thought of another person. Proponent: Leonard Guelke Realism It says reality exists independent of the mind. It is opposite to idealism. Close to positivism but different methodology. Positivists ask how & realists - why. Proponent: Gibson, Cook Wilson (Nave Realism), T.P. Nunn (New/Critical realism). Probabilism Postulated by Spate. It said that although physical environment does not determine human actions, it does make some responses more likely than others. Marxism Developed against capitalism. Main concern is social issues. Proponent: David Harvey. Historicism Chronological description. Ignores spatiality Post Recent movement in humanities, philosophy, arts & social sciences. It Modernism developed in reaction to historicism in modern geographical thought. Its distinguishing characteristics are: Skepticism towards the grand claims & grand theory of the modern era & their claim to intellectual superiority. Welfare Issue like poverty, regional imbalances, slums etc are its focus Approach Proponents: David Harvey, D. M. Smith. Other Geographical Paradigms Areal Coined by Hartshorne in his Nature of Geography. It is concerned with areal Differentiation variation of human & physical phenomena. It helped in the reconstruction of regional geography. It is also known as Chorology or Chorography. Locational Focuses on spatial arrangement of phenomena. Its purpose is to build accurate Analysis generalizations, models & theories. It is based on positivism. Proponents: Bunge, Mc Carty, Hagget, Morril, Chorley, Cox, Harvey, Johnston Regional The whittlesey committee on regional geography which drafted the document Synthesis on regional geography published in James & Jones (1954) defined region as Any segment or portion of the earths surface which is homogeneous in terms of such an areal grouping. System Framework for investigating the structure & function of a system. Analysis Environmental Perception & Behaviour (After Downs)


Ghanshyam Thori
Value System Perceptual Filters Perceptual Receptors Information

Geography Notes


Real World



Conventional Model of Man-Environment Relationship (Boulding) Environment Image Behaviour

Miscellaneous Facts 1. Ritter & Humboldt both died in the year 1859, the same year in which Darwin published his Origin of Species. 2. Greeks are often given credit for their monopoly in speculation. Mathematical geography attracted most of the Arab geographers. Ibn Batuta described Morocco as having best climate. 3. Busching belonged to the Political Statistical School. Leyer suggested the natural boundaries for regional studies. The idea of German-centered Europe was given by Nauman. Kjellen was one the most famous Swedish political geographer. 4. The use of natural geography rather than political boundaries for the description of regional geography is known as Reine Geography. Bauche initiated this approach, Getterer divided the whole world into natural


Ghanshyam Thori delimited regions even on the basis of climate, vegetation, etc.

Geography Notes

regions. Hommeyer implemented this approach & Zeune brought more sophistication in it in that he

5. Peter Kropotkin & V.V. Dokuchaiev were important geographers of the Russian school of thought. 6. The Cultural or social determinism popular among American geographers. Edward Ullman is a strong proponent of this theory. 7. Schaefer (1953) in his paper titled, Exceptionalism in Geography in which he criticized exceptionalists & asked geographers to adopt methodology of scientific positivism. Hartshorne met this criticism by writing, Perspectives on the nature of Geography in which he stuck to his chorological concept of Geography. The result was adoption of nomothetic approach in geography. 8. Areal Differentiation is also known as Chorology or Chorography. 9. Voluntarism is one of the latest approaches in geography which states that human mode of life depends upon his interaction with his environment. It considers man as a modifier of nature. 10. The heartland (or Pivot Area) theory was given by Mackinder. Heartland referred to Eastern Europe. Mackinder considered the eastern & western side of the Atlantic to be complimentary to each other. 11. The Rimland theory was given by Nicholas Spykman. Rimland referred to the rimland of Eurasia. This theory considered that the key to the supremacy of the world lies in a combination of land power & sea power. 12. Froebel was a staunch opponent of the Comparative method. He said that no one place or mountain can be compared with others as they are not alike. He also rejected teleological view. 13. Marco Polo was an Italian. Bartholomew Diaz, was a Portuguese navigator who discovered Cape of good hope. Columbus was Italian & Vasco de Gama was Portuguese. Balboa (Spanish) crossed the Isthmus of Panama & became the first European to see the Pacific. James Cook (England) made three Pacific Voyages: First to Tahiti, second to New Zealand & third to Hawaii. Francis Champlain established Quebec City as the first French colony in Canada. Magellan & Francis Drake took the journey of the whole world. 14. The term Compage was use by Whittlesey means a total region is distinguished by a community of feeling among its inhabitants as well as by all features of the physical & biotic environment. 15. L.D. Stamp carried out the land utilization survey in Great Britain. Torsten Haggerstand developed the stochastic model apart from spatial diffusion of innovation & migration studies (Sweden). 16. Genre de vie means genre of living i.e. same pattern of living. Regional synthesis is associated with B.J.L. Berry who wrote Approaches to regional analysis: A synthesis. Teleology is opposite to causal explanation.


Ghanshyam Thori material environment.

Geography Notes

17. Topophilia was coined by Yi-Fu Tuan to denote all the effective ties & love of a human being for his

18. Edward Ackerman was an American geographer who encouraged his students to take up quantitative approach wrote, Where is the research frontier.

Various Types of Maps 1. 2. 3. 4. Chorochromatic Choroschematic Isopleth Choropleth Maps in which different colours are used to show distribution Maps where pictures of various phenomena or commodities are used. E.g. a car depicts automobile production. Also called isarithmic maps. Used for representing rainfall, temperature & pressure data. Technique of representing quantitative data by means of varying densities of shades in single colour. In it administrative area gets primary importance unlike isopleth where distribution is primary. Used for population density distribution, cropping intensity etc. Representing absolute numbers on map. Flow line used to represent migration, trade, traffic etc. Map Projections Equal area or orthographic projection Orthomorphic or true shape projection Azimuthal or Zenithal projection Equidistant Homolographic

5. 6.

Dot Maps Flow Map

Accuracy of Size Accuracy of Shape Accuracy of Direction Accuracy of Distance/ Scale Accuracy of Area

On the basis of nature of developable surface Zenithal Projections Obtained with the help of a plain developable surface Conical Projections Obtained with the help of a conical developable surface Cylindrical Projections Obtained with the help of a cylindrical developable surface Conventional Projections Obtained without developable surface mathematically On the basis of point of tangent Developable surface touches the globe at equator Developable surface touches the globe at poles Developable surface touches the globe anywhere between the poles & the equator. On the basis of source of light When the source of light is at the center of the globe Source of light at the antipode to the point of contact of developable surface Source of light at infinity Azimuthal or Zenithal Projections

Equatorial Case Polar Case Oblique Case

Gnomonic Stereographic Orthographic


Ghanshyam Thori 1. Zenithal Gnomonic Polar case

Geography Notes Plain developable surface acting as tangent at the poles when source of light. The distance between parallels increases away from the poles. Equator cannot be shown. Application: small areas around the poles Source light at antipode. Distance between parallels of latitude increase away from the centre but the increase is less in comparison to gnomonic projection. Hence exaggeration away from pole is lesser. Entire hemisphere can be shown. The scale away from the center increases along both parallels & meridians but the proportion of increase in case of both is almost equal & this results in maintaining correct shape (orthomorphic) Application: Navigational & political maps of high latitudes Light at infinity. Distance between parallels decrease away from the pole. Directions from centre are correct as in all azimuthal projections. Scale along parallels is correct in Zenithal orthomorphic projection but along the meridians it is distorted. Both shape & size distorted away from centre. Application: Distribution Map in high latitude, Astronomical maps Non Perspective projection. Parallels are equispaced. Areas away from centre are exaggerated Application: Maps between 50 & 90 degree latitude. Also known as Lamberts Azimuthal Equal-Area projection. Distances between parallels decrease away from the equator. Distance along the parallels increases rapidly moving away from the centre but the exaggeration is compensated by shortening of distance along the meridians. The area therefore remains correct. Application: Distribution maps.


Stereographic or Azimuthal orhomorphic Projection (polar case)


Zenithal orthographic Projection (polar case)


Zenithal Equidistant Projection Zenithal Equal Area projection (polar case)


Conical Projections The circle along which the cone touches the globe is known as the standard parallel. The source of light is supposed to be at the centre of the globe. In all the pole is represented by an arc of circle. 1. Simple conical with one The standard parallel is divided to draw the lines of meridian. Scale standard parallel is true only along the standard parallel the other parallels being incorrect along their length. Scale is true along central meridian by construction & other meridians by being radii of same concentric curves. Area is true in a narrow zone on both sides of the standard parallel. Pole is different from centre of parallels. Application: boundary between USA & Canada. 2. Conical with two It is not a perspective projection as a cone can touch a globe only standard parallels or along one standard parallel. Parallels are equispaced. Scale is true Lamberts conformal along meridians. Between the standard parallels the distances are conical projection represented shorter than the actual distances & outside greater. Application: Trans-Siberian railway, area with great east to west but relatively smaller latitudinal distance 3. Bonnes Projection or In this all parallels are standard parallels as all are true to scale but Conical Equal Area for the purpose of construction, one standard parallel is selected Projection (usually centre). The central meridian is a straight line while others are smooth curves. The scale is correct only along the central 80

Ghanshyam Thori

Geography Notes meridian & along others it is exaggerated. The degree of exaggeration increases from the central meridian. It is an equal area projection but it is not orthomorphic. Application: Europe, North America, Australia. Not good for Asia because of large east west extent. Not used for Africa. Assumption of a number of cones, placed over the globe in such a manner that each one of these cones is tangent at a different parallel All parallels are drawn as standard parallels & representation is correct along them. The parallels are arcs of non-concentric circles & each of the parallels is drawn from a different centre. All meridians except for central are smooth curves. Application: Basis of International projection (World Toposheets) Countries with large north south but small east west extent Also called Lamberts conical equal-area projection. It is similar to simple conical with one standard parallel but the scale along the meridians in this projection is not correct. The exaggeration of the scale along the scale along the meridians is made good by proportional minimization of scale along the meridians. The parallels are all concentric circles but unequally spaced from each other. Meridians are all straight lines. Scale is correct along the standard parallel but exaggerated along the rest. Application: Distribution Maps in middle latitudes (as Equal Area). Can be used for a relatively large country like India.


Polyconic Projection


Conical Equal Area with one standard parallel

Cylindrical Projections While both conical & Azimuthal projections can be drawn for a single hemisphere, the cylindrical projections are drawn for both the hemispheres. 1. Simple Cylindrical or Non perspective. Meridians are drawn true to scale. All the Cylindrical Equidistant meridians are straight lines & their length is equal to half that of the equator. Both parallels & meridians are equally spaced. The equator & the meridians are true to scale. Scale along the parallels is increasingly exaggerated going away from equator Application: Narrow strip along the equator 2. Cylindrical Equal Area Non Perspective. Orthographic projection. Equator is true to Projection scale but none of the parallels & meridians is true to scale. It is based on the principle of reduction of scale along the meridians in proportion to the exaggeration along the parallels. Meridians are equispaced but the distance between parallels decreases away from the equator. The scale obviously increases more & more along the parallels away from equator. Application: Distribution maps because of equal area. 3. Mercators projection or Developed by Gerhard Kramer or Mercator. Meridians are cylindrical orthomorphic equispaced. The distance between parallels increases towards projection the poles. It is based on the principle of exaggerating the scale along the meridians in the same proportion as it increases along the parallels. It maintains the accuracy of shape of areas. Poles lie at infinite distance from the equator & so cannot be shown. Application: shows European countries larger than their actual 81

Ghanshyam Thori

Geography Notes

size & hence popular among British cartographers. Making charts of sailing routes by use of great circle & loxodrome. A loxodrome is a line of constant bearing that intersects all meridians at the same angle. A loxodrome is also called a rhumb line. Such a line is represented by a straight line on Mercators projection. Therefore the great circles are represented by straight line on mercators projection. Transverse Mercator projection is also known as Gauss Conformal Projection.


Sinusoidal or Mercator Samson-Flamsteed projection


Mollweides Projection or Babinets Equal surface projection


Galls Projection


Globular Projection

Conventional Projections The projection is an equal area one. It might be considered as a special case of Bonnes projection with equator as the standard parallel. Equator & parallels are shown as straight lines. The central meridian is a straight line while others are sine curves. Parallels are equispaced. The scale is true along the equator & the parallels but in case of other meridians there is an increasing exaggeration away from the central meridian. Application: Showing continents extending in the equatorial regions & also in middle lat. Not suited much for whole world. Equal area projection. Parallels are straight lines & meridians are elliptical in shape. Parallels are not equidistant & the distance between them decreases towards the poles. The meridians 90 degree E or W of the central meridian form a circle. The scale is not true along the equator. The maximum distortion of scale occurs at equator & polar areas. Application: Distribution map, Whole world represented better than sinusoidal projection. It is a stereographic cylindrical projection quite akin to Mercators but it is different in that it is not orthomorphic. The distance between the parallels is reduced to avoid too much exaggeration of areas towards the poles. The cylinder is thought to cut the sphere along the 45 degree N & S. Therefore 45 N & S are true to scale. So from these two latitudes, scale along the parallels decreases towards the equator & increases towards the poles. Application: General purpose world maps on single sheet. Meridians are drawn at equal distance along the equator. One degree of longitude along the equator & one degree of latitude along the central meridian are the same. It just depicts one hemisphere i.e. 90 E or W & not complete globe. The area of the central part is slightly lesser than real & vice versa.


Ghanshyam Thori

Geography Notes

Miscellaneous Facts 1. Maps are more accurate than plans. Comparative scale has two scales with different units with their zeros aligned. Diagonal scale facilitates reading fractional distance. 2. Maps drawn with a scale smaller than 1:1,000,000 are small scale maps & with greater scale large scale maps. Most of the wall maps & atlas maps are small scale maps. Topographical maps of India are published by the f, Dehradun at scales like 1:50,000 & 1:25,000. The topographical maps are based on International Sheets (4 degree lat. x 4 degree long.) that are prepared at a scale 1:1,000,000. Cadastral maps have a scale around 1:5000. 3. Maps can be enlarged or reduced using grid method, triangle method (for linear feature) or using Pantograph (works on the principle of parallelogram). The most accurate is photographic method. 4. A thematic map shows the spatial distribution of one or more specific data themes for standard geographic areas. The map may be qualitative in nature (e.g., predominant farm types) or quantitative (e.g., percentage population change). 5. In case of an overhanging cliff contour lines intersect. In case of a waterfall or vertical cliff the contour of different values might meet. Contours drawn on the basis of estimation are shown in the form of broken lines called form lines. 6. Hachures are broken lines drawn in the direction of slope & they are less accurate than contours. Higher the intensity higher the slope & vice versa. 7. Hythergraph is a type of climograph showing mean monthly wet bulb temperature & relative humidity. Developed by G. Taylor. NE (scorching-low humidity & high temperature), NW (Muggy -temperature & humidity both high), S.W (Raw-low temperature & high humidity) SE (Keen humidity & Temperature both high). Hythergraph


Ghanshyam Thori
Muggy Scorching

Geography Notes





8. Wind rose is a diagram to show the frequency & direction of wind where frequency is proportional to radii. 9. Block piling refers to piling of cubes to represent desired numbers. Pictographs represent the data by drawing symbolic pictures (e.g. drawing car for automobile production). 10. If a portion of the ground is cut vertically along a certain straight line, the side view of the cut forms a profile. When a number of profiles are drawn separately & arranged in a column representing a series from one end of the map to other, it is known as serial profiles. If all the profiles of a series of profile can be traced to a single frame it is called superimposed profile. In projected profile, the superimposed profile is modified in such a way that the portion of each profile which comes below the succeeding one is omitted (or rubbed off), Projected profiles thus show only those features which are not obstructed by higher intervening forms. Composite profiles only depict the ruggedness of the skyline. It is constructed to represent the surface as viewed in the horizontal plane of the summit-levels from an infinite distance. (Refer p-22 ensemble for diagram).The areas obstructed in a profile are known as dead ground. 11. In triangulation once the base line is determined, its end are used to measure the angle to a distant point using theodolite. Then using trigonometry the lengths of the two unknown sides can be determined as length of baseline & angles are known. 12. The bearing is the angular distance of an object from the magnetic north measured in a clockwise direction. The prismatic compass is used for measuring the bearing. 13. Spherical surface is undevolopable while cylindrical, conical, & a plane surface are developable. 14. Molleweids projection is based on the principle that a circle drawn with the minor radius of an ellipse occupies half the area of the ellipse with the same minor radius & the major radius twice the size of the minor radius. Aerial Photography, Remote Sensing & GIS 84

Ghanshyam Thori pictures over Centocelli, Italy.

Geography Notes

1. Gaspard Felix Tournachon took the first aerial photograph. Wilbur Wright took the first aerial motion

2. Radar is an example of active remote sensing sensor. Passive remote sensing sensors include photographic camera, Return Beam Vidicon, Electro-optical scanner, Imaging spectrometer. A photographic film can record over wavelength range about twice as broad as that of human eye (.3 to .9 microns). 3. The diaphragm determines the size of the opening for exposure & shutter determines the exposure time. In most of the aerial cameras the distance between their film plane (v) & the lens is precisely equal to the focal length (f) of the camera as 1/u in the lens formula becomes almost negligible because of large distance between the lens & the object on the ground. 4. The factors affecting the exposure measurements (extraneous effects) are divided into two types, geometric & atmospheric. Exposure falloff is an effect due to which a ground scene of spatially uniform reflectance does not produce spatially uniform exposure in the focal plane. Instead exposure is maximum at the centre & decreases towards the edges. Vignetting refers to internal shadowing resulting from the lens mounts & other aperture surfaces within the camera. Relief displacement is directly proportional to the height of the object & inversely proportional to the flying height above the ground. 5. A fast film requires lesser exposure time but it consists of large film grains which limit spatial resolution. Radiometric resolution refers to the smallest difference in exposure that can be detected on a given film analysis. Radiometric resolution is inversely proportional to contrast in an image. Due to this a higher contrast film is capable of resolving smaller differences in exposure. 6. The term remote sensing originated at the Willow Run laboratories of the University of Michigan, USA. TIROS (Television infra-red observation satellite) from which the first satellite TV image was taken. 7. Cosmic rays, Gamma rays & X rays cannot be registered with remote sensing methods. Most of the remote sensing methods work with visible, infra-red & micro-wave region. The non-blocked spectral regions are called atmospheric windows (.4 3.0 micron, 3 5 micron, 8 14 micron).


Diffuse or Lambertian

8. Most of the earths features are neither perfectly specular nor diffuse. The specular reflections do not contain spectral information, while spectral information is obtained in case of diffuse reflections. Hence in remote sensing diffuse reflectance properties are more important.


Ghanshyam Thori

Geography Notes

9. The reference data is called ground truth. GPS system consists of 24 satellites each of which revisit the same track & configuration at an interval of approximately 24 hours. Master control facility is located in Colorado Springs, Colorado. 10. Spectral reflectance is a measure of the portion of the incident energy that is reflected. A graph of spectral reflectance of an object as a function of the wavelength is known as spectral reflectance curve. Spectral Reflectance Curve

11. Aerial photographs give 3D view. Photogrammetry refers to the art & science of obtaining reliable measurements from photographs. Aerial photographs are of following types: Vertical (less than +3 degree tilt), Oblique (> +3 tilt in low oblique horizon does not appear & vice versa), Convergent (low oblique photograph taken from two cameras such that they form stereopair), Trimetragon (3 cameras one vertical & other two at 60 degree from vertical). 12. The point of intersection of the optical axis of the camera with the photo plane & the ground plane are photo principal point (p) & ground principal point (P) respectively. Point vertically below the perspective centre (camera lens) on the ground is called the ground nadir point or plumb point (N). The point of intersection of the bisector of the angle between the camera axis & the vertical with the photoplane is called as the photo isocentre (i). In case of vertical photograph all these points coincide. 13. Fiducial or collimating marks are located at the corner or in the middle of the edges of a photograph so that by joining them one cant locate the principal point. The scale of a photograph is given by the relationship f/H (f is focal length & H is flying height). Aerial photographs are small scale (< 1: 50,000), medium scale (1:50,000 to 1:12,0000 & large scale (> 1:12,000).


Ghanshyam Thori observation.

Geography Notes

14. Parallax is the apparent change in the positions of stationary objects solely due to change in the point of

15. Indian Air Force, Air Survey Co of India Ltd., Kolkata, NRSA, Hyderabad are the only authorized organizations to carry out aerial photography. Normally vertical aerial photography is carried out with 6080 % forward overlap & 25-40 % lateral overlap. 16. The first GIS was built by Canada. Most GISs use either a raster (grid cell) or vector (polygon) format to represent location. A coarse cell size needs less data storage space but is less accurate & vice versa. The raster data provides a greater computational efficiency particularly in overlay analysis. But the spatial resolution is limited to the size of the cells comprising the raster. Most commercial programs allow introversion. Vector data formats have relatively small data volumes. Most of the digital remote sensing data is collected in raster format. 17. A geostationary satellite remains stationary with respect to earth (36000 km altitude). A sun synchronous or polar orbit is such that the satellite passes over the same ground track at the same local time each day. A near polar retrograde orbit with altitude between 300 & 1000 km satisfies this condition. The advantage is global coverage but disadvantage is missing of diurnal effects. Most of the remote sensing satellites are sun synchronous. 18. The first Indian satellite Aryabhatta was launched in 1975. Bhaskara I & Bhaskara II in 1979 & 1981 respectively. APPLE was also launched in 1981. Indian Remote Sensing Satellites S 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Year 1988 1991 1995 1997 1999 Satellite Launched IRS-1A launched. LISS-linear imaging self scanning device. IRS-1B launched. Carried into space by SLV-3 an Indian rocket IRS-1C. WiFS wide field sensor. IRS-1D using Indian rocket PSLV-C1. Oceansat (IRS-P4). Carries Ocean Colour Monitor (OCM) & a multi-frequency scanning microwave radiometer (MSMR) used to measure chlorophyll concentration, turbid water. Resourcesat-1 Cartosat-1 (IRS-P5). It has stereo-imagery which can be used for digital terrain model (DEM) & digital elevation model. Sensor LISS I & LISS II LISS I & LISS II LISS III, PAN, WiFS LISS III, PAN, WiFS OCM MSMR LISS IV, AWiFS PAN-F, PAN-A

6. 7.

