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RAN IP RAN Description Issue 02 2008-07-30 Huawei Proprietary and Confidential Copyright © Huawei Technologies Co.,
RAN IP RAN Description Issue 02 2008-07-30 Huawei Proprietary and Confidential Copyright © Huawei Technologies Co.,

RAN

IP RAN Description

Issue

02

Date

2008-07-30

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Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd.

Address:

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Copyright © Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. 2008. All rights reserved.

No part of this document may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means without prior written consent of Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd.

Trademarks and Permissions

Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. provides customers with comprehensive technical support and service. For any assistance, pleasehttp://www.huawei.com Email: support@huawei.com Copyright © Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. 2008. All rights reserved. No part of this document may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means without prior written consent of Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. Trademarks and Permissions and other Huawei trademarks are trademar ks of Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All other trademarks and trade names mentioned in this document are the property of their respective holders. Notice The information in this document is subject to cha nge without notice. Every effort has been made in the preparation of this document to ensure accuracy of the contents, but all statements, information, and recommendations in this document do not constitute the warranty of any kind, express or implied. Huawei Proprietary and Confidential Copyright © Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd " id="pdf-obj-1-28" src="pdf-obj-1-28.jpg">

and other Huawei trademarks are trademarks of Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd.

All other trademarks and trade names mentioned in this document are the property of their respective holders.

Notice

The information in this document is subject to change without notice. Every effort has been made in the preparation of this document to ensure accuracy of the contents, but all statements, information, and recommendations in this document do not constitute the warranty of any kind, express or implied.

RAN IP RAN Description

Contents

Contents

  • 1 IP RAN Change History

1-1

  • 2 IP RAN Introduction

2-1

  • 3 IP RAN Principles

3-1

  • 3.1 IP RAN Application

Scenarios

3-1

  • 3.1.1 Iub

over

TDM

Network

3-1

  • 3.1.2 Iub over IP Network

3-2

  • 3.1.3 Iub over Hybrid IP Transport Network

3-3

  • 3.1.4 Iub over IP/ATM Network

3-4

  • 3.1.5 Iu/Iur over IP Network

3-5

  • 3.2 IP RAN Protocol Stacks

................................................................................................................................

3-5

  • 3.2.1 Protocol Stack of Iub (over IP)

3-5

  • 3.2.2 Protocol Stack of Hybrid Iub (over IP /TM)

3-10

  • 3.2.3 Protocol Stack of Iu-CS (over IP)

3-13

  • 3.2.4 Protocol Stack of Iu-PS (over IP)

3-14

  • 3.2.5 Protocol Stack of Iur (over IP)

3-15

  • 3.2.6 Protocols of Data Link Layer

3-16

  • 3.3 IP Addresses and Routes of IP RAN

...........................................................................................................

3-17

  • 3.3.1 Two Networking Types on the Iub/Iur/Iu-CS/Iu-PS Interfaces

3-17

  • 3.3.2 Route on the Iub/Iur/Iu-CS/Iu-PS Interface

.......................................................................................

3-19

  • 3.3.3 IP Addresses for SCTP Links and IP Paths Between RNC and NodeB

3-19

  • 3.4 IP RAN

QoS

3-20

  • 3.4.1 Admission Control and Congestion Control

3-21

  • 3.4.2 Differentiated Service

3-21

PQ and RL

  • 3.4.3 .........................................................................................................................................

3-21

  • 3.5 IP RAN VLAN

............................................................................................................................................

3-22

Ensuring Security

  • 3.5.1 ...............................................................................................................................

3-22

  • 3.5.2 Providing Priority Service

3-23

  • 3.6 IP

RAN

FP-Mux

3-24

  • 3.7 IP RAN Header Compression

3-25

ACFC

  • 3.7.1 .................................................................................................................................................

3-25

PFC

  • 3.7.2 ....................................................................................................................................................

3-25

IPHC

  • 3.7.3 ..................................................................................................................................................

3-25

Contents

RAN IP RAN Description

  • 3.8 IP RAN Redundancy

...................................................................................................................................

3-26

  • 3.8.1 Single-Homing Layer 3 Networking

 

3-26

  • 3.8.2 Dual-Homing Layer 3 Networking

3-26

  • 3.8.3 Advantages and Disadvantages of the Networking

3-27

  • 3.8.4 Configuration on the RNC Side

 

3-27

  • 3.8.5 Fault Detection

3-28

  • 3.9 IP RAN Load Sharing

.................................................................................................................................

3-28

  • 3.9.1 Load Sharing Layer 3 Networking .....................................................................................................

3-28

  • 3.9.2 Advantage and Disadvantage of the Networking

3-29

  • 3.9.3 Configuration on the RNC Side

 

3-29

  • 3.10 DHCP

IP

RAN

..........................................................................................................................................

3-29

  • 3.11 Transport Capabilities

IP

RAN

 

3-30

  • 3.11.1 RNC

IP

Transport

Capabilities

3-30

  • 3.11.2 BBU IP Transport Capabilities

.........................................................................................................

3-31

  • 3.11.3 Macro NodeB IP Transport Capabilities

3-32

  • 4 IP RAN Parameters

....................................................................................................................

4-1

  • 5 IP RAN Reference Documents

 

5-1

RAN IP RAN Description

1 IP RAN Change History

  • 1 IP RAN Change History

IP RAN Change History provides information on the changes between different document

  • v ersions.

Document and

Product Vers

ions

Document Version

RAN Version

RNC Version

NodeB Version

  • 02 (2008-07-30)

10.0

V200R010C01B061

V100R010C01B050

V200R010C01B041

  • 01 (2008-05-30)

10.0

V200R010C01B051

V100R010C01B049

V200R010C01B040

Draft (2008-03-20)

10.0

V200R010C01B050

V100R010C01B045

Ther e are two types of changes, which are defined as follows:

Feature change: refers to the change in the IP RAN feature of a specific product version.

Editorial change: refers to the change in information that was already included or the

addition of information that was not described in the previous ver sion.

02 (2008-07-30 )

This is the document for the second commercial release of RAN10.0.

C

ompared

wi

th 01 (2008-05-30) of RA N10.0, issue 02 (

2008-07-30) of RA N10.0

incorporates the changes described in the following table.

Change

Change Description

Parameter Change

Type

Feature

More information about NodeB Iub

None.

change

interface boards is added. For details,

see chapter 2 "IP RAN

Introduction", and section 3.1 "IP

RAN Application Scenarios".

1 IP RAN Change History

RAN IP RAN Description

01 (2008-05-30 )

Change Change Description Parameter Change Type The description of IP addresses for None. SCTP links and
Change
Change Description
Parameter Change
Type
The description of IP addresses for
None.
SCTP links and IP paths for NodeB
V200R010 is added to section 3.3 IP
Addresses and Routes of IP RAN.
None.
The parameters modified are listed as
fo llows:
Signalling link model is modified to
Signalling link mode.
IU trans bearer type is modified to
IU transfers bearer type.
Next hop IP address is modi fied to
Forward route address.
IP Address is modifi ed to NodeB
IP_TRANS IP address and NodeB
ATM_ TRANS IP address.
IP Head compress is modified to IP
Header Compress.
MCPPP is modified to Multi Cla ss
PPP.
Bear Type(ADD IUBC P) is modified
to NCP/CCP Bearing Type.
None.
The parameters added are
listed as
follows:
IUB trans bearer type
IP Trans Apart I nd
Backup port IP address
Back up port mask
Backup port gateway IP address
Signa l Priority
A parameter list is added. See
None.
chapter 4 IP RAN Parameters.
Editorial
None.
None.
change
T
his is the
do
cument for the first com
mercial release
of RAN10.0.
  • C ompare

d with draft (2008-03-20) of RAN10.0, issue 01 (2008-05-30) of RAN10.0

i

ncorporat

es

the changes described in the following t able.

RAN IP RAN Description

1 IP RAN Change History

Change

Change Description

Parameter Change

Type

Feature

IP transport capabilities of DBS3900

None.

change

and iDBS3900 are added to 3.11 IP

RAN Transport Cap abilities.

