Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 16

Algunas Reflexiones sobre

Separatismo y el Poder

Marilyn Frye
Ojo de Bruja Ediciones
Lsbicas y Feministas Independientes

  

         !  "# $%&'  ()* +&!(, -


.*%+!%*  + %!%+/   01*!  2$3 ! 4 , 5!6 7
% ( )   &%1&(% +&!(  %! 48  .*(   %**(
 +&!&% *  &*3   %(9(%  &%1&(%  &: *! 
! (&.%, ;!*6) !7%! !%6* %.*!)  ! &: *!  +%
(3%*/! &.%*((!   .% /( +&!( * (1!  3<*%  *= 7
!9   !/ %&%  .% /(! <!6!, >6 ) 6*%! %&% ?>% (! "+
@ (7 A ;!!7! B -&!( $%*7  CD? >% /(!   @  A
;!7%!  %*/ -&!(' 7 ?E + F*3G ;!!7!  -&!&  4HA
I  I? F*3! "6!(!G ;!7%!  -&!&%  4HAI' ,

OJO DE BRUJA Ediciones feministas y lsbicas independientes.


Una iniciativa autnoma de lesbianas para hacer
circular escritos feministas contrahegemnicos:
anti-capitalistas, lsbicos, radicales, anti-racistas,
ecofeministas, anarquistas, de teoras feministas no
difundidas, desaparecidas frente a un contexto
liberal-patriarcal, en la apuesta de que la reflexin
crtica y el anlisis profundo genera radicalizacin
de la lucha feminista, su autocrtica y bsqueda de
su identidad, rescatando nuestras propias palabras, pensamiento, herstoria.

ojodebrujadistro@riseup.net

- dfusionfeminista.blogspot.com

ANTI-COPYRIGHT 
FOTOCOPIA Y DIFUNDE!




 

 
  
 
 
 



JKL
MN OLPKLPQLRN KSTUOVOU QWMN SNVUK KW SKXQUQP OSYN TQSO RKSRK KW
XUOLTOXON RK YO TNLSTOKLTOQ ZKYOLOSPQ[ YOKLPUQS PQLPN\ SOKYXUK Z]K
XQUQ YO RK QWM]LQ YQLKUQ \ ]L QS]LPN ROZ^TOW\ WN T]QW\ YQW OLPKLPQ VQ
PUQKUWN\ SK RKS_QT^Q PNYQLRN WQ ZNUYQ RK NPUNS PKYQS TNYN
SK` ]QWORQR \ NRON Q WNS _N YVUKS \ WQ WWQYQRQ aROSTUOYOLQTObL OLcKUSQa\
KW ]PNXOSYN QXNTQW^XP OTN\ KPTd
eL YO cORQ \ f RKLPUN RKW ZKYOLOSYN PQW TNYN WN TNYXUKLRN\ KW
SKXQUQP OSYN LN KS ]LQ PKNU^Q N ]LQ RNTPUOLQ \ LO ]LQ K`OMKLT OQ RK
TOKUPNS TNYXNUPQYOKLPNS KSXKT^Z OTNS XNU XQUPK RK WQS ZKYOLOSPQS \
Q]Lg ]K KSPh OLR]RQVWKYKLPK UKWQTONLQRN QW WKSVOQLOSYN d eW
ZKYOLOSYN YK XQUKTK SKU ]L TQWK ORNSTNXON i QWMN T]fQS ZNUYQS \
KSPU]TP]UQS f XQPUNLKS SK YNROZ OTQL TNL TQRQ YNcOYOKLPN RK WQ
TUKQP OcORQR ZKYOLOSPQ[ f ]L KWKYKLPN g]K SK KLT]KLPUQ XUKSKLPK Q
PUQchS RK PNRNS WNS TQYVONS \ KS ]L KWKYKLPN RK SKXQUQTObLd eSPK
KWKYKLPN POKLK R OSPOLPNS XQXKWKS f UKWQTONLKS KL ROSP OLPNS
YNcOYOKLPNS RKW KSXKj N i KSK KWKYKLPN QS]YK SKLP ORNS ROSP OLPNS \ SK
c ]KWcK ROZKUKLPKYKLPK SNVUKSQWOKLPK \ ROZKUKLPKYKLPK RKPKUYOLQRN N

RKPKUYOLQLPK \ RKXKLROKLRN RK TNYN WNS XKRQkNS TQKL f RK g ]OhL


KSPQ NVSKUcQLRN d
eW PKYQ RK WQ SKXQUQTObL\ KL S]S YlWP OXWKS cQUOQTONLKS \ KSPQ XUKSKLPK
KL PNRN [ RKSRK KW ROcNUTON _QSPQ WQS TNY]LORQRKS K`TW]SOcQS RK
WKSVOQLQS SKXQUQP OSPQS \ RKSRK WNS QWVKUM]KS XQUQ Y]jKUKS MNWXKQRQS
Q WNS T^UT]WNS RK VU]jQS \ RKSRK WNS XUNMUQYQS RK eSP]RONS RK m]jKUKS
Q WNS VQUKS RK Y]jKUKS \ RKSRK WQ K` XQLSObL RK WQS M]QURKU^QS QW
QVNUPN WOVUK[ f RKXKLROKLPK RK WQ cNW]LPQR RK WQS Y]jKUKSd
nQ XUKSKLTOQ RK KSPK PKYQ KS cOMNUNSQYKLPK NVST]UKTORQ \
VQLQWOkQRQ \ YOSP OZ OTQRQ f PNPQWYKLPK LKMQRQ XNU Y]T_QS QXN WNMOSPQS
ZKYOLOSPQS \ g]K XQUKTKL KLTNLPUQUWN KYVQUQkNSN\ YOKLPUQS g]K KS
QTKXPQRN\ K` XWNUQRN\ K` XQLRORN f UQYOZOTQRN XNU WQ YQfNU^Q RK WQS
PKbUOTQS f QTP OcOSPQS YoS OLSXOUQRNUQSd eW PKYQ RK WQ SKXQUQTObL KSPo
cOSOVWKYKLPK Q]SKLPK N SKcKUQYKLPK WOYOPQRN\ KL WQ YQfNU^Q RK WQS
TNSQS g]K fN KLP OKLRN TNYN WQS SNW]TONLKS XKUSNLQWKS f XUNfKTPNS
pOLYKROQPNSq \ PQWKS TNYN WKMQWOkQTObL RK WQ XUNSPOP]TObL\ TNLPUQPNS RK
YQPUOYNLONS WOVKUQWKS \ WQ YKj NU^Q RKW PUQPQYOKLPN RK WQS c ^TPOYQS RK
cONWQT ObL f QTTObL QZ OUYQP OcQd
nQ LQP]UQWKkQ QLPQMNLOTQ RK WQ QSOYOWQTObL f RKW SKXQUQP OSYN Q YO YK
XQUKTK SKU ]LQ RK WQS XUOLTOXQWKS TNSQS g]K M]^QL N RKPKUYOLQL WQ
KcQW]QTObL RK cQUOQS PKNU^QS \ QTTON LKS f XUQTP OTQS TNYN WQS
UKZNUYOSPQS N UQROTQWKS \ fKLRN Q WQ UQ^k RK WQ T]KSPObL N SOKLRN
UKWQP OcQYKLPK S]XKUZ OTOQWd rS^ g]K YO T]KSPObL KS hSPQs tu]h TNLP OKLK
WQ SKXQUQTObL\ KL T]QWg]OKUQ N PNRQS S]S Y]T_QS ZNUYQS f MUQRNS\
g]K WQ c ]KWcK PQL cQTOWQLPK f QW YOSYN P OKYXN PQL SOLOKSPUQ \ PQL
K`TOPQLPK f PQL UKX]WSOcQv
nQ SKXQUQTObL ZKYOLOSPQ KS \ TNYN SK SQVK \ ]LQ SKXQUQTObL RK cQUONS
MUQRNS N YNRNS RK WNS _NYVUKS f WQS OLSPOP]TON LKS \ UKWQTONLKS \
XQXKWKS f QTP OcORQRKS g]K SNL RKZ OLORQSiXNUi_NYVUKS \ RNYOLQRQSi
XNUi_NYVUKS f g ]K NXKUQL XQUQ KW VKLKZ OTON RK WNS _N YVUKS f WQ
YQL]PKLTObL RK XUOcOWKMON YQST]WOLN w SOKLRN g]K KSQ SKXQUQTObL KS
OLOT OQRQ N YQLPKLORQ \ RK QT]KURN TN L S] cNW]LPQR \ XNU Y]jKUKS xeW
SKXQUQP OSYN YQST]WOLOSPQ KS WQ SKMUKMQTObL XQUTOQW RK WQS Y]jKUKS \
RK WNS _NYVUKS f RK WNS RNYOLONS YQST]WOLNS \ XNU WQ cNW]LPQR RK WNS
_NYVUKSd eSQ ROZKUKLTOQ KS TU]TOQWyd

