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AGROTEKNOLOGI

Lecturing Contract
Rules of attending the class # max. 15 lately # noisy forbidden # keep HP silent # fit dressing Presence at least 75% Grading: >= 80 A Distribution
66 79,9 56 65,9 46 55,9 <= 45,9 B C D E Mid exam Assignment Course Prac Final exam 25% 20% 30% 25%

Attainment of Crop Ecology course (Competency map)

Jadwal Kuliah dan Praktikum

JADWAL KULIAH MATERI PRAKTIKUM SUMBER PUSTAKA

Scope of Ecology
Ecology is primarily concerned with those biological (and Biogeochemical) processes that control the functioning of populations, communities, and ecosystems over large spatial (communities to global) and long temporal (days-millennia) scales.

Ecosystem Properties:
Structure: Species diversity: plants, animals, and microbes; Community structure; Foodweb structure; Soil type: structure, texture; Carbon and Nutrient Pools Function: Energy capture (primary productivity, yield); Energy flow; Nutrient cycling; Population regulation; Stability and flexibility; Disturbance regime; Succession.

BIODIVERSITY

What is Biological Diversity or Biodiversity? Biodiversity or biological diversity is defined by the United Nations Convention on Biological Diversity as: "The variability among living organisms from all sources, including, inter alia [among other things], terrestrial, marine and other aquatic ecosystems and the ecological complexes of which they are part: this includes diversity within species, between species and of ecosystems."

Within that definition, there are 3 distinct levels of biodiversity: Species diversity: diversity among species present in different ecosystems. This is the diversity of populations of organisms and species and the way they interact. Genetic diversity: diversity of genes within a species and processes such as mutations, gene exchanges, and genome dynamics that occur at the DNA level and generate evolution. Ecosystem diversity: genetic, species, and ecosystem diversity of a given region. This is the diversity of species interactions and their immediate environment.

Why is biodiversity important?


All species are an integral part of their ecosystem by performing specific functions that are often essential to their ecosystems and often to human survival as well. Some of the functions different species provide are to: Capture and store energy Produce organic material Decompose organic material Cycle water and nutrients Control erosion or pests Help regulate climate and atmospheric gases We have an ethical responsibility to protect biodiversity.

Why is biodiversity important?


Ecosystem diversity is important for primary production in terms of: Soil fertility Plant pollination Predator control Waste decomposition Removing species from ecosystems removes those important functions. Therefore, the greater the diversity of an ecosystem the better it can maintain balance and productivity and withstand environmental stressors.

Why is biodiversity important?


Biodiversity is important economically in terms of: Food resources: agriculture, livestock, fish and seafood Biomedical research: coral reefs are home to thousands of species that may be developed into pharmaceuticals to maintain human health and to treat and cure disease Industry: textiles, building materials, cosmetics, etc. Tourism and recreation: Beaches, forests, parks, ecotourism

Why is biodiversity important?


Biodiversity has an intrinsic value because all species: Provide value beyond their economic, scientific, and ecological contributions Are part of our cultural and spiritual heritage Are valuable simply for their beauty and individuality Have a right to exist on this planet

Why is biodiversity important?


Biodiversity is important to science because it helps us understand how life evolved and continues to evolve. It also provides an understanding on how ecosystems work and how we can help maintain them for our own benefit.

Names and word definitions of food chain Producers. Organisms, such as plants, that produce their own food are called autotrophs. The autotrophs, as mentioned before, convert inorganic compounds into organic compounds. They are called producers because all of the species of the ecosystem depend on them. Consumers. All the organisms that can not make their own food (and need producers) are called heterotrophs. In an ecosystem heterotrophs are called consumers because they depend on others. They obtain food by eating other organisms.

Consumers i.e. : Herbivores are those that eat only plants or plant products. Carnivores, on the other hand, are those that eat only other animals. Omnivores are the last type and eat both plants (acting a primary consumers) and meat (acting as secondary or tertiary consumers). Trophic level. The last word that is worth mentioning in this section is trophic level, which corresponds to the different levels or steps in the food chain. In other words, the producers, the consumers, and the decomposers are the main trophic levels.