Information of NodeB

None.

V200R010C01B040 is added to 2 IP

RAN Introduction.

The parameter is changed in 3.8 IP

The renamed parameters are listed as

RAN Redundancy.

follows:

Times of out-time of BFD packet is

modified to detect multiplier of BFD

packet.

The parameter is changed in 3.6 IP

The changed parameter is lis ted as

RAN F P-Mux.

follows:

Mux package number is changed to

Maximum Frame Length .

None.

The parameters that are changed to be

non-configurable are listed as follows:

IUB trans bearer type

IP Trans Apart Ind

IUR trans bearer type

Address and control field compr ess

Address & Control F ield Compress

Protocol field compress (No deB)

Protocol field compress ( RNC)

VLAN Tag (NodeB)

Signaling priority (NodeB)

Backup port IP addres s

Backup port mask

Backup port gateway IP address

ARP packet out-time

ARP packet resend times

Editorial

G eneral documentation change:

None.

change

The IP RAN Parameters is

removed because of the creation of

RAN10.0 parameter reference.

The structure is optimized.

1 IP RAN Change History

RAN IP RAN Description

Draft (2008-03 -20)

This is a draft of the document for the first commercial release of RAN10.0.

C

ompared

w

ith issue 03 (2008-01-20)

of RAN 6.1, thi

s issue incorporates the

changes

d

escribe

d in the following table.

 

Change

 

Change Description

 

Parameter Change

Type

   

Feature

 

The port backup mode is changed in

 

The following parameters are deleted:

change

1.3.8 IP RAN Redundancy.

Slot 14 inter face board type 14 interf ace board Backup type

 

The followin g parameters are added:

Board type Backup Port No.

 

The fault detection is added in 1.3.8

 

The following parameters are added:

IP RAN Redundancy.

Check type Port work mode

 

Min interval of BFD packet send [ms]

Min interval of BFD p acket receive [ms]

Times of out-time of BFD packet ARP packet out-time ARP packet resend times

 

The IP interface boards POUa and

 

None

UOIa are added i n

1.2.1 IP RAN

 

Introduction.

 

IP RAN FP-Mux is added in 1.3.6 IP

 

The following parameters are added:

RAN FP-Mux.

FPMUX fl ag Max subframe length Mux package length FPTIME

 

The configuration on the RNC side is

 

The followi ng parameter is deleted:

changed in 1.3.9 IP RAN Load

14 interface board Backup type

Sharing.

The following parameter is added:

 

Backup

RAN IP RAN Description

1 IP RAN Change History

Change

Change Description

Parameter Change

Type

 

In Protocol Stack of Iub (over IP), the

The following parameter is deleted:

NCP/CCP Bearing Type parameter

NCP/CCP Bearing Type

in the ADD IUBCP command is

renamed as Bear Type. The SET

The following parameter is added:

OMCH (BTS3812E, BTS3812AE,

Bear Type

BBU3806, BBU3806C) command is

changed to ADD OMCH

(BTS3812E, BTS3812AE, BBU3806, BBU3806C).

Editorial

General documentation change:

None

change

Implementation information has been

moved to a separate document.

Transport Security of IP RAN is

None

merged into 1.3.5 IP RAN VLAN

RAN IP RAN Description

2 IP RAN Introduction

  • 2 IP RAN Introduction

The IP Radio Access Network (RAN) feature enables IP transport on the Iub, Iur, and Iu

interfaces. This makes it possible for the operators to use their existing IP networks in a larg er

and more flexible capacity. In this way, network deployment costs are reduced.

The most widely used data communication networks are based on IP transport. Apart from

being m ore economical than the Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) network, the IP

network s offer multiple access modes and provide enough transmission bandwidth for high

speed data services, such as High Speed Downlink Packet Access (HSDPA).

IP Interface Bo rd

a

s

To im

plement th

e IP RAN feature, the RNC and the NodeB must be configured with the

relate

d

I

P interf ace boards. The IP interface boards are as follows:

IP interface boards for the RNC

 

PEUa

FG2a

GOUa

UOIa

POUa

IP interface board for the NodeB

 

The HBBU of e

arlier versions provides Fast Ethernet (FE) ports.

Therefore, no hardware change is necessary.

The BTS3812E and the BTS3812AE require the Universal Transport Interface Unit

(NUTI) board .

The N UTI board provides eight E1/T1 ports and two FE ports.

Th e WMPT board provides 4 E1/T1 ports and 2 FE ports, the UTRP board provides 8

E1/T1 ports.

Numbering Sc hemes

Numbering schemes are used for this feature for FE, GE and E1/T1 ports of the NodeB and

the RNC, and for the RNC Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP) links.

Numbering Scheme for FE, GE and E1/T1 Ports

2 IP RAN Introduction

RAN IP RAN Description

Table 2-1 describes the numbering scheme for the FE, GE, and E1/T1 ports on the NodeB and

the RNC.

Table 2-1 Numbering scheme for the FE, GE and E1/T1 ports on the NodeB and the RNC

Board

Port Type and Number

RNC

PEUa

E1/T1: 0 to 31

FG2a

FE: 0 to 7

Electrical GE: 0 to 1 (corresponding to 0 and 3 of the FE port number).

GOUa

Optical GE: 0 to 1

UOIa

Unchannelized optical STM-1/OC-3c: 0 to 3

POUa

E1: 0 to 125

T1: 0 to 167

NodeB

NUTI

FE: 0 to 1

E1/T1: 0 to 7

BBU

FE: 0 to 1

E1/T1: 0 to 7

WMPT

FE: 0 to 1

E1/T1: 0 to 3

UTRP

E1/T 1: 0 to 7

NOTE:

BBU = Baseband Unit

 

Numbering Scheme for RNC PPP Links

The num bering schem

e that corresponds to the PEUa, POUa, and UOIa for PPP links at the

RNC is as follows:

PEUa: 0 to 12 7

POUa: 0 to 167

UOIa: 0 to 3

Numbering Scheme for NodeB PPP Links

The num bering sche m

e that corresponds to the HBBU, NUTI, WMPT, and UTRP for PPP

lin

ks

at the NodeB is

as follows:

HBBU: 0 to 15

NUTI: 0 to 15

WMPT: 0 to 7

UTRP: 0 to 15

RAN IP RAN Description

2 IP RAN Introduction

Impact

Impact on System Performance

This feature has no impact on system performance.

Impact on Othe r Features

This feature has no impact on other features.

Network Elem ents Involved

able 2-2 describ s the Ne

T

e

twork

Elements (NEs

) in

volved in IP RAN.

 

Table 2-2 NEs involved in IP RAN

 

UE

NodeB

RNC

MSC Server

 

MGW

SGSN

GGSN

HLR

 

N OTE:

 
 

–: not involved

 

: involved

UE = User Equipment, RNC = Radio Network Controller, MSC = Mobile Service Switching Center, MGW = Media Gateway, SGSN = Serving GPRS Support Node, GGSN = Gateway GPRS Support Node, HLR = Home Location Register

RAN IP RAN Description

3 IP RAN Principles

  • 3 IP RAN Principles

The following lists the contents of this chapter.

IP RAN Appli cation Scenarios

IP RAN Protoco l Stacks

IP Addresses and R outes of IP RAN

IP RAN QoS

IP RAN VLAN

IP RAN FP-Mux

IP RAN Header Compression

IP RAN Redundancy

IP RAN Load Sharing

IP RAN DHCP

IP RAN Transport Capabilities

3.1 IP RAN A pplication Scenarios

Th

e

IP RAN application scenarios consist o

f:

Iub over Time Division Mul tiplexing (TDM) Network

Iub over IP Network

Iub over hybrid IP transpo rt Network

Iub over IP/ATM Network

Iu/Iur over IP Network.

3.1.1 Iub over TDM Network

Figure 3-1 shows the TDM networking mode.

