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# PHYSICS

## Paper- I (1st Semester) Mechanics and Thermodynamics (70 marks)

Code: PH 101 hours Minimum 35 contact

Unit-1: (10 Lectures) Newtons laws of motion, motion in a uniform field, components of velocity and acceleration in Cartesian system, Plane polar coordinate system, Uniformly rotating frame, centripetal acceleration, Coriolis force and its applications, Centre of mass and its equation of motion, conservation of energy, linear and angular momenta, Conservative and non-conservative forces. Unit-2: (10 Lectures) Elastic and inelastic collisions, rotational motion, angular velocity, moments of inertia and its physical meaning, radius of gyration, expression for moment of inertia, torque, theorems on moment of inertia; calculations of moment of inertia in the cases of: rectangular body, elliptical disc, ring, solid cylinder, spherical shell. Inertial and non-inertial frames, Galilean invariance, Newtonian relativity, MichelsonMorley experiment, Einsteins basic postulates, Lorentz transformations, length contraction, simultaneity, time dilation, twin paradox, Einsteins velocity addition rule, Doppler effect in light, Variation of mass with velocity, mass energy equivalence, relativistic formulae for momentum and energy. Unit-3: (10 Lectures) Elasticity: small deformations, Hookes law, elastic constants for an isotropic solid, inter relations of elastic constants, torsion of a cylinder, Bending of beams, bending moments and shearing forces cantilever loaded at free end: (i) when weight of the beam is ineffective and (ii) when weight of the beam is effective. Kinematics of moving fluids, rate of flow, equations of continuity, Bernoullis theorem, viscous fluids, viscosity and coefficient of viscosity, streamline and turbulent flow. Poiseulles law, Capillary tube flow, Reynolds number, Stokes law. Surface tension and surface energy, molecular interpretation of surface tension, pressure on a curved liquids surface, angle of contact, capillarity, determination of surface tension by capillary rise method. Unit-4: (10 Lectures) Ideal gas: Kinetic model, Kinetic interpretation of temperature, estimation of rms speeds of molecules, Equipartition of energy, specific heat of mono-atomic gas, extension to di- and tri-atomic gases, Adiabatic and isothermal expansion of an ideal gas. Real Gas: Van der Waals gas, equation of state, nature of van der Waals forces, comparison with experimental P-V curves, The critical constants, Reduced equation of state. Thermal conductivity and diffusivity, differential equation of rectilinear flow of heat (one dimension), Ingen-Hausz experiment.

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Unit-5: (10 Lectures) The laws of thermodynamics: The Zeroth law, indicator diagram, first law of thermodynamics, Reversible and irreversible changes, Carnot cycle and its efficiency, Carnot theorem and the second law of thermodynamics, Different versions of the second law, Entropy, principle of increase of entropy, The thermodynamic scale of temperature; its identity with the perfect gas scale, Impossibility of attaining the absolute zero; third law of thermodynamics. Thermodynamics relationships: Thermodynamics potentials, Maxwells general relationships, Clausius-Clapeyron latent heat equation. Recommended Books: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. K.N. Srinivasa Rao: Classical Mechanics, PHI, New Delhi (2005) R Sengupta and H. Chatterjee: A Treatise on General Properties of Matter, New Central Agency, Calcutta. D.S. Mathur: Elements of Properties of Matter, S. Chand & Co. R P Feynman, R B Leighton and M Sands: The Feynman Lectures in Physics, Vol.1, B I Publications (Bombay, Delhi, Calcutta, Madras) M. N. Saha and B. N. Srivastava: A Textbook on Heat, The Indian Press, (latest edition) P. K. Chakaraborty: Advanced Text Book on Heat, Modern Book Agency, Kolkata. D. S. Mathur: Fundamentals of Heat, S. Chand & Co. (latest edition) M. W. Zemannsky: Heat and Thermodynamics, Student Edition McGraw Hill, Kogakusha Ltd. F.W. Sears: Thermodynamics, Addison-Wesley Publications.

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## Paper- I (1st Semester) Practical (30 marks)

Code: PH 101(i) hours Minimum 15 Contact

One (1) experiment is to be performed within 3 hours time from this paper in the End Semester examination. A minimum of 6 experiments is to be performed by the students. List of Experiments: 1. Determine the acceleration due to gravity by bar pendulum. 2. Determine the Youngs modulus of a wire by Searle method. 3. Determine the co-efficient of viscosity of water by capillary method. 4. Determine the coefficient of linear expansion of a rod by optical lever method. 5. Determine the specific heat of a liquid by the method of cooling 6. Determine the elastic constants of a glass by Cornus method. 7. Determination of surface tension of a liquid by capillary rise method. 8. Determine the pressure coefficient by using a constant volume thermometer. 9. Determine the coefficient of apparent expansion of a liquid by weight thermometer

Recommended Books: 1 K. G. Majumdar and B. Ghosh: A Textbook of Practical Physics, Vol-I&II, Sreedhar Publications, Kolkata. 2 H Singh: B.Sc. Practical Physics, S. Chand & Co. Ltd. (latest edition) 3. C.L. Arora: Practical Physics, S. Chand & Co., Delhi. 4. S. K. Ghosh: A Textbook of Practical Physics, New Central Book Agency, Kolkata 5. C. R. Dasgupta: A Textbook of Practical Physics, Book Syndicate(P) Ltd, Kolkata

Note: Experiments may be added or deleted subject to the availability of facilities in the College.

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## Paper II (2nd Semester) Oscillations, Acoustics and Optics (70 marks)

Code: PH 201 hours Minimum 35 contact

Unit-1: (10 Lectures) Harmonic oscillations, differential equation and its solution, kinetic and potential energy, examples of simple harmonic oscillations, spring and mass system, simple and compound pendulum, torsional pendulum. Superposition of two simple harmonic motions of the same frequency, superposition of two mutually perpendicular simple harmonic vibrations of the same frequency, Lissajous figures, Superposition of waves, Speed of transverse waves in string, speed of longitudinal waves in a fluid, energy density and energy transmission in waves, waves over a liquid surface, group and phase velocities. . Standing waves: Standing waves, as normal modes of sounding system harmonics and quality of sound, Chladinis figures. Unit-2: (10 Lectures) Free and forced vibration, conditions of maximum amplitude, resonance and condition of resonance, sharpness of resonance. Noise & Music: The human ear and its responses, limits of human audibility, intensity and loudness, units, musical scale, noise pollution, its implication and remedy. Auditorium acoustics: reverberation, Sabines law, theory of reverberation, energy density in an enclosure, absorption of energy, growth and decay of energy, time of reverberation, live and dead rooms, reverberation time of a dead room, measurement of co-efficients. Ultrasonics: production, detection and application of ultrasonic waves. Unit-3: (10 Lectures) Thick lens: Cardinal points, image formed by thick lens, relation between the distances of cardinal points, object and image-distance from principal planes, cardinal points of Ramsden and Huygens eyepieces, location of cardinal points by nodal slides. Aberrations: Methods of minimizing monochromatic aberrations, aplanatic points and surfaces, Abbes homogenous immersion microscope objective, calculation of axial and lateral chromatic error, condition of achromatic combination of two lenses in contact and separated (calculation), achromatic combination of prisms. Unit-4: (10 Lectures) Interference of a light: The principle of superpositions, two-split interference, Production of Interference by Fresnel biprism, determination of wavelength of light, theory of Newtons ring and its application. Haidinger fringes: Fringes of equal inclination, Michelson interferometer, its application for precision determination of wavelength, wavelength difference and the width of spectral lines. Fabry- Perot interferometer and etalon. Fresnel diffraction: Fresnel half-period zones, plates, straight edge. Fraunhofer diffraction: Diffraction at a slit, half-period zones, phasor diagram and integral calculus methods, the intensity distribution, diffraction at a circular aperture,

