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TWENTY MINUTES WITH MRS.

OAKENTUBB

READING TEXT ONE

English Noter for FSC-II Sindh Board

Vocabulary
Melodrama(n) Notable(adj) Skilful(adj) Manipulate (v) Suspense (n) Empty (of) Almost Audible (adj) Tie-on (v) Heavily (adv) Wrap up (v) Scarf (n) Glove(n) Fur coat(n) Slightly (adv) Porter (n) Stormy (adj) Glisten (v) Hesitant (adj) Meekly(adv) Chuckle(v) Love(v) Tootsies Kneel down (ph: v) Glow Criticism Self pity Take off Briskly Trench-coat Trilby hat Shake Soak Trot Shaggy Meanwhile Mouse brown Streak Grey Prosperous Glance Fall on Apparently Artisan At first Exhibit Flamboyant Departure Stranger Display Constraint Casually Aside Object Conversation Grumbling Placid Nervously Pause Withdraw Turn away Indifference Grimly Startle Fairly Remarkable Any kind of writing which relies on sensation and happenings, violent action and improbable event. important; famous. good at sth, made or done very well. To control cleverly. Feeling of worry or excitement. with no people or things inside. not quite, nearly. that can be heard clearly. To fasten sth to or around sth. fully. To cover sth/sb in material. a piece of fabric worn for warmth or decoration. a covering for the hand. a coat made up of a soft thick hair. a little. a person whose job is to carry peoples luggage. with strong winds and heavy snow. (of sth wet) to shine. slow to speak or act because of uncertainty. quietly, gently. to laugh quietly. a word used as a friendly way of addressing sb. hands and feet. go down on the knees. shine brightly and warmly. a statement showing disapproval. a feeling of pity for yourself. to remove sth esp a piece of clothing. quickly a long loose coat, worn esp to keep off rain. a mans soft hat with a narrow brim and the top part pushed in. to move sth with short quick movements. to make sb/sth completely wet. to walk fast, taking short quick steps. long and untidy hair. in the period of time b/w two times or events. like the colour of mouse. a long thin mark or line. colour b/w black and white. rich and successful. a quick look. to take hold of sb/sth. according to the way sth appears / obviously. a person who does skilled work; craftsman. in the start. to display publicly. showy, excessive outward display. act of leave, exit. foreigner, intruder. to present, to view, make evident. compulsion, restraint. incidentally, occasionally. to or toward the side. to oppose sth, disapprove. an exchange of speech. fuss, crab. peaceful, undisturbed. uneasily, unsteadily. a temporary stop, intermission. to take back/ away, remove. to take a side. lack of emotion, uncaring. fiercely. to surprise, suddenly. handsomely. noteworthy, worthy of being noticed.
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English Noter for FSC-II Sindh Board

Stone Distinguishing Appreciate Pretty Curious Recognize Probably Opinion Intend to Puzzle Queue Swing apart Intensely Alter Shiver Round the corner Profound Interrupt Forcibly Utter Sympathetic Talk down (ph: v) Wound Strap Stretcher Dump Peg out Guess Fainted Bend over Plait Hang Chase away Jolt Overcome Brokenly Pull yourself together Violently Revenge Persuade Dedicate Wickedness Hate Vengeance Evil doer Saith Lord Stuff Stare at Fiercely Cruelly Malevolent Urge Desperation Passion Impersonal Fascinate Tear away Gaze Moisten Repelled Will Escape Evilly Stroll Follow Front Shrink Defiant Tuck Flap Visible

hard. which make distinctions, markable, noticeable. to value justly, value, respect. beautiful, fair, good looking. alertly interested in finding out things, inquiring. identify, diagnose. doubtless, likely. point of view, conviction. propose, have half a mind to. to make confused. convoy fleet. become separated, departs. extremely. to make different, change. tremble in surroundings. very great stop. with force. to say sth. kind. to speak sb as if they are less important then you. injury to fasten sb with strap. a bed for carrying patients or injured persons. to put sth down to die. suppose. to become unconscious. to lean over sth/sb. braid. fall loosely. to force sb to run away. to move suddenly or roughly. strongly affected, to control, defeat . weakly. to take control of your feelings. very strongly or severely. avenge, harm inflicted in response to harm received. convince, bring round. devote. evil quality. detest, abominate, abhor. revenge. a person who does evil, who does wrong. say. God. subject matter. to look with wide open eyes with fixed gazes peer. intensely, angrily. harshly. hostile, malicious. push, press. loss of hope, state of hopelessness. emotion, anger. unconcerned, aloof. Attract greatly. leave sth. long and steady look. make sth slightly wet. resist, reject, repulse, disgust. wish, desire. get free, avoid. in an evil manner. walk quite leisurely. to go or come after, persue. to face sth. to become smaller, to move back. disobeying. to secure in place by pushing the edges under, hide. something broad and thin that hangs. manifest, apparent, capable of being seen.

English Noter for FSC-II Sindh Board

Casualness Draw up Belie Rash Minor Salesman Meditatively Category Faintly Brutally Convict Charge with Scornfully Manslaughter Plain Deliberate Heartless Precious Relentless Built up Pull out Blind bend Slap Swerve Pavement Pedestrian Hesitate Mount Drunk Bear down Cocktail party Bet Rotten Wager Split a second In a flash Counsel Gaol Folly Painful Commit Execute Grimly Scream Composure Gallantly Indignation Spine Give sb away Recoil Rattling Frown Comfy Oblivious Feigned Wreck Spare Vividly Haunt Shriek Hysterical Blot out Endure Sob Spring Implore

state of careless or purposeless. to pull oneself erect. misrepresent, give a false impression. very hasty. small. wholesale dealers traveling agent. with a deep thinking. class, kind, group. weakly, feebly. Cruelly. to decide sb as guilty. to accuse sb formally. contemptibly. the crime killing sb illegally but not deliberately. open, obivious, evident. intentional. cruel. of great value, beloved, loved. unyielding. covered in buildings and roads. to move away from the side of the road. sightless turn. straight and with great force. to change direction suddenly. route for pedestrians. walker, going on foot. be flick, feel uncertainty. get on, ascend. having drunk too much. press on sb. a social occasion where people drink alcohol drinks. money risked in a stake. very bad, dishonest. to bet. a very short moment of time. very quickly and suddenly. a lawyer. jail. foolishness. causing pain, grievous. to do sth wrong or illegal. to carry out, put into effect. fiercely, cruelly. to cry out loudly. calmness. bravely. a feeling of anger and surprise. backbone. betray. to shrink from danger, to draw back. cluttering; sequence of noises. to make a serious or angry expression on face. comfortable. unaware. not real or genuine, imaginary. to ruin or damage. to exempt from sth. clearly. continue to cause problems. scream. very excited. to try to forget. tolerate, bear. to cry loudly taking sudden sharp breaths. move suddenly. beseech, entreat. ***********************

TWENTY MINUTES WITH MRS. OAKENTUBB


Summary

READING TEXT ONE

English Noter for FSC-II Sindh Board

Twenty Minutes with Mrs. Oakentubb is an effective little piece of Melodrama. It is story of persons whose lives have been affected by the casual meetings. Mrs. Oakentubb who caused an accident and created unexpected problems for herself and a gentleman, he, who lost her wife and daughter in that accident. Mrs. Judy Oakentubb wife of a prosperous businessman was brought by a porter to the waiting room of railway station. She had a suitcase with her. It was a black night with heavy downpour. Just then a gentleman came into the waiting room. His eyes fell on the tie on the label attached to the suitcase which had name and address of the lady. They both were going to Stainthorpe The lady was the native of that city. While the gentleman was on the way to Stainthorpe with a purpose of taking revenge from Judy Oakentubb. She had killed his wife and daughter in an accident. The porter left both of them to warm themselves on the gas fire. They broke their silence by discussing about the subject of chance and casual meetings. He narrated an event of meeting with a little girl in Korea who had changed the course of his life and gave him the courage to live a life at the time when he had become fed up of it. He also told the intention of going to Stainthorpe to seek revenge on the lady Judy Oakentubb. He told to lady that she willfully killed his wife and daughter, though it was considered as an accident. Though she was sentenced eighteen months in prison yet he considered that punishment too light for her crime. The woman present in the waiting room was Mrs. Oakentubb herself. Her expressions and gesture after listening his motive and the tag of the suitcase helped him to recognize her. He decided to kill her. Though she pleaded being not guilty and played a cunning trick yet he shot her dead with a pistol and he went away from there.
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English Noter for FSC-II Sindh Board

TWENTY MINUTES WITH MRS. OAKENTUBB


Question & Answers.
Q-1:

READING TEXT ONE

By: Frank Arthur.

Ans: The label which is present on Mrs. Oakentubbs suitcase has great importance. It is because of the label that the man identified her. If there had been no label the plot of the drama could not have developed. She hides the label to conceal her identity. She had guessed who the man was, she felt that her identification by the man would create problems for her.
Q-2: At what point in the play do we become certain that the man know that the woman in the waiting room is Mrs. Oakentubb? When, in fact, do you think he discovered her identity?

Explain the importance of the label on Mr. Oakentubbs suitcase. Why does she hide it?

Ans: Though the man does not disclose whether he had recognized the woman or not, his attitude makes it quite clear from the beginning that he has recognize the woman as Mrs. Oakentubb because when he entered the room he saw the label, containing her name, on the womans suitcase.
Q-3: When is the audience likely to begin to suspect that she might be Mrs. Oakentubb?

Ans: Though writer tries his best to continue suspense in the recognition of Mrs. Oakentubb yet the audience become aware of the originality of her. The audience suspect that the woman is Mrs. Oakentubb. She hides the label on her suitcase.
Q-4: What motive has the man for murdering her?

Ans: The man has the motive of revenge for murdering her. Actually sometime ago mans daughter and wife were killed in an accident. The woman in waiting room had caused the accident. So, he has the chance to kill the woman to accomplish his motive.
Q-5:

In this little melodrama, the author keeps on building up the tension then relaxing it, until the final moment of tension when the murder is done. Briefly describe the chief moments of tension and what follows after each one.

Ans: This is a melodrama and we are aware of the fact that melodrama is full of sensational events, emotional feelings and tensive thoughts. In Twenty Minutes With Mrs. Oakentubb there are many events where the sensation and tension prevail and soon after that sensational situation is relaxed. We have a tensive situation when he describes the death of his wife and daughter in an accident caused by Oakentubb and he tells the woman the motive of killing her. This situation is followed by a relaxed one when he tells her that this story is just only for killing the time. Then again we have a situation full of tension when he points the pistol at woman to kill her and then we are relaxed by the arrival of the porter after his departure again the tense situation starts till the end.
Q-6: Why, in your opinion, does the author make the porter a humorous character?

