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OSNOVE NELINEARNIH ELEMENTOV

Četveropoli: y = g + jb z = r + jx I = y U
Četveropoli:
y
=
g
+
jb
z
=
r
+
jx
I
= y
U
y
U
= I
z
+
z
I
= h
I
h
U
mn
mn
mn
mn
mn
1
1 +
2 U
mn
11
12
1
11
1
12
2
U 1
1 +
11
12
2
h
=
Re[
h
] +
j
Im[
h
] I
= y
U
y
U
= +
z
I
z
I
I
= h
h
U
2
1 +
2 U
mn
mn
mn
2
21
1
22
2
2
1 +
21 I
22
2
21
22

Polprevodnik:

 
 

E

E

V

V

n

=

N

C

e

E

E

kT

C

F

=

n e

i

F

qU

T

Fi

E

E

=

n e

i

Fi

U

T

V

V

F

J

n

= µ

q

n

nE

+

qD

n

dn

∂ n n − n 1 ∂ j 0 n =− + dx ∂ t
n
n
n
1 ∂ j
0
n
=−
+
dx
t
τ
q
x
n
 

(

ρ= q p n + N N

D

A

)

L = D τ

L = Dτ

 

E

F

E

V

Fi

F

U

F

T

Fi

J

= µ

q

p

pE

qD

dp

 

1

j

d

2

V

 

dE

 

D

=

kT

= U

 

=

N

e

kT

=

n e

qU

T

=

n e

p

p

 

p

p

=−

p

0

p

 

ρ

p

V

i

i

dx

t

τ

p

q

x

dx

2

=

dx

=

ε

µ

q

T

 

pn dioda:

   

Malosignalni model pn diode:

I

=

AJ

=

Aq

⎜ ⎜

D p

p

L

p

n

0

+

D n

n

L

n

p

0

⎞⎛

⎟⎜ ⎟⎜ ⎠⎝

e

U

U

T

−⎟=

1

Aqn

2

i

D

p

L N

p

D

+

D

n

L N

n

A

⎞⎛

⎟⎜ ⎟⎜ ⎠⎝

e

U

U

T

−⎟= 1 ⎟ ⎜ ⎜

I

S

e

U

U

T

−⎟ 1

C T

=

ε

A

D

 

U

D

=

V

Fin

V

U

ln

p

p

0

U

ln

n

n 0

 

U

U

U

ln

p

p

0

n

n0

 

Fip

=

T

p

n

0

=

T

n

p

0

 

=

Fp

+

Fn

=

T

 

n

2

i

N

A

N

D

:

U

ln

N N

A

D

=

U

+

U

=

q

(

N x

2

+

N

2

x

)

 
I I y = = 1 + ωτ j p U U
I
I
y
=
=
1 + ωτ
j
p
U
U

=

g

+

jb

T

n

2

i

p

n

2

ε

A

p

D

n

   

T

x

n

2 ε N A ( U + U D R q N ( N +
2
ε
N A (
U
+ U
D
R
q
N
(
N
+ )
N
D
A
D

= )

 

g

I = NF U T
I
=
NF
U
T
 

C

d

g τ p NF = NF 2
g
τ
p
NF
=
NF
2
 

=

2 ε⎛ 1 1 ⎞ + ( U + U ) ⎜ ⎟ D R
2
ε⎛
1
1
+
(
U
+
U
)
D
R
q
N
N
A
D
 
 

D

=

x

+

x

 

x

p

2 ε N ( U + U D D R q N ( N +
2
ε
N
(
U
+ U
D
D
R
q
N
(
N
+ )
N
A
A
D

= )

 

p

n

g

ωτ p = g VF NF 2
ωτ
p
= g
VF
NF
2
 

C

d

g VF = VF ω
g
VF
=
VF
ω
 

Ebers-Mollov model bipolarnega tranzistorja (pnp):

I

E

= I α I

F

R

R

I

F

=

I

ES

e

U

EB

U

T

−⎟ ⎟

1

I

E

=

I

E

0

⎜ ⎜ ⎝

e

U

EB

T

U

1 ⎟ ⎟−

α I

R

C

   

Malosignalni model bipolarnega tranzistorja:

g

m

=α g =

0

e

I

C

U

T

g

e

=

I

E

U

T

r

be

=

β

g

m

I

C

=−α I + I

F

F

R

 

I

=

I

CS

e

U

CB

U

T

−⎟ ⎟

1

 

I

C

=−

α IIe + ⎜ ⎜

F

E

C 0

U

U

CB

T

−⎟

1

 

A

 
I C I E
I
C
I
E
 

α

0

α

0

f

)

   

R

   

⎟ ⎠

i

U

CB

=

0

=−

   

=

1

=

+ j 1 +

ω

j f

=

α

(

I

E

0

= I

ES

(

1

αα

F

R

)