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resolution of images, Rayleigh criterion, resolving powers of telescope and microscopic systems. Diffraction gratings: Diffraction at N parallel slits, intensity distribution, plane diffraction grating. Resolving power of a grating and comparison with resolving powers of prism. Unit-5: (10 Lectures) Double refraction and optical rotation: Refraction, in uni-axial crystals, its electromagnetic theory, Phase retardation plates, double image prism. Rotation of plane of polarization, origin of optical rotation in liquids and crystals, Brewsters law, optic axis and principle section of a crystal, Faraday effect. Polarization of light, production of polarized light by reflection and refraction. Laser system: Purity of a special line, coherence length and coherence time, spatial coherence of a source, Einsteins A and B coefficients, spontaneous and induced emissions, conditions for laser action, population inversion. Recommended Books: 1. S. Garg, C.K. Ghosh, S. Gupta: Oscillations and Waves, PHI India Ltd 2. P.K. Chakraborty and SB Choudhury: A Textbook on Waves and Acoustics, Central Book Agency, Kolkata. 3. R.K.Thapa, Shiv Raj Gurung and R. C. Tiwari: A Textbook of Sound, Zoram Book House, Zarkawt, Aizawl (2003). 4. A. K. Ghatak: Physical Optics 5. D. P. Khandelwal: Optics and Atomic Physics, Himalaya Publishing House, Bombay (1988). 6. K. D. Maller: Optics, Oxford University Press. 7. Jenkins and White: Fundamentals of Optics, McGraw-Hill. 8. B. B. Laud: Lasers and Non-linear Optics, Wiley Eastern (1985).

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## Paper II (2nd Semester) Practical (30 marks)

Code: PH 201(i) hours Minimum 15 Contact

One (1) experiment is to be performed 3 hours time from this paper in the End Semester examination. A minimum of 6 experiments is to be performed by the students. List of Experiments: 1. Determine the focal length of two convex lenses and their combination by displacement method. 2. Determine the magnifying power of a telescope. 3. Determine the refractive index of the material of a prism at different wavelengths by using a spectrometer. 4. Determine the radius of curvature of a convex lens by Newtons rings method. 5. Determine the number of lines per unit length of the grating by using a spectrometer. 6. Determine the refractive index of a liquid/solid by using a traveling microscope. 7. Determine the frequency of tuning fork by Meldes experiment. 8. Verify laws of vibrations of strings by using a sonometer. 9. Use CRO for the study of A.C. supply waveform and compare the frequencies. Recommended Books: 1 K. G. Majumdar and B. Ghosh: A Textbook of Practical Physics, Vol-I&II, Sreedhar Publications, Kolkata. 2 H. Singh: B.Sc. Practical Physics, S. Chand & Co. Ltd. (latest edition) 3. C.L. Arora: Practical Physics, S. Chand & Co. Delhi. 4. S. K. Ghosh: A Textbook of Practical Physics, New Central Book Agency, Kolkata Note: Experiments may be added or deleted subject to the availability of facilities in the College.

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## Electromagnetism, Quantum Mechanics-I and Electronics-I (70 marks)

Code: PH 301 hours Minimum 35 contact

Unit-1: (10 Lectures) Scalars and vectors, dot and cross products, triple vector product, gradient of a scalar field and its geometrical interpretation, divergence and curl of a vector field, flux of a vector field, Gausss divergence theorem, Greens theorem and Stokes theorem. Coulombs law in vacuum expressed in vector forms, calculations of E for a dipole, Conservative nature of the electrostatic field, Electric potential , E = - , Derivation of Laplace and Poisson equations, torque on a dipole in a uniform electric field and its energy, flux of the electric field, Gausss law and its application for finding E for symmetric charge distributions, Fields at the surface of a conductor, Screening of E field by a conductor, Unit-2: (10 Lectures) Capacitors, electrostatic field energy, force per unit area of the surface of a conductor in an electric field, Dielectrics, Parallel plate capacitor with a dielectric, dielectric constant, polarization and polarization vector, displacement vector D. Electrical current: Current density and current; non-steady currents and continuity equations, Kirchoffs laws, network theorems and their applications, non-ohmic circuitry, thermistor, Transient current: Varying current; rise and decay of currents in LR and CR and LCR circuits, time constant, integrating and differentiating circuits. Unit-3: (10 Lectures) Alternating currents: Skin effect for resistance at high frequencies; complex impedance, reactance, impedances of LCR series and parallel circuits, resonance, Q factor, power dissipation and power factor, AC bridges: Andersons and Owens bridges. Force on a moving charge; Lorentz force equation and definition of B, force on a straight conductor carrying current in a uniform magnetic field, torque on a current loop, magnetic dipole moment, angular momentum. Biot and Savarts law, calculation of H order in simple geometrical situations, Amperes law .B = 0, X B = o J , field due to a magnetic dipole, magnetization current, magnetization vector. Unit-4: (10 Lectures) Origin of the quantum theory: Failure of classical physics to explain the phenomena such as black-body spectrum, photoelectric effect, Ritz combination principle in spectra, Stability of an atom, Plancks radiation law. Wave-particle duality and uncertainty principle, de Broglies hypothesis for matter waves; the concept of wave and group velocities, evidence for diffraction and interference of particle, experimental demonstration of matter waves, Heisenbergs uncertainty relation for p and x, its extension to energy and time, Consequence of the uncertainty relation: gamma ray microscope, diffraction at a slit, particle in a box, position of electron in a Bohr orbit. Schrodinger equations, physical meaning of , conditions to be satisfied by Schrodinger equation as an operator equation, Particle in a box with rigid walls, concept

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of a potential well, wave functions and energies for the ground and excited states; quantization of energy. Unit-5: (10 Lectures) Semiconductors: Instrinsic semiconductors, electrons and holes, Doping; impurity states, n and p type semiconductors, conductivity, mobility, Hall effect, Hall coefficient. p-n junction diode, majority and minority carriers, Zener diode, Diode rectification, ripple factor, Zener diode as a voltage stabilizer, characteristics of a transistor in CB, CE and CC mode, graphical analysis of the CE configuration, low frequency equivalent circuits. Small signal amplifiers: General principles of operation, classification, distortion, RC coupled amplifier, gain frequency response, input and output impedance, multistage amplifiers, transformer coupled amplifiers. Recommended Books: 1. D.J.Griffiths: Introduction to Electrodynamics, 3rd Edition, PHI, New Delhi (2002) 2. Satya Prakash: Electromagnetic Theory & Electrodynamics, Pragati Prakashan 3. D. Chattopadhyay and P.C. Rakshit: Electricity & Magnetism, Books and Allied (P) Ltd. (2001) 4. Reitz and Milford: Electricity and Magnetism, Addison-Wesley. 5. A. S. Mahajan and A. S. Rangwala: Electricity and Magnetism, Tata McGraw Hill 6. D. N. Vasudeva: Electricity and Magnetism, S. Chand & Co. 7. D. C. Tayal: Electricity and Magnetism, Himalaya Publishing House (latest edn.). 8. N. N. Bhargava, D. C. Kulshreshtha & S.C. Gupta: Basic Electronics & Linear Circuits, Tata McGrawHill (2006) 9. B. L. Theraja: Basic Electronics, S. Chand & Co., Delhi (2009)

## Paper III (3rd Semester) Practical (30 marks)

Code: PH 301(i) hours Minimum 15 Contact

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One (1) experiment is to be performed 3 hours time from this paper in the End Semester examination. A minimum of 6 experiments is to be performed by the students. List of Experiments: 1. 2. 3. value of H. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. Verification of inverse square law in magnetism. To measure unknown resistance by using Post Office Box. To determine the resistance of a lamp at room temperature and when incandescent. Determine the resistance per unit length of a wire by Carey Fosters method. Study the static characteristics of a transistor in CE/CB configuration Determine the ECE of copper by using a potentiometer Study the dynamic characteristics of a transistor in CE/CB configuration To determine the angle of dip at a place by dip circle. To determine horizontal component H and the magnetic moment M of a bar magnet with the help of a deflection and vibration magnetometer. To determine the reduction factor of a tangent galvanometer and hence the

Recommended Books: 1 K. G. Majumdar and B. Ghosh: A Textbook of Practical Physics, Vol-I&II, Sreedhar Publications, Kolkata. 2 H .Singh: B.Sc. Practical Physics, S. Chand & Co. Ltd. (latest edition) 3. C.L. Arora: Practical Physics, S. Chand & Co. Delhi. 5. S. K. Ghosh: A Textbook of Practical Physics, New Central Book Agency, Kolkata Note: Experiments may be added or deleted subject to the availability of facilities in the College.