Ans: Keeping in view the seriousness and the excess of serious elements in the drama the author introduces humorous character of porter. Because the continuous flow of serious and sensational elements may cause boring attitude among the reader. In order to avoid the boredom author makes the porter a humorous character.
Q-7:

Ans: Mrs. Oakentubb is the central character of melodrama Twenty Minute With Mrs. Oakentubb. Her name is used in the title of drama. Her character is not the positive because of her ill-natured conduct and irresponsible behaviour. She is the wife of a prosperous businessman. Her character is not worthy of praise because she is a drinker and gambler. She caused an accident in which the wife and daughter of character he were killed. In the end of the drama she meets her actual fate and is killed by the character he.
Q-8: Write a brief character sketch of the porter.

Write a brief character sketch of Mrs. Oakentubb.

Ans: Porter in this drama is a minor character. Though he appears twice in the whole drama yet his character has an importance. The porters character is humorous one. Through his character author gives the normal touches of comedy. He gives his appearance twice, first in the start then at the climax of the story. His behaviour shows that he is the great lover of women and possesses good moral.
Q-9:

Briefly discuss whether the play would have had a more satisfying ending if the man had not come back through the door, seen Mrs. Oakentubbs vulgar and impatient gesture and shot her that is to say if it had ended in Mrs. Oakentubbs collapsing with genuine remorse and the mans decision that he would be adequately revenged if she went on living.

Ans: It is a fact that evil-doer must be punished. This is the law of nature. This drama has ended in a poetic justice. Because if the man had not killed the woman and if she had been spared to live then the law of nature would not have been completed; that is to say the wrong doer (she) would not have gotten the punishment for her misdeed of causing an accident. So, it is the best end of melodrama that she meets her true and actual fate and is shot dead by he. ********
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REFLECTIONS ON THE RE-AWAKENING EAST New Words


Reflection (n) Re-awaken (v) Outstanding (n) Inherit (v) Earldom (n) Eminent (adj) Notable (adj) Attitude (n) Preoccupy (v) Enormous (adj) Perspective (adj) Alternate (v) Predominate (v) Occur (v) Acquire (v) Fall (n) Dominant (adj) Enfeeble (v) Glorious (adj) Extensive (adj) Flourish (v) Sunk (p.p) sink (v) Barbarism (n) Unpardonable (adj) Insularity (n) Brilliant (adj) Gradually (adv) Abyss (n) Pioneer (n) Imperialism (n) Out distance (v) Expectation (n) Occident (n) Occidental (adj) Alliance (n) Adequate (adj) Insolence (n) Rouse (v) Subjection (n) Fury (n) Resistance (n) Remnant (n) Sweep away (ph.v) Reluctant (adj) Cling (v) Salvage (v) Doom (v) Retain (v) Shred (n) Probable (adj) Menace (n) Wipe out (ph.v) Degrade (v) Communism (n) Virulent (adj) Regime (n) Enlightened (adj) Impartial (adj) careful thought. Rekindle. Extremely good; excellent. To receive sth from sb when they die. Rank of nobleman. distinguished famous. way of thinking, feeling or behaving. think or worry often or all the time. huge; extremely large. view. in turn. to have the most influence or importance. to happen. gain; obtain. the loss or defeat of a country or city. established in power; more powerful. weaken. Magnificient; enjoyable. far-reaching, covering a large area. prosper. to go down below the surface or below the bottom. cruel or violent behaviour. that cannot be pardoned; unforgivable; in excusable. Narrow mindedness; being of an Island. very bright; splendid; clever. step by step; not abruptly. depth; hell. beginner. A system in which one country controls other countries, often after defeating them; the improving influence of one country over other countries by culture etc. to leave sb/sth behind by going faster; outstrip. probability; expecting. west; western part of the world. western. agreement; a group of people, nations work together. sufficient; enough. impudence; rudeness. wake up; stir up. being governed; slave. extreme anger; wild rage; fierceness. dislike of or opposition to; the use of force to oppose sth. remainder. to get rid of sth completely. hesitating. to stick to sth; to hold on tightly. to save; to rescue. certain to fail; die or suffer. to keep continue; to continue; to hold or contain. a very small amount of sth. likely to happen or to be true, likely. threat; nuisance. to destroy or remove sb/sth completely. to make sth worse; to change. a political movement that believes in an economic system in which the state controls the means of producing everything on behalf of the people. extremely dangerous; strong; bitter. a method of system of government. having an understanding of peoples needs. unprejudiced.

READING TEXT TWO

English Noter for FSC-II Sindh Board

English Noter for FSC-II Sindh Board

Spectator (n) Regrettable (adj) Industrialization (n) Virtual (adj) Monopoly (n) Supremacy (n) Useless (adj) Mechanization (n) Lag behind (ph.v) Preserve (v) Indignant (adj) Ruthlessness (n) In spite of (idm) Immense (adj) Compatriot (n) Restore (v) Prevail (v) Sufficient (adj) Sinister (n) Hostility (n) Break out (ph.v) Horror (n) Swamp (v) Trifle (adj) Absurd (adj) Faint (adj) In unison (idm) Endeavour (v) Uniformity (n) Cosmopolitan (adj) Superimpose (v) Solvent (adj) Adulation (n) Tolerable (adj) Fore front (n) Rivalry (n) Compel (v) Hostile (adj) Refrain from (ph.v) Explore (v) Abundance (n) Vitiate (v) Fatal (adj) Ingenuity (n) Exploitation (n) Mutual (adj) Hitherto (adv) Exist (v) Suffering (n) Despot (n) Imitate (v) Mastodon (n) Prophecy (n) Plumb (v) Folly (n) Apprehension (n) Rational (adj)

on looker. sorrowful; undesirable. the development of industries. in fact; made to appear on computer software. sole right; complete possession. highest power; authority. worthless. act of using machines. to move or develop slowly. keep safe; prevent. inflamed with anger or scorn; feeling anger. cruelty. despite; not with standing; not prevented by. extremely large or great; enormous. countryman; the citizen of same country. to bring back. be current or widespread. enough. of evil omen; wicked. enemity. start suddenly. a great fear or hatred; terror. to fill or cover; inundate. slightly. not logical and sensible; completely ridiculous. that cannot be seen clearly; very small. work together; to do sth at the same time. try hard. the state of being same. containing people from all over the world, liberal minded. to make a system or pattern combine with an existing system. able to dissolve another substance. admiration and praise especially when this is greater then is necessary. fairly good; that you can accept or bear; bearable. in or into an important or leading position. a state in which two people are competing for same thing; vying with. force someone. of enemy. hold oneself back; to stop from doing. examine thoroughly; to travel around an area in order to learn about it. plenty; more than enough. to reduce or spoil the effect. causing death; very harmful; inevitable. cleverness. full use; unfair profit. reciprocal between two. till now. be; have life; be present. trouble. a ruler using his unlimited powers cruelly. to copy sb/sth; mimic. extinct animal allied to elephant. prediction. to try to understand something mysterious. foolishness. fear; understanding; arrest. based on reason; able to reason. *******************

REFLECTIONS ON THE RE-AWAKENING EAST


By: Bertrand Russell

READING TEXT TWO

English Noter for FSC-II Sindh Board

(Summary)
Bertrand Russell an eminent thinker, philosopher and renowned mathematician, in this thought provoking article, discusses a brief history of world politics and alternation of power between the East and the West. He points out towards the nationalist feelings in Asian countries. He is of the firm opinion that East is the re-awaking and it is quite possible that the East will take lead in world politics. He traces the history of alternation of power between East and West spread over last two thousand years. In the earliest history the East predominated. It was both more powerful and more civilized than the West. However, the West took away this lead from the East and dominated in power with the conquest of Alexander and lead in culture with the rise of Greece. After the collapse of Roman Empire Asia again appeared as a strong continent. The Muslim countries during the caliphate days and China under the Tang dynasty emerged as powerful and civilized countries. It is interesting to note that at that time Europe was groping in darkness. But the West came out of backwardness by using scientific techniques. From the middle of the 17th century the West is dominant and East is lagging behind. The West became so powerful that it enslaved almost whole of Asia and Africa. The Second World War ended European Colonialism. America and other European countries cannot enslave the Asian countries now. But the only danger to their independence is from communist Russia. However, the friends of modern civilization all over the world would not welcome the communist domination in Asia. Bertrand Russell further says that modern world has split into two blocks_the Russian and American. He advises the Asian countries not to join either of these blocks in order to preserve their independence. He further says that no nation can dominate the world on the basis of culture because the cultural uniformity is quiet impossible to achieve. The modern universalism is based on science and machinery. He advises the Asian not to oppose industrialization if they want to prosper in modern world. Bertrand Russell is of the opinion that Asians contain half of the population of the world with three distinct civilizations i.e. of Muslims, Hindus & Chinese. The Asian countries cannot unite politically, so in order to avoid confrontation in the region they must learn to respect the sovereignty of neighbouring countries. In the end Russell says that the western rulers had the lust to rule and exploited other nations but the Asian should not follow this law. They should refrain from exploiting others. They should create mutual respect, which will make them happy and prosperous.

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READING TEXT TWO

REFLECTIONS ON THE RE-AWAKENING EAST


Answer the questions
Q-1: Why is it insular for European historians to term the countries after the fall of the Roman Empire The Dark Ages?

Ans: The period after the fall of Roman Empire is called the Dark Ages, by the European writers because they only view Europe not the whole world. While this period was dark age for Europeans the eastern countries like China and other Muslim countries of Asia had the torch of civilization and culture.
Q-2: On what grounds does the author argue that communism is the most modern and virulent form of Western Imperialism?

Ans: The author argues that the communism is the most modern and virulent form of western imperialism because the communist Russia plans to bring the smaller nations of the world under its own domination. And in a communist country people are devoid of their personal belongings.
Q-3: To what cause does the author attribute the power of England in the early Nineteenth Century and the power of the United States and Russia today?

Ans: Bertrand Russell attributes the power of England in the early 19th century and the power of United States in the recent times to scientific knowledge, industrialization and mechanical production.
Q-4: Why does the author consider it useless to resist industrialization?

Ans: The modern age is the age of science. Industrialization is the product of science and to resist it is considered as denying the fact and reality. Moreover, it is because of industrialization that a country can prosper rapidly.
Q-5: Does the author welcome cultural uniformity or not? How does he justify his attitude?

Ans: The author does not welcome the cultural uniformity. Culture is the recognition of any nation and if it is uniform than the independence of the nation becomes doubtful.
Q-6: How is traditional culture threatened in an age dominated by science and machinery?