3 IP RAN Principles

RAN IP RAN Description

Figure 3-1 TDM networking mode

3 IP RAN Principles RAN IP RAN Description Figure 3-1 TDM networking mode In the TDM

In the TDM networking mode, the RNC uses the PEUa and POUa as the Iub interface boards,

and the NodeB uses the HBBU, NUTI, WMPT, and UTRP as the Iub interface boards. The

RNC and NodeBs support IP over E1/T1, which is based on Plesiochronous Digital Hierarchy

(PDH) or Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (SDH).

The TDM network ensures the reliability, security, and QoS of the Iub interface data

transmission, but the costs of E1 transport are relatively high.

3.1.2 Iub over IP Network

Figure 3-2 shows the IP networking mode.

Figure 3-2 IP networking mode

3 IP RAN Principles RAN IP RAN Description Figure 3-1 TDM networking mode In the TDM

In the IP networking mode:

The FG2a or GOUa board of the RNC serves as the Iub interface board and supports

board backup, FE/GE port backup, or FE/GE port load sharing.

The HBBU, NUTI, or WMPT board of the NodeB serves as the Iub interface board, and

the NodeB is connected to the IP network through FE port.

The IP network can be any of the following types:

Layer 2 network, for example, metropolitan area Ethernet and VPLS

RAN IP RAN Description

3 IP RAN Principles

Layer 3 network, for example, IP/MPLS/VPN

Multi-Service Transmission Platform (MSTP) network

3.1.3 Iub over Hybrid IP Transport Network

Figure 3-3 shows the hybrid IP networking mode.

Figure 3-3 Hybrid networking mode

RAN IP RAN Description 3 IP RAN Principles Layer 3 network, for example, IP/MPLS/VPN Multi-Service Transmission

In this networking mode:

The PEUa/POUa and FG2a/GOUa boards of the RNC serve as the Iub interface boards

and support FG2a/GOUa board backup, FE/GE port backup, or FE/GE port load sharing.

The POUa supports the board with Multiplex Section Protection (MSP) backup mode,

and port wih MSP backup mode.

The NodeB is connected to the IP network through FE port and uses the HBBU, NUTI or

WMPT as the Iub interface board.

The NodeB is connected to the TDM network through E1/T1 port and uses the HBBU,

NUTI, UTRP, or WMPT as the Iub interface board.

In Hybrid IP transport, services with different QoS requirements can be transmitted in

different paths. The two paths from the RNC to the NodeB are connected to two different

networks through different ports, or through the same port that is connected to the external

data equipment according to Differentiated Service Code Point (DSCP).

Low QoS network (IP network, such as Ethernet)

The PS interactive and background services that have low QoS are carried on the low

QoS network. When the bandwidth of the low QoS network is limited, low QoS services

are carried on the high QoS network.

High QoS network (TDM network, such as PDH and SDH)

The control plane data, Radio Resource Control (RRC) signaling, common channel data,

Circuit Switched (CS) services, Packet Switched (PS) conversational services, and

streaming services are carried on the high QoS network. When the bandwidth of the high

QoS network is limited, the RNC reduces the rate of the low QoS services that are

carried on the high QoS network, or the RNC rejects the access of high QoS services if

no low QoS services are carried on the high QoS network.

3 IP RAN Principles

RAN IP RAN Description

The hybrid transport network is flexible in terms of meeting different QoS requirements, but it

is complicated to manage.

3.1.4 Iub over IP/ATM Network

With the development of data services, especially with the introduction of High Speed Packet

Access (HSPA), the Iub interface has an increasing demand for the bandwidth. A single ATM

network has high costs. IP transport saves the transmission cost but provides a lower

guarantee of QoS than ATM transport does. Therefore, the ATM/IP networking mode is

introduced. Services with different QoS requirements are transmitted on different types of

network.

Figure 3-4 shows the ATM/IP networking mode.

Figure 3-4 ATM/IP networking mode

3 IP RAN Principles RAN IP RAN Description The hybrid transport network is flexible in te

The ATM/IP networking mode allows hybrid transport of services with different QoS

requirements. High QoS services, such as voice services, streaming services, and signaling,

are transmitted on the ATM network. Low QoS services, such as PS Best Effort (BE) services,

are transmitted on the IP network.

The ATM and IP interface boards of the RNC must be configured to support this networking

mode. The ATM interface board can be the AEUa, AOUa, or UOIa. The IP interface board can

be the FG2a, GOUa, UOIa, POUa, or PEUa.

The RNC is connected to the ATM network through the E1/T1 or STM-1 port.

The RNC is connected to the IP network through the FE/GE port.

The NodeB is connected to the ATM/IP networks through the ATM and IP interface boards

respectively. The ATM interface board can be the HBBU, NUTI, or WMPT. The IP interface

board can be the HBBU, NUTI, WMPT or UTRP.

The NodeB is connected to the high QoS ATM network through E1/T1 port.

The NodeB is connected to the low QoS IP network through FE port.

3 IP RAN Principles RAN IP RAN Description The hybrid transport network is flexible in te

The NodeB cannot be connected to both the ATM network and the IP network simultaneously through E1/T1 ports on the same board.

In the ATM/IP network, the ATM network ensures the QoS, while the IP network reduces the

transmission costs and fulfills the requirement of high-speed data services for high bandwidth

on the Iub interface. On the other hand, the ATM/IP network requires the maintenance of both

the ATM and the IP networks; thus the maintenance is more complex and expensive.

RAN IP RAN Description

3 IP RAN Principles

  • 3.1.5 Iu/Iur over IP Network

Figure 3-5 shows the Iu/Iur networking mode.

Figure 3-5 Iu/Iur over IP network

RAN IP RAN Description 3 IP RAN Principles 3.1.5 Iu/Iur over IP Network Figure 3-5 shows

In this networking mode, the FG2a, GOUa, or UOIa board of the RNC serves as the Iu or Iur

interface board and supports board backup, FE/GE port backup, or FE/GE port load sharing.

The IP network can be any of the following three types:

Layer 2 network, for example, metropolitan area Ethernet and VPLS

Layer 3 network, for example, IP/MPLS VPN

Multi-Service Transmission Platform (MSTP) network

3.2 IP RAN Protocol Stacks

The IP RAN protocol stacks consist of:

Protocol Stack of Iub (over IP)

Protocol Stack of Hybrid Iub (over IP /TM)

Protocol Stack of Iu-CS (over IP)

Protocol Stack of Iu-PS (over IP)

Protocol Stack of Iur (over IP)

Protocols of Data Link Layer

  • 3.2.1 Protocol Stack of Iub (over IP)

The protocol stack of Iub (over IP) is the Iub IP protocol. Data transmission on the Iub

interface is based on the IP transport.

3 IP RAN Principles

RAN IP RAN Description

Figure 3-6 Protocol stack of Iub (over IP)

3 IP RAN Principles RAN IP RAN Description Figure 3-6 Protocol stack of Iub (over IP)

Figure 3-6 shows the protocol stack of Iub (over IP).

The control plane data is carried on the SCTP link.

The user plane data is carried on the IP path.

The data link layer can use IP over E1/T1, IP over Ethernet, IP over E1/T1 over SDH, or

IP over SDH.

Transport Mode Configuration on the RNC Side

To support Iub (over IP), associated parameters are configured as follows:

The IUB trans bearer type parameter is set to IP_TRANS.

The IP Trans Apart Ind parameter is set to SUPPORT or NOT_SUPPORT to specify

whether the hybrid IP transport is applied.

The Adjacent Node Type parameter is set to IUB.

The Transport Type parameter is set to IP.

Transport Mode Configuration on the NodeB Side

If E1/T1 is used for transport on the NodeB side, the Bearing Mode parameter for E1/T1

IP Path

must be set to IPV4.

An IP path is a group of connections between the RNC and the NodeB. An Iub interface has at

least one IP path. It is recommended that more than one IP path be planned.

RAN IP RAN Description

3 IP RAN Principles

IP Path Configuration on the RNC Side

The parameters for establishing an IP path on the RNC side are as follows:

Local IP address

Peer IP address

Peer subnet mask

IP path type

DSCP

IP Path Configuration on the NodeB Side

The parameters for establishing an IP path on the NodeB side are as follows:

Port Type

NodeB IP address

RNC IP address

Traffic Type

Differentiated Services Code Point

SCTP Link

An SCTP link carries signaling messages on the Iub interface. The signaling messages carried

on the SCTP link are classified into NCP and CCP, as described in Table 3-1.

