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These materials are to be used only for the purpose of individual, private study and may not be reproduced

in any form or medium, copied, stored in a retrieval system, lent, hired, rented, transmitted, or adapted in whole or in part without the prior written consent of Jeppesen. Copyright in all materials bound within these covers or attached hereto, excluding that material which is used with the permission of third parties and acknowledged as such, belongs exclusively to Jeppesen. Certain copyright material is reproduced with the permission of the International Civil Aviation Organisation, the United Kingdom Civil Aviation Authority, and the Joint Aviation Authorities (JAA). This book has been written and published to assist students enrolled in an approved JAA Air Transport Pilot Licence (ATPL) course in preparation for the JAA ATPL theoretical knowledge examinations. Nothing in the content of this book is to be interpreted as constituting instruction or advice relating to practical flying. Whilst every effort has been made to ensure the accuracy of the information contained within this book, neither Jeppesen nor Atlantic Flight Training gives any warranty as to its accuracy or otherwise. Students preparing for the JAA ATPL theoretical knowledge examinations should not regard this book as a substitute for the JAA ATPL theoretical knowledge training syllabus published in the current edition of JAR-FCL 1 Flight Crew Licensing (Aeroplanes) (the Syllabus). The Syllabus constitutes the sole authoritative definition of the subject matter to be studied in a JAA ATPL theoretical knowledge training programme. No student should prepare for, or is entitled to enter himself/herself for, the JAA ATPL theoretical knowledge examinations without first being enrolled in a training school which has been granted approval by a JAA-authorised national aviation authority to deliver JAA ATPL training.

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JA310114-000

Jeppesen Sanderson Inc., 2004 All Rights Reserved ISBN 0-88487-364-1

Printed in Germany

ii

PREFACE_______________________

As the world moves toward a single standard for international pilot licensing, many nations have adopted the syllabi and regulations of the Joint Aviation Requirements-Flight Crew Licensing" (JAR-FCL), the licensing agency of the Joint Aviation Authorities (JAA). Though training and licensing requirements of individual national aviation authorities are similar in content and scope to the JAA curriculum, individuals who wish to train for JAA licences need access to study materials which have been specifically designed to meet the requirements of the JAA licensing system. The volumes in this series aim to cover the subject matter tested in the JAA ATPL ground examinations as set forth in the ATPL training syllabus, contained in the JAA publication, JAR-FCL 1 (Aeroplanes). The JAA regulations specify that all those who wish to obtain a JAA ATPL must study with a flying training organisation (FTO) which has been granted approval by a JAA-authorised national aviation authority to deliver JAA ATPL training. While the formal responsibility to prepare you for both the skill tests and the ground examinations lies with the FTO, these Jeppesen manuals will provide a comprehensive and necessary background for your formal training. Jeppesen is acknowledged as the world's leading supplier of flight information services, and provides a full range of print and electronic flight information services, including navigation data, computerised flight planning, aviation software products, aviation weather services, maintenance information, and pilot training systems and supplies. Jeppesen counts among its customer base all US airlines and the majority of international airlines worldwide. It also serves the large general and business aviation markets. These manuals enable you to draw on Jeppesens vast experience as an acknowledged expert in the development and publication of pilot training materials. We at Jeppesen wish you success in your flying and training, and we are confident that your study of these manuals will be of great value in preparing for the JAA ATPL ground examinations. The next three pages contain a list and content description of all the volumes in the ATPL series.

iii

ATPL Series
Meteorology (JAR Ref 050)
The Atmosphere Wind Thermodynamics Clouds and Fog Precipitation Air Masses and Fronts Pressure System Climatology Flight Hazards Meteorological Information

General Navigation (JAR Ref 061)


Basics of Navigation Magnetism Compasses Charts Dead Reckoning Navigation In-Flight Navigation Inertial Navigation Systems

Radio Navigation (JAR Ref 062)


Radio Aids Self-contained and External-Referenced Navigation Systems Basic Radar Principles Area Navigation Systems Basic Radio Propagation Theory

Airframes and Systems (JAR Ref 021 01)


Fuselage Windows Wings Stabilising Surfaces Landing Gear Flight Controls Hydraulics Pneumatic Systems Air Conditioning System Pressurisation De-Ice / Anti-Ice Systems Fuel Systems

Powerplant (JAR Ref 021 03)


Piston Engine Turbine Engine Engine Construction Engine Systems Auxiliary Power Unit (APU)

Electrics (JAR Ref 021 02)


Direct Current Alternating Current Batteries Magnetism Generator / Alternator Semiconductors Circuits

iv

Instrumentation (JAR Ref 022)


Flight Instruments Automatic Flight Control Systems Warning and Recording Equipment Powerplant and System Monitoring Instruments

Principles of Flight (JAR Ref 080)


Laws and Definitions Aerofoil Airflow Aeroplane Airflow Lift Coefficient Total Drag Ground Effect Stall CLMAX Augmentation Lift Coefficient and Speed Boundary Layer High Speed Flight Stability Flying Controls Adverse Weather Conditions Propellers Operating Limitations Flight Mechanics

Performance (JAR Ref 032)


Single-Engine Aeroplanes Not certified under JAR/FAR 25 (Performance Class B) Multi-Engine Aeroplanes Not certified under JAR/FAR 25 (Performance Class B) Aeroplanes certified under JAR/FAR 25 (Performance Class A)

Mass and Balance (JAR Ref 031)


Definition and Terminology Limits Loading Centre of Gravity

Flight Planning (JAR Ref 033)


Flight Plan for Cross-Country Flights ICAO ATC Flight Planning IFR (Airways) Flight Planning Jeppesen Airway Manual Meteorological Messages Point of Equal Time Point of Safe Return Medium Range Jet Transport Planning

Air Law (JAR Ref 010)


International Agreements and Organisations Annex 8 Airworthiness of Aircraft Annex 7 Aircraft Nationality and Registration Marks Annex 1 Licensing Rules of the Air Procedures for Air Navigation Air Traffic Services Aerodromes Facilitation Search and Rescue Security Aircraft Accident Investigation JAR-FCL National Law

Human Performance and Limitations (JAR Ref 040)


Human Factors Aviation Physiology and Health Maintenance Aviation Psychology

Operational Procedures (JAR Ref 070)


Operator Air Operations Certificate Flight Operations Aerodrome Operating Minima Low Visibility Operations Special Operational Procedures and Hazards Transoceanic and Polar Flight

Communications (JAR Ref 090)


Definitions General Operation Procedures Relevant Weather Information Communication Failure VHF Propagation Allocation of Frequencies Distress and Urgency Procedures Aerodrome Control Approach Control Area Control

vi

Table of Contents

CHAPTER 1
Definitions Introduction ...................................................................................................................................................1-1 Terms............................................................................................................................................................1-1

CHAPTER 2
The Operator and the Air Operations Certificate Introduction ...................................................................................................................................................2-1 Certification ...................................................................................................................................................2-1 Operator........................................................................................................................................................2-1 General Rules for Certification ......................................................................................................................2-1 Conditions to be Met for Issue ......................................................................................................................2-2 Variation and Validity of an AOC...................................................................................................................2-2 Quality System..............................................................................................................................................2-2 Responsibilities .............................................................................................................................................2-2 Operator Responsibilities ..............................................................................................................................2-2 Familiarity with Rules and Regulations .........................................................................................................2-3 Responsibilities for Flight Operations............................................................................................................2-3 Operator Responsibilities ..............................................................................................................................2-3 Concerning Passengers................................................................................................................................2-3 Carriage of Passengers and Cargo...............................................................................................................2-4 Special Considerations for Special Passenger Categories ...........................................................................2-4 Persons on the Flight Deck ...........................................................................................................................2-4 Safety Concerns ...........................................................................................................................................2-4 Documents....................................................................................................................................................2-5 Flight Documents ..........................................................................................................................................2-5 Documentation to be Kept on the Ground.....................................................................................................2-6 Preservation of Documents...........................................................................................................................2-6 Commercial Practices and Associated Rules................................................................................................2-6 Leasing .........................................................................................................................................................2-6 Leasing of Aeroplanes between JAA Operators ...........................................................................................2-7 Leasing of Aeroplanes between a JAA Operator and Any Body Other Than a JAA Operator ......................2-7 Leasing of Aeroplanes at Short Notice..........................................................................................................2-8 Aeroplane Maintenance ................................................................................................................................2-8

CHAPTER 3
Flights Operations The Operations Manual (OM) .......................................................................................................................3-1 Introduction ...................................................................................................................................................3-1 Content .........................................................................................................................................................3-1 Acceptability..................................................................................................................................................3-1 Usability ........................................................................................................................................................3-2 Procedures....................................................................................................................................................3-3 Taxiing of Aircraft ..........................................................................................................................................3-3 Minimum Equipment List (MEL) ....................................................................................................................3-3 Master MEL (MMEL) .....................................................................................................................................3-3 Flight Preparation..........................................................................................................................................3-4 Documentation..............................................................................................................................................3-4 Operational Flight Planning...........................................................................................................................3-4 Passenger Briefings ......................................................................................................................................3-5 Passenger Seat Belts ...................................................................................................................................3-5 Smoking on Board Aeroplanes .....................................................................................................................3-5 Refuelling with Passengers on Board ...........................................................................................................3-5 Oxygen Supply..............................................................................................................................................3-5 Aeroplane Flight Crew ..................................................................................................................................3-6 General .........................................................................................................................................................3-6

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CHAPTER 3 (continued)
Commander/Pilot in Command .................................................................................................................... 3-6 Duties........................................................................................................................................................... 3-7 Co-pilot......................................................................................................................................................... 3-7 Cruise Relief Crew ....................................................................................................................................... 3-7 Flight Engineer (System Panel Operator) .................................................................................................... 3-7 Flight Navigator ............................................................................................................................................ 3-7 Pilot Proficiency Checks............................................................................................................................... 3-8 Line Checks ................................................................................................................................................. 3-8 Emergency and Safety Equipment............................................................................................................... 3-8 Training and Checking ................................................................................................................................. 3-8 Duty Stations................................................................................................................................................ 3-8 Flight Operations Officer/Flight Dispatcher (FOPSO/FDO) .......................................................................... 3-9 In-Flight Operational Instructions ................................................................................................................. 3-9 Journey Log ................................................................................................................................................. 3-9

CHAPTER 4
Operational Planning Introduction .................................................................................................................................................. 4-1 Alternate Aerodromes .................................................................................................................................. 4-1 Take-Off Alternate........................................................................................................................................ 4-1 Destination Alternate.................................................................................................................................... 4-2 All Aeroplanes .............................................................................................................................................. 4-2 Propeller-Driven Aeroplanes ........................................................................................................................ 4-2 Aeroplanes equipped with Turbo-jet Engines............................................................................................... 4-3 Weather Conditions...................................................................................................................................... 4-4 VMC ............................................................................................................................................................. 4-4 VMC JAR OPS Criteria ................................................................................................................................ 4-5 Selection of the Route.................................................................................................................................. 4-5 Criteria ......................................................................................................................................................... 4-5 Adequate Aerodromes ................................................................................................................................. 4-5 ETOPS......................................................................................................................................................... 4-6 Performance Class A ................................................................................................................................... 4-6 Performance Class B or C ........................................................................................................................... 4-6 Ditching Considerations ............................................................................................................................... 4-7 Landing Requirements ................................................................................................................................. 4-7 Performance Class A ................................................................................................................................... 4-7 Performance Class B and C......................................................................................................................... 4-7 Minimum Time Routes ................................................................................................................................. 4-7 Commanders Considerations ...................................................................................................................... 4-8 Filing the ATS Flight Plan (FPL)................................................................................................................... 4-8 Flights Subject to Air Traffic Flow Management (ATFM).............................................................................. 4-9 Flights into Oceanic Airspace....................................................................................................................... 4-9

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CHAPTER 5
The Aeroplane Introduction ...................................................................................................................................................5-1 Basic Requirements......................................................................................................................................5-1 Internal Doors and Curtains ..........................................................................................................................5-1 First Aid Kits..................................................................................................................................................5-2 Hand-Held Fire Extinguishers .......................................................................................................................5-2 Break-in Markings .........................................................................................................................................5-3 Cockpit Voice Recorders (CVRs)..................................................................................................................5-3 Data Recorded..............................................................................................................................................5-4 CVRs Operation, Construction and Installation..........................................................................................5-4 Flight Data Recorders (FDRs).......................................................................................................................5-5 Parameters Recorded...................................................................................................................................5-5 Data Link Communications ...........................................................................................................................5-5 Recording Duration .......................................................................................................................................5-5 Construction and Installation.........................................................................................................................5-6 Operation of FDRS .......................................................................................................................................5-6 Combination Recorders ................................................................................................................................5-6 Flight Recorder Records ...............................................................................................................................5-6 Equipment for Compliance with Flight Rules.................................................................................................5-6 Controlled VFR Flights ..................................................................................................................................5-6 Compliance with IFR.....................................................................................................................................5-7 Standby Horizon ...........................................................................................................................................5-7 Night Operations ...........................................................................................................................................5-8 Flights Over Water ........................................................................................................................................5-8 Long Range Flights.......................................................................................................................................5-8 Remote Areas ...............................................................................................................................................5-8 Weather Radar..............................................................................................................................................5-9 Radiation Monitoring Indicator ......................................................................................................................5-9 Machmeter ....................................................................................................................................................5-9 Ground Proximity Warning System (GPWS).................................................................................................5-9 Communications Equipment .......................................................................................................................5-10 Internal Communications ............................................................................................................................5-10 Audio Selector Panel (ASP) ........................................................................................................................5-10 Navigation Equipment .................................................................................................................................5-11 Instrument Procedures................................................................................................................................5-11 Installation...................................................................................................................................................5-11 Electrical Circuit Fusing ..............................................................................................................................5-11 Windshield Wipers ......................................................................................................................................5-11 Emergency and Survival Equipment ...........................................................................................................5-11 Performance and Operating Limitations......................................................................................................5-12 Factors Affecting Aeroplane Performance ..................................................................................................5-12 Mass Limitations .........................................................................................................................................5-12 Take-Off ......................................................................................................................................................5-12 Enroute One Power-Unit Inoperative......................................................................................................5-13 Enroute Two Power-Units Inoperative ....................................................................................................5-13 Landing .......................................................................................................................................................5-13 Aeroplane Performance Operating Limitations ...........................................................................................5-13

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CHAPTER 6
Operating the Aeroplane Introduction .................................................................................................................................................. 6-1 Performance Considerations Enroute ....................................................................................................... 6-1 Performance Class A One Engine Inoperative.......................................................................................... 6-1 Compliance .................................................................................................................................................. 6-2 Performance Class A Aeroplanes with Three or More Engines, Two Engines Inoperative ....................... 6-3 Performance Class B Multi-Engine Aeroplanes ........................................................................................ 6-4 Performance Class B Single-Engine Aeroplanes ...................................................................................... 6-4 Performance Class C All Engines Operating ............................................................................................ 6-4 Performance Class C One Engine Inoperative.......................................................................................... 6-4 Performance Class C Aeroplanes with Three or More Engines, Two Engines Inoperative....................... 6-5 Selection of Cruising Speed and Altitude ..................................................................................................... 6-5 Endurance.................................................................................................................................................... 6-5 Maximum Range .......................................................................................................................................... 6-5 Shortest Time............................................................................................................................................... 6-6

CHAPTER 7
Aerodrome Operating Minima and Low Visibility Operations Introduction .................................................................................................................................................. 7-1 Aircraft Categorisation.................................................................................................................................. 7-1 Terminology ................................................................................................................................................. 7-2 Take-Off Minima........................................................................................................................................... 7-3 General ........................................................................................................................................................ 7-3 Visual Reference.......................................................................................................................................... 7-3 Required RVR/Visibility ................................................................................................................................ 7-3 Non-Precision Approach System Minima..................................................................................................... 7-5 Minimum Descent Height ............................................................................................................................. 7-5 Visual Reference.......................................................................................................................................... 7-5 Required RVR .............................................................................................................................................. 7-6 Night Operations .......................................................................................................................................... 7-7 Precision Approach - Category I Operations ................................................................................................ 7-7 General ........................................................................................................................................................ 7-7 Decision Height ............................................................................................................................................ 7-7 Visual Reference.......................................................................................................................................... 7-8 Required RVR .............................................................................................................................................. 7-8 Single Pilot Operations................................................................................................................................. 7-8 Night Operations .......................................................................................................................................... 7-8 Precision Approach - Category II Operations ............................................................................................... 7-9 General ........................................................................................................................................................ 7-9 Decision Height ............................................................................................................................................ 7-9 Visual Reference.......................................................................................................................................... 7-9 Required RVR ............................................................................................................................................ 7-10 Precision Approach - Category III Operations ............................................................................................ 7-10 General ...................................................................................................................................................... 7-10 Category IIIA Operations............................................................................................................................ 7-10 Category IIIB Operations............................................................................................................................ 7-10 Category IIIC Operations ........................................................................................................................... 7-10 Decision Height .......................................................................................................................................... 7-10 No Decision Height Operations .................................................................................................................. 7-11 Visual Reference........................................................................................................................................ 7-11 Required RVR ............................................................................................................................................ 7-11 Circling ....................................................................................................................................................... 7-12 Visual Approach ......................................................................................................................................... 7-12 Conversion of Reported Meteorological Visibility to RVR........................................................................... 7-12 Low Visibility Operations ............................................................................................................................ 7-12 General Operating Rules ........................................................................................................................... 7-12 LV Take-off ................................................................................................................................................ 7-12

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Table of Contents

CHAPTER 7 (continued)
Aerodrome Considerations .........................................................................................................................7-13 Operating Procedures .................................................................................................................................7-13 Minimum Equipment ...................................................................................................................................7-13 Commencement and Continuation of Approach .........................................................................................7-13 Controlling RVR ..........................................................................................................................................7-13 Special VFR ................................................................................................................................................7-14

CHAPTER 8
Special Operational Procedures and Hazards Introduction ...................................................................................................................................................8-1 Ice and Other Contaminants .........................................................................................................................8-1 Icing ..............................................................................................................................................................8-1 Ice Removal ..................................................................................................................................................8-2 De-Icing on the Ground.................................................................................................................................8-2 De-Icing/Anti-Icing Fluids ..............................................................................................................................8-3 Holdover Times.............................................................................................................................................8-3 Fire and Smoke.............................................................................................................................................8-3 Fire................................................................................................................................................................8-3 Carburettor Fire.............................................................................................................................................8-3 Engine Fire....................................................................................................................................................8-4 Hand Fire Extinguishers................................................................................................................................8-4 Class of Fires ................................................................................................................................................8-5 Fire Detection................................................................................................................................................8-5 Brake Overheat.............................................................................................................................................8-6 Crash Axes and Crowbars ............................................................................................................................8-6 Smoke ..........................................................................................................................................................8-6 Smoke in the Cargo Compartment................................................................................................................8-6 Security Requirements..................................................................................................................................8-6 Training Programmes ...................................................................................................................................8-6 Aeroplane Search Procedure Checklist ........................................................................................................8-7 Reporting Acts of Unlawful Interference........................................................................................................8-7 Aeroplane Search Procedure Checklist ........................................................................................................8-7 Flight Crew Compartment Security ...............................................................................................................8-7 Weapons.......................................................................................................................................................8-7 Unlawful Interference Annex 2 ...................................................................................................................8-7 Procedures If the Aircraft Is Unable To Notify an ATS Unit...........................................................................8-8 Annex 14 - Isolated Aircraft Parking Position ................................................................................................8-8 Fuel Jettisoning System ................................................................................................................................8-8 Fuel Jettisoning Procedures..........................................................................................................................8-9 Pressurisation Failure .................................................................................................................................8-10 Windshear and Microburst Definitions and the Meteorological Background ...............................................8-12 Low Altitude Windshear ..............................................................................................................................8-12 Meteorological Features .............................................................................................................................8-12 Thunderstorms............................................................................................................................................8-12 Frontal Passage..........................................................................................................................................8-13 Inversions....................................................................................................................................................8-13 Turbulent Boundary Layer...........................................................................................................................8-13 Topographical Windshear ...........................................................................................................................8-13 The Effects of Windshear on an Aircraft in Flight ........................................................................................8-14 Summary.....................................................................................................................................................8-15 Techniques to Counter the Effects of Windshear........................................................................................8-15 Wake Turbulence........................................................................................................................................8-16 Aircraft Wake Vortex Characteristics ..........................................................................................................8-16 Wake Vortex Avoidance Advice to Pilots .................................................................................................8-17 Wake Turbulence Spacing ..........................................................................................................................8-17 Wake Turbulence Spacing Minima Displaced Landing Threshold ...........................................................8-18 Wake Turbulence Spacing Minima Opposite Direction ............................................................................8-18

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CHAPTER 8 (continued)
Wake Turbulence Spacing Minima Crossing and Parallel Runways ....................................................... 8-19 Wake Turbulence Spacing Minima Intermediate Approach .................................................................... 8-19 Transport of Dangerous Goods by Air........................................................................................................ 8-19 Terminology ............................................................................................................................................... 8-19 Dangerous Goods Categories.................................................................................................................... 8-22 Requirements............................................................................................................................................. 8-22 Dangerous Goods on an Aeroplane for Operating Reasons...................................................................... 8-22 Loading Restrictions................................................................................................................................... 8-22 Cargo Compartments................................................................................................................................. 8-23 Packing and Labelling ................................................................................................................................ 8-23 Information for Passengers and Other Persons ......................................................................................... 8-23 Information to Crew Members .................................................................................................................... 8-23 Information to the Commander................................................................................................................... 8-23 Information in the Event of an Aeroplane Incident or Accident................................................................... 8-23 Contaminated Runways ............................................................................................................................. 8-23 Terminology ............................................................................................................................................... 8-23 Aquaplaning (Hydroplaning)....................................................................................................................... 8-24 Stationary Tyre........................................................................................................................................... 8-25 Recommendations ..................................................................................................................................... 8-25 Wheel Braking on Wet Runways................................................................................................................ 8-25 Interpretation .............................................................................................................................................. 8-26 Snow, Slush, or Ice on a Runway .............................................................................................................. 8-26 Bird Hazard Reduction ............................................................................................................................... 8-27 Bird Hazards and Strikes ........................................................................................................................... 8-27 IBIS ............................................................................................................................................................ 8-27 Noise Abatement Procedures .................................................................................................................... 8-28 Noise Abatement Departure Procedure 1 (NADP1) ................................................................................... 8-29 Noise Abatement Departure Procedure 2 (NADP2) ................................................................................... 8-30 Noise Abatement on Approach .................................................................................................................. 8-31 Stabilised Approach ................................................................................................................................... 8-31

CHAPTER 9
TRANSOCEANIC AND POLAR FLIGHT Operational Approval and Aircraft System Requirements for Flight in the NAT MNPS Airspace ................. 9-1 Minimum Navigation Performance Specification Airspace (MNPSA) ........................................................... 9-1 RVSM........................................................................................................................................................... 9-3 Abbreviations ............................................................................................................................................... 9-3 General ........................................................................................................................................................ 9-4 Emergency Locator Transmitters (ELT) ....................................................................................................... 9-4 Navigation Requirements for Unrestricted MNPS Airspace Operations....................................................... 9-4 Longitudinal Navigation................................................................................................................................ 9-4 Lateral Navigation ........................................................................................................................................ 9-4 Routes for Aircraft with Only One LRNS ...................................................................................................... 9-5 Routes for Aircraft with Short-Range Navigation Equipment Only ............................................................... 9-5 Special Arrangements for the Penetration of MNPS Airspace by Non-MNPS Approved Aircraft................. 9-5 Equipment Required For Operations at RVSM Levels ................................................................................. 9-5 Special Arrangements for Non-RVSM Approved Aircraft ............................................................................. 9-6 Climb/Descent through RVSM Levels .......................................................................................................... 9-6 Operation at RVSM Levels........................................................................................................................... 9-6

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CHAPTER 10
The Organised Track System (OTS) General .......................................................................................................................................................10-1 Mach Number Technique............................................................................................................................10-1 Description of Terms...................................................................................................................................10-1 Objective .....................................................................................................................................................10-1 Procedures in NAT Oceanic Airspace.........................................................................................................10-1 Procedure after Leaving Oceanic Airspace.................................................................................................10-2 Construction of the Organised Track System (OTS)...................................................................................10-2 The NAT Track Message ............................................................................................................................10-2 NAT Track Message Content......................................................................................................................10-2 Periods of Validity .......................................................................................................................................10-3 OTS Changeover Period.............................................................................................................................10-3

CHAPTER 11
The Polar Track Structure (PTS) General .......................................................................................................................................................11-1 Abbreviated Clearances..............................................................................................................................11-1 Abbreviated Position Reports......................................................................................................................11-1 Polar Track Structure (PTS)........................................................................................................................11-2

CHAPTER 12
Other Routes and Route Structures Within or Adjacent to NAT MNPS Airspace General .......................................................................................................................................................12-1 Other Routes within NAT MNPS Airspace ..................................................................................................12-1 Route Structures Adjacent to NAT MNPS Airspace....................................................................................12-1 Irish/UK Domestic Route Structures ...........................................................................................................12-1 North American Routes (NARs) ..................................................................................................................12-1 Routes Between North America and the Caribbean Area ...........................................................................12-2 Shannon Oceanic Transition Area (SOTA) .................................................................................................12-2 Brest Oceanic Transition Area (BOTA) .......................................................................................................12-2

CHAPTER 13
Flight Planning for NAT Routes Preferred Route Messages (PRMS) ...........................................................................................................13-1 Flight Plan Requirements............................................................................................................................13-1 Routings......................................................................................................................................................13-1 Flight Levels................................................................................................................................................13-2 Appropriate Direction Levels .......................................................................................................................13-2 ATC Flight Plans .........................................................................................................................................13-2 Filing ...........................................................................................................................................................13-2 Approved Flights .........................................................................................................................................13-2 Mach Number and Speed ...........................................................................................................................13-2 Flights Planning on the Organised Track System .......................................................................................13-2 Flights Planning on Random Route Segments at/or South of 70N ............................................................13-3 Flights Planning on a Generally Eastbound or Westbound Direction on Random Route Segments North of 70N............................................................................................13-3 Flights Planning on Random Routes in a Generally Northbound or Southbound Direction ........................13-3 Flights Planning on the Polar Track Structure (PTS) ..................................................................................13-3 Flights Planning to Operate Without HF Communications ..........................................................................13-3

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CHAPTER 14
Oceanic ATC Clearances General ...................................................................................................................................................... 14-1 Performance Limitation .............................................................................................................................. 14-1 Clearance Delivery..................................................................................................................................... 14-1 Critical Failure ............................................................................................................................................ 14-1 ETA at OCA Boundary ............................................................................................................................... 14-1 Different Route ........................................................................................................................................... 14-2 Clearance Elements................................................................................................................................... 14-2 Clearance Not Received ............................................................................................................................ 14-2 Contents of Clearances.............................................................................................................................. 14-3 Oceanic Clearances for Flights Intending To Operate Within the NAT Region and Subsequently Enter the EUR or NAM Regions....................................................................................... 14-3 Oceanic Clearances for Random Flights Intending To Operate Within the NAT Region and Subsequently Enter Regions Other Than NAM or EUR ......................................................................... 14-3 Oceanic Flights Originating From the CAR or SAM Regions and Entering NAT MNPS Airspace via the New York OCA............................................................................................................................ 14-4 Errors Associated With Oceanic Clearances ............................................................................................. 14-4 Waypoint Insertion Errors........................................................................................................................... 14-4 ATC System Loop Error ............................................................................................................................. 14-4

CHAPTER 15
Communications and Position Reporting Procedures HF Communications................................................................................................................................... 15-1 VHF Communications ................................................................................................................................ 15-1 Time and Place of Position Reports ........................................................................................................... 15-1 Contents of Position Reports ..................................................................................................................... 15-1 Standard Message Types .......................................................................................................................... 15-2 Addressing of Position Reports .................................................................................................................. 15-2 When Able Higher (WAH) Reports .......................................................................................................... 15-2 Meteorological Reports .............................................................................................................................. 15-3 SELCAL ..................................................................................................................................................... 15-3 General Purpose VHF Communications (GP/VHF).................................................................................... 15-3 Data Link Communications ........................................................................................................................ 15-4 HF Communications Failure....................................................................................................................... 15-4 General ...................................................................................................................................................... 15-4 Communications Failure Prior to Entering NAT Region ............................................................................. 15-4 Communications Failure after Entering NAT Region.................................................................................. 15-5 Procedure .................................................................................................................................................. 15-5 Operation of Transponders ........................................................................................................................ 15-5 Airborne Collision Avoidance Systems (ACAS) ......................................................................................... 15-5

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CHAPTER 16
MNPS Flight Operation and Navigation Procedures Flight Operation ..........................................................................................................................................16-1 Importance of Accurate Time ......................................................................................................................16-1 The Use of the Master Document ...............................................................................................................16-1 GPS Operational Control Restrictions.........................................................................................................16-2 Effects of Satellite Availability .....................................................................................................................16-2 Flight Plan Check........................................................................................................................................16-2 In Flight Procedures ....................................................................................................................................16-2 ATC Oceanic Clearance .............................................................................................................................16-2 Navigation Procedures................................................................................................................................16-3 Entering the MNPS Airspace and Reaching an Oceanic Waypoint ............................................................16-3 Approaching Landfall ..................................................................................................................................16-3 Avoiding Confusion between Magnetic and True Track Reference ............................................................16-3 Navigation in the Areas of Compass Unreliability .......................................................................................16-3

CHAPTER 17
Grid Navigation Introduction .................................................................................................................................................17-1 Grid and Plotting on a Polar Chart ..............................................................................................................17-1 Gyros and Inertial Systems .........................................................................................................................17-4 Precession ..................................................................................................................................................17-4 Types of Gyro .............................................................................................................................................17-5 Space (or Free) Gyro ..................................................................................................................................17-5 Tied (or Displacement) Gyro .......................................................................................................................17-5 Earth Gyro...................................................................................................................................................17-5 Rate Gyro....................................................................................................................................................17-5 Rate Integrating Gyro..................................................................................................................................17-5 Solid State (Ring Laser) Gyro .....................................................................................................................17-5 Gyro Wander...............................................................................................................................................17-5 Real Wander ...............................................................................................................................................17-5 Apparent Wander........................................................................................................................................17-6 Horizontal Axis Gyro ...................................................................................................................................17-6 Transport Wander .......................................................................................................................................17-7 Examples of Gyro Wander ..........................................................................................................................17-7

CHAPTER 18
Procedures in the Event of Navigation System Degradation or Failure General .......................................................................................................................................................18-1 Detection of Failures ...................................................................................................................................18-1 Methods of Determining which System is Faulty.........................................................................................18-1 Guidance on What Constitutes a Failed System.........................................................................................18-2 GPS Satellite Fault Detection Outage.........................................................................................................18-2 Partial or Complete Loss of Navigation/FMS Capability by Aircraft Having State Approval for Unrestricted Operations in MNPS Airspace.............................................................................................18-2 Monitoring ...................................................................................................................................................18-3 Complete Failure of Navigation Systems Computer ...................................................................................18-3

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CHAPTER 19
Regional Supplementary Procedures Doc 7030/4: North Atlantic (NAT) and European (EUR) Supps North Atlantic (NAT) Region....................................................................................................................... 19-1 Introduction ................................................................................................................................................ 19-1 MNPS Specifications.................................................................................................................................. 19-1 Flight Planning ........................................................................................................................................... 19-1 Separation of Aircraft ................................................................................................................................. 19-1 Lateral Separation...................................................................................................................................... 19-1 Longitudinal Separation ............................................................................................................................. 19-2 Western Atlantic Route System (WATRS) ................................................................................................. 19-2 Operations Not Meeting the MNPS Airspace Except the WATRS ............................................................. 19-2 European (EUR) Region ............................................................................................................................ 19-3 Submission of Flight Plans ......................................................................................................................... 19-3 8.33 KHz Spacing ...................................................................................................................................... 19-3 Separation of Aircraft ................................................................................................................................. 19-3 Longitudinal Separation ............................................................................................................................. 19-3 Transfer of Radar Control .......................................................................................................................... 19-3

CHAPTER 20
In-Flight Contingencies Emergency and Precautionary Landings ................................................................................................... 20-1 General ...................................................................................................................................................... 20-1 Ditching ...................................................................................................................................................... 20-1 Precautionary Landing ............................................................................................................................... 20-2 Passenger Briefing..................................................................................................................................... 20-2 Evacuation ................................................................................................................................................. 20-2 North Atlantic Procedures .......................................................................................................................... 20-3 Introduction ................................................................................................................................................ 20-3 General Procedures ................................................................................................................................... 20-3 Special Procedures .................................................................................................................................... 20-3 Wake Turbulence ....................................................................................................................................... 20-4 TCAS Alerts and Warnings ........................................................................................................................ 20-4

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We would like to thank and acknowledge: For photographs and assistance Page 1-9 Mr. Ashley Gibb

INTRODUCTION
The examinable subject Operational Procedures encompasses aspects of Air Law, Airworthiness of Aircraft, requirements for the Issue of an Air Operators Certificate, and emergency procedures as laid down in Annex 6 to the Chicago Convention and JAR OPS-1. The Standards and Recommended Practices (SARPs) of Annex 6 (part 1) are applicable to Operators authorised to carry out international commercial air transportation operations (both scheduled and non-scheduled). The pre-amble to JAR OPS-1 states that it has been issued with no national variants, hence it may not contain all the information some authorities and organisations would like to see in the document. As with all JARs, it is a living document and is subject to frequent amendment and updating. For this reason, the Learning objectives (LOs) for this subject are general rather than specific in requiring the student to memorise the content of JAR OPS-1. Annex 6 lays down the SARPs for Aircraft Operations and the student will be familiar with some of the content from the study of Air Law. Additional material is based on the current version 9 of the North Atlantic MNPS Operations Manual, and from JAR 25 Large Aeroplanes. This text is based on JAR OPS-1 including amendment 5 dated March 2003. It is emphasised that this text is not for use as a reference for operational procedures, only for examination preparation. For matters relating to regulation, the reader must use a current version of the document, amended to the current amendment state. The Learning Objectives for 070 Operational Procedures require the student to familiarise themselves with the definitions used in the reference documents, reproduced below.

TERMS
Aerial work An aircraft operation in which an aircraft is used for specialised services such as agriculture, construction, photography, surveying, observation and patrol, search and rescue, aerial advertisement, etc. Operational Procedures 1-1

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Definitions

Aerodrome A defined area on land or water (including any buildings, installations, and equipment) intended for use either wholly or in part for the arrival, departure, and surface movement of aircraft. Aerodrome operating minima The limits of usability of an aerodrome for: Take-off, expressed in terms of runway visual range and/or visibility and, if necessary, cloud conditions; Landing in precision approach and landing operations, expressed in terms of visibility and/or runway visual range and decision altitude/height (DA/H) as appropriate to the category of the operation; and Landing in non-precision approach and landing operations, expressed in terms of visibility and/or runway visual range, minimum descent altitude/height (MDA/H) and, if necessary, cloud conditions. Aeroplane A power-driven heavier-than-air aircraft, deriving its lift in flight chiefly from aerodynamic reactions on surfaces which remain fixed under given conditions of flight. Aircraft Any machine that can derive support in the atmosphere from the reactions of the air other than the reactions of the air against the Earths surface. Aircraft operating manual A manual acceptable to the State of the Operator, containing normal, abnormal and emergency procedures, checklists, limitations, performance information, details of the aircraft systems and other material relevant to the operation of the aircraft. The aircraft operating manual is part of the operations manual. Air operator certificate (AOC) A certificate authorising an operator to carry out specified commercial air transport operations. Alternate aerodrome The aerodrome an aircraft proceeds to when it becomes either impossible or inadvisable to proceed to, or to land at, the aerodrome of intended landing. Alternate aerodromes include the following: Take-off alternate An alternate aerodrome at which an aircraft can land, if necessary shortly after take-off and it is not possible to use the aerodrome of departure. Enroute alternate An aerodrome at which an aircraft is able to land after experiencing an abnormal or emergency condition while enroute. ETOPS enroute alternate A suitable and appropriate alternate aerodrome at which an aeroplane is able to land after experiencing an engine shut-down or other abnormal or emergency condition while enroute in an ETOPS operation. 1-2 Operational Procedures

Definitions

Chapter 1

Destination alternate An alternate aerodrome that an aircraft may proceed to if it becomes either impossible or inadvisable to land at the intended aerodrome. Note: The aerodrome that a flight departs from may also be an enroute or a destination alternate aerodrome for that flight. Approved by the Authority (JAR) Approval given by a JAA regulatory National Aviation Authority for compliance with the approved standard or procedure. Approved Standard (JAR) A manufacturing/design/maintenance/quality standard approved by the Authority. Cabin attendant A crewmember who performs, in the interest of safety of passengers, duties assigned by the operator or the pilot-in-command of the aircraft, but who shall not act as a flight crewmember. Commercial air transport operation An aircraft operation involving the transport of passengers, cargo, or mail for remuneration or hire. Configuration deviation list (CDL) A list established by the organisation responsible for the type design with the approval of the State of Design which identifies any external parts of an aircraft type which may be missing at the commencement of a flight , and contains, where necessary, any information on associated operating limitations and performance correction. Crewmember A person assigned by an operator to duty on all aircraft during flight time. Cruising level A level maintained during a significant portion of a flight. Dangerous goods Articles or substances capable of posing significant risk to health, safety, or property when transported by air. Decision altitude (DA) or decision height (DH) A specified altitude or height, during a precision approach, at which a missed approach must be initiated if the required visual reference to continue the approach has not been established. Decision altitude (DA) is referenced to mean sea level, and decision height (DH) is referenced to the threshold elevation.