Ans: Science and machinery are two different and artificial sources to develop; they are totally against the culture. A country dominated by these sources becomes vulnerable (weak) to preserve traditional culture and through science and machinery a powerful country can dominate a weak nation and its culture.
Q-7: What reasons does the author give for his opinion that the nations of Asia will not find it hard to keep their independence?

Ans: According to author this world has divided itself in to two blocks, USA & Russia. The newly established countries have an opportunity to preserve their independence by remaining neutral and not joining any block.
Q-8: What, in authors view, has been most serious flaw in the character of the West over the last few centuries?

Ans: According to the author, most serious flaw in the character of the West over the last few centuries has been despotism and the spirit of exploiting other nations.
Q-9: What in the authors opinion, should Asian countries accept from the West and what should they reject?

Ans: The Asian countries should learn from the west the spirit of scientific research and should reject the desire for domination and exploitation. They must not indulge in the competition and rivalry because they have given race for power.

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READING TEXT THREE

THE DAY THE DAM BROKE


New Words
Word Break (v) Broke (p.t) Foremost (adj, adv) Humorist (n) Association (n) Witty (adj) Amusing (adj) Autobiographical (n) Sardonic (adj) Affectionate (adj) Gladly (adv) Hardship (n) Endure (v) Turmoil (n) Confusion (n) Native (adj) Frightful (adj) Perilous (adj) Ennoble (v) Demoralized (v) Splendour (n) Misconception (n) Cavalry (n) Menace (n) Flee (v) Sternly (adv) Forbid (v) Brandish (v) Sabre (n) Roar (v) Stream (v)

By: James Thurber.


Sindhi Meaning , , , , , , , , , , , , , , ,

Meaning smash first; most important a writer who writes amusing scripts contact; connection; organized body of people able to say or write clever things entertaining the story of persons life written by that person mocking; cynical loving happily difficulty; severe suffering tolerate a state of great confusion or anxiety disorder pertain to ones birth place horrible, unbearable very dangerous; risky make noble; to give sb better moral character dishearten; hurt or weaken the morals magnificence; brightness misunderstanding soldiers who fight on horse back threat run away; disappear harshly; severely to prevent sb to do sth to hold or wave sth (specially a weapon) sword to make a very loud deep noise to move in large amount to make sb unconscious obstruct without power to move or act without any doubt to surround; to cover completely stupidly shy; embarrassed frighten a large piece of equipment for cooking food to make less severe strange causing fear or laughter hopelessness take hold of forcibly or suddenly respected not amusing or interesting; boring and old fashion too blunt; shameless in conduct typist able to take dictation in short hand. warning signals frightening a clear message or request for people to do sth

Stun (v) Impede (v) Inert (adj) Unquestionably (adv) Engulf (v) Sheepish (adj) Scare (v) Cook-stove (n) Assuage (v) Grotesque (adj) Desperation (n) Seize (v) Dignified (adj) Staid (adj) Cynical (adj) Stenographer (n) Alarms (n) Terrifying (adj) Clarion call (n)

, , , , , , , (),

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READING TEXT THREE

THE DAY THE DAM BROKE


Panic deprives a man of senses. In this text the famous American writer James Thurber recalls how panic-stricken people behaved when the rumour about the breaking of the dam spread in his town. James says that on 12th March 1913 during the normal way of life in the Columbus city at about noon time someone begun to run towards a restaurant to meet his wife
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who was waiting there. Accidentally, a paperboy also ran after him in high spirits followed by a gentleman. Then everybody started running towards east. The dam had broken this was the rumour, which spread like a wild fire and caused anxiety among the people. People stopped their work and begun to run towards the eastern side, which was at a higher level. Men and women, old and young all got panic. Most of people left their houses with gas fire burning, food cooking and doors wide open. Go east was the cry uttered by everyone. It was a very funny as well as pitiable scene. Lawyers, doctors, military men, policemen and firemen in their uniform took part in this grand race with full enthusiasm. The writer recalls with a vivid expression how his grandfather reacted to the situation. He tells that he caused lot of trouble for them as they too were trying to escape the so-called flooding waters. He is also mentioning about the behaviour of Dr. Mallory, a well-known doctor of the town. The doctor was running very fast under the impression that the floodwater was about to engulf him. The Dr. collapsed on the ground expecting the floodwater would wash him away when he to his amazement saw a boy passing him on roller skates. He realized that he had mistaken the swishing of roller skate as the sound of gushing water. The writer has also narrated the story of a lieutenant colonel who was dosing on a porch. He started running at the cry of a little child who passed by the porch crying, go east. The army officer obeyed her without knowing the cause of running. This incident suggests that the panic stroke equally to all, no matter what their social rank was. Finally the militiamen brought an end to this panic they drove through the city and announced that the dam had not broken. At first this announcement was taken as a thought that it was an official announcement that the dam had now broken. However they were able to restore order in the town. Thus the writer has given an interesting account of the panic, which caused a great confusion among the people. Though it was a rumour but the way the people responded to it clearly shows that how a common person loses senses during the panic hours.

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READING TEXT THREE

THE DAY THE DAM BROKE Question & Answers.


Q-1:

Ans: As a matter of fact, there are some alarms in the world more terrifying than The Dam Has Broken. In Columbus on Ohio, the broken dam rumor set the citys whole population to flight. The panic in people was so great that nobody cared to verify the fact. Given, the title of James Thurbers essay seems to be reasonably appropriate.
Q-2: What can we gather about grandfathers age, physique and mental condition?

How accurate is the title of Thurbers essay?

Ans: The grandfather was a good old man. However, we cannot form an exact idea about his age. Physically, he was taller than six feet and weighed about a hundred and seventy11

English Noter for FSC-II Sindh Board


Q-3:

pounds. The old man, however, did not look to be normal and mentally fit, as he was mostly haunted by imaginary fears.
How does the panic appear to have started?

Ans: Actually, the panic started, when, somebody in the main center of trade in Columbus city, all of sudden began to run. Possibly, the runner had remembered an appointment to see his spouse for which he was too late. Besides, somebody else, take for granted, a newsboy also started to run in excitement. In the meanwhile, an other man of worldly affairs also began to run. Thus, without trying to know the reason, everybody started running and crying The dam has broken! Go east! Go east! Go east!
Q-4:

Ans: Thurbers mother on this occasion, did not show any excitement. She put out all the fire and took with her a dozen of eggs and two loaves of bread. She planned to take refuge on the roof of the Memorial Hall, which was only two blocks away.
Q-5:

How did Thurbers mother cope with the situation?

What caused the lieutenant Colonel of infantry to lead a fleeing company of three hundred persons?

Ans: As a matter of fact, soldiers are used to quick decision as they are trained to immediate obedience. The lieutenant colonel, as stated in the essay, was drowsing in the porch of his house. All of sudden, the cry of Go east fell on his ears. He saw a little child running in panic. He also started running to the east, crying the dam has broke. Soon he was leading a fleeing company of about three hundred guys.
Q-6: How long did the panic last and how was order restored?

Ans: The panic lasted about two hours in all. When the city fathers came to know that it was a false alarm, the sent militiamen to announce that The dam has broken. The militiamen riding in lorries, dispelled the panic and restored the order.
Q-7: How did the panic started in the cinema on High Street?

Ans: At the time, some people were watching a cinema show. They got disturbed by the tramp of running feet and the persistent shouts of the people running outside in panic. A woman at the time cried Fire! and everybody in the cinema hall dashed for the exit. Outside the cinema hall, they heard the cry Go east! The dam has broken and thus, they also started running to the east, pushing and knowing down the children and women.
Q-8: Why did Dr. Mallory think that the flood waters were about to engulf him?

Ans: Actually, Dr. Mallory was among the crowd which was running to the East. Behind him was a boy on roller-skates. Dr. Mallory mistook the swishing sound of the skates for the sound of rushing waters. He, therefore, felt certain that the flood waters were about to engulf him.
Q-9: How did the Thurber obtain the description of the event in the cinema and the experiences of Dr. Mallory?

Ans: Mr. Thurber obtained the description of events in the cinema besides the experiences of Dr. Mallory from his aunt Edith Taylor. At the time of panic in cinema, she was in Movie Theatre on High Street. She also ran for life and joined Dr. Mallory in the run.

Q-10: Why did the citizen of Columbus not care to talk about the events of the 12 March, 1913?

Ans: The fact is that they felt ashamed of their stupid behaviour. They felt panicky and demoralized at the cry of The dam has broken and did not try to verify the factual position. Thus, they kept silent when somebody made mention of the events of 12 March, 1913, afterwards.

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READING TEXT FOUR

PAKISTAN AND THE MODERN WORLD


New Words
Word Meaning Sindhi Meaning

orator (n) Compassion (n) Eloquence (n) Steer (v) trial (n) Tribulation (n) Conferment (n) expose (v) Fare (n) Venerate (v) Assassinate (v) fanatic (adj)

an eloquent public speaker pity inclining one to be helpful or merciful. fluent and effective use of language. to guide or direct. process of testing qualities. great oppression or affliction. the conferring of a degree or title. leave unprotected, put at risk. journey, travel, go, travelling price. regard with deep respect. kill for religious or political motives. excessively enthusiastic.

, , , , , , , , , , , 12

bestow (v) voyage (n) Poise (v) Longing (n) Monotheist (n) Polytheist (n) Pervasive (adj) Hierarchy (n) Priesthood (n) Outlook (n) Accumulation (n) set back (n) eclipse (n) Sovereign (adj) geo-political (adj) Untrammeled (adj) Discontent (adj) (n) Homogenous (n) Lament (v) Console(v) untold (adj) Upheaval (n) Potential (adj) (n) Wavering (adj) Disruption (n) Menacing (adj) chalk out (v) resist (v) Aggression (n) Tyranny (n) Inculcate (v) Inhibit (v) Contiguity (n) Thwart (v) From scratch (idm) Flounder (v) Jeopardy (n) Chauvinism (n) Descend (v) Outworn (adj) tempo (n) Magnitude (n) Orientation (n) Altogether (adv) Stagnant (adj) Synthesis (n) Dynamic (adj)

English Noter for FSC-II Sindh Board confer a gift or right. , a long journey by water, air or space. composure or self possession of manner, consider. a feeling of intense desire. , believe in monotheism, who believes in one God. believe in polytheism, who believes in many gods. wide spread. A system especially in society or in organization in which people are organized into different levels of importance from higher to lower. office or position of priest. point of view. mass, heap, pile, stock a relapse, a reversal or arrest of progress. sudden loss of importance or prominent. having total power, ruler. politics of a country determined by its geographical features. not hampered. dissatisfaction; angry. , of the same kind. . express great regret. comfort, sympathise. limitless. , disturbance or change. capable of coming into being or action. undecided; weak. , disorder. threatening, dangerous. sketch or plan a thing to be accomplished. with stand the action or effect. , attack with out just cause. , the cruel and arbitrary use of authority. urge or impress persistently. , hinder, prevent, restrain. touch, contact. discard, prevent from happening. , start from nothing. make violent but vain effort. danger. exaggerated or aggressive patriotism. pass by inheritance. exhausted. the rate of motion or activity. largeness of size. , a position or direction. completely. motionless, having no current. a combination or composition. producing motion.