Table 3-1 Signaling messages carried on SCTP links

Type

Description

NCP

An NCP carries common process messages of NBAP over the Iub interface. An

Iub interface has only one NCP.

CCP

A CCP carries dedicated process messages of NBAP over the Iub interface. An

Iub interface may have multiple CCPs. The number of CCPs depends on network

planning.

NOTE:

NCP = NodeB Control Port, CCP = Communication Control Port

The Signalling link mode of an SCTP link can be SERVER or CLIENT.

SCTP Link Configuration on the RNC side

Iub control plane data is carried on the SCTP link. An SCTP endpoint can use two local

addresses, but these two must use the same port number. This mechanism is called

multi-homing.

In Iub IP transport, the Signalling link mode parameter has to be set to SERVER when you

configure an SCTP link on the RNC side.

The other parameters for establishing an SCTP link on the RNC side are as follows:

3 IP RAN Principles

RAN IP RAN Description

First local IP address

Second local IP address

First destination IP address

Second destination IP address

Local SCTP port No.

Destination SCTP port No.

3 IP RAN Principles RAN IP RAN Description First local IP address Second local IP address

The second local IP address and the second peer IP address must be configured together.

NCP and CCP Configuration on the RNC Side

On the RNC side, the NodeB Control Port (NCP) link and Communication Control Port (CCP)

link are carried on the SCTP link. That is, the Bearing link type parameter has to be set to

SCTP.

The parameters for establishing the NCP link and CCP link are as follows:

SCTP link No.

Bearing link type

SCTP Link Configuration on the NodeB Side

The parameters for establishing an SCTP link on the NodeB side are as follows:

Local IP address

Second Local IP address

Peer IP address

Second Peer IP address

Local SCTP Port

Peer SCTP Port

NCP and CCP Configuration on the NodeB Side

On the NodeB side, the NCP link and CCP link are carried on the SCTP link. That is, the

NCP/CCP Bearing Type parameter has to be set to IPV4.

OM Channel

OM channel is used to maintain and configure the NodeB remotely. There are two methods to

configure routes for the OM channel on the Iub interface:

Configuring routes between the M2000 and the NodeB through the RNC.

Configuring routes between the M2000 and the NodeB not through the RNC.

Figure 3-7 shows an example of configuring routes between the M2000 and the NodeB

through the RNC.

RAN IP RAN Description

3 IP RAN Principles

Figure 3-7 Example of configuring routes between the M2000 and the NodeB through the RNC

RAN IP RAN Description 3 IP RAN Principles Figure 3-7 Example of configuring routes between the

Figure 3-7 takes layer 2 networking on the Iub interface as an example. When layer 3 networking is applied to the Iub interface, the IP interface board and the NodeB communicate through a router.

If the OM subnet where the M2000 is located is connected to the IP network that covers the

NodeB, the routes can be configured between the M2000 and the NodeB not through the RNC.

Figure 3-8 shows an example of configuring routes between the M2000 and the NodeB not

through the RNC.

Figure 3-8 Example of configuring routes between the M2000 and the NodeB not through the

RNC

RAN IP RAN Description 3 IP RAN Principles Figure 3-7 Example of configuring routes between the

OM Channel Configuration on the RNC Side

For detailed information about the OM channel configuration on the RNC side, see 3.10 IP

RAN DHCP.

OM Channel Configuration on the NodeB Side

The parameters for establishing an OM channel on the NodeB side are as follows:

Local IP Address

Local

IP Mask

3 IP RAN Principles

RAN IP RAN Description

Peer IP address

Peer IP Mask

Bear Type

Other Data Configuration on the RNC Side and NodeB Side

To enable Iub (over IP) transport, the other data (such as the physical layer data, data link

layer data, mapping between transmission and traffic, and factor table) has to be configured.

For detailed information about these configurations, refer to the RNC Initial Configuration

Guide and the NodeB Initial Configuration Guide.

3.2.2 Protocol Stack of Hybrid Iub (over IP /TM)

In hybrid Iub transmission (over IP/ATM), data transmission on the Iub interface is based on

both ATM transport and IP transport.

Figure 3-9 Protocol stack of Iub (over IP/ATM)

3 IP RAN Principles RAN IP RAN Description Peer IP address Peer IP Mask Bear Type

Figure 3-9 shows the protocol stack of Iub (over IP/ATM).

With the introduction of Iub (over IP/ATM), the data between RNC and NodeB can be

transmitted on two networks: ATM network and IP network.

On the ATM network

Iub control plane data is carried on the SAAL link.

Iub user plane data is carried on the AAL2 path.

On the IP network

Iub control plane data is carried on the SCTP link.

RAN IP RAN Description

3 IP RAN Principles

Iub user plane data is carried on the IP path.

Transport Mode Configuration on the RNC Side

To support Iub (over ATM/IP), associated parameters are configured as follows:

The IUB trans bearer type parameter is set to ATMANDIP_TRANS.

The Adjacent Node Type parameter is set to IUB.

The Transport Type parameter is set to ATM_IP.

IP Path and SCTP Link Configuration on the RNC and NodeB Sides

The parameters for IP path and SCTP link on the RNC and NodeB sides are similar to those

for Iub (over IP). For detailed information, see 3.2.1 Protocol Stack of Iub (over IP).

AAL2 Path

An AAL2 path is a group of connections between the RNC and the NodeB. An Iub interface

has at least one AAL2 path. It is recommended more than one AAL2 path be planned.

An AAL2 path is carried on a PVC. The PVC identifier (VPI/VCI) and other attributes of the

PVC must be negotiated between the RNC and the NodeB.

AAL2 Path Configuration on the RNC Side

The parameters for establishing an AAL2 path on the RNC side are as follows:

Adjacent node ID

AAL2 path ID

For detailed information about AAL2 path resources, see ATM Transmission Resources.

AAL2 Path Configuration on the NodeB Side

The parameters for establishing an AAL2 path on the NodeB side are as follows:

AAL2 path ID

Node Type

Path Type

SAAL Link of User Network Interface (UNI) Type

An SAAL link of UNI type carries signaling messages on the Iub interface. The signaling

messages carried on the SAAL links are categorized into NCP, CCP, and ALCAP, as described

in Table 3-2:

Table 3-2 The type of the signaling messages carried on the SAAL links

Type

Description

NCP

An NCP carries common process messages of NBAP over the Iub interface. The

Iub interface has only one NCP.

3 IP RAN Principles

RAN IP RAN Description

Type

Description

CCP

A CCP carries dedicated process messages of NBAP over the Iub interface. The

Iub interface may have multiple CCPs. The number of CCPs depends on

network planning.

ALCAP

The ALCAP is also called Q.AAL2. Typically, the Iub interface has one

ALCAP.

An SAAL link of UNI type is carried on a PVC. The PVC identifier (VPI/VCI) and other

attributes of the PVC must be negotiated between the RNC and the NodeB.

SAAL Link Configuration on the RNC Side

The parameters for establishing an SAAL link on the RNC side are described as follows:

Interface type

Bearing VPI

Bearing VCI

NCP and CCP Configuration on the RNC Side

It is recommended that all Iub control plane data be carried on the ATM network when Iub is

carried on both ATM and IP. In this case, Bearing link type of the NCP and CCP should be

set to SAAL.

Bearing link type

SAAL link

No.

SAAL Link Configuration on the NodeB Side

The parameters for establishing an SAAL link on the NodeB side are as follows:

Bearing VPI

Bearing VCI

NCP and CCP Configuration on the NodeB Side

It is recommended that all Iub control plane data be carried on the ATM network when Iub is

carried on both ATM and IP. In this case, NCP/CCP Bearing Type of the NCP and CCP

should be set to ATM.

OM Channel Configuration on the RNC and NodeB Sides

The parameters for OM channel on the RNC side and NodeB side are similar to those for Iub

(over IP). For detailed information, see 3.2.1 Protocol Stack of Iub (over IP).