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Definitions

Decision Point Decision: Missed Approach Decision Height (DH) Decision: Land Runway The required visual reference means that section of the visual aids or of the approach area which must be in view for sufficient time for the pilot to assess the aircraft position and rate of change of position, in relation to the desired flight path. In Category III operations with a decision height, the required visual reference is that specified for the particular procedure and operation. For convenience, when using both expressions, they may be written in the form decision altitude/height and abbreviated DA/H. Emergency locator transmitter (ELT) Generic term describing equipment that broadcasts distinctive signals on designated frequencies and, depending on application, may either sense a crash and operate automatically or be manually activated. An ELT may be any of the following: Automatic fixed ELT (ELT (AF)) An ELT permanently attached to an aircraft. Automatic portable ELT (ELT (AP)) An ELT, rigidly attached to an aircraft, but readily removable from the aircraft after a crash. Automatically deployable ELT (ELT (AD)) An ELT rigidly attached to an aircraft, and deployed automatically in response to a crash. Also possible is manual deployment. Survival ELT (ELT(S)) An ELT, removable from an aircraft and stowed, facilitates its ready use in an emergency and activated by survivors. Automatic activation may apply. Flight crewmember A licensed crewmember charged with duties essential to the operation of an aircraft during flight time. Flight duty period The total time from the moment a flight crewmember commences duty, immediately subsequent to a rest period and prior to making a flight or a series of flights, to the moment the flight crewmember is relieved of all duties having completed such flight or series of flights.

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Definitions

Chapter 1

Flight manual A manual, associated with the certificate of airworthiness, containing limitations to consider the aircraft airworthy, and instructions and information necessary to the flight crewmembers for the safe operation of the aircraft. Flight plan Specified information provided to air traffic services units, relative to an intended flight or portion of a flight of an aircraft. Flight recorder Any type of recorder installed in the aircraft for complementing accident/incident investigation. Flight time The total time from the moment an aircraft first moves under its own power for taking off until the moment it comes to rest at the end of the flight. Flight time as defined here is synonymous with the term block to block time or chock to chock time in general usage, measured from the time an aircraft moves from the loading point until it stops at the unloading point. General aviation operation An aircraft operation other than a commercial air transport operation or an aerial work operation. Human Factors principles Principles which apply to aeronautical design, certification, training, operations, and maintenance and which seek safe interface between the human and other system components by proper consideration to human performance. Human performance Human capabilities and limitations affecting the safety and efficiency of aeronautical operations. Instrument approach and landing operations Instrument approach and landing operations using instrument approach procedures are classified as follows: Non-precision approach and landing operations An instrument approach and landing which does not utilise electronic glide path guidance. Precision approach and landing operations An instrument approach and landing using precision azimuth and glide path guidance with minima as determined by the category of operation.

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Definitions

Categories of precision approach and landing operations: Category I (CAT I) operation A precision instrument approach and landing with a decision height not lower than 60 m (200 ft) and with either a visibility not less than 800 m or a runway visual range not less than 550 m. Category II (CAT II) operation A precision instrument approach and landing with a decision height lower than 60 m (200 ft), but not lower than 30 m (100 ft), and a runway visual range not less than 350 m. Category IIIA (CAT IIIA) operation A precision instrument approach and landing with: a decision height lower than 30 m (100 ft) or no decision height, and a runway visual range not less than 200 m. Category IIIB (CAT IIIB) operation A precision instrument approach and landing with: a decision height lower than 15 m (50 ft) or no decision height, and a runway visual range less than 200 m but not less than 50 m. Category IIIC (CAT IIIC) operation A precision instrument approach and landing with no decision height and no runway visual range limitations. Instrument meteorological conditions (IMC) Meteorological conditions expressed in terms of visibility, distance from cloud, and ceiling, less than the minima specified for visual meteorological conditions. Large aeroplane An aeroplane of a maximum certificated take-off mass of over 5700 kg. Maintenance Tasks required ensuring the continued airworthiness of an aircraft including any one or combination of overhaul, repair, inspection, replacement, modification, or defect rectification. Master minimum equipment list (MMEL) A list established for a particular aircraft type by the organisation responsible for the type design with the approval of the State of Design containing items, one or more of which is permitted as unserviceable at the commencement of a flight. The MMEL may be associated with special operating conditions, limitations, or procedures. Maximum mass Maximum certificated take-off mass.

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Definitions

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Minimum descent altitude (MDA) or minimum descent height (MDH) A specified altitude or height in a non-precision approach or circling approach below which descent must not be made without the required visual reference.

Missed Approach Point (MApPt)

Decision: Missed Approach

Minimum Descent Height (MDH)

Decision: Land Runway

Minimum equipment list (MEL) A list providing for the operation of aircraft, subject to specified conditions, with particular equipment inoperative, prepared by an operator in conformity with, or more restrictive than, the MMEL established for the aircraft type. Night The hours between the end of evening civil twilight and the beginning of morning civil twilight or such other period between sunset and sunrise, as prescribed by the appropriate authority. Note: Civil twilight ends in the evening when the centre of the suns disc is 6 degrees below the horizon and begins in the morning when the centre of the suns disc is 6 degrees below the horizon. Obstacle clearance altitude (OCA) or obstacle clearance height (OCH) The lowest altitude, or the lowest height, above the elevation of the relevant runway threshold or the aerodrome elevation, as applicable, for establishing compliance with appropriate obstacle clearance criteria. Operational control The exercise of authority over the initiation, continuation, diversion, or termination of a flight in the interest of the safety of the aircraft and the regularity and efficiency of the flight. Operational flight plan The operators plan for the safe conduct of the flight based on considerations of aeroplane performance, other operating limitations and relevant expected conditions on the route to be followed and at the relevant aerodromes. Operations manual A manual containing procedures, instructions, and guidance for use by operational personnel in the execution of their duties. Operator A person, organisation, or enterprise engaged in or offering to engage in an aircraft operation. Pilot-in-command The pilot responsible for the operation and safety of the aircraft during flight time. Operational Procedures 1-7

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Definitions

Pre-flight Inspection (JAR) The inspection carried out before flight to ensure that the aeroplane is fitted for the intended flight. It does not include any rectification of faults. Pressure-altitude An atmospheric pressure expressed in terms of altitude, which corresponds to that pressure in the Standard Atmosphere. Psychoactive substances These include alcohol, opioids, cannabinoids, sedatives and hypnotics, cocaine, other psycho stimulants (excluding coffee and tobacco), hallucinogens, and volatile solvents. Required navigation performance (RNP) A statement of the navigation performance necessary for operation within a defined airspace. Navigation performance and requirements are defined for a particular RNP type and/or application. Rest period Any period on the ground during which the operator relieves a flight crewmember of all duties. RNP type A containment value expressed as a distance in nautical miles from the intended position within which flights are at least 95 per cent of the total flying time. For example, RNP 4 represents a navigation accuracy of plus or minus 7.4 km (4 nm) on a 95 per cent containment basis. Runway visual range (RVR) The range over which the pilot of an aircraft on the centre line of a runway can see the runway surface markings or the lights delineating the runway or identifying its centre line. Small aeroplane An aeroplane with a maximum certificated take-off mass of 5700 kg or less. State of Registry The State on whose register the aircraft is entered. State of the Operator The State in which the operators principal place of business is located or, if there is no such place of business, the operators permanent residence.

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Definitions

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Synthetic flight trainer Any one of the following three types of apparatus in which flight conditions are simulated on the ground: Flight simulator Provides an accurate representation of the flight deck of a particular aircraft type to the extent that the mechanical, electrical, etc., aircraft systems control functions, the normal environment of flight crewmembers, and the performance and flight characteristics of that type of aircraft are realistically simulated.

A full motion Boeing 737-200 simulator

Inside a Boeing 737 NG simulator

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Definitions

Flight procedures trainer Provides a realistic flight deck environment, and which simulates instrument responses, simple control functions of mechanical, electrical, electronic, etc., aircraft systems, and the performance and flight characteristics of aircraft of a particular class.

Paper procedures trainer Basic instrument flight trainer Equipped with appropriate instruments, and simulates the flight deck environment of an aircraft in flight in instrument flight conditions. Visual meteorological conditions (VMC) Meteorological conditions expressed in terms of visibility, and distance from clouds.

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We would like to thank and acknowledge: For photographs and assistance Page 2-4 Page 2-8 Page 2-9 Mr. Ashley Gibb

INTRODUCTION
In the study of Operational Procedures, concern is for commercial air transportation. According to JAR OPS, this is limited to operators whose place of business is in a JAA state. There is no consideration given to military, customs and police operations, aerial work, parachuting, or firefighting from aeroplanes.

CERTIFICATION
OPERATOR
Before conducting a commercial aviation operation, the operator (see definition) requires approval and possession of an Air Operators Certificate (AOC). The national authority in accordance with JAR OPS-1 approves a JAA operator, whereas a non-JAA operator is approved under regulations in force in the State of the operator.

GENERAL RULES FOR CERTIFICATION


Aircraft for use in commercial air transportation can only operate in accordance with the terms and conditions of an AOC. An operator may hold only one AOC and, therefore, is subject to the regulation of only one authority. The principal place of operation (main operating base) must be in the state where the AOC is issued. The operator must satisfy the state issuing the AOC that the operator is capable of running a safe operation. Normally, the aircraft used by an operator are registered in the state issuing the AOC, but approval for alternative arrangements is possible with another state. The operator must allow the authorising authority access to the company, its records, and personnel for assessing compliance with the terms of the AOC. The authority requires confirmation that the maintenance of the aircraft meets the requirements of Annex 8 (ICAO operators) or JAR 145 (JAA Operators). If the operator is found as not compliant with all the requirements, the AOC can be varied, suspended, or revoked depending upon the severity of the non-compliance.

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Before granting an AOC, the authority looks closely at the organisation and management of the operation and assesses the suitability of the established organisation to run the operation. As well as assessing the level of supervision required and provided, the authority requires an acceptable person, holding a managerial post, be nominated as the accountable manager who has corporate authority to ensure that the operation is properly financed and meets the standards of the authority. Persons are also to be nominated for management and supervision of the following: Flight Operations Maintenance Crew Training Ground Operations For small operations, one person may hold a combination of some of the above posts. Required of the operators is the production of an Operations Manual, and the authority must receive a copy to ensure that all operations are carried out in accordance with the manual. The aircraft used must be fully equipped and properly maintained for the role, and the crews are to be fully trained. A main operating base is to be established and maintained with facilities to meet the needs of the operation.

CONDITIONS TO BE MET FOR ISSUE


VARIATION AND VALIDITY OF AN AOC In order for an AOC to be issued or re-validated (re issued), the aircraft used must have valid Certificates of Airworthiness (C of A) as per Annex 8. It is normal for the C of A to be issued by the State of Registry of the aircraft and where this is not the case, in the case of a JAA operator, a C of A as per JAR 21 issued by another JAA State is perfectly acceptable. In determining the continuing airworthiness of an aeroplane, compliance with the maintenance schedule for the aeroplane is essential.
The operator must show that the organisation remains as originally certificated, and that any changes were only in accordance with those previously notified to the authority.

QUALITY SYSTEM Periodic inspection by the authority achieves a demonstration of compliance with the terms of an AOC. However, this is often time consuming, disruptive to the operation, and costly. Providing the operator establishes a quality system approved by the authority, it is sufficient to have a periodic audit of the quality system.
Within the quality system, a quality assurance programme must be established, and a quality manager appointed to oversee the system. In complex operations (e.g. British Airways), two managers may be appointed, one for flight operations and another for maintenance. The JAA recommended quality system is based on EN ISO 9000. All JAA approved maintenance organisations must have a quality system approved under JAR 145. Where an AOC holder contracts out the maintenance of the aircraft, it is sufficient for the maintenance agency to show JAR 145 approval without further audit of the organisations quality system.

RESPONSIBILITIES
OPERATOR RESPONSIBILITIES
The Operator runs the operation (has operational control), and is responsible for day-to-day control over any flights conducted under the terms of the AOC. The Operator produces the Operations Manual detailing all aspects of the operation, primarily for the guidance of personnel running the operation.

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The organisation certifies that all personnel involved in the ground and airborne aspects of the operation are fully trained in their particular duties, and are aware of their responsibilities. Crewmembers, other than flight or cabin crew, who may be carried on aeroplanes require proper training (security guards, etc.). Operations and Training Manuals detail the responsibilities and training. The Operations Manual also contains procedures and instructions for each type of aeroplane operated, including check lists for normal and abnormal flight conditions.

FAMILIARITY WITH RULES AND REGULATIONS Operators must ensure that all employees (aircrew and ground crew) know that they are to comply with the laws of the state in which they operate. Flight crews must be familiar with the rules and regulations applicable to the airspace within which they operate. Commanders are to have on board the aircraft all the essential information concerning Search and Rescue (SAR) and the SAR services in the areas where they are flying. RESPONSIBILITIES FOR FLIGHT OPERATIONS It is the Operators responsibility to ensure that crewmembers do not engage in any activity except those applicable to the safe operation of the aeroplane during the critical phases of flight. Due to the nature of the operations involving the safety of members of the public, Operators must specify that Air Traffic Control services are for use wherever and whenever such services are available, implying the conduction of flights in controlled airspace under IFR.
The Operator must also ensure that all the aerodromes for use in flight operations are adequate for the purpose. These include departure and destination aerodromes and all scheduled take-off, enroute, and destination alternate aerodromes. For the use of ad hoc diversion aerodromes for use as bolt holes in an emergency, it is to remain the responsibility of the Commander at the time of the emergency to decide whether or not to use the aerodrome. For the nominated aerodromes, the Operator must calculate and publish aerodrome operating minima (AOM). In addition to assessing the suitability of aerodromes, the Operator must also assess the safety and usability of instrument approach and departure procedures, established by the State in which the aerodrome is located. If there is an ATC clearance offered which is different from the published procedures, the Operator authorises the Commander to use personal discretion after consideration of the obstacle clearance criteria required. Where an Operator wants amended procedures for use by aircraft under operational control, use such procedures only when approved by the State in which the aerodrome is located.

OPERATOR RESPONSIBILITIES
CONCERNING PASSENGERS The seating configuration of the aircraft must be such that passengers sit in positions where, in the event of an emergency, their presence does not hinder evacuation from the aircraft. Whilst check-in baggage is stowed in the hold of the aircraft, hand baggage, or walk-on baggage, may be carried into the passenger cabin if stowed properly in dedicated stowages, so as not to cause injury or damage, and not to obstruct aisles and exits.
Before taxiing, carry out take-off and landing checks, ensuring unobstructed exits and escape paths, and proper stowing of all hand baggage. Likewise, properly stow all galley equipment.

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CARRIAGE OF PASSENGERS AND CARGO Passengers are only to be accommodated in parts of the aeroplane specifically designed for the seating of passengers. The Commander may permit a passenger temporary access to other parts of the aeroplane to take action for the safety of the aeroplane, persons, animals, and goods on board or to the cargo areas of the aeroplane if such areas are designed for access in flight. The Operator must implement procedures to ensure that no persons are hiding on board the aeroplane. Likewise, procedures are to be established making sure that no unauthorised cargo is loaded on to the aeroplane. SPECIAL CONSIDERATIONS FOR SPECIAL PASSENGER CATEGORIES In order to make sure that people with injuries or disabilities that affect movement (persons with reduced mobility PRMs) and babies are carried with as little disruption as possible, operators must establish procedures for seating such persons so as not to hinder emergency egress from the aircraft, and for their evacuation in the event of an emergency. Inform the Commander when carrying such passengers.
Likewise, when carrying certain categories of passengers subject to judicial deportation, give notification to the Commander that such passengers are on board. These include: Over wing emergency exits (Metroliner) Inadmissible passengers: Passengers refused the right of entry into a destination state and are being returned to the state of departure; Deportees: Passengers judicially deported from a state under due process of law; Persons in custody: Passengers under police arrest, restrained or free.

PERSONS ON THE FLIGHT DECK Access to the flight deck is to be strictly controlled and ultimately only the Commander has the right to admit a person other than constituted flight crew to the flight deck during flight time. Occasionally, persons who are not crewmembers may be admitted to the flight deck, but these are limited to persons whose duty, as defined in the Operations Manual and representatives of the authority responsible for licensing, certification, or inspection, require temporary access to the flight deck. If the flight deck has an access door, the door must lock from the inside. SAFETY CONCERNS The safety of the passengers and crew are of the utmost importance and as such, operators must establish and maintain flight safety and accident prevention programmes. The Operator must have measures in place ensuring that no-one acts in a reckless or negligent manner, endangering an aeroplane.
The use of portable electronic devices on board an aeroplane that can interfere with the aeroplane systems is prohibited. Nobody is permitted to enter an aeroplane or be in an aeroplane when under the influence of alcohol or drugs, to such an extent that the presence of that person endangers the aeroplane or its occupants.

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The ultimate authority on board during flight time is the Commander, and the Operator empowers the Commander in accordance with the Law of the State of Registration and the State of the Operator accordingly. Those on board must obey all lawful commands given by the Commander for the safety of the aeroplane. Where the Commanders commands are not complied with, or must be forcefully imposed, the person failing to obey the Commander is subject to prosecution in the State of Destination or in any State in which the Commander elects to land the aeroplane for that purpose.

DOCUMENTS
FLIGHT DOCUMENTS International agreements require proper documentation of aircraft engaged in scheduled and nonscheduled commercial aviation to prove the status of the aeroplane and crew and also the airworthiness of the aeroplane.
The Authority granting the AOC may demand inspection of the documents and the Operator is to make them available immediately or within a reasonable period. Carry these documents on all flights, including: The Certificate of Registration The Certificate of Airworthiness The original copy of the Noise Certificate (if applicable to the type and mark of aircraft) The original or a copy of the AOC The Aircraft Radio Licence The original, or a copy, of the third party liability Insurance Certificate To enable the crew to carry out their duty and for reference when required, the following manuals (or extracts from manuals) must be carried on all flights: Parts of the Operations Manual containing the duties of the crew Parts of the Operations Manual pertaining to the conduct of the flight The current aeroplane flight manual, unless the Authority has agreed that the Operations Manual contains all that is necessary for that aeroplane The Operator must not conduct the flight without certain documents and forms applicable to that particular flight on board. Representatives of the Authority may inspect these at any time or the Commander may be requested to make them available for inspection within a reasonable period. The documents are: A copy of the Operational Flight Plan The aeroplane technical log Details of the filed ATS flight plan Appropriate NOTAM/AIS briefing material Appropriate meteorological information Mass and balance documentation Notification of special categories of passengers (such as security personnel if not carried as crew, PRMs and inadmissible passengers, deportees and persons in custody) Notification of special loads including written particulars for the Commander of dangerous goods Maps and charts, etc. Other documentation that any of the States involved in the flight may require Forms required for reporting purposes. It is not necessary for all of the documents above to be in paper form. They can be on electronic media or in any method, providing accessibility, usability, and assuring reliability. Operational Procedures 2-5

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DOCUMENTATION TO BE KEPT ON THE GROUND Kept on the ground are certain documents or copies of documents for the duration of a flight or a series of flights. If there is a need to carry such documents in the air, they are to be carried in a fireproof container. These include:
A copy of the operational flight plan Copies of the relevant parts of the technical log Route specific NOTAM if edited by the Operator Mass and balance documentation Specific loads notification

PRESERVATION OF DOCUMENTS The Operator must preserve the original documents relating to aircraft for the stated retention period, even if the aircraft is scrapped or sold. Crewmembers must retain certain documents (logbooks, licence, documentation, etc.) and make them available to new operators in the event that the crewmember changes employment to another operator.

COMMERCIAL PRACTICES AND ASSOCIATED RULES


LEASING
Given the cost of new aeroplanes, it is becoming less likely that small or medium sized operators can afford to buy new aeroplanes. Many new aeroplanes are purchased from the manufacturer by merchant banks who then lease the aircraft to the operator. Occasionally, the manufacturer leases the aircraft to the operator. In any event, the process of leasing an aeroplane owned by an organisation in one state leasing it to an operator in another state, may incur legal problems if something goes wrong. Equally, the requirements of an AOC assume that the aircraft operated by an operator are registered in the State of the Operator. With a leasing arrangement this may not be the case. The long term leasing arrangements are arranged by lawyers and attorneys mindful of the relevant legislation. However, situations often arise where an operator needs an aeroplane quickly to replace an unserviceable one, or to meet a temporary surge in demand for seats. In this case, short term leasing arrangements are permitted with certain restrictions. The learning objectives require the student to have knowledge of the practice and terminology of leasing of aeroplanes. The reference for leasing is JAR-OPS. Terms used in JAR-OPS 1.165 have the following meaning: Dry lease Wet lease JAA operator Lease In Lease Out When operating the aeroplane under the AOC of the lessee (the company borrowing the aeroplane) When operating the aeroplane under the AOC of the lessor (company who lend the aircraft out) An operator certificated under JAR-OPS Part 1 by one of the JAA Member States. The process of 'borrowing' an aeroplane The process of 'lending' an aeroplane

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LEASING OF AEROPLANES BETWEEN JAA OPERATORS Wet lease-out If a JAA operator retains all functions and responsibilities prescribed in Subpart C of JAROPS when providing an aeroplane and complete crew to another JAA Operator, then that operator remains the operator of the aeroplane.
All leases except wet lease-out Any leasing activity other than the wet lease out described above, requires approval of the appropriate JAA authority.

LEASING OF AEROPLANES BETWEEN A JAA OPERATOR AND ANY BODY OTHER THAN A JAA OPERATOR Dry lease-in A JAA operator may not dry lease-in an aeroplane from any entity other than a JAA operator, unless approved by the Authority. Any conditions that are part of this approval must be included in the lease agreement. The JAA operator shall ensure that, with regard to aeroplanes that are dry leased-in, any differences from the prescribed instrument, navigation, communication and safety equipment are notified to, and are acceptable to, the Authority.
Wet lease-in A JAA operator shall not wet lease-in an aeroplane from a body other than a JAA operator without the approval of the Authority. The JAA operator shall ensure that, with regard to aeroplanes that are wet leased-in: The safety standards of the lessor with respect to maintenance and operation are equivalent to the JAR regulations The lessor is an operator holding an AOC issued by a State which is a signatory to the Chicago Convention The aeroplane has a standard Certificate of Airworthiness issued in accordance with ICAO Annex 8. Standard Certificates of Airworthiness issued by a JAA Member State other than the State responsible for issue the AOC will be accepted when issued in accordance with JAR 21, and Any JAA requirement made applicable by the lessee's Authority is complied with. Dry lease-out A JAA operator may dry lease-out an aeroplane for the purpose of commercial air transportation to any operator of a State which is signatory to the Chicago Convention. In this case, the JAA Authority exempts the JAA operator from the relevant provisions of JAR-OPS Part 1. Further, after the foreign regulatory authority accepts responsibility in writing for surveillance of the maintenance and operation of the aeroplane(s), the aeroplane(s) will be removed from the JAA operator's AOC. Part of the leasing agreement is the maintainence at the aeroplane(s) according to an approved maintenance programme.

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A South African Airbus A330 but, on closer inspection.

LEASING OF AEROPLANES AT SHORT NOTICE In circumstances where a JAA operator faces an immediate, urgent, and unforeseen need for a replacement aeroplane, the required approval may be deemed as given, provided that the lessor is an operator holding an AOC issued by a State which is a signatory to the Chicago Convention, the lease-in period does not exceed 5 consecutive days, and the Authority is immediately notified of the use of this provision.

AEROPLANE MAINTENANCE
The Operator is responsible for ensuring that any aeroplane used for international commercial aviation fits the purpose. This means the aircraft must be maintained to an appropriate standard, and that after servicing it is released to service in accordance with the approved procedures. To meet the requirements for a JAA Operator, the aircraft must be maintained in accordance with JAR 145 by an organisation approved under JAR 145. The pre-flight inspections do not require carrying out by a JAR 145 approved organisation (i.e. the airline itself may employ personnel to carry out the pre-flight inspections rather than use the contracted maintenance organisation). The standards for maintenance are laid down in JAR 145 for a JAA Operator, and in accordance with Authority approved schedules based on the manufacturers recommended maintenance schedule for non-JAA operators. Failure to maintain the aeroplanes accordingly, results in the suspension/withdrawal of the AOC. If a JAA Operator chooses to have the aeroplanes maintained by a non JAR 145 maintenance organisation, the Operators quality system must include the maintenance of the aircraft including audit arrangements and inspections of aircraft during maintenance. The quality system may also require that all engineers engaged in maintenance of the Operators aircraft be licensed in accordance with ICAO or JAR 145 procedures. If the JAA Operator chooses a JAR 145-approved organisation for maintenance, the requirements for JAR 145 approval include the provision of a quality system, which the Operator can rely on. In either case, the Operator must provide an Operators Maintenance Management Exposition (exposition a detailed explanation), which explains the maintenance process and defines who in the organisation is responsible for maintenance.

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The Operator must also produce a maintenance programme, must include details of the servicing to be carried out and the frequency of inspections, and the servicing cycle.

Because the technology used in aircraft and aircraft maintenance is progressing faster than the regulatory process, the use of alternative means of compliance with the requirements of JAR 145 regarding maintenance is recognised by the Authority. Such technology when approved may be used instead of the specified procedures. The process of determining the acceptability of such technology is defined as the Equivalent Safety Case.

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We would like to thank and acknowledge: For photographs and assistance Page 3-6 Page 3-8 Mr. Ashley Gibb

THE OPERATIONS MANUAL (OM)


INTRODUCTION
Each operator is autonomous and is required by the Authority to regulate the duties of the employees engaged in the operation. The duties of personnel are specified in the OM, but it also contains in detail operational policies, instructions, procedures, and other information in order that operations personnel can perform their duties to a satisfactory standard. ICAO permits the OM to be prepared in the language of the State of the Operator, but the JAA requires the OM for a JAA Operator to be in English. However, approval may be sought for parts or even the entire OM to be prepared in the language of a JAA State. Such approval is limited in duration.

CONTENT
The OM must conform to the standards laid down in Annex 6 or JAR OPS (for a JAA Operator). The material contained should be original (i.e. produced by the Operator) but where included material is extracted from or copied from other documents or sources, a statement of the fact must also be included. The Operator remains responsible for the accuracy of any included material in the OM, regardless of the source of the material. The OM for a JAA Operator is to be produced in four parts: Part A General/Basic Part B Aeroplane Operating Matters Type related Part C Route and Aerodrome Instructions and Information Part D Training

ACCEPTABILITY
The OM must be approved by the Authority. To this end, standardisation is the key to an acceptable document. IEM (interpretative and explanatory material) to JAR OPS 1.1045 lays down the recommended structure of an acceptable OM. This follows the ICAO model in Annex 6. The LOs require the student to list the contents of the OM.

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Part A contains the following: 0 Administration and Control of the OM 1 Organisation and Responsibilities 2 Operational Control and Supervision 3 Quality System 4 Crew Composition 5 Qualification Requirement 6 Crew Health Precautions 7 Flight Time Limitation 8 Operating Procedures 9 Dangerous Goods and Weapons 10 Security 11 Handling of Incidents and Occurrences 12 Rules of the Air Part B contains the following: 0 General Information and Units of Measurement 1 Limitations 2 Normal Procedures 3 Abnormal and Emergency Procedures 4 Performance 5 Flight Planning 6 Mass and Balance 7 Loading 8 Configuration Deviation List (CDL) 9 Minimum Equipment List (MEL) 10 Survival and Emergency Equipment including Oxygen 11 Emergency Evacuation Procedure 12 Aeroplane Systems Part C contains details of the routes flown by scheduled operations and details of the aerodromes used including take-off, enroute and destination alternative aerodromes. It also contains as much information concerning the services and facilities available along the route and details of agents and organisations contracted or affiliated for use in a diversion situation. Part D includes the following: 1 Training Syllabi and Checking Programmes - General 2 Training Syllabi and Checking 3 Procedures 4 Documentation and Storage

USABILITY
The OM is not just a regulatory requirement. It is meant as a working document and a reference for the operations personnel at work. Selective parts, carried in the aeroplane, assist the Commander in the decision making process and to detail procedures for use in abnormal circumstances. As the employment market in commercial aviation is volatile, operators must standardise the paragraph numbering in OMs so that new employees can readily equate data from the new employers OM to that of their previous employer. Likewise, certain procedures appear at the discretion of the Operator (e.g. Flight Time Limitation) whereas in practice these are strictly regulated and the published procedures must comply exactly with the approved Authority procedures. 3-2 Operational Procedures

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PROCEDURES
TAXIING OF AIRCRAFT
Occasions occur when aircraft must be moved on the ground. Whilst it is always desirable to have a pilot at the controls, this may not always be possible. Ground engineers may, if approved by the Operator, taxi aircraft on the ground. In this situation, the person at the controls must be: Authorised by the Operator (or agent) Fully competent to taxi the aeroplane Qualified to use the aircraft radio Have received instruction from a qualified person regarding: 1. The aerodrome layout 2. Traffic routes 3. Aerodrome signs, markings and lights 4. ATC signals and instructions including RTF phraseology and procedures 5. The operational standards for safe movement of aircraft on the ground

MINIMUM EQUIPMENT LIST (MEL)


Part B of the OM contains the MEL. The purpose of the MEL (compiled by the Operator) is to enable the Commander (who is the sole authority for determining if a flight can commence) to determine whether a flight may commence or continue in the event of an equipment or system failure. Aircraft are complex machines and many of the aircraft systems are duplicated, have redundancy or are desirable rather than essential with regard to the basic flying capability of the aeroplane. Clearly, unless given special approval by the Authority, an aeroplane should be fully serviceable prior to any flight. In practice this is an exception. Because of the complex nature of the machine and the inclusion of equipment that is there only for the comfort of passengers and crew, it may be operationally desirable to fly the aircraft with minor unserviceabilities of such equipment rather than leave the aircraft sitting on the ground for ages waiting for spare parts. For instance, an unserviceable TV screen may be no more than an inconvenience for a passenger, whereas a faulty seat belt is unacceptable. The MEL specifies all the aircraft systems required for the safe operation of the aircraft until the replacement or repair of the specific items. In many instances, the ability to continue the operation may be circumstance dependent. The MEL for a type or variant must be approved by the Authority and must not be a direct copy of other MELs.

MASTER MEL (MMEL)


The manufaturer of the aeroplane produces the MMEL with the intention of assisting the Operator in producing the MEL. The MMEL is applicable to the specific type of aeroplane and also to any variant within the type (e.g. the Boeing 727 400 series). The MMEL is not for use as an MEL by an Operator.

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FLIGHT PREPARATION
DOCUMENTATION
Before commencing any flight, the Commander must be satisfied that the aeroplane is fit and the flight is properly planned (the Rules of the Air require the proper planning of each flight). Specific documentation (retained for three months) is to be prepared and properly certified confirming that: The aeroplane is airworthy The necessary equipment (instruments and systems) is installed and adequate for the flight A maintenance release has been issued for the aeroplane The mass of the aeroplane and the centre of gravity (CofG) location are such that the flight can be conducted safely taking into account the flight conditions expected Any load carried is properly distributed and safely secured The aircraft operating limits have been checked and can be complied with The operational flight plan procedure has been complied with

OPERATIONAL FLIGHT PLANNING


For all scheduled and non-scheduled operations, detailed operational flight plans (OFP) are drawn up specific to the individual flight to be undertaken. Do not confuse the OFP with the ATS FPL, which is submitted purely for ATC clearance of the flight. The Dispatch department normally prepares the OFP and may be presented to the crew as a briefing folder containing the necessary information. The specified procedure for making an OFP is in Part B(5) of the OM. The OFP also forms a record of the flight for use as the journey log (see the Journey Log heading). According to JAR OPS the content of the OFP is to include: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. The aeroplane registration, type and variant Date of the flight Flight identification (schedule number or RTF Callsign) Names of the flight crewmembers (pilots and flight engineer (if required)) and their duties and assignments Place of departure and time of departure (actual off blocks time; take off time); Place of arrival and planned arrival time Type of operation (ETOPS, VFR, ferry flight, etc.) Route and route segments with waypoints, distances, times, and required tracks, etc. Planned cruising speed and times between waypoints, etc. Safe altitudes and minimum levels Fuel calculations (including howgozit) Fuel on board when starting engines Alternate aerodromes for destination (and take-off; en route as required) Initial ATS clearance when issued, and subsequent re-clearance In-flight re-planning calculations Relevant meteorological information

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PASSENGER BRIEFINGS
Given to all passengers is a briefing before take-off covering the safety and emergency procedures followed. The traditional briefing is given by the cabin crew but modern technology is permitting its replacement with an audio-video tape presentation. The briefing is to contain instructions concerning smoking, seat positions for take-off and landing, emergency exits, floor lighting and markings, stowage of hand baggage, use of portable electronic devices, and the location of the safety brief card. The briefing includes a demonstration of the use of the seat belts, the oxygen equipment and the location and use of the life preservers.

PASSENGER SEAT BELTS


Passengers must be seated and seat belts fastened for take-off and landing when turbulence is encountered, and in an emergency or whenever the Commander considers it necessary.

SMOKING ON BOARD AEROPLANES


Many states now have strict regulations prohibiting smoking tobacco products in public places. The prohibition extends to airport buildings and aeroplanes registered in that State, and leased aeroplanes operated by an Operator whose AOC is issued by the State. Where registering or certifying States do permit smoking, the Commander of the aircraft must ensure that smoking is not allowed whenever he/she deems necessary for safety, while the aeroplane is on the ground (unless specifically permitted by the OM), outside designated smoking areas, in cargo compartments, and in the cabin where the supplying of oxygen is occuring. Failure of passengers to comply with the Commanders lawful orders in respect of smoking results in prosecution by the Authority when the the aircraft lands.

REFUELLING WITH PASSENGERS ON BOARD


An aircraft may be refuelled with passengers on board providing qualified personnel attend the aircraft, are able to able to direct an immediate evacuation by the most expeditious and practical means, and maintain two-way communications via the aircraft intercom system between the refuelling crew and the attending personnel. This procedure may not apply when fuel other than kerosene is used (e.g. Avgas).

OXYGEN SUPPLY
Modern aeroplanes fly at altitudes where the partial pressure of oxygen is insufficient to support life. For this reason, aeroplanes are pressurised to a much lower altitude where the normal mixture of gasses and the atmospheric pressure is life supporting. A pressurisation system, designed for this purpose, makes this possible.

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In the event of a pressurisation failure (for whatever reason) supplemental oxygen must be supplied to crew and passengers until the aeroplane reaches an altitude where the composition of the gasses in the atmosphere is life-supporting. The Operator must ensure that a flight in a pressurised aeroplane does not commence without a sufficient supply of stored oxygen for all the crew and passengers for the period when (for whatever reason) the cabin atmospheric pressure is below 700 hPa (mb) (above approximately 10 000 ft AMSL). If conducting the flight at altitudes above 25 000 ft (376 hPa) or at altitudes below 25 000 ft and the aircraft cannot descend to 13 000 ft (625 hPa) in 4 minutes, there must be at least 10 minutes of oxygen supplied for the occupants of the passenger compartment. For flights in non-pressurised (or partially pressurised) aircraft where the cabin altitude may exceed 10 000 ft (700 hPa), the flight must not commence unless the Operator ensures that the flight carries sufficient stored oxygen for all crewmembers and 10% of the passengers for any period exceeding 30 minutes when the cabin pressure is between 700 hPa (10 000 ft) and 625 hPa (13 000 ft), and all the crew and passengers for any period when the cabin pressure is below 625 hPa (13 000 ft). DC6 flight crew oxygen supply Crewmembers must use breathing oxygen continuously whenever circumstances requiring the use of oxygen exist. For flights above 25 000 ft, the Operator must fit the flight deck with quickdon oxygen masks.