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READING TEXT FOUR

PAKISTAN AND THE MODERN WORLD

(Summary)
Actually, this speech was made by Pakistans first prime minister Liquat Ali Khan to acknowledge the conferment of an honorary degree upon him by the University of Kansas, America, in 1950. In his speech Liaquat Ali Khan told the people of America how and why the demand for Pakistan was made. He told that the demand was made to safeguard the interests of the Muslims living in this sub-continent. Previously India was ruled by the Britishers and there lived one hundred million Muslims in it. The Hindus formed a majority as they were three hundred millions. When India was going to win freedom, Muslims realized that even after getting their freedom they would have to live as a political minority. They knew that in united India they would be ruled by a Hindu majority, and therefore, freedom from the British would mean for the Muslims only a
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change of Masters. It was not only the difference of the religion that made the Muslims a separate nation but also there were some other differences which separated the Muslims from the Hindus. The Hindus believed in the caste system, while the Muslims believed in the equality of all men, their economic views were also very different. Besides, as the Hindus were much larger in number, the Muslims were very backward, and the Hindu majority was sure to make them still more poor. It was for these reasons that Muslims demanded for a country of their own. The demand was a just one. There were vast areas where Muslims were in majority. They were in great numbers and could form a nation bigger than several nations of the world. Therefore, a separate homeland for them meant freedom and self-government. The demand for Pakistan also promised for the Hindus freedom from a big minority. It was under these circumstances that Pakistan came into being. If it were not so, the differences between the Hindus and the Muslims would have led to unimaginable trouble and the social and political situation of sub-continent would have been quiet different than that of today.

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PAKISTAN AND THE MODERN WORLD


Question & Answers
Q-1: Briefly state the main reason given by Liaqat Ali Khan for the Muslims desire not to continue living in a United India?

READING TEXT FOUR

Ans: The main reason given by Liaqat Ali Khan for the Muslims desire not to continue living in a United India was that they would have lived their new life as a political minority. Because, the Hindus had a dominating majority of three to one. So the freedom from Britishers would have meant to the Muslims, not freedom, but only a change of masters.
Q-2: What main differences does he point out between Muslims and Hindu Beliefs and attitudes?

Ans: Liaqat Ali Khan points out that the Muslims differed from the Hindus, not only in religion but also social and economic points. The Muslims are Monotheist, whereas the Hindus are polytheists. The Hindus believe in caste system whereas, the Muslims believe in the equality of all men. The Muslims have laws of inheritance and discourage unearned accumulation of wealth, whereas the Hindus favoured accumulation. Their cultures too are quite different from one another.
Q-3:

What advantage does he show the Hindus to have gained from the creation of Pakistan?

Ans: As a matter of fact, the partition of United India provided to both the Muslims and the Hindus an opportunity to practise their faiths liberally and to develop their cultures, as well. The partition was also a great contribution towards the creation of a stable Asia for, in case of undivided India, it would have been an uneasy and unwieldy state with great
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Q-4:

strains within the body politics. Thus, the Hindus got a state sans strong minority, that led towards tranquility.

Our administrative machinery had to be build up from scratch. What does this sentence mean?

Ans: At the time of partition, the Muslims of newly born state Pakistan, were asked to set up a state of about eighty million people within a short period of two months. They had no capital, no resources, and no flag. They had no military equipments. Their army was scattered far and wide and could not come home for months together. Indian Government refused to pay their share of the exchequer and the military equipments. Given, Pakistan had to be built up from the start under the unfavourable conditions.
Q-5: On what grounds does Liaqat Ali Khan assert that the first duty of the Pakistanis as a free people is to themselves?

Ans: As a free nation, our freedom demands that we must maintain our independence first. It needs constant care and vigilance. In order to take respectful and right place in the commity of nations of the modern world, we must abolish want, disease, ignorance and hunger from the country. We should put all our energies and resources into this supreme purpose.
Q-6: What does he state the real meaning of freedom, for the common man, to be?

Ans: Liaqat Ali Khan states the real meaning of freedom for common man, as he maintains that the real freedom is freedom from want, hunger, disease and ignorance. Further, it is not only the rulers that should be free but the commoners should be free, as well.
Q-7:
Q-8:

Ans: A synthesis means combining of separate parts, substance, faith of people into a whole.
What is the synthesis that Liaqat Ali Khan believes is necessary for Pakistan to achieve?

What is meant by a synthesis?

Ans: Liaqat Ali Khan says that the people of Pakistan should apply their ancient steadfast faith to modern technology. It would ensure progress and prosperity and also help the world peace.
Q-9: Liaqat Ali Khan contrasts two emotions that the Asian people tend to feel when they view the Western world. What are these two emotions?

Ans: Actually, the Asian people are actually aware of the great contrast between their own standard of living and the standards of living in the Western World. They are filled with admiration at the progress and advancement of the West, and are infact, anxious to explore a bright future for themselves. They want to cast off their misery and backwardness, as well.
Q-10: What does he put forward as the two main duties today of Western world?

Ans: Liaqat Ali Khan puts forward, firstly, the Western world should share its great fund of knowledge, skill and experience with the Eastern countries. Secondly, they should not shirk from their responsibility for the maintenance of the peace, the world over.

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READING TEXT FOUR

PAKISTAN AND THE MODERN WORLD


By: Liaquat Ali Khan

About writer:
Liaquat Ali Khan (1895-1951), first prime minister of Pakistan (1947-1951). He was born in Karnl, India, studied law at the University of Oxford, and was admitted to the English bar in 1922. Returning to India, he joined the All-India Muslim League in 1923 and was elected to the legislative council of the United Provinces. In 1936 he became secretary general of the league and the chief aide to its founder, Mohammed Ali Jinnah. As such, he was the principal architect of the partition of India and the creation of Pakistan in 1947. An obvious choice for prime minister, he guided the country through its first difficult years. He was assassinated in October 1951; the circumstances surrounding his death have never been fully explained. In foreign policy, Liaquat established friendly relations with the United States when he visited President Harry S. Truman in 1950. Pakistans early foreign policy was one of nonalignment, with no formal commitment to either the United States or the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR), the two major adversaries in the Cold War. In 1953, however,
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Pakistan aligned itself with the United States and accepted military and economic assistance.

Summary
One of the founding fathers of this country, Liquat Ali Khan is at the height of his rhetoric ( )in this speech is pleading the case of the foundation of Pakistan and the earlier problems it faced before the Americans. As the first Prime Minister of Pakistan he officially visited the USA in 1950. At the Kansas University he was awarded an honourary degree. Taking the advantage of that occasion he delivered this speech, which consists all the factors responsible for the creation of Pakistan. He was of the opinion that in India the Muslims would have lived as a perpetual minority under the domination of Hindu majority if they had not opted for Pakistan. Freedom in such conditions from British rule would have been simply a change of masters for the Muslims. Hence from the political point of view, it was in the interest of the Muslims and the Hindus to have a separate country where each nation could live independently. There were cultural and religious differences between the Muslims and Hindus. The differences were so deep that it was very difficult to live in unity. The Muslims were monotheists while the Hindus were polytheists. The Hindus had caste system but the Muslims believed in the equality of all men. It was therefore, necessary for both the communities to have separate country where they could shape their lives according to their religion and social system. Liaquat Ali Khan further stated that Muslims believed in individual liberty while the Hindus believed in the bondage system. That was the main reason that the Muslims thought about their own independent country and struggled to get it. The first Prime Minister of Pakistan pointed out the problems, which were faced by the newly born country in the beginning. He mentioned that despite these problems his country was doing well in progress and development. He further stated about his belief in the new concept of freedom, which was against the conventional. He said that by freedom he meant that the people should be free from want, disease and ignorance in a free country. The betterment of people was very dear to him. Liaquat Ali Khan also expressed the opinion that the developed countries of the west should share their scientific knowledge and experience with those Asian countries, which were denied the opportunity of progress during the colonial rule. Thus Liaquat Ali Khan, in his speech, represented in a most comprehensive way the historical background of why Pakistan was created and how it was facing the challenges before it.

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ACT III OF THE SILVER BOX


New words
Word Meaning Living or occurring at the same time. A person who seeks to promote human welfare. A person who practices or teaches morality. Lawyer, advocate etc. Lax in morals, licentious. A maid- servant for washing dishes etc. Sindhi Meaning

READING TEXT FIVE

Contemporary (adj) Humanitarian (adj) Moralist (n)

Solicitor (n) Dissolute (adj) Charwoman (n)

, , , ,

Hush up (ph.v) Identical (adj) Poverty-stricken (n) Canopy (n) Unicorn (n) Dock (n) Bald (adj) Seedy-looking (adj)

Suppress public mention of an affair. Agreeing in every detail, expressing an identity. Extremely poor. An over hanging shelter. A fabulous horse like animal with a single horn in mid of head. The enclosure in a criminal court for the accused. Having little or no hair on the head. Shabby looking, in worn clothes.

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Ferocious (adj) Hissing (adj) Disillusion (v)

English Noter for FSC-II Sindh Board Fierce, savage and wildly cruel. , Making sound like long S. To destroy mistaken ideas of somebody. Same voice, sound or style etc. Write or carve on stone, metal, paper or book etc.

Monotone (adj) Inscribe (v) Grizzled (adj) Pawn (v) Ill-treat (v) Emphatically (adv) Ascertain (v) Break up (ph.v) Inaudibly (adv)

Having or streaked with gray hair. Deposited an object as security with pawnbroker. Treat somebody badly. Expressing with emphasis, stressfully. Get to know, find out as a definite fact. Terminate a relationship, disband. Speak in low voice that cannot be heard. Take up the cudgels (idm) make a vigorous defence. Abruptly (adv) Hastily, suddenly. Stir (v) Move slightly. Wispy (adj) Having a bunch, bundle or twist etc. Defiant (adj) Open disobedient, showing defiance. Haggard (adj) Looking exhausted and distraught. Assault (n) A violent physical or verbal attack. Execution (n) The act or an instance of carrying out or performing something. Sullenly (adv) Resentfully, unsociably. Recognizance (n) Bond of undertaking before a court. Butler (n) The principal servant of household. Detective (adj) Serving to detect. Persist (n) Continue to be. Denial (n) Contradiction. Interpose (v) Interrupt. Violent (adj) Very strong and sudden, Uncontrollably fierce. Frown (v) To show anger, worry or deep thought by raising ones eyebrows. Partake (v) Eat or drink a part of sth.