FOOD WEB

The concept of food chain looks very simple, but in reality it is more complex. How many different animals eat grass? How many different foods does the hawk eat? One doesn't find simple independent food chains in an ecosystem, but many interdependent and complex food chains that look more like a web and are therefore called food webs. A food web that shows the energy transformations in an ecosystem looks like

One way to calculate the energy transfer is by measuring or sizing the energy at one trophic level and then at the next. Calorie is a unit of measure used for energy The energy transfer from one trophic level to the next is about 10%. For example, if there are 10,000 calories at one level, only 1,000 are transferred to the next. This 10% energy and material transfer rule can be illustrate with an ecological pyramid

QIUZ I
1. Apa pengertian Ekologi? 2. Sebutkan struktur dan fungsi ekosistem? 3. Apa pengertian Keanekaragaman hayati? 4. Sebutkan dan jelaskan level kehati? 5. Kenapa kehati itu penting?

BIOGEOKIMIA

Succession
Komunitas yang terdiri dari berbagai populasi bersifat dinamis dalam interaksinya yang berarti dalam ekosistem mengalami perubahan sepanjang masa. Perkembangan ekosistem menuju kedewasaan dan keseimbangan dikenal sebagai suksesi ekologis atau suksesi. Suksesi terjadi sebagai akibat dari modifikasi lingkungan fisik dalam komunitas atau ekosistem. Proses suksesi berakhir dengan sebuah komunitas atau ekosistem klimaks atau telah tercapai keadaan seimbang (homeostatis).

Succession
A directional, cumulative change in the species that occupy a given area, through time. Primary vs secondary Autogenic vs allogenic Progressive vs retrogressive Cyclic vs directional

Primary succession the establishment of plants on land not previously vegetated (volcanic explosion)
Secondary succession The invasion of land that has been previously vegetated (fire, logging or cultivation)

Autogenic succession both the environment and the community change and this metamorphosis is due to the activities of the organism themselves (environmental stress adapted) Allogenic succession Due to major environmental change beyond the control of the indigenous organisms (Env. Change Changes the pattern of vegetation)

Progressive succession lead process that the communities with greater and greater complexity and biomass Retrogressive succession Lead process that the community toward simpler (fewer species)

Cyclic succession very local scale climax community new colonies

Directional succession Characterized by an accumulation of changes that leads to community-wide changes

CROP ECOLOGY
EKOLOGI: ilmu yang mempelajari hubungan timbal balik antara faktor biotik dan abiotik. Scope: Distribution and Abundance EKOLOGI TANAMAN: pengembangan dari ekologi dalam lingkup tanaman (budidaya pertanian).

Peranan Ekologi Tanaman/pertanian


Peranan Informative: memberikan informasi ilmiah mengenai lingkungan hidup tanaman yang diperlukan untuk meningkatkan dan mengembangkan teknik budidaya tanaman yang lebih baik Peranan Explanative: memberikan penjelasan ilmiah tentang gejala pertumbuhan dan hasil tanaman yang berkaitan dengan faktor lingkungan. Peranan Inovative: menemukan prinsip atau teori baru yang berkaitan dengan timbal balik antara lingkungan tanaman.

Peranan Ekologi Tanaman/pertanian


Peranan Predictive: meramalkan pertumbuhan dan hasil tanaman pada waktu yang akan datang mendasarkan pada analisis terhadap sifat tanaman dan data lingkungan. Peranan Applicative: memberikan landasan ilmiah bagi tindakan budidaya tanaman yang berkaitan dengak lingkungan hidup.

Changes in Agriculture in a given period


1. Higher Yields 2. Higher annual variability (lower stability) in yield (due to genetic uniformity of crops?) 3. Lower Crop Diversity (increased monoculture, less rotation, less intercropping, etc.) 4. Higher Applications of Fertilizers 5. Higher Applications of Pesticides (incl. Insecticides, herbicides, fungicides, etc.) 6. Improved Seeds (higher harvest index) 7. More Energy Intensive 8. Increased Soil Erosion

Changes in Agriculture in a given period


9. Decreased Soil Fertility (loss of organic matter, nutrient depletion) 10. Increased Nitrate Leaching 11. Less Effective Pest Control 12. Less Labor Intensive 13. More Subsidized 14. Less Profitable 15. Higher Risks 16. Fewer and Larger Farms (Greater inequity in land ownership)