I

C

0

= I

CS

(

1

αα

F

R

)

α I =α I

F

ES

R

CS

   

U

CB

=

0

ω

α

 

f

α

Spojni FET (n kanal):

   

MOS tranzistor (n kanal):

 
   

qN D

D

2

I

C W

0

µ

n

U

 

U

U

2

DS

U

 

I

DS

=

I

DSS

1

U

U

GS

P

2

U

P

U

=

U

D

8ε

= U U

D

I

=

=

L

C W

0

(

µ

n

GS

U

2

1

T

)

DS

U

GS

2

2

 

U

DSsat

= U U

GS

T

 
 

DSsat

GS

P

DS

2 L

 

T

U

T

Štirislojna dioda:

I =

MI

C

0

 

1 Mα

1

Mα

2

Fotodioda:

I

=− I ⎜ ⎜ ⎝

S

e

U

nU

T

−⎟+

1

⎠ ⎟

I

L

Tiristor:

I =

MI

1

C

0

M

+

α

1

M

α

2

M

I

G

α

2

 
 

I =−

I

 

α

F

+

I

C

0

+

I

L

Fototranzistor:

C

B

1

α

F

1

α

F

 

Tabela fizikalnih konstant Boltzmannova konstanta

absolutna vrednost naboja elektrona Planckova konstanta masa elektrona termična napetost intrinsična koncentracija (Si) dielektrična konstanta

k = 1.38×10 23 J/K q = 1.6×10 19 As h = 6.625×10 34 Ws 2 m = 9.11×10 31 kg U T = kT/q = 25.66 mV (T = 297.8 K = 24.8 o C) n i = 10 10 cm 3 (T = 297.8 K = 24.8 o C) ε 0 = 8.854 . 10 12 As/(Vm) = 8.854 . 10 14 As/(Vcm)

relativna dielektrična konstanta

Si

ε r (Si) = 11.7 12

ε 0 ε rSi = 10 12 As/(Vcm)

relativna dielektrična konstanta

SiO 2

ε r (SiO 2 ) = 3.85 4

NELINEARNI ELEMENTI

Polprevodnik v termičnem ravnovesju:

 
 

1

 

1

1

 

1

 
 

f

FD

   

E

E

E

 

1

(

E

) =

E − E F
E
E
F

1 + e

kT

 

f

MB

(

E

) =

e

kT

F

f

D

(

) =

E − E 1 D F 1 + e kT
E
E
1
D
F
1
+
e
kT

2

 

f

A

(

E

) =

E − E A F
E
E
A
F

1

+

2 e

kT

 

1

⎜ ⎝

1 +

x

⎟ ⎠

=

1 + 1 x
1
+
1 x
 

Polprevodnik izven termičnega ravnovesja:

n

=

G

R

+

1

j

n

p

G

R

1

j

p

 

Relaksacije:

ε

 
 

t

q

x

 

t

 

=

 

q

x

   

τ

R

=

σ

 

SRH generacije in rekombinacije:

σ

n

+

σ

 

E

E

 

E

E

E

E

E

E

f =

 

n

   

p

p

1

C

t

t

F i

 

 

t

V

 

Fi

t

 

(

 

)

 

n

=

 

N

e

kT

 

=

n e

 

kT

 

p

1

=

N

e

 

kT

 

=

n e

kT

 

σ

n

n

+

n

1

+

σ

p

(

p

+

p

1

)

 

1

C

i

 

V

 

i

 

G

R

=

G

R

=

G

R

 

=

 

n

i

2

pn

 

τ

=

1

τ

=

 

1

 

n

 

n

p

p

τ

p

0

(

n

+

n

1

)

+

τ

n

0

( p

+

p

1 )

p 0

 

σ

p

v

th

N

t

 

n 0

σ

n

v

th

N

t

 

Za

n n , p p

0

0

in

 

G

R

=

G

R

=

G

R

=

 

−∆

n

 

=−

n

 

n =∆p

:

n

n

 

p

p

τ

p

0

(

n

0

+

n

1

)(

n

0

+

p

0

)

+τ

n

0

(

p

0

+

p

1

)(

n

0

+

p

0

)

τ

Polprevodnik pri osvetlitvi:

 

E

ph

=

c

h λ

 

J

ph

 

=Φ

ph

E

p h

Φ

ph

(

x

)

=

Φ

ph

(0)

e

α

ph x

 

G =αΦ

L

ph

ph

 

Planarni npn tranzistor:

J

nE

=

qD n

n

B0

(0)

⎨⎜ ⎜

⎩ ⎪⎝

ln K

2 w

+

th

(

b

bw

)