2003 2005

19. NRSA is the only agency which acquires & archives data for sale & distribution. Management of Indian resources is under National Natural Resources Management System (NNRMS). 20. APPLE was Indias first geostationary satellite used for conducting communication experiments. 87

Ghanshyam Thori

Geography Notes

21. LANDSAT-1 was launched in 1972. LANDSAT series have orbits between 705 km & 920 km. The sensors used are MSS (multispectral scanner), RBV (return beam vidicon), and ETM (Enhanced thematic mapper). 22. SPOT (France) has HRV (high resolution visible) & VMI (vegetation monitoring instrument) sensor 23. ERS (European remote sensing satellite), JERS (Japanese earth observation satellite), Radarsat (Canadian remote sensing satellite) are other programmes. 24. Multispectral imaging means simultaneous imaging using more than one wavelength. Light waves are scattered by particles in the atmosphere whose sizes are similar to the wavelength of light. 25. Theodolite uses a vernier scale for measurement. Geodetic surveys measure large regions of the earths surface & therefore take into consideration the curvature of the earth. They are used for establishing lines of latitude & longitude. 26. Ergograph shows temperature, humidity, rainfall, acreage of crops & their growing season. 27. Contrast ratio is the ratio between the brightest & the darkest parts of the image. 28. Digital image processing consists of image restoration (removal of data errors, noise etc), image enhancement (alter the visual impact) & information extraction Electromagnetic Spectrum Region Gamma Rays X-Rays Ultraviolet Visible Infrared Microwave Radio Wavelength in centimeters
< 10

Frequency in Hz
> 3 x 1019 3 x 1017 - 3 x 1019 7.5 x 1014 - 3 x 1017 4.3 x 1014 - 7.5 x 1014 3 x 1012 - 4.3 x 1014 3 x 109 - 3 x 1012 < 3 x 109

10-7 - 10-9 4 x 10-5 - 10-7 7 x 10-5 - 4 x 10-5 0.01 - 7 x 10-5 10 - 0.01 > 10


Ghanshyam Thori

Geography Notes Miscellaneous Geographical Features Northern Australia to the east of Gulf of Carpentra. Weipa (Bauxite) also lies in the same peninsula on the Carpen The largest area of flat land in Japan comprising Tokyo & other cities. Canada East of Hudson Bay & south of Baffin Island. Leading port of Ukraine in North Black Sea Japan, Korea, China & Taiwan India, China, Malaysia, Myanmar, Thailand, Cambodia, Vietnam & Laos Myanmar, Malaysia, Thialand, Singapore, Cambodia, Vietnam, Laos, Indonesia, Philipinnes. South west Asia & North Eastern Egypt. Lake Baikal Lake Volga Flows into bay of Bengal Drains into South China Sea Gulf of Tonkin Gulf of Martaban. Administrative region of China, on Chinas southeastern coast Midway between the coasts of Northern Ireland and England Capital of Heilongjiang province Java (Indonesia). Hokkaido Narrowest point on the Malay Peninsula, in Thailand Malaysia Island lying east of Sumatra, Indonesia. Famous for Tin mining & separated from Sumatra by Bangka strait.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22.

Cape York Peninsula Kanto/Kwanto Plain Ungava Peninsula Odessa Far East Indo-China South East Asia Middle East Deepest Lake Largest manmade lake Irrawady river Mekong river Red River Salween River Macao Isle of Man (U.K.) Harbin Bandung Sapporo Kra Isthmus Larut Plain Bangka

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Population by Continents (in millions) Asia 3879 Africa 877 Europe 727 North America 501 South America 379 Australia 32 World Population Milestones 1650 1820 1927 1960 1974 1987 1999

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

.5 billion 1 billion 2 billion 3 billion 4 billion 5 billion 6 billion


Ghanshyam Thori Tribes 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Yorubas Tauregs Karen Hmong Arawaks

Geography Notes

Nigeria Sahara Myanmar Known in China as Miao and in Southeast Asia as Meo. Native people of the Greater Antilles. Famous Mining Regions Copper Zaire Coal Zimbabwe Diamond Zaire Platinum S.Africa Iron Ore Australia (Hamersley Ranges) Coal & Lignite Australia (Near Brisbane) Coal China Bauxite China Crude Oil China (Heilongjiang province) Crude Oil China Crude Oil Burma Famous Dams/Falls Nile Zambezi Niger Zaire Volta Zambezi Lake Alberta (White Nile) Zaire

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11.

Lumbabshi Wankee Kasia Rustenberg Mt. Tom Price Ipswich Hubei Kansu (or Gansu) Daqing Dakang Chauk

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

Aswan Dam Kariba Dam Kainji Dam Boyoma Dam Aksombo Dam (Volta Dam) Victoria Falls Owen Falls Stanley Falls

Egypt Zambia & Zimbabwe Nigeria Congo Ghana Zambia & Zimbabwe Uganda Congo

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13.

Muroran Birmingham Houston Windsor Westphalia Shenyang Kyoto Milan Turin Leipzig Sarnia Akron Chelyabinsk

Important Industrial Centres Iron & Steel Hokaido, Japan Iron & Steel U.K. Oil Refinery USA Automobile Canada (on Detroit river) Iron & Steel Germany Iron & Steel China (Pittsburg of China) Handicrafts & Toys Japan Textile Italy Automobile Italy Optical Insruments Germany Oil Refinery Canada (East of Michigan) Synthetic Rubber South of Lake Erie (Ohio) Iron & Steel North of Magnitogorsk


Ghanshyam Thori 14. 15. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Nagoya Multan Lake Tana Lake Alberta Lake Assal Lake Biwa Lake Zaysan Lake Tonle Sab Lake Toba

Geography Notes Ship Building Japan Pottery Pakistan (E of Ganganagar) Important Lakes Ethiopia. Source of Blue Nile. Not formed by rift valley Border of Uganda, DRC Sudan Ethiopia border. Lowest point of Africa Japans Largest lake near Nagoya Kazhakstan Cambodia Sumatra (Crater) Mountain Chains Greece Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia Herz., Serbia & Montenegro Slovakia & Romania North of Rhodopi Mountains in Bulgaria Bulgaria South western Zimbabwe

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Pindhos Mountains Dinaric Alps Carpathians Balkan Mountains Rhodopi Mountains Matopo Hills

Denmark Estonia Finland France Germany Greece Italy Norway Portugal Spain Sweden United Kingdom

Islands & the Controlling Nation Bornholm, Faeroe Islands, Greenland Hiiuma, Saarema Aland Islands Corsica, Martinique, Reunion, Kerguelen (North of Antactica) Helgoland Crete, Sardinia, Sicily Svalbard Azores, Madeira Balearic Islands, Canary islands Gotland Isle of Man, Orkney Islands, Shetland Islands, Western Isles, South Sandwich , Falkland Island, Ascension Island, Bermuda. Rivers & Countries Issuing from NE of Lake Winnipeg & flowing to Hudson Bay. N-E Siberia Nothern Siberian region Fourth largest in Europe. Rises near Tula & flows to Sea of Azov Rises in Urals & flows into Arctic Liaoning province of China British Columbia (Canada). The longest river in France Rises in Russia, Belarus, Latvia & then into Gulf of Riga Spain Belarus & flows into Baltic Sea

Nelson Kolyma Olenek Don Pechora Liao Fraser Loire Daugava Tagus Neman River


Ghanshyam Thori Ebro Garonne James River Waikato Merrimack Spain Spain Virginia, United States New Zealands longest river N. E. United States.

Geography Notes

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32.

Bass Strait Torres Strait Cook Strait Dardanelles Strait Davis Strait Juan de Fuca Strait Kerch Strait Mackinac Strait Magellan Strait Makassar Strait Messina Strait Sunda Strait Bonifacio Strait Dover strait Soya Strait Tsushima Strait Tsugaru Strait Kii Strait Strait of Otranto Strait of Hormuz Strait of Tiran Tsugaru Strait Johor Strait Gulf of Carpentera Gulf of Bothnia Gulf of Lion Gulf of Martaban Gulf of Sidra Gulf of Tonkin Gulf of Mannar Spencer Gulf Gulf of Bo Hai

Some Important Straits & Gulfs Australia & Tasmania Australia & New Guinea North Island & South Island in New Zealand Aegean Sea & Sea of Marmara North Atlantic Ocean and Baffin Bay, NE Canada Washington and southern Vancouver, Canada Sea of Azov & Black Sea Lake Michigan & Lake Huron South American mainland & island of Tierra del Fuego Borneo & Sulawesi. Italy & Sicily Java & Sumatra Corsica Island (France) & Italian island of Sardinia (south). England & France. Connecting English Channel & North Sea. Sakhalin to the North & Hokkaido to the south. Korea & Kyushu Hokkaido & Honshu Honshu & Shikoku Connecting the Adriatic with the Ionian Sea. Italy & Greece. Persian Gulf & Gulf of Oman Gulf of Aqaba to the Red Sea. Between Hokkaido & Honshu. Singapore & Malay Peninsula Cape York Peninsula & Arnhem Land Arm of Baltic Sea between Finland & Sweden. Arm of Mediterranean Sea in Southern France South of Myanmar. Salween flows into it. North of Libya. Inlet of Mediterranean. South of China & East of Vietnam India & Srilanka. Tambraparni from India & Aruvi Aru from Srilanka flows into it. East of Adeilade. West of Korea.

Imaginary Lines & the countries through which they pass Tropic of Cancer Hawaii, Mexico, Bahamas, Western Sahara, Mauritania, Mali, Algeria, Niger, Libya, Chad (northern most point), Egypt, Saudi Arabia, UAE, Oman, India, Bangladesh, Myanmar, China, Taiwan Equator Ecuador, Colombia, Brazil, Sao Tome & Principe, Gabon, Congo, DR of Congo, Uganda, Kenya, Somalia, Maldives, Indonesia, and Kiribati. 92

Ghanshyam Thori Tropic of Capricorn

Geography Notes Brazil, Paraguay, Argentina, Chile, French Polynesia, Australia, Madagascar, Mozambique, South Africa, Botswana, Namibia Rivers of Africa

Changed Geographical Names Aurgangabad Sambhaji Nagar Dutch East Indies Indonesia East Timor Loro Sae Quilon Kollam Saigon Ho Chi Minh City Sandwich Islands Hawaii Islands Tanjore Thanjavur Greenland Kalaallit Nanaat


Ghanshyam Thori

Geography Notes

Sorbiquets 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. Britain of the South City of Eternal Springs Great White way Island of Fire Land of Marble Land of Morning Calm Land of Perpetual Greenery Never Never Land Pearl of the Orient Power Keg of Europe Quaker City Queen of the Adriatic Queen of the Arabian Sea Venice of the East Venice of the North White City White Mans Grave Worlds Loneliest Island Spice Garden of India The Sea of Mountains The Spice Island of the West George Cross Island Pillars of Hercules Garden Province of South Africa New Zealand Quito Broadway, New York Iceland Italy Korea Natal Prairies of North America Hong Kong Balkans Philadelphia, USA Venice Kochi Alappuzha, India Stockholm Belgrade, Yugoslavia Guinea Coast Tristan da Cunha Kerala British Columbia Grenada Malta Gibraltar Natal

Miscellaneous Facts: 1. Congo River is also known as River Zaire. 2. Altai Mountains extend from the headwaters of the Ob and Irtysh rivers in southern Siberia in Russia, into Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region of China and into Mongolia. The mountain range extending from northern California to British Columbia is called Cascades. Mt. Rainier near Seattle is its highest point. The loftiest mountain range in USA is Sierra Nevada. The Cambrian mountains are located in Wales. 3. Giants Causeway is located on the coast of northern Ireland. It is thought by geologists to have formed when an ancient lava flow cooled and solidified. 4. The major peninsulas of Russia starting from west to east are Kola peninsula, Kanin peninsula, Yamal peninsula, Gyda peninsula & Taymyr peninsula.


Ghanshyam Thori 5. Buryat Republic lies north of central Monglia. It is the homeland of buryats.

Geography Notes

6. The deserts of Western Australia from North to South are Tanami Desert, Great Sandy desert, Gibson desert & Great Victoria desert. Simpson desert lies in the central region north of L. Eyre. 7. San Diego city lies in the extreme southwest corner of California just above Mexico. Las Vegas lies in Nevada state & near Mojave Desert. Wellington, Capital of New Zealand comes under West European type of climate. In New Zealand the southern island is more developed compared to the northern. In china type of climate precipitation is around 100 cm & well distributed throughout the year. Marine west European climate experiences rainier winters than summers. 8. The climate of steppes can be summarized by hot summers and cold winters, averaging 30 cm of rain every year. The world's largest zone of steppes is found in central Russia and neighbouring republics of Central Asia 9. Langley is a unit equal to one gram calorie per square centimeter of irradiated surface, used to measure solar radiation 10. Baotou is in inner Mongolia, China & is known for iron & steel complex. Caracas, Capital of Venezuela comes under monsoon type of climate. Sao Paulo has China type of Climate. Adelaide has Mediterranean type of climate. 11. Khyber pass in Pakistan is located in the Hindu Kush range. It links Peshawar in Pakistan with Jalalabad in Afghanistan, where it connects to a route leading to the Afghan capital of Kabul. The route of the Bolan Pass links Quetta in Baluchistan Province with Kandahar in Afghanistan. Peshawar, Islamabad, Rawalpindi, Sialkot, Gujranwala & Lahore are from north to south in N. Pakistan. 12. Peurto Rico Trench is the deepest in Atlantic. 13. Liechtenstein, independent principality in central Europe; bounded on the east by Austria, and on the south, west, and north by Switzerland. Malta is an independent republic, south of Sicily. San Marino, republic in southern Europe, an enclave in northern Italy 14. Irtish River is the 9th longest in the world & has its source in Altai Mountains Russia. 15. Montego Bay is in Jamaica where the Sea Law Treaty was signed. 16. Rio de la Plata is the estuary formed from the combination of Uruguay River & the Parana River. 17. Andesite line marks the boundary between continental shelf & continental slope. Indian Ocean was known to the Greeks as Erythraean sea. 18. Zambia is an important producer of Copper & Zimbabwe is known for gold. Qeshm is the only island of Iran & lies in the strait of Hormuz. It is the biggest island in the Persian Gulf.


Ghanshyam Thori

Geography Notes

19. A person born in Puerto Rico is a US citizen. Atlantic Ocean is the roughest of all oceans. Its coastline is larger than those of Pacific & Indian Ocean put together. It receives more fresh water than any other ocean. 20. Prague is situated on the bank of river Vltava. Madrid (Manzarenes), Dublin (Liffey) & Rotterdam (Rhine, Maas & Scheldt). 21. Tuaregs are the tribal people of the Sahara. They speak a Berber language called Tamarshak. 22. California (Sunkist), Spain (Seviue), Tangier (Tangerine), China & Japan (Mandarin) are the various varieties of oranges. 23. Pustaz are temperate grasslands of Hungary. The cattle kept by the Masai are the zebu cattle. 24. Big Inch (Gulf of Mexico to NE US), Tap Line (Gulf & Arabian Peninsula to Mediterranean) & COMECOM (Urals & Volga to East Europe) are some of the important pipelines. 25. Birmingham is the second largest city in Britain. Aztecs & Mayas were flourished both in Mexico & surrounding regions. Incas were in Peru & the Andes. Polygon of Drought in Brazil is the NE region. 26. Oil is found in Venezuela (Lake Marcaibo), Iraq (kirkuk, Mosul, Basra), S. Arabia (Ghawar, Dharan, Abaqaiq), Chechnya (Grozny), Russia (Sakhalin), Nigeria (Port Harcourt). Yadavaran is the largest is Irans largest on shore oilfield. 27. Mt. Logan is the highest peak of Canada. Mt. Toubkal is the highest peak of Atlas mountains. 28. Antwerp is the chief port and second largest city of Belgium. Kaohsiung (Southern Taiwan) is among the top five busiest sea ports of the world. 29. Mexico is the leading producer of silver, sulphur & fluorite. Denver is the capital of Colorado. Hudson Bay is the worlds largest inland sea. 30. Brazil shares its boundary with all except Chile & Ecuador. The highest active volcano in the world Mt. Ojas del Salado (Argentina Chile is in the Andes). 31. Trans Andean Railways connect Buenos Aires & Valpariso. European transcontinental railway runs from Paris to Warsaw. Orient express runs from Paris to Istanbul. The Canadian Pacific railway runs from Saint John in New Brunswick to Vancouver on the pacific coast. Canadian National Railway runs from Vancouver to Halifax 32. Blue Nile originates from Lake Tana in Ethiopian Island & White Nile From Lake Victoria. White Nile & Blue Nile meet at Khartoum, the capital of Sudan. 33. Port Said (Mediterranean) is towards North & Port Suez towards south (Red Sea). 34. The northwest countries of Morocco, Algeria & Tunisia are together called the Maghreb which in Arabic means west. Oil Palm is an important agricultural product of Nigeria.


Ghanshyam Thori 35. Botswana is the worlds largest producer of gem quality diamonds (jewellery diamonds). 36. Liberia is the largest producer of coffee & rubber in Africa.

Geography Notes

37. Scandinavia applies to Norway, Sweden, Denmark & sometimes Iceland. Baltic states include Estonia, Latvia & Lithuania. Mont Blanc is situated on the French-Italian border. 38. Bavaria is the largest state of Germany & Munich is its capital. Kalinangrad is a part of Russia but separated from it by Lithuania. 39. The Baltic is connected with the North Sea by the Nord-Ostsee-Kanal (the Kiel or Kaiser Wilhelm Canal). Murmansk is the only ice free port along the arctic ocean route to Vladivostok. 40. Two important varieties of Eucalyptus in Australia are Jarrah & Karri. 41. New Zeland generates 7 % of its energy from geysers. The highest peak of the country is Mt. Cook. 42. Amu Darya forms a part of the border between Afghanistan & Turkmenistan. The enormous desert that covers Turkmenistan is Karakum. 43. The Euphrates originates in Turkey & flows past Syria & Iraq before meeting the Tigris. The joint waters of Tigris & Euphrates are called Shat-al-Arab. The Tigris also originates from Turkey. 44. Hokkaido is connected to Honshu across Tsugaru strait by an under sea tunnel. Kurile Islands lie to the NE of Hokkaido & separate the sea of Okhotsk from the Pacific. 45. The top 5 countries in terms of Hydro power potential are China, Brazil, CIS, Canada & India. While the top 5 in installed capacity are USA, Canada, China, Brazil & Norway. 46. Chimborazo is the highest extinct volcano & lies in Ecuador. 47. Botswana has the highest prevalence rate of AIDs while South Africa has highest absolute number of AIDS patients followed by India. 48. The great channel separates the Andaman & Nicobar Island from Sumatra. 49. Hammerfest, town in Northern Norway is the northernmost town of Europe. Stromboli is known as the light house of the Mediterranean. Le Havre is a city in Normandy, northern France, on the English Channel, at the mouth of the Seine. 50. Granite rock is metamorphosed into schist rock. 51. Grand Coulee dam (USA) is on Columbia river & Cobora Basa Dam (Mozambique) is on Oragnbe river. Hoover Dam (USA) is on Colorado river. 52. Mixed farming refers to sowing two or more crops in mixture in the same field. Multiple cropping means the planting of two or more different crops on the same acreage for harvest within the same crop year. 53. Liverpool, city in northwestern England, on the Mersey River, near its mouth on the Irish Sea.


Ghanshyam Thori Sea & Mediterranean sea.

Geography Notes

54. The following features are arranged in increasing geological age East African rift, Gulf of Aden, Atlantic

55. The Pantanal is the worlds largest freshwater wetland in Brazil. Pripet marshes are large wetlands along Pripet river in Belarus. The Great Okefenokee Swamp is the largest swamp found in all of North America. 56. The Bie Plateau occupies most of central Angola & the Okavango river rises here. Huila plateau lies to its south. 57. The top 5 wind power generating countries are Germany, Spain, USA, India & Denmark. 58. A geyser erupts intermittently. Hot springs are more common than geysers & the former are not explosive in general. 59. Tibet is enclosed between Kunlun to the North & Himalayas to the south. Takla Makan desert, Tarim basin & Turfan basin all lie between Tien Shan range to the north & Kunlun to the south. 60. Strato Cones (Cotopaxi), Dormant Volcano (Vesuvius), Shield Volcano (Mt. Kilavea, Mt. Etna), Composite cone. Examples of composite volcanoes include Mount Fuji (Japan), Mount St Helens (USA) and Mount Pinatubo (Philippines). 61. Cayman Trench, also called Bartlett Deep is a spreading ridge on the floor of the western Caribbean Sea between Jamaica and the Cayman Islands in the Atlantic Ocean. 62. The Russian cities from NW to SE are St. Petersburg, Moscow, Nizhny Novgorod (Gorky near Kazan), Magnitogorsk. Later from west to east Omsk, Novosibirsk, Novokuznetsk, Irkutsk, & Vladivostok. 63. Rostov (Gateway to Caucasus), St. Petersburg (largest port of Russia), Ivanovo (Machester of Russia) & Nizhny Novgorod (Detroit of Russia). 64. Mt. Rainier, Mt. Hood, Mt. Shasta are from North to South in NW USA. Polland is the world most polluted country. 65. The Cocos plate lies to the west of Panama in the Pacific north of Nazca plate. Caribbean plate lies east of Panama in the Carribean region. Scotia plate lies to the south of South America. 66. Dead Sea, Lake Tanganyika, Lake Nyasa are all rift valley lakes but Lake Victoria is not. Mangala dam is in Pakistan over river Jhelum. Tarelad Dam, the earths larges earthern dam is in Pakistan. Columbia plateau is volcanic in origin. Ozark plateau is domed. Tibetan plateau is intermontane. The Finger Lakes are glacially formed lakes in upstate New York. Cayuga is the longest of the finger lakes. 67. Azores, Bermuda, Canary Island & Cape Verde Island is the sequence from North to South. 68. White Sea, Kara Sea, Laptev Sea, East Siberian sea lie in that order from west to east. 69. In Bangladesh when Tista joins Brahmaputra it is known as Jamuna. When later Ganga joins the combined river is called Padma first & Meghna further downstream.