Goals of Agro-ecosystem Management Provide an adequate income to the farmer Maintain the resource base on which future production depends Produce enough food to meet the demands (of the farm family, local community, region or nation, or globe)

Provide an adequate income to the farmer


"Agriculture" in the broad sense includes 3 or 4 linked enterprises: Input suppliers (seeds), chemicals, machinery) Producers (farmers/growers) Processors (flour mills, oilseed extraction plants, coffee roasters, etc.) Marketers When production exceeds demand, crop prices are low-often lower than the costs of production. Many countries of the world have policies that provide subsidies to growers to maintain farm income during periods of low crop prices. (Subsidies may also be designed to promote exports.)

Maintain the resource base on which future production depends

Maintaining the resource base (soils, biodiversity) is the core of most definitions of sustainability. Definitions of Sustainablity by The American Society of Agronomy: "A sustainable agriculture is one that, over the long term, (i) enhances environmental quality and the resource base on which agriculture depends, (ii) provides for human fiber and food needs, (iii) is economically viable, and (iv) enhances the quality of life for farmers and society as a whole."

Produce enough food to meet the demands


We will discuss Food Demand through an analysis of World Food Production (FAO Data) Questions: What are the trends in crop yields? What are the global patterns in food production? How much food will be needed to feed the world at any point in the near future? Need to consider: Population Arable Land Yields (Productivity, expressed as biomass per unit land per unit time, usually kg ha-1 y-1) These lead to estimates of: Production = Land x Yield Per Capita Food Availability = Production population

Strategies for meeting future food demand


L. T. Evans (1998), "Feeding the 10 Billion": increase the area of land under cultivation increase in yield per hectare per crop [will have to be the main route] increase in the number of crops per hectare per year [requires irrigation, fertilizer, short-season varieties] displacement of lower yielding crops by higher yielding ones [reduced diversity could have ecological costs] reduction of post-harvest losses reduced use of crops as feed for animals

The crop's environment can be broken down as follows:


Environmental conditions which control resource uptake; these may be either Abiotic (e.g., weather, certain soil characteristics) Biotic (e.g., weeds, pests, pathogens, soil organisms) Consumable resources (CO2, light, water, nutrients)

Environmental conditions to refer to the things, both abiotic and biotic, that influence the rates and efficiencies at which plants capture (or lose) supplies of these resources. Resources to refer to the things plants consume in their growth and reproduction, and

Resources It is axiomatic that crop plants must consume resources to grow and produce a harvestable yield. In most agro-ecosystems, crop productivity is limited by the availability of one or more required resources, most often nutrients, water, and light. The amount of yield achieved by a crop is a function of both the level of limiting resources available to the crop, and the efficiency with which it uses these resources.

Environmental factors
I. CLIMATE Important features of climate include: light temperature humidity precipitation Wind Climate includes both: Resources [light, precipitation (actually, soil water is the resource)] Conditions (e.g., temperature, day length, humidity, wind)

Environmental factors
II. SOILS 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. SOIL CONSTITUENTS MINERAL (INORGANIC) FRACTION SOIL ORGANIC MATTER SOIL STRUCTURE SOIL TYPES SOIL ORGANISMS SOIL pH

Environmental factors
III. RESOURCES Light Carbon dioxide Water Nutrient

CLIMATE
I. LIGHT (Solar Radiation) The seasonal distribution of light is controlled by latitude. [How does the light environment of tropical latitudes differ from that of temperate and boreal latitudes?] Plants (including many crops) show photoperiodic responses to day length, particularly in their phenology.

CLIMATE
I. LIGHT (Solar Radiation) Phenology has been defined as "the sequence of development events during the plant's life cycle as it is determined by environmental conditions" (Hall, 2001); these include flowering, bolting, tuber formation, etc. "Long day" (LD) plants; "short-day" (SD) plants; and "day neutral" (DN).

CLIMATE
II. TEMPERATURE The seasonal and diurnal variation in temperature increase with latitude Temperature also decreases with increasing altitude The rate of temperature change with altitude is called the lapse rate and is about 1 0C 100 m-1 for dry air and about 0.6 0C 100 m-1 for wet air.