nQ SKXQUQTObL ZKYOLOSPQ X]KRK QS]YOU cQUOQS ZNUYQSd eW PKUYOLQU N


KcOPQU UKWQT ONLKS ^LP OYQS N RK PUQVQj N\ XUN _OVOU Q QWM]OKL KLPUQU KL S]
TQSQ \ K`TW]fKLRN Q QWM]OKL RK S] TNYXQz^Q \ N RK S] UK]LObLs
UKP OUQUSK RK WQ XQUP OTOXQTObL KL QWM]LQ QTP OcORQR N OLSP OP]TObL\ N KcOPQU
KSQ XQUPOT OXQTObLs KcOPQU WQ TNY]LOTQTObL f WQ OLZW]KLTOQ cKLORQS RK
TOKUPNS T]QRUQLPKS xLN N ^U YlSOTQS TNL WKPUQS SK`OSPQS \ LN cKU
PKWKcOSObLy[ UK_]SQU RKW KYXKzN N QXNfN [ UKT_QkQU N SKU YQW KR]TQRQ
TNL OLROcOR]NS NZKLSOcNSd rWM ]LQS SKXQUQTONLKS SNL S]POWKS UKi
QWOLKQYOKLPNS RK ORKLPOZOTQTONLKS \ XUONUORQRKS f KYXKzNS \ N KW PUQVQj N
TNL QMKLRQS{XUNMUQYQS g]K SNWQYKLPK XNU SO QTQSN TNOLTORKL TNL
WQS QMKLRQS{XUNMUQYQS RK WQ OLSPOP]TObL KL WQ T]QW SK PUQVQjQd eW TKSK
RK WQ WKQWPQR XQUQ TNL QWMN N QWM]OKL KS ]LQ SKXQUQTObL[ f KW TKSK RKW
QYNUd nQS SKXQUQTONLKS RK WQ ZKYOLOSPQ SNL UQU^S OYQYKLPK
XUNT]UQRQS N YQLPKLORQS ROUKTPQYKLPK TNL ZOLQWORQRKS lWP OYQS \
XKUSNLQWKS N XNW^P OTQSd nN g]K YoS SK QTKUTQ \ XOKLSN\ KS WQ
SKXQUQTObL g ]K UKXUKSKLPQ WQ UKX]WSQ OLSPOLPOcQ f Q]PNi XUKSKUcQLPK RK
WQ YOSNMOLOQ SOSPKYoP OTQ g]K LNS UNRKQd
|KLKUQWYKLPK WQS SKXQUQTONLKS NT]UUKL f SNL YQLPKLORQS TNL cOSPQ
Q QWM]LQ NPUQ TNSQ PQW TNYN WQ OLRKXKLRKLT OQ \ WQ WOVKUPQR \ KW
TUKTOYOKLPN\ WQ OLcKLTObL\ WQ SNUNUORQR \ WQ SKM]UORQR \ WQ SQW]R \ N WQ
XUoTP OTQ RK TNSP]YVUKS L]KcQS N _KUKjKSd }UKT]KLPKYKLPK WQS
SKXQUQTON LKS KL T]KSPObL KcN W]TONLQL\ SOL XUKYKROPQTObL\ Q WQ
YKRORQ g]K SKM]OYNS L]KSPUN TQYOLN f KLTNLPUQYNS g]K cQUOQS
XKUSNLQS \ OLSP OP]TONLKS \ N UKWQTONLKS SNL OLlP OWKS \ NVSPU]TTONLOSPQS N
OLTbYNRQS \ f\ N WQS XNLKYNS RK WQRN N WQS RKjQYNS QPUoSd r cKTKS \
WQS SKXQUQTON LKS SN L XWQLKQRQS TNLSTOKLPKYKLPK f T]WP OcQRQS KL
T]QLPN XUKiUKg]OSOPNS N TNLROTONLKS LKTKSQUOQS XQUQ RQU TNLPOL]ORQR
Q L]KSPUNS QS]LPNSd r cKTKS \ WQS SKXQUQTONLKS SNL WNMUQRQS N
YQLPKLORQS ZoTOWYKLPK \ N TNL ]L SKLPOYOKLPN RK QWOcON N YOSYN RK
QWKMU^Q[ Q cKTKS \ SNL WNMUQRQS f YQLPKLORQS TNL ROZ OT]WPQR \ QW TNSPN
RK WQ cOMOWQLTOQ TNLSPQLPK N TNL QLSOKRQR \ RNWNU N ROSM]SPN d
nQ YQfNU^Q RK WQS ZKYOLOSPQS \ XUNVQVWKYKLPK PNRQS \ XUQTPOTQL QWM]LQ
SKXQUQTObL RK WNS _N YVUKS f RK WQS OLSPOP]TON LKS XNU KWWNS
RNYOLQRQSd ~LQ SKXQUQP OSPQ XUQTP OTQ WQ SKXQUQTObL TN LSTOKLPKYKLPK \
SOSPKYoP OTQYKLPK \ f XUNVQVWKYKLPK RK ]LQ YQLKUQ YQS MKLKUQW g ]K
WQS NPUQS \ f RKZ OKLRK WQ TNYXWKPQ SKXQUQTObL TNYN XQUPK RK WQ
KSPUQPKMOQ TN LSTOKLPK RK WOVKUQTObLd  \ TNLPUQUOQYKLPK Q WQ OYQMKL RK
WQ SKXQUQP OSPQ TNYN TNVQURK KSTQXOSPQ \ WQ cORQ RK WQ YOSYQ KS WQ cORQ