Ghanshyam Thori

Geography Notes

70. The mountain peaks in the Himalayas of Nepal going from west to east is Mt Api (W. Nepal), Mt Dhaulagiri, Mt Annapurna, Mt Manaslu (Central Nepal) & Mt Gaurishankar, Mt Everest, Mt Makalu & Mt Kanchenjunga (E. Nepal). Mt Pidurutalagala, the highest point in Sri Lanka. 71. Albania, Macedonia & Bulgaria lie to the North of Greece. Biskra depression is in Algeria. 72. Fremantle Doctor is a cooling afternoon sea breeze which occurs during summer months in coastal areas of Western Australia. The Guba wind occurs along the Papua coast (South of Papua New Guinea). 73. Forests cover 64 percent of Japans land area & it is one of the worlds largest importers of wood. The most densely populated province of Canada is Prince Edward Island. Klamath mountains are in California. 74. The lakes in Canada from North to south are Great Bear, Great Slave, Athabasca, Wollaston, Reindeer & Winnipeg. The cities of Canada along the St. Lawrence from North to South are Montreal, Ottawa, Toronto, Hamilton & Windsor. Sudbury lies to the north of Lake Huron. 75. Halifax (Nova Scotia), St. John (New Foundland) & Saint John (New Brunswick) are in Canada. The centre for steel industry in Canada is Hamilton. The city of Toronto is the largest in Canada followed by Montreal & Vancouver. 76. Basque people live along the Pyrenees in Spain. The Gap between the Pyrenees & the Central Massif is called the Belfort gap. The physical feature of France from North to south are Ardennes, Vosges, Jura & the Alps. Bohemian Forest is a highland region, rising mainly along the border between the Czech Republic and Germany, and also in Austria. 77. The southernmost of Japanese islands is Ryuku which lies to the south of Kyushu & North of Taiwan. Nagoya is the Detroit of Japan. Kitakyushu (Northern tip of Kyushu) is a conurbation of five cities. The most populous province of China is Sichuan. 78. Fushun, Shenyang (Formerly Mukden Main industrial cluster of Manchuria) & Anshan are in that order from North to South all in Liaoning province. Lop Nor is famous for nuclear activity. Qaidam basin is to the north of Tibet plateau & to the south of Kunlun Mountains. 79. The Sea of Galilee is Israel's largest freshwater lake & lowest freshwater lake on Earth and the secondlowest lake in the world after the Dead Sea. It is to the north of Dead Sea. 80. Ahaggar Mountains, also Hoggar Mountains, plateau region, southern Algeria, in the center of the Sahara. The major basin of Africa is El Djouf, now occupied by the Niger River Basin in West Africa. Karoo is a semidesert plateau regions in southern South Africa. Adamawa Plateau region, west central Africa, is in central Cameroon, extending into southeastern Nigeria and western Central African Republic. Futa Jallon, highland region in west central Guinea. Tibesti mountainous region of the central Sahara, in northern Chad, extending into northeastern Niger and southern Libya.


Ghanshyam Thori Landscape of Africa

Geography Notes

Saudi Arabia

Rivers of South America


Ghanshyam Thori

Geography Notes

Natural Landscape of South America

China Provinces 101

Ghanshyam Thori

Geography Notes

United States Provinces

Iraq 102

Ghanshyam Thori

Geography Notes

Physical Geography
1. 2. 3. 4. Various Geographical Institutes Hydrographic Biological Commission Marine Biological Association Research Institute of Marine Fisheries Coast & Geodetic Survey Geographers & Contribution 1. 2. 3. 4. Tetrahedral Hypothesis Pear Shaped earth deformation Concept of succession, climatic climax, mono climax Concept of Poly climax Lowthian Green Jeans & Sollas Clements Whittaker Scandinavia United Kingdom Canada United States

S 1. 2. 3. 4.

Zone of Ocean Continental Shelf Continental Slopes Continental Rises Deep Ocean Floor

Marine Sediments Percentage of Total Marine Deposits 15 % 41 % 31 % 13 %

1. 2. 3. 4.

Continental Margins Shallow Sea Bathyl Region Abyssal Plain

Oceanic Zones & Types of Deposits Organic Matter Sands, Silts Blue mud, Green mud Ooze


Ghanshyam Thori Deposits & Percentage Area Occupied Littoral & Shallow water Deposit 9% Deep Sea (Terrigenous) deposits 15 % Pelagic Ooze & Red Clay 75 %

Geography Notes

1. 2. 3.

Hamada Reg Serir Debba Erg Playa Salina Chott

Terms used for Deserts Bare rock or rock with a thin veneer of pebble (Arabic) Desert pavement of loose stones (N. Africa) Desert pavement of loose stones, coarser and older than reg (N. Africa) Extensive sandy plain (N. Africa) Vast region deeply covered with sand and topped by sand dunes (N. Africa) Extremely flat, vegetation free area of silt or clay in the lowest part of a closed basin Playa with saline water or kept moist by rising groundwater Closed basin containing a dry lake or playa (N. African) Clouds & Characteristics Mackerel Sky Mares Tail (As they resemble horses tail) Cauliflower Heads Watery Look Terms Equatorial and tropical, tropical rain forests Tropical and sub tropical, tropical deciduous forests Temperate and high altitude Arctic and alpine regions Landforms Classification Oceans, continents Mountain systems, physiographic. Provinces Mountain ranges, major valleys Volcanoes, fault blocks, valleys Cinder cones, deltas, playa lakes Sand dunes, terraces

Cirro Cumulus Cirrus Cumulus Altostratus Megatherms Mesotherms Microtherms Heskitotherms

First order Second order Third order Fourth order Fifth order Sixth order

Miscellaneous Facts: 1. The eastern regions of humid subtropical areas receive rainfall throughout the year like equatorial regions. Isotherms are irregular but closely spaced in Northern Hemishpere. 2. Alpha centauri is also known as Proxima Centauri. Asthenosphere lies above mesosphere. Ox Bow lake is a characteristic of the river in its old age. 3. Steam fog occurs when cold air blows over warmer waters & Advection fog occurs when moist air blows over cold surface. The only gas, not uniformly distributed over the entire atmosphere is ozone.


Ghanshyam Thori Pacific ocean.

Geography Notes

4. One nautical mile is equal to 1.85 kilometers & one mile is equal to 1.6 kms. Albatross Cordillera is in

5. Prince Edward Crozet ridge & Amsterdam St. Paul Plateau are located in the Indian ocean. Lakshadweep-Chagos ridge, St. Paul ridge, Amsterdam-St. Paul plateau divide the Indian ocean into almost two basins. 6. Emperor Seamount chain is in the Pacific Ocean. The maximum width of the continental shelf is off the arctic coast of Siberia. The deepest continental shelves surround Antarctica. In most of the areas the continental shelf is formed by constructive ocean. 7. The evolution of mid-Atlantic ridge can be dated back to Pliocene age. 8. Continental shelf has maximum depth of 200m. Continental slope has a depth of about 3600 m. Abyssal hills have height of 1000 m & guyots are 1100 m high. 9. Zaire canyon is riverine, Canyons of south California are dendritic, Canyons of Bering Sea are the largest & Oceanographer canyon is small gorge. 10. Atlantic Ocean has the maximum percentage of continental shelf area followed by Pacific & Indian. 11. Red clay deposit is widely found in Pacific Ocean. Pteropod is found mainly only in the Atlantic ocean. Radiolarian & Diatom ooze can be found at greater depth than Pteropod & globigerina ooze because siliceous ooze are less soluble while calcareous oozes are easily soluble. 12. A zone in which the density of water increase with increasing depth is called Pycnocline zone. 13. Silt is smaller in size than sand but larger than clay. Pebble is smaller than cobble. 14. Salinity of ocean is a function of latitude. Gulf of Bothnia records the lowest salinity of less than 2 %. 15. Lower the salinity higher is the freezing point. 16. Kiel Canal shortens the distance between London & Kaliningrad. 17. C horizon is not a part of mineral horizon. The dominant species of an ecosystem are more prone to climatic changes. Trasnfromation process of pedogenic regime includes humification & mineralization. Entisols are also highly productive in some regions. Chelating agents are associated with the process of podzolization. 18. Climate & biotic factors are active soil forming factors whereas time, topography & parent rock are passive. The transition zone between two ecosystems is called ecotone. Allelopathy is a phenomenon in which toxins produced by one species inhibit the growth of other. 19. USDA soils & their zonal equivalents are: Vertisols (grumusols), Mollisols (Chernozem), Spodosols (Podzols) & Alfisols (Degraded chernozems). The loess serves as an ideal parent material for chernozem soils.


Ghanshyam Thori

Geography Notes

20. Soils & the vegetation supported are: brown earths (deciduous forests), podzol (heath forest), chernozem (steppe grasses), grumusol (savanna grasses). Tropical heath forest, also known as Kerangas forest, is a type of forest found on the island of Borneo, especially in Brunei. 21. The types of humus in terrestrial environment are: mor, moder & mull. Mor is a type of humus, which occur largely in coniferous forest soils and the moorlands soils. This humus arise under conditions of lowbiological activity in soil. Moder is a transitional form of humus between mull and moder, characteristic for sod-podzolic soils, loesses and mountain grassland soils. Mull is a type of humus characteristic for chestnut soils & arises under grassland conditions. Mull is well humified organic matter. The favourable pH for the growth of cereal crops is 6.5. 22. Climax (community) which is the hypothetical optimal community that would eventually develop under ideal conditions and without human interference. If climate dictates the nature of this community we describe this as a climactic climax whereas if the soil conditions limit the type of climax that develops we speak of an edaphic climax (E.g. Savannah). Where there has been some interference that degrades the climax we say that secondary succession has occurred and if we now view this secondary community as on its way back to the climax we can refer to this as a sub-climax. 23. Aestivation refers to the state of inactivity adopted by desert animals during the hottest & driest season. The oldest animal fossil has been found in Zambia. 24. Devonian period is the age of fishes. Ambhibians & reptiles evolved during carboniferous period. 25. Sun Spots are cooler areas of the sun. The dark lines in corona are called Fraunhofer lines. 26. For an earthquake at a particular spot the shadow zone of P-waves invariably exist between 103 & 143 degree form the earthquake focus. 27. The variation of wind with elevation through the friction layer is represented by an equi angular spiral known as the Ekman spiral. Beaufort scale ranges from 0 to 12. 28. Saturn is known as Jewel Planet & Venus as veiled planet. 29. Primary waves can change into secondary waves under certain conditions due to refraction. Surface waves or long period waves cover the longest distance of all seismic waves. Focus is also known as hypo centre.

Essential Extra Reference: How to Calculate the suns latitude at solstice for various latitudes. World Population Data (K. Siddhartha Ensemble-Appendix Geo of India-page 13) Isostasy, Map references.


Ghanshyam Thori

Geography Notes

Geography of India
Top States by Area & Population S Area Population Uttar Pradesh 1. Rajasthan Maharashtra 2. Madhya Pradesh Bihar 3. Maharashtra West Bengal 4. Andhra Pradesh Andhra Pradesh 5. Uttar Pradesh 6. J & K 7. Gujarat 8. Karnataka 9. Orissa 10. Chattisgarh Goa is the smallest state by area & Sikkim is the smallest in Population. Andamans & Nicobar is the biggest UT by area & Delhi by population. Lakshwadeep is the smallest UT both in population & area Indias World Rank in Various Commodities I rank II rank III rank Banana Oil Seeds Coconuts Buffalo Milk Garlic Tobacco Leaves Castor Beans Cauliflower Potatoes Fresh Fruit Cashew Nuts Cotton seed Ginger Lemons & Lime Rape Seed Goat Milk Rice Sorghum Jute Wheat Lentils Cow Milk Mangoes Fresh Vegetables Tea Sugar Cane Spices Dry Onions Pulses Groundnuts in shell Seaseme Seed Pigeon Peas Famous Ores of India Iron Ore Offshore oil field Iron Ore Iron Ore Copper, Manganese Bauxite Copper Mica 107

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

Kudremukh Aliabet Bailadila Gurumahisani Balghat Koraput Kolihan Kodarma

Karnataka Gulf of Kambhat Chattisgarh Mayubhanj, Orissa M.P (Malanjkhand) Orissa Rajasthan Jharkhand

Ghanshyam Thori 9. Lohardaga 10. Gumla 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15.

Geography Notes

Bauxite Jharkhand Bauxite Jharkhand Various Geographical Features New Moore Deltaic Island & disputed site between Bangladesh & India Kacchativu Fishing area leased to Sri Lanka Mandav Hills Gujarat. North of Gir Hills. Rarh Plains West Bengal. Mikir & Rengma Hills Assam Dudma Falls Machkund river, Orissa. Thekkadi Sanctuary Kerala Cambarjua Canal Goa Sirhind Canal Sutlej Upper Bari Doab Canal Ravi Hampi Karnataka Keibul Lamjao Only floating national park in Manipur Loktak lake. Pulicat Lake Barred by long sandpit Sri Harikota Island. Gohana Lake Situated near Devprayag in Garhwal Wular & Dal Lake Formed by tectonic forces of faulting. Wetlands of India Harike Punjab Ashtamudi Kerala Bhoj Madhya Pradesh Kabar Bihar Kanji Punjab Kolleru Andhra Pradesh Nalsarovar Gujarat Pichola Rajasthan Renuka Himachal Pradesh Sasthamkotta Kerala Sukhana Chandigarh Ujni Maharashtra Doabs of India Indus & Jhelum Chenab & Jhelum Beas, Ravi & Satluj Ravi & Chenab Sutlej & Beas

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Sind Sagar Doab Jech/Chej Doab Bari Doab Rachna Doab Jalandhar/Bist Doab

1. 2. 3. 4.

Famous Beaches of India Gopalpur & Chandipur beach Orissa Bheemunipatnam beach Andhra Pradesh Anjuna, Calangute & Baga beach Goa Ahmedpur Mandvi Beach Gujarat


Ghanshyam Thori 5. Karwar, Maple beach Karnataka Agri Exports Marine Product Rice Wheat Fruits & Vegetables Tea

Geography Notes

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Agri-Imports Vegetables Oil Pulses Cashew Nuts Fruits & Other Nuts Milk & Cream

72 % 14 % 9% 4% .6 %

18 % 12 % 7% 6% 5%

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13.

Batura glacier Hispar glacier Skamri glacier Biafo glacier Baltora glacier Siachen glacier Sonapani glacier Gangotri glacier Milam glacier Pindari glacier Rambang glacier Khumbu glacier Zemu glacier

Glaciers Karakoram range (Extreme J & K now in PoK) Karakoram range (Extreme J & K now in PoK) Karakoram range (Extreme J & K now in PoK) Karakoram range (Extreme J & K now in PoK) Karakoram range (Extreme J & K now in PoK) Karakoram range (Extreme J & K now in PoK) Pirpanjal region Kumaon-Garhwal region (Uttaranchal) Uttaranchal Uttaranchal Kanchenjunga-Everst region Mt. Everest region Kanchenjunga-Everest region (Sikkim)

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

Forestry Research Institutions Institute of Rain & Moist Deciduous Forests Institute of wood science & Technology Tropical Forestry Research Institute Institute of Forest Genetics & Tree Breeding Temperate Forest Research Institute Centre for Forest Productivity Centre for Social Forestry & Environment CAZRI Natural Gas Based Projects Dahej Power Project Gujarat Pata Petrochemical Project U.P. Usar LPG project Maharashtra Lakwa LPG project Assam Miscellaneous Facts:

Jorhat Bangalore Jabalpur Coimbatore Shimla Ranchi Allahabad Jodhpur

1. 2. 3. 4.

1. Largest SC community is chamar. The rainiest period for Tamil Nadu is October-November & not December-January. Shola is a type of high-altitude stunted evergreen forest found in southern India mainly in Karnataka, Kerala & Tamil Nadu. India has monopoly in the production of Lac.


Ghanshyam Thori

Geography Notes

2. Rama's Bridge, Nala's Bridge or Adam's Bridge is a chain of limestone shoals, between the islands of Mannar, near northwestern Sri Lanka, and Rameswaram, off the southeastern coast of India. The Pamban Bridge also called Indira Gandhi Bridge lies on the Indian end of the Palk Strait that connects Rameswaram island to mainland India. 3. Banbasa wild life sanctuary is in U.P. The largest tiger reserve in India is Nagarjuna Sagar Sri Sailam tiger reserve. 4. Rivers of East India from North to south are Damodar, Subarnarekha, Brahmani-Baitrani & Mahanadi. 5. The rivers of Peninsular India from North to south are Krishna, Penneru, Palar, Cauvery & Vaigai. 6. The major tribes who inhabit the mountains of Kerala are Kanis, Uralis, Kadar, Kanikkar, Paniyar etc.. They are considered to be the descendants of the Negrito race. Even the Angami Nagas & the Badgis of the Rajmahal Hills in Bihar belong to the Negrito race. 7. The largest permanent migration of the Indian outside the country in the last century was associated with the sugarcane plantations. 8. Vishakhapatnam is the deepest port. Kolkata is riverine port. Kandla is tidal port. Mumbai is biggest port. Nava-Sheva (JLNP) is the busiest port. 9. Kadam project is in Andhra Pradesh & Gurusoppa project in Karnataka. 10. Bheraghat falls (Narmada), Sivasamudram falls (Cauvery) & Hundru falls (Subarnarekha) 11. Tungabhadra water dispute (A.P. & Karnataka), Krishna Water dispute (Maharashtra, Karnataka & Andhra Pradesh). 12. The major fishing harbours of India are Cochin, Madras & Vishakhapatnam 13. The following steel plants are in order of decreasing capacity: Bhilai, Durgapur & Burnpur. 14. Kerala coast is an example of emergent coast. Kolleru Lake in Andhra Pradesh; Sasthamkotta Lake in Kerala are important. 15. In 2001 census, the proportion of children population to total population was the least among jains & the sex ratio was the least among sikhs. 16. The correct sequence of ranges/hills in peninsular plateau region from north to south is Garhjat Hills, Balaghat range, Palkonda range, Cardamom hills. 17. Valmiki Tiger reserve & Kabar Lake bird sanctary are in Bihar. Ujni wetlands is in Maharashtra & Deeper Beel wetlands in Assam. Shahpur Kandi irrigation project is in Punjab & Teesta Barrage in West Bengal. Kanheri National Park (Maharashtra) & Chandaka National Park (Orissa) 18. India is divided into five seismic zones. Zone I is most secure & Zone V being most vulenerable. Aluminium plants are located near source of power & not near raw material.


Ghanshyam Thori Narmada. 20. Kanthi coastal plain is in West Bengal & Nadhra plain is in Eastern Ghat.

Geography Notes

19. Uttar Pradesh has the largest area under ravines. Aliabet is the largest island in the estuary of the

21. Saddle Peak (North Andaman), Mount Thuiller (Great Nicobar), Mount Diavolo (Little Nicobar) & Mount Ford (Rutland Island). 22. Amarkantak plateau has radial drainage pattern. Garland canal project connects the rivers of east & west India. 23. Assam shares its boundary with seven other Indian states, Mizoram with three states & Tripura with 2 states. Both M.P touches 5 states & Chattisgarh touches 6 states. UP touches 8 states. 24. Total number of India states that form international border with the neighbouring countries is 17. Five Indian states have common border with Bangladesh. 25. In India the international boundary shared with different countries is Bangladesh (4096 km), Pakistan (3310 km), Myanmar (1458 Km). 26. Tso-morari is a huge mountain lake in Southeast Ladakh. Kolleru Lake is a large freshwater lake in India's Andhra Pradesh state. Ashtamudi Lake (Ashtamudi Kayal) is in Kollam district of Kerala state in south India. Ashtamudi Lake is designated a wetland of international importance under the Ramsar Convention. 27. Highest point is Singapore is Timah Hill. Lake Wular is the largest freshwater lake of India. Loktak lake is formed due to faulting. Vembanad Lake due to offshore bar formation in backwaters of Kerala. 28. Brahmaputra River has maximum surface run off while Ganga has maximum catchment area. 29. The name of Pench National Park, M.P. was changed to "Indira Priyadarshini Pench National Park". Orissa coast is mainly depositional in character. 30. Zojila pass is from Srinagar to Ladakh. Western ghats were uplifted in the Cenozoic period. 31. Tropic of Cancer passes through the following 8 states - Gujarat, Rajasthan, M.P, Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand, West Bengal, Tripura & Mizoram. It does not pass through Orissa. 32. The most prominent India-Bangladesh border issues are the Tin Bigha Corridor, Muhuri Char and New Moore ( or South Talpatty/ Purbasha island). 33. Scheduled Caste (SC) and Scheduled Tribes (ST) comprised 16.2 percent and 8.1 percent respectively of the total population, according to Census of India 2001. 34. Indian board of wildlife is headed by Prime Minister of India. Gulf of Kutchh is a coral reef area. 35. Ragi, Bajra & Jowar are the three most important millets produced in India. Groundnut, rapeseed & mustard are the most important oil seeds produced in India. India imports 40 % of its oilseeds needed.


Ghanshyam Thori Rajasthan ranks number one.

Geography Notes

36. U.P, Punjab & Rajasthan are the top 3 milk producing states in India. In terms of sheep population

37. India is divided into 35 meterological sub divisions. IMD defines normal monsoon year as the rainfall between june-september is within plus/minus 10 per cent of the normal figure of 88 cm for the whole country. 38. The Pangong Tso (largest in Himalayas) & Tso Moriri lakes are in J & K region. Gurudogmar in Northern Sikkim is the highest lake. 39. Port Blair is located on South Andaman. Biggest island on Andaman & Nicobar island is Middel Andaman. Highest point in the whole island is Saddle Peak on North Andaman Island. Narcondam island lies to the north of Barren Island, both being to the east of Andamans. Mallamalai hills, Palakonda range (both in A.P), Javadi Hills & Shevaroy Hills, Panchamalai hills, Sirumalai hills, Varushnad Hills in the eastern ghats (all 5 in Tamil Nadu) are in that order from north to south. Nilgiris (Extreme west TN), Annamalai hills & Cardamom hills from north to south in western ghats. 40. Moran river drains into Govind Ballabh Pant Sagar in Uttar Pradesh. Chandor Hills lie to the west of Ajanta range in Maharasthra. To the south of Ajanta range lies Balaghat. Rajmahal Hills lie in NE Jharkhand, forming the NE edge of Chhotanagpur plateu. Ramgarh hills lie in North Chhattisgarh & Bastar plateau in south Chhattisgarh. Dandakranya overlaps Bastar plateau. To the south of Satpura range lies Mahadeo hills & Gawilgarh hills. Rayalseema uplands lie to the south of Telangana plateau. 41. Pondicherry consists of four small unconnected districts: Pondicherry, Karaikal (Tamil Nadu) and Yanam (A.P) on the Bay of Bengal and Mah (Kerala) on the Arabian Sea. 42. Zoji La (J&K) Bara Lacha, Shipki La (H.P) Thag La, Niti & Lipu lekh (Uttaranchal) in that order form NW to SE. 43. Mountains (11 %), Hilly region (18.6 %), Plateau (27 %) & Plain area (43 %) of total indias area. Sectoral Consumption of electricity is Industrial (35%), Agriculture (31%), Domestic (21%) & Commercial (6%) 44. The east coastal plain is known as Northern Circars between Mahanadi & Krishna & Carnatic between Krishna & the Cauvery rivers. 45. Rectangular drainage pattern (Kosi & its tributaries), Superimposed pattern (Damodar & Chambal), Radial pattern (Amarkantak & Kathiawar region). 46. The maximum number of National Parks is in M.P & maximum sanctuaries in Andaman & Nicobar 47. Peaty & organic soils are found in Kottayam & Alappuzha districts of Kerala where they are called Kari. Tidal or Littoral forests occur around the deltas, estuaries.