U ⎡ BE ⎪ ⎧ b K U ⎨ ⎢ e T
U
BE
⎪ ⎧
b
K
U
e
T

⎞ ⎡

⎟⎢

⎠⎢⎣ ⎟

e

U

BE

U

T

−⎥− 1

⎥⎦

b

U ⎡ BC b K U ⎢ e T
U
BC
b
K
U
e
T

(

sh bw

)

⎢⎣

ln

K

U

BC

U

⎤⎫ ⎪

−⎥⎬ 1

⎥⎦⎪ ⎭

−⎥⎬ 1

b =

2 ⎛ ln K ⎞ 1 + 2 ⎜ ⎝ 2 w ⎠ ⎟ L
2
ln
K
1
+
2
⎜ ⎝
2 w
⎠ ⎟
L
n

N

A

(

0

)

 

J

nC

=

qD n

n

B0

(0)

(

sh bw

)

⎣⎢

−⎥−⎜ 1

⎦⎥

th

(

bw

)

2

w

⎟ ⎟ ⎠

K

⎢⎣

e

T

⎥⎦⎪ ⎭

K =

N

A

(

w

)

Gummel-Poonov model npn tranzistorja:

 
 

U

BE

U

BC

U

BE

U

BE

−⎟ 1

1

 
q ⎛ 4 q 1 2 ⎜ 1 + 1 +
q
4
q
1
2
1
+
1
+

 

BE

1

I

=

I

S

e

U

T

e

U

T

I

S

e

U

T

e

n

E

U

T

 

=

1

U

BC

U

 

E

q

B

U

BE

− ⎟+ ⎟

U

BC

β

F

⎝ ⎜

U

BC

−⎟+ 1 I ⎜ ⎜

1

 

U

BC

 

q

B

2

U ⎛ BE I S U ⎜ e T
U
BE
I
S
U
e
T

1

q

2

1

⎟ ⎟ ⎠

q

1

=

U ⎛ BC I S U ⎜ e T
U
BC
I
S
U
e
T

− U U A B
U
U
A
B

I

− =−

I

S

e

U

T

e

U

T

I

S

e

U

T

1

I

e

n

C

U

T

 

=

−⎟ ⎟

1

 

C

q

B

⎜ ⎜ ⎝

− ⎟+ ⎟

β

R

⎜ ⎜ ⎝

⎟+ ⎟

2

⎜ ⎜ ⎝

 

⎠ ⎟

q

2

I

KF

⎝ ⎜

−⎟+ ⎟

I

KR

⎝ ⎜

Sončna celica:

U

U

U

 

U

oc

 

U

T

ln

oc

mp

U

T

I = I

L

I

S

(

e

nU

T

)

1

Schottky-eva dioda:

I

s

=

AT

2

 

exp

⎜ ⎝

E

B

kT

⎟ ⎠

MOS struktura:

ε ox

U =U +

T

FB

2

Φ Φ

B

+

ox

Φ =−

ox

Q

s

+ Q

ss

=−

( σ σ + ) s ss ε x ox ox
(
σ σ
+
)
s
ss
ε
x
ox
ox

Q

s

 

C

ox

 
qN sub 2 D 2 ε S A 4 qε N Φ s sub B
qN
sub
2
D
2 ε
S
A
4
qε N
Φ
s
sub
B

U =U +Φ+Φ

G

FB

s

ox

U = U + Φ + Φ G FB s ox Φ ox =± qN sub
U = U + Φ + Φ G FB s ox Φ ox =± qN sub
U = U + Φ + Φ G FB s ox Φ ox =± qN sub

Φ

ox

qN

sub

x

ox

D

Φ

s

Hallova sonda (p-tip):

d

qp d

µ

p

U

H

=

R

H

wJ B

x

U H = R H wJ B x z = R H 1 I B x

z

=

R

H

1

I B

x

U H = R H wJ B x z = R H 1 I B x

z

=

K

B

I B

x

z

R

H

=

r

H

K

B

=

R

H

r

H

=

µ

H

Svetloba: Radiometrične veličine Fotometrične veličine Prostorski kot Sevanje: [W] P [lm] 2 Ω= A/ r
Svetloba:
Radiometrične veličine
Fotometrične veličine
Prostorski kot
Sevanje:
[W]
P
[lm]
2
Ω= A/ r
P ph
v
Občutljivost očesa:
λ =
)
dP
d
λ
P
(
λ = λ⋅
)
K
(
)
P
(
λ
)
Ω= 2π(1−cosθ)
λ (
P ph
ph
v
λ
p
Gostota sevanja vira:
= dP
dΩ
[Wsr]
I = dP
dΩ
[cd = lm sr]
I ph
ph
v
v
Gostota vpadnega sevanja:
= dP
dA
Wm
2
⎤ ⎦
= dP
dA
lx = lm
m
J v
J ph
ph
⎡ ⎣
v
⎣ ⎡
2
⎤ ⎦