f KW XUNMUQYQ g]K OLSXOUQ WQ YQfNU _NSPOWORQR \ RKXUKTOQTObL\ OLS]WPN f


TNLZUNLPQT ObL\ f KL MKLKUQW KWWQ KS Qg]KWWQ TNLPUQ g]OKL WQS SQLT ONLKS
KTNLbYOTQS NXKUQL YoS TNLP]LRKLPKYKLPKd nQ XKLQWOkQT ObL XNU WQ
UK_]SQ KL PUQVQjQU TN L N XQUQ WNS _N YVUKS QTNSP]YVUQ SKU KW _QYVUK
xN\ XNU WN YKLNS \ cOcOU SOL QSOSPKLTOQ YhROTQy[ f SO L]KSPUQ XN W^P OTQ RK
LNiTNNXKUQTObL KS YoS S]POW\ L]KSPUN YKRON RK S]VSOSPKLTOQ SK cK
TNLSPQLPKYKLPK QYKLQkQRN\ ]LQ cKk g]K LN SN YNS ]LQ WKQW
XQUP ORQUOQ \ ]L YOKYVUN QRKT]QRN RKW Kg ]OXN\ N WN g]K SKQd
nQS XKLQWORQRKS UKSKUcQRQS Q WQS WKSVOQLQS SNL KW NSPUQTOSYN\ KW
QSKRON\ WQ OLSKM]UORQR RK KYXWKN N KW RKSKYXWKN d nQ XKLQWOkQTObL
UKSKUcQRQ QW UKT_QkN RK WNS QcQLTKS SK` ]QWKS RK WNS _NYVUKS KS
ZUKT]KLPKYKLPK WQ cONWQT ObL\ f g]Oko YoS ZUKT]KLPKYKLPK \ WQ XKUR ORQ
RK TNSQS PQWKS TNYN NXNUP]LORQRKS XUNZKSONLQWKS N KL KW KYXWKN d 
WQ SKXQUQP OSPQ cOcK TN L KW XKSN QROT ONLQW RK SKU PNYQRQ XNU Y]T_NS
TNYN ]LQ XUKj]OTONSQ YNUQWYKLPK RKXUQcQRQ g ]K NROQ Q WNS
_NYVUKSd KUN Qg]^ KLTNLPUQYNS ]LQ XOSPQs S O cQYNS Q _QTKU QWMN
PQL UOM]UNSQYKLPK XUN_OVORN XNU WNS XQPUOQUTQS \ RKVKYNS _QTKU QWMN
TOKUPN d
Qf ]LQ ORKQ Q ZW]TP]QU\ SKQ KL WQ WOPKUQP]UQ ZKYOLOSPQ \ SKQ KL WQ QLP Oi
ZKYOLOSPQ \ SKMlL WQ T]QW WQS Y]jKUKS f WNS _NYVUKS cOcKL KL ]LQ
UKWQTObL RK XQUQSOP OSYN\ ]L XQUQSOP OSYN RKW _NYVUK _QTOQ WQ Y]jKU
g]K KS \ KL UKM WQ MKLKUQW\ WQ Z]KUkQ \ KLKUM ^Q \ OLSXOUQTObL f QXNfN
XS^g]OTN RK WQS Y]jKUKS g ]K YQLPOKLKL Q WNS _NYVUKS KL QTP OcORQRd f
LN WQ Z]KUkQ \ QMUKSObL\ KSXOUOP]QWORQR f TQkQ RK WNS _NYVUKS g ]K
YQLP OKLKL Q WQS Y]jKUKS KL QTP OcORQRd
r cKTKS SK ROTK g]K KW XQUQSOPOSYN KS KW TNLPUQUON\ g]K WQ Y]jKU KS WQ
XQUoSOPQd KUN SNWN SK TNLSOM]K OYQMOLQU WQ QXQUOKLTOQ RK WQ Y]jKU
TNYN XQUoSOPQ SO _Qf ]LQ cOSObL Y]f KSPUKT_Q RK WQ cOcKLTOQ _]YQLQ
w _OSPbUOTQYKLPK XUNcOLTOQLQ \ KSPUKT_Q KL UKWQTObL Q TWQSK f UQkQ \ f
WOYOPQRQ KL WQ TN LTKXTObL RK Qg]KWWN g]K SN L WNS VOKLKS LKTKSQUONSd
|KLKUQWYKLPK WQ TNLPUOV]TObL RK WQ Y]jKU XQUQ S] VOKLKSPQU YQPKUOQW
KS f SOKYXUK Z]K S]VSPQLTOQWs KL Y]T_QS hXNTQS f W]MQUKS cOKLK
SOKLRN OLRKXKLR OKLPKYKLPK S]Z OTOKLPKd NRKYNS f RKVKYNS
ROSP OLM]OU KLPUK ]LQ RKXKLRKLTOQ YQPKUOQW XQUTOQW f TNLPOLMKLPK
TUKQRQ XNU ]LQ TOKUPQ KTNLNY^Q RK ROLKUN f KSPU]TP]UQ RK TWQSK \ f WQ
TQSO ]VOT]Q RKXKLRKLTOQ KSXOUOP]QW\ KYNT ONLQW f YQPKUOQW RK WNS
_NYVUKS ZUKLPK Q WQS Y]jKUKSd