, , , , , , , , ,

Demeanour (n) Protrude (v) Emphasis (n) Shelter (v) Clutch (v) Latch-key (n) Champagne (n) Blooming (adj) Toff (n) Spite (n) Ironically (adv) Earnestly (adv)

A way of behaving, conduct. , Extend beyond or above a surface. , The force or stress given to words when spoken. , Cover. Seizing somebody / thing eagerly, to hold sb/sth tightly. A key which is used to open a lock of a door from the outside. A kind of wine. Flourishing healthy (also euphemism for bloody). Rich or well-dressed person of high social class. , , Hate. , With ironic behaviour. Seriously. % , Troubling sb greatly. Bright but. Died due to suffocation, lack of air. Striking quickly and smartly. to talk or negotiate, especially with an enemy Wrap up sth for deadening its sound Sounding rough and harsh. Make a deep sound due to pain or despair. Walk or behave in a proud way.

Prey (v) Glaring (adj) Smother (v) Rap (v) Parley (v) Muffle (v)

, , , ,

Hoarse (adj) Groan (v) Swagger (v)

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READING TEXT FIVE

ACT III OF THE SILVER BOX

Summary
This act has been extracted from the ' THE SILVER BOX ', written by a distinguished novelist and playwright John Galsworthy. The writer gives us the scene of a court of law in Act III of the 'Silver Box'. As the act starts, two small girls are presented before the justice. According to the police officers, they were found wandering about on the roads. On inquiry it was found that their father was out of job and their mother had broken the house, and gone away with a man in her husband's absence, leaving the girls to wander about. The justice took the statement of the father too, and the decision was postponed to the next hearing, which was to be held after a week. After that, the case of the 'Silver Box' came up for hearing. Mrs. Jones was a char-woman in the house of Mr. Barthwick, M.P. The story of the case is that on Easter Monday Jack Barthwick, the son of Mr. Barthwick, M.P. got terribly drunk and returned home at about 1.00 A.M. He was trying to find the keyhole on the wrong side of the door, when Mr. Jones, who was returning home, helped him to open the door. Jack invited him to his room for a drink. Both of them had plenty of wine. Jack offered a Silver Box to Jones. Jones took the silver cigarette box and a purse with him to his home. The purse was snatched from a lady by Jack under the state of drunkenness. In the morning a servant reported to Mr. Barthwick about the theft of the Silver Box, and the latter informed the police. A police officer, named Mr. Robert Snow went to the house of Mr. Jones to trace out the theft. Mr. Jones quarreled with him and was arrested for stopping the police in the performance of their duties. Mrs. Jones was also arrested. When the case was brought up before the court, Mr. Barthwick insisted his pleader Mr. Roper, that there must be no mention about the purse
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because it could expose the guilt of Jack. A few moments later during the trial he asked his pleader to tell the justice that he did not want to pursue the case of the theft, and that, if the court pleased, Mr. Jones might be tried simply for violence to the police. After a long discussion the justice set the lady free, and ordered one month's imprisonment with hard labour for Mr. Jones. What Galsworthy wants to show in this play is that justice has quite different meanings for the poor and the rich. Although there is the case of stealing a lady's purse against Jack Barthwick as well, but he is not punished, because his lawyer avoids to bring that point under discussion. On the other hand, Mr. Jones, a poor man, out of job and miserable, is sent to jail for one month simply because he resisted the police officer from putting his hand on his wife. While trying to expose the system of justice in England, Galsworthy seems to be taking sides with Mr. Jones and Mrs. Jones, members of the poor working class.
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READING TEXT FIVE

ACT III OF THE SILVER BOX


Question & Answers
Q.1: What purpose, in your opinion, is served by beginning this act of the play with the case of the Livens girls, which has nothing to do with the main story?

Ans: In my opinion, the case of Livens girls has been introduced in the beginning of the play with a purpose to show the flaws and defects of the legal system of England. It is said the law is blind. It can award punishment to a person and fails to suggest remedies for economic or social evils.
Q.2: Why are Mr. Barthwick and his son anxious that as little as possible should be said in court about he purse and the money that Jones had in his possession?

Ans: They were so anxious because, once, in a fit of drunken mischief, Jack Barthwick had stolen the purse of the woman. There was some money in the purse. It was stolen by Mr. Jones from the Barthwicks house. Galsworthy the writer of the play tells us that Jack and Jones both had committed identical crimes. But Barhwick and his son wanted not to mention the event of purse and money in the court because this evidence might have gone against Jack, so the judge ignored the said evidence.
Q.3: Q.4:

Ans: In the Magistrates court, Mr. Roper has accompanied Mr. Barthwick as his defence counsel in the court of the magistrate. Ans: Marlows evidence in the court establishes the fact that the silver cigarette-case belonged to Mr. Barthwick, and that it was put on the dining-table between 10-45 and 11-00 on the night of Easter Monday. Besides that, he confirmed that the female prisoner was the charwoman in the house of Barthwick. When the box was found missing, he informed about it to his employer, who then got registered a case with the police.
Q.5: What facts does Marlowes evidence establish?

What function is Mr. Roper discharging in the Magistrates court?

Ans: Because, the police had no knowledge of Jones access to Barthwicks house. Since, Mrs. Jones had been working there as a charwoman, she was suspected to have stolen the cigarette-case. That is why she was charged with theft.
Q.6: What led the Constable to arrest and charge Jones as well?

From the Constables evidence we learn that Mrs. Jones was the first to be charged with the theft. Why was this so?

Ans: It was so because, when the police searched the house of Mrs. Jones, they had recovered the stolen silver case. Though, Mrs. Jones had denied the charge of theft yet she was arrested. When she was being brought to the police station, Mr. Jones interfered. He appealed the police for release of his wife because she was innocent. He told the police that the crime was actually committed by him. When the police officer did not listen to his pleas, he turned violent and struck him. Due to that he was also arrested.
Q.7:

Briefly give the probable reasons for the Magistrates decision to discharge Mrs. Jones.

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Ans: The probable reasons for the magistrates decision to discharge Mrs. Jones are given as under: (i) Mr. Barthwick had declared that he did not press the charge as to the Silver Box. (ii) Mr. Jones Husband pleaded guilty of stealing the Silver Box. (iii) The police had confirmed that Mrs. Jones enjoyed the reputation of being an honest and trustworthy woman and that there was nothing in police record against her. (iv) The statement of Jack clearly revealed that he had allowed Jones access to his dining room. Mrs. Jones had nothing to do with it.
Q.8: Briefly discuss whether the Magistrate gives Jones a fair trial.

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Ans: As a matter of fact, the Magistrate did not give Jones a fair trial. He refused to consider the circumstances under which the crime was committed. He had failed to record that part of the evidence which may go against Jack. Thus, it was clear that the magistrate was influenced by the riches and social status of Mr. Barthwick.
Q.9: Assuming that Jones has received a fair trial, why does this act of the play leave us with a feeling that injustice has been done?

Ans: Actually, this act of play leaves us with a feeling that injustice has been done, because, Jack, the son of an influential father, goes without punishment for having committed an identical crime. The part of evidence, which could go against him was not put on record. Although, Mrs. Jones was acquitted but she lost her job and in this way her children were deprived of their only means of living.
Q.10: What do you imagine to be the unspoken plea Mrs. Jones makes to Mr. Barthwick at the very end?

Ans: At the time, the case against Mr. Jones is disposed of by the Magistrate, Mr. Barthwick rises to go home. Mrs. Jones turns to him with humble gestures. It is her unspoken plea for continuing her job as a charwoman with him. But Barthwick is hesitative and then, yielding to his nerves, makes a shame-faced gesture of refusal.

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READING TEXT SIX

THE WORLD AS I SEE IT


Word Mortal (ajd) Sojourn (n) Exert (v) Engross (v) Last resort (n) Meaning That must die, that cannot live forever. A temporary stay. Strive, use ones efforts or endeavours. Occupy all the time or attention of somebody. When there are no other possible courses of action. Consoling or being consoled. Less severe, violent or painful. Crippling. Help to bring something about. Not sensible, unreasonable. Attempt or effort, try.

(Albert Einstein)

Consolation (n) Mitigate (v) Paralysing (adj) Conduce (v) Absurd (adj) Endeavour (n) A herd of swine (met:)(n) A group of disrespected people (wanderers) Eternity (n) Forever, throughout all time, always. Unattainable (adj) No attainable. Passionate (adj) Easily moved to strong feeling love or anger. Oddly (adv) In a strange or peculiar manner. Gang on ones own gait (idm) go ones own way Obstinate (adj) Stubborn. Detachment (n) State of indifference to other people. Solitude (n) Lonely, the state of being solitary. Geniality (n) Sociability, cheerfulness, and kindness. Temptation (n) The action of tempting sb or being tempted. Insecure (adj)Not secure or safe. Idolize (v) Treat as an idol, love or admire very much Irony (n) Incourageous thing Ceaseless (adj) Unending. Autocratic (n) Having or using unlimited powers. Coercion (n) Coercing or being coerced (force or threat). Invariable (adj) Constant, never changing. Tyrant (n) A severe or cruel ruler. Genius (n) Exceptionally great mental or creative ability. Scoundrel (n) A rogue, an unscrupulous villian. Passionately (adv) Emotionally. Impersonal (adj) Not showing or involving human feelings. Extensive (adj) Large in area or amount, for reaching, major, thorough Pageant (n) A brilliant spectacle, specious show Sentient (adj) Having the power of perception by the

Sindhi Meaning / / ,

, ,

, , , , , , , , , ,
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senses, capable of feeling Sublime (adj) Of the most exalted, grand or noble kind, best, highest Hack (v) Cut roughly, chop. Abominable (adj) Causing disgust and horror, very bad. Bogey (n) Person or thing that causes fear. Mysterious (adj) Hard to understand or explain, full of mystery Snuffed-out (ph.v) Put out or extinguish a flame or candle, to stop of destroy sth completely Engender (v) Be the cause of. Penetrate (v) To make a way or into sth. Manifestation (n) An event an action object or a statement that shows something clearly. Profound (adj) Having or showing the greatest knowledge or insight; deep Radiant (adj) Sending out light or heat, bright; full of delight Mystery (n) The condition of being secret or not known. Inkling (n) Hint or slight knowledge; suspicion Marvelous (adj) Wonderful, excellent.
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, , , , , ,

THE WORLD AS I SEE IT


(Albert Einstein)
Q.No.1: What leads Einstein to feel a strong sense of duty towards his fellow men?

