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SOIL POLLUTION

Presented by Hakim Asif Haider

Outline of Presentation
Introduction. Sources. Effects. Diseases Controls/Preventions.

1. Introduction
Any undesirable change in the Physical, Chemical , and Biological characteristics of the air , water , and land or soil which is harmful to the man directly or indirectly through animals , plants , industrial units or Raw materials. The Waste products of human activities are not efficiently assimilated decomposed or otherwise removed by natural , biological and physical processes( recycling) and the system is unable to utilize properly so that the balance of the system gets altered by the addition of such un degradable pollutants .

1.

Pollution is mainly man made , but it can be natural as well Pollution

Anthropogenic ( Man Made Pollution) Industrial pollution, Agricultural pollution

Natural Volcanic Eruption, UV Radiation, Soil erosion Dust Storm, Decomposition Of Organic Matter , Forrest Fires etc.

A Pollutant is a waste material that pollutes air, water or soil , and is the cause of pollution. It can be of two types Pollutants

Non Degradable e.g. Aluminum Pecks, compounds of iron, Mercury, Phenols and D.D.T.

Bio Degradable e.g. Peels , Wood Leaves

SOIL is the thin layer of organic and inorganic materials that covers the Earth's rocky surface. The organic portion, which is derived from the

decayed remains of plants and animals, is concentrated in the dark


uppermost topsoil. The inorganic portion made up of rock fragments, was formed over thousands of years by physical and chemical weathering of bedrock. . Several factors contribute to the formation of soil from the parent material. This includes the mechanical weathering of rocks due to temperature changes and abrasion, wind, moving water, glaciers, chemical weathering activities, and lichens.

Soil

pollution is defined as the build-up in soils of persistent

toxic compounds, chemicals, salts, radioactive materials, or disease causing agents, which have adverse effects on plant growth and animal health.

2. Sources and Effects


Municipal Solid Waste (MSW).

Industrial Waste.
Agro Waste.

Radioactive Waste.
Biological Waste.

2.1 MSW
Municipal solid waste is solid waste generated by households, commercial establishments and offices and does not include the industrial or agricultural waste. E.g.

1)

Indias urban population slated to increase from the

current 330 million to about 600 million by 2030, the

challenge of managing municipal solid waste (MSW) in


an environmentally and economically sustainable manner is bound to assume gigantic proportions. The country has over 5,000 cities and towns, which generate about 40 million tonnes of MSW per year today. Going by estimates of The Energy Research Institute (TERI), this could well touch 260 million tonnes per year by 2047.

Plastic Pollution
Plastic bags, plastic thin sheets and plastic waste is also a major source of pollution. A division bench of Allahabad High Court, comprising Justice Ashok Bhushan and Justice Arun Tandon, in May 03, 2010 had directed the Ganga Basin Authority and the state government to take appropriate action to ban the use of polythene in the vicinity of Ganga in the entire state. Also Plastic Bag Pollution in the Country is the biggest hazards. On August 2, 2010, seeking to

know whether a fine should be imposed on paan masala or gutkha packet


manufacturers for polluting and choking the drainage systems, the Supreme Court has directed the Union government to file its reply in six weeks.

2.2 Industrial Waste


Industrial waste is a type of waste produced by industrial activity, such as that of Factories, mills and mines.

It has existed since the outset of the Industrial Revolution.


Much industrial waste is neither hazardous nor toxic, such as waste fibre produced by agriculture and lodging. Toxic Waste, Chemical waste, Industrial solid waste and Municipal Solid Waste are designations of industrial waste. Sewage Treatment can be used to clean water tainted with industrial waste.

Online edition of India's National Newspaper Wednesday, Apr 28, 2010

Farmers express concern over pollution Coimbatore: Farmers in Kurumbapalayam, Kullakkapalayam and Podanur in Achipatti area of Pollachi have urged the administration to take steps to control the pollution caused by two companies. Villagers in a signed memorandum to the Collector pointed out that the pollution emitted by these two companies was effecting the ground water and agricultural lands. K. Paramasivam of the PAP irrigation committee said that the metal dust coming from these two casting units was affecting the agricultural yield in the nearby farm lands. In addition, the black smoke that engulfs the villages around the company cause serious health hazards. The waste that comes out of the units also cause unbearable stink. The waste generated by these units also choke the Parambikulam Aliyar Project (PAP) canal and the water from this canal that reaches the farms also affect the soil fertility.

Pollution due to Mining a) New Delhi-based Center for Science and Environment (CSE) on December 29, 2007
said mining was causing displacement, pollution, forest degradation and social unrest. According to the Centre for Science and Environment ( CSE) report the top 50 mineral producing districts, as many as 34 fall under the 150 most backward districts identified in the country. The CSE report has made extensive analysis of environment degradation and pollution due to mining, wherein it has said, in 2005-06 alone 1.6 billion tonnes of waste and overburden from coal, iron ore, limestone and bauxite have added to environment pollution. With the annual growth of mining at 10.7 per cent and 500-odd mines awaiting approval of the Centre, the pollution would increase manifold in the coming years. The mines of Mahanadi Coal Fields and NTPC draw about 25 Cr litres of water per day from the River Brahmani and in return they release thousands of gallons of waste water, which contains obnoxious substances like Ash, Oil, Heavy Metals, Grease, Fluorides, Phosphorus, Ammonia, Urea and Sulphuric Acid, into the River Nandira (A tributary of River Brahmani). The effluents from chlorine plant cause chloride and sodium toxicity to the river Rushikulya the lifeline of southern Orissa. The Phosphoric Fertilizer Industry discharges effluent containing Nitric, Sulphuric and Phosphoric acids into river Mahanadi.