rTP]QWYKLPK \ WNS _NYVUKS XUNcKKL\ Q cKTKS S^ f Q cKTKS LN\ ]LQ


XQUPK RKW QXNfN YQPKUOQW RK WQS Y]jKUKS \ KL TOUT]LSPQLTOQS
QXQUKLPKYKLPK _KT_QS XQUQ cNWcKU R OZ^TOW Q WQS Y]jKUKS KW TNLSKM]OUWN
XNU KWWQS YOSYQSd KUN WQS Y]jKUKS XUNcKKL f KL MKLKUQW P OKLKL
XUNcOSPN Q WNS _NYVUKS WQ KLKUM ^Q f KW KSX^UOP] LKTKSQUONS Q WQ cORQ[
WNS _N YVUKS SN L QXNfQRNS XS^g]OTQYKLPK XNU WQS Y]jKUKSd  KSN KS
QWMN g ]K WNS _NYVUKS \ XNU WN g ]K XQUKTK\ LN X]KRKL _QTKU XNU KWWNS
XUNXONS \ LO XQUTOQWYKLPKd
eW XQUQSOP OSYN RK WNS _NYVUKS ZUKLPK Q WQS Y]jKUKS KS RKYNSPUQRN
XNU KW XoLOTN\ UQVOQ K _OSPKUOQ MKLKUQRNS KL PQLPNS RK KWWNS \
SNWQYKLPK RK XKLSQU g ]K cQL Q SKU QVQLRN LQRNS XNU WQS Y]jKUKSd
xy
O KS cKURQR g ]K ]L QSXKTPN Z]LRQYKLPQW RK WQS UKWQTONLKS KLPUK WNS
SK`NS KS KW XQUQSOPOSYN YQST]WOLN\ KSPN XNRUo Qf ]RQU Q K` XWOTQU XNU
g]K g]K TOKUPQS T]KSP ONLKS SNL XQUPOT]WQUYKLPK K`TOPQLPKS XQUQ WNS
S]XUKYQTOSPQS XQPUOQUTQWKSd NU KjKYXWN\ RQRQS WQS NVcOQS cKLPQjQS
RKW QVNUPN ZQTOWOPQRN XQUQ KW TNLPUNW XNVWQT ONLQW f ROSYOL]TObL RK WNS
TNSPNS RK WQ SKM]UORQR SNTOQW\ f XQUQ QSKM]UQU KW QTTKSN SK` ]QW RK
WNS _N YVUKS _QTOQ WQS Y]jKUKS \ KS ]L XNTN SNUXUKLRKLPK g]K WNS
S]XUKYQTOSPQS SK NXNLMQL PQL OLQYNcOVWKYKLPKd KUN\ cKQYNS
eW ZKPN cOcK XQUQSOPQUOQYKLPKd eS ]L QLOYQW ROSP OLPN g]K cOcK RK WQ
cORQ xWQ SQLMUKy RK NPUQ TUOQP]UQ QLOYQWd eS OLTQXQk RK SNVUKcOcOU XNU
SO YOSYN\ RK ]LQ L]PUOTObL OLRKXKLROKLPK[ KS OLTQXQk OM]QWYKLPK RK
WQ SOYVONSOSd O KS cKURQR g ]K WNS _NYVUKS cOcKL XQUQSOPQUOQYKLPK RK
WQS Y]jKUKS \ XQUKTK UQkNLQVWK S]XNLKU g]K Y]T_QS RK KSPQS N RK
Qg]KWWQS g]K WKS SNL WKQWKS SNL RK QWM ]LQ ZNUYQ SKLS OVWKS QW XQUQWKWN
KLPUK S] SOP]QTObL f WQ RKW ZKPN d nQ Y]jKU g]K SK SOKLPK WOVUK XQUQ cKU
QW ZKPN TNYN ]L XQUoSOPN XNRUo SKLP OUSK WOVUK XQUQ cKU Q ]L _NYVUK
TNYN ]L XQUoSOPN d nQ cNW]LPQR RK WQ Y]jKU RK TNUPQU WQ W^LKQiRKicORQ Q
]L XQUoSOPN S]MOKUK ]LQ cNW]LPQR RK TNUPQU WQ W^LKQiRKicORQ Q NPUN
XQUoSOPN d nQ Y]jKU g]K KS OLTQXQk xWKMQW\ XSOTNWbMOTQ f Z^SOTQYKLPKy
RK UKT_QkQU Q ]LN RK WNS XQUoSOPNS RKTOSOcQYKLPK \ KL S] XUNXON
OLPKUhS \ OLRKXKLR OKLPKYKLPK \ KS TQXQk RK UKT_QkQU\ TNL WQ YOSYQ
RKTOSObL K OLRKXKLRKLTOQ \ KW ZQURN SKYKjQLPK RK NPUN XQUoSOPN d nNS
Nj NS RKW NPUN XQUoS OPN\ WQ OYQMKL RKW QVNUPN KLPKUQYKLPK RKTORORN XNU
WQ Y]jKU\ SOL SOg]OKUQ ]LQ S]YOSObL UOP]QW QW XNRKU YQST]WOLN RKW cKPN\

KS WQ OYQMKL KSXKTPQT]WQU RK WQ Y]KUPK xyd


Qf NPUNS YNP OcNS g]K WWKcQL Q WNS S]XUKYQTOSPQS XQPUOQUTQWKS Q
SKLP OUSK XKUP]UVQRNS XNU KW QVNUPN SKMlL WQ RKTOSObL RK WQ Y]jKU\
SOKLRN ]LN RK WNS XUOLTOXQWKS \ g]K SK cNWcKU^Q ]L YNRN SOMLOZ OTQP OcN
RK TNLPUNW RK WQS Y]jKUKS SNVUK WQ UKXUNR]TTObL\ f XNU WN YKLNS
cOhLRNWN RKSRK TOKUPNS oLM]WNS \ XQUKTK g]K KW XUNMUKSN RKW
XQPUOQUTQRN KS KW XUNMUKSN KL ROUKTTObL QW TNLPUNW YQST]WOLN RK WQ
UKXUNR]TTObL[ KYXKkQLRN XNU WQ XUNXOKRQR RK WQS Y]jKUKS f
TNLP OL]QLRN Q PUQchS RK WQ OLcKLT ObL RK WQ NVSPKPUOTOQ f WQ PKTLNWNM ^Q
RK MKSPQTObL K`PUQi]PKUOLQd KSOSP OU RK KSPK TNLPUNW SKUOQ TNYN
RKSOSP OU RKW XQPUOQUTQRN d nQ _OSPKUOQ KL PNULN RKW QVNUPN SK K` XWOTQ KL
PhUYOLNS RK ]L XUKSKLP OYOKLPN Y]f OLYKROQPN f XKUSN LQW RK UKT_QkN
RKW lPKUNiY]jKUd
eSPNf XQUQ R OST]POU KW QVNUPN XNUg]K YK XQUKTK SKU KW TQYXN YQS
XlVWOTQYKLPK KYNTONLQW f YQS Z^SOTQYKLPK RUQYoP OTN RNLRK
QTP]QWYKLPK SK P OUQ KW PKYQ RK WQ SKXQUQTObL f RKW XQUQS OPOSYN
YQST]WOLN d KUN _Qf NPUNS TQYXNSd NU KjKYXWN\ WQS Y]jKUKS g]K
UKTOhL QS]YOKUNL ]LQ L]KcQ cOSObL RK S] UKQWORQR P OKLRKL Q RKjQU
YQPUOYNLONS f ZQYOWOQS \ SKQ TNYXWKPQYKLPK XNU YKR ON RKW ROcNUTON\
SKQ XQUTOQWYKLPK \ LKMQLRN WNS SKUcOTONS RN YhSP OTNS f SK` ]QWKSd
m]T_QS Y]jKUKS g ]K KSPoL RKSXKUPQLRN SK c ]KWcKL ThWOVKS N
WKSVOQLQS \ f WQS RKYoS SK c ]KWcKL Y]T_N YoS K`OMKLPKS KL WQ
KWKTTObL RK T]QLRN\ RNLRK f KL g]K UKWQTONLKS PKLRUoL SK`N TNL
_NYVUKSd  WNS _NYVUKS QZKTPQRNS XNU KSPQS SKXQUQTONLKS
MKLKUQWYKLPK UKQTTONLQL TNL _NSP OWORQR RKZKLSOcQ \ QLSOKRQR \ f
T]WXQ VOWOkQTObL RK WQ Y]jKU \ SOL _Q VWQU RK T]QLRN VQjQL QW LOcKW RK
QUM]YKLPNS OWbMOTNS g ]K Kg]OcQWKL f K`TKRKL Q S]S XUN XOQS
OYoMKLKS ZQLPQSONSQS RK WQ OUUQTONLQWORQR RK WQS Y]jKUKSd mO
QUM]YKLPN KS g]K KWWNS POKLKL Y]T_N YOKRN XNUg]K RKXKLRKL
RKYQSOQRN RK WNS VOKLKS g]K UKTOVKL RK WQS Y]jKUKS \ f KSPQS
SKXQUQTON LKS WKS LOKMQL KW QTTKSN Q KSNS VOKLKSd
eW XQUQSOPOSYN YQST]WOLN SOMLOZOTQ g]K WNS _NYVUKS POKLKL g]K PKLKU
QTTKSN Q WQS Y]jKUKSs KS KW YXKUQP OcN QPUOQUTQWd KUN KW RKTOUiLN
ZKYOLOSPQ KS YoS g]K ]LQ UKYNTObL xUKiROUKTTONLQYOKLPN\ UKi
XNSOTObLy S]VSPQLTOQW RK VOKLKS f SKUcOTONS XNUg]K KW rTTKSN KS ]LQ
RK WQS ZQTKPQS RKW NRKUd nQ LKMQTObL RK WQS Y]jKUKS QW QTTKSN
YQST]WOLN Q WQS Y]jKUKS \ TNUPQ S]VSPQLTOQWYKLPK ]LQ SKUOK RK

