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http://pedsovet.su/load/12-1-0-10154 -
http://plook.ru/index/kommunikativnaya-kompetenciya-kak-sistema/
http://methods.ucoz.ru/publ/12-1-0-29 -
http://lang.mipt.ru/articles/european_levels.html -

http://irgol.ru/?page_id=4671 - 2
http://lingvist.ucoz.ru/index/0-24 -

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Problem Solving Activities
For many years I have been teaching English as a foreign language to different age
groups. It isn` t a secret that learning is more effective if the learners are actively
involved in this process.
We know that students learn a lot by working together in groups to solve a problem
or make a decision. Many English teachers think that it is very difficult to use
problem solving activities at an English lesson. But did they try? The main task of
problem solving activities is to make a student think and express his/her own
opinion. To my mind problem solving activities require a creative use of the target
language.
What is a Creative Problem Solving?
Creative Problem Solving ( CPS ) is a process that allows people to apply both
creative and rational thinking to find solutions to everyday problems. It uses both
convergent and divergent thinking.
The Creative Problem Solving Process
The Mess
Creative Problem Solving is a five- step process. But before starting with the five
steps, students must first select a problem. This is usually called mess finding. It
means that they should select a problem that needs solving. Usually we have more
problems than we know what to do with, so it` s a matter of selecting the most
pressing one. In this situation, it is most helpful to list all the facts and feelings that
are associated with the area of concern.
After stating the problem, the students can fill in the facts by answering the
questions- who, what, where, when, how and why.
When the mess has been defined, they can start proceeding the following five steps
in CPS process.
1. Fact Finding
In this step, students find all the important facts that relate to the problem. If
they don` t have enough information they may ask questions to find out it.
Students are looking for answers to the questions Who, what, where, when,
how and why.

2. Finding the problem


In this step students make several problem statements to define the real
problem. It is the time to analyze the situation and try to get a better
understanding of the problem. They look at the problem from several
different points of view and write different how to problem statements.
3. Finding ideas
They select the best problem statement and think of as many ideas as they
can solve the problem. At this step they don` t analyze ideas, but they try to
generate a large number of unusual, creative ideas. Students shouldn` t think
about whether the ideas are good or bad .
They simply select those ideas that seem most workable.
4. Judging ideas.
In this step, students choose the most useful idea. To do this, they first
determine appropriate evaluative criteria. They should use criteria to select
the best idea.
"WS"
The fragment of emotive prose which has been chosen for stylistic analysis is
one of the numerous stories belonged to a prominent English novelist L. P.
Hartley W.S. The author was a highly skilled narrator and all his tales are
admirably told. W.S. comes from The Complete Short Stories of L. P. Hartley.
A close study of the story for the purpose of examining its style involves a
careful observation and a detailed description of the language phenomena at
various levels. The text of the fragment is complete in itself and it is interesting
from the point of view of its idea. The excerpt is not homogeneous: the narration is
interrupted by the elements of description, inner thoughts and feelings of the main
character are imperceptibly interwoven with the narration. The type of the
narration is authors narrative. Also we can observe non-personal direct speech.
The type of character drawing is direct because while reading this very excerpt we
get information about the character and it may be said that the author tries to thrust
his opinion on the readers. The very structure of the story adds to the effect of
implication but the actual meaning of what is going on is not clear at the beginning
of the story as he feelings suggested by the writer are not precisely determined.
The reader however feels that something had happened and the character is
strained and full of hidden apprehension and suppressed emotions. What strikes
ones eye at the first glance is that the tension of the atmosphere in this excerpt is
gradually increasing and gets its top at the end of it. The text can be logically
divided into only one part: the story itself. According to this kind of division the
fragment has opened plot structure. We can also divide the text into the following
supra-phrasal unities: 1. The postcards 2. Anonymous correspondent 3. Wondering
4. Difficulties 5. The woman 6. Piece of him 7. Panic 8. Police The most of the
supra-phrasal unities coincide with the paragraphs and the most of the key

sentences are at the top of the sentences and thats all the paragraphs are structured
according to the deductive type of paragraph. It should be noted that the
paragraphs are knit together asyndetically. Lets now try to find out lexicalthematic chains and the number of its components. SPU LTC Number of
components Totally The postcards ItIYou 205060 130 Anonymous correspondent
Walter StreeterStrangers 165 21 Wondering Sender 8 8 Difficulties The last two
chaptersBarrier 210 12 The woman She 12 12 Piece of him Something 11 11 Panic
Significant factAlienist 34 7 Police They 8 8 The lexical thematic net work method
allows a quantitative criterion to be used for appreciating the importance of
themes. It can be seen from the scheme that the theme 1 has the most number of
components for it is represented by different subthemes and is spread throughout
the textual field. Theme 2 provides a cohesion between different parts of the text.
Lexical thematic chains are knit together by means of pronominal substitution,
lexical repetition, change of the grammatical form and function of the word. For
example lets take the supra-phrasal unity 5. It is represented only by one lexical
thematic chain She, nevertheless it worth examining. Here we can observe
pronominal substitution: a woman she her; lexical repetition: she she;
occasional synonym: A woman a little mouse-like creature. The sentences are not
long. There are many interrogative sentences and that shows hesitation and anxiety
of the character. While analyzing this fragment we can observe some stylistic
devices, such as antonomasia - Walter Streeter; zeugma took up the time and
energy; metonomy - faint strings of curiosity; personification growing
pains; periphrasis conscious mind, little mouse-like creature, poisonpens,
many examples of inversion. As we see the language of the writer is very rich and
full of various kinds of stylistic devices and that makes his story more vivid and
picturesque. Summing up the analysis it can be said that the text seems like a
detective story with a victim the writer Walter Streeter.

