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FRAME ANALYSIS USING THE STIFFNESS

METHOD
!

Simple Frames
!
!
!

Frame-Member Stiffness Matrix


Displacement and Force Transformation Matrices
Frame-Member Global Stiffness Matrix

Special Frames
!

Frame-Member Global Stiffness Matrix

Simple Frames

Frame-Member Stiffness Matrix


y

=
d 1

6
5
j

3
2
i

x
4

6EI/L2 d 2 =

4EI/L

AE/L

- AE/L

12EI/L3

6EI/L2

- 12EI/L3 6EI/L2

6EI/L2

4EI/L

- 6EI/L2

-12EI/L3

6EI/L2

12EI/L3

=
d 3

2EI/L

AE/L

-6EI/L2

12EI/L3

-6EI/L2

2EI/L

- 6EI/L2

4EI/L

=
d 4

2EI/L

6EI/L2

6EI/L2

-AE/L

12EI/L3

[k]

6EI/L2

AE/L

AE/L

AE/L
6EI/L2

AE/L
1
6EI/L2 d 5 =

12EI/L3

12EI/L3
2EI/L

=
d 6

6EI/L2

4EI/L
6EI/L2
3

Displacement and Force Transformation Matrices


x

6
j

2
3

6
5

3
2
i

x
4

Force Transformation

x q4 = q4 cos x - q5 cos y
q5 = q4 cos y + q5 cos x

2
3

x =

q6 = q6

j x

y =

x j xi
L
y j yi
L

6
5
j

3
2
i

q 4 x
q =
5 y
q 6 0

y
x
0

0
0
1

q 4'
q
5'
q 6'

q 1 x
q
2 y
q 3 0
=
q 4 0
q 5 0

q 6 0

y
x
0
0
0
0

0
0
1
0
0
0

0
0
0
x
y
0

0
0
0
y
x
0

0
0
0

0
0

q 1'
q
2'
q 3'

q 4'
q 5'

q 6'

[q ] = [T ]T [q ']
5

[q] = [T]T[q]
= [T]T ( [k][d] + [qF] )
= [T]T [k][d] + [T]T [qF]
[q] = [T]T [k][T][d] + [T]T [qF] = [k][d] + [qF]
Therefore, [k] = [T]T [k][T]
[qF] = [T]T [qF]
[q] = [T]T[q]
[d] = [T][d]
[k] = [T]T [k][T]

Frame Member Global Stiffness Matrix


[q] = [T]T[q]= [T]T ( [k][d] + [qF] ) = [T]T[k][d] + [T]T[qF] = [T]T [k][T][d] + [T]T [qF]
[k]

[qF]

[ k ] = [ T ]T[ k ][T] =
Ui
Ui (

AE

Vi

L
(

AE

Vj - (

Mj

Mi

Uj -(

ix2 +

AE
L
AE
L

12EI
L3

12EI
L3
6EI
L2

ixjx +

ixjy-

Vi

6EI
L2

iy2 )

) ixiy

AE
L

AE
L

L3
12EI
L3

iy

12EI

iy2 +

L2

iy jy)

-(

iyjx )

-(

AE
L
AE
L

) ixiy

L3

6EI

iy
12EI

iyjx -

iyjy +
6EI
L2

Uj

Mi

12EI
L3

ix2 )

ix
12EI
L3
12EI
L3

ix

ixjy)

ix jx ) -

6EI

iy -(

L2
6EI
L2

ix

-(

AE
L
AE
L

L2

L2

jy

6EI
L2

jx

AE
L

AE
L

L3
12EI

iyjx 6EI

6EI

12EI

ixjx +

4EI

L3

L3

L3

6EI

L2

AE

ixjy )

AE

-(

jy

ixjy -

iyjy +
6EI

12EI

12EI

2EI

iyjy ) -(

jy

jx2 +

Vj

jy2 )

) jxjy

AE

L2

Mj
12EI
L3

12EI
L3

6EI
L2

iy

L2

L2

ix

2EI
L
6EI

) jxjy

jx

6EI

6EI

ixjx )

AE
12EI
jx2 )
( L jy2 +
3
L

jx

12EI
L3

iyjx )

L2

jy

6EI
L2

jx

4EI
L

Example 1
For the frame shown, use the stiffness method to:
(a) Determine the deflection and rotation at B.
(b) Determine all the reactions at supports.
(c) Draw the quantitative shear and bending moment diagrams.
E = 200 GPa, I = 60(106) mm4, A = 600 mm2
6m
A

5 kN

6m
C

6m
A

5 kN
B
6m

12 EI
=
3
L

C
Global :
6
A

5
4

2
1

AE
=
L

(600 10 6 m 2 )(200 10 6
6m

12(200 10 6

6EI
=
L2

3
1

4 EI
=
L

kN
)
2
m = 20000 kN/m

kN
6
4
)(60

10
m
)
2
m
= 666.667 kN/m
3
(6m)
kN
)(60 10 6 m 4 )
2
m
= 2000 kN
(6m) 2

4(200 10 6

kN
)(60 10 6 m 4 )
2
m
= 8000 kN m
6m

2(200 10 6

kN
)(60 10 6 m 4 )
2
m
= 4000 kN m
6m

6(200 10 6

8
C

9
7

2EI
=
L

Using Transformation Matrix:


Global :
6
A

Local :

5
4

5
1

1
2
2

8
C

9
7

6
5

Member Stiffness Matrix

Ni AE/L
0
3
Vi 0
EI
L
12
/

Mi 0
6 EI/L2
[k'] =
0
Nj AE/L
12 EI/L3
Vj 0

6 EI/L2
Mj 0

i
0
6 EI/L2
4 EI/L
0
6 EI/L2
2 EI/L

j
AE/L
0
0
AE/L
0
0

4
j

0
12 EI/L3
6 EI/L2

0
6 EI/L2

4 EI/L

0
12 EI/L3
6 EI/L2

0
6 EI/L2
2 EI/L

10

Stiffness Matrix: Member 1


6

Local :