Ghanshyam Thori vegetable production.

Geography Notes

48. Bananas, Mango & Citrus are the top three fruits by production. Potato, tomato, onion & cabbage top in

49. Tamil Nadu & Gujarat (Lamba, Okha, Mandvi) lead in the production of wind power. A tidal power plant is located at Durgaduani creek in Sundarbans, West Bengal. 50. The Isobar of 1018 millibars runs through the Indo-Gangetic plains during January & it becomes 1000 millibars in July. Dharwar (Archaean), Cuddapah (Proterozoic) & Vindhyan (Paleozoic) rocks are in that order from old to new. 51. Some important minor ports of India are: Okha, Porbander, Veraval (from north to south in Gujarat), Talasseri (Kerala), Naganipattnam (Tamil Nadu), Kakinada & Machilipatnam (N to S in A.P.). 52. In religious communities, Christians have the highest sex ratio (1009) & Sikh the least (893). Sex ratio in Muslims is (936) higher than that of Hindu (931). 53. Talpatty Island and Purbasha Island is disputed territory between Bangladesh and India. Kalipani region between India & Nepal. Quatern Island is disputed among India, Pakistan and Bangladesh. Sir Creek between Pakistan & India. Million Cities of India, 2001 Greater Mumbai 19 Ludhiana Kolkata 20 Kochi Delhi 21 Visakhapatnam Chennai 22 Agra Bangalore 23 Varanasi Hyderabad 24 Madurai Ahmadabad 25 Meerut Pune 26 Nashik Surat 27 Jabalpur Kanpur 28 Jamshedpur Jaipur 29 Asansol Lucknow 30 Dhanbad Nagpur 31 Faridabad Patna 32 Allahabad Indore 33 Amritsar Vadodara 34 Vijayawada Bhopal 35 Rajkot Coimbatore

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 Essential Extra Reference:

1. Map of India for various important cities location important. Just refer political & physical map given at the beginning of oxford atlas. See Mineral Maps of India too.


Ghanshyam Thori 2. Cities in India & their industry (E.g Firozabad glass), Cities situated on river banks.

Geography Notes

River Basins of India


Ghanshyam Thori

Geography Notes

Physical Geography
Geological Period Holocene 10,000 Cultivated plants Cenozoic Pleistocene 1.6 million Human beings. Indo-Gangetic plain, Thar desert, Rann of Kachchh, Karewas of Kashmir 5 million Horses, Ape like man, Upper Siwaliks Tertiary Period Pliocene Miocene 24 million Apes developed Oligocene 38 million Early horses, first Apes & Monkeys. Uplift of Central Himalayan Axis (First Phase) Eocene 55 million Grasses Paleocene 65 million Small Mamals Cretaceous 138 million Flowering plants increased, Deccan Traps Mesozoic Jurassic 205 million Birds (Archaeopteryx), flowering plant-angiosperms first appeared. Named after Jura Mountains Triassic 240 million Dinosaurs Permian 290 million Seed Plants, Hercynian Orogeny Paleozoic Carboniferous 360 million Reptiles, Amphibians, Fish (in order) Devonian 410 million Corals, First fish, Caledonian Orogeny, Silurian 435 million First fish with Jaws, First Terrestrial Insects. Ordovician 500 million Graptolites Cambrian 570 million Tribolites Vindhyan, Cuddapah, Dharwar, Archean systems, Pre-Cambrian Aravallis Rocks Intrusive Igneous rocks Diorite, Granite, Gabbro (intrusive basalt) Pegmatite1 & Periodotite. Extrusive Igneous rocks Andesite, Rhyolite (extrusive granite), Basalt Felsic rocks Quartz, Feldspar Metamorphic rocks Hornfels, Greenstone, Greenschist, Amphibolite, Granulite, And Eclogite Facies, Marble, Quartzite, Schist, Slate, Gneiss Foliated Metamorphic Slate, phyllite, schist, and gneiss (Formed by Regional Metamorphism) Non Foliated Metamorphic Marble, Quartzite, Hornfel (Formed by Contact Metamorphism) Sedimentary rocks Oolite (type of limestone) Shale, Sandstone, Conglomerate, Ironstone, Travertine (light-coloured concretionary limestone), Evaporite, Coal 1- Pegmatite has composition of granite & has very large crystals indicating very slow cooling. 2- The most common metamorphic rocks are gneiss & schist. Metamorphic rocks Original rock Metamorphic rock Limestone Marble Sandstone Quartzite Shales Schist Shales or Clay Slate Granites or conglomerates Gneiss


Ghanshyam Thori Shale Gabro Phyllite Serpentine

Geography Notes

Volcanic Cones Cinder/Ash Cones Mt. Jorullo & Mt. Paricutin (both in Mexico), Mt. Izalco (San Salvador) Composite Cones Most of famous volcanoes. Eg Vesuvius, Cotopaxi, Mt. Mayon (S.E Luzon Is.) Parasite Cone Mt. Etna (Sicily) Basalt Cone Rangitoto Effusive Eruption Kilauea (most active volcanic crater, Hawaii) Explosive Volcano Mt. Pinatubo (Central Luzon, Philippines) Nue Ardentes is a characteristic feature of Mt. Pelee & Mt. Katmai (valley of ten thousand smokes) Jet Streams Located above the polar fronts between latitudes 30o & 70o N with core between 6 to 9 Km. Not continuous but found in both hemispheres. Present throughout the year Westerly Sub-Tropical Jet Located above subtropical highs between 20 & 50 N with core between 9 & 12 Km. Easterly Tropical Jet Located above the Asiatic summer monsoon between the equator & the 20o N with core between 14 & 16 Km. Found only in Northern hemisphere & confined to the Indian Ocean. Softwoods/Hardwoods Softwood/Conifers (Gymnosperms) Pines, cedars, spruces, larches, and firs Hardwood/Broad Leaved (Angiospersm) Oak, maple, beech, walnut, mahogany, teak, and balsa. Oceans Av. Depth Deepest point 4280 m Mariana trench (11000 m) 3600 m Puerto Rico Trench (8600 m) 3900 m Java trench (7700 m) 1300 m

Westerly Polar Jet Stream

Ocean Pacific Ocean Atlantic Ocean Indian Ocean Arctic Ocean

Feature Continental Shelf

Relief of the Ocean Basins Width % area Specific % Area 65 Km 8.6 % Atlantic Ocean (13%), Pacific Ocean (6%) Indian Ocean (4%) Continental Slope 8.5 % Atlantic Ocean (12%), Pacific Ocean (7%) Indian Ocean (6.5%) Deep Sea Plains 3000-6000 m 76 % Pacific (80.3%) Indian (80.1%) Atlantic (55%) The Arctic continental shelf is widest. The average slope of the continental slope is about 4o. Depth range 100 fathoms Or 180 m 200-2000 m Physical Geography Terms Any of the masses of rock left standing between fissures (grikes) in a limestone region A fissure enlarged by rainwater dissolution between limestone clints. Continuous distance that winds blow over a water surface

Clint Grike Fetch


Ghanshyam Thori Coulee Bolson Calving Butte

Geography Notes

Steep sided valley carved by water from the melting glacier Term used for Playas mainly in Mexico & SW USA. The formation of icebergs from a glacier. Isolated hill with steep sides and flat top, similar to but narrower than a mesa. Various Mediterranean Vegetation/Shrub-Lands Chaparral California Tomillares Spain Macchia Mediterranean countries and South Africa Phrygana Balkans Brigalow shrub & Mallee Australia Caatinga Brazil Maquis Europe Matorral Chile Garrigue France Forests/Biomes & their Species Saguaro (spectacular cactus tree - Arizona) Elm Redwood (or Sequoia) Arborvitae; Cedar; Cypress; Douglas Fir; Fir; Hemlock; Juniper; Larch; Pine; Sequoia; Spruce; Yew Teak, Sal Trees with flattened crowns. E.g. Baobab Cork, Various Protocols Ozone Layer Ozone Depleting Substances Trans boundary movement of Hazardous Wastes Global Warming Convention on climate change & biological diversity Persistent Organic Pollutants Prior Informed Consent procedure for certain hazardous material Bio Safety Mean Elevation of Continents Antarctica 1830 m Asia 910 m North America 610 m Africa 580 m South America 550 m Europe 300 m Australia 300 m

Desert Climate Mid latitude broad leaf Temperate rain forest Conifers Tropical Monsoon Tropical Savannah Mediterranean

Vienna Convention Montreal Protocol Basel Convention Kyoto Protocol Rio de Janeiro Stockholm Convention Rotterdam Convention Cartagena Protocol


Ghanshyam Thori

Geography Notes

Miscellaneous Facts 1. Astronomers estimate that about half of all stars in the sky belong to either a binary or multiple star system. The planet Mars has a conspicuous river valley. The earth gets heavier each year because it picks up some dust from space. 2. Longitudes unlike latitudes are not used for measuring distance because the latitudes are almost equally spaced. Slight flattening at the poles causes the length of a degree of latitude to vary from 110.57 km at the equator to 111.70 km at the poles. At equator, meridians of longitude 1 degree apart are separated by a distance of 111.32 km but at the poles, meridians converge reducing the distance drastically. 3. The percentage of land surface in the northern hemisphere is maximum between 40 & 50 degree North. 4. In the Earth the divisions are Crust (30-100 km thick), Upper mantle (100-700 km deep), Lower mantle (700-2900 km), Outer Core (2900-5150 km) & inner core (5150-6400 Km) 5. The temperature at various depths is 1100o C (100 km), 1900o C (700 km), 3700o C (2900 km) & 4300o C (5100 Km). 6. The Earths mantle comprises 66 % of its mass & 83% of its volume. The core forms 33 % of the mass & 16 % volume. The asthenosphere is made up of peridotite. The pre Cambrian shields are composed of granites & gneisses. The Ethiopian plateau is volcanic in origin & is largely composed of basalt. 7. Patagonian Plateau (Piedmont plateau), South African Plateau (Continental plateau) & Bolivian plateau (Intermontane plateau). Shields are convex in shape. 8. Lake Victoria Basin, Great Basin of Nevada & Tarim Basin are all rimmed by mountains. 9. Feldspars are the most abundant of all minerals and account for nearly half of the volume of the earth's crust. Soapstone is also known as Steatite & is a massive variety of talc. Clay is porous but is impermeable. The capacity to transmit water is permeability & not porosity. 10. Gondwanaland, ancient landmass that consisted of the present continents of South America, Africa, Australia, and Antarctica as well as the Indian subcontinent. Bentley Subglacial Trench is the deepest point in Antarctic. 11. .Earthquakes with negative Richter scale magnitudes occur every day, but are so small that they are difficult to detect. The energy released by an earthquake increases 32 fold & the ground motion increases by 10 times for each increase of one magnitude on the Richter scale. It is estimated that a magnitude 12


Ghanshyam Thori damage done by an earthquake is expressed by intensity.

Geography Notes

earthquake would release enough energy to split the earth in half. The qualitative assessment of the

12. Folding cannot occur due to tension. However, faulting though primarily a result of tension may also occur due to compression. 13. Magnetic materials made of iron compounds lose their magnetic properties if heated beyond a certain temperature called Curie point. Submarine fans constitute a large part of the continental rises. Outgassing is the process which probably accounted for the surface waters. 14. An area of vegetation having uniformity of life form is called a biochore. Evergreen trees shed their leaves but not simultaneously. The succession may begin in an area where some natural disaster has caused removal of existing vegetation. Such a succession is called secondary succession. Where the succession starts in an area where the physical conditions required for plant growth are already present is called allogenic succession. When the succession starts in highly unfavourable conditions & the plants themselves have to create a suitable physical environment for themselves it is called autogenic succession. 15. Before the climatic climax vegetation evolves there are some stages of short term equilibrium between plants & the environment called Edaphic Climax. The profile of podzol soils is best developed. 16. An aquiclude is a body of relatively impermeable rock. An aquifer is called confined when it is bounded above and below by aquicludes or unconfined when there is no aquiclude above it. 17. The blue mud occupies the greatest area among the various types of mud. Green colour of green mud is because of mineral gluconite. Deep Sea regions are supposed to be more stable than tropical rainforests. 18. Conifers are named after cone shaped fruit bearing seeds. 19. When a succession starts at a dry place it is known as Xerosere; in case of wet place (Hydrosere). Vegetation succession resulting from mans interference is called Plagioseres. 20. Trees & their uses: Kapok (or Silk cotton tree Pillows, Mattresses), Abaca/Manila hemp (ropes), Toquilla (Hats) & Balata (Marine cables). 21. Earth is a geoid. The period of twilight (diffused light that occurs before sunrise & sunset) increases as one goes towards the poles. The concept of primordial matter was given by Kant & the concept of intruding star was given by James & Jeans. 22. Lithosphere is around 65-100 Km thick. The granitic continental curst is lighter than the basaltic oceanic crust. P waves do reach the antipode & can pass through gas. S waves travel faster than surface waves. Basalt is one of the finest grained extrusive rocks. Basaltic magma is hotter than silicate magma. 23. Igneous rocks generally do not show layers. Among Igneous rocks crystals in intrusive rocks are larger than those in extrusive rocks. In some cases, the magma cools so rapidly that crystals have no time to


Ghanshyam Thori light in colour & mafic rocks are usually dark.

Geography Notes

form, and the magma hardens in an amorphous glass, such as obsidian. Felsic rocks (more viscous) are

24. In addition to lava flows, basalt is also found in the form of dikes and sills. Columnar jointing, as exhibited by Devils Tower in Wyoming and the Giant's Causeway in Ireland, is a common feature of these shallow intrusive bodies. 25. Surface currents in the Oceans are primarily caused by wind action. 26. Deposits of high-grade chromite ore found along the Great Dyke (largest dyke in the world) contribute significantly to Zimbabwe's reserves of the minerals. Stock is an intrusive mass of plutonic rock with an outcrop. 27. Anthracite is formed by metamorphism of bituminous coal. Marble is least affected by variations in temperature. Exfoliation is more pronounced in granite. The process of oxidation is most effective in hot & humid regions. The main cause of mass movement is gravity. 28. The term cataract, usually designating a series of rapids in a large river, is often applied to waterfalls of large volume. The term coulee lake is associated with glaciers. A lake in the course of a river is termed as a transient lake. The part of the pediplain reduced in height due to erosion is called pediment. 29. The maximum load of a river moves in suspension. A river erodes its convex slope more than its concave slope. The presence of salt in the sea plays a vital role in delta formaton. The deposition of silt & sand in the course of a river is called diaras. 30. A dendritic drainage pattern tends to develop where a whole drainage basin is made up of the same type of rock (uniform lithology). Annular drainage pattern (Henry mountain), Parallel drainage (Norway coast), Trellis drainage (Appalachian) & deranged drainage (Canadian shield). 31. Yardangs have been called cockscombe by Holmes. The Scottish lands are very close to the stage of peneplain. The largest number of lakes are in the Scandinavian region. 32. Metamorphic rocks are more compact than the original rocks & are more resistant to weathering. Lithification is the process of formation of sedimentary rocks through compression & cementation. 33. The largest division of geologic time is called an eon. Eons are divided into eras, which are divided into periods. An epoch, the next division, is further divided into stages. 34. The degree of inclination of a stream is known as its gradient. A stream gradient usually forms a convex shaped slope. The study of meteors helped in ascertaining the existence of ionosphere. The value of solar constant is 2 calories/cm2/minute. The equatorial forests have one of the lowest albedo. 35. The warmest month in the northern hemisphere is july & the highest temperature is recorded at 20o N. The position of thermal equator is normally at 5o N. The highest annual range of temperature is recorded in the


Ghanshyam Thori during night). Strong centrifugal force contributes to the low pressure at equator.

Geography Notes

Taiga region & the highest diurnal range of temperature is found in hot deserts (hot during day & cold

36. The percentage cloud cover at any time in the world is around 50%. The standard air pressure at the sea level is 1013.25 mb which is equivalent to 760 mm of Hg. 37. The effect of Coriolis force is proportion to the speed of the moving object. Coriolis force causes the maximum deflection at the poles & decrease toward the equator where there is zero deflection. The wind blowing parallel to the isobars generally at a height of 600 m is known as geostrophic winds. Carribean sea experiences one of the strongest land & sea breeze. Stratus clouds create more problems for aeroplanes. 38. The southern oscillation index (SOI) is the difference in pressure between Tahiti in French Polynesia representing the pacific ocean & port Darwin in North Australia representing Indian Ocean. Positive SOI means higher Tahitis pressure than Port Darwin pressure. It signifies good monsoon for India. 39. SaffirSimpson Scale is used to measure hurricane intensity based on wind speed. Tropical cyclones do not occur in South Atlantic because during the summer season (January) its temperature is always below 25o C between 10o & 20o S. The ideal conditions for the development of tropical cyclone are western margins of tropical oceans. The correct sequence of clouds in a temperate cyclone would be cirrus, cirrostratus, altostratus, altocumulus & nimbostratus. 40. The Atlantic Ocean has an average depth of 3,600 m (11,810 ft). At its deepest point, in the Puerto Rico Trench, the bottom is 8,605 m (28,231 ft) below the surface. The average depth of the Indian Ocean is 3,900 m (12,800 ft), or slightly greater than that of the Atlantic, and the deepest known point is 7,725 m (25,344 ft), off the southern coast of the Indonesian island of Java. Its average depth is 4,280 m 41. The passage of the cold front is often accompanied by the heaviest precipitation and the strongest and gustiest winds. Occasionally, however, a line of thunderstorms may develop, out ahead of a cold front. This line is called a squall line and it produces heavy rain and strong, gusty winds. Squall refers to a violent gusty wind which lasts a few minutes usually accompanied by rain or hail & then subsides. 42. Cold front is marked with triangular spikes & warm front by semi-circles. The isobars of a temperate cyclone are broad, shallow & weak. 43. Territorial waters extend up to 12 miles from shore. The EEZ extends offshore upto a distance of 200 nautical miles. The ocean outside EEZ is called high sea which is about 60 % of total oceans. 44. . Ninety-nine percent of the water in the oceans has a salinity of between 33 and 37 g/kg (Average is 35 gm/Kg). The halocline is the depth at which the salinity changes rapidly; it forms the boundary between the two layers. From 100 m to approximately 1,000 m the temperature drops rapidly to about 5 C, and


Ghanshyam Thori

Geography Notes

below this it drops gradually about another 4 to barely above freezing. The region of rapid change is known as the thermocline or Pycnocline. The highest temperature of oceans is recorded in the West Pacific ocean north of equator. 45. Spring tides occur twice a month (every 14.6 days) at New Moon & Full Moon when moon & sun are in conjunction & opposition respectively. Gibbous moon is one when 75 % of the moon is illuminated. 46. The series of moon cycle is New Moon, Crescent, First Quarter, Gibbous, Full Moon, Gibbous, Last Quarter, Crescent. 47. Seamount, is an undersea volcanic mountain that is at least 1000 m tall. Flat topped seamounts are called guyots. The Telegraph plateau extends from Ireland to Labrador. 48. The proportion of gases dissolved in water is Nitrogen (46%), Oxygen (36%) & Carbon dioxide (15%). The primary source of oceans dissolved oxygen is its photosynthetic plants. Oxygen & Nitrogen are abundant near the surface & there is more carbon dioxide in deep water. 49. Quartz is a dominant mineral in ocean deposits. The sea water is slightly alkaline with it pH being 7.8. 50. Prop roots are associated with mangrove forests. The largest & longest algae (Kelps) is found along the Peru coast. Herbs do not have woody stem but shrubs have woody stem. 51. Corals are found mainly in the tropical oceans (temp around 20-21o C). They do not live in deeper waters (more than 80 m deep). Both sediment water & fresh water is injurious to them. Hence they are not found near river mouth. Salinity between 27-30 gm/Kg is suitable. Ocean currents & waves are suitable as they bring food supply for the polyps. El Nino is associated with coral bleaching (coral death). The south Atlantic has least coral formations. 52. The upper part of a soil profile, in which the soil-forming processes (illuviation & eluviation) mainly occur is called Solum. The arrangement of soil particles is called soil structure. The size & organization of particles in the soil in known as soil texture. The cohesion in soil is known as soil consistency. 53. As weathering forms soil in the humid tropics, iron and aluminum oxides filter downward, often resulting in a well-defined, cementlike layer of ferricrete or plinthite meters below the Earths surface. When overlying sediments are eroded away, these layers form a rock-hard crust. 54. . The northern needle leaf forest is known as boreal forest. Temperate forests have one of the least number of species (lesser than Mediterranean & Monsoon forests). 55. Almost all known geysers are located in three countries of the worldNew Zealand, Iceland, and the United States. The cause of Iceland having geysers is its situation on mid Atlantic ridge. 56. The number of tributaries decrease downstream & the river widens here. The size of the valley increases downstream. Ox bow lakes are more in the lower course than the middle course. A Barchan has an


Ghanshyam Thori opposite with concave side facing the wind.