Doctor in the house


This is a passage from the book Doctor in the house by Richard Gordon, a wellknown English writer, the author wrote his Doctor series, which is noted for
description of medical students years of professional training. The present extract
touches upon the final examinations of medical students.
The text under analysis belong to the psychological type and description type as it
is concerned mainly with the emotional actions of the characters. The subjectmatter of this text is about sitting for examinations. The author tries to show the
reader different actions and feelings during the passing the examinations.
The composition of this text consists of the following components: exposition,
when the author gives the concept of an examination. Narration, when the author

describes passing the examinations, an interesting story about passing an


examination at Cambridge. And the climax, when the author shows the
examination results. The ending is absent.
The idea of the text can be formulated that an examination is nothing more than an
investigation of mans knowledge. We learn about the students well, because the
author created true-to-life characters, even more so the Author was passing the
examinations himself.
The author proves to be a real master. And he employs a lot of expressive means
and stylistic devices to make the story vivid and bright. The text is emotionally
moving, and some details produce an emotional reaction. I would like to comment
on the effect of the use of metaphor, simile, hyperbole, metonymy.
For example by a simile the final examinations are something like death the
author shows condition of a student before an examination, like a prize-fighter
also shows a contest, then the author compares, using the simile, the students that
want to produce a certain impression and looking at professor like the
impressionable music enthusiasts gazing at the solo violinist. Medical textbooks
compared through metaphor to a well-trodden paths.
From his point of view the porters.. like the policemen, a hyperbole an
examination is nothing more than an investigation of mans knowledge what a
examination is, a metaphor frustrated brilliance about a gone hope of a
student, a final breathless sprint and metonymy ..interrogation this word is
used as conversation between examiners and a student. Of course he couldnt avoid
the students confusion to the state of a cow in a bog. Some words are dedicated
to the checking the students works, and we can surely say that they are written in
sarcastic key, just remember the words that The night before the results come out
the old don totters bade, from hall and chucks the lot down the staircase. The ones
that stick on the top flight are given firsts most of them end up on the landing and
get seconds, thirds go to the lower flight, and any reaching the ground floor are
failed. And according to the author, this system has been working admirably for
years without arousing any comment.

The process of receiving the results is also needs to be mentioned. By giving the
nicknames to some characters, with the help of antonomasia we see their core,
their essence - the Nonchalant, the Frankly Worried, the Crammer, the Old
Stager.
Sailing down along the stream of his story, the author proceeds from long and
compound sentences, describing the students life in the beginning, letting us
dive into that world, to short sentences in the last part of the extract, the part
which is read with rising excitement. Thus, he transmits us the emotional condition
of the student in these exam-days.
On the whole, the text is reach in stylistic devices, which are used to reveal the
characters inner world and feelings as well as the author treatment of them and
situation.
Advertisements

The issue of the role of advertising in our lives is a very controversial one. Some
people think that advertising encourages us to buy things that we really do not
need, because they claim that advertisements have the power to influence on our
purchasing behavior. Nevertheless, my point of view is that advertisements are
incredible source of information about new products that may improve our lives.
First of all, these advertisements can help us to choose things easier and also save
our time. For example, as a result of such an advertisement, a few years ago I
bought very useful tool to lose my weight. The only thing that I needed to do was
to attach it to any problem area of my body for twenty minutes a day. Thus I did
not to have do heavy exercises to lose my weight. The additional advantage was
that this tool also helped me save time for my favorite activities.
The second reason is that quite often advertisements tell us about new products that
can save our money. Again as a result of such an advertisement I bought some
special micro fiber cloths, which could help me to clean my apartment only by
using water. Thanks to its specific characteristics and possibility of long-time
usage, I do not need to buy any more different kinds of liquids or powders for
house cleans. Therefore the advertisement of this kind of cloth saved my money.

Last but not least advertisements can tell us about new products, which bring us
new ways to cook healthier food. Fore instance, after watching a television
advertisement, a friend of mine bought a special pot, with which she can prepare
meat and vegetables without using any water or oil. This pot uses only the natural
hot steam to cook. Thus it helps to keep more vitamins and minerals in the food,
and get rid of the fat.
In conclusion, advertisements of new products definitely improve our life, because
they tell us about things that make our life easier, save our time and money, and
even cook our food better.

To Kill a Mockingbird
This beloved American classic captures the essence of growing up in a small town
in the 1930s American South. Scout and her brother Jem experience the injustice
of prejudice when their father, respected lawyer Atticus Finch, defends a black
man unjustly accused of assaulting a white woman. Read by Academy Award
winner Sissy Spacek. Winner of the 1960 Pulitzer Prize. "A victorious reading.
Spacek reads with a slight Southern lilt and quiet authority."Publishers Weekly