Other Data Configuration on the RNC and NodeB Sides

To enable Iub (over ATM/IP) transport, the other data (such as the physical layer data, data

link layer data, mapping between transmission and traffic, and factor table) has to be

RAN IP RAN Description

3 IP RAN Principles

configured. For detailed information about these configurations, refer to the RNC Initial

Configuration Guide and the NodeB Initial Configuration Guide.

3.2.3 Protocol Stack of Iu-CS (over IP)

The protocol stack of Iu-CS (over IP) is the Iu-CS IP protocol. Data transmission on the Iu-CS

interface is based on the IP transport.

Figure 3-10 Protocol stack of Iu-CS (over IP)

RAN IP RAN Description 3 IP RAN Principles configured. For detailed information about these configurations, refer

Figure 3-10 shows the protocol stack of Iu-CS (over IP).

The control plane data is carried on the SCTP link.

The user plane data is carried on the IP path.

Transport Mode Configuration on the RNC Side

To support Iu-CS (over IP), associated parameters are configured as follows:

The CN domain ID parameter is set to CS_DOMAIN.

The IU transfers bearer type parameter is set to IP_TRANS.

The Adjacent Node Type parameter is set to IUCS.

The Transport Type parameter is set to IP.

IP Path Configuration on the RNC Side

The parameters for IP path on the RNC side are similar to those for Iub (over IP). For details,

see 3.2.1 Protocol Stack of Iub (over IP).

3 IP RAN Principles

RAN IP RAN Description

SCTP Link Configuration on the RNC Side

The parameters for SCTP link on the RNC side are similar to those for Iub (over IP). For

details, see 3.2.1 Protocol Stack of Iub (over IP).

Other Data Configuration on the RNC Side

To enable Iu-CS (over IP) transport, the other data (such as the physical layer data, data link

layer data, mapping between transmission and traffic, factor table, and data of M3UA) has to

be configured. For details about these configurations, refer to the RNC Initial Configuration

Guide.

3.2.4 Protocol Stack of Iu-PS (over IP)

The protocol stack of Iu-PS (over IP) is Iu-PS IP protocol. Data transmission on the Iu-PS

interface is based on the IP transport.

Figure 3-11 Protocol stack of Iu-PS (over IP)

3 IP RAN Principles RAN IP RAN Description SCTP Link Configuration on the RNC Side The

Figure 3-11 shows the protocol stack of Iu-PS (over IP).

The control plane data is carried on the SCTP link.

The user plane data is carried on the IP path.

Transport Mode Configuration on the RNC Side

To support Iu-PS (over IP), associated parameters are configured as follows:

The CN domain ID parameter is set to PS_DOMAIN.

The IU transfers bearer type parameter is set to IP_TRANS.

The Adjacent Node Type parameter is set to IUPS.

The Transport Type parameter is set to IP.

RAN IP RAN Description

3 IP RAN Principles

The parameters for transport mode are similar to those for Iu-CS (over IP). For detailed

information, see 3.2.3 Protocol Stack of Iu-CS (over IP).

IP Path Configuration on the RNC Side

The parameters for IP path on the RNC side are similar to those for Iub (over IP). For detailed

information, see 3.2.1 Protocol Stack of Iub (over IP).

SCTP Link Configuration on the RNC Side

The parameters for SCTP link on the RNC side are similar to those for Iub (over IP). For

detailed information, see 3.2.1 Protocol Stack of Iub (over IP)..

Other Data Configuration on the RNC Side

To enable Iu-PS (over IP) transport, the other data (such as the physical layer data, data link

layer data, mapping between transmission and traffic, factor table, and data of M3UA) has to

be configured. For detailed information about these configurations, refer to the RNC Initial

Configuration Guide.

3.2.5 Protocol Stack of Iur (over IP)

The protocol stack of Iur (over IP) is Iur IP protocol. Data transmission on the Iur interface is

based on the IP transport.

Figure 3-12 Protocol stack of Iur (over IP)

RAN IP RAN Description 3 IP RAN Principles The parameters for transport m ode are similar

Figure 3-12 shows the protocol stack of Iur (over IP), where:

The control plane data is carried on the SCTP link.

The user plane data is carried on the IP path.

3 IP RAN Principles

RAN IP RAN Description

Transport Mode Configuration on the RNC Side

To support Iur (over IP), associated parameters are configured as follows:

The Iur Interface Existing Indication parameter is set to TRUE.

The IUR trans bearer type parameter is set to IP_TRANS.

The Adjacent Node Type parameter is set to IUR.

The Transport Type parameter is set to IP.

IP Path Configuration on the RNC Side

The parameters for IP path on the RNC side are similar to those for Iub (over IP). For detailed

information, see 3.2.1 Protocol Stack of Iub (over IP)..

SCTP Link Configuration on the RNC Side

The parameters for SCTP link on the RNC side are similar to those for Iub (over IP). For

detailed information, see 3.2.1 Protocol Stack of Iub (over IP)..

Other Data Configuration on the RNC Side

To enable Iur (over IP) transport, the other data (such as the physical layer data, data link

layer data, mapping between transmission and traffic, factor table, and data of M3UA) has to

be configured. For detailed information about these configurations, refer to the RNC Initial

Configuration Guide.

3.2.6 Protocols of Data Link Layer

The protocols at the data link layer consist of Ethernet, PPP/MLPPP, MCPPP, and PPPMux.

Ethernet

 

Ethernet is a standard that was jointly released by Digital Equipment Corp., Intel Corp., and

Xerox in 1982. It is the most widely used Local Area Network (LAN) technology based on

TCP/IP and CSMA/CD access method.

The MAC addressing scheme of Ethernet helps to resolve the addressing problem of entities

within the Ethernet. Each MAC address has 48 bits and the addresses are assigned worldwide

under the same rule.

The earliest Ethernet packet encapsulation format complies with Ethernet 802.3 defined by

IEEE and the most common format now is Ethernet II specified by RFC0826. The NodeB and

the RNC can transmit frames in Ethernet II format and receive frames in Ethernet 802.3 and

Ethernet II formats.

PPP/MLPPP

The PPP provides standard methods for encapsulating the multi-protocol datagrams on

point-to-point links. These datagrams consist of IP, IPX, and Apple Talk.

MLPPP (MP) is used to combine multiple physical links into a logical link. Therefore, it

provides a relatively high bandwidth and facilitates quick data transfer. MLPPP

implementation is shown in Figure 3-13.

RAN IP RAN Description

3 IP RAN Principles

Figure 3-13 MLPPP implementation

RAN IP RAN Description 3 IP RAN Principles Figure 3-13 MLPPP implementation MCPPP MCPPP (MC) is

MCPPP

 

MCPPP (MC) is an extension of the MLPPP protocol and provides more priorities. Packets

with a higher priority can interrupt the transmission of those with a lower priority. The MC

protocol is implemented in compliance with RFC2686.

The bits, responsible for marking the priority of a packet, in the MLPPP header are not used

in the MLPPP protocol. These bits are the two bits after the E flag bit in the short sequence, or

the four bits after the E flag bit in the long sequence. Packets at each priority level have their

own MLPPP mechanism, for example, independent sequence number and reassembly queue.

The parameter on the RNC side is MLPPP type.

The parameter on the NodeB side is Multi Class PPP.

PPPMux

PPPMux encapsulates multiple PPP frames (also called subframes) in a single PPPMux frame.

The subframes in the PPPMux frame are distinguished by delimiters. PPPMux reduces PPP

overhead per packet and improves bandwidth efficiency. PPPMux is implemented in

compliance with RFC3153.

The parameter on the RNC side is PPP mux.

The parameter on the NodeB side is PPP MuxCP.

3.3 IP Addresses and Routes of IP RAN

This section describes the IP addresses and routes that are required for running an IP RAN

network.

3.3.1 Two Networking Types on the Iub/Iur/Iu-CS/Iu-PS Interfaces

There are two types of networking on the Iub/Iur/Iu-CS/Iu-PS interfaces: layer 2 networking

and layer 3 networking.