5
B

Global:

[q] = [q]
9

8
C
4

[k]1 =

-> [k]1 = [k]1

20000

-20000

666.667

2000

-666.667

2000

2000

8000

-2000

4000

20000

1 -20000
2

-666.667

-2000

666.667

-2000

2000

4000

-2000

8000
11

Stiffness Matrix: Member 2


5

6
A

2
1

ix = cos (-90o) = 0
iy = sin (-90o) = -1
2
o

B
2

Local:

Global:

8
C

q1
q2
q3
q7
q8
q9

1
2
3
7
8
9

2
1
0
0
0
0
0

jx = cos (-90o) = 0
jy = sin (-90o) = -1

5
4

[q]2 = [ T ]T[ q]2


1
0
-1
0
0
0
0

90

3
0
0
1
0
0
0

4
0
0
0
0
-1
0

5
0
0
0
1
0
0

6
0
0
0
0
0
1

q1
q2
q3
q4
q5
q6
[T]T
12

1
1 20000

[k]2 =

-20000

666.667

2000

-666.667

2000

2000

8000

-2000

4000

20000

4 -20000
5

-666.667

-2000

666.667

-2000

2000

4000

-2000

8000

2000

2000

[k]2 = [ T ]T[ k ]2[ T ]


1
1

[k]2 =

666.667

-666.667

20000

-20000

2000

8000

-2000

4000

-666.667

-2000

666.667

-2000

-20000

20000

2000

4000

-2000

8000
13

Global Stiffness Matrix:

[k]1

6
A

4 20000

B
2

Global:

9
7

1 -20000

1
-20000

2
0

3
0

8000

-2000

4000

20666.667

2000

-2000

4000

2000

-20000

-2000 4000

20000

4000

-666.667 2000

8000

2000

2000

-666.667 -2000

5
0

666.667 -2000

-2000 8000

[k]2

[K]
4
4 20000

666.667 2000

1 -20000
8
C

20666.667 -2000
-2000

16000

1 666.667 0
2

3 2000

20000
0

7 -666.667 0
8

9 2000

-20000
0

2000 666.667 0
0

9
2000

-20000

4000

-2000 666.667 0

-2000

8000 -2000
0

4000 2000

20000
0

0
8000 14

6m
A

5 kN

Q5 = 0

8000

-20000

20666.667

Q2 = 0

-2000

Q3 = 0

4000

2000

D4
D5
D1
D2
D3

3
1

B
2

Q4 = 0

8
C

[Q] = [K][D] + [QF]


4
20000

Q1 = 5

6m

Global:

9
7

5
0

1
-20000

2
0

3
0

D4

-2000

4000

D5

2000

D1

20666.667 -2000

D2

0
-2000

16000

D3

0
0
0

0.01316 m
9.199(10-4) rad

0.01316 m
-9.355(10-5) m
-1.887(10-3) rad

15

6m
A

Member 1

5 kN

B
2

6m
1.87 kN

11.22 kNm

1.87 kN
1

[q]1 = [k]1[d]1 + [qF]1


4
q4

4 20000

q6

q5

q1

1 -20000

q2

q3

-20000

666.667 2000

3
0

-666.667 2000

2000

8000

-2000

4000

20000

-666.667 -2000
2000

4000

0
0

666.667 -2000
-2000

8000

D4 = 0.01316
D6 = 0

0
-1.87

D5 = 9.199(10-4)

D1 = 0.01316

D2 = -9.355(10-5)

1.87

D3 = -1.887(10-3)

-11.22
16

6m
A

Member 2

5 kN

B
2

18.77 kNm

q1

1 666.667 0

q2

q3

3 2000

q7

7 -666.667 0

q8

q9

9 2000

20000
0

-20000
0

2000 -666.667 0
0

11.22 kNm
5 kN

6m

[q]2 = [k]2[d]2 + [qF]2


1
2

1.87 kN

5 kN
1.87 kN
9
2000

D1 = 0.01316

-20000

D2 = -9.355(10-5)

-1.87

4000

D3 = -1.887(10-3)

11.22

-2000 666.667 0

-2000

D7 = 0

-5

20000

D8 = 0

1.87

8000

D9 = 0

18.77

8000 -2000

4000 -2000

17

1.87 kN
A

11.22 kNm

1.87 kN
1

5 kN

A
B
11.22 kNm

1.87 kN

1.87 kN

B
6m

5 kN
2

18.77 kNm
5 kN

18.77 kNm
5 kN

6m

1.87 kN

1.87 kN

11.22 B
-

-11.22
Bending moment
diagram

-1.87

Shear diagram
+
C

18.77

18

D4=13.16 mm
A

D1=13.16 mm

D5=0.00092 rad

D3=-0.00189 rad
B

11.22 B
-

-11.22

D3=-0.00189 rad

Bending moment
diagram

Deflected shape

6
D4
D5

D3

0.01316 m
-9.355(10-5) m
-1.887(10-3) rad

5
4

2
1

18.77

3
1

B
2

D1
D2

0.01316 m
9.199(10-4) rad

Global :
8
C

9
7
19

Example 2
For the beam shown, use the stiffness method to:
(a) Determine the deflection and rotation at B
(b) Determine all the reactions at supports
(c) Draw the quantitative shear and bending moment diagrams.
E = 200 GPa, I = 60(106) mm4, A = 600 mm2 for each member.
3 kN/m
B

