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Presented by Sumaira Sarfraz

Projective technique that is asked to subject to project his responses onto the pictures on cards method of revealing the trained interpreter some of the dominant drives ,emotions ,sentiments, complexes & conflicts of personality Murray Intended to evaluate a persons pattern of thought, attitude, observational capacity &emotions

30 gray scale pictures + one blank for elicitation of stories each contain a dramatic event or critical situation Most subjects see 10-12 cards, over two sessions Based on Murray's (1938) theory of 28 social needs (sex, affiliation, dominance, achievement, attitudes etc.) People would project into their story their needs Attention is paid to the protagonist in each story and his/her environmental stressors Many variations on this 'story-telling' test exist

Developed by Henry Murray, Christiana

Morgan & their colleagues at Harvard Psychological Clinic in 1935.


Developed to explore the underlying dynamics

of personality(conflicts, drives , interest, motives) Basic idea behind TAT came from Murrays student

After World War II the TAT was adopted by psychoanalysts and clinician to evaluate emotionally disturbed patients . An Indian adaptation was developed in 1960 by Mrs.Uma Choudhary. Later, in the 1970s, the Human Potential Movement encouraged psychologists to use the TAT to help their clients understand themselves better and stimulate personal growth

INDIVIDUAL ASSESSMENTS: Eliciting persons view about world Attitude toward his/her self & others In fields like law enforcement military, leadership positions, religious ministry etc. Way of measuring progress in psychotherapy For forensic purposes, evaluating the motivations and general attitudes of person accused of violent crime

RESEACH: Research of special aspects of human personality e.g. achievement needs ,fears of failure ,aggression etc. Extend to which people are emotionally involved in relationships with other Their ability to control aggressive impulses.

TAT consists of 31 cards 10 for both sexes 1 for males (M)( over 14 years) 1 for females(F)( over 14 years) 1 for girls (G) 1 for boys(B) 1 for boys & girls(BG) 1 for males & females (MF) 7 for boys & males (BM) 7 for girls & females(GF) 1 blank card

Room free of interruption & distraction Subject sits on comfortable chair or couch Examiner shows the series of story cards taken from full set of 31 TAT cards Usual number of cards shown to subject is between 10 to 14 Murray recommended 20 cards in two sessions Subject is instructed to tell a story about each card

Description of the event in the picture, developments that lead up to the event Outcome of the story Examiner asks subject to place each card face down as its story is completed Administration of TAT usually takes one hour

Two methods NOMOTHETIC Establishing norms for answers from specific age ,gender, educational level, race Measuring the given subjects responses against those norms IDIOGRAPHY: Evaluation of unique features of subjects view of world and relationships

Murrays concepts:
Need - determinants of behavior arising from within the individual. Press - determinants of behavior arising from within the environment. Thema - interaction between need and press.

Examinee is identifying with protagonist in the

story. Examinees concerns, hopes, fears, and desires are reflected in the protagonists needs, demands, and conflicts. That is, the examinees personality is projected onto the protagonist.

HERO: Character with whom subject has identified him self An individual of same sex , age, status, role. Who shares some of the subjects sentiments and aims. Person plays leading role in drama. Complications: sequence of heroes Primary and secondary hero

Superiority ( power, ability) Inferiority Leadership qualities Criminality

Behavioral needs refer to basic needs(aggression , affection) Description of needs might reflect the clients actual conscious needs or disguised needs.e.g. nurturance Omission or inclusion figures, objects or circumstances also be noted. e.g. inclusion of food, weapons & money suggest high needs of nurturance ,aggression or financial success.

Need & emotions manifested by hero rated on 1 to 5 scale. Rating on the bases of intensity , duration , & frequency . E.g. Violent anger or constant quarreling=5 flash of irritability =1

internal consistency is low; high reliability but diminishes with time, 2 months, r = .80; 10 months r = .50; low validity

Access to covert or unconscious structures of personality Less susceptibility to faking Global focus on personality Richness of data Ease of Rapport

Difficulty establishing adequate reliability (test-retest) Inadequate standardization Inadequate normative data-- predominantly content analysis Subject to clinician bias