Geography Notes

asymmetrical profile concave on the leeward side & convex on the side of the wind. A Parabolic dune is

57. Most of the jet steams blow parallel to latitudes & isobar as they are geostrophic. The wet adiabatic lapse rate is lower than dry adiabatic rate as condensation releases latent heat. In cirrus clouds water vapour is in solid form. Africa has the largest Savannah biome. Lateritic soils are porous in structure. Coniferous forests are evergreen. 58. Bajada is the Spanish world for slope of alluvial material at the foot of the escarpment. Scleractinian corals are the main contributors to a reef, but other organisms also add to it, such as hydrozoan corals, calcareous algae, mollusks, and sponges. Hence Corals are not the only participants in coral formation. 59. Over 80 percent of the worlds fisheries are located in the coastal and ocean environment, and nearly 20 percent are found in inland freshwater fisheries. The largest fisheries group is made up of small, pelagic (open ocean) fishes such as herring, sardine, anchovy, and related species 60. In Fisheries, Japan is the largest importer & Thailand is the largest exporter. USA is both the second largest importer & exporter as it prefers certain varieties over others. 61. The 0 to 10 degree north receives more rainfall than corresponding southern latitudes due to ITCZ being more extensive in north. The temperate latitudes of southern hemisphere receive more rainfall than that of the northern hemisphere due to preponderance of Oceans in the former & deserts in the latter. Hails are opaque due to trapped air bubbles. Lower pressure on open surface of water leads to higher rate of evaporation. 62. Point bars develop where stream flow is locally reduced because of friction and reduced water depth. It is a depositional feature. Deposits of braided stream mainly consists of sand & gravel 63. A cone shaped depression is formed when water is withdrawn faster than it can be replaced. Ozark Upland (between Missouri & Arkansas) in United States is full of Karst features. Karst landscape is well developed in Yucatan peninsula. 64. The coastal features are formed in the following order Headland, Cave, Arch & Stack. Carlberg ridge divides the Arabian Sea into two parts. In northern Pacific Icebergs are rare. 65. Crevasses extend down in glaciers to the zone of plastic flow. Ice scoured plain is the subdued landscape resulting from erosion by continental glacier. If a glacier has a balanced budget it remains stationary. 66. Longitudinal dunes (called seifs in Egypt) generally occur in areas of limited sand supply. The angle of repose of dry sand controls the slope of the leeward side of the sand dune. 67. Dixie Alley & Tornado Alley refers to the high frequency areas of tornadoes in USA. Bog burst is term used in Ireland for flowing of soil downslope.


Ghanshyam Thori South Africa and the Muskox intrusion in the Northwest Territories, Canada.

Geography Notes

68. Lopoliths are saucer-shaped concordant intrusions. Well-known examples are the Bushveld complex in

69. Laccoliths have a flat base and a domed ceiling, and are concordant with the neighboring rocks; they are usually small. The classic area from which they were first described is the Henry Mountains in the state of Utah. 70. Deep batholiths are often concordant, while shallow batholiths are usually discordant. Deep batholiths can be extremely large; the Coast Range batholith of North America is 100 to 200 km wide and extends 600 km through Alaska and British Columbia, Canada. 71. The seismograph records first P waves followed by S waves, L waves & R waves in that order because of differential speeds of these waves. Shallow focus earthquakes are usually the most damaging. 72. Rejuvenation can take place during any stage of river development. The correct sequence of deserts of Australia in descending order is Great Victoria, Great Sandy, Gibson & Simpson. 73. The longest day at 66.5 degree N/S can be of 24 hours beyond which there is a sharp increase. For eg the longest day is of 1 month at 67.4 degree & 2 months at 69.8 degree. 74. Tropical cyclones have a warm core. Over polar areas temperature inversion is normal throughout the year. Wave refraction is the phenomenon of waves bending so that they move nearly parallel to the shoreline. 75. Two second order stream meet to form a third order stream. The principle of Catastrophism fits the vastness of the Earths age & the complexity of its rocks in a shortened time span (Eg. biblical flood). The premise that present day processes have operated throughout geological time is called uniformitarianism. 76. The oldest surface rock yet discovered called Acasta Gneiss lies in Northwestern Canada. Barysphere is the term used for the core of the earth. 77. Marshall Islands, Bermuda & Lakshwadeep are coral in origin. 78. Sounds usually occur along submerged coast. The grasses of temperate grasslands are shorter but more nutritious than those of tropical grasslands. 79. In Maldives the most populous atolls are Male, the capital and principal commercial center; Suvadiva; and Tiladummati. Belize has the biggest barrier reef in the Northern Hemisphere. 80. Highest life expectancy is for Andorra (83.5 years) followed by Japan (83.5). 81. The water hemisphere accounts for as much as 80 % of southern hemisphere. The average height of land on the earth is approximately 900 m. The average depth of all the oceans is about 3800 m. 82. In Newfoundland the chief fish caught is Cod. St. John is the capital of Newfoundland & is the headquarter of the Grand Banks fishing industry.


Ghanshyam Thori

Geography Notes

83. In Karstic region the only mineral of importance is Lead. The thin warm layer on the ocean surface is called Epilimnion. The lower cooler layer of water, below the thermocline is called hypolimnion. 84. Metamorphic facies are formed according to one of three processes: contact metamorphism, subductionzone metamorphism, and regional metamorphism. Metamorphic rocks are considered generally as more resistant to erosion than sedimentary & igneous rocks. 85. Regional metamorphism often produces a fabric quality called foliation. Slate, phyllite, schist, and gneiss are foliated rocks. Rocks formed by contact metamorphism are generally nonfoliated. Quartzite, hornfels & marble are non foliated. 86. Exfoliation (peeling off) is caused by the release of confining pressure. The point at which the sea wave breaks is called the plunge line. It is where the depth of water & height of the wave are actually the same. 87. Terra Rossa are formed mainly in Mediterranean region. Lithosol is an azonal soil. Muskegs are bogs & swamps which have leathery bushes & stunted trees in the Norhtern Coniferous biome. 88. C.F. Marbuts first level of division of all middle latitude soils is into: Pedocals & Pedalfers. An epipedon is a horizon that forms the sub soil portion. 89. V.V. Dokuchaiev is considered the pioneer of soil genesis & soil classification. Nuciform soil structure refers to formless ped. The smalledst distinctive division of the soil of a given are to which the unique single set of properties apply is called polypedon. 90. An iron pan is a common feature of the Gley type of soil formed in the water logged areas of tundra region. Gleization is the process of formation of a gley soil by waterlogging and chemical reduction of iron. 91. In Australia where reg (desert pavement of loose stones) are widespread, they are called Gibber plains. 92. Isotherms on the globe are more tightly packed in winter. Commensalism is an association between two species in which one benefits and the other is neither harmed nor benefited. 93. The correct sequence of distribution of fresh water on earth from maximum to minimum is Glaciers, Ground water, Inland Seas & Atmosphere. 94. Acid rain is the major problem in Norway & Sweden. Ecologists often call the few common species the ecological dominants & the rare species as incidentals. 95. Guano forms a significant player of phosphate cycle. A sciophilous plant (called sciophyte) is shade loving. Thermoperiodism is the rhythmic response of plants to fluctuations in temperature. 96. One of the reasons behind choosing 0 degree meridian at Greenwhich is that the IDL at 180 degree mostly passes through water thereby least disrupting the timezones in a country. The world is divided into 24 time zones each with a longitudinal extent of 15 degrees or one hour duration.


Ghanshyam Thori 5 time zones, Australia has 3 & China has a single time zone. 98. Horizontal movement of air is wind & vertical movement is currents.

Geography Notes

97. Russia has 11 time zones, USA has 7 time zones (including 2 time zones in territorial water), Canada has

99. Factors affecting ocean currents: As a rule water on the Ocean surface would tend to move form low salinity to high salinity area. The earths rotation also affects ocean currents as its rotation form west to east leads to the current being generated from east to west. Temperature also affects ocean currents as warm water rises & cold water sinks. Water also moves from low atmospheric pressure areas to high pressure areas.

Miscellaneous Facts II 1. A polished and frequently striated surface that results from friction along a fault or bedding plane is called slickensides. 2. Shallow focus earthquakes (<70 Km), Intermediate focus earthquakes (70< 250 km) & deep focus earthquakes (250-700 Km). John Mitchell was the first to recognize that earthquake spreads in waves & destruction reduces outwards. The damage is not maximum at the epicenter but around it. Deep focus earthquakes are found to be practically restricted to the circum pacific belt. Mid oceanic ridges have shallow focus earthquakes. 90 % of the earthquakes have a focus less than 100 km deep. Areas that are quiet & overdue for an earthquake are called seismic gaps. It is a place that possesses accumulated stress. 3. Tsunami in Japan means Harbour waves. Their wavelength runs into hundreds of kilometers. Seismograph was invented by Fillipo Cecchi. 4. S waves are called shear waves because they move perpendicular to the direction of material through which they travel producing shear stress in the material. As liquids & gases dont have shear strength they cannot pass through them. 5. About 75 % of all volcanoes are on the sea floor. Popa mountains of Burma are extinct volcano. 6. The Giant geyser in Iceland, the old faithful in Yellowstone National Park of USA & the Wiamangu geyser in New Zealand are famous. 7. If the relative humidity is less than 70 % the air is dry. Between 70-90 % R.H. the air is moist. Cumulus cloud is a fair weather cloud. It indicates bright, brisk & fair weather. 8. The collision coalescence theory of Simpson & Mason was modified by Longmuer. This theory happens to be more valid for tropical areas. 9. The saturation vapour pressure is lower over ice crystals as compared to that over liquid droplets (Ice Crystal theory). Solid carbondioxide (dry ice) & Silver Iodide smoke are used for cloud seeding.


Ghanshyam Thori the latitude of the sub solar point.

Geography Notes

10. Subsolar point is that point on the earths surface where the sun is directly overhead. Suns declination is

11. Peridotite makes up the earths mantle. Epeirogentic movements cause Emergence & subsidence. Orogenetic movements cause folding, mountain building, faulting. 12. The west wind drift is the greatest ocean current of the world. Nappe is a French word meaning table cover. Competent rocks are those which are very rigid compared to the layers of rock above or below this layer. They tend to crack rather than distort as they fold. Harmonic folding occurs when the rocks have the same degree of competence & disharmonic vice versa. 13. On 21st June what is going to be the suns rays at a place along Altitude of Sun at a place = 90o (distance in latitude of the place from the overhead suns place) a. 10 N : b. 23.5 S: c. 80 N: 90 (23.5 10) = 76.5 degrees 90 (23.5 + 23.5) = 43 degrees 90 (80 23.5) = 33.5

14. To find the antipode in case of latitude just reverse the N/S symbol & in case of Longitude (180 given longitude & change sign from E to W or W to E). 15. In general normal faults are steeper than reverse faults. A tear or wrench fault is one in which the blocks of rocks slip sideways past each other. Bigger wrench faults are called transcurrent faults. A wrench fault is also called strike-slip fault.


Ghanshyam Thori

Geography Notes

World & Human Geography

Liberia Sierra Leone Mali East Timor Yamalia Sao Paulo Green Bay Dallas Austin San Diego Houston Texas Minnesota James Bay Waikiki Beach Badwater Seville Khyber Pass Bolan Pass Golden Triangle Socotra Adana Aceh Kharg Island Kalimantan Mt. Cotopaxi Mt. Chimborazo River Thames Ordos desert Mt. Goldsworthy Sudd Siciliy Flanders Uluru Blue Mountains Assorted Miscellaneous Facts Fastest growth of population Least educated country Poorest country by GDP Lowest rank in HDI Autonomous area in northwestern Siberia, Russia, south of Kara Sea. Is not a coastal city. Santos (main port) is very close. An extension of Lake Michingan. City in Texas (8th largest in US) Capital of Texas City in South west corner of California (7th largest). Harbor & Ship building Petroleum Hub of USA. City in southeastern Texas (4th largest city) Highest producer of oil & natural gas in USA Largest supplier of iron-ore in USA Southern extension of Hudson bay. Honolulu, Hawaii Death Valley, lowest point in western hemisphere Hottest place of Europe (Spain). Located in the Safed Koh range. Located in Brahui range (which lies between Sulaiman (N) & Kirthar range (S) Area where Burma, Laos & Thailand meet. 2/3rd of worlds heroin production Island, southeastern Yemen (belongs to Yemen) City in Turkey on Mediterranean Coast Special region of Indonesia, located on the northwestern tip of the island of Sumatra. Capital is Banda Aceh. Small island of southwestern Iran, in the Persian Gulf (Petroleum reserves) Region of the Republic of Indonesia, occupying the southern portion of the island of Borneo Rich in oil & Gas. Ecuador (one of the highest active volcanoes) Ecaudor (Inactive Volcano) Makes London a port. Eastern extension of Gobi desert in China through which Hwang Ho flows. Iron ore mine in NW Australia in Pilbara region (near Hamersley ranges) Swampy lands of river White Nile in Sudan. Largest Island in Mediterranean Sea. Plains of western Belgium Or Ayers rock is an inselberg & a sacred place of Aboriginals Rugged plateau region on the eastern side of the Great Dividing Range, in the 128

Ghanshyam Thori Mount St. Helens Cairo Koum Teff Pearl Harbour Kwajalein Bikni Atoll Funafuti atoll Quebracho Balata Naval Stores Chickle Carnuaba Palm Douglas Fir Sucre Yerba Mate Madeira Kjolen Mountains Brooks Range Alaska Range Favela Ranchos Kavettits Tahiti Gold Coast City Brest Bergen Anchorage Arnhem Land Lagos dos Patos Pico da Neblina Mount Kinabalu Puerto Montt Easter Islands Ogaden Oporto Betsiboka river Tanezroufts

Geography Notes state of New South Wales, Australia Active volcano, southwestern Washington, in the Cascade Range Largest city in Africa & capital of Egypt. Term for sandy desert in Turkmenistan. A highly nutritious crop of Ethiopian Highlands Located in Honolulu, the capital of Hawaii. Largest atoll in the world (Marshall Island) Major atoll in Marshall Island. In Ellice Island (Tuvalu) Axe-breaker. Found in Gran Chaco. It yields tannin Produces latex. Abundant in Amazon forest Trade name of turpentine & rosin. Yields gum. Abundant in Central American forest. Yeilds wax. Leading timber of North America. Legal Capital of Bolivia Tea like beverage extensively used in South America esp. in Brazil Largest tributary of Amazon Run along the Norway Atlantic Coast. Northern Boundary of Alaska (Continuation of Rockies) Southern Boundary of Alaska (Mt. McKinley lies here) Slums in Brazil Slums in Venezuela Slums in Myanmar. Largest island of French Polynesia. City in southeastern Queensland. Second largest in Queensland after Brisbane One of the major fishing port of France City & Seaport in Norway City & Seaport in Southern Alaska Historical region and Aboriginal reserve in Australia, in the northeastern part of the Northern Territory Largest Lagoon in the world in South-East Brazil Highest peak of Brazil in Guiana Highlands Highest peak of Malaysia. One of the principal ports in Chile. Lie in Pacific & is the farthest South American (Chile) possession (3700 km) Arid Upland desert region in South eastern Ethiopia. A leading port of Portugal & a chief economic centre Major river of Madagascar. Very dry areas in Sahara where no form of life is possible. Regional Terms for Shifting Cultivation Shifting cultivation in Venezuela Konuko Malaysia Ladang Philippines Caingin Indonesia Humah


Ghanshyam Thori Chena Milpa Taungya Masole Roka Podu Penda Deppa Ray Butte Itabira Potosi Mina-el-Ahmadi Burgan Dhahran Tampico & Tuxpam Masjid-e-Sulaiman Maikop Hassi RMel Groote Eylandt Cerro Bolivar Bor Cerro de Pasco Morococha

Geography Notes Sri Lanka Central America & Mexico Myanmar Congo Brazil Orissa Chhattisgarh M.P. Laos, Vietnam Mining Centers Copper mining centre in Montana (USA). Iron ore region of Brazil Mining Centre of Bolivia (Tin major, copper & lead) Petrochemical complex in Kuwait Oil filed of Kuwait Oil filed of Saudi Arabia Oil filed of Mexico Oil filed of Iran Oil field of Russia Worlds largest natural gas field in Algeria Mineral rich Island near Arnhem Land in Australias Northern territory. Supplies 20 percent of the world's high-grade manganese ore. Iron ore region in Venezuela Copper mining region of Yugoslavia Copper mining region of Peru Copper ore area of Peru

Fort Worth Hamilton Toledo Saar Coventry Limoges Leipzig Munich Arkangelsk

Miscellaneous Industrial Centres Aircraft & Aerospace Industry (Texas) Canadas Largest producer of steel. Known as Birmingham of Canada. Centre of Glass Industry in USA (Ohio) Imporant Industrial centre of Germany on Saar river. Automobile centre of England. First automobile manufactured here. Pottery centre in France Musical & precision Instruments in Germany Optical Instruments & Lenses (Germany) Timber centre & seaport near white sea & Lake Onega in Russia Important Canals in the Great Lakes Region, USA Connects Erie & Ontario Connect Lake Superior & Lake Huron. Also called Sault Sainte Marie Canal Links Lake Huron with Ontario lake. Links lake Ontario with river Ottawa Connects the Danube and Main rivers in Germany Joins Ems, Wiser & Elbe Types of Languages 130

Welland Canal Soo Canal Trent Canal Rideau Canal Ludwig Canal Mittelland Canal

Ghanshyam Thori Monosyllabic Agglutinative Inflexional

Geography Notes Words have various meanings depending on the position in sentence Chinese, Vietnamese, Thai & Tibetan Words altered by prefixes & suffixes Malay, Japanese, Swahili & most of the African languages. Flexible, modified to give required meaning English, French, Hindi, Arabic, Urdu Bengali & other Indo-European language

Top 25 Cities of USA 1. New York City New York 2. Los Angeles California 3. Chicago Illinois 4. Houston Texas 5. Philadelphia Pennsylvania 6. Phoenix Arizona* 7. San Diego California 8. Dallas Texas 9. San Antonio Texas 10. Detroit Michigan 11. San Jose California 12. Indianapolis Indiana* 13. San Francisco California 14. Jacksonville Florida 15. Columbus Ohio* 16. Austin Texas* 17. Baltimore Maryland 18. Memphis Tennesse 19. Milwaukee Wisconsin 20. Boston Massachusetts* 21. Washington Washington DC 22. Nashville Tennesse* 23. El Paso Texas 24. Seattle Washington 25. Denver Colorado* * - Captial cities of respective states Some Important Land Locked Countries (Not Exhaustive) Central African Republic, Ethiopia, Malawi, Swaziland Afghanistan, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Laos, Armenia, Azerbaijan Europe Andorra, Austria, Belarus, Hungary, Switzerland, Luxembourg, Liechtenstein, Macedonia, Moldova. South America Bolivia & Paraguay. Andorra, parliamentary principality, southwestern Europe, situated in the eastern Pyrenees Mountains, bordered on the north and east by France, and on the south and west by Spain. 131

Africa Asia

Ghanshyam Thori Georgia is not landlocked because it lies on the Black Sea side. Important Breeds of Cattle Holstein Friesian Netherlands Ayrshire/Ireshire Scotland Jersey Channel Island Brown Swiss Switzerland Guernsey Channel Island

Geography Notes

Principal Languages of the World Language Branch Mandarin Chinese English Germanic Russian Slavic Hindi Indic Spanish Romance Arabic Semitic Bengali Indic Portuguese Romance/Latino Malay-Indonesian Austro Japanese Japanese-Korean German Germanic French Romance Tribes Tutsi Burundi & Rwanda. Killed in masses by Hutu a rival group Hutu Rwanda & Burundi Creole A descendant of European settlers or of Black slaves, in the W. Indies or Central or S. America Yoruba Nigeria & Benin Dinka Native people of Sudan Twa Original Inhabitants of Burundi Hazara Central Agfhanistan (Main). Also in Pakistan & Iran Tehuelche Collective name for the tribe of Patagonia Aka Another name for Pygmies (Congo) Pueblo Southwest USA. Known for Adobe buildings Minhasa Indigenous people of Sulawesi (Celebes) Filipinos are originally Malay people. The Great Lakes & Important Cites Around Duluth Milwaukee, Chicago & Gary Detroit, Toledo, Cleveland, Buffalo Toronto, Hamilton

Lake Superior Lake Michigan Lake Erie Lake Ontario


Ghanshyam Thori Major Airports of the World Dulles International Airport George Bush International Airport Hartsfield International Airport John F. Kennedy International Airport O Hare International Airport Roissy Charles de Gaulle International Airport McCarran International Airport Gatwick International Airport Haneda International Airport Kimpo International Airport Washington D.C. Houston Atlanta New York Chicago France Las Vegas London Japan Seoul

Geography Notes

Bedouins Masai Bushman Kirghiz Lapps

Tribal Shelters Khaimas Kraals Scheoms (thatched hut) Kstau Sijda (Sida)

Changed Geographical Names Peltoratsk Ashkabad (Turkmenistan) Hashemite Kingdom Jordan Konigsberg Kaliningrad Lanxang Laos Andalas Sumatra Trucial States UAE

Rice Wheat Maize or Corn Oats Rubber Barley Tea Grapes Soyabeans

Scientific Names of Common Plants Jute Oriza Sativa Mustard Triticum Aestivum Silk Worm Zea Diploperennis Abaca (Menila Hemp) Avena Sativa Banana Hevea Brasiliensis Oil Palm Hordeum Vulgare Teak Camellia Sinensis Sal Vitis vinifera Glycine Max Important Dams Feather river Columbia river Colorado river White Nile Parana river Angara river 133

Corchorus capsularis Brassica nigra Bombyx Mori Musa Textilis Musa Sapientum Elaeis Guineesis Tectona Grandis Shorea Robusta

Oroville Dam Grand Coulee Dam Hoover & Boulder Dam Rogun Dam Owen Falls Dam Itaipu Dam Bratsk Dam

U.S.A. U.S.A. U.S.A. Tajikistan Uganda Brazil/Paraguay Russia

Ghanshyam Thori Guri Dam Caroni river* Inga Dam Zaire/Congo river Boyoma/Stanley Falls Zaire Dnepropetrovsk Dam Dneiper Kitimat Scheme Nechako River St. Anthony Falls Mississippi Snowy Mountain Scheme Snowy & Eucumbene rivers Ord River Scheme Ord river * - Angel Falls is located on Rio Churn (Caroni) river.