4.5 m
A
6m

6m

20

3 kN/m
Global

4.5 m

Members
6

2
1

8
2

5
4
[FEM]

6m

5
6m

3 kN/m
9 kNm

9 kNm
2

9 kN

9 kN
21

3 kN/m

7. 5

4.5 m

AE (600 10 6 m 2 )(200 106 kN / m 2 )


=
L
7.5 m
= 16000 kN / m

6m

6m

Member 1:
3

y
6

x = cos x = 6/7.5 = 0.8


y = cos y = 4.5/7.5 = 0.6

12 EI 12(200 106 kN / m 2 )(60 10 6 m 4 )


=
L3
(7.5 m) 3
= 341.33 kN / m
6 EI 6( 200 10 6 kN / m 2 )(60 10 6 m 4 )
=
2
L
(7.5 m) 2
= 1280 kN
4 EI 4(200 106 kN / m 2 )(60 10 6 m 4 )
=
L
7.5 m
= 6400 kN m
2 EI 2(200 106 kN / m 2 )(60 10 6 m 4 )
=
L
7.5 m
= 3200 kN m
22

Member m:

x = cos x
y = cos y

]T[

[ km ] = [ T

Ui (

AE

Vi

L
(

AE

Vj - (

Mj

Mi

Uj -(

ix2 +

k ][T ] =

AE
L
AE
L

12EI
L3
6EI
L2

ixjx +

ixjy-

L3

6EI
L2

iy2 )

) ixiy

AE
L

AE
L

12EI
L3
12EI
L3

iy

-(

iyjx )

-(

AE
L
AE
L

) ixiy

L3

iy2 +

L2

iy jy)

iyjx -

iyjy +
6EI
L2

Uj

Mi

12EI

6EI

iy

Uj

Vi
Vi

12EI

y
Mi

Ui

12EI
L3

ix2 )

ix
12EI
L3
12EI
L3

ix

ixjy)

ix jx ) -

Mj

Vj

6EI

iy -(

L2
6EI
L2

ix

-(

AE
L
AE
L

4EI

6EI

L2

6EI
L2

jy

6EI
L2

jx

AE
L

AE
L

L3
12EI

iyjx -

L3

L3

L3

6EI

L2

AE

ixjy )

AE

-(

jy

ixjy -

iyjy +
6EI

12EI

12EI

2EI

iyjy ) -(

jy

jx2 +

Vj

Ui
12EI

ixjx +

jy2 )

) jxjy

AE

L2

Mj
12EI
L3

12EI
L3

6EI
L2

iy

L2

L2

ix

2EI
L
6EI

) jxjy

jx

6EI

6EI

ixjx )

AE
12EI
jx2 )
( L jy2 +
3
L

jx

12EI
L3

iyjx )

L2

jy

6EI

jx

L2
4EI
L

23

3 kN/m

7. 5

4.5 m

Member 1:

5
6m

2
1

6m

x = cos x = 6/7.5 = 0.8


y = cos y = 4.5/7.5 = 0.6
4

[k1] =

10362.879

7516.162

-768

-10362.879

-7516.162

-768

7516.162

5978.451

1024

-7516.162

-5978.451

1024

-768

1024

6400

768

-1024

3200

768

10362.879

7516.162

768

-10362.879 -7516.162

-7516.162

-5978.451

-1024

7516.162

5978.451

-1024

-768

1024

3200

768

-1024

6400

24

3 kN/m

4.5 m

7. 5

AE (600 10 6 m 2 )(200 106 kN / m 2 )


=
L
6m
= 20000 kN / m

6m

6m

Member 2:
3

2
1

8
2

x = cos 0o = 1.0, y = cos 90o = 0

12 EI 12(200 10 6 kN / m 2 )(60 10 6 m 4 )
=
L3
(6 m) 3
= 666.667 kN / m
6 EI 6( 200 10 6 kN / m 2 )(60 10 6 m 4 )
=
2
L
(6 m) 2
= 2000 kN
4 EI 4(200 106 kN / m 2 )(60 10 6 m 4 )
=
L
6m
= 8000 kN m
2 EI 2(200 106 kN / m 2 )(60 10 6 m 4 )
=
L
6m
= 4000 kN m
25

2
1

AE/L

- AE/L

12EI/L3

6EI/L2

- 12EI/L3 6EI/L2

6EI/L2

4EI/L

- 6EI/L2

2EI/L

-AE/L

AE/L

8
7

[k2] =

[k2] =

-12EI/L3 -6EI/L2
6EI/L2

2EI/L

3
0

20000

666.667

2000

-20000

-666.667

2000

9
0

12EI/L3 -6EI/L2

- 6EI/L2

4EI/L
9

- 20000

2000

- 666.667

2000

8000

- 2000

4000

20000

-2000

666.667

4000

- 2000

0
-2000
8000
26

[k1] =

10362.879

7516.162

-768

-10362.879

-7516.162

-768

7516.162

5978.451

1024

-7516.162

-5978.451

1024

-768

1024

6400

768

-1024

3200

768

10362.879

7516.162

768

-10362.879 -7516.162

-7516.162

-5978.451

-1024

7516.162

5978.451

-1024

-768

1024

3200

768

-1024

6400

[k2] =

3
0

20000

666.667

2000

-20000

-666.667

2000

9
0

- 20000

2000

- 666.667

2000

8000

- 2000

4000

20000

-2000

666.667

4000

- 2000

0
-2000
8000
27

3 kN/m

2
7.