VKLKZOTONS \ XKUN PQYVOhL P OKLK WQ ZNUYQ f WQ XWKLQ XNSKSObL RK QS]YOU


KW XNRKUd
nQS R OZKUKLTOQS RK XNRKU SK YQLOZ OKSPQL SOKYXUK KL QTTKSN
QSOYhPUOTN d eW XUKSORKLPK RK WQ UKXlVWOTQ POKLK QTTKSN Q TQSO PNRNS \
XQUQ T]QWg]OKU TNSQ g ]K X]KRQL g]KUKU RK KWWNS \ f TQSO LQROK POKLK
QTTKSN Q hWd nNS S]XKUiUOTNS POKLKL QTTKSN Q TQSO PNRNS[ TQSO LQR OK
P OKLK QTTKSN Q KWWNSd nNS UKT]USNS RKW KYXWKQRN KSPoL Q ROSXNSOTObL
RKW XQPUbL RK ]LQ YQLKUQ g]K WNS UKT]USNS RKW XQPUbL LN SN L
QTTKSOVWKS QW KYXWKQRN d eW XQRUK f WQ YQRUK POKLKL QTTKSN
OLTNLROTONLQW QW T]QUPN RKW LOz[ KSP LN P OKLK QTTKSN QW T]QUPN RK
WNS XQRUKSd nQS f WNS T_OTS LN P OKLKL XKUYOSN XQUQ YKLP OU\ KW XQRUK
f WQ YQRUK P OKLKL WOVKUPQR RK K`TW]OU Q KSPS TNL WQS YKLP OUQS g]K WKS
XQUKkTQLd eW KSTWQcN KS OLTNLR OTONLQWYKLPK QTTKSOVWK QW SKzNUd eW
XNRKU PNPQW KS KW QTTKSN OLTNLROTONLQW[ WQ OYXNPKLTOQ PNPQW\ KS SKU
OLTNLROTONLQWYKLPK QTTKSOVWKd nQ TUKQTObL f YQLOX]WQTObL RKW XNRKU
SK TNLSPOP]fKL XNU WQ YQLOX]WQTObL f KW TNLPUNW RKW QTTKSN d
nNS MU]XNS \ KLT]KLPUNS \ XUNfKTPNS K`TW]SOcQYKLPK RK Y]jKUKS
XQUKTKL _KT_NS XQUQ MKLKUQU TN LPUNcKUSOQ f KLZUKLPQYOKLPNSd
m]T_QS Y]jKUKS SK NZKLRKL TNL KSPNS[ Y]T_QS POKLKL YOKRN RK SKU
Qg]KWWQ g]K QL]LTOQ WQ K`TW]SObL RK WNS _NYVUKS[ KS cOSPN TNYN ]L
OLSPU]YKLPN T]fQ ]P OWOkQTObL TQUKTK RK Y]T_Q j]SP OZ OTQTObL
TNYXWOTQRQd OKLSN g]K KSPN KS XNUg ]K WQ K`TW]SObL TNLSTOKLPK f
RKWOVKUQRQ RK WNS _N YVUKS XNU WQS Y]jKUKS \ T]QWg]OKUQ g]K SKQ \ KS
OLS]VNUROLQTObL QVOKUPQ \ f MKLKUQ KL WQS Y]jKUKS ]L YOKRN RK WQ
XKLQWOkQTObL f UKXUKSQWOQ xYOKRN ZUKT]KLPKYKLPK j]SP OZOTQRNyd ]KSPUQ
XUNXOQ P OYORKk f RKSKN RK KcOPQU TNLZUNLPQTON LKS MKLKUQWYKLPK LNS
OYXORK PKLKU Y]T_N g]K cKU TNL MU]XNS f KLT]KLPUNS K`TW]SOcQYKLPK
XQUQ Y]jKUKSd xyd eW KLT]KLPUN XQUQ Y]jKUKS K`TW]SOcQYKLPK KS ]L
RKSQZ^N Z]LRQYKLPQW Q WQ KSPU]TP]UQ RK XNRKUd eS SOKYXUK XUOcOWKMON
RKW SKzNU KLPUQU KL WQ TQVQzQ RKW KSTWQcN d nQ K`TW]SObL RK WNS
_NYVUKS RKW KLT]KLPUN RK Y]jKUKS LN SN WQYKLPK WKS UKP OUQ
RKPKUYOLQRNS VKLKZ OTONS xSOL WNS T]QWKS LN XNRU^QL SNVUKcOcOUy[ KS ]L
TNLPUNW XNU KW QTTKSN\ f RK Q_^ KLPNLTKS \ ]L QS]YOU KW XNRKUd N KS
SNWQYKLPK YKkg ]OLN\ KS QUUNMQLPKd
r_NUQ SK _QTK TWQUN XNU g ]h _Qf SOKYXUK ]LQ Q]UQ RK LKMQPOcORQR
KLc ]KWPQ QW SKXQUQP OSYNi ]L Q]UQ g ]K NZKLRK WQ N WWfQLQ KL TQRQ ]LQ

