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Chapter 7 Chemical Reactions

7.1 Describing Reactions __________________________ is an example of a chemical change. When a substance undergoes a chemical change, a _____________________________ occurs Chemical Equations A way of describing a change is to state what is present before and after the change. A ______________________________ tells you the substances present before and after the reaction. Chemical Equations have 2 parts: In a chemical reaction, the substances that undergo change are called ____________________________. The new substances formed as a result of the change are called ________________________________. Using Equations to Represent Reactions During a chemical reaction, reactants change into ___________________________. _________________________ Products To describe the burning of charcoal: carbon + oxygen carbon dioxide. Writing the formulas for the reactants and product gives a chemical equation: C + 02 C02 Conservation of Mass During chemical reactions, the mass of the products is ______________________ to the mass of the reactants. This principle established by ________________________ is known as the law of conservation of mass. It states that mass is neither ______________________________________ in a chemical reaction. Balancing Equations In order to show that mass is conserved during a reaction the chemical equation _______________________________. A chemical equation can be balanced by _______________________________ (the numbers that appear before the formulas). Changing the coefficient, changes the _________________________________ of that reactant or product present in the reaction. When balancing chemical equations, never change the ______________________ in the formulas. Why?____________________________________________________________________________

The first step in balancing an equation is to _________________________________________________ on each side of the equation. In the equation, N2H4 + O2 N2 + H2O,---notice the numbers of the reactants does not equal the number of products Next change one or more coefficients until the equation is _____________________________. N2H4 + O2 N2 + 2H2O is balanced because both sides now have 2 N, 4 H, and 2 O atoms.

Work the Math Lab Problems p. 195 below

Counting with Moles Chemists need _______________________________ for counting. Reactions can be described in terms of atoms and molecules, but these units are ________________________ to be practical. Because chemical reactions often involve large numbers of particles, chemists use a unit called the ________________________ to measure amounts of substances. The mole is 6.02 X 1023 atoms, molecules, formula units, and ions. This is known as Avogadros number. For example, a mole of iron is ___________________________________ atoms of iron. *Do handout on mole conversions Molar Mass The mass of one mole of a substance is called a __________________________. The molar mass is the same as its atomic mass expressed in __________________. For example, the atomic mass of carbon is 12.0 amu, so the molar mass of carbon is 12.0 grams. For a compound, the molar mass is calculated by ___________________________ the atomic masses of its component atoms and expressing the sum in grams. Carbon dioxide has one carbon (12.0 amu) and two oxygen atoms (2 16.0 amu). The molar mass of CO2 is ________________.

Mole-Mass Conversions Once the molar mass of a substance is known, you can convert moles into mass or mass into moles of that substance. Suppose you have 55.0 grams of CO2. To calculate the number of moles you have:
55.0g CO 2 1 mol CO 2 1.25 mol CO 2 44.0g CO 2

Chemical Calculations Chemical equations can be read as _________________ for making new substances. In chemical reactions, the mass of a reactant or product can be calculated by using a ________________________________________ of the reactants and products. The equations tell how to ________________________ the amounts of reactants to amounts of products. _________________________ allow those amounts to be converted into masses. Converting Mass to Moles To calculate how much oxygen is required to make 144 grams of water, begin with a balanced equation 2H2 + O2 2H2O. Then determine how many moles of water are in 144 grams by dividing by the molar mass of water (18.0 g). Using Mole Ratios This shows that 8.00 moles of water will be produced. Each mole of oxygen that reacts will yield two moles of water, so the 8.00 moles of water will require 4.00 moles of O2. Converting Moles to Mass To find the grams of O2 needed use the molar mass of O2 as a conversion factor. (4 32 = 128) To produce 144 grams of H2O, 128 grams of O2 must be supplied. Quick Lab: Modeling a Mole Section Assessment Questions 1-10 p. 198