Layer 2 Networking

Compared with layer 3 networking, layer 2 networking is simpler. That is because the port IP

addresses of the RNC, NodeB, and neighboring RNC, MGW and SGSN are located in the

same network segment and no route is required.

3 IP RAN Principles

RAN IP RAN Description

Figure 3-14 shows an example of layer 2 networking on the Iub/Iur/Iu-CS/Iu-PS interfaces.

Figure 3-14 Layer 2 networking on the Iub/Iur/Iu-CS/Iu-PS interfaces

3 IP RAN Principles RAN IP RAN Description Figure 3-14 shows an example of layer 2

IP 1 is the interface IP address on the IP interface board.

In layer 2 networking mode, the interface IP addresses of the RNC and NodeBs are in the same network segment. A route is not necessary in this case, which makes the networking relatively simple.

Layer 3 Networking

Figure 3-15 shows an example of layer 3 networking on the Iub/Iur/Iu-CS/Iu-PS interface.

Figure 3-15 Layer 3 networking on the Iub/Iur/Iu-CS/Iu-PS interface

3 IP RAN Principles RAN IP RAN Description Figure 3-14 shows an example of layer 2

RAN IP RAN Description

3 IP RAN Principles

RAN IP RAN Description 3 IP RAN Principles IP 1 and IP 2 are device IP

IP 1 and IP 2 are device IP addresses of the IP interface board. One interface board supports a maximum of five device IP addresses. The device IP addresses configured on the same interface board cannot be located in the same subnet.

IP 3 and IP 4 are port IP addresses of the IP interface board.

IP 5 and IP 6 are gateway IP addresses on the RNC side.

IP 7 is the gateway IP address on the NodeB/neighboring RNC/MGW/SGSN side.

IP 8 is the IP address of the NodeB/neighboring RNC/MGW/SGSN.

3.3.2 Route on the Iub/Iur/Iu-CS/Iu-PS Interface

On the Iub/Iur/Iu-CS/Iu-PS interface where layer 2 networking is applied, no route is required.

On the Iub/Iur/Iu-CS/Iu-PS interface where layer 3 networking is applied, you should

configure the route, as described in Table 3-3 on the RNC.

Table 3-3 Route on the Iub/Iur/Iu-CS/Iu-PS interface

Part

Route Description

IP interface board

The route travels from the RNC to the network segment where the

NodeB/neighboring RNC/MGW/SGSN is located.

You can run the ADD IPRT command on the RNC to configure the

route. Destination IP address is the address of the network segment

where the NodeB/neighboring RNC/MGW/SGSN is located, and

Forward route address, for example, IP 5 or IP 6, is the gateway IP

address on the RNC side.

3.3.3 IP Addresses for SCTP Links and IP Paths Between RNC and NodeB

Figure 3-16 shows the IP addresses assigned to SCTP links and IP paths between RNC and

NodeB.

Figure 3-16 IP addresses for SCTP links and IP paths between RNC and NodeB

RAN IP RAN Description 3 IP RAN Principles IP 1 and IP 2 are device IP

IP1-0 and IP2-0: IP addresses for SCTP links on the NodeB side IP1-1 and IP2-1: IP addresses for SCTP links on the RNC side IP3-0: IP address for the IP paths on the NodeB side IP3-1: IP address for the IP paths on the RNC side

3 IP RAN Principles

RAN IP RAN Description

Figure 3-16 shows two interconnected BBUs on the NodeB side as an example. When two

BBUs are interconnected through the EIa ports, the two BBUs are regarded as one NodeB on

the RNC side. On the NodeB side, BBU1, which is connected to the transport network

between RNC and NodeB, is an active BBU, while BBU2 is a standby BBU. The IP addresses

of the NodeB for communicating with the RNC are configured only on BBU1. The data of the

Iub interface is sent or received through the FE/E1 ports of BBU1, as shown in Figure 3-16.

3 IP RAN Principles RAN IP RAN Description Figure 3-16 shows two interconnected BBUs on the

You can specify the active BBU and standby BBU by setting the Dual-In-line Package (DIP) switch. For detailed information about the DIP switch, see the description of the DIP switch on the BBU3806 or DIP switch on the BBU3806C in the DBS3800 Hardware Description.

Figure 3-16 shows the settings of the IP addresses for the SCTP links and the IP paths for NodeB V100R010. For NodeB V200R010 version, the settings are the same as those for NodeB V100R010. The only difference is that, for NodeB V200R010, there are no interconnected BBUs.

IP1-0 and IP 2-0 are configured as the first local IP address and the second local IP

address respectively for the SCTP links on the NodeB side. IP1-1 and IP2-1 are

configured accordingly on the RNC side. The first local IP address and the second local

IP address cannot be the same. When the first local IP address for the SCTP links is

unavailable, the data on the SCTP links is transmitted through the second local IP

 

address.

 

When the layer 2 or TDM networking is applied, IP1-0, IP1-1, IP2-0, and IP2-1 are

 

the IP addresses of the port (FE/GE/PPP/MLPPP). IP1-0 and IP1-1 are within the

same network segment, and the same is true for IP2-0 and IP2-1.

 

When the layer 3 networking is applied, IP1-0 and IP2-0 are the IP addresses of the

 

FE ports, and IP1-1 and IP2-1 are the device IP addresses. IP1-0 and IP1-1 do not

stay within the same network segment, and the same is true for IP2-0 and IP2-1.

IP paths between RNC and NodeB do not work in backup mode.

When the layer 2 or TDM networking is applied, IP3-0 and IP3-1 are IP addresses of

 

the port (FE/PPP/MLPPP). IP3-0 and IP3-1 are within the same network segment.

 

When the layer 3 networking is applied, IP3-0 is IP address of the FE port and IP3-1

is the device IP address. IP3-0 and IP3-1 do not stay within the same network

segment.

3.4 IP RAN QoS

The assurance mechanisms of QoS are implemented at the application layer, IP layer, data

link layer, and physical layer.

Table 3-4 describes the assurance mechanisms of the QoS.

Table 3-4 Assurance mechanisms of the QoS

Layer

Mechanism

Application layer

Admission control and congestion control

IP layer

Differentiated Service

Data link layer

Priority Queue (PQ)

Physical layer

Rate Limiting (RL) at the physical port

RAN IP RAN Description

3 IP RAN Principles

  • 3.4.1 Admission Control and Congestion Control

For detailed information about admission control and congestion control, see Admission

Control and Congestion Control.

  • 3.4.2 Differentiated Service

Figure 3-17 shows the differentiated service process.

Figure 3-17 Differentiated service process

RAN IP RAN Description 3 IP RAN Principles 3.4.1 Admission Control and Congestion Control For detailed

Table 3-5 describes the differentiated service process. The classification and adjustment of

traffic usually happen at the network edge.

Table 3-5 Differentiated service process

Operation

Description

Classifying the service

Traffic classification enables different types of services that are

implemented by setting different values.

Adjusting

Metering

The data rate is metered and the

The adjustment of

the service

subsequent shaping and scheduling

service ensures that the

are based on the metering.

traffic flow involving

   

differentiated services

Marking

The packets are marked with

complies with TCA.

different colors according to Traffic

Conditioning Agreement (TCA).

 

Shaping

The packets in the traffic flow are

delayed as required by the service

model.

Dropping

Non-TCA-supportive packets are

dropped.

  • 3.4.3 PQ and RL

The principles of PQ and RL are considered together. The PQs are configured automatically in

the NodeB. When the actual bandwidth exceeds the specified bandwidth, the system buffers

the congested data or discards it to ensure a specified bandwidth at the physical port. When

the physical port is congested, the system discards the message with lower priority according

to the PQ principle.

Table 3-6 describes the rules for PQs based on the three Most Significant Bits (MSBs) of the

DSCP.

3 IP RAN Principles

RAN IP RAN Description

Table 3-6 Rules for PQs in NodeB

MSBs of the DSCP

PQ

  • 110 or 111

The urgent queue is used by default. No manual configuration of the

PQ is necessary.