CLIMATE
II. TEMPERATURE Most plant processes have an optimum temperature. Respiration increases with increasing temperature. Plant development is mostly controlled by temperature. Plants sense environmental temperature in terms of degree days --the cumulative number of the degrees above a base or threshold temperature. Crop plants exposed to higher than normal temperatures develop at a more rapid rate (for example, flower earlier), which could decrease yield.

CLIMATE
III. PRECIPITATION GO TO ANOTHER SLIDE : RAINFALL N CROPPING SYSTEMS IN INDONESIA

SOILS
I. SOIL CONSTITUENTS Atmosphere Water Mineral (inorganic) materials Soil organic matter (SOM) Soil organisms The atmosphere below ground in the soil difference substantially from that aboveground. The soil atmosphere is higher in CO2 and lower in O2

SOILS
Soil provide an important environment for plants/crops due to: 1. Plants need anchorage, so that there should be adequate soil layer. 2. Plants need water, so that soil should hold adequate water and supply. 3. Plants need oxygen for respiration, so that soil should be able to provide it without any interruption. 4. Plant roots release CO2 during respiration, and soil should be able to regulate the movement of this gas without allowing it to build up to toxic levels

SOILS
5. Plants need nutrients from soils, which are absorbed by roots, so that soils should have some characteristics to supply and retain nutrients. 6. Plants add a lot of dead material (OM) and the soil should have able break them to some form so that they will not interfere with plants and their root systems. 7. Some plants through root exudates add to soil toxic chemicals (allelo-chemicals) and soil should be able to decompose them to avoid root damage.

SOILS
8. During heavy rainy periods, large volumes of water are added with a very high intensities and the soil should be able to handle these volumes without severe soil losses 9. There are toxic gases released when animal and root systems grow in soils and soil should be able to either release these gases to atmosphere or convert to non-toxic form by other reaction

SOILS
10.When both plant and animals live in soil, it should be able to maintain suitable temperatures required by those living beings

SOILS
Therefore Soils is suitable for everything at anytime It is required to treat the soil with the right knowledge of it in order to receive benefits the mankind wants soil always have many associations and interactions among these factors (physical, chemical, physico-chemical and biological factors)

Physical factors
Soil texture Particle size distribution (clay, silt and sand) In general Coarse sand 0.25 2.0 mm Find sand 0.05 0.2 mm Silt 0.002 0.05 mm Clay < 0.002 mm

Physical factors
Bulk density and porosity Both factors related to: 1. Capacity for gas exchange 2. Root growth and penetration 3. Drainage and retain water 4. Infiltration and percolation

Physical factors
Soil structure Composition of pores and soil aggregates Pores consist of : Micro pores (capillary water retained) Macro pores (gas exchange and drainage) Crumb structure best for agriculture 50 % each of micro and macro pores.

Physical factors
Soil water content Saturated condition Field capacity Permanent wilting point Soil temperature Increase root growth and activities Increase microbial population Increase organic matter decomposition Increase seed germination

Chemical factors
Nutrient contents in soil Gas content Chemical reactions

Physico-chemical factors
(good for agriculture) pH (6 7) CEC (Cation exchange capacity) (> 40 mg/100 g soil) EC (electrical conductivity) = water quality parameter (0.4 0.7 m mhos/cm)

Biological factors
Micro and macro both fauna and flora Important activities: Mineralization of organic matter Nitrogen fixation in legumes Micorrhyza promoting P absorption Enzymes activities and nutrient transformation in soils Improve porosity by earthworm (tunneling) Improve root absorption activities

RESOURCES
Light Quantity Full Sunlight: 200-500 Wm-2 or 1000-2000 mol m-2 s-1 (W = J s-1) Cloudy sky: 20-90 Wm-2 or 100-400 mol m-2 s-1 Seasonality: The highest monthly (i.e., growing season) maximum light levels are at higher latitudes. Crop yields in the tropics (compared to temperate zones) are ultimately limited by: incident radiation cloudiness-compare wet season and dry season yields

RESOURCES
Growth and Yield are ultimately related to light interception. At the leaf level: There is a minimum amount of light required for a positive net photosynthesis to occur, called the light compensation point. At the canopy level: Some leaves in a canopy will be shaded by other leaves, some below, and perhaps some below the light compensation point. Rates of canopy photosynthesis are usually proportional to LAI

RESOURCES
At the crop level: Crop growth (and yield) is generally a function of leafarea duration (LAD), the area under a curve of LAI vs. time. LAD is proportional to the total amount of light energy absorbed during the crop's growing season, and thus to yield.