Ans:

The influence, which the fellow human beings, living and dead, have upon each other, leads Einstein to feel a strong sense of duty towards his fellow men. He says that human beings inner and outer life largely depends on the hard work of other men. One ought to be grateful to those who have contributed to ones welfare.
What is his attitude to property, outward success and luxury?

Q.No.2:

Ans:

Albert Einstein, as a matter of fact, dislikes property, outward success and luxury as the objectives of life. In his opinion, people who look upon ease and happiness as ends in themselves debase humanity. The ideals, which inspire Einstein are Beauty, Truth, Sympathy and Goodness.
What are the insecure foundations referred to at the end of the last sentence of the fourth paragraph?

Q.No.3:

Ans:

According to Albert Einstein, limitations of love merely for ones country, home, friends and family members are considered as insincere foundations of society. The author has a broader outlook of life and believes in love for all his fellow creatures. He believes in social justice and responsibility.
What, in brief, is Einsteins attitude to leadership?

Q.No.4:

Ans:

Albert Einstein believes in healthy and rational leadership. He advocates that people should be given free hand to choose their leaders. He says that leadership should not be imposed upon people by force because the force attracts only men of low quality.
On what grounds does Einstein put the individual before the state?

Q.No.5:

Ans:

Albert Einstein maintains that the most valuable thing in the pageant of human life is not the state but the creative individual who can create the noble and sublime. The herd of swine has always remained dull in thought and dull in feeling.
What example does he give of service by the state to the individual?

Q.No.6:

Ans:

Albert Einstein highly praises the state where political system makes extensive provisions for social security where an individual is looked after properly in case of sickness etc. and is provided appropriate relief in case of need. This is really the great service, which a state can render to an individual.
What is his attitude to war?

Q.No.7:

Ans:
Q.No.8:

Albert Einstein hates and condemns war in its all forms and calls it a mean, abominable and contemptible business.
What forces does he blame for the persistence of war?

Ans:

Albert Einstein says that war should have ended long ago if the war21

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mongers had not corrupted the sound sense of nations by political and commercial interests.
Q.No.9: What does he appear to regard as the most precious element in human experience?

Ans:

According to Albert Einstein the fairest thing that a man can experience in life is the mysterious. The study of true art and science is the most precious element in human experience. Because, art and science are the result of mans desire and efforts to explore the mysteries of Nature. And it is this experience, which, if mixed with fear, engenders.
What is his belief concerning the immortality of the soul?

Q.No.10:

Ans:

As a matter of fact, Albert Einstein is basically a religious fellow. In this regard he says that he cannot conceive of a God who only rewards and punishes his creatures. He does not believe in life after death because he does not believe in the immortality of soul.

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READING TEXT SIX

THE WORLD AS I SEE IT

Summary
The world as I see it is an interesting and much more thoughtful essay by Albert Einstein. In this essay he has discussed his ideas about the purpose and ideals of life; democracy and dictatorship; war and peace; mystery and religion. Discussing his ideas about the temporary stay of humanity in this world he utters that the human beings are here for a short period of time. He advocates the idea: This life, which seems so fair, is like a bubble blown up in the air. Life is not purposeless in any sense. As far as the practical life is concerned we exist for our fellowmen. Einstein says that a human being thinks that his fellowmen work very hard in order to make his life comfortable. So, he must repay them in the same measure. He is against class differences, which he thinks, are contrary to justice and are based on force and compulsion. He believes in simple living. He is of firm opinion that man is not completely free in this world. He acts under external compulsion and the pressure of inner urges. He believes in the philosophy of Shopenhauer, a famous German philosopher, who says that man, is not the master of his will. According to Einstein comfort and ease are not good ideals, instead his life has always been inspired by the ideals of Truth, Goodness, Beauty. He thinks that property; outward success and luxury are the ordinary objects of life. Further, giving his philosophy of life he tells that he loves solitude because he thinks that a man can form his opinion, habits and judgments without being influenced by any person, if he is alone. Einstein, according to his theory of politics, is a firm believer in democracy. He considers it to be the best form of government. He is against hero worship. He attributes the causes of failures of democracy in Europe to the weak and incapable rulers. He is highly inspired from the presidential form of government prevailing in America where a
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president is elected for a long period and enjoys sufficient powers. Therefore, he acts in a responsible manner. Criticizing the abominable thing war he utters that war seems to be a mean and most contemptible thing. He would rather die then take part in such a wrong business. Wars breakout because the sound sense of nations has been corrupted by political and commercial interests. According to Einstein the religion has its basis in mystery. Man has always tired to know the unknown. The passion to know the unknown things results in a religious attitude.

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READING TEXT SEVEN

THE DEVOTED FRIEND


By: Oscar Wilde

Stock Gillyflower: Gillyflower is the common name applied to a number of aromatic plants, including this flowering variety of the mustard family that is commonly called stock. Stock is native to Eurasia, South Africa. Shepherds Purse: Shepherds Purse, common name for a plant in the mustard family. Native to Europe, the plant is now a common annual weed in North America. It grows up to 60 cm (24 in) high. The leaves form a rosette cluster, the small white flowers bloom early in the spring, and the shape of the fruits gives it its name. Sweet William Sweet William, perennial of the pink family, native to Europe and Asia. Long a garden plant, sweet william now grows wild in parts of the eastern United States. Sturdy stems, 30 to 61 cm (1 to 2 ft) in height, bear broad, pointed leaves and close, rounded heads of flat, fringed flowers in red, purple, rose, or white. Many horticultural varieties of sweet william are usually treated as biennials, including single- and double-flowered forms. In the middle western states, the name wild sweet william is applied to a native phlox. Crocuses Crocuses are low-growing flowers related to irises. They get their name from the Latin word for saffron. Cultivated worldwide, the flowers are native to Asia and southern Europe, where the dried stigma is still exported as saffron, a brilliant yellow spice and, less often, the base of an equally colorful dye. Crocuses grow in a wide variety of colors, including purple, blue, yellow, and white. Pictured is Crocus etruscus. Columbine Grown for its purple, white, or yellow flowers, the columbine prefers sunny locations in well-drained soils. The hardy perennial is colorful when not in bloom, as well; in autumn, its leaves turn rich colors. Lady-smock, (Cuckooflower): Lady-smock, (Cuckooflower) common name for a perennial herb, a member of the mustard family, native to northern Europe and North America. Also called lady's-smock or meadow cress, the cuckooflower is found in bogs and wet places and grows to 46 cm (18 in) in height. Its lower leaves have small, rounded leaflets, and the upper ones have linear leaflets. The spring-23

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blooming white or rose-colored flowers occur in small terminal clusters, usually with four petals but sometimes doubled. Sweet Marjoram Sweet marjoram is an herb of the mint family known for its aromatic fragrance. Native to Europe and Asia, marjoram has been popular in cooking and as a medicinal aid for thousands of years. Its flowers and leaves, either fresh or dried and ground, add flavor to meats and stews. A highly decorative plant that grows small, white flowers, sweet marjoram is also favored by herb gardeners for its aesthetic qualities. Basil The sweet leaves of the basil plant, Ocimum basilicum, flavor and scent the food of many cultures. Basil is easily grown both indoors and out and retains its flavor when dried.
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READING TEXT SEVEN

THE DEVOTED FRIEND Critical Summary


One morning an old water-rat put his head out of his hole. He saw the little ducks swimming in the pond with their mother. He told the duck that the friendship was a higher relation than any other. A green linnet who was sitting on a willowtree nearby, asked him to explain the conception of devoted friend. The water-rat could not explain his point of view. Then the green linnet told a story on the subject of true friendship. This lesson- able story as told by the linnet runs, briefly, thus: Once upon a time there was a Miller named Hugh. He had a devoted friend, named Hans. His profession was gardening. He was a simple fellow and was always ready to help others. Hugh used to take many flowers from Hans garden free of cost everyday. Hans never objected his taking the flowers from his garden. He took pride in the Millers friendship. Little Hans led a very happy life during the spring the summer and autumn but winter was very hard and troublesome for Hans. During winter, Hans used to face a great deal of trouble, as there were no flowers in his garden in winter. But the Miller avoided Hans, lest he should ask him for some flour on credit. He even never paid any single visit to Hans during his difficult times. This shows that the Miller was a very selfish man and simply befooled poor Hans. Once it so happened that the Miller went to see Hans after the winter season. Hans was very much pleased to see the Miller. The Miller enquired after Hans health. Hans told him that he had a very hard time during the winter season, and that he had to sell his silver buttons, silver chain and the wheel-barrow. Now he hoped to buy them back after selling the flowers. Taking no serious interest in Hans problems the Miller asked Hans for a basket full of flowers. But this time Hans felt sorry for that and refused. The Miller promised to give him his wheel-barrow, which was out of order, as a gift. At this, Hans felt much pleased. Hans told him that he had a plank with which he would be able to repair the wheel barrow. Hearing this, the Miller decided to take advantage of the situation. He said that there was a big hole in the roof of his barn, and that he was in need of a plank to mend it. He requested Hans to have it to him. Hans agreed to give him the plank. Later on, the Miller used Hans as a porter and made him carry a sack of flour to the market. The pressure of his promised kindness regarding the wheel barrow compelled Hans to obey him silently.
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At last, one night the Miller came to Hans and told him that his son had fallen from a ladder. He therefore wanted him to go out to call the doctor. It was a stormy night, and it rained heavily. Hans asked the Miller to give him his lantern to show him the way. But once again showing his mean selfish nature he refused. So when Hans went to call the doctor it was pitch dark. He reached the Doctors house and asked him to rush to the house of the Miller to help his son. But while coming back, Hans slipped in a pool of water and was drowned. His dead body was taken out of the pool in the morning. The moral of this story is that it is simply inhuman to be selfish and exploit friends. To look after only ones own interests at the cost of others is very cruel.
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READING TEXT SEVEN

THE DEVOTED FRIEND Questions & Answers


Q.1: Briefly explain why the story of Hans and the Miller was applicable to the rat.

Ans. The story of Hans and Miller was applicable to the rat because, just like the Miller, the rat too believed in the exploitation of friendship to its own advantage. Both, the Miller and the rat, had no regard for moral values. Actually they were selfish, mean and cunning.
Q.2: When do we suspect that the Miller was not really a very good friend to Hans?

Ans. We suspect the Miller to be insincere to Hans when we hear him telling his wife that there was no good in going to see Hans as long as the snow lasted. He argued that people should not be bothered by visitors when they are in trouble and misery.