Paper IV (4th Semester) Atomic, Nuclear Physics-I and Solid State Physics-I (70 marks)
Code : PH 401 hours Minimum 35 contact

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Unit-1: (10 Lectures) Positive rays Thomsons parabola method, isotopes, isobars, Astons mass spectrograph, Bainbridge mass spectrograph, Atomic structure: Bohrs theory of H-like atoms, Paulis exclusion principle, quantum number for atomic orbitals and degeneracy, Photo-electric effect: Einsteins photo-electric equations, determination of h by Millikans method. Photoelectric cells and their uses, photomultiplier tube. X-ray spectra, continuous spectra and its explanation (Duane- Hunt law), Characteristics X-ray spectra, Origin of characteristics spectra, energy level diagram, Moseleys law, and its importance, Compton scattering, deduction of change in wavelength, experimental verification. Unit-2: (10 Lectures) Particle accelerator: electrostatic accelerators, linear accelerators, cyclotron, Particle detectors: Gas filled detectors and their basic principles, Ionisation chamber and cloud chamber, GM counter, Proportional counter, cloud chamber. Artificial transmutation: Artificial transmutation, scheme of nuclear reactions, nuclear reaction energy, discovery of neutron, properties of neutron, determination of mass of neutron, classification of neutrons according to their kinetic energy. Unit-3: (10 Lectures) Nuclear fission : Discovery, energy released in fission, secondary neutrons and their importance, multiplication factor, chain reaction, concept of critical size. Nuclear fusion: origin of stellar energy, calculation of fusion energy. Nuclear structure: Basic ideas of nuclear models, Liquid drop and Shell model. Unit-4: (10 Lectures) Crystal structure: Periodicity of crystals, unit cells, primitive cells, fundamental translational vectors, symmetry operations, symmetry groups, space groups, Fundamental types of lattices in 2-d and 3-dimensions, Crystal planes, Miller indices, Distance between lattice planes, Crystal structures like simple cubic (s.c.), facecentered cubic (f.c.c.), body-centered (b.c.c.) and hexagonal close packed (h.c.p.), coordination numbers, atomic packing factor. X-Rays diffractions: X-rays diffraction by crystal planes, Braggs law of diffraction, Xray diffraction by crystals, Reciprocal lattice and lattice vectors, properties of reciprocal lattice vectors, Relation between direct and reciprocal lattice vectors. Bonding in Crystals: Potential between pairs of atoms, Lennard-Jones potential, concept of cohesive energy, Ionic, covalent, van der Waals and metallic bonding, Madelung constant of NaCl crystal.

Unit-5: (10 Lectures) Thermal properties : Specific heat of solid, Deduction of Dulong and Petit law from the harmonic oscillator concept, Einsteins theory of specific heat and its failures, Debye T3 law of specific heat. Motion of electrons : Free electrons motion, conduction electrons, electron collisions, mean free path, relaxation time, current density and electrical conductivity formulae, Thermal conductivity, Weidmann-Franz law, Fermi energy, Fermi velocity, Energy

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levels and density of states in one and three dimensions, Fermi-Dirac distribution function, Effect of temperature on Fermi energy. Recommended Books: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. H.S. Mani and G.K. Mehta: Introduction to Modern Physics, Affiliated EastWest Press, (1989) A. Beiser: Perspective of Modern Physics, McGraw Hill. H.E. White: Introduction to Atomic Physics, McGraw Hill. R.P. Feymann, R.B.Leighton and M.Sands: The Feymann Lectures on Physics, Vol. III, BI Publications (Bombay, Delhi, Calcutta, Madras) C. Kittel: Introduction to Solid State Physics, 8th Edition, John Wiley and Sons, New York, (1996) M.A. Omar: Elementary Solid State Physics, Pearson Edn. (2004). Arun Kumar: Introduction to Solid State Physics, PHI India Ltd. S.O. Pillai: Solid State Physics, New Age International, (2001). B. N. Srivastava: Basic Nuclear Physics & Cosmic Rays, Pragati Prakashan (1992) S. N. Ghosal: Nuclear Physics, S. Chand & Co. (2006) W.E. Burcham and M. Jobbs: Nuclear and Particle Physics, Addison Wesley (1998)

## Paper IV (4th Semester) Practical (30 marks)

Code : PH 401(i) Minimum 15 Contact hours One (1) experiment is to be performed in 3 hours time from this paper in the End Semester examination. A minimum of 6 experiments is to be performed by the students.

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List of experiments: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. Calibration of an ammeter and a voltmeter by using a potentiometer. Determine the self inductance of a coil by Raleighs method using a Wheatstone bridge. Determine the figure of merit of a galvanometer. Determine the current and voltage in a given network and hence verify Kirchhoffs laws. Draw the characteristics curves of semiconductor diode. To study the characteristics of a Zener diode To determine the energy gap of a Semiconductor diode. To study the various Transistor biasing configurations. Study of a simple power circuit with a pi-section filters To study a CE amplifier of a given gain (midgain) using Voltage divider bias.

Recommended Books: 1. K. G. Majumdar and B. Ghosh: A Textbook of Practical Physics, Vol-I&II, Sreedhar Publications, Kolkata. 2. H. Singh: B.Sc. Practical Physics, S. Chand & Co. Ltd. (latest edition) 3. C.L. Arora: Practical Physics, S. Chand & Co., Delhi. 4. S. K. Ghosh: A Textbook of Practical Physics, New Central Book Agency, Kolkata 5. K K Dey & B N Dutta: Practical Physics, Kalyani Publishers (latest edition) Note: Experiments may be added or deleted subject to the availability of facilities in the College.

## Paper V (5th Semester) Mathematical Physics-I (75 marks)

Code: PH 501 hours Minimum 50 contact

Unit-1: (10 Lectures) Ordinary differential equations: Meaning of ordinary point, Power series solution of ordinary differential equation, Frobenius method.

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Partial differential equation, solution of partial differential equations by the method of separation of variables, application of this method in solving the (i) differential equation of heat flow in one dimension (ii) equation of a vibrating string and (iii) Laplaces equation in two dimension (Cartesian and Polar coordinates). Unit-2: (10 Lectures) Legendre Polynomial, solution of Legendre differential equation, Legendre polynomials Pn(x), Rodrigue formula for Pn(x) generating function Pn(x) and recurrence relations, orthogonal property of Pn(x), Expansion of a function in a series of Legendre polynomials. Bessel functions, solution of Bessels differential equation, Bessel function Jn(x). Generating function of Jn(x), Recurrence relation of Jn(x), Integrals of J0(x) and Jn(x). Hermite Polynomials Hn(x), solutions of Hermite differential equation, Generating functions, Rodrigue formula, recurrence relations, orthogonal property of Hn(x). Unit-3: (10 Lectures) Complex variables: Functions of a complex variable, Cauchy-Riemann conditions, Taylor series and Laurent series (both without proof), poles and residue, Cauchys residue theorem with proof, application of residue theorem in integrals of functions having simple poles, Cauchy integral theorem and formula, singularities and their classification, the residue theorem, evaluations of integrals using residue theorem. f ( x) dx , and Elementary idea of Contour integrals, Evaluation of integrals of type 1 f ( x) 2 e ax e x + 1 dx (rectangular contour). Unit-4: (10 Lectures) Curvilinear co-ordinates: Transformation of co-ordinates, Orthogonal curvilinear coordinates, unit vectors in curvilinear co-ordinates, gradient, divergence and curl, cylindrical and spherical polar co-ordinates. Tensor analysis: Concept of tensor with examples, transformation of co-ordinate, summation convention, contravariant and covariant tensors, Kronecker delta, tensor of higher ranks, mixed tensor, symmetric and skew-symmetric tensors, invariant tensor, rank of tensor, epsilon tensor, moment of inertia tensor, stress tensor, strain tensor, polarizability tensor. Unit-5: (10 Lectures) Matrices: A review of matrix addition and multiplications, Transpose and conjugate transpose of a matrix, Adjoint and inverse of a matrix, Transpose and inverse of product of two matrices. Special matrices: Singular matrices, symmetric and skew symmetric matrices, Hermitian and skew Hermitian matrices, orthogonal and unitary matrices. Application of matrices: Rotation of co-ordinates exes, solution of linear algebraic equation by matrix methods, Rank of matrix. Characteristic equation, eigen values, eigen vectors, calculation of eigen values and eigen vectors of (2x2) matrices, properties of eigen values & eigen vectors of Hermitian & unitary matrices, Trace of a matrix, diagonalisation of Symmetric (2x2) and (3X3) matrix with examples.