  • 101 TOP

 
  • 100 MIDDLE

or 011

 
  • 010 NORMAL

or 001

 

0

BOTTOM

The parameters for setting the priorities for data transmission on the NodeB side are as

follows:

Signal Priority

OM priority

The RNC IP interface boards (PEUa/FG2a/GOUa/POUa/UOIa) support six priority queues

numbered from 0 to 5 in a descending order. The top two priority queues adopt PQ scheduling

and the other four queues of lower priority employ Weighted Round Robin (WRR) scheduling.

For details of the mapping between the DSCP values and the IP port queues, refer to

Differentiated Service in Transmission Resource Management document.

3.5 IP RAN VLAN

Virtual Local Area Network (VLAN) enhances the IP transport security. Besides, VLAN

provides the priority service and isolates different users.

3.5.1 Ensuring Security

Compared with the TDM network, the IP network has relatively low security. VLAN

combined with Virtual Private Network (VPN), however, ensures the IP transport security.

Figure 3-18 shows the VLAN and VPN implementation. The security of VLANs is

implemented at the NodeB and the RNC, and that of the VPNs is implemented by external

equipment.

Figure 3-18 IP network security

3 IP RAN Principles RAN IP RAN Description Table 3-6 Rules for PQs in NodeB MSBs

RAN IP RAN Description

3 IP RAN Principles

3.5.2 Providing Priority Service

Figure 3-19 shows a typical example of the VLAN solution on the VLAN on the Iub interface.

In this solution, the Multi-Service Transmission Platform (MSTP) network provides two

Ethernets carried on two Virtual Channel (VC) trunks, respectively.

One Ethernet is a private network for the real-time services of multiple NodeBs without

the influence of other customers. This Ethernet is used to carry services of high priority.

The other Ethernet is a public network for the non-real-time services of multiple NodeBs

and can be shared with other customers. The services are prone to the influence of other

customers. Thus, this Ethernet is used to carry services of low priority.

Figure 3-19 Typical solution of the VLAN on Iub

RAN IP RAN Description 3 IP RAN Principles 3.5.2 Providing Priority Service Figure 3-19 shows a

Red line: private network Blue line: public network Black line: connection between the routers

The VLANID Flag parameter indicates whether VLAN is enabled or not. The NodeB and the

RNC identify the service QoS through Vlan priority in the VLAN tag. Each NodeB or the

RNC provides an Ethernet port to connect to the MSTP network. The MSTP transmits the

Ethernet data to either of the VC trunks according to Vlan priority in the VLAN tag. Each

VC trunk supports up to two QoS classes. In the same VC trunk, the data of different NodeBs

is identified by different VLAN ID parameters.

The VLAN tag contains a 2-byte Tag Protocol Identifier (TPID) and a 2-byte Tag Control

Information (TCI).

TPID is defined by the IEEE and is used to indicate that the frame is attached with an

802.1Q tag. VLAN TPID has a fixed value 0x8100.

TCI contains the frame control information and consists of the following items:

Priority: a 3-bit field that indicates the frame priority. The eight values, from 0 to 7,

 

represent eight priorities. The priority field is defined in the IEEE 802.1Q protocol.

 

Canonical Format Indicator (CFI): a 1-bit field. The value 0 indicates the canonical

format and 1 indicates the non-canonical format. CFI specifies the bit sequence of the

address contained in the encapsulated frame in the token ring or source route FDDI

media access method.

3 IP RAN Principles

RAN IP RAN Description

VLAN Identifier (VLAN ID): a 12-bit field that indicates the VLAN ID. It represents

4096 IDs. The frame, which complies with 802.1Q, contains this field and indicates

which VLAN the frame belongs to.

The NodeB attaches VLAN tags to the frames that are sent from the Ethernet port, but does

not attach VLAN tags to the frames that are received from the Ethernet port.

When the NodeB supports the VLAN, it attaches diverse tags to different traffic flows to

enable the traffic flow transmission in different VLAN channels.

The parameters on the NodeB side are as follows:

Traffic Type

User Data Service Priority

Insert VLAN Tag

Vlan Id

Vlan priority

3 IP RAN Principles RAN IP RAN Description − VLAN Identifier (VLAN ID): a 12-bit field

On the RNC side, the NodeB detection function can be started through the MML command STR NODEBDETECT in order to periodically send the VLAN IDs to the NodeBs. By this means, when a new NodeB is set up or a NodeB recovers from the fault, the NodeB can automatically obtain its VLAN ID from the RNC.

3.6 IP RAN FP-Mux

Frame Protocol Multiplexing (FP-Mux) encapsulates multiple small FP PDU frames (also

called subframes) into a UDP package, thus improving the transport efficiency. FP-Mux is

only applicable to the user plane data on the Iub interface based on UDP/IP.

Figure 3-20 shows the UDP/IP package format when FP-Mux is applied.

Figure 3-20 FP-Mux UDP/IP package format

3 IP RAN Principles RAN IP RAN Description − VLAN Identifier (VLAN ID): a 12-bit field

To enable FP-Mux, the FPMUX flag parameter has to be set to YES. Max subframe length

indicates the maximum length of the subframe. Maximum Frame Length indicates the

RAN IP RAN Description

3 IP RAN Principles

maximum length of the frame of the FP-Mux UPD/IP package. The UDP package frame is

sent out once the time set by FPTIME expires.

RAN IP RAN Description 3 IP RAN Principles maximum length of the frame of the FP-Mux

FP-Mux is applicable to frames with the same priority, that is, frames of the same DSCP value.

3.7 IP RAN Header Compression

Header compression is used to reduce protocol header overhead of point-to-point links and to

improve bandwidth efficiency.

The RNC and the NodeB support the following three header compression methods:

 

Address and Control Field Compression (ACFC)

Protocol Field Compression (PFC)

IP Header Compression (IPHC)

  • 3.7.1 ACFC

 

ACFC, which complies with RFC 1661, is used to compress the address and control fields of

PPP protocol. These fields usually contain constant values for PPP links. It is unnecessary to

transport the whole fields every time. If ACFC passes the negotiation during the PPP Link

Control Protocol (LCP), the address and control fields (0xFF03) of subsequent packets can be

 

compressed.

  • 3.7.2 PFC

 

PFC, which complies with RFC 1661, is used to compress the protocol field of PPP. PFC can

compress the 2-byte protocol field into a 1-byte one.

The compression complies with the ISO3309 extension mechanism, that is, a binary 0 in the

Least Significant Bit (LSB) indicates that the protocol field contains two bytes, and the other

byte follows this byte. And a binary 1 in the LSB indicates that the protocol field contains one

byte, and this byte is the last one. The majority of packets are compressible, because the

protocol fields assigned are usually less than 256.

  • 3.7.3 IPHC

IPHC, which complies with RFC 2507 and RFC 3544, is used to compress the IP/UDP header

of PPP links. IPHC improves bandwidth efficiency in the following two ways:

The unchanged header fields in packet (IP/UDP) headers are not carried by each packet.

The header fields that vary with specified modes are replaced with fewer bits.

The header context is established on both ends of a link when packets with complete headers

are sent occasionally. Thus the compressed packets can retrieve their original headers

according to the context and the changed fields.

The parameter on the RNC side is Head compress.

The parameter on the NodeB side is IP Header Compress.

3 IP RAN Principles

RAN IP RAN Description

3.8 IP RAN Redundancy

IP RAN Redundancy discusses the redundancy mechanism on the RNC side. The redundancy

of IP RAN helps to improve the reliability of IP transport. On the NodeB side, for distributed

NodeBs, the interconnection of two BBUs can enhance the baseband processing capability but

cannot support the transmission backup.

  • 3.8.1 Single-Homing Layer 3 Networking

In the single-homing layer 3 networking, the FG2a or GOUa board of the RNC serves as the

interface board and supports board backup and FE/GE port backup.

Figure 3-21 shows the single-homing layer 3 networking. The FE/GE ports on the RNC serve

the IP transport.