Geography Notes Venezuela (Countrys major) Dem. Republic of Congo Congo Ukraine British Columbia, Canada USA New South Wales, Australia Western Australia

Extemities Cape Horn Southernmost tip of S. America Cape Agulhas Southermost tip of Africa Ellesmere Island Northernmost part of Canada Pelee Island Southernmost part of Canada Key West Southermost town of USA Cape of Good Hope is erroneously regarded as the extremity of Africa. Types of Fishes Pelagic Sardines Herring Swordfish Anchovies Tuna Mackerel Pilchards Pelagic Fish live near the surface of water & demersal fish near the ocean bottom Anadromous fish live in Saline water but return in fresh water to spawn. Catadromous fish live in fresh water but breed in Saline water Ichthyology is the study of fish Anchovies, Capelin & Menhaden are known as trash fish used for non human consumption Areas & Largest fish Catch Coast of Peru Anchovies Caspian Sea Sturgeon USAs East Coast Menhaden West Coast of Canada Salmon Key west, Florida Sponges Chesapeake Bay Oyster Southern Europe & Mediterranean Sea Sardine & Anchovy Salt Water Fish Demersal Cod Halibut Hake Haddock Pollock Flounder Other Fishes Fresh Water Fishes Anadromous Fish Sturgeon Salmon Trout Chinook Perch Carp


Ghanshyam Thori

Geography Notes

Miscellaneous Facts: 1. Continents in descending order of area are Asia, Africa, North America, South America, Antarctica, Europe and Australia. 2. Calgary is the largest city in the province of Alberta & is also known as the energy capital of the country. Tar Sands deposits are found in Alberta & Venezuela. Uranium City is on the northern shores of Lake Athabasca. Canada has the longest coastline (~60,000 miles) of any country in the world. 3. The Grand Canyon of the Colorado river is in northwest Arizona. Allegheny Mountains is a complex of ranges and uplands of the Appalachian system. The name is usually applied to the ranges west of the Blue Ridge in Pennsylvania & neighboring states. In the eastern United States a fall line forms the border between the Piedmont Plateau and the Atlantic Coastal Plain. 4. The mountain ranges of USA from west to East is Coast Mountains, Cascade Range, Sierra Nevada & The Rockies. 5. The term Antilles applies to the whole of West Indies except the Bahamas. The Greater Antilles includes Cuba, Jamaica, Haiti, Dominican Republic and Puerto Rico. 6. Australian provinces & their capitals are Northern Territory (Darwin), Queensland (Brisbane), New South Wales (Sydney), Victoria (Melbourne), South Australia (Adelaide), Tasmania (Hobart), West Australia (Perth). 7. The bottled trees (related to Baobab trees) are found in NW Australia especially in the Kimberley plateau region. Murrumbidgee, river is the longest tributary of Murray Darling. Freemantle is the outport of Perth. The most populated province of Australia is New South Wales. 8. The transcontinental Stuart Highway of Australia runs between Adelaide and Alice Springs near Macdonnell ranges in Northern Territory. Between 1980-90 corals on large scale in the Great Barrier reef were destroyed by the Crown of Thorns starfish.


Ghanshyam Thori Auckland. 10. The Trans Amazon highway connects Rio Branco to Sao Louis

Geography Notes

9. Taranaki plains of New Zealand is famous for dairy industry. The biggest city of New Zealand is

11. The Orentes river rises in Northern Lebanon, flows in a northerly direction parallel to Mediterranean in Syria & enters Turkey & finally Mediterranean. Zaire is the only river to cross the equator twice. 12. The Grand Canal (Da Yunhe) of China is the worlds largest canal system & connects Yangtze Kiang & Hwang Ho. 13. European countries in descending order of density are Netherlands, Belgium, U.K., Germany & Italy. In ascending order the countries are Iceland, Russian Federation, Norway & Finland. 14. The evolution order of humans is Apes Dyropithecus Ramapithecus Australopithecus (Pliocene age) Hamo Habilis Homo Erectus (Fossils of Java Man & Peking man belong to Homo Erectus appeared during Pleistocene) Neanderthal Man Cro Magnon Man Homo Sapiens. 15. A progressive age structure is one in which both birth & death rates are high. A regressive age structure is one in which birth rates are low & declining. 16. A Mega city according to UNO is any city with a population of over 8 millions. In India the population criteria for mega city is 5 million. A perforated state is one whose territory is completely surrounded by another. Eg. Lesotho, Swaziland. 17. Trans Arabian Pipeline links the oil fields of Persian Gulf to Saida Lebanon. 18. According to Malthus Preventive (or negative) checks are celibacy and abstinence. Positive checks included famine, war, disease etc. Zelinsky in his Mobility Transition theory basically incorporated impact of migration on the Demographic transition theory. 19. Currently 50 % of the worlds fish comes from Pacific Ocean & 25 % are from North Pacific alone. Horticulture includes pomology (growing of fruits), Olericulture (production of vegetable crops), floriculture & Ornamental Horticulture (Landscape gardening). 20. In Brazil Sertao refers to semi-arid regions. It consists mainly of low uplands that from Brazilian highlands. Coffee is indigenous to Ethiopia. Potato is native to Andean Highlands. 21. Forward Capital: When a state relocates its capital to a sensitive area, perhaps near a zone of dispute with an unfriendly neighbour in part to confirm its determination to sustain its position in that zone. 22. Von Thunen model has the following zones central city, market gardening & milk production, Firewood & lumber production, crop farming without fallow, crop farming fallow & pasture, three field system & livestock farming. The margin between two zones of landuse is called margin of transference.


Ghanshyam Thori off, Take off, Drive to Maturity & The Stage of Mass Consumption.

Geography Notes

23. The five stages of Rostows Model of Development are the Traditional Society, Preconditions for Take

24. The Gatun lake, Panama forms the key to Panama canal system. Mittelland Canal joins the three major rivers Ems, Weser & Elbe & continues eastwords to Berlin & into Poland. The Ludwig canal links a main tributary of Rhine to the Danube & allows waterborne traffic from the Black sea to reach Atlantic via the Rhine. 25. Lardarello, Italy was the first to produce geothermal energy. U.S.A is the largest producer of geothermal energy. Iceland has highest percentage contribution of geothermal energy. 26. Tidal energy is produced at Rance river in Northwest France & Bay of Fundy in Canada. Bay of Fundy is a large tidal inlet separating the provinces of New Brunswick and Nova Scotia. 27. The top countries in solar energy production are Japan, USA, Germany & India. 28. Kharkov is the second largest city in Ukraine & Duluth is in N.E Minnesota. Entreport is a port where goods are stored & deposited for further distribution. 29. The first five zones in Concentric zone, Sector & Multiple Nuclei model are all same:- Zone I CBD, Zone II wholesale (or Transition), Zone III low income houses, Zone IV Medium class houses, Zone V high class housing (See Models). 30. In Christallers model K=3 (Marketing Principle), K=4 (Transport Principle) & K=7 (Administration). The rank size rule was first noticed by F. Auerbach in 1913 but developed by G.K. Zipf in 1949 in his book Human Behaviour & Principle of Least Effort. 31. The age of town scheme in the form of infantile, juvenile, adolescent, early mature & mature was given by Griffith Taylor. A dynamic explanation of urban development based on centrifugal & centripetal forces is known as Colbys Hypothesis. 32. Kibbutz (cooperative farming in Israel), Kung-She (China), Sovkhoz (state owned farms in Russia), Kolkhoz (collective farms in Russia), Ejido (Communal farm in Mexico) & Volksguter (Germany) 33. Many of Israels rural Jews live in two types of cooperative communities, the kibbutz and the moshav. In a kibbutz, residents own all property collectively and contribute work in exchange for basic necessities. In a moshav, families own separate farms but cooperate in some aspects. 34. Lewis Mumford classified cities on the basis of technology into Eotechnic, Palaeotechnic, Neotechnic & Biotechnic. He also divided cities on the basis of cultural rise & fall into Eopolis, Polis, Metropolis, Megalopolis, Megalopolis, Tyrannopolis & Necropolis (City of the dead). 35. Weight loosing industry (Mineral Smelting), Weight Gaining industry (Bread Manufacturing), Bulk loosing industry (Cotton Textile), Bulk Gaining Industry (glassware).


Ghanshyam Thori

Geography Notes

36. The correct sequence of European river from North to South is Elbe, Weser (End in Germanys Atlantic region) Rhine, Meuse (Netherlands) Seine, Loire, Dordogne (France) Ebro, Duero, Tagus & Guadiana & Guadalquivir (Spain). 37. Hebrides or Western Isles is an archipelago of about 500 islands, western Scotland, in the Atlantic Ocean. New Hebrides is Vanuatu. 38. The correct chronological order of the arrival of various racial groups in India is as follows Negroids, Palaeomediterraneans, Mediterraneans & Nordics. 39. In Malaysia & Indonesia an irrigated rice field is known as Sawah. Rubber plantation is concentrated on the western coast of Malaysian peninsula. The underground channels slightly inclined used to bring water for irrigation from aquifers near the base of a mountain to neighbouring lowland areas esp. in Sahara are called Foggra. Population per unit of cultivable land is known as physiological density. Mongolia is the least densely populated country & Monaco the most. 40. Hispaniola is the second largest island in West Indies & is divided into the separate countries of Haiti, which occupies the western third of the island, and the Dominican Republic. Patagonia is a cold desert. 41. The rivers arranged in descending order of discharge volume are Amazon, Congo, Mississippi-Missouri, Rio de la Plata-Parana, Congo & Ganga. The Parana river is formed by the confluence of Rio Grande and Paranaba River. Andes is the longest mountain chain in the world. 42. Norway has virtually no illiteracy. India has longer railway network than Australia & Germany. The countries in descending order of road networks are U.S.A, India, Brazil & China. 43. The largest islands are Greenland, New Guinea, Borneo, Madagascar, Baffin & Sumatra. The following four lakes are arranged in descending order Superior, Victoria, Huron & Michigan. The Yangtze river is the third largest in the world & is longer than Mississippi-Missouri combined. Yenisey-Angara, Ob-Irtysh & Lena are all longer than Volga. Volga is the longest in Europe. 44. South America has the highest percentage forest area in the world. Large mammals are rare in Brazil as the dense Amazon forest does not support free movement. 45. Asal lake, a salt lake located in Djibouti is the lowest point in Africa & Valdes peninsula is the lowest point in S. America. The river by length in Africa are Nile, Zaire (Congo), Niger river & Zambezi. In Africa most of the cities are primate cities. 46. Lake Nasser (Behind Aswan dam) in Southern Egypt & Northern Sudan is the larges artificial lake in Africa. The Great Man Made River, an ambitious irrigation scheme is in Libya. Jabal al Akhdar (Green Mountains) also lies in Libya.


Ghanshyam Thori is a part of South Africa. In Africa the heaviest rainfall is recorded in Cameroon.

Geography Notes

47. The people of Madagascar originated from Indonesia. Benguela seaport lies in Angola. Orange Free State

48. Suez canal (built by French engineer Ferdinand De Lesseps) utilizes three bodies of waterLake Manzilah, Lake Tims h, and the Bitter Lakes. It is a sea level canal without locks. 49. Tea plantations in India, China & Sri Lanka are carried out on acidic soils. In New Zealand sheep outnumber people by 20 is to 1. 50. Bush fallowing is a form of shifting cultivation in West Africa where only the clearings are shifted & the settlement is permanent. 51. Africa is known as plateau continent & Australia is topographically the lowest continent. Antarctica has the maximum mean elevation. A series of nearly parallel faults produced by compressional forces when the crust is horizontally shortened is referred to as Echelon fault. 52. Mount Fujiyama & Mt. Krakatau are dormant. In Philippines, two well-known volcanoes that have been active in recent years, Mount Pinatubo and Taal Volcano, are each about 80 km from Manila. Solfatara is small volcano on the outskirts of Naples. It takes it name form the sulphur gases which escape from it. 53. Paricutin Volcano is in Mexico. It is the youngest mountain in the world & was created from an eruption of lava and ash through a fissure in 1943 growing to more than 400 m in year. Mount Kelut & Tambora are one of the major volcanoes of Indonesia. 54. Laki & Surtsey volcanic island are major volcanoes of Iceland. Mount Taupo is one of the greatest volcanoes of New Zealand which created the Taupo crater lake (largest lake of New Zealand). 55. The largest active shield volcano in the world is Mt. Mauna Loa in Hawaii. Kilauea, the most active volcanic crater in the world, is located on the southeastern slope of Mauna Loa. 56. The stretch between the rock of Gibraltar (Spain) & Cape Ceuta (Morocco) is called the Pillar of the Hercules. The Atlas Mountains are an extension of the Alpine system of Europe. The Tell or Maritime Atlas are lower slopes of the Atlas Mountains. The coastal belt of Mediterranean climate if referred to as Tell in Algeria. 57. Alberta is coal & petroleum rich in Canada. Labrador & Newfoundland are iron mining regions of Canada. Texas, Alaska & Gulf of Mexico are rich in petroleum deposits in USA. California is the most populous state of USA. Florida is the largest producer of orange. Kansas is the largest producer of wheat. Badlands of the Dakota are famous in USA. 58. The Hudson river flows between the Taconic range & the Catskill Mountains (both belonging to the Appalachians).


Ghanshyam Thori Washington DC. The coca cola company is based in Atlanta (Capital of Georgia).

Geography Notes

59. The US NE region cities from North to South are Boston, New York, Philadelphia, Baltimore &

60. The major sources of revenue of Monaco is Casino (mainly in Monte Carlo). The countries/regions with decreasing number of islands are Oceania (25000), Indonesia (14000), Philippines (7100), Japan (3000). 61. Australia is an exporter of wheat. Australia boasts the worlds largest known recoverable resources of lead, mineral sands, tantalum, uranium, silver, and zinc. The southwest coast of the south island in New Zealand is characterized by deep fiords (Fiordland National Park, largest in the country lies here). 62. In Lebanon 90 % of the population is Urban. In Turkey literacy rate is around 87 %. Pyongyang & Seoul are both coastal cities. Jordan is not land locked because of Gulf of Aqaba. 63. Malaysia is not the leading producer of tin in the world (China & Indonesia lead). Copper is the leading mineral of Philippines. Iran also has one of the world's largest reserves of copper 64. With a mean elevation of approximately 650 m (2,100 ft) above sea level, Africa is high compared to other continents.. Gold is Ghanas principal mineral resource. More than 90 % of Burundis population is rural. River Niger has two deltasan inland delta in central Mali and a coastal delta along the Gulf of Guinea 65. South East Asian countries in descending order of population density are Philippines (290), Indonesia (132) Thailand (125) Malaysia (70) & Brunei (62). Area wise the descending order is Indonesia, Thailand, Malaysia & Philippines. 66. Europe has longer coastline than North America Rhine is connected to Rhone & hence the Mediterranean. About 50 % of Netherlands landmass lies below sea level. 67. The ten highest peaks of USA are in Alaska. The Great Lakes were formed during the ice age. The largest single cause of the decline in the Amu Daryas water level is the Garagum Canal, the longest canal in the former Soviet Union and one of the longest in the world. The Aral Sea is a remnant of Tethys Sea. 68. France has a major tidal power plant on the Rance River in Brittany. France produces more electricity than it uses and is a major exporter of electricity to neighboring countries, including the United Kingdom, Italy, and Switzerland. 69. Kuwaiti Oilfields are located at Fao, Burgan, Wafra. The largest lakes of Brazil are are Sobradinho, on the So Francisco; Tucuru, on the Tocantins; Balbina, on the Amazon; and Furnas, on the Paran. 70. The worlds top waterfalls in a descending order of discharge of volume of water are Niagara falls, Victoria falls, Iguazu falls (On Parana river in Argentina-Brazil border) & Kaieteur Falls (on river Potaro in Guyana, S. America).


Ghanshyam Thori Coconuts (Tanzania), Cotton (Egypt). S. Africa leads in wheat, maize, fruits & wool.

Geography Notes

71. In Africa the leading states for various commodities are: Tea (Kenya), Oil Palm (Nigeria), Cocoa (Ghana),

72. Kalahari means the great thirst & a major part of it is in Botswana. Khartoum is located at the confluence of Blue Nile (Lake Tana) & White Nile (Lake Victoria). White Nile (longer) lies to the west of Blue Nile & contains sudds (the swampy land). A region of inland drainage in Africa is Lake Chad. 73. South Africa has 3 capitals: Cape Town (legislative capital); Pretoria (Executive/Administrative capital); and Bloemfontein, the judicial capital. 74. The four most populous countries of Africa are Nigeria, Egypt, Ethiopia & Zaire. Countries comprising the horn of Africa are Djibouti, Eritrea, Ethiopia & Somalia. 75. River Limpopo forms the boundary between S. Africa & Botswana. River Orange forms the boundary between S. Africa & Namibia. 76. Ethiopia & Liberia were never colonized. Eritrea was carved out of Ethiopia during 1990s. Djibouti faces the strait of Bab-el-Mandeb. Countries bordering lake Victoria are Tanzania, Kenya & Uganda 77. Panama city is the only capital city of the Central American Country having a coastal location. The cities on the edges of Panama canal are Balboa (Pacific side) & Colon (Atlantic side). Chagres Locks, Pedro Miguel Lock & Mira Flores lock are on the Panama Canal. 78. Central American Countries: Puerto Rico is the largest exporter of Chemicals. El Salvador is the only country on having an Atlantic Coastline. Belize is the only country not having a Pacific coastline. El Salvador is the smallest in area & has the highest density. Guatemala the most populous in the region. Trinidad is the only Carribean Island with large oil reserves. 79. Jura (mountains), mountain range, is located along the border between France and Switzerland (& not Germany). Vosges are in Germany. 80. Rhode Island is the smallest state of USA. California is the most populated state of USA. The confluence of Mississippi & Missouri is at St. Louis. Niagara falls lie between Lakes Erie & Ontario. Big Apple describes the city of New York. 81. The number of provinces & federal territories in Canada is 10 & 3 respectively (total 13). Quebec is the largest province of Canada & Ontario is the most populous. The capital of various provinces of Canada are Quebec (Quebec city), Ontario (Toronto), Manitoba (Winnipeg), Saskatchewan (Regina), Alberta (Edmonton), British Columbia (Victoria). 82. Mahaweli Ganga is the longest river of Sri Lanka. Hawaii is known as crossroads of the Pacific. At Basel, Rhine River turns north and enters the Rhine rift valley, a flat-floored rift valley lying between the Vosges on the west and the Black Forest (Schwarzwald) on the east.


Ghanshyam Thori Lakes form north to south in Middle Africa.

Geography Notes

83. Lake Albert, Lake Edward, Lake Kivu, Lake Tanganyika, Lake Malawi is the correct sequence of the

84. English is the official language of Nigeria. Copenhagen (Entreport), Honolulu (port of call) are different types of ports. New York is known as a city that never sleeps. Minnesota is known as land of 10,000 lakes, which is an understatement as it has more than 15000 lakes. Colorado accounts for the largest production of Uranium in USA. Missouri & Tennessee share borders with the maximum number of other states in USA (each borders 8 states). 85. Mackinder termed British & Japanese islands as offshore islands. Extensive agriculture is characterized by high per capita production but poor per acre production. 86. Shannon river is the longest in the British Isles. Guano (mainly Peru) is a source of phosphatic fertilizer. Nitrate fertilizers are prepared form Caliche (Chile Chile saltpeter or NaNO3) 87. Shinano river is the longest river of Japan. 88. Belem is the biggest cocoa exporting port of Brazil. Hudson Bay is the worlds largest bay & Davis Strait is the worlds broadest strait. British Columbia accounts for half of Canadas timber. 89. The coasts of Canada are highly indented as eustatic changes in the past have led to the submergence of low lying land. 90. Queensland is the largest producer of Sugarcane & leads in cattle (40% of total) in Australia. Australia is the worlds largest producer of both gem/near-gem and industrial-grade diamonds, producing about twofifths of the global total. Tasmania is the leading producer of apples in Australia. 91. Western Australia is the largest province in terms of Area . Dongara in south west Australia is known for Natural gas. Whyalla is a city and port in southern Australia near Adeilade & is important for ship building. Located on the northwest shore of Spencer Gulf, an arm of the Indian Ocean, Whyalla is a center of heavy industry, with gas refineries and chemical industries. 92. Danube crosses through the maximum countries of the world. The capital cities of Vienna, Budapest, Bratislava (Slovakia) & Belgrade (Serbia & Montenegro) lie on its bank. Icelands economy mainly depends on exports of fish. 93. Kuwait is the most urbanized Arab State (virtually entire population is urban). Turkey has virtually no desert & is quite unlike middle east. The Anatolian plateau (Asian Turkey) is bounded by Pontine mountains to the north & Taurus mountains to the south. 94. Maldives has a density of 1100 persons/sq km. The top four most dense countries of south Asia are Maldives, Bangladesh, India & Sri Lanka. In Pakistan 33 % of the population is urban & Sri Lanka has 23 % urbanization. Western Sahara is the most urbanized in Africa. Djibouti also has one of the highest


Ghanshyam Thori South America. 95. Ferro-nickel is one of the prominent exports of Dominican Republic.

Geography Notes

urbanization (85%). South Africa has 60 percent urbanization. Uruguay is the most urbanized nation in

96. Christchurch is the main urban centre of the Canterbury plains in New Zealand. Kruger National Park, is in northeastern South Africa, adjacent to the Mozambique border & is among the ten largest national parks in the world. 97. Texas is known for the maximum number of tornadoes in USA. Greenland is more sparsely populated than Mongolia. Canada produces the maximum hydroelectricity in the world. 98. The correct sequence of Chinese cities in descending order of population is Shanghai, Beijing, Tianjin & Nanjing. Within China Chernozem soils are only found in Manchuria. 99. The Chinese cities form North to South are: Fushun, Shenyang, Anshan, Beijing, Tianjin, Shanghai & Wuhan. Nanjing is almost at the same latitude as Shanghai & is close to it. 100. The correct decreasing order of population concentration in various Japanese provinces is Honshu,

Kyushu, Hokkaido & Shikoku. The population of following Japanese cities in descending order is Osaka, Nagoya, Kobe & Kyoto.

Miscellaneous Facts II: 1. Muroran is an important industrial centre in Hokkaido. Chiba is another industrial centre near Tokyo. 2. River Mekong is called the Danube of SE Asia. A fragmented strip of Malaysia (Sarawak) separates Brunei into two divisions. Brunei is a member of Commonwealth of Nations. 3. Borneo is an ancient stable crust pushed above the sea level by tectonic forces & is not subject to volcanism. Indonesia is the worlds largest archipelago. The Indonesian Islands in decreasing order of area is Kalimantan (Borneo Island), Sumatra, Irian Jaya (or Papua), Java & Bali. Java is the most populous island. 4. Jakarta is the largest city of SE Asia followed by Manila. Borneo is the least developed part of Indonesia. Indonesia is the largest producer of Liquefied Natural Gas in the world. 5. Palembang (Sumatra), Bogor (Java), Balikpapan (Kalimantan), Manado (Sulawesi) are some of the principal cities of Indonesia. Makassar is the largest city and chief port of Sulawesi 6. Hmong is a minority ethnic group that lives primarily in China and Southeast Asia. About 2 million Hmong live in Southeast Asian countries, such as Vietnam, Laos, Thailand, and Myanmar. Another 10 million Hmong live in the southern provinces of China.