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Recommended Books: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. H.K. Dass: Mathematical Physics, S. Chand & Co. B D Gupta: Mathematical Physics, Vikash Publishing House ( latest edition). P.K.Chattopadhyay: Mathematical Physics, Wiley & Sons (1990). Mathews & Walker: Mathematical Methods of Physics, W.A. Benjamin, Inc. (latest edition) M. R. Spiegel: Vector Analysis & An Introduction to Tensor Analysis, McGraw Hill Book Co., (latest edition) R. K.Gupta & H.C. Sharma: Mathematical Physics, Minakshi Prakashan (latest edition) F. A. Hinchey: Vectors and Tensors, Wiley Eastern A. W. Joshi: Matrices and Tensors in Physics, 3rd Edn., New Age Intl. Ltd.

7. 8. (1998) 9. K.F. Riley, M.P. Robson and S.J. Bence: Mathematical Methods for Physics and Engineering, Cambridge University Press (2005). 10. Churchill Ruel V, Brown James W and Verhey Roger F: Complex Variables and Applications, McGraw Hill. 11. Shanti Narayan: Complex Variables, S. Chand & Co., New Delhi (latest edition)

## Paper VI (5th Semester) Quantum Mechanics-II (75 marks)

Code: PH 502 hours Minimum 50 contact

Unit-1: (10 Lectures) Rise and fall of Planck-Bohr quantum theory, Duality of radiation and matter, de Broglies hypothesis, justification for the relation = h/p, experimental confirmation, Phase and group velocities of a wave; formation of a wave packet, Complementarity principles, photon interpretation of two-slit interference, Einstein-de Broglie relations as a link between particle and wave properties, general equation of wave propagation,

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propagation of matter waves, natural occurrence of n, l and m quantum numbers, related physical quantities, Bohrs theory. Unit-2: (10 Lectures) Infinite dimensional vector spaces, Hilbert space, definition of a linear vector spaces, dual linear space, inner product of two vectors, concept of basis sets, orthonormal basis sets, Gram-Schmidt orthonormalization, expansion of an arbitrary vector, special function as basis (basic ideas only), matrix representation of vector, its dual and an operator, Hermitian operators, Hermitian adjoint operators, expectation values of an operator, introduction to Dirac notation. Unit-3: (10 Lectures) Schrodinger equation: Schrodinger equation in time-dependent and time-independent form, Physical interpretation and probability interpretation of wave function, Equation of continuity, conservation of probability, expectation values of an operator - Ehrenfest theorem, Basic postulates of quantum mechanics, Schrodinger equation as eigen value equation, eigen value and eigen function. Unit-4: (10 Lectures) Free particle in one dimensional infinite potential well, calculation of its eigen values and normalized eigen functions, Calculation for transmission and reflection coefficient for particle in step potential, particle inside finite rectangular potential barrier phenomenon of quantum tunneling, Linear harmonic oscillator: Energy eigen value and eigen function of linear harmonic oscillator, ground state wave function. Unit-5: (10 Lectures) Angular momentum and magnetic moment of electron due to orbital motion; Bohr magneton, Angular momentum operators L2 and Lz, their eigen values and eigen functions, Spatial quantization, Stern-Gehrlach experiment, Uhlenbeck and Goudsmits hypothesis of electron spin; Paulis method of spin variable, Eigen values and eigen functions of the spin operator, Pauli spin operators and commutation relations.

Recommended Books: 1. 2. 3. G. Aruldhas: Quantum Mechanics, Prentice Hall of India (2002) R.L. Liboff: Introductory Quantum Mechanics, Pearson Education (2006) A. Ghatak and S. Lokanathan: Quantum Mechanics: Theory and Application, 4th Edn., Macmillan (2004). 4. Satya Prakash: Advanced Quantum Mechanics, Kedar Nath (2008) 5. S. Gasiorowicz: Quantum Mechanics, John Wiley & Sons (1995) 6. PT Mathews and S.Venkatesan: Textbook on Quantum Mechanics, Tata McGraw Hill (2002)

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Paper VII (5th Semester) Classical Mechanics and Thermal Physics (70 Marks)
Code : PH 503 hours Minimum 35 contact

Unit-1: (10 Lectures) Reduction of two body problem to one body problem, reduced mass, Motion under a central force, Keplers law, Deduction of Newtons laws of gravitation from Keplers laws of planetary motion and Keplers laws form Newtons laws, Gravitational law and field, Potential due to a spherical body, Gauss and Poisson equations, gravitational field and potential.

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Constraints and generalized co-ordinates, Principle of virtual work, DAlemberts principle, Lagrangian and Lagranges equations for simple pendulum, Keplerian motion. Hamiltons canonical equation from Lagranges equation, Hamiltons equation of motion for a simple pendulum. Unit-2: (10 Lectures) Kinetic Theory of Matter: Evidences of kinetic theory of matter, Brownian motion, Einsteins theory of translational Brownian motion, Verification by Perrin and determination of Avogadros number, law of equipartition of energy deduction of the law by the method of momentoids. Deduction of Maxwell-Boltzmann law of distribution of velocity of molecules, experimental verification by Stern, deduction of velocity (average), r.m.s velocity, most probable velocity and energy distribution law, Mean free path, deduction of the expression, collision, probability, law of distribution of free path, experimental verification by Borns experiment.

Unit-3: (10 Lectures) Non-equilibrium of gases, transport phenomena in gases, viscocity, thermal conductivity, diffusion (elementary deduction), their dependence on pressure and temperature. Thermodynamics: Thermodynamical energy function- internal energy functions, enthalpy, Helmholtz function, Gibbs function, study and conclusions from above function, tendency of thermodynamical systems towards equilibrium. Thermodynamical relations: Derivation of Maxwells relations from thermodynamical energy functions, Application variation of intrinsic energy with volume, Tds equation, difference of CP and Cv (all thermodynamical relations), to deduce (CP Cv) relations for perfect and real gases, variation of Cv with volume and CP with pressure, Gibbs phase rule, its deduction and application to mono, -di component systems, triple point, Sahas theory of ionization, physical ideas and its application (qualitative). Unit-4: (10 Lectures) The statistical basis of thermodynamics: Probability and thermodynamic probability; principle of equal a priori probabilities, Accessible and inaccessible states, Phase space representation: phase cells of arbitrary size, one- dimensional oscillator, free particles, the function (E) and (E), definition of probability, average properties of the system in equilibrium state. Thermal equilibrium between two systems, beta parameter and its identity with (kT)-1, probability and entropy, Boltzmann entropy relation, statistical interpretation of the second law of thermodynamics, Boltzmann canonical distribution law; equipartition of energy, Ensembles: Canonical, Micro-canonical, Grand canonical ensemble, partition function. Unit-5: (10 Lectures) Maxwellian distribution of speeds in an ideal gas: Derivation of the distribution of speed, specific heat and internal energy using MB statistics, Transition to quantum statistics: Cases of particles in a box and simple harmonic oscillator, Setting phase-cell size as natures constant (Plancks constant h); quantization of energy, Indistinguishability of particles, effect of absolute entropy, Bose-Einstein and FermiDirac statistics, applications to liquid helium, free electron metals and photon in a blackbody chamber, Fermi level and Fermi energy, its variation with temperatures.