AEROPLANE FLIGHT CREW


GENERAL
The Certificate of Airworthiness (CofA) for an aeroplane or the Aeroplane Flight Manual (AFM) specifies the required flight crew. The crewmembers must hold the appropriate licence and complete the necessary CRM training for appointment of flight crew. The Operator may include other flight crewmembers in the required crew providing the OM details the duties of those flight crewmembers. The minimum crew for IFR operations at night is two pilots.

COMMANDER/PILOT IN COMMAND
Until recently, the office of Pilot-in-Command (PIC) was synonymous with Commander. However, with the introduction of cruise relief crews and the sharing of the responsibility of the role of PIC, especially on long-haul operations, the title Commander is more formal and many of the responsibilities once assumed by the PIC are now the sole concern of the Commander. JAR OPS states that one pilot qualified as PIC is to be appointed as Commander. The definition of PIC remains that of the pilot responsible for the safety of the aircraft during flight time. In reality, the PIC sits in the left hand seat of the flight deck (right hand seat on a helicopter) and operates the controls of the aeroplane for take-off and landing. The PIC may delegate the duty to the co-pilot (if qualified) whilst he/she is absent from the flight deck for comfort reasons. The Operator confers the status of both PIC and Commander. There can be only one Commander, as on a ship, and the regulations require that the nominated post-holder is a pilot. 3-6 Operational Procedures

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To qualify for appointment as Commander and PIC, the pilot requires knowledge of the operation, the routes flown, and the aerodromes intended for use. JAR OPS requires that the route knowledge qualification has a validity of 12 months. Additionally, JAR OPS requires an appointee as Commander to have completed a command course and have passed an operator proficiency check whilst acting as Commander. To act as PIC a pilot must complete at least three take-offs and landings in an aeroplane of the same type within the preceding 90 days.

DUTIES
Annex 6 specifies the duties of the PIC. In this context, PIC is synonymous with Commander. JAR OPS states that the duties of the flight crew are to be detailed in the OM. ICAO requires the PIC to be responsible for the operation and safety of the aeroplane and for the safety of all persons on board during flight time. The PIC must also ensure that all checklists are completed. The PIC must also notify the nearest appropriate authority by the quickest means of any accident involving the aeroplane resulting in serious injury or death of any person or substantial damage to the aeroplane or property. At the end of the flight the PIC is responsible for notifying the Operator of any aircraft defects (known or suspected). The PIC is also to complete the journey log book or the general declaration (if required by the State of Destination). If the aircraft is subject to unlawful interference, the Commander is, on landing, to submit a report without delay to the appropriate local authority. In the event that for safety reasons or in an emergency, the Rules of the Air or local procedures/regulations are violated when taking the necessary action, the Commander is to make a report to the authority of the State over which the violation occurred. Submit the report without delay (within 10 days) and send a copy to the Authority of the State of the Operator.

CO-PILOT
The status of co-pilot is conferred by the Operator. For appointment as co-pilot, a pilot must serve as PIC or co-pilot at the controls of an aeroplane of the same type in the preceding 90 days, or otherwise demonstrate competence to act as co-pilot.

CRUISE RELIEF CREW


To relieve the Commander, a pilot must hold a valid ATPL(A) and be type rated on the aircraft type flown. The pilot must also have the same route qualifications as the Commander. To relieve the co-pilot, the minimum requirement is that a pilot must hold a valid CPL/IR and be type rated, without the requirement to demonstrate competence at take-off and landing. Where this is met, the relief co-pilot may operate as co-pilot only in the cruise and not below FL200. The recent experience (90 day rule) is not necessary for a cruise relief co-pilot.

FLIGHT ENGINEER (SYSTEM PANEL OPERATOR)


When incorporating a flight engineers station in the design of the aeroplane, the flight crew must include a licensed system panel operator (flight engineer). If another flight crewmember can perform the duty (without interfering with that flight crewmembers duty), the requirement for a flight engineer may be dispensed with.

FLIGHT NAVIGATOR
If the State of the Operator considers it necessary for the safe navigation of the aeroplane, a licensed flight navigator is included in the flight crew. Operational Procedures 3-7

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PILOT PROFICIENCY CHECKS


The Operator must check the pilots as proficient in piloting technique, handling of emergency situations, and the ability to comply with IFR (if conducting the operation under IFR). There are two conflicting requirements in this respect: Annex 6: Requires two proficiency checks within a period of 12 months, providing there is a minimum period of four months between checks. JAR OPS: States that the period of validity of an operator proficiency check is 6 months in addition to the remainder of the month of issue. If satisfactorily checked within the final 3 months of a period of validity the new period of validity extends for 6 months from the expiry date of the previous check. Note: Flight simulators, such as the Boeing 737-200 simulator (below) may be used where approved.

LINE CHECKS
JAR OPS requires the Operator to ensure that each flight crewmember demonstrate competence on normal line operations as per the OM. The period of validity of a line check is 12 months. When line-checked within the final three months of a period of validity, the new period of validity extends for 12 months from the expiry date of the previous period of validity.

EMERGENCY AND SAFETY EQUIPMENT


TRAINING AND CHECKING
JAR OPS requires the operator to ensure that each flight crewmember undergoes training and checking on the location and use of all emergency and safety equipment carried in the aeroplane. The same rules for validity as line checks apply.

DUTY STATIONS
The OM for JAR OPS, and Annex 6 for ICAO specify when flight crewmembers should be at their duty stations. All detailed operating flight crewmembers (excluding cruise relief crew) should be at their stations on the flight deck for take-off and landing. Whilst in the cruise enroute, detailed flight crewmembers (including cruise relief crew when required) are to remain at their duty stations except when absence is required in the discharge of their duty, or for comfort needs.

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All operating flight crewmembers must be strapped into their seats using the appropriate harness. If the use of a shoulder harness interferes with the performance of duty, dispense the use of the shoulder harness.

FLIGHT OPERATIONS OFFICER /FLIGHT DISPATCHER (FOPSO/FDO)


Annex 6 specifies the duties of the Flight Operations Officer/Flight Dispatcher. The FOO/FDO is the link between the flight crew and the operator. The FOO/FDO is responsible for ground supervision of the flight. The FOO/FDO has a means of communication (satcom/fax or HF RTF) with the flight crew when they are airborne. This network is commonly called the company frequency. Alternative means of communication is available for phone patch (via ARINC for example). Duties specified in Annex 6 include: Assisting the Commander/PIC with in-flight preparation and the provision of information Assisting the Commander/PIC in preparing the OFP and the ATS FPL. The FOO signs and files (submit) the ATS FPL Passing information to the Commander/PIC whilst in flight concerning flight safety Initiating the procedures detailed in the OM concerning emergencies and diversion to an undeclared alternate aerodrome. Any action taken by the FOpsO/FDO is not to conflict with actions/procedures established by ATC; the meteorological service, or the communications service.

IN-FLIGHT OPERATIONAL INSTRUCTIONS


If for any reason the Operator wishes to change the route, destination, or alternate aerodromes for a flight that is already airborne, the requested change is to be co-ordinated by the ATS authorities involved before passing instructions to the flight crew. If for any reason the coordination is not possible, the Commander/PIC is responsible for obtaining the necessary ATC clearance.

JOURNEY LOG
The Commander is responsible for completing the journey log. Whilst only applicable to the current flight, retain the journey logs for 3 months to provide a record of the operation. Complete the log in ink or indelible pencil (which cannot be erased or altered), a complete record of the flight. Many Operators provide a pre-formatted form for the journey log, whist others include the log as part of the flight information and briefing package prepared by the FOpsO/FDO before the flight. The British Airways briefing system, called Sword, consists of a folder full of fan-fold material. Each flight crewmember has an individual copy. The ICAO recommendation for the journey log content is: Aeroplane nationality and registration Date Names of the crew and duty assignment Point and time of departure Point and time of arrival Flight duration Type of flight (scheduled or non scheduled) Incidents and observations (if any) Signature of the Commander

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We would like to thank and acknowledge: For photographs and assistance Page 4-6 Page 4-7 Mr. Ashley Gibb Virgin Atlantic Airways with special thanks to Mr. J. Jasper of Virgin Atlantics Cabin Crew Training, Horley.

INTRODUCTION
The Operator must make sure that the aeroplane is fit for the task. The Commander must also be satisfied that the aeroplane is loaded properly and that the equipment and fuel are sufficient for the flight. The FOpsO/FDO carries out the majority of the tasks necessary at the pre-flight planning stage. If the schedule is an established one, this is largely repetitious, perhaps on a day to day basis or even for multiple repetitions per day. Certainly, the ATS FPL is a repetitive FPL (RPL), and when activating the RPL for the next flight, the ATS authority informs the FOpsO/FDO. One aspect of the operation that may change on a flight-by-flight basis is the requirement for fuel. Meteorological conditions, ATS route availability, and availability of alternate aerodromes require the addition of more or less fuel to the basic route requirement. Annex 6 specifies the carrying of additional fuel for different types of aeroplanes and the nomination requirement for an alternate destination aerodrome. The criteria for deciding if it is necessary for an alternate destination aerodrome are below.

ALTERNATE AERODROMES
Things can go wrong and they often do! When flying under IFR an Operator must specify an alternative course of action to follow in the event that, for whatever reason, the chosen destination aerodrome is not available. The alternate aerodrome is the aerodrome specified in the alternate plan (colloquially the alternate). The need for an alternate aerodrome can occur at any time during the flight for technical reasons, whereas operational reasons usually force a change of destination. For the three phases of the flight, departure, enroute, and arrival, alternates must be nominated.

TAKE-OFF ALTERNATE
The Operational Flight Plan (OFP) specifies the take-off alternate. However, if something goes wrong on take-off that requires an immediate (emergency) landing (no time to dump fuel down to max landing mass) make an immediate return to the departure aerodrome. If more time is available and the departure aerodrome is not suitable or is unavailable (or it is not prudent to use it), use the take-off alternate. The weather conditions at the nominated alternate, at the time of take-off, must be above the aerodrome minima for the operation. Operational Procedures 4-1

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The criteria for the choice of a take-off alternate are: Aeroplanes with two engines: Not more than 1 hour flying time with one engine inoperative; or for operators with ETOPS approval (see below), the approved ETOPS diversion time up to a maximum of 2 hours. Aeroplanes with three or more engines: Not more than 2 hours flying distance at the oneengine-out cruise speed.

DESTINATION ALTERNATE
An operator must select at least one destination alternate for each IFR flight unless: Case 1 The duration of the planned flight from take-off to landing does not exceed 6 hours. Two separate runways are available at the destination and meteorological conditions prevailing are such that for the period from one hour before until one hour after the expected time of arrival at destination, the approach from the relevant minimum sector altitude and the landing can be made in VMC or: Case 2 The destination is isolated and no adequate destination alternate exists. An operator must select two destination alternates when the appropriate weather reports or forecasts for the destination, or any combination thereof, indicate that: 1. During a period commencing 1 hour before and ending 1 hour after the estimated time of arrival the weather conditions are below the applicable planning minima 2. When no meteorological information is available

ALL AEROPLANES The basic rule is that a flight shall not commence unless the aeroplane carries sufficient fuel and oil to ensure that it can safely complete the flight. In calculating this amount of fuel, allow for the actual and expected meteorological conditions and any forecast delays. Additionally, carry a reserve to cover unforeseen circumstances. The requirements are specified in two categories: propeller driven aircraft and turbo jet aircraft. PROPELLER-DRIVEN AEROPLANES Two cases are considered, where an alternate is required, and the other, where it is not required. In both situations, carry sufficient fuel to accommodate the flight and the alternate course of action.
When a destination alternate aerodrome is required, either: 1. Fly to the aerodrome planned for the flight, then to the most critical (in terms of fuel consumption) alternate aerodrome, plus a period of 45 minutes; [Total fuel = Route fuel + worst case diversion fuel + 45 minutes] Or

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2. Fly to the alternate aerodrome via any predetermined point, and then for 45 minutes, provided that this is not less than the amount required to fly to the planned destination aerodrome, plus the lesser of: a. 45 minutes plus 15% of the flight time planned to be spent at the cruising level(s), [Total fuel = Route fuel + 45 minutes + 15% of cruise fuel]; b. Two hours [Total fuel = Route fuel + 2 hrs] When a destination alternate aerodrome is not required: 1. Case 1 above, fly to the aerodrome planned for the flight, plus a period of 45 minutes [Total fuel = Route fuel + 45 minutes] Or 2. Case 2 above, fly to the aerodrome planned for the flight, plus the lesser of the following: a. 45 minutes plus 15% of the flight time planned to be spent at the cruising level(s), [Total fuel = Route fuel + 45 minutes + 15% of cruise fuel] b. Two hours [Total fuel = Route fuel + 2 hrs]

AEROPLANES EQUIPPED WITH TURBO-JET ENGINES Consider the same two cases concerning the alternative course of action. Carry sufficient fuel to allow the aeroplane:
When a destination alternate aerodrome is required, either: 1. Fly to and make an approach and a missed approach, at the planned destination, and then to fly to the nominated destination alternate, and then fly for 30 minutes at holding speed at 450 m (1500 ft) over the alternate (using ISA conditions), and then make an approach and landing. An additional amount of fuel is also required to provide for any increased consumption due to any potential contingencies specified by the operator to the satisfaction of the State of the Operator. [Total fuel = Route fuel + diversion fuel + 30 minutes holding fuel + additional contingency] Or 2. Fly to the alternate aerodrome via any predetermined point plus 30 minutes holding at 450 m (1500 ft) above the alternate aerodrome, provision made for additional fuel sufficient to provide for any increased consumption on the occurrence of any of the potential. The fuel carried cannot be less than the amount of fuel required to fly to the aerodrome planned for the flight plus two hours at normal cruise consumption. [Total fuel = Route fuel + 30 minutes holding fuel + additional contingency fuel, or Route fuel + 2 hours, whichever is greater] When a destination alternate aerodrome is not required: 1. Case 1 above, fly to the planned destination and additionally to fly 30 minutes at holding speed at 450 m (1500 ft) above the planned aerodrome (ISA conditions); and have an additional amount of contingency fuel. [Total fuel = Route fuel + 30 minutes holding fuel + additional contingency] Or

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2. Case 2 above, fly to the planned destination aerodrome and remain airborne for two hours at normal cruise consumption. [Total fuel = Route fuel + 2 hours cruising fuel] If necessary, a flight may be re-planned to another aerodrome, if the requirements of the above can be met from the point where the flight is re-planned.

WEATHER CONDITIONS
Conducted flights are under IFR or VFR (see Air Law notes for detailed explanation of the flight rules). Flight under VFR, by definition, can only be elected when the meteorological conditions are VMC. Part of a route may be flown under VFR if the forecast indicates that VMC exists for that part of the route. To begin a flight under IFR, the information must indicate that meteorological conditions at the destination aerodrome or at least one nominated alternate aerodromes is equal to or better than the aerodrome operating minima. VMC ICAO Annex 2 (Rules of the Air) defines VMC as follows: Airspace Class A, B, C, D & E (Note 3) F Above 900 m (3000 ft) AMSL or above 300 m (1000 ft) above terrain, whichever is higher G At and below 900 m (3000 ft) AMSL or 300 m (1000 ft) above terrain whichever is higher Clear of cloud and in sight of the surface 5 km (Note 2)

Distance From Cloud Flight Visibility

1500 m horizontally 300 m (1000 ft) vertically 8 km at and above 3050 m (10 000 ft) AMSL 5 km below 3050 m (10 000 ft) AMSLA (Note 1)

Notes: 1. When the height of the transition altitude is lower than 3050 m (10 000 ft) AMSL, use FL100 in lieu of 10 000 ft. 2. When the ATS authority prescribe: a) Lower flight visibilities to 1500 m may be permitted for flights operating: 1) At speeds that, in the prevailing visibility, give adequate opportunity to observe other traffic or any obstacles in time to avoid collision, or 2) In circumstances in which the probability of encounters with other traffic is normally low (e.g. in areas of low volume traffic and for aerial work at low levels). b) Helicopters may be permitted to operate in less than 1500 m flight visibility, if manoeuvred at a speed that gives adequate opportunity to observe other traffic or any obstacles in time to avoid collision 3. The inclusion of VMC minima for Class A airspace does not imply permitted VFR in Class A airspace. Table 1 - ICAO VMC Criteria

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VMC JAR OPS Criteria Appendix 1 to JAR OPS 1.465 defines the minimum visibilities for VFR operations as follows: Airspace Class Distance From Cloud Flight Visibility F B
Clear of Cloud

G
At and below 900 m (3000 ft) AMSL or 300 m (1000 ft) above terrain whichever is higher Clear of cloud and in sight of the surface 5 km (Note 2)

CDE

Above 900 m (3000 ft) AMSL or above 300 m (1000 ft) above terrain, whichever is higher 1500 m horizontally 300 m (1000 ft) vertically

8 km at and above 3050 m (10 000 ft) AMSL 5 km below 3050 m (10 000 ft) AMSLA (Note 1)

Notes: 1. When the height of the transition altitude is lower than 3050 m (10 000 ft) AMSL, FL 100 should be used in lieu of 10 000 ft. 2. Cat A and B aeroplanes may be operated in flight visibilities down to 3000m provided the appropriate ATS authority permits use of a flight visibility less than 5 km and the circumstances are such that the probability of encounters with other traffic is low, and the IAS is 140 kt or less.

Table 2 - JAR OPS VMC Criteria The main difference is that JAR-OPS applies a lower standard for Class B than ICAO, and makes no mention of VMC criteria for Class. The student is advised to use caution when answering questions concerning VMC in the Operational Procedures examination in this respect.

SELECTION OF THE ROUTE


CRITERIA
Whilst the routes flown as part of the operation are usually dictated by economic considerations (people want to go there, traditional links, industry, etc.), the operator must ensure the use of only those routes along which adequate facilities and services exist. At the departure and destination aerodromes, ground facilities and services must be adequate to meet the requirements of the aeroplane, passengers, and crew. These should include meteorological services, etc. The performance and equipment of the type of aeroplane chosen for the route must be adequate to cope with meteorological conditions, minimum altitudes, and navigation requirements (including maps and charts). The requirements of ETOPS (extended twin-engine operations) with regard to the proximity of adequate aerodromes, and the requirements for suitable landing surfaces for single engine aircraft must be complied with. Additionally, any restrictions, requirements, or regulations imposed by the authorities of the states to be over-flown must be complied with.

ADEQUATE AERODROMES
The regulations require the aerodromes used to be adequate. Broadly speaking, any aerodrome which the operator considers satisfactory is adequate. However, a satisfactory aerodrome is one which the topography and runway layout allows the performance requirements of the aeroplane to be met. The aerodrome also has to be properly equipped (ancillary services, ATS, lighting, communications, weather reporting, navaids, and emergency services). Additionally, for an aerodrome to be considered adequate for ETOPS, ATC must be available and at least one let down aid (ground radar would suffice) for an instrument approach must be available.

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ETOPS
The use of large twin-engine aeroplanes for long haul services (B777, 767, A330, etc.) requires special procedures to cope with the situation following the failure of an engine. Whilst these aeroplanes have complex and very powerful engines, the simple fact is that if one engine fails on a four-engine aeroplane there are three left, whereas for a two engine aeroplane, there is only one left, and if that stops it is a disaster.

The Airbus A330 is now one of the many types to have gained ETOPS approval Before permitting such extended range operations (i.e. transatlantic) the aeroplane requires certification that it can function adequately on the one remaining engine. In addition, the possibility of a failure due to normal operation requires reduction to virtually nil. This requires advanced engine and component design and exhaustive fatigue testing to determine the exact life of parts, etc. Added to this, strict quality procedures are needed to ensure that standards of maintenance and manufacture are adhered to. To cover any unforeseen events, the engines have staggered life, requiring one of the engines to have not less than half its maintenance life remaining at any time. The route is then chosen to make sure that in the event of a failure, the aeroplane can land within specified distances or times as determined for each aeroplane by the performance class. The operator must determine the speed maintained with one engine inoperative assuming: ISA conditions, level flight, maximum continuous thrust from the remaining engine, and aeroplane mass from worst-case calculation.

PERFORMANCE CLASS A For Perf A aeroplanes with passenger seating of 20 or more or MTOM of 45 360 kg or more, do not fly the aeroplane further than 60 minutes flying time at the one-engine-out speed calculated as above, from an adequate aerodrome. For other Perf A aeroplanes, 120 minutes (180 minutes for certain types of turbojet aircraft if approved by the authority). PERFORMANCE CLASS B OR C For Perf B and C aeroplanes, 120 minutes at the one-engine-out speed or 300 nm whichever is less.

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DITCHING CONSIDERATIONS
Part of the design and testing procedures for aeroplanes is to determine the types ditching characteristics. This is done using computer modelling and accurately scaled models in large tanks. Once determined, the ditching characteristics are compared with the established requirements for airworthiness. Aeroplanes which do not comply with the requirements and which have approved passenger seating of more than 30 are not to be flown more than 120 minutes at cruising speed or 400 nm (whichever is less), from land suitable for making an emergency landing.

LANDING REQUIREMENTS
The operator must make sure that the destination aerodrome is adequate. This includes assessing the landing distance, determined by performance class. However, for all classes, it is thought that the pilot crosses the threshold of the landing runway (screen height) at 50 ft. This may be modified for larger aeroplanes and reflected in higher minimum eye height for visual approach slope indicators (VASIs and PAPIs).

PERFORMANCE CLASS A The Operator is to ensure that at the ETA, the mass of the aircraft allows it to come to a halt after landing safely on the runway.
For turbojet aircraft, this should be achieved within 60% of the landing distance available (LDA) on a dry runway, and for turboprop aircraft, 70%. If the runway is forecast to be wet, the LDA is at least 115% of the landing distance required.

PERFORMANCE CLASS B AND C For dry runways, the requirement is to stop the aircraft within 70% of the LDA. For wet runways, the LDA is equal to or exceeds the landing distance required. Shorter distance may be acceptable if the aircraft Flight Manual specifies distances for wet runaways.

MINIMUM TIME ROUTES


A minimum time route (MTR) is the route giving the shortest time from departure to destination, adhering to all ATC and airspace reservations. The idea is to choose a route at a specified altitude, which using the forecast winds, gives the greatest ground speed for a specified TAS, thus giving the minimum time for that route. The procedure involves plotting the track of the aircraft over a short leg (normally 1 hour) along several different tracks and calculating which produced the greatest ground distance covered in the shortest period. The procedure repeats for another period until completing analysis of the whole route and comparison made regarding time and fuel usage. Today this is done by computers, which are updated regularly with meteorological information and produce the MTR from input data including aircraft type, zero fuel mass, departure aerodrome, date and time of departure, destination aerodrome, and destination alternate. Consideration is given to the requirements of the ETOPS route and singe engine cruising speed for ETOPS flights.

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COMMANDERS CONSIDERATIONS
The basic requirement of the Rules of the Air is that the flight requires proper planning. The Commander is responsible for this and the Operator must ensure that the Commander has all the necessary information to plan the flight. The Operator invariably delegates this responsibility to an FOpsO/FDO. However, the ultimate responsibility for any flight rests with the Commander and as such, a flight must not be commenced unless the Commander is satisfied that: i. The aeroplane is airworthy; ii. The aeroplane is not operated contrary to the provisions of the Configuration Deviation List (CDL); iii. The instruments and equipment required for the flight are available; iv. The instruments and equipment are in operable condition except as provided in the MEL; v. Those parts of the operations manual required for the flight are available; vi. The documents, additional information, and forms required are on board; vii. Current maps, charts, and associated documentation or equivalent data are available to cover the intended operation of the aeroplane including any diversion which may reasonably be expected; viii. Ground facilities and services required for the planned flight are available and adequate; ix. The provisions specified in the operations manual in respect of fuel, oil and oxygen requirements, minimum safe altitudes, aerodrome operating minima and availability of alternate aerodromes, where required, can be complied with for the planned flight; x. The load is properly distributed and safely secured; xi. The mass of the aeroplane, at the commencement of take-off roll, is such that the flight is within the specified performance limitations; and xii. Any operational limitation in addition to those covered by sub-paragraphs (ix) and (xi) above can be complied with.

FILING THE ATS FLIGHT PLAN (FPL)


Annex 2 requires that the FPL is filed (submitted to the appropriate ATS authority) not less than one hour before departure. JAR-OPS 1.300 places the onus on the Operator for ensuring the filing of the FPL so that the alerting services have adequate information concerning the flight. For international flights, file the FPL to the Area Control Centre (ACC) for the Flight Information Region (FIR) in which the location of the departure aerodrome is located. The process of filing requires the completed form (in the UK the CA48) be delivered to a receiving office, indicated by an information sign on the wall of the building (black C on a yellow background). The clerk in the receiving office gives the filing agent (or the pilot) the bottom copy of the form, and then by use of telex, transmits the content of the FPL to the ACC. The ACC acknowledges receipt of the FPL and then retransmits the FPL to all the down-route FIRs. Once all the FIRs have acknowledge receipt of the FPL, the ACC , at the appropriate time (usually just after the aircraft begins to taxi), issues an ATC clearance for the flight to commence under IFR or VFR (if in airspace that requires control of VFR flights).

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FLIGHTS SUBJECT TO AIR TRAFFIC FLOW MANAGEMENT (ATFM)


The increasing density of air traffic and the shrinking of air space due to increased aircraft cruising speed, has forced implementation of flow management (the regulation control, of movements by the formation and implementation of tactical ATC plans). In order for the ATFM system to work properly, information concerning projected flights must be available to the ATC planning system. The use of repetitive flight plans (RPLs) for scheduled operations is ideal for this purpose. Other flights (non scheduled) are still subject to ATFM and are required to give as much notice as possible to the ATS authority by way of filing a FPL. It is a requirement for flights subject to ATFM that the FPL is filed at least 3 hours before departure.

FLIGHTS INTO OCEANIC AIRSPACE


Edition 9 of the North Atlantic Operations Manual requests that for flights entering the North Atlantic Region, the FPL is filed as far in advance as possible. As ATFM is virtually universally applied through the FIRs adjacent to the NAT region, the filing in accordance with ATFM satisfies the need for Oceanic traffic planning.

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We would like to thank and acknowledge: For diagrams and assistance Page 5-5 Page 5-7 Page 5-13 Page 5-8 Page 5-10 Page 5-12 Mr. Ashley Gibb.

Aerzur Virgin Atlantic Airways with special thanks to Mr. J. Jasper of Virgin Atlantics Cabin Crew Training, Horley. NASA Langley

INTRODUCTION
In addition to the minimum equipment necessary for the issue of a Certificate of Airworthiness (C of A), the instruments, equipment, and flight documents fitted to or carried in the aeroplane have to be adequate for the operation. The operator includes the minimum equipment list (MEL) in the operations manual, allowing the Commander to decide whether to commence a flight or continue from any intermediate stop if any instrument, equipment, or system becomes unserviceable. Additionally, the operator provides operations staff and flight crew with an aircraft-operating manual, for each aircraft type operated, which contains the normal, abnormal, and emergency procedures relating to the operation of the aircraft. The manual also includes details of the aircraft systems and of the checklists used.

BASIC REQUIREMENTS
An aeroplane has to be equipped with instruments allowing the flight crew to control the flight path of the aeroplane, carry out any required procedural manoeuvres, and comply with the operating limitations of the aeroplane in the expected operating conditions. Other equipment carried in the aeroplane is necessary for either safety, navigation, or regulatory reasons.

INTERNAL DOORS AND CURTAINS


JAR-OPS has additional requirements concerning doors and curtains. All aeroplanes with more than 19 passenger seats must have a lockable door between the passenger compartment and the flight deck. The door is to have a notice on it stating that entry is only permitted to crewmembers.

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Where a compartment not usually occupied passengers has an emergency exit, the door leading from the passenger compartment to that area must have an openable door. If passage through a doorway is necessary in the event of an emergency, the door (or curtain) requires a means of securing it in the open position. Such doors (or curtains) require signs attached indicating that the doorway leads to an emergency exit. The crew requires a means of unlocking any door that passengers can lock (toilet doors).

FIRST AID KITS


JAR-OPS requires an aeroplane to be equipped with accessible and adequate medical supplies (First Aid Kits) commensurate with the authorised number of passengers the aeroplane carries. Regular inspection of the kits is necessary, and must be replenished when needed. Additionally, Annex 6 and JAR-OPS require the carriage of an emergency medical kit, for the use of doctors or other qualified persons, for treating in-flight medical emergencies in aeroplanes authorised to carry more than 30 passengers, if the flight is 60 minutes or more from qualified medical assistance. Passengers 0 - 99 100 - 199 200 - 299 300 or more First Aid Kits 1 2 3 4

Table 3 - First Aid Kit Requirements

HAND-HELD FIRE EXTINGUISHERS


The aeroplane systems have integrated fire extinguisher systems operated from the pilot stations. However, to fight fires on the flight deck and in the passenger cabin (and cargo compartment where necessary), hand held extinguishers must be carried. The content of the extinguisher must be optimised for the type of fire likely to be encountered and to minimise the hazard from toxic gasses produced. At least one Halon 1211 (bromochlorodifluromethane) or equivalent extinguisher is to be positioned on the flight deck. JAR-OPS requires extinguishers to be fitted in the passenger cabin and when carrying more than one, they must be distributed evenly around the cabin. The table below details the minimum number of extinguishers required against the passenger carrying capability of the aeroplane. The location of galleys and toilets may require the fitting of more. Maximum Approved passenger Seating 7 to 30 31 to 60 61 to 200 201 to 300 301 to 400 401 to 500 501 to 600 601 or more Number of Extinguishers 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

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BREAK-IN MARKINGS
Areas of the fuselage suitable for break-in by rescue crews in an emergency are to be marked by red or yellow lines, and if necessary, they are outlined in white to contrast with the background. If the corner markings are more than 2 m apart, intermediate lines 9 cm x 3 cm are inserted so there are no more than 2 m between adjacent markings.

3 cm

9 cm

Not over 2m

9 cm

Fig 1 - Break In Markings

DC6 forward exit, emergency exit, and break-in point

COCKPIT VOICE RECORDERS (CVRS)


There are many instances when the transcript of communications to and from the aeroplane or between crewmembers offers vital evidence to what happened during an incident or before an accident. In order to assist investigations CVRs are required to be carried and operated at all times in aircraft involved in commercial air transport. The regulatory requirements for the carriage of a CVR are complex and determined by the date on which the certificate of airworthiness was first issued; whether or not the MTOM is greater or less than 5700 kg, and the configuration of the engines.

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There are 3 cases: Case 1 Aircraft with C of A issued on 1 April 1998 or later; multi-engine turbine; max passengers more than 9; MTOM greater than 5700 kg. After 1 April 2002, aircraft with C of A issued on or after 1 January 1990 up to and including 31 March 1998; multi-engine turbine; max passengers more than 9; MTOM of 5700 kg or less. Any aeroplane with C of A issued before 1 April 1998 and MTOM over 5700 kg.

Case 2

Case 3

DATA RECORDED A CVR records:


Voice communication transmitted into or out of the cockpit The aural environment on the flight deck Voice communications of flight crewmembers using the intercom Voice or audio identification of navigation or approach aids in the headset or on the speaker Voice communications of flight crewmembers using the PA system

CVRs OPERATION, CONSTRUCTION AND INSTALLATION For Case 1 and Case 3, the CVR has to be capable of retaining the information recorded during at least the last 30 minutes of its operation. For case 2, the CVR has to be capable of recording the last 2 hours of data (ICAO Annex 6 requires this for aircraft with C of A issued after 1 Jan 2003).
The construction, location, and installation of CVRs are to provide maximum practical protection for the recordings in order to preserve, recover, and transcribe the recorded information. Flight recorders must meet the prescribed crashworthiness and fire protection specifications, and are required to have a device fitted to assist underwater location. Prior to the aeroplane first moving under its own power, the CVRs must automatically switch on and record until the termination of the flight.

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FLIGHT DATA RECORDERS (FDRs)


FDRs are more commonly referred to as black boxes, although they are usually painted a DayGlo colour (either red or yellow) and have underwater location devices fitted. They must be capable of recording data pertaining to the operation of the aeroplane systems, control positions, and performance parameters. As with CVRs, they must assist in the investigation of accidents and incidents.

An example of a Flight Data recorderwith the emergency locator beacon The regulatory requirements for the carriage of FDRs occupy many pages in both Annex 6 and JAR-OPS but the LOs for Operational Procedures require the student to have knowledge only of the parameters recorded; the rules for retention of data, and the rules regarding location, construction installation and operation of FDRs as detailed in Annex 6 only.

PARAMETERS RECORDED The parameters recorded are dependent upon the type of FDR fitted.
Annex 6 defines three types: Type I FDR records parameters required to determine accurately the aeroplane flight path, speed, altitude, engine power, configuration, and operation Type II FDR records the same parameters as Type I but with the addition of configuration of the lift and drag devices Type IIA FDR records the same parameters as Type II (for aeroplanes with MTOM 5700 kg or less)

DATA LINK COMMUNICATIONS For aeroplanes with C of A issued after 1 January 2005, the FDRs fitted to aeroplanes that have CVRs fitted, and which use data link systems for communication, are to be capable of recording all the data link communications. This becomes a general requirement with effect from 1 January 2007. RECORDING DURATION Type I and Type II FDRs are capable of recording at least the last 25 hours of their operation. Type IIA FDRs are capable of recording the last 30 minutes of operation.

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CONSTRUCTION AND INSTALLATION Clearly, the FDR must be capable of withstanding any disaster that befalls the aeroplane, and it must be capable of location after an accident. It must be constructed, located, and installed to provide maximum practical protection for the recordings.
Specifications laid down are for crashworthiness and fire resistance, and JAR-OPS applies the standards specified by the European Organisation for Civil Aviation Equipment (EUROCAE). The FDR should be located close to the rear pressure bulkhead, or as far aft as possible. The electrical supply should be from a bus bar that gives the maximum reliability of power supply without jeopardising essential or emergency electrical loads. The FDR system must be capable of being functionally checked before flight.

OPERATION OF FDRs Do not switch off FDRs during flight time. Following an accident or an incident, de-activate the FDR after landing and do not switch it on again until cleared for use after the conclusion of any investigation.

COMBINATION RECORDERS
JAR-OPS permits recorders which act as both an FDR and a CVR. Such a combination recorder may be fitted to aeroplanes with MTOM of 5700 kg or less, or to larger aeroplanes if two of the combination recorders are fitted.

FLIGHT RECORDER RECORDS


Operators must make sure that if an aeroplane is involved in an incident or an accident the flight recorder records and the recorders are retained in safe custody until the requirements of Annex 13 (Accident Investigation) have been met.

EQUIPMENT FOR COMPLIANCE WITH FLIGHT RULES


When operating an aircraft under VFR, it is assumed that the aeroplane can be navigated visually. Flight under IFR on the other hand, requires the use of radio navigation aids and instrumentation that is more sophisticated. All aeroplanes operated under VFR flights are to be equipped with: A magnetic compass An accurate timepiece indicating the time in hours, minutes, and seconds A sensitive pressure altimeter An ASI Such additional instruments or equipment as may be prescribed by the appropriate authority

CONTROLLED VFR FLIGHTS


VFR flights operated as controlled flights (in class B and C airspace) should be equipped as for IFR flights.

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COMPLIANCE WITH IFR


All aeroplanes operated under IFR, or when the aeroplane cannot maintain the desired attitude without reference to one or more flight instruments, must be equipped with: A magnetic compass An accurate timepiece indicating the time in hours, minutes, and seconds Two sensitive pressure altimeters with counter drum-pointer or equivalent presentation. Neither three-pointer nor drum-pointer altimeters satisfy the requirement An ASI with means of preventing malfunctioning due to either condensation or icing A turn and slip indicator An attitude indicator (artificial horizon) A heading indicator (directional gyroscope) A means of indicating whether the power supply to the gyroscopic instrument is adequate A means of indicating in the flight crew compartment, the outside air temperature A rate-of-climb and descent indicator Such additional instruments or equipment as may be prescribed by the appropriate authority Note: The requirements of the turn and slip indicator, attitude indicator, and heading indicator may be met by combinations of instruments or by integrated flight director systems if the safeguards against total failure, inherent in the three separate instruments, are retained.