Ghanshyam Thori

Geography Notes

7. The correct sequence of cities north to south in SE Asia is Hanoi, Vientiane, Yangon & Bangkok. Ferries on Bangkoks extensive system of canals (khlongs) serve thousands of commuters every day. Bangkok has in the recent years faced the problem of sinking ground due to excessive withdrawal of water. In the eastern part of Thailand lies the Khorat plateau which comprises of sandstone & is a region of cassava production. 8. Sjlland, also Zealand, island of eastern Denmark is the largest and most important island of Denmark 9. Pennine chain of Mountains is in England & Pyrenees is in Spain. Cantabrian Mountain chain is also in Spain lying west from the Pyrenees to the Atlantic Ocean 10. Prut (also Pruth or Prutul river) flows through southwestern Ukraine, western Moldova, and eastern Romania & is a major tributary of the Danube River. The northern Dvina flows into the White Sea. The port of Arkhangelsk lies on its bank. The western dvina called Daugava rises in Belarus & flows northwest through Latvia, emptying into the Gulf of R ga. The Duero river lies in Spain & Portuagal. 11. Russia, Ukraine & France are the top 3 countries in Europe by Area. 12. Australia is the driest & the hottest continent of the world. Gulf of Joseph Bonaparte lies to the west of Arnhem land in Australia. Sharks Bay lies to the west of Hammersley ranges. Gulf of Spencer is near Adeliade & Flinders range. Significant petroleum deposits have been exploited in Barrow Island, Bass Strait and southern Queensland. 13. In Russia the various ports are Murmansk (Barents Sea), Magadan (Sea of Okhotsk), St. Petersburg (Gulf of Finland) & Arkhangelsk (White Sea). The various cities are Nizhny Novogorod (Central region), Magnitogorsk (Ural region), Kazan (Volga region) & Novosibirsk (Kuzbas). 14. The largest proportion of world electricity comes from thermal power. The Ruwenzori mountain range in Africa is a block mountain produced by faulting. 15. In Pakistan Baluchistan lies to the west of Kirthar ranges & Sind lies to the east. Pakistan has higher percentage of irrigated land than India, Bangladesh & Nepal. Mardan has the largest sugar factory in Pakistan. Sylhet is the most important teas cultivation area of Bangladesh. England & Ireland


Ghanshyam Thori

Geography Notes

Kalakot Coalfields Indira Col Walong Town Rajheera Creek Kukrail Project Goran Ghat Char Bils/bhils Teris/Theris Bhur

Geography of India Various Geographical regions/terms Located in J & K. Northern most point of India Eastern Most point of India in Arunachal Pradesh Western most point of India in Kachhch Protection of crocodiles Located in Rajasthan. Uplands in the Ganga Delta Marshy lands / Ox Bow lakes in Assam Coastal sand dunes in Kerala (Malabar Coast) Elevated piece of land situated along the bank of Ganga


Ghanshyam Thori Barind Pats Chalkas Thali Konda Pensi La Dahej Saharanpur Pancham Island Osam & Barda Dapha Bum Blue Mountain Barail Range Jelep La Karbi Analong Nakki Lake Mulshi Lake

Geography Notes Bhangar in deltaic region of Bengal having extensive laterite formations Lateritic plain (High level) Name for red soils in Telengana district. Sandy plain Residual Hillocks on the Telengana Plateau Connects Himachal Pradesh with Kargil Centre of Chemical industry in Gujarat Famous for Paper Industry Lies near Gujarat Volcanic hills in Kathiawar. Highest peak in Eastern Himalayas (Mishmi Hills). Highest peak of Mizo hills Separates Naga hills from Manipur Hills Connects Kalimpong with Lhasa. Located in Sikkim Another name for Mikir Hills (Assam) Rajasthan Maharashtra

Important Institutes Central Soil & Materials Research Station Central Water & Power Research Station National Institute of Hydrology Wool Research Association National Ship Design & Research Centre National Mangrove Genetic Association Forest Resource & Human Resource Development Indian Boundaries Bangladesh 4096 Km China 3917 Km Pakistan 3310 Km Nepal 1752 Km Myanmar 1458 Km Bhutan 578 Km

New Delhi Pune Roorkee Thane Vishakhapatnam Orissa Chhindwara

Guntur Vijaywada Rajmundhury Machilipatnam Porvorim Palem Mangalore Trichur Punaloor

Important Industrial Centers of India Tobacco Pharmaceuticals & Toy Making Paper Mill Imitation Jewellery, Hand-woven clothes Computer Floppy Disk Pig Iron Plant Roofing Tiles Diamond cutting & Polishing Paper Industry

Andhra Pradesh Andhra Pradesh Andhra Pradesh Andhra Pradesh



Ghanshyam Thori Dhuravani Hubli Karimnagar Kurnool Warangal Baleshwar Modinagar Patna Rai Bareli Greater Noida Jind Pithampur Naini Bhopal Kota Ludhiana Saharanpur Panki Indias First telephone manufacturing facility Cotton Textile Silver Filigree Articles Hydrogenated Oil Woolen Carpets Automobiles Tyres & Tubes Synthetic Fiber Aluminium Foils Passenger Car Telephone Tannery Automobile (Scooter) Compressors & Pumps Heavy Electric Machinery Precision Instruments Bicycle parts Sugar Industry Automobile Important Agricultural Districts Nagpur Orange Jalgaon Banana Nasik Onion Bijapur & Dhule Grapes Kolar Silk Alleppey Cotton Rayapuram Synthetic Fibre. Geyser/Springs Sites of India Kulu, Himachal Pradesh Shimla, Himachal Pradesh* Kangra, Himachal Pradesh Patna J&K Uttaranchal Gujarat Bihar Rajasthan Sikkim Maharashtra Mineral sites Koh Dariba Malanjkhand (Balaghat) Aridongri Kendujhar Copper Copper Iron Ore Manganese, Chromite Rajasthan (Alwar) M.P. Chhatisgarh Orissa

Geography Notes Bangalore Andhra Pradesh Andhra Pradesh Andhra Pradesh Orissa U.P. Bihar U.P U.P Haryana M.P. M.P Rajasthan Punjab U.P.

Manikaran Tatapani Jwalamukhi Rajgir Puga Valley Shahastradhara Uni Tapovan Naraini Foot Sachu Nimboli


Ghanshyam Thori Lota Pahar Kolihan Jamar Kotra Kalol Naomundi Ghatsila Chalk Hills Nagaur Agnigundala Babaduan Hills Copper Copper Rock Phosphate Oil Iron Ore Copper Magnesite Gypsum Copper Iron Ore

Geography Notes Rajasthan (South of Khetri) Rajasthan Rajasthan Gujarat Jharkhand Bihar Salem Rajasthan Karnataka

Newly Created States: Area Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand & Uttaranchal. Population Jharkhand, Chhattisgarh & Uttaranchal Population density Jharkhand, Uttaranchal & Chhattisgarh. Sex Ratio Chattisgarh has highest Highest Decadal Growth Jharkhand Miscellaneous Facts: 1. The correct chronological scale of the Indian time scale is Archaean (Dharwar Early Precambrian), Purana (covers Cuddapah & Vindhyan systems Late Pre Cambrian), Dravidian (400-600 million years ago) & Aryan (400 million till date). 2. The peninsular plateau cover around 70 % of the Indias land area. Most of the peninsular rivers have reached their base level of erosion. 3. The major syntaxial bends of Himalayas are near Pamir (where the Karakoram meets Hindukush) & in Arunachal Pradesh where there is a sharp change from East-west to Southerly trend. 4. The Karakoram range & the Laddakh plateau lie to the north of Indus Tsangpo Suture Zone & originally formed a part of the Eurasian plate. 5. Tectonic earthquakes cause maximum damage. The north-western Himalayas are more prone to earthquakes than the eastern Himalayas. Dharwar system has the most important mineralized rocks of India which are the earliest formed sedimentary rocks found today in metamorphic forms. The major rocks of the Dharwar system include Schist, Quartzite, Slates, Dolomites etc. Vindhyan mountains exhibit the oldest glaciation. The recent rocks are Aryan rocks. Quartzite & cement grade limestone is obtained from the Cuddapah System. 6. Awadh plains lie to the east of Rohilkhand plains in U.P. Bhabar (8-16 km wide) extends from Indus to Teesta & is not suitable for cultivation. Ajodhya hills lie in West Bengal. The Great Boundary Fault lies along the Aravallis


Ghanshyam Thori Himalayas, Punjab Himalayas & Kumaon Himalayas.

Geography Notes

7. The length of the regional division of the Himalayas in descending order is: Nepal Himalayas, Assam

8. The submarine canyons along the Indian coasts are found only in a small portion in Kutch coastal region. 9. The Ghaggar is the most important river of inland drainage. It rises in the lower slopes of the Himalayas & forms boundary between Haryana & Punjab & is lost in dry sand near Hanumangarh. Purvanchal hills have trellis drainage pattern. 10. Reserved forests (54 % of total) are under direct supervision of government. In protected forests local people are allowed to collect timber. About one percent of Indias forest is Private Forest. 11. The Sambhar, Degana, Didwana lakes are the proof of the recession of the Arabian Sea. Parts of the Indian deserts also resulted due to the recession. The western part of Thar has longitudinal dunes & eastern part is characterized by Barkhans. The 25 cm Isohyet form the limit of Thar desert. 12. Jhelum & Beas are not antecedent but Satluj, Saryu (Kali), Ghagara, Kosi, Teesta & Manas River are antecedent. River Son, Damodar, Chambal & Banas are fine examples of superimposed drainage. The following states are arranged in descending order of area: Assam, Jharkhand, Uttaranchal & Himachal Pradesh. Lakshadweep has the smallest area among UTs. Gujarat has the longest coastline in India followed by Andhra Pradesh. 13. The south-west monsoons of India represent equatorial westerlies. Mizoram is the least irrigated states of India. Shivsamudram is the oldest hydro electricity project. 14. Ganga river has the maximum flow in August & September. Jhelum has the maximum flow in May & June. The Ganga Cauveri link is likely to connect Thanjavur to Patna. 15. In India the top river basins are Ganga (26.2%), Indus (9.8%), Godavari (9.5%), Krishna, Brahmaputra & Mahanadi. Brahmaputra leads in terms of annual water yield & rate of flow. Storage capacity is highest for Ganga. 16. Black soils are suitable for citrus & leguminous crops. Red soils are suitable for Tapioca & cashewnuts. Gangetic soil can be described as azonal. Rock Cover is the most important factor of soil formation. Fallow land in India is about 10 %. The highest area under maize is in the state of M.P. Highest yield of wheat is found in Punjab. 17. M.P & U.P are the top two states in number of cattle & U.P & Punjab are top two in milk production. Cattle density if highest in Manipur. 18. Coal in Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Meghalaya, Nagaland, Rajasthan, Kerala, J & K & Tamil Nadu belongs to Tertiary Era. The States with highest coal reserves - Jharkhand, West Bengal Orissa & M.P.


Ghanshyam Thori leading producer of inland fish.

Geography Notes

19. In fish production the top 4 states are Kerala, Tamil Nadu, Gujarat and West Bengal. West Bengal is the

20. The states in order of electricity installed capacity are Maharashtra, Uttar Pradesh & Tamil Nadu. 21. Bauxite is associated with Lateritic soil. The Rourkela plant was built with German collaboration. 22. BARC centers are at Trombay, Kalpakkam, Indore & Thiruvananthapuram. Centre for Wind Power & Energy is located in Chennai. The Kayathar & Muphandal wind farms are located in Tamil Nadu. 23. Mundas are the most underdeveloped tribe of India. The period 1971-81 recorded the highest growth rate of population. Agricultural density is highest in West Bengal followed by Kerala & U.P. 24. The widest continental shelf of India is off Mumbai & narrowest off the Godawari Delta. The total number of river basins in India is 113 (14 major, 44 medium & 55 minor). Of the panchnad rivers Beas river basin is completely in India. 25. The Bhagirathi originates from Gaumukh glacier & Alaknanda from Satopanth glacier. Shifting cultivation is known as Podu in Orissa, Penda in Chhattisgarh & Deppa in M.P. Vishnu Prayag is the confluence of Alaknanda & Dhauli Ganga. Nand Prayag is the confluence of Alaknanda & Mandakni. 26. All INSATs were launched from Kourou French Guyana. 27. The States with descending order of metropolitan cities are U.P (6), Maharashtra & Gujarat (4 each), Andhra Pradesh, M.P & Tamil Nadu (3 each). 28. Jhingurda (Singrauli-Shahdol) in M.P with 130 m thickness is the thickest coal seam of India. 29. Conifers are found in Himalayas at the altitude of 1500 m to 3500 m. The following states/UTs are arranged in the descending order of mangrove forests West Bengal, Gujarat, Andaman & Nicobar and Andhra Pradesh. The correct sequence of forest cover of India is Dense forest, Open forest & Mangrove. Mangrove forests are also found in the Krishna Delta. 30. Assam has boundary with 7 states including West Bengal but not with Sikkim. 31. India is the largest producer of sponge iron in the world. 32. Rajmahal hills are block mountains & Dalma is volcanic in origin. Laterite soils are the most preferable for Dryland farming. Salher & Kalsubai are two important peaks located in the western ghats 33. Rihand is a tributary of Son & Banas is the tributary of Chambal. The extension of Aravallis to the city of Ambala forms the river divide between Ganga & Indus. The Vindhyan range acts as a water divide between the Ganga system & the river system of South India. 34. The Deccan Traps have been formed by both the fissure eruption (western side) & central eruption (eastern side). Sal, Teak, Sandalwood & Sheesham are related to tropical moist deciduous forest.


Ghanshyam Thori Laterite soil is found on highland plateau.

Geography Notes

35. Black soil is found in the Deccan Plateau region. Red soil is found in the periphery of the plateau &

36. 25 % of the rainfall is received during winter season. About 55 % of the country is vulnerable to earthquakes. East of Maikal range is the Baghelkhand Plateau made of limestones & sandstones on the west & granite on the east. 37. Chilka Lake & Keoladeo National Park are protected under the Ramsar convention. The tertiary rocks are mostly found in the Himalayas. In the Peninsula they occur in the coastal areas of Gujarat, Kerala & Tamil Nadu. The western slopes of Sahyadris are more steeper than eastern slopes as the western part is highly faulted 38. Karakoram range has the maximum glaciers. Namcha Barwa is 7750 metres high & Gurla Mandhata 7728 metres. The theories of monsoon generation are thermal concept (Hadley), Dynamic Concept (Flohn) and Southern Oscillation Theory (Walker). 39. Bhutan touches 4 Sates of Sikkim, West Bengal, Assam and Arunachal Pradesh. Nepal touches the following 5 states - Uttaranchal, U.P. Bihar, West Bengal and Sikkim. Bangladesh touches 5 states of West Bengal Assam, Meghalaya, Tripura & Mizoram. 40. In Assam Brahmaputra has a highly braided course. Purna falls is on Tons river. 41. Vizhingam in Kerala produces wave energy. Muppandal in Tamil Nadu Wind Energy. 42. The types of Montane forests according to decreasing height are: Alpine (3000-4000 m), Moist Temperate Forest (2000-3000 m), Pine Forest (1500-1750 m) & Wet Temperate Forest (200-1000 m). 43. Hyundai Motors, Hindustan Motors, Ashok Leyland are all in Chennai. 44. Vishakhapatnam is a landlocked harbour & the ships are protected by the Roass hill in the North & Dolphins Nose to the south. Gujarat will benefit most from the water allocated in Sardar Sarovar Project & M.P will be the main beneficiary in terms of electricity. The Reliance Petroleum Refinery at Jamnagar refines imported petroleum. 45. Alang is the leading ship breaking centre of India of the three centres of Alang, Sachna & Mumbai. 46. India imports cashew nut from the countries of East Africa. The processing industries of Cashew Kernels is concentrated in Quilon. The imported raw cashew nut is processed & exported to other countries. 47. Large part of Deccan plateau is poor in minerals because the Lava has buried the mineral bearing old rocks baring very few exposures of mineral bearing rocks. 48. Marble is quarried along the western region of Sambhar Lake & Sandstone in Kaimur range. Lac is the secretion of tiny insect called the lac insect which lives on the sap of trees like Kusan, ghont, palas, khair, ber etc.


Ghanshyam Thori 49. .The coalfields arranged from west to east are Bokaro, Jharia & Raniganj.

Geography Notes

50. The States arranged in descending order of cropping intensity are Punjab, Haryana, West Bengal, Uttar Pradesh & Mizoram. 51. The utilization of Ground water potential is very high in Punjab area, High in Maharashtra region, Moderate in Tamil Nadu region & low in NE region. 52. Grount Nut is the principal crop of Rayalsema region. 53. The following Urban agglomerations are arranged in descending order of their population & are the last 5 among the 35 million cities - Faridabad, Allahabad, Amritsar, Vijaywada & Rajkot. 54. The following territories are arranged in descending order of their population size: Delhi, Pondcherry, Chandigarh, Andaman & Nicobar, Dadra & Nagar Haveli, Daman & Diu & Lakshadweep. 55. Uttar Pradesh is the chief producer of vegetables & tanned hides. Cardamom is the leading cash crop of southern Sikkim & is mainly exported. 56. The shortest National Highway 47A connects Wellingdon Island & Cochin Bypass. The following features of the Indian Ocean are arranged from North to South Socotra-Chagos Ridge, Carlsberg ridge, Mascarene basin & Prince Edward Crozet ridge. 57. The largest number of Muslim population in India is in Uttar Pradesh. 58. Banas & its tributaries have carved the Mewar upland into a rolling peneplain. The Mandovi Zuari Creek in Goa is an important embayment in the coastline. Parasnath Hill is situated in Haraibagh plateau. The Kaimur hills belong to the Vindhyan range. Dhupgarh (Satpuras), Mahendragiri (Garhjat Hills), Gorakhnath peak (Girnar Hills), Mulangiri (Baba Budan Hills). 59. Siachen glacier is in Nubra valley. Amarnath cave is situated near Kalahoi glacier. 60. The longest beach of India is in Chennai. Dense forests have a tree canopy cover of more than 40 %. The true dense cover in India is about 12 % of the total land area. Western Ghats have two different types of vegetation on its two slopes. The largest portion of Indias wasteland occurs in degraded pastures & grazing land. 61. The name of forest & corresponding state is: Manas (Assam), Betla (Bihar), Gorumara (West Bengal) & Madumalai (Tamil Nadu). 62. The centrally sponsored Command Area Development (CAD) programme was launched in the year 197374. Forest conservation Act was passed in 1980. Cyclonic activity in India is a characteristic of the pre & post monsoon periods. Worlds highest observatory is in Hanle, Laddakh.


Ghanshyam Thori

Geography Notes

63. The Gangetic plain has been created by both exogenic & endogenic forces. The expression of earliest volcanic activity is found in India in Dalma hill of Bihar. Soil erosion in India occurs in almost all the states but it is most serious along the coast of Kerala. 64. Chhattisgarh is the only tine producing state in India. 65. The peninsular India has not undergone marine submergence since Archean times. The Aravalli Mountains were one of the oldest geosynclines in the world. Shillong plateau is also known as Meghalaya meaning abode of clouds. It was so named by S.P Chatterjee. 66. The cultural gap theory given by Ogburn states that material aspects (money etc) change faster with time than the non material aspect (like social values) therefore it results in cultural gap. 67. Sunderbans, Simplipal & Manas are the three biosphere reserves which are also tiger reserves. Kaziranga National Park, Nandadevi, Manas wildlife park are among Indias world heritage site. Corbett National park (earlier Hailey national park) was the first national park of India & Vedanthagal bird sanctuary is the first bird sanctuary of India. Longest navigable waterway is in Uttar Pradesh. 68. Midnapore canal is on Kosi river. Gujarat is the leading producer of Beedi Tobacco in India. Groundnut is the leading oilseed in India. 69. Wattle a tanning material used in leather industry is grown in Nilgiri & Palni Hills & from here major supplies are done for the entire country. 70. The plants & their power source are Bokaro Steel plant (Jharia), Bhilai Steel plant (Korba), Indian Iron & Steel Co. (DVC power supply) & Visveswaraya Iron & Steel Co (Shravati power project). 71. Indias production of gold has been declining. Raniganj is the oldest coalfield in India. In Karnataka plateau the hilly region is known as Malnad & the rolling plain as Maidan. Vindhyas form watershed between the Ganga System & peninsular river system. Cardamom hills is a branch of Annamalai hills. 72. Lakshwadeep (Atoll), Gulf of Kutch (Platform), Palk Bay (Fringing reef) are the types of reef in India. 73. The term Bhabhar implies piedmont plain & it is extensive in the west & narrow in the east. Kolleru lake was formed when marine transgression had taken place forming a lagoon, but at present it is almost a fresh water lake. 74. Atari is the last Indian railway station before crossing into Pakistan on the Amritsar Lahore line. Leh lies between Ladakh & Zaskar. 75. Hoggenakkal falls is on Kaveri river as soon as it enters Tamil Nadu. Wular lake is tectonic, Rakas lake is glacial & Didwana lake is Aeolian. 76. In 2004 a new biosphere reserve was inaugurated in Arunachal Pradesh.