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Recommended Books: 1. J.C. Upadhyaya: Classical Mechanics, Himalaya Publishing House, 5th Edition. 2. Rana and Joag,: Classical Mechanics, Tata McGraw Hill 3. Suresh Chandra: Classical Mechanics, Narosa Pub. House (2009). 4. B. B. Laud: Fundamentals of Statistical Mechanics, New Age Intl. Ltd. (1998) 5. K Huang, Statistical Mechanics (2nd Ed) John Wiley & Sons (2002) 6. Brij Lal and N. Subrahmanyam: Heat and Thermodynamics, S.Chand & Co. Ltd. 7. S. K. Roy: Thermal Physics, New Age International (P) Ltd. 8. S. Lokanathan & R.S. Gambhir: Statistical Mechanics & Thermal Physics, PHI (2007)

## Paper VII (5th Semester) Practical (30 marks)

Code: PH 503(i) hours List of experiments : One (1) experiment is to be performed within 3 hours time from this paper in the End Semester examination. A minimum of 6 experiments is to be performed by the students. 1. Determine the value of mechanical equivalent of heat by Joules electrical calorimeter. Minimum 15 Contact

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2. Determine the thermal conductivity of a bad conductor by Lees method. 3. Determine the Stefans constant 4. To determine the coefficient of viscosity of a liquid by rotating viscometer. 5. To determine the value of g by Katers pendulum. 6. Determine the modulus of rigidity of a cylindrical body by statical method 7. Measure the capacitance by de Sautys method 8. Determine the boiling point of a liquid by Platinum resistance thermometer 9. Determine the thermal conductivity of a metallic rod by Searles. 10. Verification of Stefans law.

Recommended Books: 1 K. G. Majumdar and B. Ghosh: A Textbook of Practical Physics, Vol-I&II, Sreedhar Publications, Kolkata. 2 H. Singh: B.Sc. Practical Physics, S. Chand & Co. Ltd. (latest edition) 3. C.L. Arora: Practical Physics, S. Chand & Co., Delhi. 4. S. K. Ghosh: A Textbook of Practical Physics, New Central Book Agency, Kolkata. Note: Experiments may be added or deleted subject to the availability of facilities in the College.

## Paper VIII (5th Semester) Optional-I (a) Spectroscopy (70 marks)

Code: PH 504(a) hours Minimum 35 contact

Unit-1: (10 Lectures) Rutherfords alpha particle scattering experiment, derivation of Rutherfords cross section formula theory and Rutherford atom model, Bohr atom model, total energy, hydrogen spectral series, fine structure, Sommerfelds elliptical orbits, radial and azimuthal quantum numbers total energy, Sommerfelds relativistic correction, fine structure, fine structure of H-line, Vector atom model, spatial quantisation and electron spin, spin-orbit interaction, Stern and Gerlach experiment, quantum numbers n,l,s,j,m1,ms,mj and their physical interpretation, magnetic moments of an atom, and

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Landes factor, Larmors theorem, Coupling scheme for non-equivalent electrons and selection rules, Alkali spectra- spectral series and doublet structure. Unit-2: (10 Lectures) Paulis exclusion principle, maximum number of electrons in a given group or subgroup, periodic table, Doublet fine structure of hydrogen and alkali atoms, screening constants for monovalent atoms. Zeeman effect, classical interpretation of normal Zeeman effect, model normal and anomalous Zeeman effect for one electron system, Paschen-Back effect, Stark effect, its explanation and experimental results, X-rays: Concept of fine structure of X-rays levels, X-ray fluorescent and the Auger effect. Unit-3: (10 Lectures) Laser spectroscopy : Einsteinss A and B coefficients derivative (in detail), population inversion, pumping schemes, properties of laser light, Rate equation for three level systems, Pulsed lasers and tunable lasers, spatial coherence and directionality, estimates of beam intensity, temporal coherence and spectral energy density, He-Ne laser, semiconductor laser (construction and working), Unit-4: (10 Lectures) Born Oppenheimer approximation (general idea), Pure rotational spectra, rigid rotator, energy levels, frequency of spectral line, selection rule and the spectrum, Non-rigid rotator, energy levels, spectrum, determination of inter-molecular distance (HCl, CO, N2) isotopic effect on rotational spectra, Rotational spectra of polyatomic molecules, Vibrating diatomic molecule as a harmonic oscillator, frequency, energy levels, selection rules, spectrum, coupling of rotation and vibration, molecule as anharmonic oscillator, energy levels, transition rules, spectrum, fine structure of vibration rotational spectra. Unit-5: (10 Lectures) Electronic configurations and states of homonuclear diatomic molecules, Electronic band systems, Sequences and progressions in emission and absorption, Coarse structure and fine structure, Frank Condon principal energy levels, selection rules, spectrum rotational fine structure of vibrational transitions, P, Q, R branches, Band head formation, Fortrat diagram, Raman effect and semi-quantum mechanical explanation, fundamentals of vibrational Raman spectra, structure determination from Raman spectroscopy (diatomic molecule), comparison of infrared and Raman scattering. Recommended Books: 1. H. S. Mani and G K Mehta: Introduction to Modern Physics, Affiliated EastWest Press, (1989) Gupta, Kumar and Sharma: Elements of Spectroscopy, Pragati Prakashan.

2. (2006). 3. G. M. Barrow: Molecular Spectroscopy, McGraw Hill Book Co. 4. H. Barrow: Theory of Atomic Spectra 5. Harvey E. White, Introduction to Atomic Spectra, McGraw Hill Book Co. (1987) 6. G. Aruldhass: Modern Physics, PHI India Ltd.

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Paper VIII (5th Semester) Optional-I (b) C Language and Numerical Methods (70 marks)
Code: PH 504(b) Minimum 35 contact hours

Unit-1: (10 Lectures) Overview of C language, Importance of C, sample C programs, basic structure of C programs, programming style, executing C program. Character set, C tokens, keywords and identifiers, constants, variables, data types, declaration of variables, assigning value to variable, defining symbolic constants. Operators and Expression: Operators - arithmetic, relational, logical, assignment, increment-decrement, conditional, bit-wise and special. Arithmetic expressions, evaluation of expressions, precedence of arithmetic operators, type conversions in expressions, operator precedence and associativity.

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Unit-2: (10 Lectures) Managing Input and Output Operators: Formatted input/output-more about printf() and scanf() functions. Unformatted input getchar(), getch(), getche(), gets(). Unformatted output putchar (), puts (). Functions: Definition, prototype of a function, standard library functions, User-Defined Functions, Need for user-defined functions, return values and their types, category of functions: no arguments and no return values, arguments but no return values, arguments with return values. Handling of non-integer functions, calling a function-call by value and call by reference Arrays: Definition, declaration and initialization: One-dimensional arrays, twodimensional arrays. Multi-dimensional arrays. Sorting: Bubble and insertion sort. Linear search. Unit-3: (10 Lectures) Pointers: Definition, accessing the address of variable, declaring and initializing pointers, accessing a variable through its pointer, pointers and arrays, arrays of pointers, pointers and functions. Structures and Unions: Structure definition, structure initialization, user-defined data types, arrays of structures, arrays within structures, structures within structures, structures and functions, pointers and structures. Self-referential structures, union, type. File Management in C: File concept, various operations on files Defining, opening, closing, input/output operations on files, command line arguments. Unit-4: (10 Lectures) Approximate numbers and significant figures, Absolute and relative errors, General formula for error, Application of the error formula, Successive approximation, Taylors series, Principle of least square, least square fitting. Interpolation: Linear, Lagranges and Newtons, Gregory-Newtons difference interpolation. Matrices and Linear equations: Solution of equation by matrix method, Jacobi method, Solution of algebraic and transcendental equations by Iteration method, Bisection method and NewtonRaphson method.