STANDBY HORIZON
All aeroplanes of a maximum certificated take-off mass of over 5700 kg introduced into service after 1 January 1975 are fitted with an emergency power supply, independent of the main electrical generating system, for operating and illuminating an attitude indicating instrument (artificial horizon), clearly visible to the pilot-in-command, for a minimum period of 30 minutes. The emergency power supply is to automatically operate after the total failure of the main electrical generating system and give a clear indication on the instrument panel, that the attitude indicator is being operated by emergency (stand-by) power.

A basic standby attitude indicator

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NIGHT OPERATIONS
All aeroplanes, when operated at night require lighting. In addition to the instrumentation required for IFR, aircraft equipped for night flight must have: The lights required by Annex 2 (Rules of the Air) for aircraft in flight or operating on the movement area of an aerodrome Two landing lights Illumination for all instruments and equipment that are essential for the safe operation of the aeroplane that are for use by the flight crew Lights in all passenger compartments An electric torch for each crewmember station

FLIGHTS OVER WATER


Regulations apply to flights over water when aircraft are considered to be vulnerable to ditching. For multi-engine aircraft, this is considered to be more than 93 km (50 nm) from land. Also, anywhere over water beyond the gliding distance of a single engine aircraft, or wherever the Authority of a State considers it necessary. The latter case results from the crash of the Lockheed Electra into the Potomac River after takeoff from Washington National (now Ronald Reagan) Airport, when many passengers drowned because there was no requirement then for life preservers to be carried on flights not flying over the sea. When required, aeroplanes flying over water must have one life jacket or equivalent individual floatation device for each person on board, stowed in a position easily accessible from the seat of each person. Each life jacket and equivalent individual floatation device is to be equipped with a location light.

LONG RANGE FLIGHTS


Flights over water more than 120 minutes at cruising speed, or 740 km (400 nm), whichever is less, away from land suitable for making an emergency landing in the case of multi-engine aeroplanes, and 30 minutes or 185 km (100 nm), whichever is less, for all other aeroplanes, are required to carry sufficient life-rafts to carry all persons on board. These are to be stowed ready for use in an emergency, and fitted with life-saving equipment including means of sustaining life (food, water, etc.) and equipment for making the pyrotechnic (rockets and flares) distress signals described in Annex 2 (Rules of the Air).

REMOTE AREAS
When operated across land areas where search and rescue is difficult, aeroplanes are equipped with the signalling and life-saving equipment (including means of sustaining life; food, water, etc.) as may be appropriate to the area to be over-flown (i.e. Desert, Arctic, Jungle, and Ocean).

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WEATHER RADAR
When carrying passengers in pressurised aircraft, the aeroplane is fitted with serviceable weather radar whenever operating the aeroplane in areas where thunderstorms or other potentially hazardous weather conditions that can be detected with airborne weather radar are expected to exist along the route. JAR-OPS expands the requirement to include unpressurised aeroplanes with MTOM greater than 5700 kg; and any unpressurised aeroplane with more than 9 passenger seats after 1 April 1999. For propeller driven aeroplanes with MTOM not exceeding 5700 kg and not more than 9 passenger seats, a suitable system for detecting thunderstorms and other potentially hazardous conditions may be used instead of radar.

An example of a weather radar display RADIATION MONITORING INDICATOR


All aeroplanes intended for operation above 15 000 m (49 000 ft), must carry equipment to measure and continuously indicate on each flight, the current dose rate and the cumulative dose of cosmic radiation received. The display unit of the equipment shall be readily visible to a flight crewmember. Individual records are kept for crewmembers that are liable to high exposure. The Commander or the pilot delegated to the flight initiates a descent as soon as practicable when exceeding the limit values of cosmic radiation specified.

MACHMETER
All aeroplanes with speed limitations expressed in terms of Mach number (limiting Mach) are equipped with a Mach number indicator (Machmeter). This does not stop the use of the airspeed indicator to derive Mach number for ATS purposes.

GROUND PROXIMITY WARNING SYSTEM (GPWS)


Too many aircraft are lost with crew and passengers killed by inadvertent controlled flight into terrain. The ATC authority does not accept responsibility for terrain clearance (except during radar vectoring) and the responsibility rests firmly with the pilots to ensure safe clearance from the ground is maintained. Misreading of altimeters, misunderstanding procedures, poor navigation, and misidentification by ATC radar units all conspire to make inadvertent controlled flight into terrain a continuing danger and hazard. A GPWS fitted to an aeroplane can give warning to the pilots that the aeroplane is getting too close to the ground, and is required to be fitted to all commercial air transport aeroplanes with MTOM greater than 5700 kg.

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The GPWS shall provide, as a minimum, warnings of the following circumstances: Excessive descent rate Excessive terrain closure rate Altitude loss after take-off or go-around Unsafe terrain clearance while not in landing configuration Gear not locked down Flaps not in a landing position Excessive descent below the instrument glide path Additionally, from 1 January 2003 all turbine-engine aeroplanes with maximum certificated takeoff mass in excess of 15 000 kg or authorised to carry more than 30 passengers, are fitted with a GPWS incorporating a predictive terrain warning hazard system.

COMMUNICATIONS EQUIPMENT
An aeroplane used for commercial air transport must be fitted with radio communication equipment capable of conducting two-way communication with ATC for aerodrome control purposes and receiving meteorological information at any time during flight. JAR-OPS requires two independent VHF radio systems to be fitted. The communications equipment must also be capable of tuning to other stations on the frequencies specified by the Authority of the State being over-flown. Essentially, the equipment must be able to transmit/receive on the aeronautical emergency frequency 121.500 MHz.

INTERNAL COMMUNICATIONS
Aeroplanes must have a public address (PA) system and a crew intercommunications system (crew interphone or intercom). The PA system is required (by JAR-OPS) for all aeroplanes engaged in commercial air transport with more than 19 passenger seats. The crew interphone is required for all aeroplanes with MTOM greater than 15 000 kg or having more than 19 passenger seats, if the C of A was issued on or after 1 April 1965 and the aeroplane was registered in a JAA state on 1 April 1995.

AUDIO SELECTOR PANEL (ASP) The crew interphone system (between the flight crew) also carries the incoming audio output from the radio equipment to the pilots headset or loudspeaker. Each position of the flight deck must have an ASP so that the crewmember can select (by switching and volume control) the audio services required.
Typically and ASP permits the audio output from the VHF and HF radios, VOR, DME, ADF, markers, and ILS to be routed to the headset. Usually, the ASP has a microphone selector switch to connect the pilots microphone to the transmitter circuit of equipment that can transmit audio frequency (VHF and HF).

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NAVIGATION EQUIPMENT
The aeroplane is fitted with navigation equipment enabling it to fly in accordance with its operational flight plan, within the limits specified for RNP types, and as required by ATC. It is assumed that flights under VFR fly by visual reference to landmarks. For flights in areas where minimum navigation performance specifications (MNPS) are specified, an aeroplane is fitted with navigation equipment which continuously provides indications of adherence to or departure from track to the required degree of accuracy at any point along that track. The MNPS and the procedures governing their application are published in Regional Supplementary Procedures (Doc 7030). For flights where RVSM of 300 m (1000 ft) is applied between FL 290 and FL 410, an aeroplane is fitted with equipment capable of indicating the flight level flown, automatically maintaining a selected flight level, providing an alert to the flight crew when a deviation occurs from the selected flight level (the threshold for the alert shall not exceed 90 m (300 ft)), and automatically reporting pressure-altitude (Mode C).

INSTRUMENT PROCEDURES When operating the aeroplane under IFR and instrument procedures are required to comply with IFR departure and arrival procedures, the aeroplane is to be fitted with not less than one; VOR; ADF and DME; one ILS (or MLS); one marker 75 MHz beacon receiver. The requirement for VOR/DME/ADF doubles where navigation along a route based on that aid alone. INSTALLATION The equipment installation is such that the failure of any single unit required for either communications or navigation purposes, or both, does not result in the failure of another unit required for communications or navigation purposes.

ELECTRICAL CIRCUIT FUSING


Most circuit protection systems fitted to aeroplanes use circuit breakers rather than fuses. However, where fuses are used, there must be a supply of replacement fuses for use in flight (for fuses that can be replaced in flight). There must be at least 10% of each type and fuse rating with the proviso that there are not less than three of each.

WINDSHIELD WIPERS
Windshield wipers (or an equivalent means of clearing precipitation) must be fitted at each pilot station if the MTOM is greater than 5700 kg.

EMERGENCY AND SURVIVAL EQUIPMENT


In order to assist the Search and Rescue organisation plan and execute any SAR operation, the Operator must maintain lists of all the emergency and survival equipment fitted to aeroplanes for use in the operation. The list includes number, colour, and type of life rafts, details of pyrotechnics (flares and rockets), details of emergency medical supplies, water supplies, and the type and frequencies of portable emergency radio equipment.

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PERFORMANCE AND OPERATING LIMITATIONS


FACTORS AFFECTING AEROPLANE PERFORMANCE Factors that significantly affect the performance of the aeroplane are to be taken into consideration either as direct operational parameters, or as allowances or margins, which may be provided in the scheduling of performance data or in the code of performance for the operation of the aeroplane. The factors include mass, operating procedures, the pressure-altitude appropriate to the elevation of the aerodrome, temperature, wind, runway gradient, and condition of the runway (presence of slush, water, and/or ice etc.). MASS LIMITATIONS The mass of the aeroplane at the start-up or take-off should not exceed the mass at which takeoff performance requirements can be complied with, or the mass at which the requirements for: the length of runway available, enroute one engine inoperative, enroute two power units inoperative, and landing, can be complied with, allowing for expected reductions in mass as the flight proceeds, and for fuel jettisoning as necessary.
In no case is the mass at the start of take-off to exceed the maximum take-off mass specified in the flight manual for the pressure-altitude of the elevation of the aerodrome, and any other local atmospheric condition (if necessary). Neither is the estimated mass for the expected time of landing at the aerodrome of intended landing and at any destination alternate aerodrome, to exceed the maximum landing mass specified in the flight manual. Additionally, the mass at the start of take-off, or at the expected time of landing at the aerodrome of intended landing and at any destination alternate aerodrome, cannot exceed the relevant maximum masses applicable for noise certification standards, unless otherwise authorised in exceptional circumstances for an aerodrome or a runway where there is no noise disturbance problem.

TAKE-OFF The aeroplane must, in the event of a critical power-unit failing at any point in the take-off, be able to discontinue the take-off and stop within the accelerate-stop distance available, or to continue the take-off and clear all obstacles along the flight path by an adequate margin until the aeroplane is in a position to comply with the enroute criteria.
In determining the length of the runway available, account is taken of the loss of runway length due to alignment of the aeroplane prior to take-off.

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ENROUTE ONE POWER UNIT INOPERATIVE The aeroplane must, in the event of the failure of the critical engine at any point along the route, be able to continue the flight to an aerodrome at which the landing standard can be met, without flying below the minimum flight altitude at any point. ENROUTE TWO POWER UNITS INOPERATIVE In the case of aeroplanes having three or more engines, where the probability of a second powerunit becoming inoperative must be allowed for, the aeroplane must be able, in the event of failure of any two engines, to continue the flight to an enroute alternate aerodrome and land. LANDING The aeroplane must be able to land within the landing distance available, at the aerodrome of intended landing and at any alternate aerodrome, after clearing all obstacles in the approach path by a safe margin. Make allowance for expected variations in the approach and landing techniques, if no such allowance is made in the scheduling of performance data. AEROPLANE PERFORMANCE OPERATING LIMITATIONS The LOs require the student to be able to state the aeroplane performance operating limitations. This is a separate subject in its own right and detailed instruction is given during the study of subject 032 Performance. Remember, however, that matters discussed in Performance lectures are examinable in the OP examination.

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INTRODUCTION
Before actually beginning the flight, there are further aspects of aircraft operation to take into account, namely the actual performance of the aeroplane on the day and the specific route to be flown. The FOpsO/FDO together with the loading team must prepare the load sheet and check that the aircraft is balanced (the aircraft centre of gravity (C of G) is within the defined limits). The achievable performance is compared with the required aerodrome operating minima, any ATC regulations (restrictions) applicable, the preferred runway, and the meteorological conditions (specifically the temperature deviation from ISA, and the wind component for the runway). When complete, the Commander has all the information needed to make the final operational decisions about the flight. This chapter covers the required aeroplane performance for the selection of minimum cruising altitude and the aerodrome operating minima with specific consideration to low visibility operations.

PERFORMANCE CONSIDERATIONS ENROUTE


The normal cruising altitude is largely determined by the mass of the aeroplane (height for weight). Where mass is not limiting, ATC considerations, comfort (avoidance of turbulence), and economy (flying at or about the Tropopause) normally determines the cruising altitude of turbojet aeroplanes. Propeller performance is normally otherwise limiting for turboprop aircraft. However, in the event of a failure of a power unit, the aeroplane may not be able to maintain normal cruising altitude, and a gradual loss of altitude (drift-down) occurs. The operator is required to calculate the drift-down factor and specify a minimum cruising altitude to cover the eventuality.

PERFORMANCE CLASS A ONE ENGINE INOPERATIVE


The operator must ensure that with one engine inoperative an aeroplane can fly above the minimum enroute altitude along the planned route. The net flight path requires a positive gradient at 1500 ft above the aerodrome where the landing is made after engine failure. If ice protection systems are required, take into account the effect of their use on the net flight path.

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The gradient of the net flight path must be positive at least 1000 ft above all terrain and obstructions along the route within 9.3 km (5 nm) on either side of the intended track. OR The net flight path must permit the aeroplane to continue flight from the cruising altitude to an aerodrome where a landing can be made. The net flight path must clear vertically, by at least 2000 ft, all terrain and obstructions along the route within 9.3 km (5 nm) on either side of the intended track with regard to the conditions set out below: a. The engine is assumed to fail at the most critical point along the route Take into account the effects of winds on the flight path Fuel jettisoning is permitted to an extent consistent with reaching the aerodrome with the required fuel reserves, if using a safe procedure The aerodrome where the aeroplane is assumed to land after engine failure must meet the following criteria: (1) The performance requirements at the expected landing mass are met (2) Weather reports or forecasts, or any combination thereof, and field condition reports indicate that a safe landing can be accomplished at the estimated time of landing Where the navigation accuracy cannot meet the 95% containment level an operator can increase the width margins to 18.5 km (10 nm). COMPLIANCE The high terrain or obstacle analysis required may be carried out in one of two ways: a. Make a detailed analysis of the route using contour maps of the high terrain and plotting the highest points within the prescribed width margins. The next step is to determine whether it is possible to maintain level flight with one engine inoperative 1000 ft above the highest point of the crossing. If this is not possible, or if the associated weight penalties are unacceptable, work out a drift-down procedure based on engine failure at the most critical point and clearing critical obstacles during the drift-down by at least 2000 ft. The minimum cruise altitude is determined by the intersection of the two drift-down paths, taking into account allowances for decision making. This method is time consuming and requires the availability of detailed terrain maps. b. Alternatively, the published minimum flight altitudes (Minimum Enroute Altitude, (MEA), or Minimum Off Route Altitude, (MORA)) may be used for determining whether one engine inoperative level flight is feasible at the minimum flight altitude or it is necessary to use the published minimum flight altitudes as the basis for the drift-down construction shown below. This procedure avoids a detailed high terrain contour analysis but may be more penalising than taking the actual terrain profile into account.

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Minimum Cruise Altitude (para b.) Minimum Cruise Altitude (para a.)

Decision Making Allowance

Minimum Flight Altitude Minimum Flight Altitude Para b. 2000 ft Para a. Fig 2 - Drift-down Construction Note: MEA or MORA normally provides the required 2000 ft obstacle clearance for drift-down. However, neither is for use directly at and below 6000 ft altitude, as ensured clearence is only 1000 ft. 2000 ft

PERFORMANCE CLASS A AEROPLANES WITH THREE OR MORE ENGINES, TWO ENGINES INOPERATIVE
The operator must ensure that at no point along the intended track is an aeroplane with three or more engines more than 90 minutes, at the all-engines long range cruising speed at standard temperature in still air, away from an aerodrome at which the performance requirements applicable at the expected landing mass are met unless it complies with the details set out below. The two engines inoperative enroute net flight path data must permit the aeroplane to continue the flight, in the expected meteorological conditions, from the point where two engines are assumed to fail simultaneously, to an aerodrome at which it is possible to land safely. The net flight path must clear vertically, by at least 2000 ft all terrain and obstructions along the route within 9.3 km (5 nm) on either side of the intended track. If using ice protection systems take into account the effect of their use on the net flight path data. If the navigational accuracy does not meet the 95% containment level, an operator must increase the width margin to 18.5 km (10 nm). Assume the two engines fail at the most critical point of the route where the aeroplane is more than 90 minutes, at the all engines long range cruising speed at standard temperature in still air, away from an aerodrome at which the performance requirements are met. The net flight path requires a positive gradient at 1500 ft above the aerodrome where making the assumed landing after the failure of two engines. Fuel jettisoning is permitted if using a safe procedure.

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The expected mass of the aeroplane at the point where the two engines are assumed to fail must not be less than that which would include sufficient fuel to proceed to an aerodrome where making the assumed landing, and to arrive at least 1500 ft directly over the landing area and thereafter to fly level for 15 minutes.

PERFORMANCE CLASS B MULTI-ENGINE AEROPLANES


The operator must ensure that the aeroplane, in the event of an engine failure, can fly above the relevant minimum altitudes for safe flight stated in the Operations Manual to a point 1000 ft above an aerodrome. The following must be complied with: The aeroplane is flying at an altitude where the rate of climb equals 300 ft per minute with all engines operating. The enroute gradient with one engine inoperative shall be the gross gradient of descent or climb respectively increased or decreased by a gradient of 0.5%.

PERFORMANCE CLASS B SINGLE-ENGINE AEROPLANES


The aeroplane must be capable of reaching a place where a safe forced landing can be made. For landplanes, a place on land is required. This point should be 100 ft above the intended landing area. Apply the following limitations: The aeroplane is flying at an altitude where the rate of climb is less than 300 ft per minute The assumed enroute gradient shall be the gross gradient of descent increased by a gradient of 0.5%

PERFORMANCE CLASS C ALL ENGINES OPERATING


The aeroplane must be capable of a rate of climb of at least 300 ft per minute with all engines operating and be able to satisfy the engine inoperative limitations.

PERFORMANCE CLASS C ONE ENGINE INOPERATIVE


The operator must ensure that the aeroplane is, in the event of a failure at any point on its route or on any planned diversion and with the other engine or engines operating, capable of continuing the flight from the cruising altitude to an aerodrome where a landing can be made clearing obstacles within 9.3 km (5 nm) either side of the intended track by a vertical interval of at least: 1000 ft when the rate of climb is zero or greater 2000 ft when the rate of climb is less than zero The flight path requires a positive slope at an altitude of 450 m (1500 ft) above the aerodrome where making the assumed landing after the failure of one engine. Take the available rate of climb of the aeroplane as 150 ft per minute less than the gross rate of climb specified. If not, the width margins are increased to 18.5 km (10 nm) if the navigational accuracy does not meet the 95% containment level. Fuel jettisoning is permitted if using a safe procedure.

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PERFORMANCE CLASS C AEROPLANES WITH THREE OR MORE ENGINES, TWO ENGINES INOPERATIVE
At no point along the intended track, will an aeroplane with three or more engines be more than 90 minutes at the all-engine long range cruising speed at standard temperature in still air, away from an aerodrome at which the performance requirements applicable at the expected landing mass are met unless it complies with the following: The two-engines inoperative flight path shown must permit the aeroplane to continue the flight clearing all obstacles within 9.3 km (5 nm) either side of the intended track by a vertical interval of at least 2000 ft, to an aerodrome at which the performance requirements are met. Assume the failure of the two engines at the most critical point of that portion of the route where the aeroplane is more than 90 minutes away from an aerodrome at which the performance requirements applicable at the expected landing mass are met. The expected mass of the aeroplane at the point where assumed failure of the two engines occurs, must not be less than that including sufficient fuel to proceed to an aerodrome where the landing is assumed to be made, and to arrive there at an altitude of a least 450 m (1500 ft) directly over the landing area and thereafter to fly level for 15 minutes. The available rate of climb of the aeroplane shall be taken to be 150 ft per minute less than that specified. If not, increase the width margins to 18.5 km (10 nm) if the navigational accuracy does not meet the 95% containment level. Fuel jettisoning is permitted as long as the aircraft can reach the aerodrome with the required fuel reserves. A safe procedure must be used.

SELECTION OF CRUISING SPEED AND ALTITUDE


Aeroplanes can fly for either maximum endurance (longest time airborne), maximum range, or shortest route time.

ENDURANCE
When flying for endurance, use the lowest possible fuel flow. To achieve this, fly at the highest levels where drag is minimum, therefore fuel flow is lower for the required speed. To improve the handling of the aeroplane at these high levels, slightly increase the required speed at lower flight levels and higher flight levels. Effectively, the economy is being obtained because of the reduced density of the air. Remember, the temperature is isothermal above the tropopause so there is no inherent gain in engine performance by climbing.

MAXIMUM RANGE
Achieve the greatest range by using the cruise climb technique, whereby the aeroplane climbs to the most economical level for the mass, and the speed is set at 1.3 times the endurance speed. From then on, as the aeroplane mass reduces, the aeroplane naturally climbs. Maintain this until the descent point when the aeroplane descends rapidly. This technique is only possible in uncongested airspace. Concorde used cruise climb between FL570 and FL650 but there were not many other aeroplanes at that level.

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SHORTEST TIME
This is achieved by operating the aeroplane at maximum cruise thrust to obtain the highest mach number for a given mass, pressure altitude, and temperature. The flight manual normally quotes two speeds: high-speed cruise (0.85 Mach) and long-range cruise (0.82 mach). For fuel economy, usually the lower speed is used and the time penalty accepted. For both speeds the fuel flow decreases as mass decreases and climbing to height for weight increases the efficiency, known as Stepping. For long range flights, a compromise is to use the stepped climb technique, where the aeroplane flies a constant mach number until it is capable of climbing to a higher level at which time a climb is requested and once achieved, the Mach number is regained. Repeat this at approximately 2 hour intervals. In any event, where maintaining a lower level (usually due to ATC requirements, weather, etc.), a penalty in either time or increased fuel usage occurs.

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We would like to thank and acknowledge: For photographs and assistance Page 7-4 Page 7-6 Page 7-9 Page 7-11 Mr. Ashley Gibb.

INTRODUCTION
Each aerodrome is different and requires different consideration for the efficient and expeditious operation of aeroplanes. The Operator must establish by law Aerodrome Operating Minima (AOM), which specify the minimum meteorological conditions necessary and specific requirements for pilots to achieve before operating aircraft into or from the aerodrome. The AOM are not universally applied but are specific to the aerodrome, the type of aeroplane, the type of operation, the qualification of the crew, and many other criteria. However, the minima specified by the Operator are not to be less than those approved by the Authority of the State in which the aerodrome is located which, in turn, is not less than the minima stated in Annex 6 and JAR-OPS. In specifying the minima, the Operator needs to take into account: The type, performance, and handling characteristics of the aeroplane The composition, competence, and experience of the crew Dimensions and characteristics of the runway used Adequacy and performance of ground aids Aeroplane equipment for navigation and/or the control of the aeroplane during the takeoff, approach, the flare, the landing, the roll-out, and the missed approach Obstacles in the approach, missed approach and climb-out areas The obstacle clearance height/altitude (OCH/A) for instrument approaches The means of determining and reporting meteorological conditions

AIRCRAFT CATEGORISATION
In deciding the regulatory minima, ICAO, JAA, and the Authorities use aircraft speed as the determining factor. The most critical speed is the speed at which the aeroplane is required to cross the threshold (VAT). This calculates as follows: VAT = 1.3 x VSO (the stalling speed), or 1.23 x VS1G (the 1G stalling speed in the landing configuration)

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Where both VSO and VS1G are available, the higher resulting VAT is used. Aeroplane Approach Category Aeroplane Category VAT A Less than 91 kt B From 91 to 120 kt C From 121 to 140 kt D From 141 to 165 kt E From 166 to 210 kt

TERMINOLOGY
Terms used in this chapter have the following meaning: Circling The visual phase of an instrument approach to bring an aircraft into position for landing on a runway, not suitably located for a straight-in approach. Low Visibility Procedures (LVP) Procedures applied at an aerodrome for ensuring safe operations during Category II and III approaches and Low Visibility Take-offs. Low Visibility Take-Off (LVTO) A take-off where the Runway Visual Range (RVR) is less than 400 m. Flight control system A system that includes an automatic landing system and/or a hybrid landing system. Fail-Passive flight control system A flight control system is fail-passive if, in the event of a failure, there is no significant out-of-trim condition or deviation of flight path or attitude but the landing is not completed automatically. For a fail-passive automatic flight control system the pilot assumes control of the aeroplane after a failure. Fail-Operational flight control system A flight control system is fail-operational if, in the event of a failure below alert height, the approach, flare and landing, can be completed automatically. In the event of a failure, the automatic landing system operates as a fail-passive system. Fail-operational hybrid landing system A system that consists of a primary fail-passive automatic landing system and a secondary independent guidance system enabling the pilot to complete a landing manually after failure of the primary system. Note: A typical secondary independent guidance system consists of a monitored head-up display providing guidance which normally takes the form of command information but it may alternatively be situation (or deviation) information. Visual approach When either part or all of an instrument approach procedure is not completed and the execution of the approach is with visual reference to the terrain.

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TAKE-OFF MINIMA
GENERAL
Take-off minima established by the operator must be expressed as visibility or RVR limits, taking into account all relevant factors for each aerodrome planned to be used and the aeroplane characteristics. Where there is a specific need to see and avoid obstacles on departure and/or for a forced landing, additional conditions (e.g. ceiling) must be specified. The Commander cannot commence take-off unless the weather conditions at the aerodrome of departure are equal to or better than the minima for landing at that aerodrome, unless a suitable take-off alternate aerodrome is available. Where meteorological visibility is below that required for take-off and no report of RVR exists, commencement of a take-off may only commence if the Commander can determine that the RVR/visibility along the take-off runway is equal to or better than the required minimum.

VISUAL REFERENCE
Select the take-off minima to ensure sufficient guidance to control the aeroplane in the event of a discontinued take-off in adverse circumstances and a continued take-off after failure of the critical power unit.

REQUIRED RVR/VISIBILITY
For multi-engine aeroplanes, whose performance is such that, in the event of a critical power unit failure at any point during take-off, the aeroplane can either stop or continue the take-off to a height of 1500 ft above the aerodrome while clearing obstacles by the required margins. The take-off minima established by an operator are expressed as RVR/Visibility values not lower than those given in the following table. RVR/Visibility For Take-Off Facilities RVR/Visibility (Note 3) Nil (Day only) 500 m Runway edge lighting and/or 250/300 m centreline marking (Notes 1 and 2) Runway edge and centreline 200/250 m lighting (Note 1) Runway edge and centreline 150/200 m lighting and multiple RVR (Notes 1 and 4) information Notes 1. The higher values apply to Category D aeroplanes. 2. For night operations, at least runway edge and runway end lights are required. 3. The reported RVR/Visibility value representative of the initial part of the take-off run can be replaced by pilot assessment. 4. The required RVR value must be achieved for all of the relevant RVR reporting points with the exception given in Note 3 above.

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For multi-engine aeroplanes whose performance is such that they cannot comply with the performance requirements in the event of a critical power unit failure, there may be a need to reland immediately and to see and avoid obstacles in the take-off area. Such aeroplanes may be operated to the following take-off minima provided they are able to comply with the applicable obstacle clearance criteria, assuming engine failure at the height specified.

200 metres visibilitysee the DC6? The take-off minima established by an operator must be based upon the height from which the one engine inoperative net take-off flight path can be constructed. The RVR minima used may not be lower than either of the values given in the following table: Take-Off RVR/Visibility - Flight Path Assumed engine failure RVR/Visibility height above the take-off (Note 2) runway < 50 ft 200 m 51 - 100 ft 300 m 101 - 150 ft 400 m 151 - 200 ft 500 m 201 - 300 ft 1000 m > 300 ft 1500 m (Note 1) Notes 1. 1500 m is also applicable if no positive take-off flight path can be constructed. 2. The reported RVR/Visibility value representative of the initial part of the take-off run can be replaced by pilot assessment. When reported RVR, or meteorological visibility is not available, the Commander shall not commence take-off unless it can be determined that the actual conditions satisfy the applicable take-off minima.

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Exceptions: Subject to the approval of the Authority, and provided the requirements in paragraphs a. to e. below have been satisfied, an operator may reduce the take-off minima to 125 m RVR (Category A, B and C aeroplanes) or 150 m RVR (Category D aeroplanes) when: Low Visibility Procedures are in force High-intensity runway centreline lights spaced 15 m or less and high-intensity edge lights spaced 60 m or less are in operation Flight crewmembers have satisfactorily completed training in a simulator approved for this procedure A 90 m visual segment is available from the cockpit at the start of the take-off run The required RVR value has been achieved for all of the RVR reporting points Subject to the approval of the Authority, an operator of an aeroplane using an approved lateral guidance system for take-off may reduce the take-off minima to an RVR less than 125 m (Category A, B and C aeroplanes) or 150 m (Category D aeroplanes) but not lower than 75 m provided runway protection and facilities equivalent to Category III landing operations are available.

NON-PRECISION APPROACH SYSTEM MINIMA


An operator must ensure that system minima for non-precision approach procedures, based upon the use of ILS without glidepath (LLZ only), VOR, NDB, SRA, and VDF, are not lower than the MDH values given in the following table: System Minima For Non-Precision Approach Aids Facility Lowest MDH ILS (no glide path - LLZ) 250 ft SRA (terminating at nm) 250 ft SRA (terminating at 1 nm) 300 ft SRA (terminating at 2 nm) 350 ft VOR 300 ft VOR/DME 250 ft NDB 300 ft VDF (QDM and QGH) 300 ft

MINIMUM DESCENT HEIGHT


An operator must ensure that the minimum descent height for a non-precision approach is not lower than the OCH/OCA for the category of aeroplane; or the system minimum.

VISUAL REFERENCE
A pilot may not continue an approach below MDA/MDH unless at least one of the following visual references for the intended runway is distinctly visible and identifiable to the pilot: Elements of the approach light system The threshold The threshold markings The threshold lights The threshold identification lights The visual glide slope indicator The touchdown zone or touchdown zone markings The touchdown zone lights Runway edge lights Other visual references accepted by the Authority Operational Procedures 7-5

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Runway threshold, centreline and edge lighting plus PAPIs

REQUIRED RVR
The lowest minima for use by an operator for non-precision approaches are: Non-Precision Approach Minima Full Facilities (Notes 1, 5, 6, and 7) MDH RVR/Aeroplane Category A B C D 250-299 ft 800 m 800 m 800 m 1200 m 300-449 ft 900 m 1000 m 1000 m 1400 m 450-649 ft 1000 m 1200 m 1200 m 1600 m 650 ft and above 1200 m 1400 m 1400 m 1800 m Non-Precision Approach Minima Intermediate Facilities (Notes 2, 5, 6, and 7) MDH RVR/Aeroplane Category A B C D 250-299 ft 1000 m 1100 m 1200 m 1400 m 300-449 ft 1200 m 1300 m 1400 m 1600 m 450-649 ft 1400 m 1500 m 1600 m 1800 m 650 ft and above 1500 m 1500 m 1800 m 2000 m Non-Precision Approach Minima Basic Facilities (Notes 3, 5, 6, and 7) MDH RVR/Aeroplane Category A B C D 250-299 ft 1200 m 1300 m 1400 m 1600 m 300-449 ft 1300 m 1400 m 1600 m 1800 m 450-649 ft 1500 m 1500 m 1800 m 2000 m 650 ft and above 1500 m 1500 m 2000 m 2000 m

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Non-Precision Approach Minima Nil Approach Light Facilities (Notes 4, 5, 6, and 7) MDH RVR/Aeroplane Category A B C D 250-299 ft 1500 m 1500 m 1600 m 1800 m 300-449 ft 1500 m 1500 m 1800 m 2000 m 450-649 ft 1500 m 1500 m 2000 m 2000 m 650 ft and above 1500 m 1500 m 2000 m 2000 m Notes 1. Full facilities comprise runway markings, 720 m or more of HI/MI approach lights, runway edge lights, threshold lights and runway end lights. Lights must be on. 2. Intermediate facilities comprise runway markings, 420-719 m of HI/MI approach lights, runway edge lights, threshold lights and runway end lights. Lights must be on. 3. Basic facilities comprise runway markings, <420 m of HI/MI approach lights, any length of LI approach lights, runway edge lights, threshold lights and runway end lights. Lights must be on. 4. Nil approach light facilities comprise runway markings, runway edge lights, threshold lights, runway end lights or no lights at all. 5. The tables are only applicable to conventional approaches with a nominal descent slope of not greater than 4. Greater descent slopes will usually require that visual glide slope guidance (e.g. PAPI) is also visible at the Minimum Descent Height. 6. The above figures are either reported RVR or meteorological visibility converted to RVR as in sub-paragraph (h) below. 7. The MDH mentioned in these tables refers to the initial calculation of MDH. When selecting the associated RVR, there is no need to take account of a rounding up to the nearest ten feet, which may be done for operational purposes, e.g. conversion to MDA.

NIGHT OPERATIONS
For night operations, at least runway edge, threshold, and runway end lights must be on.

PRECISION APPROACH - CATEGORY I OPERATIONS


GENERAL
A Category I operation is a precision instrument approach and landing using ILS, MLS or PAR with a decision height not lower than 200 ft and with a runway visual range not less than 550 m.

DECISION HEIGHT
An operator must ensure that the decision height used for a Category I precision approach is not lower than: The minimum decision height specified in the Aeroplane Flight Manual (AFM), if stated The minimum height to which the precision approach aid can be used without the required visual reference The OCH/OCL for the category of aeroplane, or 200 ft

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VISUAL REFERENCE
A pilot may not continue an approach below the Category I decision height, unless at least one of the following visual references for the intended runway is distinctly visible and identifiable to the pilot: Elements of the approach light system The threshold The threshold markings The threshold lights The threshold identification lights The visual glide slope indicator The touchdown zone or touchdown zone markings The touchdown zone lights Runway edge lights

REQUIRED RVR
The lowest minima for use by an operator for Category I operations are: Decision Height (note 7) 200 ft 201 to 250 ft 251 to 300 ft 301 ft and above Category I Minima Facilities/RVR (note 5) Full (notes 1 & 6) 550 m 600 m 650 m 800 m Inter (notes 2 & 6) 700 m 700 m 800 m 900 m Basic (notes 3 & 6) 800 m 800 m 900 m 1000 m Nil (notes 4 & 6) 1000 m 1000 m 1200 m 1200 m

Notes 1. Full facilities comprise runway markings, 720 m or more of HI/MI approach lights, runway edge lights, threshold lights and runway end lights. Lights must be on. 2. Intermediate facilities comprise runway markings, 420-719 m of HI/MI approach lights, runway edge lights, threshold lights and runway end lights. Lights must be on. 3. Basic facilities comprise runway markings, <420 m of HI/MI approach lights, any length of LI approach lights, runway edge lights, threshold lights and runway end lights. Lights must be on. 4. Nil approach light facilities comprise runway markings, runway edge lights, threshold lights, runway end lights or no lights at all. 5. The above figures are either the reported RVR or meteorological visibility converted to RVR in accordance with paragraph h. 6. The Table is applicable to conventional approaches with a glide slope angle up to 4. 7. The DH mentioned in these tables refers to the initial calculation of DH. When selecting the associated RVR, there is no need to take account of a rounding up to the nearest ten feet, which may be done for operational purposes, (e.g. conversion to DA).

SINGLE PILOT OPERATIONS


For single pilot operations, an operator must calculate the minimum RVR for all approaches in accordance with JAR-OPS. An RVR of less than 800 m is not permitted except when using a suitable autopilot coupled to an ILS or MLS, in which case normal minima apply. The Decision Height applied must not be less than 1.25 x the minimum use height for the autopilot.

NIGHT OPERATIONS
For night operations, at least runway edge, threshold, and runway end lights must be on. 7-8 Operational Procedures

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PRECISION APPROACH - CATEGORY II OPERATIONS


GENERAL
A Category II operation is a precision instrument approach and landing using ILS or MLS with decision height below 200 ft but not lower than 100 ft; and RVR not less than 300 m.