RESOURCES
CO2

The direct (physiological) effects of this increase in atmospheric CO2 are: increased rates of photosynthesis, especially in C3 plants, resulting in higher crop yields. increased water-use efficiency. higher C:N ratios in plant biomass. Higher CO2 concentrations induce partial closing of the stomates, which increases the resistance to the flow of water vapor, reducing transpiration and thus increasing water-use efficiency.

RESOURCES
Higher leaf temperatures (caused by stomatal closure) associated with increased [CO2] can lead to increased leaf turnover rate (higher leaf temperatures and more rapid leaf aging), Decreased specific leaf area, reducing the CO2-fertilization effect.

RESOURCES Soil Water Field capacity is the amount of water held in a saturated soil after all excess water has drained off; the water potential at field capacity is -0.1 to -0.2 MPa. Permanent wilting point is the point at which a (particular) plant can no longer absorb water from the soil, for most plants in most soils the water potential at the permanent wilting point is about -1.5 MPa.

RESOURCES
Available water is the amount of water between field capacity and permanent wilting point. Soil water content is influenced by both soil texture and soil organic matter (SOM). Fine-textured soils have a higher total pore volume, and hence can hold more water. Clay particles hold water more tightly. SOM functions similar to clay particles in affecting soil water-holding capacity and soil water potential.

RESOURCES
Nutrition Macronutrients, those required in rather high amounts by plants, are nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), potassium (K), calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), and sulfur (S). Most fertilizers contain N, P, and/or K. Micronutrients are elements that are also essential for growth but are required in lower amounts; these include iron (Fe), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), boron (Bo), molybdenum (Mo), manganese (Mn), cobalt (Co), and chlorine (Cl).

Nutrient cycling
Refers to the processes that transfer nutrients to and from plants and the various soil (and atmospheric) pools. These pools can be characterized as: active, inorganic forms and microbial biomassvery rapid turnover; slow, new crop residues and coarse particulate organic matter; and Passive, fine particulate organic matter and humic substances-very slow turnover.

Interactions between Resources and Environmental Factors


Crop yield is a function of resource use. In general, resource-use efficiencies are the products of resource uptake (capture) and resource utilization (biomass or yield produced per unit of resource captured) (Janssen, 1998). That is the relationship between yield (Y) and resource supply (S) involves resource uptake (U): Y/S = U/S (resource uptake) Y/U (resource utilization efficiency) Y/U is the physiological RUE, whereas U/S is the ecological RUE.

Factors that influence crop yield are of several types and include: Resources not under grower control: light, CO2, water (precipitation), nutrients released by mineralization. Environmental conditions, not under grower control: temperature, wind, seasonality, topography, length of growing season, relative humidity; soil type, soil depth, SOM, soil pH; pest, weed and pathogen populations (in part). Resources under grower control: nutrients (from fertilizer), water (from irrigation).

Factors that influence crop yield are of several types and include: Environmental conditions under partial grower control: pest, weed, and pathogen populations; SOM; soil structure; soil pH. Crop varieties. Management: land preparation, choice of cropping system; choice of cultivars; date of planting; plant population; timing of nutrient input; timing of pest, weed and pathogen control; date of harvest; management of residues. Infrastructural or institutional factors: access to credit, suitable varieties, extension services, inputs, markets.

Interactions Among Species in Agroecosystems This part of the course considers some of the other organisms, in addition to crops and soil organisms, that occur in agroecosystems, particular herbivores (mostly insects) and their predators, and competitors (weeds). Pathogens are discussed only briefly.