Unit-5: (10 Lectures) Numerical solutions of differential and integral equationsNumerical differentiation: differentiation by Lagranges interpolation, differentiation by Newtons interpolation, Gregory-Newton interpolation, Numerical integration: NewtonCotes formula, Simpsons rule, Trapezoidal Rule, Gausss quadrature formula. Binary Number System, Octal Number System, Hexadecimal Number System; Converting One number System to Another (Converting to Decimal from Another Base, Converting from Decimal to Another Base (Division-Remainder Technique)., Introduction to Boolean Algebra, De Morgans Theorems. Recommended Books: 1. E. Balagurusamy: Programming in ANSI C, Tata McGraw Hill Publications. 2. Ashok N.Kamthane: Programming with ANSI and Turbo C, Pearson Education 3. B. Kernigan and D. Ritchie : The ANSI C Programming Language, PHI Publications. 4. Byron Gotterfried : Programming with ANSI C, Tata McGraw Hill Publications 5. V. Rajaraman: Computer Oriented Numerical Methods, Prentice Hall (2003).

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6. V. Rajaraman: Computer Programming in C, PHI (2005). 7. C. Xavier: C Language and Numerical Methods, New Age Intl. Ltd. (2004). 8. Suresh Chandra: Computer Application in Physics, Narosa Pub. House, New Delhi.

## Paper VIII (5th Semester) Practical (30 marks)

Code : PH 504(i) hours Minimum 15 Contact

One (1) experiment is to be performed within 3 hours time from this paper in the End Semester examination. A minimum of 6 experiments is to be performed by the students. 1. Determine the wavelength of monochromatic light by Michelsons interferometer. 2. Measure the width of a single slit from the study of its Fraunhoffer diffraction... 3. Determine the velocity of ultrasonic waves in a liquid. 4. Determine the value of e/m of electron (any method). 5. Determine the work function and Planks constant by using a photocell. 6. Determination of the diameter of a thin wire using laser. 7. Determine the wavelength of sodium D-lines by using Fresnel biprism 8. Determination of wavelength of laser light using ruler/diffraction grating. 9. Write a C program to calculate (i) matrix addition (ii) matrix multiplication.

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10. Write a C program for differentiation of a function 11. Write a C program for integration of a function. 12. Write a C program for solving an algebraic equation by Newton-Raphson method Recommended Books: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. K. G. Majumdar and B. Ghosh: A Textbook of Practical Physics, Vol-I&II, Sreedhar Publications, Kolkata. H. Singh: B.Sc. Practical Physics, S. Chand & Co. Ltd. (latest edition) C.L. Arora: Practical Physics, S. Chand & Co. Delhi. S. K. Ghosh: A Textbook of Practical Physics, New Central Book Agency, Kolkata. V. Rajaraman: Computer Programming in C, PHI (2005). C. Xavier: C Language and Numerical Methods, New Age Intl. Ltd. (2004). E. Balagurusamy: Programming in ANSI C, Tata McGraw Hill Publications. B. Kernigan and D. Ritchie: The ANSI C Programming Language, PHI Publications.

Note: Experiments may be added or deleted subject to the availability of facilities in the College.

## PAPER IX (6th Semester) Mathematical Physics-II (75 marks)

Code : PH 601 hours Minimum 50 contact

Unit-1: (10 Lectures) Definitions of beta and gamma function, Fundamental property of Gamma functions, 1 The value of and Graph of the Gamma function, Transformation of Gamma 2 ( m ) ( n ) ( m + n) = ( m, n ) = ( n, m ) , function, To show that , ( m + n) 1 (m)(m + ) = 2 m1 (2m) . Different forms of Beta function, Relationship between 2 2 Beta and Gamma functions, evaluation of Beta and Gamma functions, Solutions of integrals using Beta and Gamma functions, Error function or probability integral, factorial function.

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Unit-2: (10 Lectures) Fourier Series, expansion of a function of x in a series of sines and cosines of multiple of x, Fourier series for the interval ( , ), (0, ) and (0, 2 ), Fourier series for half wave and full wave rectifier, complex representation of a Fourier series, Finite Fourier Transforms, Fourier sine and cosine transform, Fourier integral, different forms of Fourier integrals, application of Fourier transforms to boundary value problems, Dirac Delta function, Green's functions and Delta functions. Unit-3: (10 Lectures) Laplace transform: Definition, Laplace transform of some elementary functions, Important properties of Laplace transforms, methods of finding Laplace transform., Laplace transforms of some special functions, evaluation of integrals with Laplace transforms, Inverse Laplace transform, evaluation of integrals with Laplace and inverse Laplace transforms, Application of Laplace transforms to differential equation, boundary value problems. Unit-4: (10 Lectures) Definitions and Theorems of Group Theory, Cyclic groups, subgroups, classes, Symmetry elements and Operations, Symmetry planes and Reflections, Inversion Center, Proper axes and proper Rotation, Improper axes and Improper Rotation, Product of Symmetry operations. General relations among symmetry elements and operations, Symmetry elements and Optical Isomerism, Symmetry point groups, Classes of Symmetry operations, A systematic procedures for Symmetry Classifications of Molecules with examples of H2O, NH3 and H2O2, Representations of Groups, Great Orthogonality Theorem, Five important Rules and Examples, Character Table, Character table for D4, Representation of Cyclic Group. Applications of Group Theory : Wave functions as bases for irreducible representations, Spectral Transition Probabilities, Symmetry of Reciprocal Lattice Vectors,

Unit-5: (10 Lectures) Introduction to FORTRAN, FORTRAN character set, FORTRAN constants, FORTRAN variables, arithmetic expressions, Library functions, Evaluation of other mathematical functions, Arithmetic statements, Structure of a FORTRAN program, Input-Output statements, Format Specifications, Read and Write statement, Terminating a program, Unformatted I/O statements, Control Statements : Unconditional Go To, IF statements, Logical IF, Computed Go To, Assign and Assigned Go To, Do Loops: General form of Do statement, use of Continue, Nested DoLoops, Data statement, Complex Data, Arrays, Dimension statement, Functions, subprograms and Subroutines, complex and Common statements. Recommended Books: 1. 2. 3. 4. B.D. Gupta: Mathematical Physics, Vikas Publishing House. A.K. Ghatak, I.C. Goyal & S.J. Chua: Mathematical Physics, Macmillan (1995). RK Gupta and HC Sharma: Mathematical Physics, Meenakshi Prakashan. H.K. Dass: Mathematical Physics, S. Chand & Co. (latest edition)

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## 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. Ed. 12.

Satya Prakash: Mathematical Physics, S. Chand & Co. (1996). G. B. Arfken and H.J. Weber: Mathematical Methods for Physicists, Academic Press, 6th Ed. (2005) C. Xavier: FORTRAN 77 and Numerical Methods, New Age Intl. Ltd., (2005). R.S. Salaria: A Modern Approach to Programming in FORTRAN, Khanna Book Pub.Co.(P), Ltd, New Delhi (2004). S. Lipschutz and A. Poe: Programming with Fortran, Mc Graw Hill, (1978). V. Rajaraman: Computer programming in Fortran 77, Prentice Hall of India, (2001). A.W. Joshi: Elements of Group Theory for Physicists, New Age Intl. Pub. 5th F. A. Cotton: Chemical Applications of Group Theory, (Wiley Intl. 1990). (Chapters 1-5 Only).