Q.3: How did the Miller justify his not asking Hans to share some of his good things during the winter?

Ans. Actually the Miller was of the view that if Hans came to his house and saw their warm fire and grand supper during the winter, he would become envious, and it would spoil his nature. As Hans was his best friend, he would not like to see that his nature was spoiled.
Q.4:

How did the Miller's wife reveal that she too was ready to exploit the generosity of Hans?

Ans. As soon as the winter season was over and the primroses began to bloom, the Miller prepared to go and see Hans. The Miller's wife praised her husband for possessing such a good heart, and asked him to take a big basket with him for taking the flowers. This shows that she too was ready to exploit the generosity of poor Hans.
Q.5: How did the Miller persuade Hans to carry the large sack of flour to the market?

Ans. Once, Hans was busy in his garden when the winter season was over. He was nailing up the creepers and watering the flowers. The Miller came to him and asked him to carry the sack of flour for him to the market. Hans regretted, but the Miller reminded him of the favour about his wheelbarrow; and so, poor Hans had to accede to his request.
Q.6: How did the Miller justify his rebuke to Hans for staying in bed a little later than usual, after his tiring expedition to the market?

Ans. After his tiring expedition to the market, Hans felt very tired and exhausted. So he went to bed. Early in the morning the Miller came to his house to collect his money, but he found Hans still in bed. He scolded Hans for being lazy and sluggish, and justified his rebuke by expressing that idleness is a great sin, and that he did not like that any of his friends should fall a victim to this evil.
Q.7: Why was Hans unable to look after his garden?

Ans. Hans was unable to look after his garden because Miller went on sending Hans on long errands, or working for him at his mill.
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English Noter for FSC-II Sindh Board Q.8: What was the supreme manifestation of the Miller's selfishness which caused Hans to lose his life?

Ans. One dark night the Miller prevailed upon Hans to go to the town and call in the doctor to cure his wounded son. As it was a stormy night Hans asked the Miller to lend him his lantern to find his way through, but he refused to do so, saying that if anything happened to his new lantern, it would be a great loss to him. Still Hans went on this errand, and thus lost his life. This incident shows the supreme selfishness of the Miller.
Q.9: Comment briefly on the Miller's claim to have been Han's best friend.

Ans. The Miller was out and out a selfish and mean fellow. His claim to have been Hans best friend was motivated purely by his selfishness. On this pretext, he walked at the head of Han's funeral procession and shed crocodile tears. He had offered Hans his good-for-nothing wheelbarrow while he was alive, but now he did not know what to do with it.
Q.10: What is the effect of the Miller's disclosure that the wheelbarrow was totally worthless?

Ans: The Millers disclosure that the wheelbarrow which he had promised to give to Hans, was totally worthless, reflects upon his mean and selfish nature. ********************
READING TEXT SEVEN

THE DEVOTED FRIEND


By: Oscar Wilde
Word Meaning Sindhi Meaning

Water-rat (n) Beady (adj) Stiff (adj) Whisker(n)

An animal like a rat that swims and lives in hole besides a river or lake Small; round and bright Firm and difficult to bend Any of the long stiff hair that grow

near the mouth of rat or cat. Canary (n) A small yellow singing bird. Linnet (n) A small brown and gray bird of the finch family. Willow- tree (n) A tree with long thin branches. Nosegay (n) A small bunch of flowers. Milch-cow (n) Cow, giving milk. Pear (n) A yellow or green fruit that is narrow at the top and wide at the bottom. Cask (n) A small wooden barrel used for storing liquids especially alcoholic drinks. Scarlet (adj) Bright red in colour. Wheel-barrow (n) A large open container with a wheel and two handles that you use out side to carry things; small one-wheeled vehicle for small loads. Burgomaster (n) Mayor. Plank (n) A long narrow flat piece of wood ) ( that is used for making floors; Long thick narrow board Drag (v) Pull sth along with effort. Nail up (ph.v) To fasten sth to a wall with , a nail or nails. Honey suckle(n) A climbing plant with white, yellow or pink flowers with sweet smell. Creeper (n) Clinging plant that grows by means of suckers or roots that anchor it to a surface. 26

Trudge-off (ph.v) To walk, or walk a particular path or distance with a slow heave weary steps. Pooh (intj) Used to express disdain or dismissal. )(

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READING TEXT EIGHT

SPACE SHIP ONE


Summary
This fantasy, Space- Ship One was written in 1946 by John Hampden. It is the story of imaginary flight to the moon. As we see, Professor Witney is a great scientist. He has invented a space ship, which he is taking to the moon. His aim is to reach the moon, and then, after making it a base, to voyage through the solar system and reach Mars and Venus. Professor Witney is accompanied by an engineer, William Leigh, and a young pilot, Harry. The latter is in love with the Professors daughter, Katherine, and hopes to marry her on his return from the space travel. In the beginning, they have very high speed but later on, as they reach near the moon, the speed is brought down. All preparations for landing on the moon are complete. Witney feels worried because he has not been able to contact Katherine on the television for a long time. He has dreamt that England has been attacked and London, occupied, by the enemy. In the morning Professor Witney tries to contact his wife and daughter on the television but without success. In the dream he has also felt that his wife and daughter crying for help. As he is relating his dream, his voice breaks down, which shows his grief. However, he soon controls himself. Just then there is a call from below. It is Katherine, speaking. She tells her father that England has actually been attacked and there are parachutists landing in England. All the members of the family except her have been killed. She is safe and has taken refuge in the crows nest. She suggests her father that as England was sure to be ruined, he should not return to England but, instead, he should land in America or Canada, if he wanted to save himself. Professor Witney fears that the enemy would torture Katherine to get from her the secrets of atomic energy. He, therefore, advises her to put an end to her life to save these secrets. So, Katherine actually commits suicide, and when the enemy soldiers reach they find her dead. Through, Professor Witney lands on the moon, but this is a very tragic landing. In this romance John Hampden shows the helplessness of humanity despite its development and progress in science. Though Witney is going to be the first man on the moon due to his research in science yet he is not able to stop the decision of the nature which results in the death of his daughter.

Questions & Answers


Q.1: Q.2: Why is the space ship traveling at only seventy miles an hour when Harry wakes up? When has the space ship been to the moon before and with what passengers?

Ans. The space ship is traveling at only seventy miles an hour when Harry wakes up because it has reached near the moon, which is its landing station. Ans. The space ship has been to the moon one month before this journey when it had gone on an exploratory journey. The passengers on board were Professor Witney, Engineer William and three sheep.
Q.3: What is the relationship between Harry and Professor Witney?

Ans. Harry is engaged to Katherine, the daughter of professor Witney and expects to marry her just after the return of flight from the space. So professor Witney is the would be fatherin-law of Harry.
Q.4:

Ans. Professor Witney named his second air ship as Noahs Arch because he inteded to escape in it from this earth, which according to his forecast was going to be plunged into nuclear war. As Prophet Noah escaped the destruction like wise professor expected to escape from the said destruction of war.
Q.5: What was the nature of the dream that Professor Witney had during the night before landing on the moon?

What was the significance of professor Witneys chalking NOAHS ARK on the second space ship?

Ans. The fear that afflicted Professor Witney during the night before the landing on the moon was that he had a terrible dream in which he dreamt that England had been attacked by nuclear weapons. He feared that his dream might not come true.
Q.6: What is Professor Witneys attitude to the new type of society in which scientific and technical progress is the only thing that seems to matter? How has England come to be defenseless?

Ans. Professor Witney appreciates the new type of society but he was afraid of the miss use of science by man which might bring about destruction in the world.
Q.7:

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Ans. The scientific progress which England had made, made her defenseless because she did not have the required counter attack in spite of that development.
Q.8: Q.9: What disaster has befallen England during the night? How did Katherine survive the poison gas attack?

Ans. During the night England has been attacked by nuclear missiles and London has been taken intact by the enemy troops. Ans. Katherine has survived the poison gas attack by going upwards to top of the building which is called Crows nest.
Q.10: Why does her father instruct her to kill herself?

Ans. Katherines father instructs her to kill herself by inhaling certain fluid that was kept in his laboratory so that she should not be caught by the enemy. Witney was afraid that if the enemy got hold of her, and knew her to be his daughter, they would torture her to death to find out his research secrets. So he prepared her for killing herself. ************************
READING TEXT EIGHT

SPACE SHIP ONE


By: John Hampden
Word Meaning Sindhi Meaning

Semi Circular (adj) Rear (adj) Amber(n) Ellipse(n) Encrusted (adj) Suffuse(v) Rim (n). Tilt (v). Proceed (v). Stanchion (n). Hodded (adj). Binocular (n) Con (v) Incorporate (v). Navigate (v). Navigator (n). Jerk (n). Snap (v) Flicker (v). Bunk (n). Aerated (adj). Flannel (n). Ingenuous (adj). Roll over (ph.v). Yawn (v). Wry (adj). Wryly (adv). Grid (n). Stiffen (v). Peer (v). Amiss (adj). Sluice (n). Propellant (n). Recurrent (adj). Queer (adj).

Half circled. At or near the back of sth. , A yellow-brown color. A regular oval shape. Covered with a thin hard layer of Sth. (Esp of color, light or feeling). To spread allover or through sb/ sth. The edge of smt that is circular. % Come into a sloping position. Continue to do sth; Go. A vertical pole used to support sth. (Of eyes) having large eyelids. Instrument with lenses for both eyes making distant object seen nearer. To fly an aeroplane in a straight direction. Include (in). Direct the course of (ship or air craft). One who navigates a ship. Sudden sharp pull. To move sth into particular position quickly especially with a sudden sharp noise. Burn or shine unsteadily; Flutter. Sleeping berth fixed on wall (Usu in ship). Full of air; Having air. Soft woolen material. Frank. , To turn over to face a different direction. Open the mouth sleepily. Showing that you are both amused and annoyed. Twistly (of mouth). A pattern of squares on a map that are marked with letters. Make or become stiff. , Look (in to/at sth) closely or intently. Wrong; not as it should be. , A sliding gate or other device for controlling the flow of water. ,

A thing that drive sth. That happens again and again. Strange or unusual.

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Co incidence (n).