RK LNSNPUQS f g]K S]KLQ Q ]LQ QTPOP]R X]UQYKLPK RKZKLSOcQ \ Qg]KWWN


g]K _Qf RK PKbUOTQ XN W^P OTQ RKLPUN RK LNSNPUQSd eS QS^s UOYKU X]LPN s
T]QLRN Qg]KWWNS g]K TNLPUNWQL KW QTTKSN LNS c ]KWcQL PNPQWYKLPK
QTTKSOVWKS \ L]KSPUN XUOYKU QTPN RK PNYQ RK TN LPUN W P OKLK g]K SKU WQ
LKMQT ObL RKW QTTKSN\ N P OKLK g]K PKLKU TN YN ]LN RK S]S QSXKTPNS WQ
LKMQT ObL RKW QTTKSN d eSN LN SK RQ XNUg]K KSPQYNS TQUMQRQS RK
LKMQPOcORQR xLN ZKYKLOLQ N XNW^POTQYKLPK OLTNUUKTPQy[ SK PUQPQ RK WQ
WbMOTQ RK WQ SOP]QTObLd ]QLRN KYXKkQYNS RKSRK ]LQ XNSOTObL RK
PNPQW QTTKSOVOWORQR P OKLK g]K _QVKU ]L QSXKTPN RKW RKTOUiLN\ g]K KS KW
XUOLTOXON RKW TNLPUNW\ KL TQRQ QTPN N KSPUQPKMOQ KZKTP OcQ \ SOKLRN WNS
QTPNS f WQS KSPUQPKMOQS KZKTP OcNS j]SPN Qg]KWWNS g]K ROSWNTQL KW XNRKU\
KS RKTOU\ QTPNS f KSPUQPKMOQS g ]K KLc ]KWcKL WQ YQLOX]WQTObL f KW
TNLPUNW RKW QTTKSN d
KM]LRN s SKQ SO RKTOYNS pLNq N LN\ N LKMQYNS N UKT_QkQYNS \ KL
KSPQ N KL NPUQ NTQSObL\ WQ TQXQTORQR RK RKT OU pLNq xKZKTPOcQYKLPKy KS
WbMOTQYKLPK LKTKSQUOQ QW TNLPUNWd ]QLRN KSPQYNS KL TNLPUN W RKW
QTTKSN Q LNSNPUQS YOSYQS _QVUo QWMlL RKT OUiLN\ f T]QLRN KSPKYNS
YoS QTNSP]YVUQRQS \ T]QLRN SKQ WN YoS TNYlL\ ]LQ XQUPK c ]WMQU RK
WQ cORQ \ LN XQUKTKUo PQL NVcON N KSZNUkQRN LN LNS XQUKTKUKYNS Q
LNSNPUQS YOSYQS N Q WNS RKYoS SOKLRN XQUPOT]WQUYKLPK LKMQP OcQSd eL
KSPK QSXKTPN RK LNSNPUQS YOSYQS f RK L]KSPUQS cORQS \ XQUKTKULNS Q
L]KSPUNS XUNXONS Nj NS QM UQRQVWKYKLPK \ TNYN SKUKS QTPOcNS TNL
YNcOYOKLPN XUNXON\ TN L S]Z OTOKLPK ZNUYQ f KSPU]TP]UQ \ TNL S]Z OTOKLPK
OLPKMUORQR XQUQ MKLKUQU ZUOTTObLd ]KSPUQ K` XKUOKLTOQ RK RKTOUiLN SKUo
]L QSXKTPN RK L]KSPUQ K` XKUOKLT OQ \ RK L]KSPUQ RKZ OLOT ObLd
]QLRN L]KSPUNS QTPNS N XUoTPOTQS ZKYOLOSPQS P OKLKL ]L QSXKTPN RK
SKXQUQTObL KSPQYNS QRg]OUOKLRN XNRKU XNU YKR ON RKW TN LPUNW RKW
QTTKSN\ f SOY]WPoLKQYKLPK XNU YKRON RK WQ QRg]OSOTObL RK WQ
RKZ OLOTObLd nQ KSTWQcQ g ]K K`TW]fK QW SKzNU RK S] TQVQzQ KSPo XNU
KSK YKRON RKTWQUoLRNSK LNiKSTWQcQd  WQ RKZ OLOTObL KS NPUQ ZQSK RKW
XNRKUd
nNS XNRKUNSNS ]S]QWYKLPK RKPKUYOLQL Qg]KWWN g]K KS R OT_N f
RKTOVWKd ]QLRN WNS XNRKUNSNS KPOg]KPQL N VQ]P OkQL QWMN\ KSK QWMN SK
c ]KWcK WN g]K WNS XNRKUNSNS WN WWQYQUNLd NU KjKYXWN\ T]QLRN KW
mOLOSPUN RK WQ KZKLSQ WWQYQ Q QWMN ]LQ LKMNT OQTObL RK XQk\
KLPNLTKS WN g]K _QfQ WWQYQRN ]LQ LKMNTOQTObL RK XQk\ pKSq ]LQ
SOP]QTObL RK LKMNTOQTObL RK XQk d O WQ QTP OcORQR KL T]KSP ObL OLTORK