Herbivores
Why don't insects (and other herbivores) consume all available plant biomass? That is, Why is the world green?-most likely answers are plant defenses that limit which herbivores can feed on which plants, and predators that keep herbivore populations in check. Groups of herbivores: Vertebrates-birds, mammals Invertebrates-insects, arachnids (mites), mollusks (snails, slugs). Of these groups insects cause the greatest crop losses in most agroecosystems.

Herbivores
Plant Strategies to cope with herbivory: Escape-short life cycle Tolerance--Compensation for tissue loss Defense--protection of tissues Ecological problems associated with insecticide use: 1. Insecticide resistance 2. Pest Resurgence 3. Secondary Pest Outbreaks

Integrated Pest Management (IPM).

Competitors (Weeds)
Characteristics of Weeds High seed production, competitiveness, low attractiveness, seed longevity, seed dormancy, rapid emergence. Most weeds evolved from early successional species; many are crop relatives

Competition/Niche Theory
Two species can occupy the same habitat and not compete if: The species use different resources. This is often true for animals, but seldom true for plants. Resources are sufficient for both. For example, plants in the desert seldom compete for light. The species obtain their resources from different parts of the habitat. I.e., the species have a somewhat different niche with respect to resource acquisition.

Competition/Niche Theory
Many plant ecologists (e.g., David Tilman) maintain that plant species specialize with respect to their ability to capture different resources. This is probably not true, however, for crops and weeds.

Competitors (Weeds)
Weeds reduce crop yield by reducing the supply of resources through competition. Plants use common resources--Light, C02, Water, Nutrients. Plants obtain resources from resource depletion zones, which depend on root and shoot architecture, and on resource mobility. Intensity of competition depends on the degree of overlap of resource depletion zones.

Pathogens Diseases reduce ecological resource use efficiency by reducing resource uptake by various mechanisms: obstructing vascular tissues, damaging roots, restricting root growth, or removing leaf area. Plants possess morphological and chemical defenses against pathogens:

Pathogens
Morphological-- cuticle Chemical-both constitutive and inducible (inducible defenses against pathogens are called phytoalexins) These defenses most effective for aboveground pathogens.

The Functional Role of Diversity in Agroecosystems


Diversification is the Key to sustainability, according to most agroecologists. Diversity in cropping systems: Monoculture: Continuous Crop Rotation-short rotations vs. long rotations Polyculture: Intercropping Agroforestry Home-garden systems

Diversity has been defined as: Richness-number of species Equitability-number and relative abundance Connectance or complexity-usually as foodweb complexity Ecosystem function is usually defined in terms: energy capture (i.e., productivity-yield inagriculture) nutrient cycling population regulation (including food web structure) stability

Crop Rotation
Prior to development of agrichemicals, rotations were the standard practice to control pests and diseases and maintain soil fertility. Development of pesticides and herbicides made continuous monoculture possible. Thus continuous monoculture is a relatively recent agricultural practice.

Crop Rotation
Short rotations vs Long (Extended) Rotations: Short rotation: Usually just 2 years Objective is typically pest control Corn-soybean is the commonest crop system in the US-both crops have a high demand Long (extended) rotations: 3 years or longer Objectives are pest control, maintain soil organic matter, reduce agrichemical inputs Usually includes hay, pasture, or "green manure" to improve soil fertility.

Crop Rotation
Rotation Effect! This term refers generally to the higher yields of most crops when grown in rotation, and more specifically to the yield increases that cannot be compensated for by input substitutions. Most crops produce higher yields in rotation than in continuous cultivation, usually 10-15% higher in maize (Singer & Cox, 1998).

Intercropping
Intercropping involves growing two crops in the same field at the same time. The following are different ways of intercropping, in order of increasing degree of association between crop components: Relay-intercropping-planting a second crop before harvesting the first crop. Continue

Intercropping
Strip-intercropping-growing 2 or more crops in alternating strips. Smith & Carter (1997) found that maize grown in a strip intercrop with alfalfa produced yields 6% higher in 40-ft wide strips, 11% higher in 20-ft wide strips, and 17% higher in 10-ft wide strips. May be due to extra light in border rows of maize.
Continue

Intercropping
Between-row intercropping -growing 2 or more crops in alternating rows. Within-row intercropping -growing 2 or more crops in the same rows. Between-row and within-row intercrops may be either additive or replacement designs.