## Paper X (6th Semester) Nuclear Physics-II (75 marks)

Code : PH 602 hours Minimum 50 contact

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-decay: Types of -decays, conditions of + & - decay and K capture, -ray spectrum, Paulis neutrino hypothesis, -rays and their origin, Measurements of gamma ray energies by crystal spectrometer.
Unit-3: (10 Lectures) Nuclear models and nuclear reaction: Liquid drop model, shell model, collective model(basic ideas only), Artificial transmutation: Artificial transmutation, scheme of nuclear reactions, Conservation laws, calculation of Q values, threshold energy, crosssection of nuclear reactions, discovery of neutron, properties of neutron, determination of mass of neutron, classification of neutrons according to their kinetic energy. Nuclear fission: Discovery, energy released in fission, secondary neutrons and their importance, multiplication factor, chain reaction, concept of critical size, enriched uranium, Uranium-graphite nuclear reactor. Nuclear fusion: origin of stellar energy, calculation of fusion energy. Unit-4: (10 Lectures) Particle accelerator: Need for particle accelerator, electrostatic accelerators, linear accelerators, cyclotron, betatron, electron synchrotron, proton synchrotron, accelerators in India. Particle detectors: Ionisation chamber and cloud chamber, GM counter, Proportional counter, bubble chamber, spark chamber, scintillation counter, semiconductor counters, Cerenkov counter, Neutron Counters.

Unit-5: (10 Lectures) Cosmic rays and elementary particles: Intensity of cosmic rays on earths surface, latitude effect, east-west effect, altitude effect, primary cosmic rays, secondary cosmic rays, origin of cosmic rays, absorption showers, extensive air showers, fundamentals of theory of electron showers (Bhabhas theory), Discovery of positron, muon, pion and their general properties, Ideas of leptons, baryons and mesons, concept of anti-particles, Universal conservation laws- statements and their application to production and decay of mesons and baryons, Discovery of strange particles, isospin, strangeness, hypercharge, elementary particles symmetries, quarks and quark hypothesis, basic interactions of quarks and leptons. Recommended Books: 1. D. C. Tayal: Nuclear Physics, Himalaya Publishing House (1991) 2. B. N. Srivastava: Basic Nuclear Physics & Cosmic Rays, Pragati Prakashan (1992) 3. S. N. Ghosal: Nuclear Physics, S. Chand & Co. (2006) 4. A. E. S. Green: Nuclear Physics, McGraw Hill Book Co., (Latest Edn, Student Ed.) 5. W.E. Burcham and M. Jobbs: Nuclear and Particle Physics, Addison Wesley (1998) 6. Irving Kaplan: Nuclear Physics, 2nd Ed., Narosa Publishing House (2002). 7. D.J. Griffiths: Introduction to Elementary Particles, John Wiley & Sons (1987).

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## Paper XI (6th Semester) Electromagnetic Theory (70 marks)

Code : PH 603 Minimum 35 contact hours Unit-1: (10 Lectures) Faradays law for electromagnetic induction, Faradays law in integral and differential forms; energy stored in an inductor and in the magnetic field. Displacement current; modified Amperes law, Maxwell's equations with their derivations, Maxwells equations in vacuum, and in material media, boundary conditions. Unit-2: (10 Lectures) Electromagnetic waves in free space - wave equation satisfied by E and B in free space and its solution, transverse nature of e.m. wave and its orthogonality, ratio of amplitudes of E and B, energy density of e.m. wave, Poynting vector and Poynting theorem, energy per unit volume, momentum of e.m. wave, radiation pressure. Unit-3: (10 Lectures) Propagation of electromagnetic wave in dielectric medium, reflection and refraction at normal incidence and oblique incidence at dielectric boundary, Polarization of e.m. wave - Brewster angle, Total internal reflection, Propagation of electromagnetic wave in conducting medium, skin depth, reflection and refraction at conducting boundary, Unit-4: (10 Lectures) Magnetic and Scalar potential, their non uniqueness, Lorentz and Coulomb gauge transformations, Poissons equation using vector potential in terms of current density, Laplace equation using scalar potential in terms of charge density, magnetic dipole using magnetic scalar potential, Lorentz force law using e.m. potentials, momentum using e.m. potentials. Unit-5: (10 Lectures)

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Propagation in linear media - Reflection and Transmission, wave guides - TE waves in rectangular wave guide, Boundary conditions at interface between two different media, Equation of motion for electron in radiation field, Lorentz theory of dispersion for both normal and anomalous, Cauchys dispersion formula, Rayleigh scattering, Retarded potential, radiation from oscillating dipole. Recommended Books: 1. D.J.Griffiths: Introduction to Electrodynamics, 3rd Edition, PHI, New Delhi, (2002) 2. Satya Prakash: Electromagnetic Theory & Electrodynamics, Pragati Prakashan 3. D. Chattopadhyay and P.C. Rakshit: Electricity & Magnetism, Books and Allied (P) Ltd. (2001) 4. K. K. Tewari: Electricity & Magnetism, S. Chand & Co. (2002). 5. M. Narayanamurthy & N.Nagarathnam: Electricity & Magnetism, NPC Pub., Revised edition. 6. D. Halliday, R.Resnick and J.Walker: Fundamentals of Physics, 6th Edn, Wiley, NY, (2001). 7. Uma Mukherji: Electromagnetic Field Theory and Wave Propagation, Narosa, (2006). 8. R. P. Feynman. R B Leighton and M Sands: The Feynman Lectures on Physics, Vols. I, II and III, Narosa Pub. House, New Delhi (1998).

## Paper XI (6th Semester) Practical (30 marks)

Code: PH 603 (i) hours Minimum 15 Contact

List of experiments: One (1) experiment is to be performed within 3 hours time from this paper in the End Semester examination. A minimum of 6 experiments is to be performed by the students. 1. Draw the plateau of a GM counter and carry out the statistical analysis. 2. Determine the melting point of a wax using a Thermocouple 3. Study the series and parallel resonance circuits with A.C. source and draw the current frequency curve and calculate Q. 4. Determine the self and mutual inductances of a given coil by Carey-Fosters method. 5. Write a FORTRAN program to solve a Quadratic Equation. 6. Write a FORTRAN program to find roots of f(x)=0 by using bisection method. 7. Find the sum of a (i) Cosine series (ii) Sine series by using FORTRAN program. 8. Write a FORTRAN program for (i) Matrix Addition and (ii) Matrix Multiplication and compare results with analytical treatment 8. Write a FORTRAN program to find roots of f(x)=0 by using Newton-Raphson method. 9. Write a FORTRAN program to integrate the given function by Simpsons 1/3 rule. 10. Write a FORTRAN program for differentiation of a given function. Recommended Books:

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1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

K. G. Majumdar and B. Ghosh: A Textbook of Practical Physics, Vol-I&II Sreedhar Publications, Kolkata. H. Singh: B.Sc. Practical Physics, S. Chand & Co. Ltd. (latest edition) C.L. Arora: Practical Physics, S. Chand & Co. Delhi. S.K. Ghosh: A Textbook of Practical Physics, New Central Book Agency, Kolkata. C. Xavier: FORTRAN 77 and Numerical Methods, New Age Intl. (2005). R.S. Salaria: A Modern Approach to Programming in FORTRAN, Khanna Book Pub.Co.(P), Ltd, New Delhi (2004). S. Lipschutz and A. Poe: Programming with Fortran, Mc Graw Hill (1978). V. Rajaraman: Computer Programming in Fortran 77, Prentice Hall of India, (2001)

Note: Experiments may be added or deleted subject to the availability of facilities in the College.