SNVUK WNS PhUYOLNS RK WNS OLPKUTQYVONS RK UKQTPNUKS L]TWKQUKS f UKi


ROSPUOV]TON LKS PKUUOPNUOQWKS \ OLTW]fKLRN QT]KURNS XQUQ WNS UKS]WPQLPKS
UKZ]MOQRNS \ KSN KS LKMNTOQU WQ XQk d nQS XKUSNLQS QXWQ]RKL\ f Q WNS
LKMNT OQRNUKS KS RQRN KW NVKW RK WQ Qk d NU NPUN WQRN\ T]QLRN fN
WWQYN Q RKPKUYOLQRN QTPN RKW _QVWQ ]LQ cONWQT ObL\ YO pWWQYQUWNq LN WN
cNWcKUo cONWQTObLd eL WQ YKj NU RK WQS _OXbPKS OS \ PKLMN g]K K` XWOTQU f
j]SP OZ OTQU f _QTKU TWQUN K`QTPQYKLPK WN g]K KL KSPK QTPN RKW _QVWQ g]K
KS QMUKSObL f K`QTPQYKLPK RK g]K YQLKUQ \ f KLPNLTKS NPUNS cQL Q
TNLTNURQU KL RKTOU g]K KW QTPN Z]K ]LQ cONWQT ObL N XNRU^Q KL SKLPORN
Z OM]UQRN WWQYQUSK ]LQ cONWQTObLd mO TNLPUQiQPQg]K LN SKUo QTKXPQRN
TNYN SOYXWK QTPN RK Q]PNiRKZKLSQd  Qg]KWWN g]K fN WWQYh UKT_QkN
RKW XQUQSOP OSYN\ KWWNS WN WWQYQL WQ XKUR ORQ RK WQS cOUP]RKS Y]jKUOWKS RK
WQ TNYXQSObL f RK pQYNUqd  MKLKUQWYKLPK T]QLRN WQS Y]jKUKS
UKVKWRKS WWQYQL QWMN Q QWM ]LQ TNSQ f WNS S]XUKYQTOSPQS XQPUOQUTQWKS
WN WWQYQL RK NPUQ \ WNS S]XUKYQTOSPQS MQLQLd
NU UKMWQ MKLKUQW WQS Y]jKUKS LN SNL WQS XKUSNLQS g]K RKZ OLKL\ f\
XQUP OKLRN RK L]KSPUN QOSWQYOKLPN K OYXNPKLTOQ \ LN XNRKYNS
SOYXWKYKLPK KYXKkQU Q RKTOU L]KcQS TNSQS ROSP OLPQS RK WQS g]K WNS
RKYoS ROTKL f _QTKU g]K L]KSPUNS LNYVUKS XUKcQWKkTQLd KUN\ SO
UKZNUY]WQYNS KW QTTKSN\ XNRUKYNS RKZ OLOULNSd rW QS]YOU KW TNLPUN W
RKW QTTKSN\ R OV]jQYNS L]KcQS ZUNLPKUQS f TUKQYNS L]KcNS XQXKWKS f
UKWQTONLKSd eSPN\ Q]Lg ]K MKLKUK PKLSObL\ K`PUQzKkQ f _NSPOWORQR \ KSPo
KL MUQL YKRORQ RKLPUN RK WQS XNSOVOWORQRKS RK OLROcOR]NS f XKg]KzNS
MU]XNS \ TNLPUQUOQYKLPK Q WQ UKRKZ OLOT ObL cKUVQW RKTWQUQRQd
NRUKYNS cKU KW QTTKSN g]K X]KRK SKU RK RNS P OXNS \ pLQP]UQWq f
_]YQLQYKLPK NUMQLOkQRN d ~L NSN KL ]L XQUg]K P OKLK Qg]KWWN g]K SK
X]KRK WWQYQU QTTKSN LQP]UQW QW TKSPN RK WQ YKUOKLRQ RKW _]YQLN
RKSQUYQRN d eW QTTKSN RKW XQPUbL Q WNS SKUcOTONS XKUSNLQWKS RK WQ
SKTUKPQUOQ KS ]L QTTKSN _]YQLQYKLPK NUMQLOkQRN [ KW XQPUbL KjKUTK
]L XNRKU OLSP OP]TONLQWd mOUQRQS RKSRK RKPKUYOLQRN oLM]WN YK XQUKTK
g]K WQS OLSPOP]TON LKS SNL XQPUNLKS RK QTTKSN _]YQLQYKLPK
NUMQLOkQRQS w QTTKSN Q WQS XKUSNLQS f Q S]S SKUcOTONSd KUN WQS
OLSP OP]TONLKS SNL QUPKZQTPNS RK RKZ OLOTObLd eL KW TQSN RK WQS
OLSP OP]TONLKS OLPKLTONLQW f ZNUYQWYKLPK NUMQLOkQRQS \ KSN SK c ]KWcK
Y]f TWQUN\ X]KS WQS RKZ OLOTONLKS UKWKcQLPKS SK KLT]KLPUQL
K` XWOT OPQRQS KL TNLSP OP]TONLKS \ UKMWQYKLPNS f UKM WQSd
]QLRN SK RKZ OLK KW PKUYOLN pXUKSORKLPKq \ SK KSPQ RKZOLOKLRN

XUKSORKLPKS KL WNS PhUYOLNS RK Qg ]KWWN g]K X]KRKL _QTKU f RK


Qg]KWWN g ]K WKS KS RK VORN XNU NPUQS OLSP OP]TONLKS \ f pQg]KWWN g]K KWWNS
X]KRKL _QTKUq KS ]LQ T]KSPObL RKW QTTKSN g]K P OKLKL Q WNS SKUcOTONS
RK NPUNSd K YQLKUQ SKYKjQLPK \ WQS RKZ OLOTONLKS RK UKTPNU\
KSP]ROQLPK \ j]Kk\ f XN WOT^Q TWQSOZ OTQL XQPUN LKS RK QTTKSN\ f WQS
RKZ OLOTONLKS RK KSTUOPNU\ LOz\ XUNXOKPQUON f\ LQP]UQWYKLPK \ YQUORN\
KSXNSQ \ f _NYVUK f SKzNUOPQd ]QLRN TQYVOQYNS KW XQPUbL RK
QTTKSN\ OYXNLKYNS L]KcQS ]POWOkQTONLKS RK XQWQ VUQS Qg]KWWS
QZKTPQRS XNU WQS YOSYQSd eW PhUYOLN p_N YVUKq POKLK g ]K PKLKU ]L
RKSXWQkQYOKLPN RK SOM LOZ OTQRN T]QLRN WQ cON WQTObL fQ LN KS YoS
XNSOVWKd ]QLRN PNYQYNS TNLPUNW RKW QTTKSN SK` ]QW Q LNSNPUQS
YOSYQS \ RKW QTTKSN Q L]KSPUN QXNfN XS^g]OTN f Q L]KSPUQ Z]LTObL
UKXUNR]TP OcQ \ QTTKSN QW SKUiYQRUK f QW SKUi_KUYQLQ \ UKRKZOLOYNS WQ
XQWQVUQ pY]jKUqd
eW RKSXWQkQYOKLPN RK WQ ]P OWOkQTObL RK WQ XQWQVUQ KS OYX]KSPQ Q WNS
RKYoS XNU ]L TQYVON KL WQ UKQWORQR SNTOQW[ LN QM]QURQ S]
UKTNLNTOYOKLPN RK L]KSPUQ Q]PNUORQR RK RKZ OLOUd ]QLRN WQS Y]jKUKS
SKXQUQL xSK UKP OUQL\ SK UKQMU]XQL\ PUQLSTOKLRKL\ KYX]jQL XQUQ KW
TNSPQRN\ YOMUQL\ R OTKL LNy \ KSPQYNS SOY]WPoLKQYKLPK TNLPUNWQLRN KW
QTTKSN f Q RKZOLOUd NYNS RNVWKYKLPK OLS]VNUROLQRQS \ T]QLRN LO ]LQ
LO NPUQ RK KSQS TNSQS KS XKUYOP ORQd eW QTTKSN f WQ RKZ OLOT ObL SNL
OLMUKROKLPKS Z]LRQYKLPQWKS KL WQ QWg]OYOQ RKW XNRKU\ W]KMN SNYNS
RNVWKYKLPK \ f UQR OTQWYKLPK OLS]VNUROLQRQSd
rS^ g]K \ KSPQS SNL QWM]LQS RK WQS YQLKUQS KL WQS T]QWKS WQ
SKXQUQTObL SK KLT]KLPUQ KL KW TKLPUN RK L]KSPUQ W]T_Q \ KSN LNS
Qf ]RQ Q K` XWOTQU KW XNUg]K RK g ]K WQ SKXQUQTObL KS ]L PbXOTN PQL
TQWOKLPKd O _Qf QWMN g ]K WQS Y]jKUKS PKYKL KS WQ PNYQ RK XNRKUd
mOKLPUQS LNS g]KRKYNS QLPKS RK KSPK X]LPN f LN WN ]WPUQXQSKYNS \
WNS XQPUOQUTQS PKLRUoL\ KL WQ YQfNU^Q RK WNS TQSNS ]LQ QTPOP]R
OLR]WMKLPKd KLKYNS YOKRN RK Qg]KWWN g]K XQSQUo T]QLRN
cKURQRKUQYKLPK WNS QS]SPKYNSd eSPK LN KS ]L YOKRN OUUQTONLQWd eS
L]KSPUQ K` XKUOKLTOQ KL KW YNcOYOKLPN RK Y]jKUKS g ]K KW KWKYKLPN
RKZKLSOcN\ cONWKLPN\ _NSP OW f OUUQTONLQW RK WQ UKQTTObL QW ZKYOLOSYN
P OKLRK Q TNUUKSXNLRKU TNL KW MUQRN RK NSPKLPQTObL RKW KWKYKLPN RK
SKXQUQTObL KL WQ KSPUQPKMOQ N XUNfKTPN g]K ROSXQUQ WQ UKQTTObLd nQS
SKXQUQTON LKS g]K SNVUKcOKLKL T]QLRN WQS Y]jKUKS RKjQL TQSQ \
TQSQYOKLPNS f LNcONS \ WQS SKXQUQTONLKS RK ZKPNS \ f WQ SKXQUQTObL RKW
WKSVOQLOSYN SNL PNRQS VQSPQLPK RUQYoPOTQSd eSPN KS \ SNL RUQYoP OTQS