DECISION HEIGHT
An operator must ensure that the decision height for a Category II operation is not lower than: The minimum decision height specified in the AFM, if stated The minimum height to which the precision approach aid can be used without the required visual reference The OCH/OCL for the category of aeroplane The decision height to which the flight crew is authorised to operate 100 ft

VISUAL REFERENCE
A pilot may not continue an approach below the Category II decision height unless visual reference containing a segment, which includes at least three consecutive lights of, the centre line of the approach lights, touchdown zone lights, runway centre line lights, runway edge lights, or a combination of these, is attained and can be maintained. This visual reference must include a lateral element of the ground pattern, i.e. an approach lighting crossbar or the landing threshold or a barrette of the touchdown zone lighting.

Approach lighting at Jersey showing clearly the lateral elements of the approach lighting

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REQUIRED RVR
The lowest minima for use by an operator for Category II operations are: Decision Height 100 to 120 ft 121 to 140 ft 141 ft and above Category II Minima Auto-Coupled to Below DH (Note 1) RVR/Aeroplane RVR/Aeroplane Category A, B, and C Category D 300 m 300 m (Note 2) /350 m 400 m 400 m 450 m 450 m

Notes: 1. The reference to 'auto-coupled to below DH' in this table means continued use of the automatic flight control system down to a height that is not greater than 80% of the applicable DH. Thus, airworthiness requirements may, through minimum engagement height for the automatic flight control system, affect the DH applied. 2. 300 m may be used for a Category D aeroplane conducting an autoland.

PRECISION APPROACH - CATEGORY III OPERATIONS


GENERAL
Subdivisions of Category III operations are as follows:

CATEGORY III A OPERATIONS A precision instrument approach and landing using ILS or MLS with decision height lower than 100 ft, and RVR not less than 200 m. CATEGORY III B OPERATIONS A precision instrument approach and landing using ILS or MLS with decision height lower than 50 ft, or no decision height, and RVR lower than 200 m but not less than 75 m (JAR OPS) or 50 m (Annex 6).
Note: Where the decision height (DH) and runway visual range (RVR) do not fall within the same Category, the RVR determines in which Category the operation is considered.

CATEGORY III C OPERATIONS A precision instrument approach and landing, usually ILS or MLS, with no decision height and no RVR requirement.

DECISION HEIGHT
For operations using a decision height, an operator must ensure that the decision height is not lower than: The minimum decision height specified in the AFM, if stated The minimum height to which the precision approach aid can be used without the required visual reference The authorised decision height to which the flight crew operates

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NO DECISION HEIGHT OPERATIONS


Operations with no decision height may only be conducted if: The operation with no decision height is authorised in the AFM The approach aid and the aerodrome facilities can support operations with no decision height The operator has an approval for CAT III operations with no decision height

VISUAL REFERENCE
For Category IIIA and IIIB operations with fail-passive flight control systems, a pilot may not continue an approach below the decision height unless a visual reference containing a segment of at least 3 consecutive lights of, the centreline of the approach lights, touchdown zone lights, runway centre line lights, runway edge lights, or a combination of these, and can be maintained. For Category IIIB operations with fail-operational flight control systems using a decision height, a pilot may not continue an approach below the Decision Height unless attaining a visual reference containing at least one centreline light, which can be maintained. For Category III operations with no decision height there is no requirement for visual contact with the runway prior to touchdown.

The Boeing 777 aircraft is equipped to land in CAT III conditions

REQUIRED RVR
The lowest minima for use by an operator for Category III operations are: Category III Minima Decision Height Roll Out Control/ Guidance System Less than 100 ft Not Required Less than 100 ft Less than 50 ft Less than 50 ft or no DH at all Fail Passive Fail Passive Fail Operational

Approach Category III A III B III B III B

RVR 200 m 150 m 125 m 75 m (50 m Annex 6)

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CIRCLING
The lowest minima for use by an operator for circling are: A 400 ft 1500 m Lowest Circling Minima B C 500 ft 600 ft 1600 m 2400 m D 700 ft 3600 m

MDH Minimum Meteorological Visibility

VISUAL APPROACH
An operator shall not use an RVR of less than 800 m for a visual approach.

CONVERSION OF REPORTED METEOROLOGICAL VISIBILITY TO RVR


An operator must ensure that a meteorological visibility to RVR conversion is not used for calculating take-off minima, Category II or III minima or when a reported RVR is available. When converting meteorological visibility to RVR in all other circumstances an operator must ensure that the following table is used: Conversion of Reported Meteorological Visibility to RVR Lighting Elements in RVR = Reported Met Visibility times the following: Operation Day Night HI approach and runway 1.5 2.0 lighting Any type of lighting 1.0 1.5 installation other than above No lighting 1.0 Not Applicable

LOW VISIBILITY OPERATIONS


GENERAL OPERATING RULES
An operator shall not conduct Category II or III operations unless: Each aeroplane concerned is certificated for operations with decision heights below 200 ft, or no decision height, and equipped in accordance with JAR-AWO or an equivalent accepted by the Authority. A suitable system for recording approach and/or automatic landing success and failure is established and maintained to monitor the overall safety of the operation. The operations are approved by the Authority. The flight crew consists of at least 2 pilots. Decision Height is determined by means of a radio altimeter.

LV TAKE-OFF
An operator shall not conduct low visibility take-offs in less than 150 m RVR (Category A, B and C aeroplanes) or 200 m RVR (Category D aeroplanes) unless approved by the Authority.

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AERODROME CONSIDERATIONS
An operator shall not use an aerodrome for Category II or III operations unless the aerodrome receives approval for such operations by the State in which the aerodrome is located. An operator shall verify the establishment of the Low Visibility Procedures (LVP), and enforce those procedures, at those aerodromes where conducting the low visibility operations.

OPERATING PROCEDURES
An operator must establish procedures and instructions to be used for Low Visibility Take-Off and Category II and III operations. These procedures must be included in the Operations Manual and contain the duties of flight crewmembers during taxiing, take-off, approach, flare, landing, roll-out and missed approach as appropriate. The Commander shall verify that: The status of the visual and non-visual facilities is sufficient prior to commencing a Low Visibility Take-Off or a Category II or III approach. Appropriate LVPs are in force according to information received from Air Traffic Services, before commencing a Low Visibility Take-off or a Category II or III approach. The flight crewmembers are properly qualified prior to commencing a Low Visibility Takeoff in an RVR of less than 150 m (Category A, B and C aeroplanes) or 200 m (Cat D aeroplanes) or a Category II or III approach.

MINIMUM EQUIPMENT
An operator must include in the Operations Manual the minimum equipment that has to be serviceable at the commencement of a Low Visibility Take-off or a Category II or III approach in accordance with the AFM or other approved document. The Commander shall verify that the status of the aeroplane and of the relevant airborne systems is appropriate for the specific operation conducted.

COMMENCEMENT AND CONTINUATION OF APPROACH


The pilot of a flight can commence an instrument approach regardless of the reported RVR/Visibility. The approach shall not continue beyond the outer marker or equivalent position if the reported RVR/Visibility is less than the minima required. If the aircraft passes the outer marker and the RVR falls below the applicable minima then the approach may be continued to DA/DH or MDA/MDH as applicable. Where RVR is not available, derive the values using the reported visibility. If no outer marker or equivalent position exists then the pilot shall make the decision to continue or abandon the approach before descending below 1000 ft above the aerodrome on the final approach segment. Where the MDA/MDH is at or above 1000 ft above the aerodrome the operator establishes a height below which the aeroplane does not descend. The approach may be continued below DA/DH or MDA/MDH and the landing completed provided the required visual reference is established.

CONTROLLING RVR
The touchdown zone RVR is always controlling. Where the reported and relevant mid point and stop end RVRs are also controlling then the following apply (Relevant means that part of the runway used during the high speed phase of the landing to a speed of approximately 60 kt): the minimum value for the mid point is 125 m or the required RVR value for the touch down zone if less, and 75 m for the stop end. Where an aeroplane is fitted with a roll out guidance or control system the minimum value for the mid point RVR is 75 m. Operational Procedures 7-13

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SPECIAL VFR
In the chapter of the Air Law notes, it discusses the regulations concerning Special VFR (SVFR) concerning the Rules of the Air. JAR OPS lays down criteria for the visibility for SVFR operations. Annex 2 states that a SVFR flight must not commence when the ground visibility at an aerodrome within a CTR is less than 1500 m. JAR-OPS 1.465 on the other hand, states that SVFR flights must not commence when the visibility is less than 3 km. Annex 2 further states that SVFR flights must not continue if the flight visibility is less than 1500 m, whereas JAR-OPS states that SVFR flights must not continue if the visibility is less than 1500 m. Students must be aware of the difference and be careful in the examinations.

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We would like to thank and acknowledge: For photographs and assistance Page 8-2 Page 8-9 Page 8-12 (both) Page 8-13 Page 8-16 Page 8-18 Page 8-23 Page 8-17 Page 8-27 (top) Mr. Ashley Gibb.

NASA Langley Research Center

INTRODUCTION
Whilst aviation is inherently safe due mainly to strong legislation and strict enforcement of safety procedures, the elements of nature often conspire to create situations that pose hazards to operations which, if not dealt with, could result in the aircraft and people on board being placed in danger or worse. All authorities publish information concerning hazards and offer advice in addition to the strict enforcement of regulations where such hazards likely occur. In the UK the CAA publishes pink AICs which contain information relating to safety matters. This chapter looks more closely at some of the potential hazards and the procedures operators must apply.

ICE AND OTHER CONTAMINANTS


ICING
During the study of Meteorology, the process of ice formation and the detrimental effects the accretion of ice has on the performance of an aeroplane are discussed. These include dramatic increase in mass, shift of C of G, increased drag, increase in stalling speed, reduced lift, and a reduction in the efficiency of flying controls. In piston engines, carburettor icing reduces airflow through the venturi resulting in loss of power.

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Rime ice forming on leading edge

For ice to form on an airframe three considerations are necessary: water in a liquid state must be present, the outside air temperature must be below 0C, and the aeroplane airframe temperature must be below 0C.

ICE REMOVAL
The law requires the removal of all ice from an aeroplane before any flight begins. The operator must establish procedures for ground de-icing, anti-icing, and related necessary inspections of the aeroplane(s). De-icing is removal of ice from the aircraft. Anti-icing is the prevention of ice forming. A flight cannot commence unless the external surfaces have been cleared of any contaminant or deposit that might affect the performance of the aeroplane, and the aeroplane is certificated and equipped for flight in icing conditions if there are known or expected icing conditions. At night, the aeroplane must be equipped with a means to illuminate or detect the formation of ice. Any illumination used must be of a type that does not cause glare or reflection affecting crewmembers in the performance of their duties.

DE-ICING ON THE GROUND A pilot can find information on the de-icing and anti-icing of aeroplanes in the operations manual, and ICAO DOC 9640 Manual of Aircraft Ground De-Icing/Anti-Icing. For a contaminated aircraft on the ground there are three approved de-icing methods:
1. The application of de-icing fluids 2. Heating the airframe by use of hot air 3. Manually sweeping the aircraft The carrying out of de-icing/anti-icing on the ground is in a one step or two step procedure: One Step Two Step De-icing/anti-icing is done at the same time. Ice removal is achieved first and then followed with anti-icing.

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DE-ICING/ANTI-ICING FLUIDS De-icing fluids melt the ice and then prevent ice from forming until a much lower temperature, or it slows down the ice forming process. Anti-icing fluids slow down the ice forming process. Because the only difference is in the ability to melt the ice, they are effectively the same compounds. There are three types in use:
1. Type I (unthickened) Fluid 2. Type II (thickened) Fluid 3. Type IV (thickened) Fluid

HOLDOVER TIMES The fluids are applied neat or diluted depending on the holdover time. Holdover protection is achieved by a layer of anti-icing fluid remaining on and protecting aircraft surfaces for a period of time.
For a one-step procedure the holdover time begins at the commencement of de-icing/anti-icing. With a two-step procedure the holdover time begins at the commencement of the second step. The holdover times are published and vary with type of agent used and air temperature. At the expiry of the holdover time, the aircraft is treated again and a new holdover period starts from then.

FIRE AND SMOKE


FIRE
Fire is always a potential hazard with aeroplanes. The huge quantities of fuel carried and the catastrophic effects of collisions and crashes result in graphic pictures of fires where accidents occur. However, less catastrophic fires are more likely from routine operations, and Operators must ensure the training of all crews to cope with fires both in the aircraft systems and inside the cabin.

CARBURETTOR FIRE A carburettor fire can start when a rich fuel mixture or neat fuel ignites by exhaust gasses or poor starting techniques or a malfunction of the engine. The standard drill for dealing with a carburettor fire is as follows:
If the engine has not started: 1. Move the mixture control to idle-cutoff. 2. Open the throttle fully. 3. Continue to operate the starter motor. If the engine has started, keep the engine going. In both cases, if the fire does not go out, execute the Engine Fire Drill.

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ENGINE FIRE Take account of whether the aeroplane is in the air or on the ground. The following are general considerations and are not specific to type.
Piston Engine Fire: 1. Fuel off 2. Allow the engine to run dry 3. The system should then be purged of fuel 4. Ignition off Jet Engine Fire: 1. Close the thrust lever 2. Engine start lever to cut-off 3. Pull the engine fire warning switch If the warning continues, operate the fire extinguisher system. If this does not work, after 30 seconds, operate the second fire extinguisher system. Turboprop Engine Fire Same as for the Jet Engine Fire except that at some stage the propeller needs feathering.

HAND FIRE EXTINGUISHERS Provided are hand fire extinguishers for use in crew, passenger, and cargo compartments, and galleys. The type of extinguisher must be suitable for the kinds of fires likely to occur in the compartment where the intended use of the extinguisher is and, for personnel compartments, to minimise the hazard of toxic gas concentration.
At least one hand fire extinguisher, containing Halon 1211 (bromochlorodifluromethane, CBrCIF2), or equivalent as the extinguishing agent, must be conveniently located on the flight deck for use by the flight crew. At least one hand fire extinguisher must be located in, or readily accessible for use in, each galley not located on the main passenger deck. At least one readily accessible hand fire extinguisher must be available for use in each Class A or Class B cargo or baggage compartment and in each Class E cargo compartment that is accessible to crewmembers in flight.

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The number of hand fire extinguishers required in the passenger compartments is listed below: Requirements for Hand Fire Extinguishers Maximum approved passenger seating configuration 7 to 30 31 to 60 61 to 200 201 to 300 301 to 400 401 to 500 501 to 600 601 or more Number of Extinguishers 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

When two or more extinguishers are required, they must be evenly distributed in the passenger compartment. The hand fire extinguishers that may be used in an aircraft are: Types and Use of Hand Fire Extinguishers Extinguisher Halon 1211 BCF Water CO2 Dry Powder Colour Green Red Black Blue Use General Domestic fires Electrical fires Electrical and liquid fires Remarks Anywhere on aircraft Nil Not on flight deck Not on flight deck

Automatically triggered water or CO2 extinguishers generally protect toilets.

CLASS OF FIRES Know the following classes of fire:


Class A Class B Class C Class D Solids, ordinary combustible material Flammable liquids Gases Combustible metals

FIRE DETECTION Fire detection systems found on an aircraft include:


Electro optical systems which work by the interruption of a beam of light Heat detection systems

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BRAKE OVERHEAT When overheated brakes occur, this presents a danger that the tyres and brakes may explode. Fire crews should be in attendance in a situation involving overheated breaks . This can take a substantial time. If approaching the aircraft, do so from the front or rear, not from the side. CRASH AXES AND CROWBARS An aeroplane with a MTOM > 5700 kg or having a passenger seating configuration of more than nine requires a crash axe or crowbar on the flight deck. Where the seating configuration is more than 200, required in the rearmost galley is a crash axe or crowbar. Do not make these items visible to passengers.

SMOKE
Smoke in any form at any location is hazardous to life, and when airborne it is particularly dangerous. Smoke reduces the absorption of oxygen into the lungs. In extreme cases this leads to asphyxiation and death. It also causes panic which can lead to irrational behaviour. Other effects include stimulation of the mucus membranes, irritation of the lungs, and obviously, reduced vision. On the flight deck, smoke distracts the pilots from their duty and one or both must take action with the necessary check list to identify the source of the smoke and stop it. To reduce or negate the physiological effects of smoke on the flight deck, pilot positions have smoke hoods and /or goggles together with oxygen masks that do not mix the oxygen with cabin air. Smoke in the passenger cabin is most likely from a malfunction in the galley, or from passengers illegally smoking in the toilet compartments. In the event of smoke in the passenger compartment requiring the use of the drop-out oxygen masks, passengers are reluctant to cover their mouths. The cabin crew must be forceful in ensuring compliance with the Commanders instructions to don the oxygen masks. Necessary drills and training are in the Operations Manual.

SMOKE IN THE CARGO COMPARTMENT On the flight deck or in the passenger compartment, smoke is immediately obvious and the drills can be actioned. Usually unmanned, any smoke present in the cargo compartment may escape attention until warning devices indicate increased temperature due to the fire. To overcome this, linked smoke detectors (similar to domestic smoke detector) are in cargo compartments and crewmembers must visit the compartment (if possible) at regular intervals.

SECURITY REQUIREMENTS
TRAINING PROGRAMMES
All operators must ensure that all appropriate personnel are familiar, and comply with the relevant requirements of the national security programmes of the State of the operator. An operator must establish, maintain and conduct approved training programmes which enable the operator's personnel to take appropriate action to prevent acts of unlawful interference such as sabotage or unlawful seizure of aeroplanes and to minimise the consequences of such events should they occur.

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AEROPLANE SEARCH PROCEDURE CHECKLIST


The operator ensures that all aeroplanes carry and follow a checklist of the procedures to search for: Concealed weapons Explosives Other dangerous devices The checklist should also give guidance on action taken if a bomb or suspicious object is found.

REPORTING ACTS OF UNLAWFUL INTERFERENCE


An operator shall ensure that all appropriate personnel are familiar, and comply with the relevant requirements of the national security programmes of the State of the operator. Following an act of unlawful interference on board an aeroplane the Commander or the operator shall submit, without delay, a report of such an act to the designated local authority and the Authority in the State of the Operator.

AEROPLANE SEARCH PROCEDURE CHECKLIST


An operator shall ensure that all aeroplanes carry and follow a checklist of the procedures for that type in searching for concealed weapons, explosives, or other dangerous devices.

FLIGHT CREW COMPARTMENT SECURITY


If installed, the flight crew compartment door on all aeroplanes operated for the purpose of carrying passengers shall be able to lock from within the compartment in order to prevent unauthorised access.

WEAPONS
In order to carry Weapons of War (as defined by JAR OPS) in an aircraft, the operator must obtain the permission of every State overflown. If States are pre-warned, the crew and the Operator cannot then be accused of gun running in the event of a non-scheduled diversion. When carrying such weapons, carry them in accordance with the rules and, if classified as Dangerous Cargo, apply the rules in full. Other weapons may be carried on board by law enforcement officers and other persons acting in the discharge of their duty providing the rules and regulations laid down by the states involved are adhered to.

UNLAWFUL INTERFERENCE - ANNEX 2


Any aircraft that is subject to unlawful interference shall endeavour to: Notify the appropriate ATS unit of this fact Inform the ATS of any significant circumstances Notify any deviation from the current flight plan necessitated by the above This is to ensure that the ATS unit gives priority to the aircraft and minimises any risk of conflict with other aircraft. The following procedures are intended as guidance for use by aircraft when unlawful interference occurs and the aircraft is unable to notify an ATS unit of this fact.

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PROCEDURES IF THE AIRCRAFT IS UNABLE TO NOTIFY AN ATS UNIT


Unless considerations on-board dictate otherwise, the Commander should attempt to continue flying on the assigned track and at the assigned cruising level until notifying an ATS, or, the aircraft is within radar coverage. Where the aircraft must depart from its assigned track or level without making radio contact with ATS, the Commander should, whenever possible: Attempt to broadcast warnings on the VHF emergency frequency and any other appropriate frequencies, unless circumstances dictate otherwise Use other equipment such as on-board transponders, data links, etc. (conditions permitting) Proceed in accordance with the applicable special procedures for in-flight contingencies, where such procedures are established and promulgated If there is no applicable regional procedure, proceed at a level which differs from the cruising levels normally used for IFR flight: 300 m (1000 ft) if above FL290, or 150 m (500 ft) if below FL290

ANNEX 14 - ISOLATED AIRCRAFT PARKING POSITION


An isolated aircraft parking position shall be designated or the aerodrome control tower shall be advised of an area or areas suitable for the parking of an aircraft which is known or believed to be the subject of unlawful interference, or which for other reasons needs isolation from normal aerodrome activities. The isolated aircraft parking position should be located at the maximum distance practicable and in any case never less than 100 m from other parking positions, buildings, or public areas. Take care in ensuring that the location of the position is not over underground utilities such as gas and aviation fuel and, to the extent feasible, electrical or communication cables.

FUEL JETTISONING SYSTEM


A fuel jettisoning system must be installed on each aeroplane unless it is shown that the aeroplane meets the performance climb requirements at maximum take-off mass, less the actual or computed weight of fuel necessary for a 15-minute flight comprised of a take-off, go-around, and landing at the airport of departure. The aeroplane configuration, speed, and thrust should be the same as that used in meeting the applicable take-off, approach, and landing climb performance requirements. In other words, unless the aeroplane can land at or just below maximum take-off mass, then a fuel jettisoning system must be installed.

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If required, a fuel jettisoning system must be capable of jettisoning enough fuel within 15 minutes to enable the aeroplane to meet the performance climb requirements, assuming that the fuel is jettisoned under the conditions found least favourable during flight tests. During the flight tests it must be shown that: The fuel jettisoning system and its operation are free from fire hazard The fuel discharges clear of any part of the aeroplane Fuel or fumes do not enter any part of the aeroplane The jettisoning operation does not adversely affect the controllability of the aeroplane Fuel should not be jettisoned below 10 000 ft. In winter, in exceptional circumstances, this can be lowered to 7000 ft. In summer in exceptional circumstances, this can be lowered to 4000 ft. The fuel jettisoning valve must be designed to allow flight personnel to close the valve during any part of the jettisoning operation. Unless it is shown that using any means (including flaps, slots, and slats) for changing the airflow across or around the wings does not adversely affect fuel jettisoning, there must be a placard, adjacent to the jettisoning control, to warn flightcrewmembers against jettisoning fuel while using the means that change the airflow. The fuel jettisoning system must be designed so that any reasonably probable single malfunction in the system does not result in a hazardous condition due to unsymmetrical jettisoning of, or inability to jettison, fuel.

FUEL JETTISONING PROCEDURES


Prior to fuel jettison, inform ATC that fuel jettison is about to occur, and that VHF RTF communications will be kept to the absolute minimum. Switch off the HF communications equipment to prevent inadvertent transmission. All automatic circuit switching (water heaters, galley equipment, etc.) is to be electrically isolated until jettison is complete. An area is to be chosen where there is minimum turbulence and no Cumulonimbus cloud present. Ideally, whilst fuel jettisoning, the aircraft should be kept out of cloud. Inform the cabin crew prior to the jettison, also Fuel jettisoning outlet inform the passengers that the operation is a routine procedure to reduce the weight of the aeroplane. Once jettison begins, an observer reports the flow from both sides of the aeroplane. During jettison, limit electrical switching to essential circuitry only. Illuminate the NO SMOKING light. Once jettison is complete, the observer reports that flow stopped on both sides of the aeroplane. Normal operation may then resume.

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PRESSURISATION FAILURE
Failure of the pressurisation system of an aeroplane is potentially life threatening. At altitudes above that at which the partial pressure of oxygen is no longer sufficient for normal respiration, exposure to ambient pressure causes hypoxia (lack of oxygen) leading to reduced brain functioning and failure of vital life systems in the body. Death results in a relatively short time. Unfortunately, the body is not very efficient at recognising the onset of hypoxia because the major effect is drowsiness and a gradual drift to unconsciousness. For this reason, aircraft have pressurisation failure warning systems to alert the crew when the required cabin pressure cannot be maintained. If any failure of the pressurisation system occurs above a level where the outside atmosphere can not support life, commence a descent to such a level immediately. Inform ATC of the descent (the RTF call preceded by MAYDAY x 3) and the pilot should broadcast level passing information and advise when stabilised at the lower level. Failure of the pressurisation system can be caused by a general failure of the conditioning system, ruptures in the pressure hull of a size such that the system cannot cope with the rate of loss of cabin air, total power failure (all engines out) or mishandling of the system by the crew. The classification of failures is by the rate of decompression of the cabin air: slow, rapid, or explosive. Slow decompression occurs over a period of time because the system is trying to replace the lost air and only losing the battle slowly. A failed door seal, stuck pressure discharge valve, or an open window are likely causes. As the cabin altitude slowly climbs above 10 000 ft (700 mb), a warning horn sounds and the drop out system operates after a delay at approximately 14 000 ft. It is possible that physiological changes were noticed prior to this, especially by trained personnel, particularly ears popping, the onset of tunnel vision, pain in body cavities, and excessive venting of air from the body. Particularly affected is night vision, although this may not be immediately noticed. Rapid decompression is when a door opens or the hull ruptures and the system cannot replace the lost air at all. An explosive decompression is the result of a catastrophic failure of the pressure hull resulting from say, a bomb blast or impact by a missile. The difference between rapid and explosive decompressions is somewhat academic as the response by the crew is the same. The crew attempts to regain control of the aeroplane and execute a rapid descent to a level where the ambient pressure of oxygen is life sustaining. There may be extreme physiological effects such as exploding sinuses and teeth cavities, rupturing of ear drums, extensive abdominal distension, and rupturing of internal organs.

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Chapter 3 covers the requirements for the carriage of supplemental oxygen, but they are reiterated here. Requirements for the Carriage of Supplemental Oxygen Supply For
All occupants of flight deck seats

Duration and Cabin Pressure Altitude


The entire flight time when the cabin pressure exceeds 13 000 ft The entire flight time when the cabin pressure altitude exceeds 10 000 ft but does not exceed 13 000 ft for the first 30 minutes at those altitudes, but in no case less than: i. 30 minutes for aeroplanes certificated to fly at altitudes not exceeding 25 000 ft2 ii. 2 hours for aeroplanes certificated to fly at altitudes more than 25 000 ft3 Entire flight time when the cabin pressure exceeds 13 000 ft but not less than 30 minutes2 The entire flight time when the cabin pressure altitude exceeds 10 000 ft but does not exceed 13 000 ft for the first 30 minutes at those altitudes, The entire flight time when the cabin pressure altitude exceeds 15 000 ft but in no case less than 10 minutes4 The entire flight time when the cabin pressure altitude exceeds 14 000 ft but does not exceed 15 000 ft The entire flight time when the cabin pressure altitude exceeds 10 000 ft but does not exceed 14 000 ft after the first 30 minutes at these altitudes

All required cabin crewmembers

100% of passengers5 30% of passengers5 10% of passengers5

Notes:

1. 2.

3.

4.

5.

The supply provided must take account of the cabin pressure altitude and descent profile for the routes considered. The required minimum supply is that quantity of oxygen necessary for a constant rate of descent from the aeroplanes maximum certificated operating altitude to 10 000 ft in 10 minutes followed by 20 minutes at 10 000 ft. The required minimum supply is that quantity of oxygen necessary for a constant rate of descent from the aeroplanes maximum certificated operating altitude to 10 000 ft in 10 minutes followed by 110 minutes at 10 000 ft. The required minimum supply is that quantity of oxygen necessary for a constant rate of descent from the aeroplanes maximum certificated operating altitude to 15 000 ft in 10 minutes. For the purpose of this table, passengers means passengers actually carried and includes infants.

Flight crewmembers use a quick donning oxygen mask, which is a mask that can be donned within 5 seconds using one hand, and permits normal radio communications to be maintained. The masks used by passengers are of no use when there is smoke in the cabin as the smoke mixes with the oxygen. The number of oxygen dispensing units and outlets must exceed the number of seats by at least 10%.

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WINDSHEAR AND MICROBURST DEFINITIONS AND THE METEOROLOGICAL BACKGROUND


Windshear is a change in wind direction and/or speed in either a vertical or horizontal sense. A simple definition is given by the UK CAA in a still valid AIC. Definition: Variations in vector wind along the aircraft flight path of a pattern, intensity, and duration to displace an aircraft abruptly from its intended path requiring substantial control action.

LOW ALTITUDE WINDSHEAR


Low altitude windshear affects the take-off and landing and can be split into 3 motions: Vertical windshear Horizontal windshear Updraught/downdraught The change of a horizontal wind vector with height. The change of a horizontal wind vector with horizontal distance Changes in the vertical component of wind with horizontal distance.

A windshear encounter can affect large aircraft suddenly by displacing them beyond the pilots powers of recovery.

METEOROLOGICAL FEATURES
Severe windshear is associated with cumulonimbus or towering cumulus clouds. However, windshear can also be experienced in association with other features such as the passage of a front, a marked temperature inversion, a low-level wind maximum, or a turbulent boundary layer. Topography or buildings can make the situation worse when there is a strong wind.

Towering cumulonimbus

THUNDERSTORMS The study of thunderstorms in Meteorology covers the physical properties of these phenomena and this section of the notes describes the wind flows in and around the thunderstorm which cause the most severe windshear. The shears and draughts associated with the thunderstorm can affect an aircraft from any angle. This makes assessment of angle of attack and the onset of the stall difficult to predict.
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Gust Front The gust front is a well-defined area of cold air flowing out from a downdraught in all directions. The gust front leads the storm along its line of movement and affects the area out to 24 to 32 km from the storm centre, and from the surface up to about 6000 ft. The area is subject to turbulence and possibly vertical shear because of the out flowing cold air undercutting inflowing warm air. If the leading edge has no associated precipitation, weather radar does not detect the gust front. With some gust fronts, a roll cloud may be present which may be associated with the onset of precipitation. Microbursts A microburst is a highly concentrated, powerful downdraught of air, typically less than 5 km across, lasting from 1 to 5 minutes, with downdraughts up to 60 knots and possible wind speed at the surface of 90 knots. Microbursts are either wet or dry. The dry microburst has no associated precipitation, which makes detection difficult. The wet microburst is associated with the precipitation that falls below a cumulonimbus cloud.

A microburst

FRONTAL PASSAGE
The greatest risk of windshear is from well-developed active fronts with narrow surface frontal zones, and marked temperature differences between the two air masses. Sharp changes in wind direction as the front passes indicate the possibility of windshear. Signs to look for are a temperature difference of 5C or more across the frontal zone, and the speed of movement of the front, especially if 30 kt or more. The cold front poses the greater risk with the windshear occurring just after the surface passage. The period of windshear for a warm front is longer and precedes the passage.

INVERSIONS
A strong vertical shear can occur when a low-level jet forms in association with a strong radiation inversion. These normally develop at night under clear skies. Low-level inversions may develop where a strong upper flow is above a calm flow next to the surface. Windshear can be experienced across the boundary.

TURBULENT BOUNDARY LAYER


In the boundary layer strong surface winds are associated with large gusts and lulls causing horizontal windshear. Solar heating of the ground can cause up and downdraughts.

TOPOGRAPHICAL WINDSHEAR
Natural or man made features affect the wind flow and can cause windshear. The direction of flow and wind speed determines the severity of the windshear, mountain waves being the best example.

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THE EFFECTS OF WINDSHEAR ON AN AIRCRAFT IN FLIGHT


In windshear the magnitude of the change of wind vector and the rate at which it happens determine the severity. An aeroplane at 1000 ft agl may have a headwind component of 40 kt with a surface headwind component of only of 20 kt on the runway. The 20 kt difference may reduce evenly and the effect is negligible, or if the speed differential still exists at 300 ft the change through further descent is marked. Windshear implies a narrow borderline and the 20 kt of wind speed may well be lost over a small vertical distance.

Shear Line
30 kt IAS 130 kt Groundspeed 100 kt IAS 110 kt Groundspeed 100 kt

10 kt

As shown in the diagram, the loss of airspeed when passing through the shear line is sudden. The inertia of the aircraft keeps it at its original ground speed of 100 kt and power is needed to accelerate the aircraft back to its original air speed. This takes time and there is sinking, as lift is lost. The headwind was a form of energy and when it dropped 20 kt, an equivalent amount of energy loss occurred.

Shear Line
30 kt IAS 120 kt Groundspeed 100 kt 10 kt IAS 140 kt Groundspeed 100 kt

The opposite effect happens when taking off. Assume a climb with a 10 kt headwind, which changes to a 30 kt headwind. The target climb speed is 120 kt. The effect of a sudden transition to a 20 kt increase of headwind increases the lAS by the same amount until the momentum of the ground speed is lost. The aircraft climbs more rapidly with the added lift.

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SUMMARY
Effect of Windshear IAS Headwind Increase Headwind Decrease Tailwind Increase Tailwind Decrease Increase Decrease Decrease Increase Effect Climb Descent Descent Climb

TECHNIQUES TO COUNTER THE EFFECTS OF WINDSHEAR


There is no international agreement for grading windshear. Always plan for the worst case scenario. If the forecast calls for thunderstorms at the planned destination, then expect windshear and give consideration to the following. Increase the airspeed on the approach. Rule of thumb guidance include adding half the headwind component of the reported surface wind to VAT, or, half the mean wind speed plus half the gust factor, in each case up to a maximum of 20 kt. Where a sudden increase in airspeed occurs, the normal reaction to the rise above the glidepath is to reduce power to regain the glidepath. The pilot must be alert to the need to increase power in good time to avoid dropping below the glidepath. In the later stages of an approach windshear can be much more hazardous. A drop in the wind speed might bring about a very sudden drop in airspeed with an increase in the rate of descent. A rapid and positive increase in power is needed. Vital actions to counter loss of airspeed caused by windshear near the ground: Increase power to full go-around Raise the nose to check descent (to stick shaker operation) Co-ordinate power and pitch Be prepared to carry out a missed approach rather than risk landing from a destabilised approach The technique for dealing with the effect of a microburst is as follows: If an initial rise in airspeed and rise above the approach path occurs Increase thrust to go-around power. Select a pitch angle for a missed approach, typically about 15, and hold it against turbulence and buffeting. The increased airspeed and rate of climb may be rapidly lost. If the downdraught strikes, airspeed may be lost and the aircraft may start to descend even with the high power and pitch angle. The most critical period is when the downdraught begins to change to increasing tailwind. The rate of descent may decrease, but the airspeed may continue to fall. If maximum thrust is already applied and there is a risk of striking the ground or an obstacle, increase the pitch angle until feeling the stick shaker.

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When there is an indefinite risk of windshear, it may be possible to use a longer runway or one that points away from an area of potential threat. Rotating at a slightly higher speed may be possible. The high power setting and high pitch angle after rotation put the aircraft an optimum configuration should a microburst strike. In both approach and take-off cases. Vital actions are: Use the maximum power available as soon as possible. Adopt a pitch angle of around 15 and try to hold that attitude. Do not chase airspeed. Be guided by stick shaker indications when holding or increasing pitch attitude, easing the backpressure as required to attain and hold a slightly lower attitude. Windshear warning can be provided in several ways: Meteorological warning ATS warning Pilot warning On board pre-encounter warning On board encounter warning and/or guidance

WAKE TURBULENCE
AIRCRAFT WAKE VORTEX CHARACTERISTICS
Wake vortices are present behind every aircraft in forward flight. They are most hazardous to aircraft with a small wing span during the take-off, Initial climb, final approach, and landing phase. The characteristics of the wake vortex system generated by an aircraft in flight are determined initially by the aircraft's gross mass, wingspan, aircraft configuration, and attitude. Two counter-rotating cylindrical air masses trailing behind the aircraft make up the vortex system in the wake of an aircraft. The two vortices are separated by about three quarters of the aircraft's wingspan. In still air, the vortices tend to drift slowly downward and either level off, usually not more than 1000 ft below the flight path of the aircraft, or, approaching the ground, move sideways from the track of the generating aircraft at a height roughly equal to half the aircraft's wingspan. The tangential airspeed can be up to 300 ft/sec immediately behind a large aircraft. This decays slowly with time.

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Wake vortex generation begins when the nose wheel lifts off the runway on take-off and continues until the nose wheel touches down on landing. Vortex strength increases with the weight of the generating aircraft. With the aircraft in a given configuration, the vortex strength decreases with increasing aircraft speed, and for a given weight and speed the vortex strength is greatest when the aircraft is in a clean configuration. For a given weight and speed, a helicopter produces a stronger vortex than a fixed-wing aircraft. It is normal for aircraft to take off into wind. The wake vortex generated by an aircraft taking off drifts on the wind, and may be a hazard to an aircraft taking off from a point on the same runway, short of where the first aircraft rotated. Cross winds cause the vortex to drift sideways and may present a hazard to aircraft using adjacent parallel or near parallel runways.