4.5 m

5m

9 kNm

9 kN

9 kN

5
6m

8
7

6m

Global:
1

30362.9

7516.16

768

D1

7516.16

6645.12

976

D2

768

976

14400

D3

0
Q1
0
Q2
0
Q3

D1
D2
D3

9
9

4.575(10-4) m

-1.794(10-3) m
-5.278(10-4) rad
28

Member 1:
3

6.75 kN
0.50 kNm

1.19 kNm
9.15 kN

1.19 kNm 11.37 kN

0.50 kNm

6.75 kN

9.15 kN

x = cos x = 6/7.5 = 0.8

11.37 kN

0.09 kN

0.09 kN

y = cos y = 4.5/7.5 = 0.6


4

q4

q1
q2
q3

q5
q6

6
1
2
3

k1

9.15

6.75

0.50

D1 = 4.575(10-4)

-9.15

D2 = -1.794(10-3)

-6.75

D3 = -5.278(10-4)

-1.19
29

Member 2:
3

8
2

1.19 kNm 3 kN/m

7
9.15 kN

3 kN/m
9 kNm

9.15 kN

6.75 kN

9 kNm

14.70 kNm

11.25 kN

9 kN [FEM] 9 kN
1

q1

D1 = 4.575(10-4)

9.15

q2

D2 = -1.794(10-3)

6.75

q3

D3 = -5.278(10-4)

1.19

q7
q8
q9

k2

11.25

-9

-14.70

-9.15

30

1.19 kNm 3 kN/m


6.75 kN

9.15 kN
0.50 kNm

14.70 kNm

1.19 kNm
9.15 kN
6.75 kN

9.15 kN
11.25 kN

6.75 kN
9.15 kN

3 kN/m

14.70 kNm
9.15 kN

0.50 kNm

11.25 kN

All Reactions
9.15 kN

6.75 kN

31

1.19 kNm 3 kN/m

11.37 kN
1.19 kNm

9.15 kN
0.09 kN

11.37 kN
D1
D2
D3

6.75 kN

9.15 kN
11.25 kN
6.75

0.50 kNm
0.09 kN
4.575(10-4)

14.70 kNm

+
-0.09

-1.794(10-3) m
-5.278(10-4) rad

-0.09

Shear diagram
(kN)

-11.25

D1 = 0.46 mm
D2 = -1.79 mm
D3

=-5.278(10-4)

-1.19

rad

-14.70
Deflected shape

0.5

Bending-moment diagram
(kNm)
32

Example 3
For the beam shown, use the stiffness method to:
(a) Determine the deflection and rotation at B.
(b) Determine all the reactions at supports.
(c) Draw the quantitative shear and bending moment diagrams.
E = 200 GPa, I = 60(106) mm4, A = 600 mm2 for each member.

10 kN

20 kNm
15 kN
B

/m
N
3k

4.5 m
A

6m

3m

3m

33

10 kN

20 kNm
15 kN
B

/m
N
3k

4.5 m
A

y = 53.13
6

Members
1

3m

3m

y = cos y = 4.5/7.5 = 0.6


9

8
2

[FEM]
wL2/12 = 14.06 kNm
11.25(0.8) = 9 kN

10 kN
7.5 kNm

7.5 kNm
/m
N
3k

14.06 kNm
4

x =36.87
x = cos x = 6/7.5 = 0.8

5
6m

Global

6.75 kN
11.25 kN
9 kN

5 kN

5 kN

11.25(0.6) = 6.75 kN
wL/2 = 11.25 kN

34

10 kN

20 kNm
15 kN

1
6

14.06 kNm

10 kN
7.5 kNm

7.5 kNm
6.75 kN
11.25 kN
/m
N
9 kN
1
3k
5 kN
[FEM]
11.25(0.6) = 6.75 kN

14.06 kNm
9 kN

Q1 = 15
Q3 = 20

Global:

Q2 = 0

/m
N
3k

5 kN

11.25 kN
1

30362.9

7516.16

768

D1

7516.16

6645.2

976

D2

768

14400

D3

976

-6.75

9+5
-14.06 + 7.5

35

2
1
5

8
2

D1
D2
D3

1.751(10-3) m

-4.388(10-3) m
2.049(10-3) rad

36

Member 1:
2

14.06 kNm

3
1

/m
N
3k

14.06 kNm
4
9 kN

x = cos
0.8,
y = cos 53.13o = 0.6
36.87o =

q4

q5

q6

q1
q2
q3

k1

6.75 kN
11.25 kN
9 kN

[FEM]

11.25(0.6) = 6.75 kN
11.25 kN

-6.75

6.51

24.17

14.06

26.46

-20.01

D1 = 1.751(10-3)

D2 = -4.388(10-3)

-6.17

D3 = 2.049(10-3)

-14.06

4.89

-6.75

37

y = 53.13o

x = 36.87o

q4

6.51

q5

24.17

q6

26.46

q1

q2
q3

6.17 kN

-20.01
-6.17
4.89

4.89 kNm 19.71 kN

4.89 kNm
20.01 kN

26.46 kNm

/m
N
3k

7.

5m

6.51 kN
24.17 kN

/
N
3k

26.46 kNm
19.71 kN

7.07 kN
1

m
5
.
7

15.43 kN
38

Member 2:
3

15.12 kNm

7
35.02 kN

10 kN
7.5 kNm

7.5 kNm

10 kN
2

8.08 kNm
35.02 kN

6.17 kN

3.83 kN

5 kN
1

[FEM]
2

5 kN

q1

D1 = 1.751(10-3)

35.02

q2

D2 = -4.388(10-3)

6.17

q3

D3 = 2.049(10-3)

7.5

15.12

q7
q8
q9

k2

3.83

-7.5

-8.08

-35.02

39

20.01 kN

26.46 kNm

/m
N
3k

7.