Ghanshyam Thori

Geography Notes

77. During 1901-2001 the population of India has increased by about 4 times. The sex ratio on a worldwide scale is 986. The sex ratio of India in 1901 was 972 & the density in 1901 was just 77 persons/km2. 78. The sex ratio of various religious communities/ other communities is Scheduled tribe (978), Scheduled Caste (936), Jains (940), Sikhs (893). 79. 1921 is taken as the year of demographic divide & 1931 as urbanization divide. 80. Jains have the highest literacy rate (overall, male as well as female) followed by Christians in all the three categories. Muslims have the highest proportion of children population among their total population. The census is conducted under the Census Act 1948. The census moment was 00:00 hours of 1st March, 2001. India has 2.3 % of worlds area & 16 % of total population. The district having least population density is Lahul & Spiti (2 person/Km2) & the highest density is in NE Delhi (29400) 81. Sikhs have recorded the lowest decadal growth rate of 16.9 %. Jain population has registered growth rate of population @ 26 % (highest among all religions) in 1991-2001 compared to 4.6 % during 1981-1991. Parsi population has shown signs of decline. 82. The sex ratio of India in 1991 was 927 which has improved to 933. The density of India in 1991 was 267 which has increased to 324 per/km2 during 2001 adding 57 persons per square km. 83. The over concentration of urban population in the big urban centers of India is called population implosion. As per the census a person is deemed as literate if he/she can read & write in any language with understanding. For the first time since independence there is a decline in the absolute number of illiterates during a decade. 84. The census 2001 has provided for the first time report on religious data. 85. The correct decreasing order in terms of sex ratio is Kerala (1058), Chhattisgarh (990), Tamil Nadu (986). Among UTs sex ratio is highest for Pondicherry (1001). 86. The urbanization is highest in Goa (49.7), Mizoram (49.5), Tamil Nadu (43.8) & Maharashtra (42.4). The least urbanized state in India is Himachal Pradesh (9%) Bihar (10%) & Sikkim (11%). In terms of absolute number of people living in Urban areas Maharashtra leads followed by UP. U.P has the maximum number of illiterates in absolute number followed by Bihar. 87. Lakshwadeep has the minimum population & maximum literacy rate (87.5) among UTs. Pondicherry has the maximum sex ration (1001) 88. The total number of districts in India in 2001 were 593 & total number of towns is 5161. Tamil Nadu has the maximum number of towns in India. Total number of urban agglomeration in India is 384 (maximum in M.P). The life expectation at birth in India is 61 years.


Ghanshyam Thori

Geography Notes

89. The Mediterraneans are considered to be the bearers of earliest form of Hinduism in India. Bulk of the population among lower caste is also comprised by the Mediterraneans in Northern India. 90. Jains have the minimum gap in literacy levels of male & female in India. Muslims have the lowest literacy levels.

Geographical Thought
Geographers & their Contribution Neo Determinism Griffith Taylor Demographic Transition Model W.S. Thomson & Frank W. Notestein Mobility Transition Model Zelinsky Cylindrical Equal Area Projection J. Heinrich Lambert Polar Zenithal Equal Area Projection J. Heinrich Lambert Sea Floor Spreading Harry Hess Geosynclinal Theory of Mountain Building Kober Optimum Population Theory Sidgwick (Later Dalton, Robbins, Carr Saunders) Economic Theory of Population Leibenstein Least Cost Theory Weber Locational Interdependence Palender Sub-Optimal Location Smith Economic Rent Ricardo Agricultural regions Whitlessey Natural Regions Herbertson Five Stages model of Development W.W. Rostov Growth Pole Francois Perroux Atmospheric Circulation Model Palmen Convection Current Hypothesis Arthur Holmes Theory of Intervening Opportunities S.A. Stouffer Theory of Intervening Obstacles E.S. Lee Concept of Urban Village H.J. Hans Concept of Urban Continuum R.E. Pahl Concept of Rural Urban Fringe Pryor Geosophy concept (subjective conceptions) John Wright Geopacifics Concept Griffith Taylor Geopolitics Concept K Haushofer Geonomics Concept G. T Renner Density-size rule R.H. Best Demographic Index B.J.L. Berry Population Potential G Tornqvist Centrality Index Preston Origin of rift valley Bullard Morphometric Analysis Strahler Panplane concept Crickmay Primarumpf concept Penck Panfan concept Lawson. Concept of Base Level Powell 155

Ghanshyam Thori Core-Periphery Model Cultural Hearth Concept of Sequent Occupance Mental Map Differential Heating concept of Monsoon Crop Combinations Theory Line of Compensation Etchplain Gravity Model Plastic Space Compage Density & Fecundity Theory Cultural Realms of the World Concept of Regional Synthesis Regional Science Concept Regional System Concept Uniformitarianism Mountain Root Theory Cumulative Causation Theory Maximum Revenue Theory Concept of Natural Boundary G Scale (Scale of Natural Values) Incubator Hypothesis Time Space Convergence Theory City of Need & City of Death (Concepts) Treppen Concept Tangent of Average Slope Use of Dots SIAL, SIMA, NIFE classification Identified four basic pedogenic regimes Concept of City Region Concept of Garden City Social Physics Human Welfare concept Spatial Organization Friedmann Sauer Whittlesey Lynch & Gould Halley J.C. Weaver Pratt Pugh & Thomas T. Q. Stewart Pip Feror Whittlesey Saddler Broek & Webb Berry Isard Tuan Hutton Airy Gunnar Myrdal A Losch Layer Hagget & Chorley Hoover & Vernon D Janelle W. Bunge Albrecht Penck E Raisz & J Henry A H Robinson E. Suess Simonson R.E. Dickinson Ebenezer Howard Stewart David Harvey Smith

Geography Notes

Behaviouralism Humanism Universalism Particularism Idealism Realism Pragmatism Positivism Marxism

Philosophies & Geographers Huff, Haggerstand, Cox, Peter Gould, Tobbler John wright, Lowenthal, Kirk, Tuan Talcot Parsons Hoselitz Leonard Guelke John Scott, Gibson Pierce Auguste Comte, BJL Berry, David Harvey, William Bunge David Harvey


Ghanshyam Thori Welfare Approach Radicalism Probabilism D.M Smith & David Harvey Peet O.H.K. Spate

Geography Notes

Works of Geographers Meterologica Guide to Geography Quadriparitum (effect of position of celestial bodies on Humans) On Airs, Water & Places History of Plants General Treatise Exposition of the World System The World & its People Prologue to Population Geography Jyotisiddhanta The Economics of Location The Earth & its resources Statistical Analysis in Geography Land of Britain Its use & Misuse Editor of Antipode Methods of Regional Analysis On Geography & its History Post Modern Geographies The Major Natural Regions of the World Comparative Method Cosmographic Universalis Nouvelle Geographic Universelle Realm of Nature Territorial Production Complex Ill Million Jewahirat Description of the Earth The History of Geography Geography as Human Ecology Theoretical Geography Radical Geography Rural Settlement & Landuse Systematic Geography Geography as fundamental research discipline Where is the Research Frontier Approaches to Regional Analysis: A Synthesis Geographic Influences on American History Principles of Geology 157

Aristotle Ptolemy Ptolemy Hippocrates Theophrastus Strabo Laplace H.J Fleure (British) W. Zelinsky Aryabhatta A. Losch Finch, Trewartha & Shearer L.J.King Stamp R. Peet Isard D. Stoddart E. Soja A. J. Herbertson Carl Ritter Sebastian Munster Elisee Reclus H Robert Mill Kellossvosky Marco Polo Al Biruni Al Battani J N L Baker H H Barrows William Bunge R. Peet M. Chisolhm W. M Davis E. A. Ackerman E. A Ackerman B.J. L Berry Albert Parry Birmingham Charles Lyell (1830)

Ghanshyam Thori City Region & Regionalism Economic Geography of Britain Isaiah Bowman The spatial organization of Society Silent Spring R.E. Dickinson Smith The Pioneer Fringe Morill Carson

Geography Notes

Famous Saying/Quotation/Thought Earthquakes & Volcanoes are caused by winds Aristotle Soil Erosion & Land destruction are parts of culture, history & repeated in many places Plato Our senses can tell us fire is hot but not why it is hot Aristotle Geography is the science which deals with the art of map making Ptolemy The best economic programme for a country to follow is determined by nature & it is Stop & Go geographers duty to interpret this programme Determinism As body is made of soul, the physical globe is made for mankind Carl Ritter We must ask the earth itself for its laws Carl Ritter Geography is the mirror of man; to know the world is to know yourself Yi Fu Tuan Give me the map of a country & I pledge myself to tell you what the man of the Ratzel country will be & what part that country will play in history People of cold climate are physically stron, more courageous, less suspicious & less Montesquiue cunning than those in the warm climate The environment in essentially neutral Edward Ullman Environment taken by itself is a meaningless phrase; without man environment does O.H.K. Spate not exist The main obstacle between Hindus & Muslims is the Varna system Al-Biruni Geography is the Study of partial distribution & space relations on the earths surface E. A. Ackerman Man can never get entirely rid himself of the hold his environment has on him L Febvre Human environment relationship is dynamic rather than static Semple Human geography is the study of changing relationship between unresting man & the Semple unstable earth Present is the Key to the past James Hutton I traveled, I sketched, I described Ratzel Cultural landscape is fashioned from a natural landscape by a cultural group. Culture is Sauer the agent, the natural area the medium, the cultural landscape the result Geography is the study of things associated in areas, mutually interacting, Blache characterizng particular segments on the earth surface. Who gets what, where & how Welfare Geography Nature to be commanded must be obeyed (Neo determinism) Fracis Bacon Regional geographers may be trying to put boundaries that do not exist around areas Kimble that do not matter It is the links in the landscape rather than the breaks that impress the scientific mind Kimble Defined geography as Discovery of predictive patterns during quantitative revolution Bunge Dimension of society are analogous to the physical dimensions & include numbers of Social Physics people, distance & time Geography comes through the soles of ones shoes Grieve


Ghanshyam Thori Classical Geographical Concepts Lebensrauam Ort Lichkeiten Zusammenhang (Harmonius unity among diverse phenomena on earth) Principle of Activity & Principle of Interaction Concept of World Island Space time concept

Geography Notes Ratzel Richthofen Humboldt Jean Brunhes Mackinder Kant

Ancient Names Arabian Sea/Indian Ocean Scythia Po Sinus Arabicus Iceland Taprabone Ireland Rha Sea of Azov Tanais Dneiper Euxine Caspian Sea Elephantine Cataract Arabian Sea Sea of Kendrej Malacca Sea Coniaci Mesopotamia (Iraq) Mother of Euxine Hindukush Mountains Zaradrus Karakoram Acesipes Siwalik Hydratoes Tibetan Plateau Hyphasis Aravalli Chyrse Tanganyika Arabicus Sinus Aromata * - Name in Italics are Puranic Names Erythrean Sea Istre Ivernia Irene Palus Maeotis Boresthenes Hyrcanian Sea of Larvey Sea of Shelhat Arbela Nishad Krishnagiri Menkagiri Kimpurusa Arbud Rhapton

Ukraine Red Sea Sri Lanka Volga Don Black Sea Aswan Gulf of Thailand Cape Comorin Sea of Azov Sutlej Chenab Ravi Beas Malay Peninsula Red Sea Somali Coast

Miscellaneous Facts 1. The term latitude & longitude were first used by Ptolemy. Ptolemy also developed the polyconic projection. Ptolemy considered the Indian ocean as an inland sea. The Greek cartography is said to have attained its culmination (reach zenith) at the hands of Ptolemy. 2. Eratosthenes is considered father of geodesy. Elisee Reclus was an anarchist geographer. 3. The main contribution of Romans was in the field of Historical & regional geography. Anaximander used the term latitude & longitude for the first time. Hippocrates was the founder of medical geography (also father of medicine). The T-O map was developed during the dark ages (Christian parts 200 to 700 AD) & was oriented towards east. 4. The main contribution of Al Idrisi was in the field of Cartography & that of Ibn Khaldun in Human Geography. 5. Varenius General Geography was Systematic Geography & Special Geography was Regional.


Ghanshyam Thori

Geography Notes

6. The Prime Meridian of the classical Indian geographers used to be drawn through the city of Ujjain, Lanka & Mt. Meru (North Pole). The Vedic planets are Buddha (Mercury), Brihaspati (Jupiter), Mangala (Mars) & Shukra (Venus). 7. Humboldt attempted to formulate general or abstract laws. He believed that all the races of man had a common origin. Ritter was the first professor of Geography. The principle of interaction was introduced by Brunhes. 8. Strabo is considered the father of Chorology ie regional geography. Strabo attempted to explain that slope, relief & climate were all the work of god. Griffith Taylor applied the concept of Zones & Strata for the evolution of races of mankind. Kant Freed Geography from its tight bonds with theology. 9. Herodotus was associated with Pythagorean School of philosophy. Hipparachus prepared catalogue of star. Thales was associated with Ionian School of Philosophy. Archytas measured the total length of the land & sea. Archimedes deducted that the surface of the sea must be convex. 10. Ruling deity & directions were: Yama (South), Indra (East), Varuna (West), Kuber (North) & Brahma (Zenith). The first Indian university to establish geography department was Madras University. The first detailed map of India was prepared by Ptolemy. Bhaskaracharya was the ancient Indian scholar who divided earth into 360 degrees. 11. The ancient Puranic directions were North West (Vayavya), North East (Isana), South West (Nairitya) & South East (Agneyay). 12. Hartshorne rejected environmental determinism as it separates nature from man & is thus disruptive of fundamental unity of the field. Oscal Peschel was the originator of the dualism between Physical & Human Geography. 13. W.M Davis concept was down wasting & Pencks Concept was back wasting. The quantitative models recognize men as passive agents. 14. G.K. Gilbert was the first to establish the relationship between load of a river, its volume, velocity & gradient. He gave the concept of grade. 15. Thales was the first Greek scholar to be concerned about the measurement & location of things on the surface of the earth. Thales applied the principles of geometry to measuring land area. Herodotus is often called the father of ethnography. 16. Plato conceived the world as having been created in perfection but now in the process of decline from perfection. 17. Aristotle was a teleologist. In fact he is considered the father of teleologist concept as he believed that everything was changing according to a pre-existing plan. Aristotle founded his own school in Athens


Ghanshyam Thori

Geography Notes

which he named Lyceum. Aristotle added ether to the list of four basic substances (earth, water, fire & air) comprising all materials on the earth. He considered equatorial regions as uninhabitable. 18. Eratosthenes accepted an invitation from the king of Egypt to become the royal tutor & was also named as Alpha fellow at the museum in Alexandria. 19. Pytheas was the first Greek to tell about ocean tides & showed that tides were related to the phases of the moon. Eudoxus, a contemporary of Plato developed the theory of zones of climate based on increasing slopes (Klima) away from the sun on a spherical surface. 20. Homer was considered by Strabo as the founder of all geographical knowledge but Strabo considered Herodotus as a fable monger & fiction retailer. Herodotus described about the dumb commerce practiced by Carthagians with primitive tribes in western Africa. 21. As a result of the voyage of Ibn Haukal to the south of equator the wrong notion about the inhabitability of the torrid zone came to an end. 22. Al-Masudi said that there is no place on the earth that is always covered with water, nor one that is always land but a constant revolution takes place. Al Masudi also said that the power of the earth vary in their influence on man on account of three causes viz water, natural vegetation & topography. Al Masudi correlated the colour of ocean water & its salinity 23. Al-Biruni referred to the Mountain of Moon situated near the equator which was the source of Nile river & was of the opinion that floods in the Nile occurred because of the heavy rains in the upper reaches of the Nile. 24. Pferre dAlly wrote Imagine Mundi which influenced Columbus to search a route to Asia moving westward from the Canary Islands. 25. Varenious in his treatise on regional geography outlined its contents under three sections: Celestial properties, terrestrial properties & human properties. 26. Kant recognized the importance of commercial geography, theological geography, moral geography & mathematical geography & saw them heavily influenced by underlying physical geography. Kant believed that physical geography is the first part of knowledge of the earth. 27. Ritter emphasized that he was teaching a new scientific geography in contrast to the traditional lifeless summary of facts about countries. Erdkunde means earth science. 28. The term anthropogeographic was coined by Ratzel & was used by him for the Organic theory of society & state. 29. Sauer established a research group at Berkeley School that focused on the historical ecological study of cultural landscapes.


Ghanshyam Thori Heartland in his famous book Demographic ideals & reality.

Geography Notes

30. Chisolhm is considered father of economic geography. Mackinder renamed his Pivot Area as

31. Humanism emphasizes the importance of participant observation, iconography, place & hermeneutics. The humanistic geography aims at Verstehn which means understanding of man in his environment. 32. Behavioural geography did not bring about a revolution away from quantitative geography, it became an attachment to it. Behavioural geography also adopted positivist approach. Preds work represents an attempt to incorporate probability into the locational analysis. 33. White had presented the PhD thesis on Human response to floods. Taylor on the basis of climatic cycles evolved a theory known as the Migration zone theory of race evolution where he assumed that climate has been a cause of human migrations. 34. O Riordian has given forms of environmentalism. Ecocentrism & Technocentrism are the two major forms of Environmentalism according to him. 35. The basic dictum of existentialism is Man makes Himself. To the existentialist for every landscape or existential geography someone can be held accountable. 36. To the idealist the explanation of an action is complete when the agents goal & theoretical understanding of his situation have been discovered. 37. The American School represents the major tradition of Cultural Geography in the 20th century. 38. Patanjali described the crop regions on the basis of climate & soil. The area drained by Saptasindhu contained all the rivers of Punjab along with Saraswati & Present Gagghar.


Ghanshyam Thori

Geography Notes

Techniques of Geographical Analysis

Hydrometer Atmometer Campbell Strokes Recorder Cielometer Octas Reversing Thermometer Sundial Wind Vane Optical Square Cynometer Analemma Tachometer Tacheometer Odometer Rotameter Auxanometer Udometer Wentworth Scale Saffir Simpson scale Fujita Scale Various Measuring Instruments Relative density of a liquid/ Measurement of water flow in currents Rate of Evaporation Sunshine Height of Clouds Amount of Cloud cover Temperature of Ocean Depth Duration of Sunshine Wind Direction only (not windspeed). For short off-sets from chainline to any object close by Blueness of Sky Scale drawn on the globe to show daily declination of the sun indicates rotational (angular) speed in revolutions per minute (rpm) Measurement of horizontal & vertical position of a point Measuring distance traveled by a vehicle Measuring length (esp stream lines on map)/ rate of fluid flow Measuring growth in plants A rain guage Classify particles ranging from boulders to colloids Measuring Hurricane Intensity Measures Relative severity & damage of Tornado

Miscellaneous Facts: 1. Cadastral map can be best reduced by Pantograph & wall maps are generally reduced with the help of Camera Lucida. A map with diagrammatic statistical information is known as Cartogram. One yard is equal to 3 feet. 1760 yards make a mile. 2. Galls Projection is most suitable for general purpose world map. In Mercator projection the scale along the Meridians & Parallel is the same & hence it maintains accuracy of shape. 3. Sinusoidal (Sansom Flamsteed) projection is suitable for Africa. For drawing map of small countries like Nepal, Sri Lanka, France, Portugal the Simple conical projection with one standard parallel is most suitable. Galls projection is rectangular in shape & is most suitable for General purpose map of the world. 163

Ghanshyam Thori scale & give more or less highly generalized information.

Geography Notes

4. The Ria coast contours are shown below the sea level. The chorographical maps are drawn on a very small

5. Hypsometer measures the proportion of area of the surface at different elevation above or below the sea level. Most globes are formed from a series of roughly triangular maps called gores, which are glued on the outside of a sphere. The earliest known globe is said to have been constructed by a Greek scholar Crates about 150 BC. 6. The Indian topographical maps have the scale 1 = 1 mile. The scale of degree sheets published by the Survey of India is 1:250,000. Aerial photographs of India are supplied by Survey of India. March to April & September to October is the best period for aerial photography. 7. Europe (Polyconic projection) Asia (Zenithal Equidistant), General purpose map of India (Bonnes) & USA (Lamberts Zenithal Equal Area) Distribution map of world (Cylindrical Equal Area) 8. The Gnomonic Projection is a great circle projection. Transverse Mercators projection is also known as Gauss conformal projection & it never shows pole. 9. LANDSAT orbit allows the imaging of the location about every two & a half weeks. 10. Topographical maps are prepared on a smaller scale than a map of Delhi. 11. Halley prepared the first weather map of the world. In the year 1884 the meridian that passes through the royal observatory at Greenwich in London was established as the global starting point for measuring longitudes. 12. Conical map projections were the first map projections developed by ancient Greeks. Pole is represented by an arc in conical projections. Cardinal points refer to the four main directions on a compass. 13. In Azimuthal projection the direction of one point with respect to the other point is the same as it is on the globe. In all cylindrical projections, meridians are equispaced. In all cylindrical projections latitudinal scale is correct only along the equator. 14. Perspective projection is also known as geometrical projection. In Mercators projection, a straight line drawn is a line of constant bearing (Loxodrome) but it does not give the shortest distance. Still it is popular among navigators as they project the great circles into smaller loxodromes & then navigate through Mercators projection. 15. The stereographic projection is suitable for navigational chart. Gnomonic projection is used for air routes in the higher latitudes. Mercator projection is also referred to as Cylindrical Orthomorphic projection. 16. The counters showing vertical cliff come very close to meet each other but do not intersect each other. Longitudinal profile would suit to show a waterfall.


Ghanshyam Thori

Geography Notes

17. The direction of the hachures is the same as that in which water would flow ie the direction of slope. Hachures cut contours obliquely. Hill Shading is a modern substitute for hachures. It involves shading the slopes which are usually shadowed form the sun. 18. The true north is called geographic north. 19. For a map, horizontal equivalent is generally not constant, however the vertical equivalent is constant. 20. The various colours used in making maps are Cultivated area (yellow), Grasslands (light green), Forests (Dark Green) & Built up area (Brown). 21. The balloon borne instrument used to measure different atmospheric elements & sending information to the ground is called Radio Sounde. 22. The wet bulb & dry bulb thermometer is used to measure Humidity. 23. Equal area projections are Cylindrical equal area, Bonnes projection, Sinusoidal projection, Stereoscopic projection & Mollweids projection. 24. The world is divided into 136 million sheets. The million sheets are further divided into 16 parts A to P. The reduced bearing equivalent of whole circle bearing 225o is S 45o W. 25. On a topographical map built up areas like village site, towns, roads are shown by brown colour. 26. SPOT was the first satellite to offer a stereoscopic cover. Quick bird is the highest resolution satellite of the world. At international date line west side of the line is always one day ahead of the east side. 27. The IRS satellite has a polar, sun synchronous orbit. It returns to its original orbit after 22 days. The satellite takes about 103 minutes for completing one orbit. 28. Daylight Saving, system of setting clocks 1 or 2 hours ahead so that both sunrise and sunset occur at a later hour, producing an additional period of daylight in the evening. Daylight saving was first proposed by Benjamin Franklin. 29. China with a longitudinal extent of 50 degrees has only one time zone corresponding to the eastern part of the country. 30. Africa cannot be shown suitably on Bonnes projection. 31. Ancient period maps: Circular showing Europa north of Asia surrounded by Oceanus on all sides (Hecataeus), Rectangular having cylindrical projection (Eratosthenes) & Conical shape projection (Ptolemy), Heart shaped map (Peter Apian), world in two hemispheres (Mercator) [Refer last 3-4 pages of S.K Manocha for map].