WAKE VORTEX AVOIDANCE ADVICE TO PILOTS


Avoid the area 1000 ft below and behind a large aircraft. The wake turbulence group of an aircraft should be indicated on the flight plan (Item 9) as H, M, or L according to the ICAO specification. Wake Turbulence Categories Category Heavy (H) Medium (M) Light (L) Weight > 136 000 kg 7000 136 000 kg 7000 kg or less

WAKE TURBULENCE SPACING


ATC applies the following radar (distance) and procedural (time) separation to counter the effect of wake turbulence. Note that wake turbulence is not a problem where the following aircraft is above the preceding aircraft and separation of 1 minute can be achieved between successive arriving aircraft. Wake Turbulence Spacing Minima Arrivals Leading Aircraft Heavy Heavy Heavy Medium Medium Medium Light Light Light Following Aircraft Heavy Medium Light Heavy Medium Light Heavy Medium Light Spacing Minima Distance 4 nm 5 nm 6 nm 3 nm 3 nm 5 nm 3 nm 3 nm 3 nm

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Apply the minima when operating behind another aircraft or when crossing the path of an aircraft at the same altitude or 1000 ft below. Note in the table below, there is no allowance made for aircraft of the same type. The standard ATC departure separation of 1 minute between take-offs (minimum of 45 track divergence) covers this case. Wake Turbulence Spacing Minima Departures Leading Aircraft Heavy Medium Heavy Medium Following Aircraft Medium or light Light Medium or light Light Minimum Spacing at the Time Aircraft are Airborne Departing from the same position Departing from an intermediate point on the same runway 2 minutes 2 minutes 3 minutes 3 minutes

Differing categories of aircraft can lead to separation problems on departure

WAKE TURBULENCE SPACING MINIMA DISPLACED LANDING THRESHOLD Use a spacing of two minutes between medium or light aircraft following a heavy aircraft, and light aircraft following a medium aircraft when operating on a runway with a displaced threshold when:
A departing medium or light aircraft follows a heavy aircraft or a departing light aircraft follows a medium aircraft An arriving medium or light aircraft follows a heavy aircraft departure, or an arriving light aircraft follows a departing medium aircraft Expecting the projected flight paths to cross

WAKE TURBULENCE SPACING MINIMA OPPOSITE DIRECTION A spacing of two minutes between a medium or light aircraft and a heavy aircraft, and between a medium aircraft and a light aircraft whenever the heavier aircraft is making a low or missed approach and the lighter aircraft is:
Taking-off on the same runway in the opposite direction Landing on the same runway in the opposite direction Landing on a parallel opposite direction runway separated by less than 760 m

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WAKE TURBULENCE SPACING MINIMA CROSSING AND PARALLEL RUNWAYS When parallel runways separated by less than 760 m are in use, consider these runways as single runways. WAKE TURBULENCE SPACING MINIMA INTERMEDIATE APPROACH On intermediate approach, apply a minimum wake turbulence spacing of 5 nm between a heavy and a medium or light aircraft following or crossing behind.

TRANSPORT OF DANGEROUS GOODS BY AIR


TERMINOLOGY
Terms used in this Subpart have the following meanings: Acceptance Check List A document used to assist in carrying out a check on the external appearance of packages of dangerous goods and their associated documents to determine that all appropriate requirements have been met. Cargo Aircraft Any aircraft which is carrying goods or property, but not passengers. In this context the following are not considered to be passengers: A crewmember An operator's employee permitted by, and carried in accordance with the instructions contained in the Operations Manual An authorised representative of an Authority A person with duties in respect of a particular shipment on board Dangerous Goods Accident An occurrence associated with and related to the transport of dangerous goods which results in fatal or serious injury to a person or major property damage. Dangerous Goods Incident An occurrence, other than a dangerous goods accident, associated with and related to the transport of dangerous goods, not necessarily occurring on board an aircraft, which results in injury to a person, property damage, fire, breakage, spillage, leakage of fluid or radiation Oopsincident or accident? or other evidence of improper maintenance of the integrity of the packaging. Also considered a dangerous goods incident is any occurrence relating to the transport of dangerous goods which seriously jeopardises the aircraft or its occupants.

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Dangerous Goods Transport Document A document which is specified by the Technical Instructions. Completion of this document is by the person who offers dangerous goods for air transport and contains information about those dangerous goods. The document bears a signed declaration indicating that the dangerous goods are fully and accurately described by their proper shipping names and UN numbers (if assigned) and that they are correctly classified, packed, marked, labelled, and in a proper condition for transport. Freight Container A freight container is an article of transport equipment for radioactive materials, designed to facilitate the transport of such materials, either packaged or unpackaged, by one or more modes of transport.

NOT a recommended loading technique! Handling Agent An agency which performs on behalf of the operator some or all of the latter's functions including receiving, loading, unloading, transferring, or other processing of passengers or cargo. Over pack An enclosure used by a single shipper to contain one or more packages and to form one handling unit for convenience of handling and stowage. Package The complete product of the packing operation consisting of the packaging and its contents prepared for transport. Packaging Receptacles and any other components or materials necessary for the receptacle to perform its containment function and to ensure compliance with the packing requirements.

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Proper Shipping Name The name used to describe a particular article or substance in all shipping documents and notifications and, where appropriate, on packaging. Serious Injury An injury sustained by a person in an accident and which: Requires hospitalisation for more than 48 hours, commencing within seven days from the date the injury was received; or Results in a fracture of any bone (except simple fractures of fingers, toes or nose); or Involves lacerations which cause severe haemorrhage, nerve, muscle or tendon damage; or Involves injury to any internal organ; or Involves second or third degree burns, or any burns affecting more than 5% of the body surface; or Involves verified exposure to infectious substances or injurious radiation. State of Origin The Authority in whose territory the dangerous goods were first loaded on an aircraft. Technical Instructions The latest effective edition of the Technical Instructions for the Safe Transport of Dangerous Goods by Air (Doc 9284-AN/905), including the Supplement and any Addendum, approved and published by decision of the Council of the International Civil Aviation Organisation. UN Number The four-digit number assigned by the United Nations Committee of Experts on the Transport of Dangerous Goods to identify a substance or a particular group of substances. Unit Load Device Any type of aircraft container, aircraft pallet with a net, or aircraft pallet with a net over an igloo. Note: An over pack is not included in this definition. For a container containing radioactive materials see the definition for freight container.

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DANGEROUS GOODS CATEGORIES


Class 1 - Explosives Class 2 - Compressed gases Class 3 - Flammable liquids Class 4 - Other flammable hazards Class 5 - Oxygen rich material, oxidisers, and organic peroxides Class 6 - Material affecting health, poisons, and infectious substances Class 7 - Radioactive material Class 8 - Corrosive material Class 9 - Miscellaneous hazards

REQUIREMENTS
An operator must comply with the provisions contained in the Technical Instructions on all occasions when carrying dangerous goods, irrespective of whether the flight is wholly or partly within or wholly outside the territory of a State. Articles and substances, otherwise classed as dangerous goods, are excluded from the provisions of this Subpart, to the extent specified in the Technical Instructions, provided: 1. 2. 3. 4. They must be aboard the aeroplane in accordance with the relevant JARs or for operating reasons. They are carried as catering or cabin service supplies. They are carried for use in flight as veterinary aid or as a humane killer for an animal. They are carried for use in flight for medical aid for a patient, if: a. Gas cylinders were manufactured specifically for the purpose of containing and transporting that particular gas. b. Drugs, medicines, and other medical matter are under the control of trained personnel during the time when they are in use in the aeroplane. c. Equipment containing wet cell batteries is kept, and when necessary secured, in an upright position to prevent spillage of the electrolyte. d. Proper provision is made to stow and secure all the equipment during takeoff and landing and at all other times when deemed necessary by the Commander in the interest of safety. They are carried by passengers or crewmembers.

5.

DANGEROUS GOODS ON AN AEROPLANE FOR OPERATING REASONS


Dangerous goods required on board an aeroplane in accordance with the relevant JARs or for operating reasons, are those which are for the airworthiness of the aeroplane, the safe operation of the aeroplane, or the health of passengers or crew. These include: batteries, fire extinguishers, first-aid kits, insecticides/air fresheners, life saving appliances, and portable oxygen supplies.

LOADING RESTRICTIONS
An operator shall ensure that dangerous goods are not carried in an aeroplane cabin occupied by passengers or on the flight deck, unless otherwise specified in the Technical Instructions.

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CARGO COMPARTMENTS
An operator shall ensure that dangerous goods are loaded, segregated, stowed, and secured on an aeroplane as specified in the Technical Instructions.

PACKING AND LABELLING


Dangerous goods are to be clearly marked as such and the packaging must be adequate. Details of labelling and packaging are contained in the technical Instructions.

INFORMATION FOR PASSENGERS AND OTHER PERSONS


An operator shall ensure the promulgation of information as required by the Technical Instructions to warn passengers as to the types of goods that they are forbidden from transporting The DC6 cargo compartment aboard an aeroplane, and ensure the provision of notices at acceptance points for cargo giving information about the transport of dangerous goods.

INFORMATION TO CREWMEMBERS
An operator shall ensure the provision of information in the Operations Manual to enable crewmembers to carry out their responsibilities concerning the transport of dangerous goods, including the actions to be taken in the event of emergencies arising involving dangerous goods.

INFORMATION TO THE COMMANDER


An operator shall ensure the provision of the Commander with written information, as specified in the Technical Instructions.

INFORMATION IN THE EVENT OF AN AEROPLANE INCIDENT OR ACCIDENT


Both the operator and the Commander of an aeroplane involved in an aeroplane incident shall, on request, provide any information required to minimise the hazards created by any dangerous goods carried. If involved in an aeroplane accident the operator and/or the Commander is, as soon as possible, to inform the appropriate authority of the State in which the aeroplane accident occurred of any dangerous goods carried.

CONTAMINATED RUNWAYS
TERMINOLOGY
Terms used in this section have the following meaning: Contaminated runway A runway is considered to be contaminated when more than 25% of the runway surface area (whether in isolated areas or not) within the required length and width used is covered by the following: Surface water more than 3 mm (0.125 in) deep, or by slush, or loose snow, equivalent to more than 3 mm (0.125 in) of water; Snow which has been compressed into a solid mass which resists further compression and holds together or breaks into lumps if picked up (compacted snow); or Ice, including wet ice. Operational Procedures 8-23

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Damp runway A damp runway is where the surface is not dry, but the moisture on it does not give it a shiny appearance. Dry runway A dry runway is one which is neither wet nor contaminated, and includes those paved runways, specially prepared with grooves or porous pavement, and maintained to retain effectively dry braking action even when moisture is present. Wet runway A wet runway is a water covered surface, or equivalent, less than as defined in Contaminated runway above or when there is sufficient moisture on the runway surface to cause it to appear reflective, but without significant areas of standing water. Contaminant Depth If exceeding the following limits, then do not attempt a take-off: Dry snow Very dry snow Water, slush or wet snow > 60 mm > 80 mm > 15 mm

AQUAPLANING (HYDROPLANING)
Aquaplaning is the effect of the tyres of an aeroplane riding over water on the surface of a runway. As the speed of the aeroplane on the ground increases a bow wave of water builds up in front of the tyre and eventually the tyre is lifted off the surface. This allows the tyre to slow, and creates a friction boundary between the tyre and the surface of the runway. The heat generated by the friction can cause the tyre to scald and the rubber to melt with the possibility of tyre explosion. In any event, when a tyre is aquaplaning there is a loss of adhesion and thus loss of directional control. This is not such a problem for normal take-off except in the case of a rejected take-off. It is a major concern for aircraft landing on to a contaminated runway especially in a cross wind condition. Aquaplaning does not generally begin at a speed less than the critical speed given by the formula:

V = 9P
Where: V is the groundspeed (kt) P is the tyre pressure (lb per in2)

However, once hydroplaning starts, it continues to speeds well below the critical speed. There are three types of hydroplaning: Dynamic Hydroplaning Dynamic hydroplaning is a condition where the tyre lifts completely above the surface of the runway. As little as 2.5 mm of water is sufficient to produce dynamic hydroplaning. Viscous Hydroplaning Viscous hydroplaning can occur at slower speeds and rather than the water lifting the tyre from the pavement, the tyre slips on a thin film. This occurs on smooth runways.

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Reverted Rubber (Steam) Hydroplaning Hard braking during a rejected takeoff or long landing may causes the brakes to lock, although the maxaret units should act in the same manner as the ABS systems in cars. If brake locking occurs on a wet runway, the tyre track area heats up due to friction causing some of the rubber to revert back to a gummy state, trapping water. The water turns to steam and steam pressure lifts the tyre from the runway.

STATIONARY TYRE Studies show that a tyre that is not rotating does hydroplane at a lower speed than a rotating tyre. NASA has evaluated the speed as 7.7 x P. There is a question in the question bank concerning non-rotating tyres. RECOMMENDATIONS It is nearly impossible to land an aeroplane at a speed below the critical speed, but using the following techniques can reduce the effects of hydroplaning:
Approach to land at the slowest airspeed consistent with safety; that is, use the short-field landing technique. Land firmly, rather than making the smooth, greaser type landing. Lower the nose wheel to the surface as soon as the main wheels are firmly on the surface. Know the hydroplaning critical speed and avoid heavy braking above this speed. Retract the flaps immediately after landing to place more weight on the tyres. Divert to an alternate aerodrome when conditions indicate a potential hydroplaning hazard on runways experiencing a strong crosswind. Tyre Pressure Vs. Hydroplaning Speed Tyre Pressure lb/Bar Hydroplaning Speed Knots 30 /2.0 49 50/3.45 100/5.5 150/10.35 200/13.8 225/15.5 64 90 110 127 (B737) 135 (B777)

If the surface is covered by a contaminant other than water, then divide P by the specific gravity of the contaminant. Tyre configuration, treading, etc., increase the speed at which aquaplaning begins. Beware: there is a question in the exam where the given tyre pressure is in Bar. (1 Bar = 14.5 psi).

WHEEL BRAKING ON WET RUNWAYS The retardation effect of an aircraft braking system relies on friction with the surface of the runway. If the surface is not dry then the amount of friction is reduced. The reduction in friction can be given in a factor known as the co-efficient of braking, defined by the value of friction of the runway at an instant in time, determined by measurement, divided by the value of friction for the same runway when dry. If the runway is dry, the coefficient of braking is 1. If not dry, the coefficient is less than 1.
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All paved runways of 1200 m or longer require calibration for co-efficient of braking. When wet, good braking action is possible to calculate. RTF reports the presence of water on a runway as follows: Dry Damp Wet Water Patches Flooded The surface is dry. The surface shows a change of colour due to moisture. The surface is soaked, but no significant patches of standing water are visible. Significant patches of standing water are visible. Extensive standing water is visible.

INTERPRETATION When a runway is reported as dry, damp, or wet, pilots may assume an acceptable level of braking friction is present. Water patches or flooded means that braking may be affected by hydroplaning and appropriate adjustments should be considered. Water patches will be reported if at least 25% of the runway is affected.
When a runway is notified as slippery when wet, take-offs and landings in wet conditions should only be considered if the distances equal or exceed the distances required for icy runways as defined in the aircraft manual.

SNOW, SLUSH, OR ICE ON A RUNWAY Whenever a runway is affected by snow, slush, or ice and it has not been possible to clear the precipitant fully, assess the condition of the runway, and the friction coefficient measured.
The table below, with associated descriptive terms, was developed from friction data collected in compacted snow and ice and should not be taken as absolute values applicable in all conditions. Friction Co-efficient Measured Coefficient 0.40 and above 0.39 to 0.36 0.35 to 0.30 0.29 to 0.26 0.25 and below Estimated Braking Action Good Medium to good Medium Medium to poor Poor Code 5 4 3 2 1

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If the surface is affected by snow or ice and the braking action reported as good, pilots should not expect to find conditions as good as on a clean dry runway (where the available friction may well be greater than that needed in any case). The value good is a comparative value and is intended to mean that aeroplanes should not experience directional control or braking difficulties especially when landing.

BIRD HAZARD REDUCTION


Assess the bird strike hazard on, or near, an aerodrome, through the establishment of a national procedure for recording and reporting bird strikes to aircraft, and the collection of information from aircraft operations personnel on the presence of birds on or around the aerodrome. Report all bird strikes. On aerodromes, the use of the following deters birds congregating in large flocks: Long grass Bird scaring techniques such as: Pyrotechnics (most effective) Bird distress calls Rubbish tips or other equivalent waste areas attract birds. A bird generally reacts to the proximity of an aircraft within 3 seconds.

BIRD HAZARDS AND STRIKES When a potential bird hazard is observed, the Commander immediately informs the local ATSU. Where a bird strike occurs then a written bird strike report is submitted to the authority after landing, if the aircraft sustains significant damage. If the Commander is unable to do this, then the operator must submit the report. IBIS ICAO established a system to collect and disseminate information concerning bird strikes, known as IBIS (ICAO Bird Strike Information System). Other sources of information include pilot reports, NOTAMS, ground radar detections, and aerodromes VCR observations. Where specific aerodromes are on migratory routes, local information may be broadcast on ATIS or a BIRDTAM may be promulgated.

The damage resulting from a bird strike can be significant.

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NOISE ABATEMENT PROCEDURES


ICAO Document 8168 PANS-OPS details the information required for departure and approach procedures regarding noise abatement. Aircraft are noisy and in the modern era where an airport is close to a built-up area, designed procedures reduce the noise as much as possible. The Operator must ensure the compliance of noise abatement procedures. In order to check compliance, the authority positions noise monitoring stations along the required flight path and operators must ensure that pilots fly over the stations during departures. Where special departure procedures are designed, the MTOM may be limited in order to achieve the requirements of the two noise abatement procedures. Outlined below are two procedures. In the Los, there is reference to procedures A and B. These were replaced in 2002 with the procedures (NADP 1 and 2) detailed below. Note, do not initiate both procedures at less than 800 ft above aerodrome level. Noise abatement procedures in the form of reduced power take-off should not be required in adverse operating conditions such as: If the runway surface conditions are adversely affected (e.g. snow, slush, ice or other contaminants) When the horizontal visibility is less than 1.9 km (1 nm) When the crosswind component, including gusts, exceeds 15 knots When the tailwind component, including gusts, exceeds 5 knots When wind shear has been reported or forecast Thunderstorms are expected to affect the approach or departure

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NOISE ABATEMENT DEPARTURE - PROCEDURE 1 (NADP 1)


The intention of this procedure is to provide noise reduction for noise sensitive areas in close proximity to the departure end of the runway. The procedure involves a power reduction at or above the prescribed minimum altitude and the delay of flap/slat retraction until attaining the prescribed maximum altitude. The initial climbing speed to the noise abatement initiation point is not less than V2 + 10 knots When at or above 800 ft above aerodrome elevation the engine power/thrust is adjusted in accordance with the noise abatement schedule in the aircraft operating manual A climb speed of V2 plus 10 to 20 knots is maintained with the flaps/slats in the takeoff position At no more than 3000 ft above aerodrome elevation while maintaining a positive rate of climb, the aircraft is accelerated and the flaps/slats retracted At 3000 ft above aerodrome elevation accelerate to enroute climb speed Maintain positive rate of climb Accelerate smoothly to enroute climb speed At no more than 3000 ft, retract flaps/slats on schedule 3000 ft

Climb at V2 + 10 to 20 kt Maintain reduced power Maintain flaps/slats in the take-off configuration

Initiate power reduction at or above 800 ft 800 ft Takeoff Thrust V2 + 10 to 20 kt (Or V2 + 20 to 40 kmh)

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NOISE ABATEMENT DEPARTURE PROCEDURE 2 (NADP 2)


The design of this procedure is to alleviate noise distant from the aerodrome. The procedure involves the initiation of the flap/slat retraction on reaching the minimum prescribed altitude. While maintaining a positive rate of climb, on schedule, retract the flaps/slats. Perform the power reduction: With the first flap/slat retraction When the zero flap/slat configuration is attained At the prescribed altitude, make the transition to normal enroute climb procedures. The initial climbing speed to the noise abatement initiation point is V2 + 10 to 20 knots. On reaching 800 ft above aerodrome elevation, decrease the body angle/angle of pitch while still maintaining a positive rate of climb. Accelerate the aircraft to VZF and: Reduce power with the initiation of the first flap/slat retraction, or Reduce power after flap/slat retraction Maintain a positive rate of climb and accelerate the aircraft to a climb speed of VZF plus 10 to 20 knots to 3000 ft above aerodrome elevation. Make the transition to normal enroute climb speed at 3000 ft.

On reaching 3000 ft transition smoothly to enroute climb speed 3000 ft Not before 800 ft with a positive rate of climb accelerate to VZF and reduce power with the initiation of the first flap/slat retraction or When flaps/slats are retracted with a positive rate of climb reduce power and climb at VZF + 10 to 20 kt

800 ft Takeoff Thrust V2 + 10 to 20 kt (Or V2 + 20 to 40 kmh)

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NOISE ABATEMENT ON APPROACH


For an approach, the aircraft is in a final landing configuration 5 nm from the threshold of the landing runway, or after passing the outer marker if it is more than 5 nm from the threshold. For landing there is no limitation on the use of reverse thrust. A displaced threshold is only used for noise abatement if noise is sufficiently reduced and the runway distance is still sufficiently long for the operations required. The following conditions preclude the choice of runway to use with regard to noise abatement: If the runway is not clear and dry The cloud ceiling is 500 ft (150 m) for landing or the horizontal visibility is less than 1.9 km for take-off or landing The cross wind component including gusts exceeds 15 knots The tail wind component including gusts exceeds 5 knots When windshear has been reported or is forecast When thunderstorms are expected to affect the approach or departure

STABILISED APPROACH A method of reducing noise from approaching aircraft is to use a procedure known as stabilised approach. This method requires the aircraft to adopt the required rate of descent (usually 300 ft/nm) from the IAF all the way to the threshold of the landing runway. The Approach Controller or Approach Radar Controller requests the aircraft to fly at a certain speed (usually about 210 kt) and by accurate radar vectoring, the aircraft arrives at the outer marker or FAP at the glide path height. This procedure allows the pilot to set the throttles, lift/drag enhancers, and gear at a very early stage in the approach (in the case of Heathrow at FL70) and use attitude to adjust speed for separation.

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We would like to thank and acknowledge: For photographs and assistance Page 9-6 Mr. Ashley Gibb.

OPERATIONAL APPROVAL AND AIRCRAFT SYSTEM REQUIREMENTS FOR FLIGHT IN THE NAT MNPS AIRSPACE
INTRODUCTION
The reference for transoceanic flight is the North Atlantic MNPS Airspace Operations Manual Ninth Edition. The North Atlantic Area (NAT) consists of five oceanic FIRs, four of which are known as Oceanic Control Areas (OCAs). These are Shanwick, Santa Maria, Gander, and New York. The fifth is the Reykjavik Oceanic FIR. The ICAO Procedures for Oceanic and polar flight also apply to operations in the Bod and Sonderstrom OCAs. All of these FIRs are Class A airspace from FL55 up to FL660. Below FL55, the airspace is class G. Additional material relating to North Atlantic aircraft operations are in the following documents: ICAO Annexes PANS/RAC (Doc.4444) Regional Supplementary Procedures (Doc.7030) State AIPs Current NOTAMs

MINIMUM NAVIGATION PERFORMANCE SPECIFICATION AIRSPACE (MNPSA)


Within the NAT region, part of the controlled airspace is further classified as airspace within which a minimum navigation performance is specified. This is to ensure that where aircraft are flying out of the range of ground based radar and navigation aids, they can be navigated so as not to pose a threat to the navigation of other aircraft. The vertical dimension of MNPS Airspace is between FL285 and FL420; the cruising levels available are FL290 to FL410 inclusive. The lateral dimensions include the following Control Areas (CTAs): REYKJAVIK (to the North Pole) SHANWICK AND GANDER OCEANIC SANTA MARIA OCEANIC North of 27N NEW YORK OCEANIC North of 27N but excluding the area west of 60W and south of 3830'N

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MNPS AIRSPACE

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RVSM
RVSM applies within MNPS airspace. Air Law notes cover RVSM (reduced vertical separation minima) in detail. Briefly, where applying RVSM, the vertical separation of aircraft remains at 1000 ft above FL300 rather than increasing to the standard 2000 ft in accordance with the rules of the air. RVSM is applied between FL290 and FL410 inclusive.

ABBREVIATIONS
The following abbreviations are for use in conjunction with subsequent chapters.
ACC ADC AFTN AIC AIP AIS ARINC ASR ATA ATM AWPR BRNAV CAR CDU CMA CTA DCPC DME DR ELT ETOPS EUR FDE FIR FL FLAS FMC FMS GLONASS GMU GNE GNSS GP GPS Area Control Centre Air Data Computer Aeronautical Fixed Telecommunication Network Aeronautical Information Circular Aeronautical Information Publication Aeronautical Information Service Aeronautical Radio Incorporated Aviation Safety Report Actual Time of Arrival Air Traffic Management Automatic Waypoint Reporting Basic Area Navigation Caribbean Control Display Unit Central Monitoring Agency Control Area Direct Controller/Pilot Communications Distance Measuring Equipment Dead Reckoning Emergency Locator Transmitter Extended Range Twin-engine Aircraft Ops Europe Fault Detection and Exclusion Flight Information Region Flight Level Flight Level Allocation Scheme Flight Management Computer Flight Management System Global Orbiting Navigation Satellite System GPS (Height) Monitoring Unit Gross Navigation Error Global Navigation Satellite System General Purpose Global Positioning System HMU LRNS MASPS MEL MNPS MTT NAM NAR NAT NAT SPG NDB nm OAC OCA OTS PRM PTS RA RAIM RMI RNP RVSM SELCAL SID SSB SSR SST TA TAS TCAS TLS TMI WAH WATRS Height Monitoring Unit Long Range Navigation System Minimum Aircraft System Performance Spec Minimum Equipment List Minimum Navigation Performance Spec Minimum Time Track North America North American Route North Atlantic North Atlantic Systems Planning Group Non Directional Beacon Nautical Mile Oceanic Area Control Centre Oceanic Control Area Organised Track System Preferred Route Message Polar Track Structure Resolution Advisory Receiver-Autonomous Integrity Monitoring Remote Magnetic Indicator Required Navigation Performance Reduced Vertical Separation Minimum Selective Calling Standard Instrument Departure Single Sideband Secondary Surveillance Radar Supersonic Transport Traffic Advisory True Airspeed Traffic Collision Avoidance System Target Level of Safety Track Message Identification When Able Higher West Atlantic Route System

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Transoceanic and Polar Flight

GENERAL
All flights in MNPS airspace must achieve the highest standards of horizontal and vertical navigation performance and accuracy. Aircraft operating within MNPS Airspace must meet a Minimum Navigation Performance Specification (MNPS) in the horizontal plane through the mandatory carriage and use of a specified level of navigation equipment. Aircraft operating at RVSM levels in NAT MNPS Airspace must be equipped with altimetry and height keeping systems which meet RVSM Minimum Aircraft System Performance Specifications (MASPS). The ultimate responsibility for checking that a NAT MNPS/RVSM flight has the necessary approval rests with the Commander.

EMERGENCY LOCATOR TRANSMITTERS (ELT)


Carry Emergency Locator Transmitters (ELTs) for flights over the NAT region. These beacons must operate on frequency 406 MHz and have a 121.5 MHz search and rescue homing capability.

NAVIGATION REQUIREMENTS FOR UNRESTRICTED MNPS AIRSPACE OPERATIONS


LONGITUDINAL NAVIGATION
The assessment of longitudinal separations between aircraft following the same track and between aircraft on intersecting tracks in the NAT MNPS Airspace is by use of ATAs/ETAs at common waypoints. The longitudinal separation minima currently used in the NAT MNPS Airspace are expressed in clock minutes and the maintenance of in-trail separations is aided by the application of the Mach Number Technique. Aircraft clock errors can result in waypoint ATA reporting errors. The time-keeping device intended for use in indicating waypoint passing times must be accurate, and synchronised to an acceptable UTC time signal before commencing flight in MNPS Airspace. The pre-flight procedures for any NAT MNPS operation must include a UTC time check and resynchronisation of the aircraft Master Clock.

LATERAL NAVIGATION
There are two navigational requirements for aircraft planning to operate in MNPS Airspace: 1. The necessary navigation performance achieved, in terms of accuracy. 2. The need to carry standby equipment with comparable performance characteristics. For approval of unrestricted operation in the MNPS Airspace, an aircraft must be equipped with two fully serviceable Long Range Navigation Systems (LRNSs). Each LRNS must be capable of providing to the flight crew a continuous indication of the aircraft position relative to desired track. A LRNS may be one of the following: One Inertial Navigation System (INS) One Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) One navigation system using the inputs from one or more Inertial Reference System (IRS) or any other sensor system complying with the MNPS requirement

9-4

Operational Procedures

Transoceanic and Polar Flight

Chapter 9

ROUTES FOR AIRCRAFT WITH ONLY ONE LRNS


A number of special routes have been developed for aircraft equipped with only one LRNS and carrying normal short-range navigation equipment (VOR, DME, ADF). These routes are within MNPS Airspace, and State approval must be obtained prior to flying along them. They are also available for interim use by aircraft normally approved for unrestricted MNPS operations that suffered a partial loss of navigation capability and have only a single remaining functional LRNS. Detailed descriptions of the special routes known as Blue Spruce Routes are included later.

ROUTES FOR AIRCRAFT WITH SHORT-RANGE NAVIGATION EQUIPMENT ONLY


Aircraft equipped with only with short-range navigation equipment (VOR, DME, ADF) may operate through MNPS Airspace, along routes G3 or G11, with required State approval. It is the responsibility of pilots with limited certification to reject clearances that would otherwise divert them from officially permitted routes.

SPECIAL ARRANGEMENTS FOR THE PENETRATION OF MNPS AIRSPACE BY NON-MNPS APPROVED AIRCRAFT
The responsible ATC unit may clear an aircraft to climb/descend in MNPS Airspace provided the completion of the climb or descent is within the coverage of selected VOR/DMEs or NDBs and/or within radar coverage of the ATC unit issuing the clearance and the aircraft is able to maintain Direct Controller/Pilot Communications (DCPC) on VHF; and MNPS approved aircraft operating in that part of the MNPS Airspace affected by any climb or descent are not penalised. Non-MNPS Approved aircraft may also be cleared to climb or descend through MNPS Airspace for the sole purpose of landing at or departing from an airport which underlies MNPS Airspace but which does not have serviceable short range navaids, radar or DCPC. Details are in the AIS publications of the appropriate ATS Provider State.

EQUIPMENT REQUIRED FOR OPERATIONS AT RVSM LEVELS


Embodied in the MASPS for RVSM flight operations is the minimum equipment standard. These MASPS require: Two fully serviceable independent primary altitude measurement systems One automatic altitude-control system One altitude-alerting device Mode C A functioning Mode C SSR Transponder is also required for flight through radar controlled RVSM transition airspace. Altimeter Checks When checking altimeters (pre-flight or in-flight), confirmation is necessary that all altitude indications are within the tolerances specified in the aircraft operating manual. At least two primary altimeters must at all times agree within plus or minus 200 ft.

Operational Procedures

9-5

Chapter 9

Transoceanic and Polar Flight

Independent pitot-static systems are required for RVSM approval

SPECIAL ARRANGEMENTS FOR NON-RVSM APPROVED AIRCRAFT


CLIMB/DESCENT THROUGH RVSM LEVELS MNPS approved aircraft not approved for RVSM operation are permitted to climb/descend through RVSM levels to attain cruising levels above or below RVSM airspace. Flights have to climb/descend continuously through the RVSM levels without stopping at any intermediate level and should report leaving their current level and report reaching their cleared level. OPERATION AT RVSM LEVELS ATC may provide an altitude reservation for an MNPS approved aircraft that is not approved for RVSM operation to fly at RVSM levels provided that the aircraft is on a delivery flight, was RVSM approved but suffered an equipment failure and is returning to its base for repair and/or reapproval, or is on a mercy or humanitarian flight.
Operators requiring an altitude reservation should contact the initial Oceanic Area Control Centre (OAC), normally not more than 12 hours and not less than 4 hours prior to the intended departure time. The altitude reservation approval should be clearly indicated in item 18 of the ICAO flight plan.

9-6

Operational Procedures

GENERAL
North Atlantic (NAT) air traffic contributes to two major alternating flows: 1. A westbound flow departing Europe in the morning, and 2. An eastbound flow departing North America in the evening. The effect is to concentrate the traffic at 30W: 1. Peak westbound traffic occurring between 1130 UTC and 1800 UTC, and 2. Peak eastbound traffic occurring between 0100 UTC and 0800 UTC Use of OTS tracks is not mandatory. Aircraft may fly on random routes which remain clear of the OTS or may fly on any route that joins or leaves an outer track of the OTS. There is also nothing to prevent an operator from planning a route which crosses the OTS. At and above FL55 the NAT Region is Class A airspace and Instrument Flight Rules (IFR) apply at all times. Airspace utilisation is achieved by the application of Mach Number Technique, and RVSM.

MACH NUMBER TECHNIQUE


DESCRIPTION OF TERMS
Mach Number Technique describes the technique where subsonic turbojet aircraft are cleared by ATC to maintain appropriate Mach numbers for a portion of the enroute phase of their flight.

OBJECTIVE
The objective of the use of Mach Number Technique is to achieve improved utilisation of the airspace on long route segments where ATC has no means other than position reports of ensuring that the longitudinal separation between successive aircraft does not reduce below the established minimum.

PROCEDURES IN NAT OCEANIC AIRSPACE


The ATC clearance includes the assigned Mach number to maintain. Information on the desired Mach number is included in the flight plan for turbojet aircraft intending to fly in NAT oceanic airspace. ATC uses Mach number together with pilot position reports to calculate estimated times for significant points along track. These times provide the basis for longitudinal separation between aircraft and for co-ordination with adjacent ATC units. Longitudinal separation between successive aircraft flying a particular track at the same flight level starts from the oceanic entry point. Following aircraft on the same track can be assigned different Mach numbers. These ensure that prescribed separations are maintained throughout the oceanic crossing. Intervention by ATC is only necessary if an aircraft requires a change to its Mach number due to conflicting traffic or to change its flight level. Operational Procedures 10-1

Chapter 10

The Organised Track System (OTS)

PROCEDURE AFTER LEAVING OCEANIC AIRSPACE


After leaving oceanic airspace pilots must maintain their assigned Mach number in domestic controlled airspace until the appropriate ATC unit authorises a change.

CONSTRUCTION OF THE ORGANISED TRACK SYSTEM (OTS)


The appropriate OAC constructs the OTS after determining the minimum time tracks, taking into consideration airlines preferred routes and airspace restrictions such as danger areas and military airspace reservations. The night-time OTS is produced by Gander OAC and the daytime OTS by Shanwick OAC (Prestwick).

THE NAT TRACK MESSAGE


The agreed OTS is published by means of the NAT Track Message via the AFTN to all interested addressees. Time of publication of the Daytime OTS is 0000 UTC, and Night-time OTS is 1200 UTC.

NAT TRACK MESSAGE CONTENT


This message gives full details of the coordinates of the organised tracks as well as the flight levels expected to be in use on each track. In most cases, there are also details of domestic entry and exit routings associated with individual tracks: 1. In the westbound (daytime) system, the track most northerly, at its point of origin, is designated Track A (Alpha) and the next most northerly track is designated Track B (Bravo), etc. 2. In the eastbound (night-time) system, the most southerly track, at its point of origin, is designated Track Z (Zulu) and the next most southerly track is designated Track Y (Yankee), etc. The originating OAC identifies each NAT Track Message, within the Remarks section appended to the end of the NAT Track message, by means of a 3-digit Track Message Identification (TMI) number. Using the Julian calendar date on which that OTS is effective, the OTS effective on February 1st is identified by TMI 032. (The Julian calendar date is a simple progression of numbered days without reference to months, with numbering starting from the first day of the year.) Any subsequent NAT Track amendments affecting the entry/exit points, route of flight (coordinates), or flight level allocation, for an OTS on a given day, include a successive alphabetic character (i.e. A, then B, etc.) added to the end of the TMI number. Remarks may vary periodically depending upon what important aspects of NAT operation Shanwick or Gander wish to bring to the attention of operators such as clearance delivery frequency assignments; the vertical extent of MNPS and RVSM Airspace, plus a warning on the occurrence of Gross Navigational Errors (GNEs). Note: A GNE is where the aircraft is more than 25 nm displaced from the allocated track.