15.12 kNm

4.89 kNm

6.17 kN

35.02 kN

10 kN
2

6.17 kN

5m

8.08 kNm
35.02 kN

3.83 kN

6.51 kN
24.17 kN
10 kN

20 kNm

15 kN
/m
N
3k

26.46 kNm
A

8.08 kNm
35.02 kN

3.83 kN

6.51 kN

24.17 kN 6 m

3m

3m
40

4.89 kNm 19.71 kN


/m
N
3k
7.5

26.46 kNm

35.02 kN
7.07 kN
1m

10 kN
2

8.08 kNm
35.02 kN

6.17 kN

3.83 kN
6.17

15.43 kN

19.71 kN

-7.07

D1

1.751(10-3) m

D2

-4.388(10-3) m

D3

15.12 kNm

15.43

-3.83

Shear diagram
(kN)

2.049(10-3) rad
D1 =1.75 mm
4.89

D2 = -4.39 mm

-15.12

D3 = 2.05(10-3) rad
Deflected shape

-8.08

Bending-moment
diagram (kNm)
-26.46

41

Special Frames

42

Stiffness matrix
2*

5*

3*
1*

6*

4*

jx = cos j

iy = sin i

jy = sin j

ix = cos i

[ q* ] = [ T ]T[ q ]
1
q 1* 1* ix
q

2*
2*

iy
q 3* 3* 0
=

q
4*
4*
0
q 5* 5* 0

q 6 * 6* 0

2 3 4 5
0
iy 0 0
0 0
0
ix
0
1 0
0
0
0 jx jy
0
0 jy
jx
0
0 0
0

6
0
0
0

0
0

q 1'
q
2'
q 3'

q 4'
q 5'

q 6'

[ T ]T

43

1
2
[T ] = 3
4
5
6

1* 2*
iy
ix

iy ix
0
0

0
0
0
0

0
0

3* 4*
0
0
0
0
1
0
0 jx
0 jy
0
0

5*
0
0
0
jy
jx
0

6*
0
0
0

0
0

Member Stiffness Matrix


1
1
2
3
[k'] =
4
5
6

0
AE/L
0
3
EI
L
12
/

0
6 EI/L2

0
AE/L
0
12 EI/L3

6 EI/L2
0

AE/L

6 EI/L2

12 EI/L3

4 EI/L
0

0
AE/L

6 EI/L2
0

6 EI/L2

12 EI/L3

2 EI/L

6 EI/L2

6 EI/L2
2 EI/L

0
6 EI/L2

4 EI/L
0

44

[ k ] = [ T ]T[ k ][T] =

Vi

Ui
Ui (

AE

Vi

L
(

AE

Vj - (

Mj

Mi

Uj -(

ix2 +

AE
L
AE
L

L3

12EI
L3
6EI
L2

ixjx +

ixjy-

12EI

6EI
L2

iy2 )

) ixiy

AE
L

AE
L

L3
12EI
L3

iy

12EI

iy2 +

L2

iy jy)

-(

iyjx )

-(

AE
L
AE
L

) ixiy

L3

6EI

iy
12EI

Mi

iyjx -

iyjy +
6EI
L2

12EI
L3

ix2 )

ix
12EI
L3
12EI
L3

ix

ixjy)

ix jx ) -

6EI

iy -(

L2
6EI
L2

ix

-(

AE
L
AE
L

L2

L2
6EI
L2

jx

AE
L

AE
L

L3
12EI

iyjx 6EI

jy

12EI

ixjx +

4EI

6EI

Vj

Uj

L3

L3

6EI

L2

ixjy )

AE

-(

jy

ixjy -

iyjy +
6EI

12EI

12EI

2EI

AE

jy

jx2 +

L3

iyjy ) -(

jy2 )

) jxjy

AE

L2

Mj
12EI
L3

12EI
L3

6EI
L2

iy

L2

L2

ix

2EI
L
6EI

) jxjy

jx

6EI

6EI

ixjx )

AE
12EI
jx2 )
( L jy2 +
L3

jx

12EI
L3

iyjx )

L2

jy

6EI

jx

L2
4EI
L

45

Example 4
For the beam shown:
(a) Use the stiffness method to determine all the reactions at supports.
(b) Draw the quantitative free-body diagram of member.
(c) Draw the quantitative bending moment diagrams and qualitative
deflected shape.
Take I = 200(106) mm4 , A = 6(103) mm2, and E = 200 GPa for all members.
Include axial deformation in the stiffness matrix.
40 kN

3m

20 kN
200 kNm
6 kN
/m

22.02 o
4m

4m

7.416 m

46

40 kN

3m

22.02 o
4m

2*

Global

20 kN
200 kNm
6 kN
/m

4m

3*
1*

7.416 m
6
4

22.02

7
3
Local

2
1

6
4

3
1
2

6
4
47

Ni AE/L
0
3
Vi 0
EI
L
12
/

Mi 0
6EI/ L2
[k'] =

0
Nj AE/ L
Vj 0
12 EI/ L3

6EI/ L2
Mj 0

i
0
6EI/ L2

AE/ L
0
12 EI/ L3
0

4 EI/ L

6EI/ L2

AE/ L

6EI/ L2

12 EI/ L3

2EI/ L

6EI/ L2

j
0

6EI/ L2
2EI/ L

2
6EI/ L

4 EI/ L

AE (0.006 m 2 )(200 106 kN / m 2 )


=
= 150 103 kN / m
L
8m
4 EI 4(200 106 kN / m 2 )(0.0002 m 4 )
=
= 20 103 kN m
L
8m
2 EI
= 10 103 kN m
L

6 EI 6(200 106 kN / m 2 )(0.0002 m 4 )


=
= 3.75 103 kN
2
2
L
(8 m)
12 EI 12(200 10 6 kN / m 2 )(0.0002 m 4 )
=
= 0.9375 103 kN / m
3
3
L
(8 m)

