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UNIVERSITY OF PRETORIA

The synthesis of cobalts(III) complexes


Experiment 1A
CMY 385

CS MALAZA 28382405
11/4/2011

I.

The synthesis of tetraamminecarbonatocobalt(III)nitrate

Abstract
The preparation of tetraamminecarbonatocobalt(III) nitrate from hexaaquacobalt(II)nitrate and ammonium carbonate, since that cobalt(II) complex reacts very rapidly by ligand exchange so a tetraamminecarbonatocobalt(II) was formed as the intermediate then it was oxidized by hydrogen peroxide to for the product tetraamminecarbonatocobalt(III) nitrate which produced yield percentage of tetraamminecarbonatocobalt(III) nitrate

Results

Co (OH2)62+ + 4NH3 (aq) + CO32- Co (NH3)4CO3 + 6H2O [intermediate]


[Co (H2O)6](NO3)2(s) + 3NH3 (aq) + (NH4)2CO3(s) + H2O2 (l) 4H+ + 4e- [Co(NH3)4CO3]NO3(s) + NH4NO3(g) + 8H2O(g) [balanced reaction equation]
The solution of ammonium carbonate in 50ml distilled water and 60ml concentrated ammonia solution was added to the solution of hexaaquacobalt(II)nitrate in 30ml of distilled water to form tetraamminecarbonatocobalt(II) as the intermediate, since Co(II) complexes react very rapidly by ligand exchange then it was oxidized by addition of H2O2 to form [Co(NH3)4CO3]+. During the evaporation process ammonium nitrate gas was released and water was released as a gas form till the solution was about 90ml which took approximately 3 hours to reach 90ml volume, then the purple crystals started to form at the bottom of the solution when the solution was cooled in the ice bath. The calculations for the complex yield Mass yield = 6.15 g of [Co (NH3)4CO3]NO3(s) Theoretical yield Mass of Cobalt (III) =
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ( ) )

Percentage yield = =

II.

Synthesis of pentaamminechlorocobalt(III)chloride

Abstract
The preparation of pentaamminechlorocobalt(III) chloride from the prepared tetraamminecarbonatocobalt(III) nitrate the percentage yield is and the product was reddish-purple crystals that where collected, so the carbonato ligand was replaced by the chloro ligand and the carbonato was broken-down into oxygen atom which bonded with two protons from the acid to from water then the carbon-oxide (from the carbonato) was given off in a gas form.

Results
2.5 gram of tetraamminecarbonatocobalt(III) nitrate solution in 25ml of distilled water then added 3ml of conc HCl then a carbon-dioxide gas was given off the reaction below shows the species involved in the reaction. [Co(NH3)4CO3]+(s) + 2HCl(aq) *Co(NH3)4(OH2)Cl]2+(aq) + CO2(g) + Cl-(aq) Furthermore 2.5 ml of ammonia was added to neutralise the reaction then another 2.5ml of ammonia was added then the second intermediate reaction equation occurred as follows [Co(NH3)4(OH2)Cl]2+ (aq) + NH3 (aq) *Co(NH3)5(OH2)]3+ (aq) + Cl-(aq) Then the solution was heated for 10 minutes then cooled in running water then 37.5 ml of conc HCl solution was added, during the 15 minutes of heating the solution turned from purple colour to red solution then the solution was cooled in ice bath and red-crystals formed at the bottom of the beaker. [Co(NH3)5(OH2)]3+(aq) + 3HCl(aq) *Co(NH3)5Cl]Cl2(s) + H2O(g) + 3H+ [reaction with conc HCl] The full balanced equation reaction for the whole reaction is a follows [Co(NH3)4CO3]NO3(s) + 5HCl(aq) + NH3 (aq) *Co(NH3)5Cl]Cl2(s) + H2O(g) + 3H+ + 2Cl-(aq) + NO3-(aq) + CO2(g) Percentage yield for the complex Mass yield = 2.20 g of pentaamminechlorocobalt(III)chloride Theoretical yield Mass of Cobalt(III) = Percentage yield = =
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ( ) )

III.

The synthesis of hexaamminecobalt(III) chloride

Abstract
The brownish crystals where collected and the yield by mass of cobalt(III) because the product was prepared from NH4Cl and CoCl2.6H2O, the cobalt(II) was oxidized to cobalt(III) then it reacted with six ammonia to form the complex hexaamminecobalt(III) chloride.

Results
NH4Cl and CoCl2.6H2O was added to hot water then it was stirred till all crystals dissolves then the solution was dark red to purple in colour, furthermore activated charcoal was added to the solution then it change colour to dark brown to black then ammonia solution was added and during the addition of H2O2 the solution bubbled then oxygen gas was given off then after heating the solution for some time it change colour to pink, however the pink colour disappeared then a brownish solution was observed and dark brown crystals where collected. 2CoCl26H2O(s) + 2 NH4Cl(s) + 10 NH3(aq) + H2O2(aq) + 3 H2O(l) charcoal 2[Co(NH3)6]Cl3(s) + 17H2O(g) Mass yield 4.18g Theoretical yield Mass of Cobalt(III) =
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ( ) ) ( ( ) )

Percentage yield = =