The fact of two things happening at the same time by chance; chance happening at the same time. Shudder (v). To shake because of cold, fear or strong feeling. Nightmare (n). Horrible dream. Comb (n). Instrument with teeth for setting hair. Damp (adj). Slightly wet in an unpleasant way. , Strained (adj). Tens; not relax or friendly. Conviction (n). Having surety. Wonderment (n). A feeling of pleasant surprise. Phew (intj) (exclamation). A sound that people make when soothing bad finish; expression of disgust. Tootle (v). To walk or drive without hurrying. Oscillate (v). To keep moving from one position to other. Exultant (n). Feeling or showing great pride or happiness. Prodigious (adj). Enormous. Rill (n). Small brook. Hymn (n). Song of praised to God. Nip (n). Sensation of cold. Punt(n) small flat bottomed boat Canoe(n) light boat moved by one or more paddles Nasty(adj) Offensive; spiteful. , Crater (n). Hole in ground. , Canister (n). Small metal box. Intact (adj). Unimpaired. Muddle through (ph-v). To achieve ones aims despite difficulties. Hysterically (adv). Tumbler (n). Thud (n). Guttural (adj). Grating (adj). Emotionally. A drinking glass. A dull sound. Sounded in the throat. Irritating or annoying. ************************

READING TEXT NINE

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AN ASTRONOMERS VIEW OF THE UNIVERSE Summary This interesting and splendid piece has been extracted from Sir James Jeans The Mysterious Universe According to the writer, our earth came into being as the result of an accident. There are countless stars in the universe. They are more in number than all the grains of sand on all the seashores of the world. A majority of these stars are so big that millions of earths can be packed up in each of them. This shows the smallness of our earth. These stars are wandering about in space. They are so away from one another that there is no possibility of any two stars coming near to our earth or to one another. James Jeans thinks that about two thousands million years ago, a star wandering blindly through space came near the sun. This star raised huge tides on the surface of the sun, and ultimately, these tides broke into pieces before the big star would move back. These small fragments, which fell off, are called planets. They have been circulating round the sun since then. Our earth is one of these planets. This is how the earth came into being. It was very hot in the beginning but, gradually, it cooled down. In due course of time one of these fragments, that is, the earth, gave birth to life. It started in simple organisms. At this stage, life consisted only of reproduction and death. This was a simple beginning of life. It developed into a greater complexity, till; at last, human beings were born. Soon they developed emotions and ambition. The author thinks that the universe was not designed primarily to produce life like our own because our earth, and the life on it, is so insignificant that the creation of life does not seem to be the purpose of the universe. Life seems to be only a by-product. The material constituents of life too are quite ordinary chemical atoms. These atoms must have existed in the newly born earth. But the origin of life is still a riddle, and our scientists are quite unable to solve it.
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READING TEXT NINE

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AN ASTRONOMERS VIEW OF THE UNIVERSE Questions & Answers


Q.1: Why is it improbable that one particular star will ever come close to another?

Ans. The stars travel in complete isolation and no star comes within the hailing distance of the other. Ordinarily, the distance between two stars is well over a million miles from each other. So it is not probable that one particular star may ever come close to another.
Q.2: What is James Jeans explanation of how the planets came to be formed from the sun?

Ans. Sir James Jeans is of the view that the earth came into existence some two thousand million years ago, as a result of some stellar encounter. It so happened that a huge star came within the hailing distance of the sun, and created huge tides on its surface. This huge tide formed itself into a mountain. When this star receded, its powerful tidal pull tore off the mountain, and its small pieces fell off into space. These small fragments are called planets, and our earth is one of them.
Q.3: How does a planet, such as the earth derive its warmth?

Ans. In the beginning, the ejected fragments of the sun, as our earth were very hot. Gradually, they cooled down and were left with little heat of their own. Now they derive heat only from the radiation, which the sun pours down upon them.
Q.4: Q.5: What does Jeans imagine the first forms of life on earth to have been like?

Ans. Sir James Jeans is of the opinion that life on earth started in simple organisms, whose vital capacities were little beyond reproduction and death. Ans. If we closely study an astronomers picture of the universe, we find vast meaningless distances in the universe, and long vistas of time, which dwarf human history to a very insignificant period. The extreme loneliness of the inhabitants of our earth, and material insignificance of our earth in space make us feel that humanity is insignificant.
Q.6:

Why are the first impressions of an astronomers picture of the universe likely to make us feel that humanity is insignificant?

How does James Jeans justify his assertion that the universe appears to be actively hostile to life like our own?

Ans. Life needs suitable physical conditions where substances exist in liquid form. The stars are so hot that life is not possible there. But outside that zone it is so cold that life would be frozen to death. On these grounds James Jeans feels that the universe is hostile to life like our own, as we find no planet like our earth in the universe.
Q.7:

Why does a planetary system seem to be the only kind of environment on which life could originate?

Ans. The most important physical condition for life is the temperature, at which substances can exist in the liquid form. The stars themselves are so hot that all solids melt there, and all liquids boil. Away from this zone, there is unimaginable cold. So life can originate only on planets like the earth, where its intrinsic heat has cooled down to a moderate temperature.
Q.8: What is the temperature of the most of space?

Ans. Away from the stars, there is unimaginable cold of hundreds of degrees of frost. Close up to stars, there is a temperature of thousands of degrees at which all solids melt and all liquids boil.
Q.9:

Why does it seem incredible to Jeans that the universe was designed primarily to produce life like our own?

Ans. Sir James Jeans thinks that the littleness of our home in space and long vistas of time dwarf human history to an insignificant period. The extreme loneliness of our earth, and rarity of life out side the earth make us feel that the universe was not designed primarily to produce life like our own, and that life is simply accidental.
Q.10: Why is the origin of life still a riddle to the scientists?

Ans. The existing view of scientists about the origin of earth is a mere speculation. It is assumed that when the ejected fragment (ie our earth) cooled down, a group of atoms happened to arrange themselves in the way in which they are arranged in a living cell. But no one has ever solved the riddle how the arrangement of dead atoms could become a living cell. It is also yet to be ascertained whether it is merely atoms, or atoms plus life, that make a living being. So the origin of life is still a riddle to our scientists.

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LIFE IN THE UNIVERSE Summary


This interesting and impressive essay was written by John Alfred valentine Butler F.R.S., D.Sc, who was born in 1899. The writer refutes the views of modern astronomers about life and the universe. According to him, life is not a rare thing on our earth, nor it is an unimportant bye-product, as James Jeans had said. Recent scientific theories hold that the earth was not born due to tidal waves produced on the surface of the sun by a star. Instead, they hold that planets came into being due to the explosion of certain stars. And this phenomena is not as rare as James thought it to be. Moreover, as proved by scientific researches, our earth is not a rare exception or some unique thing in the universe. Many elements that are found on our earth, are found on other planets and stars as well. Therefore, this is quite reasonable to believe that there is some sort of life in other planets as well. However, the creatures of other worlds may differ from human beings of this world in thinking power, social organization or in the structure of their bodies. Butler does not agree with the view that the earth and human life are of no significance in the universe. He asks scientists to use the objects of the universe through telescope. If they do so they will come to know that life on earth is very interesting in its complexity. Although the living beings are of various forms, yet they have the same chemical composition. Various substances undergo various changes, and form various chemical compounds. But their elements remain the same. Today, scientists have come to know how different compounds can be formed from the same elements. The achievements of scientists are impressive, no doubt, but it cannot be said that man will be able to combine all necessary elements to create life in a test tube at any stage. Butler thinks that unhealthy scientific researches have lowered the dignity of man. Galileo was the first man to lessen the importance of man on earth, in the scheme of the universe. Darwins theories positively degraded man to the rank of beasts. In the modern world the concept of life has become quite mechanical. The result is that the value of man has come down to the value of a machine, or even less than that. It is, however, encouraging to note that some scientists of our age like Butler have given up this mechanical attitude towards life. They have been deeply impressed by the complexity and variety of the living organism. Therefore, the day is not far when they will be convinced that the rich variety of life on earth is not less attractive than the vast empty spaces of the universe.
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LIFE IN THE UNIVERSE Questions & Answers


Q.1: What new theory concerning the origin of the planets does Professor Butler present?

Ans. Butler believes that planets were caused not by an encounter of a huge star with the sun,
but by the explosion of some star that was near the sun. The explosion threw off some pieces of matter that formed the earth and the planets.
Q.2: What in brief, are the views on the probability of life existing in the world, other than our own?

Ans. Butler does not accept the theory about the origin of life put forward by James Jeans. He

asserts that the essentials of life exist on other planets too. The conditions that produced life on the earth can also produce life anywhere else under similar circumstances. He does not agree with the view that life is an accidental combination of chemical atoms at a moderate temperature.
What facts had to be understood for Chemistry to become a science?

Q.3:

Ans. Chemistry emerged as a science when it was understood that all substances are
combinations of the same primary elements, which are, to all intents and purposes, indescribable.
Q.4: Who was responsible for the atomic theory of Chemistry?

Ans. Dalton was the first scientist who gave the world the atomic theory. But it was Lavisher
Q.5:

who established the first stage of Chemistry. He was guided by the atomic theory of Dalton. He explained the facts of chemical combination in simple compounds.
What was the original distinction between organic and inorganic substances? Does this distinction hold well in modern sciences as well?

Ans. The substances, which come from living things, were originally called organic

compounds, and were thought to be entirely different from the inorganic these were. Alcohol; Oils, Fats, Sugar, Waxes, Rosins, Rubber, Cellulose, Starch. But this distinction no longer holds good in modern science, because a German chemist. Who succeeded in preparing urea, which had previously been regarded as a typical product of life.
How does Butler justify his belief in the importance of scientific research into the nature of living cells?

Q.6:

Ans. Butler feels that the exploration of living things has revealed an extraordinary
complexity. This scientific approach has brought a revolution in the assessment of life and its significance. Further research in this field may, again, make men feel that they are not out of keeping with the splendour of their setting.

Q.7:

How according to Butler was science responsible for fostering the popular belief that man is insignificant?

Ans. Butler believes that science was responsible for fostering the popular belief that man is

insignificant. Galleos discovery dislodged man from his high position in the universe. Darwin pulled him further down. Butler discards all these mechanical ideas and says that mans importance lies not in his size or shape but in his intelligence.
Why does Butler think that calculating machines ought not be called mechanical brains?

Q.8:

Ans. Butler feels that it is a gross libel on real brains to regard the calculating machines as
brains. The so-called mechanical brains can only perform limited functions. The varied function of real brains is quite beyond our understanding. They are not tedious, repetitive or time consuming.

Q.9:

Why did the scientists of the nineteenth century tend to find simplicity in the universe?

Ans. The nineteenth century scientists were concerned mainly with the elemental forces. So
they mainly found simplicity in the universe, whereas complexity is the gift of he 20th century.
Q.10: Why, according to Butler, is modern science likely to re-store mans faith in his own important?

Ans. The main emphasis of sciences is now changing from the study of the elementary forces

and simple particles to the complexities of living textures. This is like to restore mans faith in his own importance in the universe. **************************
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