Intercropping Concepts.
Additive vs. replacement intercrops. In an additive intercrop both species are planted at the same density as in their respective monoculture; in a replacement intercrop a row of one crop "replaces" a row of the second crop in forming the intercrop. Additive intercrops double the density, and therefore may use resources more completely.

Intercropping Concepts.
Duration refers to the temporal overlap of the intercrop components: Differing duration-usually combines a short season crop and a long season crop. Intercrops of differing duration are usually additive. Similar duration-competition more intense because both components are using resources at the same time. Intercrops of similar duration tend to be replacement types.

Intercropping Concepts.
Dominant vs. subordinate components. Typically, one crop component of the intercrop is more competitive and hence dominates the mixture in terms of growth and yield. Dominance may be due to: Rapid initial growth Height Photosynthetic pathway (C4 crops tend to be dominant when grown with C3 crops) Legumes are usually subordinate

Measuring Intercrop Performance


The performance of intercrops relative to monocultures of the component crops is usually measured as Landequivalent ratios (LER) or relative yield totals (RYT): Relative Yield (RY) = Yield in intercrop/Yield in monoculture LER = RYT = Y(i)/Y(m) = RY(1) + RY(2) + RY(3) + ....

Measuring Intercrop Performance


When LER or RYT > 1, the intercrop is said to show overyielding. That is, the intercrops are more productive than the monocultures of the components crops. The RYs of dominant components are often close to 1.0; efforts to increase intercrop performance often center on increasing the RY of the subordinate component.

Global Change and Agriculture


Global warming Evidence of global warming: Temperature records-most of the increase has been in night temperature Retreat of glaciers; decreased snow and ice cover Measurable rise in sea level Increased heat content of oceans Increased plant growth (Myneni et al. 1997)

Global Change and Agriculture


The latter include: Increased values of NDVI (normalized difference vegetation index) detected by remote sensing Increased biomass deposition in European forests Increased recent tree-ring growth in Mongolia Upward migration of plants on European mountain tops

Global Change and Agriculture


The increase in plant growth is likely due to longer growing seasons; high latitude winter temperatures increased up to 4 C in the winter. Nicholls (1997) attributes 30-50% of the increased wheat yield in Australia since 1952 to decreased frequency of frost.

Global Change and Agriculture


Presumed causes of global warming: Greenhouse gases-CO2, CH4, N20 (nitrous oxide), CFCs (chloroflurocarbons) Land-use changes. Deforestation Increased fire frequency That greenhouse gases have caused global warming as not been "proved", there are still valid disagreements.

Global Change and Agriculture


Robinson et al. (1998, unpublished paper privately distributed) dispute that any global warming has occurred in response to increased CO2. It is accurate to say that there is currently a strong concensus among scientists that changes in atmospheric chemistry are affecting climate in predictable and understandable ways.

Global Change and Agriculture


Effects of [CO2] on Plant Growth Gross photosynthesis increases and photorespiration decreases. Stomatal resistance increases (stomates close partially in response to increased [CO2]), transpiration therefore decreases, and water-use efficiency increases (since stomatal closure affects transpiration rates more than CO2 uptake rates). C3 vs C4 plants: Growth of C3 plants would be enhanced more than that of C4 plants

Global Change and Agriculture


Interactions need to be considered: [CO2] and other resources. For example, if N is limiting, increased [CO2] may not increase crop growth. [CO2] and environmental influences (especially temperature).

Global Change and Agriculture


Affects of Global Change on Agriculture The overwhelming evidence from (short term) experiments with increased [CO2] (either greenhouse or FACE-free atmosphere carbon dioxide enrichmentstudies) is that biomass and/or seed production increases with increasing [CO2]. Continue

Global Change and Agriculture


These studies are almost always done with (1) no temperature increase, and (2) optimum levels of other resources, especially N and water. [One interesting conclusion we might draw is that much of the crop yields experienced in the past 50 years must be due to increased [CO2] and not just breeding and improved management, as usually assumed.]