48

3
2

8m

6
4

3
1

8m

Local

6
4

Ni

[ k]1 = [ k]2 =

Vi
Mi

150000

937.5

3750

3750

20000

Nj -150000
0
0
Vj
0
-937.5 -3750
Mj

3750

10000

j
0

- 937.5

3750

- 3750

10000

0
937.5

0
-3750

- 3750

20000

- 150000

150000
0
0

49

Member 1:
2*

3*

5
1

Global

o
1 * i =22.02

ix = cos (22.02o) = 0.927,


iy = sin (22.02o) = 0.375

4
j = 0o

Local

6
4

40 kN

jx = cos (0o) = 1,
jy = sin (0o) = 0

40 kNm

40 kNm
1

[ q* ] = [ T ]T[ q ]
1

20 kN
2

[FEM]

1*

0.927 - 0.375

q*2

2*

0.375

0.927

q*3

3*

q3

4*

q4

5*

q5

6*

q6

q*1

q4
q5
q6

20 kN

q1
q2

[ T ]1T

50

3*

2*

5
1

Global

o
1 * i =22.02

4
j = 0o

Local

6
4

[ k* ]1 = [ T ]1T[ k ]1[ T ]1
1*

2*

3*

1* 129.046 51.811 -1.406 -139.058 0.351 -1.406


21.892 3.476 -56.240 -0.869 3.476
0
3* -1.406 3.476 20.00
-3.75 10.00
3
10
150
4 -139.058 -56.240 0.00
0
0
0
5
0.351 -0.869 -3.75
0.938 -3.75
2* 51.811

[ k * ]1

-1.406

3.476

10.00

-3.75

20
51

2*

Global

40 kN

3*

5
1

o
1 * i =22.02

40 kNm

4
j = 0o

40 kNm
1

20 kN

[FEM]

20 kN

[ qF* ] = [ T ]T[ qF]

0
20

qF*]

= [ T ]1

40
0
20
-40

-7.50
18.54
40
=
0
20
-40

1*
2*

40 kNm

3*
4

40 kN

18.54

40 kNm
7.5

20 kN

5
6
52

ix = jx = cos (-22.02o) = 0.927,


iy = jy = sin (-22.02o) = -0.375

Member 2
4
22.02o

1
5

9
7

[q]

32 k

22.02o

Nm

24 k

[q]=[T

6 kN
/m
N

24 k

]T[

q ]

32 k

0.927

0.375

q5

-0.375 0.927

q6

q3

0.927

0.375

q4

-0.375

0.927

q5

q6

q7
q8
q9

[ q]

[ qF]

1
q4

Nm

q1
q2

[ T ]2T

53

4
22.02o
8

9
7

[q]

22.02o

6
4

[ q ]

[ k ]2 = [ T ]2T[ k]2[ T ]2
4

[ k ]2

103

129.046 -51.811 1.406 -129.046 51.811

1.406

-51.811

3.476

1.406

7 -129.046

21.892 3.476
3.476

20

51.811 -21.892
-1.406

-3.476

10

51.811 -1.406

129.046 -51.811 -1.406

51.811 -21.892 -3.476

-51.811 21.892 -3.476

1.4056

3.476

10

-1.406

-3.476

20

54

6
32 k

4
22.02o
8

9
7

[q]

Nm

24 k

6 kN
/m
N

24 k

22.02o

[ qF ]
N

32 k

Nm

[ qF* ] = [ T ]T[ qF ]

0
24

qF ]

= [T

]2T

32
0
24
-32

8.998
22.249
32
=
8.998
22.249
-32

4
5
6
7
8

32 kNm
8.998kN

[ qF ]
6 kN
/m

22.249 kN 2
8.998 kN

32 kNm
22.249 kN

9
55

3*

2*

Global Stiffness:

1*

6
4

9
7

1*

[ k* ]1

[ k ]2

2*

3*

1* 129.046 51.811 -1.406 -139.058 0.351 -1.406


2* 51.811 21.892 3.476 -56.240 -0.869 3.476
0
3* -1.406 3.476 20.00
-3.75 10.00
3
10
150
4 -139.058 -56.240 0.00
0
0
0.351

-0.869

-3.75

0.938 -3.75

-1.406
4

3.476
5

10.00
6

-3.75
8

129.046 -51.811 1.406 -129.046

-51.811 21.892

6
103

1.406

3.476

3.476
20

20
9

51.811 1.406

51.811 -21.892 3.476


-1.406

-3.476

10

7 -129.046 51.811 -1.406 129.046 -51.811 -1.406


8

51.811 -21.892 -3.476

1.4056

3.476

10

-51.811 21.892 -3.476


-1.406

-3.476

20

56

Global: 40 kN

20 kN
200 kNm
6 kN
/m
40 kN

40 kNm

18.54 kN

40 kNm

7
[ qF ]
6 kN
/m

22.249 kN 2
8.998 kN

[ Q ] = [ K ][ D ] + [ QF ]

1* 129.046

Q3* = 0.0
Q4 = 0.0

3*

103 4

32 kNm
22.249 kN

1*
Q1* = 0.0

32 kNm

20 kN

[ q*F ]

6
4

1*

8.998 kN

7.5

3*

2*

3*

-1.406 -139.058

-1.406

20

-139.058

0.351

-1.406

D1*

-7.5

-3.75

10

D3*

40

279.046 -51.811 1.406

D4

22.829 -0.274

D5

20 +22.249

-0.274

D6

-40 + 32

Q5 = -20

0.352

-3.75

-51.811

Q6 = -200

-1.406

10

1.406

40

8.998

57

Global: 40 kN

20 kN
200 kNm
6 kN
/m

2*

3*
1*

5
1

6
4
2

9
7

D1*

-0.0205

D3*

-0.0112

rad

-0.0191

D5

-0.0476

D6

-0.0024

rad

D4

58

2*

3*

5
1

[q]