Figure 3-21 Single-homing layer 3 networking

3 IP RAN Principles RAN IP RAN Description 3.8 IP RAN Redundancy IP RAN Redundancy discusses

In this networking mode, the FE/GE ports of the RNC are configured for backup. The active

and standby FE/GE ports of the RNC are connected to the Provider Edge (PE), which are

further connected to the IP network. The active and standby FE/GE ports of the RNC share

one IP address, IP 1-0. The PE configures the active and standby ports of the RNC in one

VLAN and uses one interface IP address of the VLAN, IP 1-1.

3 IP RAN Principles RAN IP RAN Description 3.8 IP RAN Redundancy IP RAN Redundancy discusses

The GE optical ports on the GOUa board are applicable when the RNC is far away from the PE, and the FE/GE electrical ports on the FG2a board are applicable when the distance between the RNC and the PE is within 100 m.

  • 3.8.2 Dual-Homing Layer 3 Networking

In the dual-homing layer 3 networking, the FG2a or GOUa board of the RNC serves as the

interface board and supports board backup and FE/GE port backup.

Figure 3-22 shows the dual-homing layer 3 networking. The FE/GE ports on the RNC serve

the IP transport.

RAN IP RAN Description

3 IP RAN Principles

Figure 3-22 Dual-homing layer 3 networking

RAN IP RAN Description 3 IP RAN Principles Figure 3-22 Dual-homing layer 3 networking In this

In this networking mode, the FE/GE ports of the RNC are configured for backup. The active

and standby FE/GE ports of the RNC are connected to two PEs, which are further connected

to the IP network. Complying with the Virtual Router Redundancy Protocol (VRRP), the two

PEs provide redundancy-based protection for the data transmitted from the RNC. One PE

connects to the other through two GE ports. Link Aggregation (LAG) is applied to the

interconnection links between the PEs to increase the bandwidth and reliability of the links.

The active and standby FE/GE ports of the RNC share one IP address, IP 1-0. The PEs

configure the active and standby ports of the RNC in one VLAN and use one virtual VRRP IP

address, IP 1-1.

RAN IP RAN Description 3 IP RAN Principles Figure 3-22 Dual-homing layer 3 networking In this

The GE optical ports on the GOUa board are applicable when the RNC is far away from the PE, and the FE/GE electrical ports on the FG2a board are applicable when the distance between the RNC and the PE is within 100 m.

  • 3.8.3 Advantages and Disadvantages of the Networking

Single-homing layer 3 networking provides redundancy-based protection for FE/GE links.

The single PE saves the networking costs, but cannot provide PE-level protection.

Dual-homing layer 3 networking provides redundancy-based protection not only for FE/GE

links, but also for PE devices. But the dual PEs have high networking costs.

  • 3.8.4 Configuration on the RNC Side

To support the backup of the interface board, the Backup parameter has to be set to YES.

The parameters on the RNC side are as follows:

Board type

Backup

When the interface board is set to the backup mode, run the ADD ETHREDPORT command

to set the backup mode of the associated ports.

The parameter involved is Port No

..

RAN IP RAN Description 3 IP RAN Principles Figure 3-22 Dual-homing layer 3 networking In this

For detailed information about board redundancy and port redundancy, see RNC Parts Reliability in the

RNC Product Description.

3 IP RAN Principles

RAN IP RAN Description

  • 3.8.5 Fault Detection

In addition to the UP/DOWN detection performed at the physical link layer, the fault

detection between the RNC and the Provider Edge (PE) involves the Bidirectional Forwarding

Detection (BFD) and Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) detection. The BFD or ARP

detection are applied on the layer 3 (L3) detection, which can also detect other faults, such as

soft transfer. When the BFD or ARP detection finds a fault, the switchover between FE/GE

ports will be triggered. The application of the BFD or ARP detection can increase the fault

detection rate and enhance the reliability. The BFD is preferred since it has a quick and

bidirectional detection.

3 IP RAN Principles RAN IP RAN Description 3.8.5 Fault Detection In addition to the UP/DOWN

The ARP detection is used only when the peer equipment does not support the BFD, because the ARP detection is unidirectional.

The ARP message is a broadcast message; therefore, if there is a relatively large L2 broadcast domain between the RNC and the L3 equipment, a broadcast storm may easily occur. But if the RNC and the L3 equipment are directly connected, a broadcast storm never occurs.

The following tables describe the parameters of the Fault Detection:

Gateway IP address

Backup port IP address

Backup port mask

Backup port gateway IP address

Check type

Port work mode

Min interval of BFD packet send [ms]

Min interval of BFD packet receive [ms]

detect multiplier of BFD packet

3.9 IP RAN Load Sharing

IP RAN load sharing improves the transport efficiency of IP RAN. Load sharing between

FE/GE ports of the RNC is applicable to layer 3 networking between the RNC and other NEs,

instead of layer 2 networking.

  • 3.9.1 Load Sharing Layer 3 Networking

The RNC supports load sharing between FE/GE ports that are located either on the same

board or on the active and standby boards. The RNC supports load sharing between up to

three FE/GE ports.

Figure 3-23 shows the load sharing layer 3 networking of IP RAN. If there are two ports for

load sharing, they are located on the active and standby boards.

RAN IP RAN Description

3 IP RAN Principles

Figure 3-23 Load sharing layer 3 networking

RAN IP RAN Description 3 IP RAN Principles Figure 3-23 Load sharing layer 3 networking In

In this scenario, the FG2a or GOUa board of the RNC serves as the interface board, and

supports board backup and FE/GE port apart.

The two FE/GE ports on the active and standby boards are configured with IP addresses of

different network segments, IP 1-0 and IP 2-0. The PE configures the corresponding IP

addresses, IP 1-1 and IP 2-1. The data to the destination IP address is shared by the two routes.

RAN IP RAN Description 3 IP RAN Principles Figure 3-23 Load sharing layer 3 networking In

The load sharing ports on the RNC can be connected to one PE or two different PEs.

  • 3.9.2 Advantage and Disadvantage of the Networking

In the load sharing layer 3 networking, the data traffic is shared by the ports to avoid the

occasion when some ports are busy while others are idle, thus improving the transmission

efficiency. This network solution, however, does not provide redundancy for data transmission.

A port failure will lead to the decline of transmission capacity.

  • 3.9.3 Configuration on the RNC Side

To support the load sharing between the ports located on the active and standby boards, the

Backup parameter should be set to NO. For detailed information about the parameters, see

3.8 IP RAN Redundancy.

RAN IP RAN Description 3 IP RAN Principles Figure 3-23 Load sharing layer 3 networking In

For details about board redundancy, port redundancy, and port load sharing, refers to RNC Parts

Reliability in the RNC Product Description

3.10 IP RAN DHCP

The Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) dynamically provides configuration

parameters for network terminals. The DHCP can automatically allocate the network address

and set up the OM channel for IP RAN.

The DHCP has the following characteristics:

Working in the Client/Server mode. When receiving the request from a client, the server

provides parameters such as the IP address, gateway address, DNS server address for the

client.

Simplifying IP address management.

Enabling centralized IP address management.

Complying with RFC 2131 and RFC 2132.

3 IP RAN Principles

RAN IP RAN Description

In the DHCP procedure, the RNC works as the DHCP server and the NodeBs work as DHCP

clients. The NodeB can automatically obtain the IP address to set up the OM channel. Figure

3-24 shows the DHCP procedure.

Figure 3-24 DHCP procedure

3 IP RAN Principles RAN IP RAN Description In the DHCP procedure, the RNC works as

The four basic phases of the DHCP procedure are as follows:

Step 1

DHCP discovery: The NodeB broadcasts DHCPDISCOVER packets to find the RNC.

Step 2

DHCP offer: The RNC sends the configuration information such as IP addresses to the NodeB

through DHCPOFFER packets.

Step 3

DHCP selection: The NodeB selects an IP address from the DHCPOFFER packets and then

responds by broadcasting DHCPREQUEST packets.

Step 4

DHCP acknowledgement: The RNC responds by sending DHCPACK packets to the NodeB.

The parameters on the RNC side are as follows:

The First Serial Number

The Second Serial Number