Example of case

Pengelolaan agroekosistem

Pola Budidaya
Tahap subsisten Pada tahap ini petani mengusahakan lahan pertanian untuk memenuhi kebutuhan hidupnya dan kaum kerabatnya. Masukan seperti yang dilakukan pada pertanian modern belum dikenal, belum ada penggunaan bahan kimiawi sintetik. Umumnya produktivitas rendah, dan petani mengerjakan tanah garapannya dengan mengikuti irama musim dan daur alami.

Pola Budidaya Tahap eksploitasi Segala usaha diarahkan untuk mencapai nilai ekonomis terbaik atau tertinggi. Input atau masukan baik berupa sarana produksi atau masukan lainnya diusahakan tidak hanya optimal, kadang-kadang bahkan maksimal. Penggunaan teknologi amat intensif, bahan kimia pertanian amat diutamakan. Efisiensi juga diusahakan dengan mengatur daur bertanam dan perlakuan mengikuti kalender dan rutinitas manusia, karenanya

Pola Budidaya

Tahap eksploitasi Pertimbangan kondisi alami di pertanaman sering tidak diperhatikan. Pada awalnya usaha seperti ini memang memberikan hasil yang baik, sehingga petani atau penanam semakin dirangsang untuk terus menggunakan saranaprasarana produksi berbasis teknologi tinggi.

Pola Budidaya Tahap kritis


Tahap eksploitasi yang tidak memperhatikan watak dan sifat ekologis lingkungan pertanian mengakibatkan kemunduran usaha karena beban yang ditanggung agroekosistem tidak seimbang. Waktu yang diberikan agar lingkungan pulih terlebih dahulu dan mampu memberikan daya dukung yang tepat tidak terpenuhi. Sebagai gantinya masukan teknologi dianggap pasti mampu memberikan dukungan terhadap proses produksi, dan kemudian dipergunakan sebanyak-banyaknya.

Pola Budidaya
Tahap kritis
Yang selanjutnya terjadi adalah tidak imbangnya agroekosistem, sehingga biaya usaha tani tidak akan dapat menghasilkan laba. Sebaliknya, biaya menjadi terlalu besar tetapi produk hanya sedikit, serta harganya bisa jatuh karena kualitasnya jelek/tidak disukai konsumen karena mengandung residu bahan kimia pertanian.

Pola Budidaya Tahap bencana Apabila tahap kritis tidak diantisipasi dengan baik, maka tahap berikutnya yang terjadi adalah bencana. Modal usaha tani tidak akan mendatangkan keuntungan, biaya yang dikeluarkan besar tetapi usaha yang dijalankan tidak mampu mengembalikan modal.

Pola Budidaya Tahap bencana


Usaha tani mengalami kebangkrutan, sedang lingkungan pertaniannya menjadi rusak karena terlampau dieksploitasi. Lebih parah lagi, kepercayaan konsumen mungkin juga akan hilang, sehingga tidak ada alternatif lain kecuali menutup usaha; atau memulai lagi dari awal dengan memperhatikan kaidah-kaidah ekosistem dan menjaga lingkungan pertanaman agar lebih berlanjut/lestari/"sustainable". Kondisi ini tidak mungkin dilanjutkan dengan teknik dan metode pertanaman yang sama dengan sebelumnya.

Pola Budidaya
Tahap pertanian ekologis/organik/sustainable
Jika petani/penanam ingin keluar dari bencana yang menimpa usaha taninya, maka harus dilakukan perubahan metode dalam penyelenggaraan budidaya tanamannya. Penerapan metode yang lebih akrab lingkungan seperti misalnya model PHT (Pengelolaan Hama Terpadu), pertanian organik, sistem tumpang gilir atau tumpang sari, budidaya lorong, sistem surjan dan berbagai cara bercocok tanam lainnya harus dan perlu dilakukan.

Pola Budidaya
Tahap pertanian ekologis/organik/sustainable

Cara bercocok tanam itu haruslah merupakan cara yang lebih mengabaikan sifat dan watak tanamannya, menjaga kelestarian media tanam, berorientasi pada produk berkualitas (dalam arti kandungan bahan bebas residu dan sisa yang bahan kimia pertanian membahayakan kesehatan).

CROP ECOLOGY