1*

18.54

Member 1: [ q*] = [ k*][ d*] + [


1*
q1*
q2*
q3*
q4

103

q5
q6
q1*
q2*
q3*
q4
q5
q6

2*

40 kN

40 kNm

7.5

3*

20 kN

[ qF* ]

qF*]

40 kNm

1* 129.046 51.811 -1.406 -139.058 0.351 -1.406 D1*=-0.0205


2* 51.811 21.892 3.476 -56.240 -0.869 3.476 D2*= 0.0
0
3* -1.406 3.476 20.00
-3.75 10.00 D =-0.0112
4 -139.058 -56.240 0.00

150

3*

D4= -0.0191

-7.50
18.54

40
0

0.351

-0.869

-3.75

0.938 -3.75

D5= -0.0476

20

-1.406

3.476

10.00

-3.75

D6=-0.0024

-40

0
22.63
0
-8.49
19.02
7.87

40 kN

kN
kN
kN
kNm

20

7.87 kNm
8.49 kN

22.6

3 kN

19.02 kN
59

32 kNm

8.998 kN

22.249 kN 2
8.998 kN

[q]

[ qF ]
6 kN
/m

Member 2 : [ q ] = [ k ][ d ] + [ qF ]
4

129.046 -51.811 1.406 -129.046 51.811

q5

-51.811

q6

1.406

q4

q7

=103

q8
q9
q4
q5
q6
q7
q8
q9

7 -129.046

21.892 3.476
3.476

20

22.249 kN

1.406 D4= -0.0191

8.998

51.811 -21.892 3.476 D5= -0.0476

22.249

-1.406

-3.476

10 D6=-0.0024

51.811 -1.406

129.046 -51.811 -1.406 D7 = 0

51.811 -21.892 -3.476

-51.811 21.892 -3.476 D8 = 0

1.4056
8.49
-39.02
-207.87
9.51
83.51
-248.04

3.476
kN
kN
kNm
kN
kN
kNm

10

32 kNm

-1.406

-3.476

32
8.998
22.249

20 D9 = 0

-32

207.87 kNm
6 kN
/m

8.49 kN
39.02 kN

248.04 kNm
9.51 kN
83.51 kN

60

22.5 207.87 kNm


7.87 kNm
kN

40 kN
8.49 kN
22.6

20.98 kN
3 kN

8.49 kN
19.02 kN
83.56
+

7.87 +

6 kN
8.49 kN
/m 248.04 kNm
33 kN
39.02 kN
9.51 kN
22.5
207.87
81 kN
kN
83.51 kN

Bending-moment
diagram (kNm)

D1*=- 20.5 mm

D4=-19.1 mm

-248.04

D1*

-0.0205 m

D3*

-0.0112 rad

D4

-0.0191 m

D5

-0.0476 m

D6

-0.0024 rad

D5=-47.6 mm
D3*=-0.0112 rad D6 =0.00
24 r
ad
Deflected shape
61

Example 5
For the beam shown:
(a) Use the stiffness method to determine all the reactions at supports.
(b) Draw the quantitative free-body diagram of member.
(c) Draw the quantitative bending moment diagrams
and qualitative deflected shape.
Take I = 400(106) mm4 , A = 60(103) mm2, and E = 200 GPa for all members.
20 kN/m
A

80 kNm
50 kN
3m

C
4m

20o

2m

62

20 kN/m
A

80 kNm
50 kN
3m

C
4m

6
4

9*
7*

Local
5

8*

4
Global

2m

o
76.31
o
20

6
4
63

20 kN/m
A

80 kNm
50 kN
3m

1
C
4m

6
4

20o

2m

Member 1:
AE (60 10 3 m 2 )(200 10 6 kN/m 2 )
=
4m
L
= 3000 10 3 kN/m
4 EI
4(200 10 6 kN/m 2 )(400 10 6 m 4 )
=
4m
L
= 80 10 3 kN m

2EI 2(200 10 6 kN/m 2 )(400 10 6 m 4 )


=
4m
L
= 40 10 3 kN m
6EI 6(200 10 6 kN/m 2 )(400 10 6 m 4 )
=
2
(4 m) 2
L
= 30 10 3 kN
12 EI 12(200 10 6 kN/m 2 )(400 10 6 m 4 )
=
L3
(4 m) 3
= 15 10 3 kN/m

64

20 kN/m
A

80 kNm
50 kN

3m

56.31o
20o C
4m

2m

6
4

20 kN/m

76.31o
26.67 kNm

26.67 kNm
1

40 kN

40 kN

Member 1: [ q ] = [ k ][ d ] + [ qF ]
1

q1

3000

-3000

d1

q2

15

30

-15

30

d2

40

q3

30

80

-30

40

d3

26.67

-3000

3000

d4

-15

-30

15

-30

d5

40

30

40

-30

80

d6

-26.67

q4
q5
q6

103

65

Member 2:

6EI 6(200 10 6 kN/m 2 )(400 10 6 m 4 )


=
2
(3.61 m) 2
L

8*

= 36.83 10 3 kN

9*
*

6
4

AE (60 10 3 m 2 )(200 10 6 kN/m 2 )


=
3.61 m
L

= 20.41 10 3 kN/m

= 3324 10 3 kN/m
4 EI
4(200 10 6 kN/m 2 )(400 10 6 m 4 )
=
3.61 m
L
= 88.64 10 3 kN m