7.2 Types of Reactions Just because two reactions have the same product, you cannot assume that they are the same type of reaction. Classifying Reactions Reactions are often classified by the type of reactants or the _________________________________. Some general types of reactions are: ____________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________. Each type describes a different way in which reactants interact to form products. Types of Reactions: 1. Synthesis a. A synthesis-reaction is one in which two or more substances react to _____________________ b. The reactants may be either elements or compounds. c. The _________________ is always a ______________________________. d. The general formula for synthesis reactions is A + B AB ( one thing on the right side) 2. Decomposition a. The _________________ of synthesis is decomposition b. A decomposition reaction is one in which a ____________________________into two or more simpler substances c. The reactant must be a ___________________________. d. The products may be either _______________________________________________. e. The general equation for decomposition reactions is AB A + B. (one thing on the left) 3. Single Replacement a. A ________________________________________ is a reaction in which one element takes the place of another element in a compound. b. The general form for single-replacement reactions is _____________________________ c. For example 2K + 2H2O H2 + 2KOH Cu + 2AgNO3 2Ag + Cu(NO3)2 4. Double Replacement a. Double-replacement reaction is one in which two different compounds _________________________________and form two new compounds. b. The general form is AB + CD AD + CB. c. Notice two replacements take place in this reaction. Not only is A replacing C, but C is also ______________________________. For example: Pb(NO3)2 + 2KI PbI2 + 2KNO3 5. Combustion A combustion reaction is one in which a substance reacts rapidly with oxygen, often producing heat and light. The products of combustion are always _______________________________.

Burning of methane is an example. CH4 + 2O2 CO2 + 2H2O

Reactions as Electron Transfers As scientists learned more about the structure of the atom, they found different ways to describe how reactions take place. The discovery of subatomic particles enabled scientists to classify certain reactions as transfers of electrons between atoms. A reaction which transfers electrons from one reactant to another is an ____________________________________, or redox reaction. Oxidation: Synthesis reactions in which a __________________________________ traditionally have been classified as oxidations. 2Ca + O2 2CaO The reactants Ca and O2 are ________________________________________. The product is composed of Ca2+ and O2 ions. Any process in which an element ____________________________ during a reaction is called oxidation. This results in an increase in the oxidation number. A reactant is oxidized if it loses electrons. Ca Ca2+ + 2e Reduction: O + 2e O2 The process in which an element __________________________________ during a chemical reaction is called reduction. It results in a decrease in oxidation number. A reactant is said to be reduced if it gains electrons. Oxidation and reduction always occur _____________________________. When one element __________________ electrons, another element must ______________ electrons. Types of reactions handout Lesson on oxidation reduction half method Lab on 6 types of reactions Section Assessment 1-8 p. 205

7.3 Energy Changes in Reactions The combustion of propane produces ___________________________________________. The description of this reaction is incomplete unless the heat and light produced are included

Chemical Bonds and Energy The chemical equation for the combustion of propane can include heat as a product. C3H8 + 5O2 3CO2 + 4H2O + heat. This equation states that the heat released in the reaction came from the ______________________. Chemical energy is the energy stored in the _______________________________ of a substance. Energy changes in chemical reactions are determined by changes that occur in _________________________________. Chemical reactions involve __________________________ of chemical bonds in the reactants and the _____________________________ of chemical bonds in the products. Breaking bonds requires energy. Forming Bonds The formation of chemical bonds ___________________________ energy. The heat and light given off by combustion of propane result from the formation of __________________________________________________. Exothermic and Endothermic Reactions Physical changes can ____________________________________________ energy. During an exothermic change energy is __________________ to the surroundings. During an endothermic change energy is _____________________ from the surroundings. Similar energy flow occurs in chemical changes. Exothermic Reactions A chemical reaction that _____________________________ to its surroundings is called an exothermic reaction. In exothermic reactions, the energy released as the products form is _______________________ the energy required to break the bonds in the reactants. Figure 18A shows how the chemical energy changes during an exothermic reaction. Notice the chemical energy of the reactants is ___________________________ the chemical energy of the products. The difference between these amounts of energy equals the amount of heat energy given off by the reaction.