10-2

Operational Procedures

The Organised Track System (OTS)

Chapter 10

PERIODS OF VALIDITY
The hours of validity of the two Organised Track Systems (OTS) are normally as follows: Daytime Night-time OTS OTS 1130 UTC to 1800 UTC at 30W 0100 UTC to 0800 UTC at 30W

Changes to these times are negotiated between Gander and Shanwick OACs and the specific hours of validity for each OTS are indicated in the NAT Track Message. For flight planning, operators should take account of the times specified in the relevant NAT Track Message(s). Oceanic airspace outside the published OTS is available, subject to application of the appropriate separation criteria and NOTAM restrictions. It is possible to flight plan to join or leave an outer track of the OTS.

OTS CHANGEOVER PERIOD


To ensure a smooth transition from night-time to daytime OTSs and vice-versa, a period of several hours is used between the end of one system and the start of the next. These periods are from 0801 UTC to 1129 UTC: and 1801 UTC to 0059 UTC. During the changeover periods, imposed are some restrictions to flight planned routes and levels. Eastbound and westbound aircraft operating during these periods should file flight level requests in accordance with the Flight Level Allocation Scheme (FLAS) as published. The FLAS as published in the AIPs applies only to the current phase of NAT RVSM operations. During these times, there is often a need for clearances individually co-ordinated between OACs and cleared flight levels may not be in accordance with that flight planned. If a flight is expected to be level critical, operators should contact the initial OAC prior to filing the flight plan to ascertain the likely availability of levels.

EXAMPLE OF A WESTBOUND NAT TRACK MESSAGE


(NAT-1/2 TRACKS FLS 310/ 390 INCLUSIVE OCTOBER 8/ 1130Z TO OCTOBER 8/ 1800Z PART ONE OF TWO PARTSA 59/10 61/20 61/30 61/40 61/50 60/60 CIMAT EAST LVLS NIL WEST LVLS 310 320 330 340 350 360 390 EUR RTS WEST NIL NAR N464B N466B N468B N472B N474B B 58/10 60/20 60/30 60/40 59/50 PRAWN YDP EAST LVLS NIL WEST LVLS 310 320 330 340 350 360 370 380 390 EUR RTS WEST NIL NAR N322B N328C N334B N336E N346A N348C N352C N356C N362B-

Operational Procedures

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Chapter 10

The Organised Track System (OTS)

C 57/10 59/20 59/30 58/40 56/50 SCROD VALIE EAST LVLS NIL WEST LVLS 310 320 330 340 350 360 370 380 390 EUR RTS WEST NIL NAR N242B N248B N250C N252BD 56/10 58/20 58/30 57/40 55/50 OYSTR STEAM EAST LVLS NIL WEST LVLS 310 320 330 340 350 360 370 380 390 EUR RTS WEST NIL NAR N224C N228A N230B N232B(NAT-2/2 TRACKS FLS 310/390 INCLUSIVE OCTOBER 8/ 1130Z TO OCTOBER 8/ 1800Z PART TWO OF TWO PARTSE 55/10 57/20 57/30 56/40 54/50 CARPE REDBY EAST LVLD NIL WEST LVLS 310 320 330 340 350 360 370 380 390 EUR RTS WEST NIL NAR N204A N208A N210B F MASIT 56/20 56/30 55/40 53/50 YAY EAST LVLS NIL WEST LVLS 310 320 330 340 350 360 370 380 390 EUR RTS WEST VIA DEVOL NAR N184B N188B N192BG 49/15 48/20 45/30 42/40 38/50 35/60 HENCH EAST LVLS NIL WEST LVLS 320 340 360 EUR RTS WEST VIA GUNSO NAR NIL REMARKS: 1. TRACK MESSAGE IDENTIFICATION NUMBER IS 281 AND OPERATORS ARE REMINDED TO INCLUDE THE TMI NUMBER AS PART OF THE OCEANIC CLEARANCE READBACK 2. MNPS AIRSPACE EXTENDS FROM FL285 TO FL420. OPERATORS ARE REMINDED THAT SPECIFIC MNPS APPROVAL IS REQUIRED TO FLY IN THIS AIRSPACE. IN ADDITION, RVSM APPROVAL IS REQUIRED TO FLY BETWEEN FL310 AND FL390 INCLUSIVE 3. EIGHTY PERCENT OF GROSS NAVIGATION ERRORS OCCUR AFTER A REROUTE. ALWAYS CARRY OUT WAYPOINT CROSS CHECKS END OF PART TWO OF TWO PARTS

10-4

Operational Procedures

The Organised Track System (OTS)

Chapter 10

EXAMPLE OF DAYTIME WESTBOUND ORGANISED TRACK SYSTEM

Operational Procedures

10-5

Chapter 10

The Organised Track System (OTS)

EXAMPLE OF AN EASTBOUND NAT TRACK MESSAGE


(NAT-1/1 TRACKS FLS 310/390 INCLUSIVE OCTOBER 9/ 0100Z TO OCTOBER 9/ 0800Z PART ONE OF ONE PARTSW CYMON 51/50 52/40 52/30 52/20 53/15 BURAK EAST LVLS 310 320 330 340 350 360 370 380 390 WEST LVLS NIL EUR RTS WEST NIL NAR N95B N97BX YQX 50/50 51/40 51/30 51/20 52/15 DOLIP EAST LVLS 310 320 330 340 350 360 370 380 390 WEST LVLS NIL EUR RTS WEST NIL NAR N79B N83BY VIXUN 49/50 50/40 50/30 50/20 51/15 GIPER EAST LVLS 310 320 330 340 350 360 370 380 390 WEST LVLS NIL EUR RTS WEST NIL NAR N63B N67BZ YYT 48/50 49/40 49/30 49/20 50/15 KENUK EAST LVLS 310 320 330 340 350 360 370 380 390 WEST LVLS NIL EUR RTS WEST NIL NAR N53B N55A REMARKS. 1. CLEARANCE DELIVERY FREQUENCY ASSIGNMENTS FOR AIRCRAFT OPERATING FROM MOATT TO BOBTU INCLUSIVE: LOACH AND NORTH 128.7 SCROD TO YAY 135.45 DOTTY TO YQX 135.05 VIXUN AND SOUTH 119.425 TRACK MESSAGE IDENTIFICATION 282. REMINDED THAT MNPS APPROVAL IS REQUIRED TO FLY IN THIS AIRSPACE. IN ADDITION, RVSM APPROVAL IS REQUIRED TO FLY WITHIN THE NAT REGION BETWEEN FL310 AND FL390 INCLUSIVE. PLEASE REFER TO CANADIAN NOTAM 980097 OR A3797. 80 PERCENT OF GROSS NAVIGATION ERRORS OCCUR AFTER A EROUTE. ALWAYS CARRY OUT WAYPOINT CROSS CHECKS.

2.

3. 4.

END OF PART ONE OF ONE PART 10-6 Operational Procedures

The Organised Track System (OTS)

Chapter 10

EXAMPLE OF NIGHT-TIME EASTBOUND ORGANISED TRACK SYSTEM

Operational Procedures

10-7

Chapter 10

The Organised Track System (OTS)

10-8

Operational Procedures

GENERAL
A Polar Track Structure (PTS) consists of 10 fixed tracks in Reykjavik, CTA, and 5 fixed tracks through Bod OCA. The PTS tracks through Bod OCA are a continuation of the PTS tracks in Reykjavik CTA. The routes are not mandatory. A recommendation for operators proposing to fly between Europe and Alaska from FL310 to FL390 inclusive is to submit flight plans in accordance with one of the promulgated PTS tracks.

ABBREVIATED CLEARANCES
An abbreviated clearance may be issued to an aircraft to follow one of the polar tracks throughout its flight. When an abbreviated clearance is issued it includes: the clearance limit, normally the destination airfield, the cleared track specified by the track code, the cleared flight level(s), and the cleared Mach number (if required). On receipt of an abbreviated clearance, the pilot must read back the contents of the clearance message and, in addition, the full details of the track specified by the track code.

ABBREVIATED POSITION REPORTS


When operating on the PTS position reports may be abbreviated by replacing the normal latitude co-ordinate with the word 'Polar' followed by the track code. Example: Position, Atlantic 422, Polar Romeo 20 West at 1620, Flight Level 330, Estimating Polar Romeo 40 West at 1718, Polar Romeo 69 West Next Unless otherwise required by ATC, make a position report at the significant points listed in the appropriate AIP for the relevant PTS track.

Operational Procedures

11-1

Chapter 11

The Polar Track Structure (PTS)

POLAR TRACK STRUCTURE (PTS)

11-2 Operational Procedures

GENERAL
The Organised Track System and the Polar Track Structure are the most significant route structures within NAT MNPS Airspace. Other route structures within and adjacent to MNPS Airspace are below.

OTHER ROUTES WITHIN NAT MNPS AIRSPACE


Other routes within NAT MNPS Airspace are: A699 and A700 in the western part of the New York OCA; *Blue Spruce Routes, are established as special routes for aircraft equipped with only one serviceable LRNS. State approval for MNPS operations is required in order to fly along these routes; Routes between Northern Europe and Spain/Canaries/Lisbon FIR. (T9*, T14 and T16); *Routings between the Azores and the Portuguese mainland and between the Azores and the Madeira Archipelago; Special routes of short stage lengths where aircraft equipped with normal short-range navigation equipment can meet the MNPS track-keeping criteria (G3 and G11). State approval for MNPS operations is required in order to fly along these routes. * Routes identified with an asterisk above may be flight planned and flown by approved aircraft equipped with normal short-range navigation equipment (VOR, DME, ADF) and at least one approved fully operational LRNS.

ROUTE STRUCTURES ADJACENT TO NAT MNPS AIRSPACE


IRISH/UK DOMESTIC ROUTE STRUCTURES
The UK AIP and AIP Ireland both specify the domestic routes used for westbound and eastbound NAT traffic based upon entry points into and exit points from oceanic airspace.

NORTH AMERICAN ROUTES (NARS)


The North American Routes (NARs) consist of a numbered series of predetermined routes which provide an interface between oceanic and domestic airspace. The design of the NAR System is to accommodate major airports in North America. Published in the United States Airport/Facility Directory - Northeast and the Canada Flight Supplement are full details of all NAR routings together with associated procedures.

Operational Procedures

12-1

Chapter 12

Other Route and Route Structures Within or Adjacent to NAT MNPS Airspace

ROUTES BETWEEN NORTH AMERICA AND THE CARIBBEAN AREA


An extensive network of routes linking points in the United States and Canada with Bermuda, the Bahamas and the Caribbean area are defined in the New York OCA to the west of 60W. This network is known as the Western Atlantic Route System (WATRS). The United States AIP contains the details of these routes and associated procedures.

SHANNON OCEANIC TRANSITION AREA (SOTA)


Part of the Shanwick OCA is designated as the Shannon Oceanic Transition Area (SOTA). The purpose of the airspace is to allow aircraft to transition to and descend from oceanic levels and domestic FIR/UIR levels. MNPS Airspace requirements are still applicable from FL285 to FL420. SOTA has the same vertical extent as the Shanwick OCA, and is bounded by lines joining successively the following points: N5100 W01500 N5100 W00800 N4830 W00800 N4900 W01500 N5100 W01500 SHANNON ACC using the call sign SHANNON CONTROL provides air Traffic Service. Full details of the service provided and the procedures used are contained in AIP Ireland.

BREST OCEANIC TRANSITION AREA (BOTA)


Part of the Shanwick OCA is designated as the Brest Oceanic Transition Area (BOTA). MNPS Airspace requirements are still applicable from FL285 to FL420. BOTA has the same vertical extent as the Shanwick OCA, and is bounded by lines joining successively the following points: N4834 W00845 N4830 W00800 N4500 W00800 N4500 W00845 N4834 W00845 The Brest ACC provides Air Traffic service, call sign BREST CONTROL.

12-2

Operational Procedures

PREFERRED ROUTE MESSAGES (PRMS)


Oceanic planners take into consideration operators' preferred routes in the construction of the OTS. NAT operators should provide information regarding their proposed flights and optimum tracks during the peak traffic periods. The information should be provided as far in advance as possible, but not later than: 1900 for the following daytime OTS and 1000 UTC for the following night-time OTS.

FLIGHT PLAN REQUIREMENTS


All flights which generally route in an eastbound or westbound direction should normally be flight planned so that specified ten degrees of longitude (20W, 30W, 40W, etc.) are crossed at whole degrees of latitude. Northbound or southbound flights should normally be flight planned so that specified parallels of latitude spaced at five degree intervals (65N, 60N, 55N, etc.) are crossed at whole degrees of longitude. All flights should plan to operate on great circle tracks joining successive significant waypoints. Routes outside of the OTS are referred to as random tracks.

ROUTINGS
During the hours of validity of the OTS, operators are encouraged to flight plan in accordance with the OTS, along a route to join or leave an outer track of the OTS, or on a random route to remain clear of the OTS. Outside of the OTS periods operators may flight plan any random routing, with the proviso that during the two hours prior to each OTS period the following restrictions apply: Eastbound/Westbound flights that cross 30W less than one hour prior to the incoming/pending OTS should plan to remain clear of the incoming/pending OTS structure. Any opposite direction flights crossing 30W between one and two hours prior to the incoming OTS where the route beyond 30W coincides with the incoming/pending OTS structure at any point, should plan to join an outer track at any point, or backtrack the length of one of the incoming/pending tracks.

Operational Procedures

13-1

Chapter 13

Flight Planning for NAT Routes

FLIGHT LEVELS
Flight levels for use under RVSM are published in the UK and Canada AIPs, as the Flight Level Allocation Scheme (FLAS). The FLAS as published in the AIPs applies only to the current phase of NAT RVSM operations. Different flight level allocation schemes which apply when implementing subsequent phases of RVSM operations are similarly published as and when these new phases occur. During the OTS Periods (eastbound 0100-0800 UTC, westbound 1130-1800 UTC) aircraft intending to follow an OTS Track for its entire length may plan at any of the levels as published for that track on the current daily OTS Message. Flights planned to remain entirely clear of the OTS or which join or leave an OTS Track (i.e. follow an OTS track for only part of its published length), are referred to as Random Flights. Pilots intending to fly on a random route or outside the OTS time periods should normally plan flight level(s) appropriate to the direction of flight.

APPROPRIATE DIRECTION LEVELS These are specified by the Semi-circular Rule, ICAO Annex 2, Appendix 3 and NAT RVSM implementation (FL290-FL410 inclusive). Appropriate Direction Eastbound levels are therefore: FLs 270, 290, 310, 330, 350, 370, 390, 410 ,450, etc., and appropriate Direction Westbound levels are therefore FLs 260, 280, 320, 340, 360, 380, 430, 470, etc.

ATC FLIGHT PLANS


FILING Submit flight plans as far in advance of departure as possible, for flights departing from points in other regions and entering the NAT Region without intermediate stops. APPROVED FLIGHTS In order to signify that a flight is approved to operate in NAT MNPS Airspace the letter X shall be inserted, in addition to the letter S, within item 10 of the flight plan. If the flight is approved to operate at RVSM levels, include a W in item 10. MACH NUMBER AND SPEED For turbojet aircraft the Mach number should be specified in item 15 of the flight plan. Item 15 of the flight plan should reflect the proposed speeds in the following sequence:
1. Cruising True Airspeed (TAS) 2. Oceanic entry point and cruising Mach number 3. Oceanic landfall and cruising TAS

FLIGHTS PLANNING ON THE ORGANISED TRACK SYSTEM If planning the flight to operate along the entire length of one of the organised tracks, the intended track is used in item 15 of the flight plan using the abbreviation 'NAT' followed by the code letter assigned to the track. If it is planned to use part of, or leave, an organised track at some intermediate point, consider this a random route aircraft. Specify full route details in the flight plan and the track letter must not be used to abbreviate any portion of the route in these circumstances.
The planned Mach number and flight level for the organised track should be specified at the last domestic reporting point prior to oceanic airspace entry or the organised track commencement point. Geographical co-ordinates in latitude and longitude or as a named waypoint must specify each point at which a change of Mach number or flight level is planned. For flights operating along the whole length of one of the organised tracks, estimates are only required for the commencement point of the track. 13-2 Operational Procedures

Flight Planning for NAT Routes

Chapter 13

FLIGHTS PLANNING ON RANDOM ROUTE SEGMENTS AT/OR SOUTH OF 70N The requested Mach number and flight level should be specified at either the last domestic reporting point prior to oceanic airspace entry or the OCA boundary. The route of flight should be specified in terms of the following significant points, with estimates included in item 18 of the flight plan:
The last domestic reporting point prior to the oceanic entry point; The OCA boundary entry point (only required by the Shanwick, New York and Santa Maria OACs); Significant points formed by the intersection of half or whole degrees of latitude, with meridians spaced at intervals of ten degrees of longitude from the Zero degree E/W (Greenwich) Meridian to longitude 70W; The OCA boundary exit point (only required by the Shanwick, New York and Santa Maria OACs); and The first domestic reporting point after ocean exit. Each point at which a change of Mach number or flight level is requested must be specified and followed in each case by the next significant point.

FLIGHTS PLANNING ON A GENERALLY EASTBOUND OR WESTBOUND DIRECTION ON RANDOM ROUTE SEGMENTS NORTH OF 70N Flight planning requirements are identical to those listed for flights on random route segments at/or south of 70N except that the route should be specified at 20 longitude intervals at whole degrees of latitude to 60W. FLIGHTS PLANNING ON RANDOM ROUTES IN A GENERALLY NORTHBOUND OR SOUTHBOUND DIRECTION Flight planning requirements for flights are identical to those listed for flights operating on random route segments at/or south of 70N except that the route should be specified in terms of whole degrees of longitude with specified parallels of latitude which are spaced at 5 intervals from 20N to 90N. FLIGHTS PLANNING ON THE POLAR TRACK STRUCTURE (PTS) If the flight is planned to operate along the whole length of one of the Polar tracks, the intended track should be defined in item 15 of the flight plan using the abbreviation 'PTS' followed by the track code. Flights wishing to join or leave a polar track at some intermediate point are considered as following a random route and full track details must be specified in the flight plan. The track code must not be used to abbreviate any portion of the route in these circumstances.
Estimated times over significant points must be specified in item 18 of the flight plan. The requested Mach number and flight level should be specified at the commencement point of the PTS or at the NAT Oceanic boundary. Each point at which a Mach number or flight level change is planned must be specified as geographical co-ordinates in latitude and longitude followed in each case by the abbreviation 'PTS' and the track code.

FLIGHTS PLANNING TO OPERATE WITHOUT HF COMMUNICATIONS The carriage of HF communications is mandatory for flight in the Shanwick OCA. Aircraft with only functioning VHF communications equipment should plan their route outside the Shanwick OCA and ensure that they remain within VHF coverage of appropriate ground stations throughout the flight.
Operational Procedures 13-3

Chapter 13

Flight Planning for NAT Routes

13-4

Operational Procedures

GENERAL
Oceanic Clearances are required for all flights within the NAT Airspace at or above FL55. Pilots should request Oceanic Clearances from the ATC unit responsible for the first OCA within which they wish to fly. The clearances are applicable only from the entry point. Pilots should request their Oceanic Clearance at least 40 minutes prior to the Oceanic entry point ETA and should include the next preferred alternative if requesting an OTS track.

PERFORMANCE LIMITATION
When requesting an oceanic clearance, the pilot should notify the OAC of the maximum acceptable flight level possible at the boundary. The aircraft must be within radar coverage during any climb. The pilot must notify the OAC of any required change to: The oceanic flight planned level Track Mach number

CLEARANCE DELIVERY
Methods of obtaining Oceanic Clearances include: Use of published VHF clearance delivery frequencies By HF communications to the OAC through the appropriate radio station (at least 40 minutes before boundary/entry estimate) A request via domestic or other ATC agencies By data link when arrangements have been made with designated airlines to request and receive clearances using on-board equipment At some airports situated close to oceanic boundaries, pilots must obtain the Oceanic Clearance before departure. They can do this either by contacting the OCA directly on the VHF frequency published or via ATC.

CRITICAL FAILURE
If an aircraft has a critical in-flight equipment failure enroute to the NAT Oceanic Airspace or at dispatch and is unable to meet the MEL requirements for RVSM or MNPS approval on the flight, the pilot must advise ATC at initial contact when requesting Oceanic Clearance.

ETA AT OCA BOUNDARY


After obtaining and reading back the clearance, the pilot should monitor the forward estimate for oceanic entry and should pass a revised estimate to ATC if this changes by 3 minutes or more.

Operational Procedures

14-1

Chapter 14

Oceanic ATC Clearances

DIFFERENT ROUTE
If the cleared oceanic route differs from the original request and/or the oceanic flight level differs from the current flight level, the pilot is responsible for obtaining the necessary domestic reclearance to ensure that the flight complies with its Oceanic Clearance when entering oceanic airspace.

CLEARANCE ELEMENTS
There are three elements to an Oceanic Clearance: Route Mach number Flight level These elements serve to provide for the three basic elements of separation: lateral, longitudinal, and vertical. The Oceanic Clearance issued to each aircraft is at a specific flight level and cruise Mach number. Do not make flight level or Mach number changes without prior ATC clearance.

CLEARANCE NOT RECEIVED


Prior to reaching the Shanwick OCA boundary, if pilots have not received their Oceanic Clearance, they are to remain clear of Oceanic Airspace whilst awaiting the Clearance. This is not the case for other NAT OCAs where flights may enter whilst pilots are awaiting receipt of a delayed Oceanic Clearance. Clearance Examples: An example of a pilot voice request for Oceanic Clearance is as follows: Atlantic 442 request Oceanic Clearance. Estimating 56N 010W at 1131. Request Mach decimal eight zero, Flight Level three five zero, able Flight Level three six zero, second choice Track Charlie. If the request also includes a change to the original flight plan, affecting the OCA, then it should be according to the following example: Atlantic 442 request Oceanic Clearance. Estimating 55N 010W at 1147. Request Mach decimal eight zero, Flight Level three four zero. Now requesting Track Charlie, able Flight Level three six zero, second choice Track Delta.

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Chapter 14

CONTENTS OF CLEARANCES
An abbreviated clearance is issued by Air Traffic Services when clearing an aircraft to fly along the whole length of an Organised Track or along a Polar Track within the Reykjavik CTA and/or Bod OCA. When an abbreviated clearance is issued, it includes: Clearance Limit, which is normally the destination airfield Cleared track specified as Track plus code letter or Polar Track plus code identification Cleared flight level(s) Cleared Mach number The phrase SEND MET REPORTS if the aircraft is designated to report MET information enroute Procedures exist for an abbreviated read back of an Oceanic Clearance issued on VHF. A typical example of such a clearance is as follows: Atlantic 442 is cleared to Toronto via Track Bravo, from 56N 010W maintain Flight Level three five zero, Mach decimal eight zero. The flight crew confirms that they are in possession of the current NAT Track message by using the TMI number in the read-back of the Oceanic Clearance, as follows: Atlantic 442 is cleared to Toronto via Track Bravo 283, from 56N 010W maintain Flight Level three five zero, Mach decimal eight zero. If the TMI number is included in the read-back, there is no requirement for the pilot to read back the NAT Track coordinates even if the cleared NAT Track is not the one originally requested. If any doubt exists as to the TMI or the NAT Track coordinates, the pilot should request the complete track coordinates from the OAC. Similarly, if the pilot cannot correctly state the TMI, the OAC reads the cleared NAT Track coordinates in full and requests a full read-back of those coordinates.

OCEANIC CLEARANCES FOR FLIGHTS INTENDING TO OPERATE WITHIN THE NAT REGION AND SUBSEQUENTLY ENTER THE EUR OR NAM REGIONS Oceanic Clearances issued to most flights in this category are strategic clearances intended to provide a safe separation for each flight from oceanic entry to oceanic track termination point. If pilots receive a clearance on a track other than originally flight planned, they must check that the landfall and domestic routings are fully understood. OCEANIC CLEARANCES FOR RANDOM FLIGHTS INTENDING TO OPERATE WITHIN THE NAT REGION AND SUBSEQUENTLY ENTER REGIONS OTHER THAN NAM OR EUR Oceanic Clearances issued to flights in this category are similar to domestic ATC clearances in that clearances are to destination on the assumption that coordination is effected ahead of the aircraft's passage. In this case, the flight profile may be changed enroute, prior to hand-over from one centre to another, depending upon traffic conditions in the adjacent area.

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Oceanic ATC Clearances

OCEANIC FLIGHTS ORIGINATING FROM THE CAR OR SAM REGIONS AND ENTERING NAT MNPS AIRSPACE VIA THE NEW YORK OCA Pilots are reminded that Oceanic Clearances from the New York OAC do not need to be requested until first contact with New York is established on HF frequencies. Note that Oceanic Clearances are not required for entry to or transit of that portion of the New York OCA outside MNPS Airspace.

ERRORS ASSOCIATED WITH OCEANIC CLEARANCES


Navigation errors associated with Oceanic Clearances fall into several categories. The most significant are ATC System Loop errors and Waypoint Insertion errors.

WAYPOINT INSERTION ERRORS Experience has shown that many of the track-keeping errors that occur result from:
Failure to observe the principles of checking waypoints to be inserted in the navigation systems against the ATC cleared route Failure to load waypoint information carefully Failure to cross check on-board navigation systems

ATC SYSTEM LOOP ERROR An ATC system loop error is any error caused by a misunderstanding between the pilot and the controller regarding assigned FL, Mach number, or assigned route. Such errors can arise from incorrect interpretation of oceanic clearances or re-clearances by pilots. Errors of this nature that are detected by ATC from pilot position reports are normally corrected. However, timely intervention cannot always be guaranteed especially as it may depend upon HF communication.

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HF COMMUNICATIONS
Most NAT air/ground communications are conducted on single side-band HF frequencies.

VHF COMMUNICATIONS
The carriage of HF communications equipment is mandatory for flight in the Shanwick OCA. Aircraft with only functioning VHF communications equipment should plan their route outside the Shanwick OCA and ensure that they remain within VHF coverage of appropriate ground stations throughout the flight.

TIME AND PLACE OF POSITION REPORTS


Unless otherwise requested by Air Traffic Control, position reports from flights on routes that are not defined by designated reporting points should be made at the significant points listed in the flight plan. Air Traffic Control may require any flight operating in a north/south direction to report its position at any intermediate parallel of latitude when necessary. In requiring aircraft to report their position at intermediate points, ATC is guided by the requirement to have position information at approximately hourly intervals and also by the need to cater for varying types of aircraft and varying traffic and MET conditions. Pilots must always report to ATC as soon as possible on reaching any new cruising level.

CONTENTS OF POSITION REPORTS


For flights outside the PTS and domestic ATS route network, express position in terms of latitude and longitude except when flying over named reporting points. For flights whose tracks are predominantly east or west, express latitude in degrees and minutes, and longitude in degrees only. For flights whose tracks are predominantly north or south, express latitude in degrees only, and longitude in degrees and minutes. All times should be expressed in four digits giving both the hour and the minutes UTC.

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Communications and Position Reporting Procedures

STANDARD MESSAGE TYPES


Standard air/ground message types and formats are used within the NAT Region and are published in State AIPs and Atlantic Orientation charts. To enable ground stations to process messages in the shortest possible time, pilots should observe the following rules: Use the correct type of message applicable to the data transmitted State the message type in the contact call to the ground station or at the start of the message Adhere strictly to the sequence of information for the type of message All times in any of the messages should be expressed in hrs and min UTC Example Messages: The message types are shown below with examples: POSITION Example: Position, Atlantic 442, 56 North 10 West at 1235, Flight Level 330, Estimating 56 North 20 West at 1310, 56 North 30 West Next REQUEST CLEARANCE Example: Request Clearance, Atlantic 442, 56 North 20 West at 1308, Flight Level 330, Estimating 56 North 30 West at 1340, 56 North 40 West Next. Request Flight Level 350 or if a position report is not required, Request Clearance, Atlantic 442, Request Flight Level 370 REVISED ESTIMATE Example: Revised Estimate, Atlantic 442, 57 North 40 West at 0305

ADDRESSING OF POSITION REPORTS


Position reports made by aircraft operating within an OCA at a distance of 60 nm or less from the boundary with an adjacent OCA, including aircraft operating on tracks through successive points on each boundary, should also be made to the ACC serving the adjacent OCA using the message Shanwick copy Santa Maria.

WHEN ABLE HIGHER (WAH) REPORTS


Prior notice to ATC of the time or position that a flight is able to accept the next higher level can assist ATC in ensuring optimum use of available altitudes. These reports can also be used to help plan the altitudes for flights as they transition from RVSM to conventional altitudes. All flights entering the MNPS Airspace portion of the New York OCA and entering the Santa Maria OCA must provide a WAH Report. Provision of WAH Reports on entering other NAT OCAs is optional or any OAC may request them. When entering an oceanic FIR, pilots should include the time or location that the flight is able to accept the next higher altitude in the initial position report. The report may include more than one altitude if that information is available. Example: Atlantic 442, 40 North 40 West at 1010, Flight Level 350, Estimating 40 North 50 West at 1110, 40 North 60 West Next. Able Flight Level 360 at 1035, Able Flight Level 370 at 1145, Able Flight Level 390 at 1300

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Information provided about the aircrafts future altitude ability is not automatically interpreted by ATC as an advance request for a step climb. It is used as previously indicated to assist ATC in planning airspace utilisation. However, should the pilot wish to register a request for one or more future step climbs, this may be incorporated in the WAH report by appropriately substituting the word request for the word able. Example: Atlantic 442, 42 North 40 West at 1215, Flight Level 330, Estimating 40 North 50 West at 1310, 38 North 60 West Next. Request Flight Level 340 at 1235, Able Flight Level 350 at 1325, Request Flight Level 360 at 1415 Although optimal use of the WAH reports is in conjunction with a Position Report, a WAH report can be made or updated separately at any time. Example: Atlantic 442, Able Flight Level 360 at 1035, Request Flight Level 370 at 1145, Able Flight Level 390 at 1300 ATC acknowledgement of a WAH report (and any included requests) is NOT a clearance to change altitude.

METEOROLOGICAL REPORTS
From among the aircraft intending to operate on the organised track system, OACs designate those that are required to report routine meteorological observations at and midway between each prescribed reporting point. The designation is made by the OAC when issuing the Oceanic Clearance using the phrase SEND MET REPORTS and is normally made to designate one aircraft per track at approximately hourly intervals. Pilots flying tracks partly or wholly off the OTS should include routine Met observations with every prescribed report. The midpoint observation should be recorded and then transmitted at the next designated reporting point.

SELCAL
When using HF communications, pilots should maintain a listening watch on the assigned frequency unless SELCAL is fitted, in which case they should ensure the following sequence of actions: 1. 2. Provision of the SELCAL code in the flight plan (any subsequent change of aircraft for a flight requires passing the new SELCAL information to the OAC) Checking the operation of the SELCAL equipment at or prior to entry into Oceanic airspace with the appropriate radio station (This SELCAL check must be completed prior to commencing SELCAL watch) Maintenance thereafter of a SELCAL watch

3.

GENERAL PURPOSE VHF COMMUNICATIONS (GP/VHF)


Radio stations are also responsible for the operation of GP/VHF outlets. It is important for the pilot to appreciate that when using GP/VHF communications, they are with a radio station and not by direct contact with ATC. However, Direct Controller/Pilot Communications (DCPC) can be arranged if necessary on some GP/VHF frequencies.

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DATA LINK COMMUNICATIONS


Data link communications are gradually being introduced into the NAT environment for position reporting. Consult AIS publications of the NAT ATS Provider States to determine the extent of their implementation and any associated procedures.

HF COMMUNICATIONS FAILURE
Each radio station continuously listens out on its appropriate family/families of NAT HF frequencies. In the event of failure of HF communications, make every effort to relay position reports through other aircraft. An air-to-air VHF frequency for the Region has been agreed upon. When out of range of VHF ground stations on the same or adjacent frequencies, 123.45 MHz may be used to relay position reports. If necessary, initial contact for such relays can be established on 121.5 MHz. Great care must be exercised should this be necessary, as the frequency 121.5 MHz is monitored by all aircraft operating in the NAT Region in case aircraft experiencing emergencies are using it. Therefore, in order to minimise unnecessary use of 121.5 MHz, it is recommended that aircraft additionally monitor 123.45 MHz when flying through NAT airspace.

GENERAL If so equipped, the pilot of an aircraft experiencing a two-way communications failure should operate the SSR transponder on identity Mode A Code 7600 and Mode C. The pilot should attempt to contact any ATC facility or another aircraft and inform them of the difficulty and request they relay information to the ATC facility with whom communications are intended. COMMUNICATIONS FAILURE PRIOR TO ENTERING NAT REGION Due to the potential length of time in oceanic airspace, it is strongly recommended that a pilot experiencing communications failure whilst still in domestic airspace does not enter the OCA but adopts the procedure specified in the appropriate domestic AIP and lands at a suitable airport.
However, if the pilot elects to continue, one of the following procedures should be followed to allow ATC to provide adequate separation: 1. If operating with a received and acknowledged Oceanic Clearance, the pilot must enter oceanic airspace at the cleared oceanic entry point, level, and speed and proceed in accordance with the received and acknowledged Oceanic Clearance. Any level or speed changes required to comply with the Oceanic Clearance must be completed within the vicinity of the oceanic entry point. If operating without a received and acknowledged Oceanic Clearance, the pilot must enter oceanic airspace at the first oceanic entry point, level, and speed contained in the filed flight plan and proceed via the filed flight plan route to landfall. The initial oceanic level and speed must be maintained until landfall.

2.

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COMMUNICATIONS FAILURE AFTER ENTERING NAT REGION Two situations are considered:
If cleared on the filed flight plan route: The pilot must proceed in accordance with the last received and acknowledged Oceanic Clearance, including level and speed, to the last specified oceanic route point (normally landfall), then continue on the filed flight plan route. After passing the last specified oceanic route point, the flight should conform to the relevant State procedures/regulations. If cleared on other than the filed flight plan route The pilot must proceed in accordance with the last received and acknowledged Oceanic Clearance, including level and speed, to the last specified oceanic route point (normally landfall). After passing this point, the pilot should conform with the relevant State procedures/regulations, rejoining the filed flight plan route by proceeding via the published ATS route structure where possible to the next significant point contained in the filed flight plan.

PROCEDURE Aircraft with a destination within the NAT Region should proceed to their clearance limit and follow the ICAO standard procedure to commence descent from the appropriate designated navigation aid serving the destination aerodrome at or as close as possible to the expected approach time. Detailed procedures are promulgated in relevant State AIPs.

OPERATION OF TRANSPONDERS
Unless otherwise directed by ATC, pilots of aircraft equipped with SSR transponders flying in the NAT FIRs operate transponders continuously in Mode A/C Code 2000, however, the last assigned code is retained for a period of 30 min after entry into NAT airspace. Pilots should note that it is important to change from the last assigned domestic code to the Mode A/C Code 2000, since the original domestic code may not be recognised by the subsequent Domestic Radar Service on exit from the oceanic airspace. This procedure does not affect the use of the special purpose codes (7500, 7600, and 7700) in cases of unlawful interference, radio failure, or emergency.

AIRBORNE COLLISION AVOIDANCE SYSTEMS (ACAS)


Report all ACAS Resolution Advisories that occur in the NAT Region to the controlling authority for the airspace involved.

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FLIGHT OPERATION
IMPORTANCE OF ACCURATE TIME
The proper operation of a correctly functioning LRNS ensures that the aircraft follows its cleared track. ATC applies standard separations between cleared tracks and assures the safe lateral separation of aircraft. Longitudinal separations between subsequent aircraft following the same track and between aircraft on intersecting tracks are assessed in terms of differences in ETAs/ATAs at common waypoints. Aircraft clock errors resulting in position report time errors can lead to a shortening of longitudinal separation between aircraft. Prior to entry into the NAT MNPS Airspace, the time reference system used during the flight must be accurately synchronised to UTC. The calculation of waypoint ETAs and the reporting of waypoint ATAs are referenced to this system. Pre-flight procedures for any NAT MNPS flight must include a UTC time check and resynchronisation of the aircraft master clock. NAT ATS Provider States have promulgated lists of acceptable time sources for this purpose. The following are examples of acceptable time standards: GPS (Corrected to UTC) WWV-National Institute of Standards (NIST-Fort Collins, Colorado). WWV operates continually H24 on 2500, 5000, 10 000, 15 000, and 20 000 kHz (AM/SSB) and provides UTC (voice) once every minute. CHU-National Research Council (NRC-Ottawa, Canada). CHU operates continually H24 on 3330, 7335 and 14 670 kHz (SSB) and provides UTC (voice) once every minute (English even minutes, French odd minutes). BBC-British Broadcasting Corporation (United Kingdom). The BBC transmits on a number of domestic and worldwide frequencies and transmits the Greenwich time signal (referenced to UTC) once every hour on most frequencies, although there are some exceptions.