2.3 Agricultural Wastes


Pollution of agricultural soils due to excessive use of chemicals, salt and water are the prime reasons behind soil pollution. Pesticides are applied on the crops in an indiscriminate manner for increasing food production and increase in yield which have done great damage to soil. Most important amongst pesticides are chlorinated hydrocarbons such as DDT and BHC.

2.3 a Erosion
Soil erosion can be defined as the movement of surface litter and topsoil from one place to another. While erosion is a natural process, often caused by wind and flowing water, it is

greatly accelerated by human activities such as


farming, construction, overgrazing by livestock, burning of grass cover, and deforestation.

In India about 130 million hectare of land (45% of total geographical area) is affected by serious soil erosion through ravine and gully, shifting cultivation, cultivated wastelands, sandy areas, deserts and water logging ( Govt. of India, 1989).

Of the 16 rivers of world which experience severe erosion and carry


heavy sediment load, 3 rivers, namely Ganges, Brahmaputra and Kosy occupy the 2nd, 3rd and 12th position respectively

Pie Chart For Erosion

2.4) Radioactive waste


The radioactive pollution is defined as the physical pollution of soil and the other radioactive materials. Environmental Radiation

Natural (Background radiations) (Radium, Uranium, Thorium, Radon, Potassium and Carbon) It occur in the rock, soil and water.

Man Made (plutonium and thorium)

In early April, 2010 a machine from Delhi University containing cobalt-60, a radioactive

metal used for radiotherapy in hospitals, ended up in


a scrap yard in the city. The death from radiation

poisoning of a scrap yard worker in Delhi has


highlighted the lax enforcement of waste disposal laws in India. The International Atomic Energy Agency said it was the worst radiation incident worldwide in four years.

India being used as a dumping ground for hazardous waste, from foreign countries. Twenty containers with goods were

detained by the officials of Special Intelligence and


Investigation Branch attached to the Customs Department here recently. Packs of broken toys, used diapers, empty

perfume bottles, used battery cells, thermocol, used


aluminium foil packing materials and coloured surgical gloves were found in the containers. It could also lead to contamination and spread of communicable diseases.

2.5) Biological Wastes


In developing countries, excreta-related diseases are very common,
and faecal sludges and wastewater contain correspondingly high concentrations of excreted pathogens the bacteria, viruses, protozoa, and the helminths (worms) that cause gastrointestinal infections (GI) in man. There are approximately thirty excreted infections of public health importance, and many of these are of specific importance in excreta and wastewater use schemes. The risks from transmission of excreted pathogens using human wastes in agriculture and aquaculture have been and continue to be widely studied and reported about.

Summary Of Causes
Polluted water discharged from factories

Runoff from pollutants (paint, chemicals, rotting organic material) leaching out of
landfill Oil and petroleum leaks from vehicles washed off the road by the rain into the surrounding habitat Chemical fertilizer runoff from farms and crops Acid rain (fumes from factories mixing with rain) Sewage discharged into rivers instead of being treated properly

Over application of pesticides and fertilizers


Purposeful injection into groundwater as a disposal method Interconnections between aquifers during drilling (poor technique)

Septic tank seepage Lagoon seepage Sanitary/hazardous landfill seepage Cemeteries Scrap yards (waste oil and chemical drainage) Leaks from sanitary sewers

3. Effects
a) b) c) d) Agricultural. Industrial. Urban. Environmental Long Term Effects of Soil Pollution.

a) Agricultural..
Reduced soil fertility Reduced nitrogen fixation

Increased erodibility
Larger loss of soil and nutrients Deposition of silt in tanks and reservoirs Reduced crop yield Imbalance in soil fauna and flora

b) Industrial
Dangerous chemicals entering underground water Ecological imbalance

Release of pollutant gases


Release of radioactive rays causing health problems Increased salinity

Reduced vegetation

c) Urban
Clogging of drains Inundation of areas Public health problems Pollution of drinking water sources Foul smell and release of gases Waste management problems

d) Environmental Long Term Effects of Soil Pollution.


pollution runs off into rivers and kills the fish, plants and other aquatic life crops and fodder grown on polluted soil may pass the pollutants on to the consumers polluted soil may no longer grow crops and fodder Soil structure is damaged (clay ionic structure impaired) corrosion of foundations and pipelines impairs soil stability may release vapours and hydrocarbon into buildings and cellars may create toxic dusts may poison children playing in the area

4) Diseases
1. Cancer 2. Brain and Nerve Damage 3. Kidney and Liver Disease 4. Malaria

5. Other Diseases

5. Control / Prevention
The following steps have been suggested to control soil pollution. Reducing chemical fertilizer and pesticide use Reusing of materials Recycling and recovery of materials Reforesting Solid waste treatment

Anaerobic/aerobic decomposition of biodegradable municipal and domestic waste is also being done and gives organic manure. Cow dung which releases methane into the atmosphere, should be processed further in 'gobar gas plants' to produce 'gobar gas' and good manure.

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