[ k ]2

1
2
3
3
10 4
5
6

12 EI 12(200 10 6 kN/m 2 )(400 10 6 m 4 )


=
3
L
(3.61 m) 3

2EI 2(200 10 6 kN/m 2 )(400 10 6 m 4 )


=
3.61 m
L
= 44.32 10 3 kN m

3324
0
0 20.41
0 36.83

3
0
36.83
88.64

-3324
0
0
0 -20.41 -36.83
0 36.83

44.32

-3324
0
0 -20.41
0 -36.83

0
36.83
44.32
0
3324
0
0 20.41 -36.83
0 -36.83

88.64

66

6
4
56.31o

(-56.31o)

9*

ix = cos
= 0.55,
iy = sin (-56.31o) = -0.83

7*
76.31o

q4
q5
q6
q7*
q8*
q9*

[ q* ] = [ T ]T[ q ]

*
jx = cos
= 0.24,8
jy = sin (-76.31o) = -0.97 j

(-76.31o)

1
4 0.55
5 -0.83
0
6
7*
0
0
8*
0
9*

4
5
6
*
T
3
[ k ]2 = [ T ] [ k]2[ T ] = 10 7*
8*
9*

2
0.83
0.55
0
0
0
0

3
0
0
1
0
0
0

4
5
1036.923 -1524.780
-1524.780 2307.582
30.646
20.431
-452.884 643.585
1787.474 -2689.923
30.646
20.431

4
0
0
0
0.24
-0.97
0
6
30.646
20.431
88.643
-35.786
-8.717
44.321

5
0
0
0
0.97
0.24
0
7*
-452.884
643.585
-35.786
205.452
-759.668
-35.786

6
0
0
0
0
0
1
8*
1787.474
-2689.923
-8.717
-759.668
3139.053
-8.717

q1
q2
q3
q4
q5
q6
9*
30.646
20.431
44.321
-35.786
-8.717
88.643

67

4
2

9*
8*

[k]1 = 103

[k*]2

1
2
3
4
5
6

4
5
6
3
10 7*
8*
9*

1
3000
0
0
-3000
0
0

2
0
15
30
0
-15
30

3
0
30
80
0
-30
40

4
-3000
0
0
3000
0
0

7*

5
0
-15
-30
0
15
-30

6
0
30
40
0
-30
80

4
5
6
7*
8*
9*
1036.923 -1524.780 30.646 -452.884 1787.474 30.646
-1524.780 2307.582 20.431 643.585 -2689.923 20.431
20.431 88.643 -35.786
30.646
-8.717 44.321
-452.884 643.585 -35.786 205.452 -759.668 -35.786
1787.474 -2689.923 -8.717 -759.668 3139.053 -8.717
30.646
20.431 44.321 -35.786
-8.717 88.643

68

20 kN/m
A

80 kNm
50 kN

1
26.67 kNm

20 kN/m

4
2

3m

9*
8*

C
4m

D4
D5
D6
D7*
D9*

20o

2m

Global:
Q4 = -50
Q5 = 0
Q6 = -80
Q7* = 0
Q9* = 0

4
5
103 6
7
9

40 kN

26.67 kNm
40 kN

4
5
6
7*
9*
4036.923 -1524.780 30.646 -452.884 30.646
-1524.780 232.582 -9.569 643.585 -9.569
30.646
-9.569 168.643 -35.786 44.321
-452.884 643.585 -35.786 205.452 -35.786
30.646

20.431 44.321 -35.786 88.643

-2.199x10-5
-3.095x10-4
-2.840x10-4

m
m
rad

0.979x10-3
6.161x10-4

m
rad

7*

D4
D5
D6
D7*
D9*

0
40
+ -26.67
0
0

69

Member 1:

q1

3000

-3000

q2

15

30

-15

30

40

q3

30

80

-30

40

26.67

-3000

3000

D4

-15

-30

15

-30

D5

40

30

40

-30

80

D6

-26.67

q4

q5
q6

103

q1

65.97

kN

q2

36.12

kN

q3

24.59
-65.97

kNm
kN

43.88

kN

-40.11

kNm

q4
q5
q6

65.97 kN
36.12 kN

6
4

20 kN/m

24.59 kNm

40.11 kNm
65.97 kN
43.88 kN
70

Member 2:
4
5
1036.923 -1508.14

q4

q5

5 -1508.14
30.57
6

q6
q7*

q8*
q9*

103

20.26

651.27 -2678.93 20.26

D5

20.26

88.64

-35.73

-8.84 44.32

D6

651.27
7* -455.21
8* 1769.34 -2678.93

-35.73

210.67

-769.1 -35.73

D*7

9*

30.57

q5

-43.88

kN

q6

-39.89
0

kNm
kN

46.69

kN

kNm

q8*
q9*

-769.1 3128.82

44.32

-35.73

-8.84 88.64

-8.84

D*9

39.89 kNm

43.88 kN

15.97 kN

kN

20.26

-8.84

15.97

D4

2296.15

q4

q7*

6
7*
8*
9*
30.57 -455.21 1769.34 30.57

9*
8*
j

7*

46.69 kN
71

4
2

65.97 kN
9*

8*

20 kN/m

24.59 kNm

7*

40.11 kNm
65.97 kN

36.12 kN

43.88 kN
39.89 kNm

43.88 kN

15.97 kN

-24.59

39.89
- +
-40.11

Bending-moment
diagram (kNm)

-2.199x10-5
-3.095x10-4
-2.840x10-4
0.979x10-3
6.161x10-4

m
m
rad
m
rad

D4
D5
D6
D7*
D9*

46.69 kN

D4=-2.2x10-5 m
D5=-3.1x10-4 m
D6 = -2.84x10-4 rad

D7*=0.979x10-3 m

Deflected shape
D9*=6.161x10-4 rad

72