Paper XII (6th Semester) Optional-II (a) Solid State Physics-II (70 marks)
Code : PH 604(a) Minimum 35 contact hours Unit-1: (10 Lectures) Lattice vibrations : Elastic vibrations in a continuous media, Phase and Group velocities of elastic waves, Vibrations of one-dimensional monoatomic and diatomic chain of linear atoms, Dispersion relations, Acoustic and Optical modes of vibrations, concept of Brillouin zones and phonons. Unit-2: (10 Lectures) Dia-, Para-, Ferri- and Ferromagnetic Materials. Classical Langevin Theory of dia and paramagnetic Domains, Quantum Mechanical Treatment of Paramagnetism, Curies law, Weisss Theory of Ferromagnetism and Ferromagnetic Domains, Discussion of BH Curve, Hysteresis and Energy Loss. Unit-3: (10 Lectures) Polarization, Local Electric Field at an Atom, Depolarization Field. Dielectric Constant, Electric Susceptibility, Polarizability, Classical Theory of Electric Polarizability, Clausius-Mosotti Equation, Normal and Anomalous Dispersion, Complex Dielectric Constant. Unit-4: (10 Lectures) Band Theory of Solids, Bloch Theorem, Kronig-Penney Model, Origin of energy bands and Band Gaps, Effective Mass of Electron, Concept of Holes, Energy band diagrams of Si, Ge, Cu and W (discussions only), Classification of Solids in terms of energy bands. Direct and Indirect transitions and Band Gaps in Ge. Unit-5: (10 Lectures) Superconductivity, Critical Temperature, Critical magnetic field, Meissner effect, Type I and Type II Superconductors, Londons equation and Penetration depth, Isotope effect, BCS theory (no derivation): Cooper Pair and Coherence length, Variation of

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Superconducting Energy Gap with Temperature, Experimental Evidence of Phonons, Josephson Effect. Recommended Books : 1. C. Kittel: Introduction to Solid State Physics, 8th Edn., John Wiley & Sons (1999) 2. H.P. Myers: Introduction to Solid State Physics, 2nd Edn, Viva Books(P) Ltd. (1998) 3. A.J. Dekker: Solid State Physics, Macmillan India Ltd. (1986.) 4. J.P. Srivastava: Elements of Solid State Physics, PHI (2001) 5. H. Ibach and H. Luth: Solid State Physics, 2nd Edition, Springer (1996) 6. R.E. Hummel: Electronic Properties of Materials, 3rd Edition, Springer (2001) 7. N.W. Ashcroft & N.D. Mermin: Solid State Physics, Hault & Saunders (1981) 8. M.S. Rogalski & S.B. Palmer: Solid State Physics, 1st Edn., Gordon and Breach 9. M. Ali Omar: Elementary Solid State Physics: Principles and Applications, Pearson Education (1999) 10. Arun Kumar: Introduction to Solid State Physics, PHI India Ltd.

## Paper XII (6th Semester) Optional-II (b) Electronics-II (70 marks)

Code : PH 604(b) hours Minimum 35 contact

Unit-1: (10 Lectures) Circuit Analysis : Kirchhoffs Laws, Wheatstone Bridge and its Applications to Wien Bridge and Anderson Bridge, Semiconductor Diodes: p and n Type Semiconductors, Energy Level Diagram. Conductivity and Mobility, p-n Junction Fabrication (Simple Idea), Barrier Formation in pn Junction Diode, Current Flow Mechanism in Forward and Reverse Biased Diode (Recombination, Drift and Saturation of Drift Velocity), pn junction and its characteristics, Static and Dynamic Resistance. Diode Equivalent Circuit, Ideal Diode, Load Line Analysis of Diodes, Load Line and Q-point. Unit-2: (10 Lectures) Two terminal Devices and their Applications: (1) Rectifier Diode, Halfwave Rectifiers, Centretapped and Bridge Fullwave Rectifiers Calculation of Ripple Factor and Rectification Efficiency, Qualitative idea of C, L and Filters, (2) Zener Diode and Voltage Regulation, (3) Photo Diode, (4) Tunnel Diode, (5) LED (6) Varactor Diode, Bipolar Junction Transistors: npn and pnp Transistors. Characteristics of CB, CE and CC Configurations, Current gains , and and Relations between them. Load Line Analysis of Transistors, DC Load line and Qpoint, Physical Mechanism of Current Flow, Active, Cutoff and Saturation Regions, Transistor in Active Region and Equivalent Circuit. Unit-3: (10 Lectures) Amplifiers: Transistor Biasing and Stabilization Circuits. Fixed Bias and Voltage Divider Bias, Transistor as 2port Network, hparameter Equivalent Circuit Analysis of a singlestage CE amplifier using Hybrid Model, Input and Output Impedance, Current, Resistance, Voltage and Power Gains, Class A, B, and C Amplifiers; Coupled Amplifiers : RCCoupled Amplifier and its Frequency Response of Voltage Gain.

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Unit-4: (10 Lectures) Feedback in Amplifiers, Effects of Positive and Negative Feedback on Input Impedance, Output Impedance and Gain, Stability, Distortion and Noise, Sinusoidal Oscillators, Barkhausens Criterion for Selfsustained Oscillations. RC Phase Shift Oscillator, Determination of Frequency, Hartley Oscillator, Colpitts Oscillator, Non Sinusoidal Oscillators Astable and Monostable Multivibrators. Unit-5: (10 Lectures) Three terminal devices (UJT and FETs): (i) UJT : its Characteristics and Equivalent Circuit, Relaxation Oscillator, (ii) JEFT: Its Characteristics and Equivalent Circuit, Advantages of JFET, MOSFET (Qualitative discussion only), Modulation and Demodulation: Types of Modulation, Amplitude Modulation, Modulation Index, Analysis of Amplitude Modulated Wave, Sideband Frequencies in AM Wave, CE Amplitude Modulator, Demodulation of AM Wave using Diode Detector, Idea of Frequency, Phase and Digital Modulation.

Recommended Books: 1. Robert Boylestad, Louis Nashelsky: Electronic Devices and Circuit Theory, 8th Edn, Pearson Education, India (2004). 2. A. P. Malvino: Electronic Principles, Glencoe (1993). 3. John Morris: Analog Electronics. 4. Allen Mottershead: Electronic Circuits and Devices, PHI (1997). 5. Ben G. Streetman & Sanjay Banerjee: Solid State Electronic Devices, Pearson Prentice Hall (2006). 6. N. N. Bhargava, D. C. Kulshreshtha & SC Gupta : Basic Electronics & Linear Circuits, Tata McGrawHill (2006)

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## Paper XII (6th Semester) Practical (30 marks)

Code: PH 604(i) Minimum 15 Contact hours List of experiments: One (1) experiment is to be performed within 3 hours time from this paper in the End Semester examination. A minimum of 6 experiments is to be performed by the students. 1. Study the Hall Effect and determine the Hall coefficient and Hall voltage. 2. Draw the B-H curve of an iron sample. 3. Study the temperature dependence of dielectric constant of Nitrobenzene at a fixed frequency and determine its dipole moment 4. To study the magnetic susceptibility of ferrous sulphate at different temperatures by using Guoys method. 3. Determine the electrolytic conductivity of a substance by Kohlrauschs method 4. To study the Frequency Response and Voltage Gain of a RCCoupled Amplifier. 5. To verify and AND, OR, NOT and XOR gates using NAND gates 6. Study of OP-AMP characteristics 7. OP-AMP as a) Adder and Subtractor b) Differentiator and Integrator. 8. Study of Half Adder, Full Adder and 4bit Binary Adder. 9. Study of Half Subtractor, Full Subtractor, AdderSubtractor using Full Adder I.C. Recommended Books: 1 K. G. Majumdar and B. Ghosh: A Textbook of Practical Physics, Vol-I&II, Sreedhar Publications, Kolkata. 2 H. Singh: B.Sc. Practical Physics, S. Chand & Co. Ltd. (latest edition) 3. C.L. Arora: Practical Physics, S. Chand & Co. Delhi. 4. S. K. Ghosh: A Textbook of Practical Physics, New Central Book Agency, Kolkata. 5. S.S. Srivastava and M.Gupta: Experiments in Electronics, S. Chand & Co. 6. Indu Prakash & Ramkrishna: A Textbook of Practical Physics, Kitab Mahal, latest ed.).

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Note : Experiments may be added or deleted subject to the availability of facilities in the College.

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