THE USE OF THE MASTER DOCUMENT


Navigation procedures must include the use of a master working document to be used on the flight deck that lists sequentially the waypoints defining the route, track, and distance between each waypoint and other information relevant to navigation along the cleared track. This document may be based upon: The flight plan Navigation log Other suitable documents

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Misuse of the Master Document can result in gross navigation errors (GNEs aircraft more than 25 nm off track). For this reason, establish strict procedures regarding its use. These procedures should include the following: The crew on the flight deck should use only one Master Document. However, this does not preclude other crewmembers maintaining a separate flight log. On INS equipped aircraft, the flight crew should establish a waypoint numbering sequence from the outset of the flight and enter it on the Master Document. The identical numbering sequence should be used for storing waypoints in the navigation computers. For aircraft equipped with FMS databases, FMS generated or inserted waypoints should be carefully compared to Master Document waypoints and cross checked by both pilots. An appropriate symbology should be adopted to indicate the status of each waypoint listed on the Master Document.

GPS OPERATIONAL CONTROL RESTRICTIONS


Any predicted satellite outages that affect the capability of GPS navigation may require the cancellation, delay, or re-routing of the flight.

EFFECTS OF SATELLITE AVAILABILITY


Given suitable geometry, four appropriately configured satellites are required to determine position, five are required to detect the presence of a single faulty satellite; and six are required to identify the faulty satellite and exclude it from the navigation solution. The number of satellites may be reduced if barometric aiding is used.

FLIGHT PLAN CHECK


The purpose of this check is to ensure complete compatibility between the data in the Master Document and the calculated output from the navigation systems. Typical actions could include: Checking the distance from the ramp position to the first waypoint Selecting track waypoint 1 to waypoint 2 and doing the following: Checking accuracy of the indicated distance against that in the Master Document Checking, if possible, that the track displayed is the same in the Master Document Carrying out similar checks for subsequent pairs of waypoints and any discrepancies between the Master Document and displayed data checked for possible waypoint insertion errors. When each leg of the flight has been checked in this manner, it should be annotated on the Master Document.

IN FLIGHT PROCEDURES
During the initial part of the flight, ground navaids should be used to verify the performance of the LRNSs.

ATC OCEANIC CLEARANCE


Two flight crewmembers should listen to and record every ATC clearance. Any doubt should be resolved by requesting clarification from ATC.

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NAVIGATION PROCEDURES
ENTERING THE MNPS AIRSPACE AND REACHING AN OCEANIC WAYPOINT
When passing waypoints, carry out the following checks: Just prior to the waypoint, check the present position coordinates of each navigation system against the cleared route in the Master Document. Check the next two waypoints in each navigation system against the Master Document. At the waypoint, check the distance to the next waypoint. Confirm that the aircraft turns in the correct direction and takes up a new heading and track appropriate to the leg to the next waypoint. Before transmitting the position report to ATC, verify the waypoint coordinates against the Master Document and those in the steering navigation system. When feasible, read the position report next and next plus 1 waypoint coordinates from the CDU of the navigation system coupled to the autopilot.

APPROACHING LANDFALL
When the aircraft is within range of land-based navaids, and the crew is confident that these navaids are providing reliable navigation information, they should consider updating the LRNSs.

AVOIDING CONFUSION BETWEEN MAGNETIC AND TRUE TRACK REFERENCE


Crews who decide to check or update their LRNSs by reference to VORs should remember that in the Canadian Northern Domestic Airspace, these may be oriented with reference to true north rather than magnetic north.

NAVIGATION IN THE AREAS OF COMPASS UNRELIABILITY


In areas of compass unreliability, basic inertial navigation requires no special procedures, but most operators feel it is desirable to retain an independent heading reference in case of system failure (where the magnetic field is less than 6 microteslas).

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INTRODUCTION
At high latitudes, magnetic compasses become unreliable due to the dip angle of the Earths magnetic field. Gyrocompasses and grid navigation techniques are one option to overcome this problem. The other more common technique is to use an IRS based on a triple IN system, all feeding data into an FMS. The volumes on Instrumentation and Radio Navigation cover this in depth.

GRID AND PLOTTING ON A POLAR CHART


Where a straight line is drawn on a Polar Stereographic chart, it roughly equates to a Great Circle. To allow a constant straight-line course direction, a grid is superimposed upon the Polar Stereographic chart normally aligned to the 0 meridian. This grid is printed because the use of true or magnetic references in Polar Regions is difficult due to the following: Magnetic variation changes rapidly over short distances. The magnetic compass becomes unreliable at latitudes greater than 70N. The convergence of the meridians causes the course to change rapidly. Note: Other meridians may be used to reference the grid. The same principle applies.

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Grid Navigation

The direction of the datum meridian is Grid North. Any course measured from this datum is known as grid direction. In the diagram above, the grid is aligned to the prime meridian. A line is drawn between A (N85 W030) and B (N85 E030). The Grid Course equals the True Course when the line passes through the 0 meridian. Both True North and Grid North are the same: Grid Course 270 True Course 270

However, the true and grid courses differ at both A and B. By measurement, if transiting from B to A: At B: Grid Course = 270 True Course = 300 At A: Grid Course = 270 True Course = 240

The angular difference between the two is convergence: Where True North is west of Grid North (B), convergence is westerly. Where True North is east of Grid North (A), convergence is easterly. The angular difference between the Grid North and True North is 30. The angular difference between the Reference Meridian (0) and Point A or Point B is 30. Following a simple convention: Convergence west True best Point B Grid Course = True Course - 30 Convergence east True least Point A Grid Course = True Course + 30

True Bearing = Grid Bearing + Longitude West (- Longitude East) The longitude refers to whether True North is to the west of Grid North or to the east.

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Aircraft Heading
South

In the diagram below, the aircraft grid heading is given.


South South 135E

135W

180E/W

5
80 N

75 N

1
South 090W

85 North Pole Grid North

090E

South

2
045W South South 0E/W

045E South

The Grid Headings are: Aircraft 1 Aircraft 2 Aircraft 3 Aircraft 4 Aircraft 5 Grid 000 Grid 225 Grid 315 Grid 000 Grid 090 (270 T) (180 T) (000 T) (090 T) (270 T)

Convergence Factor = ChLong x Sin Lat Convergence Angle = ChLong x Sin Lat The following are examples of the questions asked in the OP exam. 1. On a polar stereographic chart, with a grid referenced on the Greenwich meridian and convergence of 10W, true heading of 300, what is grid heading? a. 290 b. 010 c. 300 d. 310

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Answer: Convergence west true best. True heading = 300, therefore Grid heading = 300 10 = 290 G = A 2. If the grid datum is 054W, position 80N 140E and true heading of 330, what is the grid heading? a. 316 b. 276 c. 164 d. 136

Answer: Convergence is West (54W to 140E). At 140E, True North is to the West of Grid North, hence convergence West. Convergence is 194W. Convergence West True Best, True Hdg = 330 so Grid Hdg = 330 194 = 136 = D

GYROS AND INERTIAL SYSTEMS


The principles of operation of gyroscopes and their application to gyro-compasses and inertial reference systems are detailed in Instrumentation.

PRECESSION
When an external force is applied a rotating body, the body moves as if the force had been applied 90 further round in the direction of rotation. Therefore, any external force applied to a free gyro produces a rotation at right angles to the force applied. If the body is not free to move, a precession force is induced in the body. When a driver leans a racing motorcycle, the bike turns in the direction of the lean due to the precession forces induced in the rotating wheels. The precession force is proportional to the rate of rotation of the body.

FORCE

PRECESSION

LEAN TO THE LEFT TURN TO THE LEFT

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TYPES OF GYRO
SPACE (OR FREE) GYRO This gyro has freedom to move in all three planes. It consists of two concentrically pivoted rings called inner and outer gimbal rings. The three planes relate to the three axes of the aeroplane (e.g. side to side or roll axis, lateral or pitch axis, and the normal or yaw axis). Furthermore, there is no means of external control over this type of gyro, a feature which distinguishes it from a tied or earth gyro. This type of gyro would have no practical use in an aeroplane instrument where the gyro is required to be set to and maintain a given direction. TIED (OR DISPLACEMENT) GYRO This type of gyro is basically a space gyro which has a means of external control and has freedom of movement about all three planes. This type is used as a directional gyro (e.g. in the Direction Indicator (DI). EARTH GYRO This type of gyro is a tied gyro, where the controlling force is the gravity of the Earth. This type is used in gyro horizon or artificial horizon instruments. RATE GYRO This gyro has one plane of freedom only; its plane of rotation is 90 removed from its plane of freedom. This type of gyro is used to measure the rate of turn, and employs restraining springs (e.g. in the turn and balance indicator or turn co-ordinator). RATE INTEGRATING GYRO This type of gyro is similar to the rate gyro, having a single degree of freedom. However, it uses the viscosity of a fluid (viscous restraint) to damp the precessional rotation about its output axis instead of restraining springs. The main function of this type of gyro is to detect turning about its input axis by precessing about its output axis. Inertial navigation stablised platforms use this type of gyro. SOLID STATE (RING LASER) GYRO These are not gyros in the true sense, but they behave like gyros and sense the angular rate of motion about a single axis. They consist of a solid block of temperature stable glass within which there is a cavity or laser path filled with a lasing medium, such as helium-neon. Some are triangular in shape (Honeywell), whilst others have four sides (Litton). They both have small tunnels drilled in them, with reflecting mirrors sited at each corner. Two beams of high-energy laser light are passed in opposite directions around the sealed cavity and initially travel at the same speed.
Any rotation of the gyro in the plane of the laser results in a change in the path lengths of each beam. The resultant frequency shift of the beams is measured using a control element. The frequency differential is directly proportional to the angular turning rate.

GYRO WANDER Any deviation of the gyro spin axis from its set direction is known as gyro wander, and is classified as follows:
Real Wander Any physical deviation of the gyro spin axis is called real wander. A gyro should not wander away from its preset direction, but various forces act on the rotating mass of a gyro and cause it to precess, for example, the bearing friction that is always present at the spin axis. If this friction is symmetrical, it merely slows down the rotor, but if it is asymmetrical, it causes the gyro to Operational Procedures 17-5

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precess. Similarly, any friction in the gimbal bearings causes the gyro to precess. Wear on the gyro may result in movement of the C of G, which may also result in a precessing force. Such errors are not constant or predictable, and cannot be calibrated for or corrections applied to nullify this error. Apparent Wander In this case, the gyro spin axis does not physically wander away from its pre-set direction, but to an observer, it appears to have changed its direction. This is because the gyro maintains its direction with respect to a fixed point in space, whereas the observer rotates with the Earth. With the passage of time, the gyro appears to have changed direction with reference to an Earth datum. Apparent wander is also made up of horizontal components called drift and vertical components called topple. The rate of drift and topple depends upon the latitude and can vary from zero to a maximum of 15.04 per hour (the rate at which the Earth rotates). Depending on whether a gyro has a vertical or horizontal spin axis, the rotation of the Earth also has a different effect.

HORIZONTAL AXIS GYRO The diagram below shows a horizontal spin axis gyro positioned at the North Pole.

Gyro Drift It shows an observer initially at position A, where the gyro is set so that its spin axis is directly in line with the observer. Six hours later, the Earth having rotated through 90, the observer now views the gyro from position B. The observers own motion is not noticed, and the gyro spin axis appears to have moved clockwise in the horizontal plane through 90. Twelve hours later, the gyro spin axis appears to have moved through 180, and finally after twenty-four hours, with the observer back in the original position, the gyro spin axis again appears as it was first aligned. The apparent motion in the horizontal plane is known as gyro drift. If a horizontal spin axis gyro has its axis aligned in a north/south direction along the equator, during the Earth rotation, the gyro spin axis continues to remain aligned with the local meridian. This occurs because all of the meridians are parallel to one another at the equator, and a gyro aligned with a meridian remains with that meridian over a 24-hour period. This means that the gyros neither drift nor topple when aligned in this manner.

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If the horizontal spin axis gyro is positioned at the poles, it drifts through 360 in 24 hours (maximum drift) (i.e. the rate of drift at the poles is the same as the angular velocity of the Earth at 15.04 per hour, whilst at the equator, the same gyro with its spin axis aligned with the local meridian has zero drift due to Earth rotation). Drift at intermediate latitudes = 15.04 x Sin Latitude per hour.

TRANSPORT WANDER This is an additional form of apparent topple/drift, which principally occurs when the gyro is placed on a platform, such as an aeroplane that is flying in an east or west direction. The gyro is now carried in space in the same way as the Earth and results in transport wander.
Transport drift = Rate of change of longitude per hour x Sin latitude per hour Transport topple = Rate of change of longitude per hour x Cos latitude per hour Transport Wander = (Ground Speed/60 x Tan Lat) Degrees/hr (-East; +West)

EXAMPLES OF GYRO WANDER If a gyro with a horizontal spin axis is set with its axis aligned in an east/west direction at latitude 45N, the attitude of its spin axis will change as the Earth rotates. Since the gyro axis is aligned in an east/west direction at an intermediate latitude, the gyro both drifts and topples.
After 3 hours, the change will be: Drift = 15.04 Sin latitude per hour = 3 x 15.04 x Sin 45 = 31.9 Topple = 15.04 Cos latitude per hour = 3 x 15.04 x Cos 45 = 31.9 Note: In the Northern Hemisphere, the gyro axis drifts clockwise. Drift is anti-clockwise in the Southern Hemisphere. The spin axis is aligned at 090 + 31.9 = 121.9 / 301.9. The eastern end of the spin axis appears to have risen by 31.9 from the horizontal, and the western end is similarly depressed. If the rate of change of longitude during a flight is 25 in one hour, at latitude 50N, the amount of transport drift present is: Transport drift = Rate of change of longitude per hour x Sin latitude per hour Transport drift = 25 x Sin 50 = 19.15 The following are examples of likely questions in the OP exam: 1. An aeroplane is at 60N 010E and is to fly to 60N 020E. The flight time is 1 hours in still air. The gyro is set with the reference to true north and not corrected in flight for precession. What is the required initial heading if a constant gyro heading is to be maintained? a. 080 b. 076 c. 066 d. 086

Operational Procedures

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Chapter 17

Grid Navigation

Answer: The formulae for earth rate drift and latitude nut corrections are identical. However, the drift corrections are applied to the gyro in opposite senses. For example, in the Northern Hemisphere, the indications of a DI decrease over time due to the Earths rotation. The idea of the latitude nut is to counteract the earth rate drift so its effect is to increase the direction indications over time. The latitude nut can be adjusted for corrections of earth rate drift in either hemisphere. The formula is 15 x Sin of latitude. For transport wander, the change in direction indication decreases for any transport in an easterly direction in the Northern Hemisphere and increases for transport westerly. Note here that the decreasing error is the same for Northern Hemisphere earth rate drift and easterly transport. Remember that there is no transport wander when travelling directly North or South, but such movement varies the amount of drift due to earth rate. The formula is (groundspeed 60) x Tan mean lat. The trick is to arrange your work in a very methodical and logical manner. The following order of calculations is suggested: Earth Rate ER (This is apparent wander) Lat nut LN (This is real wander but is calibrated to a known amount) Transport TW (This is apparent wander) Random RW (Random wander is real wander and cannot be calculated) Now, apply the general explanation above to the specific question: An aeroplane is at 60N 010E and is to fly to 60N 020E. The flight time is 1 hours in still air. The gyro is set with the reference to true north and not corrected in flight for precession. What is the required initial heading if a constant gyro heading is to be maintained? ER The aircraft remains at 60N for the duration of this flight, therefore: 15 x Sin 60 = 12.99 decrease per hour, so 19.48 in 1.5 hours. LN Not given TW The groundspeed is not given but departure is. 10 long at 60N = 300 nm. So, GS is 200 kt. This speed is used in the TW formula. 200/60 x Tan Lat = 5.77 decrease per hour because flight is easterly. For 1.5 hours, the decrease is 8.65. RW - Not given or asked for. The total expected drift is a 28.13 decreasing. If a pilot followed a constant gyro heading with a decreasing indication, the aircraft would track to the right of track, so the initial gyro heading would be half the expected drift and applied to the left of intended track. Therefore, 090 less 14 = 76. 2. You are at a latitude of 5957N with a heading of 120 showing on a gyro compass. You experience a delay of 2hrs 30mins. What is the effect on your compass? a. -18.5 b. 18.5 c. -32.5 d. 32.5

Answer: During the delay, the Earth rotates and the gyro is subject to Earth Rate Precession over the period. This is: 15.04/hr x Sin Lat = 15.04 x 2.5 x 0.866 = 32.56 The rotation is easterly, so the compass precesses by 32.56 degrees. Answer C

17-8

Operational Procedures

GENERAL
The navigation systems fitted to MNPS approved aircraft are generally very accurate and very reliable. GNEs in NAT MNPS Airspace are rare. For unrestricted operation in MNPS Airspace, an approved aircraft must be equipped with a minimum of two fully serviceable LRNSs. MNPS approved aircraft that have suffered any equipment failures that result in only a single LRNS remaining serviceable may still be flight planned and flown through the MNPS Airspace but only on specified routes established for this purpose. Crew training and consequent approval for MNPS operations should include instruction on what actions to consider in the event of navigation system failures.

DETECTION OF FAILURES
Normally, navigation installations include comparator and/or warning devices, but it is still necessary for the crew to make frequent comparison checks. When an aircraft is fitted with three independent systems, the identification of a defective system should be straightforward.

METHODS OF DETERMINING WHICH SYSTEM IS FAULTY With only two systems on board, identifying the defective unit can be difficult. If such a situation does arise in oceanic airspace, consider any or all of the following actions:
Check malfunction codes for indication of unserviceability. Obtain a fix. It may be possible to use the following: The weather radar (range marks and relative bearing lines) to determine the position relative to an identifiable landmark such as an island The ADF to obtain bearings from a suitable NDB A VOR Contact a nearby aircraft on VHF and compare information on spot wind or ground speed and drift. If such assistance is not available, as a last resort, compare the flight plan wind speed and direction for the current DR position of the aircraft with that from navigation system outputs.

Operational Procedures

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Chapter 18

Procedures in the Event of Navigation System Degradation or Failure

GUIDANCE ON WHAT CONSTITUTES A FAILED SYSTEM Operations or navigation manuals should include guidelines on how to decide when a navigation system should be considered to have failed. If there is a difference greater than 15 nm between two aircraft navigation systems, it is advisable to split the difference between the readings when determining the aircraft's position. If the disparity exceeds 25 nm, one or more of the navigation systems should be regarded as having failed.The pilot should notify ATC in this case. GPS SATELLITE FAULT DETECTION OUTAGE If the GPS receiver displays an indication of a fault detection function outage (i.e. RAIM is not available), navigation integrity must be provided by comparing the GPS position with the position indicated by another LRNS sensor. If the only sensor for the approved LRNS is GPS, then comparison should be made with a position computed by extrapolating the last verified position with airspeed, heading, and estimated winds. If the positions do not agree within 10 nm, the pilot should adopt navigation system failure procedures until the exclusion function or navigation integrity is regained, and should report degraded navigation capability to ATC. PARTIAL OR COMPLETE LOSS OF NAVIGATION/FMS CAPABILITY BY AIRCRAFT HAVING STATE APPROVAL FOR UNRESTRICTED OPERATIONS IN MNPS AIRSPACE Some aircraft carry triplex equipment (3 LRNSs). If one system fails, even before take-off, the two basic requirements for MNPS Airspace operations may still be met and the flight can proceed normally. The following offers guidance for aircraft equipped with only two operational LRNSs:
One System Fails Before Take-Off The pilot should consider delaying departure if timely repair is possible or obtain a clearance above or below MNPS Airspace. Another option is to plan on the special routes known as the Blue Spruce Routes. Use of these routes is subject to sufficient navigation capability. To ensure that MNPS accuracy can be met by relying on short-range navaids, the pilot files a revised flight plan with the appropriate ATS unit and obtains an appropriate ATC clearance. One System Fails Before the OCA Boundary is Reached The pilot must consider landing at a suitable aerodrome before the boundary, or returning to the aerodrome of departure, diverting via one of the special routes described previously, or obtaining a re-clearance above or below MNPS Airspace. One System Fails After the OCA Boundary is Crossed Once the aircraft has entered oceanic airspace, the pilot should normally continue to operate the aircraft in accordance with the Oceanic Clearance already received, appreciating that the reliability of the total navigation system has been significantly reduced. The pilot should, however, assess the prevailing circumstances in MNPS Airspace, etc., and prepare a proposal to ATC with respect to the prevailing circumstances; advise and consult with ATC as to the most suitable action, and obtain appropriate re-clearance prior to any deviation from the last acknowledged Oceanic Clearance.

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Operational Procedures

Procedures in the Event of Navigation System Degradation or Failure

Chapter 18

MONITORING
When a flight with a nav system failure continues in accordance with its original clearance (especially if the distance ahead within MNPS Airspace is significant), the pilot should begin a careful monitoring programme to take special care in the operation of the remaining system, bearing in mind that routine methods of error checking are no longer available. Also, check the main and standby compass systems frequently against the information that is still available, and check the performance record of the remaining equipment. If doubt arises regarding its performance and/or reliability, consider the following procedures: Attempt visual sighting of other aircraft or their contrails, which may provide a track indication Call the appropriate OAC for information on other aircraft adjacent to the aircrafts estimated position and/or call on VHF to establish contact with such aircraft (preferably same track/level) to obtain information from them that could be useful (e.g. drift, groundspeed, wind details). The Remaining System Fails after Entering MNPS Airspace The pilot should: Immediately notify ATC Make best use of procedures specified above relating to attempting visual sightings and establishing contact on VHF with adjacent aircraft for useful information Keep a special look-out for possible conflicting aircraft and make maximum use of exterior lights Consider climbing or descending 500 ft if instructions are not received from ATC within a reasonable period. Broadcast the altitude change on 121.5 MHz and advise ATC as soon as possible. This procedure also applies when the remaining system gives an indication of degradation of performance or neither system fails completely, but the system indications diverge widely, and the defective system cannot be determined.

COMPLETE FAILURE OF NAVIGATION SYSTEMS COMPUTER


A characteristic of the navigation computer system is that the computer element might fail and deprive the aircraft of steering guidance and the indication of position relative to cleared track. However, the basic outputs of the IRS (LAT/LONG, Drift, and Groundspeed) are not impaired. A typical drill to minimise the effects of a total navigation computer system failure is suggested below. It requires the carriage of a suitable plotting chart. Draw the cleared route on a chart and extract mean true tracks between waypoints. Use the basic IRS/GPS outputs to adjust heading to maintain mean track and to calculate ETAs. At intervals of not more than 15 minutes, plot position (LAT/LONG) on the chart and adjust heading to regain track.

Operational Procedures

18-3

Chapter 18

Procedures in the Event of Navigation System Degradation or Failure

18-4

Operational Procedures

NORTH ATLANTIC (NAT) REGION


INTRODUCTION
The procedures below are supplementary to the previous NAT Manual concerning MNPS.

MNPS SPECIFICATIONS
Within MNPS the lateral track error of any aircraft is expected to be less than 6.3 nm and the mean altimetry error to be no more than 80 ft. This applies to all groups of aircraft. Where an aircraft has a unique avionics system, the altimetry system error must not be more than 200 ft.

FLIGHT PLANNING
Flights are planned along Great Circle Routes.

SEPARATION OF AIRCRAFT
LATERAL SEPARATION Minimum lateral separation is:
60 nm between MNPS aircraft 90 nm between aircraft outside MNPS airspace if one aircraft is not MNPS approved 120 nm between other aircraft The above minima can be referenced to latitude as long as the track does not change latitude by: 3 at or south of 58N 2 between 58N and 70N 1 at or North of 70N At or above 80N, where 1 of latitude is exceeded, the track spacing expression must be in nm.

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Chapter 19

Regional Supplementary Procedures: North Atlantic (NAT) and European (EUR)

LONGITUDINAL SEPARATION Minimum longitudinal separation is 10 minutes when using Mach Number Technique. The aircraft concerned should have reported over a common point and follow the same track. Where aircraft have reported over a common point and the tracks diverge:
10 minute longitudinal separation must occur at the point where tracks diverge. 5 minutes longitudinal separation must occur where 60 nm lateral separation occurs. At least 60 nm lateral separation must occur before the next significant point, or, 90 minutes or within 600 nm of the common point, whichever is first. If aircraft have not reported over a common point the use of radar may ensure the correct separation. If the leading aircraft is faster, then the separation can be between 10 minutes to 5 minutes using the following formulae: Time 9 minutes 8 minutes 7 minutes 6 minutes 5 minutes Lead Aircraft M 0.02 faster than the following aircraft M 0.03 faster than the following aircraft M 0.04 faster than the following aircraft M 0.05 faster than the following aircraft M 0.06 faster than the following aircraft Separation by Mach number For MNPS turbojet aircraft not covered by any of the above spacing, the minimum separation is 15 minutes.

WESTERN ATLANTIC ROUTE SYSTEM (WATRS)


The minimum longitudinal separation when turbo jet aircraft operate within the WATRS area or west of 60W are 10 minutes if using Mach Number Technique and the aircraft is at or above FL280. For non-turbojet aircraft the separation is 20 minutes.

OPERATIONS NOT MEETING THE MNPS AIRSPACE EXCEPT THE WATRS


Minimum longitudinal separation is: 15 minutes 10 minutes if the lead aircraft is M 0.03 faster than the following aircraft and radar can guarantee the separation 5 minutes if the lead aircraft is M 0.06 faster than the following aircraft and radar can guarantee the separation

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Operational Procedures

Regional Supplementary Procedures: North Atlantic (NAT) and European (EUR)

Chapter 19

EUROPEAN (EUR) REGION


SUBMISSION OF FLIGHT PLANS
For flights subject to air traffic flow management (AFTM) submission must be at least 3 hours before the estimated off blocks time (EOBT). A modification message must be transmitted for changes to the EOBT of more than 15 minutes.

8.33 KHZ SPACING


8.33 KHz spacing is utilised in order to increase the frequencies available to aircraft. Where an aircraft can comply with 8.33 KHz spacing, the letter Y is inserted in ITEM 10 of the flight plan. Where an exemption has been granted, STS/EXM833 is placed in ITEM 18. All aircraft operating above FL245 in the EUR region must be equipped with 8.33 KHz spacing.

SEPARATION OF AIRCRAFT
LONGITUDINAL SEPARATION The minimum separation is 3 minutes, provided that the flight is continuously monitored by radar and the distance between aircraft is never less than 20 nm.

TRANSFER OF RADAR CONTROL


Silent transfer of radar control may occur if the minimum distance between aircraft is 10 nm, SSR is being used, and radar overlap is at least 30 nm. The distance can be reduced to 5 nm if the ATC units have some electronic means of effecting the transfer. Mach Number Control, as with NAT Mach Number Control, can be used in the EUR region. The following conditions must apply: Aircraft must fly the Mach number assigned If the Mach number changes by more than M 0.01 ATC must be informed Where required the Mach number should be included in position reports

Operational Procedures

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Chapter 19

Regional Supplementary Procedures: North Atlantic (NAT) and European (EUR)

19-4

Operational Procedures

EMERGENCY AND PRECAUTIONARY LANDINGS


GENERAL
In extreme circumstances, it may become inevitable that further flight is neither desirable nor practicable, forcing the Commander to make a decision to land as soon as possible. The procedures for diversion to an alternate aerodrome have been covered in detail, but a situation could force the aeroplane to land on unprepared land or the surface of the sea. In either event, the procedures in the Operations Manual guide the actions of the pilots and crew. One point that cannot be over-emphasised is that a decision to make such a landing must occur whilst the pilots are still able to control the aeroplane.

DITCHING
Ditching is the process of landing an aeroplane on the surface of the sea. During the design phase of the aeroplane construction, tests on computer and scale models occur in water tanks to determine the ditching characteristics of the aeroplane. The effects are included in the aircraft manual and pilots must be well briefed regarding the methods of ditching the aircraft during the type rating course. Statistically, 88% of ditchings result in few if any, injuries to crew and passengers. Unfortunately, a much smaller percentage survives the ensuing survival phase, with many deaths caused by drowning after a successful ditching. Surviving the survival phase is all about the speed of rescue. This depends upon the accuracy and extent of the information conveyed to the ATC authority by the crew during the run-up to the ditching.

PROCEDURE Ditching is a controlled operation, with the aeroplane landing deliberately and smoothly (or as smoothly as possible) on to the surface of the sea, not dropped onto the surface during a stall. It is recommended to land the aircraft across the swell (using a crosswind landing technique). If the wind speed is more than 35/40 kt, wave height may well exceed 10 ft, making it more prudent to land into the wind in this case. A significant speed reduction and a definite nose up pitching happens, which can cause high-G rotations leading to possible structural damage and injuries.
To minimise the risk of injury, everybody on board should be securely strapped into their seats and those without shoulder restraint harnesses should adopt a position with the head as far forward (ideally between the knees) and the hands clasped tightly behind the neck holding the head forward. Life jackets should be donned before adopting the position. Cabin crew should ensure that all loose articles are stowed and the seats are correctly positioned before securing themselves. After rapidly coming to rest, providing there is no catastrophic fuselage damage, the aeroplane will float for a considerable time allowing an orderly evacuation via the over-wing exits into the life rafts or dinghies. These should have been released from the in-wing stowages, but are still tethered to the aeroplane. Operational Procedures 20-1

Chapter 20

In-Flight Contingencies

PRECAUTIONARY LANDING
If the command decision is to divert to an enroute alternate, make a MAYDAY or PAN PAN call to ATC. The Rules of the Air section of the Air Law notes, and the IFR and VFR Communications notes cover the procedures for emergency communications. The ATC authority will activate the alerting service and the regional RCC will be informed of the emergency. SAR assets are also alerted. Preparations on the ground occur at the diversion aerodrome nominated to receive the aeroplane. Because the diversion is unplanned, ATC makes every effort to route other traffic out of the way of the aircraft in emergency, but compliance with ATC instructions regarding routing, heights, and speeds must occur (without exacerbating the emergency situation). The possibility that the situation could deteriorate rapidly, requiring a forced landing or ditching with little extra warning, is foremost in the minds of ATC personnel. Measures such as scrambling long-range SAR aircraft and helicopters may appear some what over the top at the time but such preparatory action may be crucial to saving lives later. Within the restrictions of the situations, a normal, controlled landing should be made as well as can be achieved. Once on the ground, the Commander must make a decision whether or not to move the aircraft off the landing runway or bring the aircraft to a stop and immediately evacuate the passengers and crew. This will depend very much on the nature and severity of the emergency situation. In any situation involving fire, all personnel must leave the aeroplane as quickly as possible. The fire/rescue crew will attempt to control the fire until all personnel are evacuated.

PASSENGER BRIEFING
In an emergency situation, fear becomes the main enemy. Even the most seasoned traveller and the most experienced crewmember experience at least apprehension in an emergency. The inexperienced may tend to panic, and the cabin crew should attempt to impose strict discipline to overcome irrational behaviour, not only with regard to the passengers, but toward themselves as well. The most valuable weapon the crew has available is to keep the passengers informed of exactly what is happening. This, together with skill and calmness, provides the passengers the impression that the situation is totally under control, even if this is not exactly the case. Attention to detail (stowing small loose items, removing rubbish, and assisting in donning life jackets, etc.) reassures the passengers. The flight crew should attempt to provide a virtual running commentary over the PA system. This further reassures and occupies the minds of the passengers. When the aeroplane is committed to a course of action: crash landing, ditching, or precautionary landing, a comprehensive brief to the cabin crew and passengers must happen. This must include a strong statement as to the authority of the cabin crew and an order from the Commander for the passengers to do as instructed. Cabin crew should re-brief the emergency procedures covered during the pre-takeoff stage.

EVACUATION
Once the aeroplane has come to a stop after the landing, rapid evacuation is essential to preserve life. Fire is always a risk and the aim must be to get everybody as far away from the aeroplane as possible. During the briefing, the location of exits and the route to the exits should be reiterated. Cabin crews will have trained in the procedures for evacuation, including strict discipline and firm control, and the correct use of all the equipment provided to assist the evacuation. The Operator is responsible for regular training sessions, and the drills to follow should be included in the Operations manual. 20-2 Operational Procedures

In-Flight Contingencies

Chapter 20

NORTH ATLANTIC PROCEDURES


INTRODUCTION
The following procedures are intended for guidance only. Although all possible contingencies cannot be covered, they provide for such cases as: Inability to maintain assigned level due to weather (for example severe turbulence) Aircraft performance problems Pressurisation failure They are applicable primarily when rapid descent, turn-back, or diversion to an alternate aerodrome is required. The pilot's judgment determines the specific sequence of actions taken regarding the prevailing circumstances.

GENERAL PROCEDURES
If an aircraft is unable to continue its flight in accordance with its ATC clearance, obtain a revised clearance whenever possible, prior to initiating any action, using the radio telephony distress (MAYDAY, MAYDAY, MAYDAY) signal or urgency (PAN PAN, PAN PAN, PAN PAN) signal as appropriate. If prior clearance cannot be obtained, obtain an ATC clearance at the earliest possible time. In the meantime, the aircraft should broadcast its position (including the ATS Route designator or the Track Code as appropriate) and its intentions, at frequent intervals on 121.5 MHz (with 123.45 MHz as a back-up frequency). Until a revised clearance is obtained, carefully follow the specified NAT in-flight contingency procedures. Fly the aircraft at a flight level and/or on a track where it is least likely to encounter other aircraft. Make maximum use of aircraft lighting and maintain a good lookout. If the aircraft carries TCAS, use the displayed information to assist in sighting proximate traffic.

SPECIAL PROCEDURES
The general concept of these NAT in-flight contingency procedures is, whenever operationally feasible, to offset from the assigned route by 30 nm and climb or descend to a level which differs from those normally used by 500 ft if below FL410 or by 1000 ft if above FL410.

INITIAL ACTION The aircraft should leave its assigned route or track by initially turning 90 to the right or left. Factors that may affect the direction of turn are:
Direction to an alternate airport Terrain clearance Levels allocated on adjacent routes or tracks

SUBSEQUENT ACTION An aircraft that is able to maintain its assigned flight level should, once established on the offset track:
Climb or descend 1000 ft if above FL410 Climb or descend 500 ft when below FL410 Climb 1000 ft or descend 500 ft if at FL410 Operational Procedures 20-3

Chapter 20

In-Flight Contingencies

An aircraft that is unable to maintain its assigned flight level should, whenever possible, minimise its rate of descent while acquiring the 30 nm offset track; for the subsequent level flight, select a flight level that differs from those normally used by 1000 ft if above FL410 or by 500 ft if below FL410. If these contingency procedures are employed by a twin-engine aircraft as a result of the shutdown of a power unit or the failure of a primary aircraft system the pilot should advise ATC as soon as practicable of the situation, reminding ATC of the type of aircraft involved and requesting expeditious handling.

WAKE TURBULENCE
Any pilot who experiences a wake turbulence incident when flying in NAT MNPS Airspace or within an adjacent RVSM transition area must report it. When flying within NAT MNPS Airspace (but not in adjacent domestic airspace RVSM transition areas), if necessary, the pilot may offset from cleared track by up to a maximum of 2 nm (upwind) in order to alleviate the effects of wake turbulence. The flight crew should advise ATC of this action and the aircraft should be returned to the cleared track as soon as the situation allows.

TCAS ALERTS AND WARNINGS


In the event that a Traffic Advisory (TA) is issued, commencement of a visual search for the threat aircraft should occur and preparation made to respond to a Resolution Advisory (RA), if one should follow. In the event that an RA is issued, initiate the required manoeuvre immediately. Note that manoeuvres should never be made in a direction opposite to those required by the RA, and that RAs should be disregarded only after positively identifying the potentially conflicting traffic and it becomes evident that no deviation from the current flight path is needed. Report all RAs to ATC verbally, as soon as practicable; and in writing, to the Controlling Authority, after landing.

20-4

Operational Procedures