f NSPKLSOcQS T]QLRN SNL XKUTOVORQS RKSRK RKLPUN RK WQ KSPU]TP]UQ


KUOMORQ XNU WQ TNSYNcOSObL XQPUOQUTQW f XNU KW XQUQSOP OSYN YQST]WOLN d
nNS QS]LPNS cOLT]WQRNS QW TQSQYOKLPN f QW R OcNUTON\ QW WKSVOQLOSYN\ f
QW Q VNUPN\ PNTQL Q WNS _N YVUKS OLROcOR]QWKS xf S]S SOYXQPOkQLPKSy
XNUg]K KWWNS SOKLPKL WQ UKWKcQLTOQ KL UKWQTObL Q KWWNS YOSYNS KL KSNS
PKYQS w KWWNS SOKLPKL WQ QYKLQkQ RK g ]K XNRUoL SKU WNS XUb`OYNSd
rS^\ WQ _KPKUNSK` ]QWORQR \ N\ KW YQPUOYNLON\ f WQ YQPKULORQR \ g]K SN L
WQS OLSPOP]TONLKS g]K YoS NVcOQ K OLROcOR]QWYKLPK YQLPOKLKL WQ
QTTKSOVOWORQR RK WQS Y]jKUKS XNU WNS _NYVUKS ZN UYQL WQ PUOQRQ TKLPUQW
RK WQ ORKN WNM ^Q QLP OiZKYOLOSPQ \ f WNS KSXQTONS \ NUMQLOkQTONLKS \
KLT]KLPUNS \ TWQSKS K`TW]SOcQYKLPK XQUQ Y]jKUKS SN L OWKMQWOkQRQS \
S]XUOYORQS \ QSKROQRQS \ UOROT]WOkQRQS \ f XKLQWOkQRQS \ KL LNYVUK RK
KSQ NPUQ VKWWQ f R]UQRKUQ OLSP OP]TObL XQPUOQUTQW\ WQ M ]QWRQR K` ]QWd
QUQ QWM]LQS RK LNSNPUQS KSPQS T]KSP ONLKS XNRUoL XQUKTKU TQSO
QjKLQS T]KSP ONLKS K`PUQzQS XQUQ g]K KSPhL KL KW TKLPUN RK WQS
QPKLTONLKSd NSNPUQS KSPQYNS TNL Y]T_N KYXKzN NT]XQRQS KL
Qg]KWWN g]K LNS XQUKTKL L]KSPUQS OLS]VNUROLQT ONLKS NSPKLSOcQSs
cOcOKLRN L]KSPUQS XUNXOQS cORQS \ PNYQLRN T]KLPQ RK LNSNPUQS
YOSYQS f RK TQRQ ]LQ \ _QTOKLRN L]KSPUN PUQVQj N\ f KL XQUP OT]WQU\
ROTOKLRN WQ cKURQR g]K cKYNSd K T]QWg]OKU YQLKUQ \ KW XKTQRN
NUOMOLQW KS WQ SKXQUQTObL g]K KSQS QTP Oc ORQRKS S]XNLKL\ f SKUo XNU
KWWQS \ LN XNU L]KSPUN QUPK N ZOWNSNZ^Q \ LN XNU L]KSPUNS ROST]USNS \ LN
XNU L]KSPUNS pQTPNS SK` ]QWKSq xN QVSP OLKLTOQSy \ g]K SKUKYNS
XKUSKM]ORQS \ T]QLRN WN XKNU PKUYOLQ KL WN XKNUd




EDICIN: marzo, 2012.

La mayora de las feministas, probablemente todas, practican alguna


separacin de los hombres y de las instituciones por ellos dominadas.
Una separatista practica la separacin conscientemente,
sistemticamente, y probablemente de una manera mas general que
las otras, y defiende la completa separacin como parte de la
estrategia consciente de liberacin. Y, contrariamente a la imagen de
la separatista como cobarde escapista, la vida de la misma es la vida
y el programa que inspira la mayor hostilidad, depreciacin, insulto y
confrontacin, y en general ella es aquella contra quien las sanciones
econmicas operan ms contundentemente(...).la separatista vive con
el peso adicional de ser tomada por muchos como una prejuiciosa
moralmente depravada que odia a los hombres. Pero aqu
encontramos una pista: si vamos a hacer algo tan rigurosamente
prohibido por los patriarcas, debemos hacer algo cierto.

OJO DE BRUJA
Ediciones feministas y lsbicas
independientes
ojodebrujadistro@riseup.net
http://difusionfeminista.blogspot.com