In any reaction, the chemical energy ____________________________ before the reactants change into products. This peak represents the _____________________________________ to break the chemical bonds of the reactants. Endothermic Reactions A chemical reaction that _____________________________ from its surroundings is called an endothermic reaction. In an endothermic reaction, _______________________________________ to break the bonds in the reactants than is released by the formation of the products. Figure 18B shows the energy diagram for an endothermic reaction. Notice that the energy of the products is _________________ than the energy of the reactants. The difference between these amounts of energy equals the amount of heat that ________________________ from the surroundings. The decomposition of mercury (II) oxide is an endothermic reaction. Because heat is absorbed, the energy term appears on the __________________ of the equation. 2HgO + 181.7 kJ 2Hg + O2 Conservation of Energy In an ______________________________________, the chemical energy of the reactants is converted into heat plus the chemical energy of the products. In an ________________________________________, heat plus the chemical energy of the reactants is converted into chemical energy of the products. In both cases, the total energy _______________________________ the reaction is the same. This is known as the ______________________________________. Section 3 assessment questions 1-5 p. 209 7.4 Reaction Rates A ____________________ is a unit of energy used in the field of nutrition. The upper case C equals 1000 calories. equates to a kilocalorie physics calorie is the amount of energy needed to change one g of water ________________________.

Reactions Over Time The progress of any chemical reaction can be measured over time. Any change that happens over time can be expressed as a rate. A ____________________________ is the rate at which reactants change into products over time. Reaction rates tell how fast a reaction is going, or how fast the reactants are being consumed, the products are being formed or energy is being absorbed or released. Factors Affecting Reaction Rates Chemical reactions involve _____________________________ between particles of reactants. The reaction rate depends on how often these particles collide. Almost any reaction rate can be changed by varying the conditions under which the reaction occurs. Factors that affect reaction rates include:

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

____________________________ ____________________________ ____________________________ _____________________________ _____________________________

Temperature Generally, an increase in temperature will _____________________ the reaction rate while a decrease in temperature will ________________________ the reaction rate. Increasing the temperature causes the particles to __________________________, on average. Particles that move faster are more likely to collide and more likely to react. Surface Area The smaller the particle size of a given mass, the larger is its ____________________________________. An increase in surface area increases the ____________________ of reactants to one another. The greater this exposure, the _____________________ there are that involve reacting particles. Increasing the surface area of a reactant tends to _______________________________________________. Stirring Stirring also increases the ________________________________________ to each other. Collisions between the particles of the reactants are more likely to happen. Stirring the reactants will generally ______________________ the reaction rate.

Concentration The reaction rate is also changed by a change in the concentration of the reactants. __________________________ refers to the number of particles in a given volume. Catalysts The presence of a catalyst can change the reaction rate. A ______________________ is substance that affects the reaction rate without being used up in the reaction. Catalysts can be used to _____________________ a reaction or enable a reaction to _______________________________________________________________________________. Figure 23 shows how a catalyst lowers the energy barrier during a reaction. Since the catalyst is neither a reactant nor a product, it is _________________________________________________________. Because the catalyst is not consumed, it can be _____________________________________________. Quick Lab p. 214 Observing the Action of Catalysts Section Assessment Questions 1-6 p. 215 7.5 Equilibrium ____________________________________ is a state in which the forward and reverse paths of a change take place at the same rate. When opposing physical changes take place at the same rate, a physical equilibrium is reached. When opposing chemical changes take place at the same rate, a _________________________________ is reached. When liquid water is in equilibrium with water vapor, the system can be written as. The pair of arrows indicates that the forward change and the reverse change are happening simultaneously and at the ______________________________________. When a physical change does not go to completion, a physical equilibrium is established between forward and reverse changes. Chemical Equilibrium A __________________________________ is a reaction in which the conversion of reactants into products and the conversion of products into reactants can happen simultaneously. When a chemical reaction does not go to completion, a chemical equilibrium is established between the forward and reverse reactions. Factors Affecting Chemical Equilibrium Chemical equilibria can change depending on the conditions of the reaction. When a change is introduced to system in equilibrium, the equilibrium ________________________________________________________________. This is known as Le Chteliers principle. Section 5 Assessment Questions 1-5 p. 219 and Lab: Manipulating Chemical Equilibrium p. 220