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bizantiis imperiis ucnobi qarTveli didi moxele da misi sagvareulo balatunusis bilingva siriaSi, bizantiur cixe-qalaq balatunusis (Platanus)

erTerTi burjis nangrevebSi 2008 wels aRmoCnda orenovani (berZnul-qarTuli) warwera, romelic amJamad inaxeba siriis mTavari saporto qalaqis latakiis (laodikea) muzeumSi. 2009 wlis bolos warwera saTanado gamokvleviT Cemi megobrisa da kolegis, safrangeTis institutis (warwerebisa da bell-letris akademia) wevris, Jan-pier maes saSualebiT gadmomigzavna maSin axlo aRmosavleTis (damaskos) franguli institutis mecnierma TanamSromelma Julien alikom (Julien Aliquot). cxadia, mas ainteresebda bilingvis qarTuli warweris Sinaarsi, romlis amokiTxva parizSi ver moxerxda. rogorc batoni alikos SeniSvnebidan Canda, orenovan warweriani qvis (qviSaqva) zomebia 57X162X21. bilingva me TviTon ar minaxavs, amitom qvemoT yvelagan veyrdnobi baton alikos mier kargad Sesrulebul aRweras da aseve kargad damzadebul fotoebs.

berZnuli warwera

batoni alikos mier wakiTxuli da frangulad Targmnili berZnuli warwera Tavdapirvelad ase gamoiyureboda: berZnuli teqsti: [ Eteleiwvqh t]o ; qeovswston kavstr[on], o ] n [oJ nwb]e[livss]imo [katepavnw Nikhv]ta , patrivkio , rJaivktwr jAntioceiva , ceiro ; ej[xhvrpase tw'n ejc]qrw'n barbavrwn ejpiv JRwmanou kai ; Zwh' ajnaktov(rwn) [filocrivst(wn) hJm(w'n) k]e ; ktisqe ; n para ; Spantagoudh, patri[k]ivou kai ; [strathgou Lao]dikeiva , tou' Thpeli, mh(ni ; ) ! Iounivw / , ijnd(iktiw'no ) idV [e [ t(ei) apo` kt(ivsew ) kovsm(ou) .f]lq . franguli Targmani:

Ce kastron sauv par Dieu, que le noblissime catpan Nictas, patrice, recteur dAntioche, a arrach de la main des ennemis barbares sous Romain et Zo, nos empereurs qui aiment le Christ, et qui a t fond par Spantagouds Tpeli, patrice et stratge de Laodice, a t achev au mois de juin, indiction 14, lan 6539 depuis la cration du monde. franguli Targmani qarTulad: es RrTivxsnili kastroni, romelic ukeTilSobilesma katepanma niketasma, patrikiosma da antioqiis reqtorma, xelidan gamostaca mtrul barbarosebs qristesmoyvaruli romanosisa da zoias mmarTvelobis dros da romelic daarsebul (an dafinansebul) iqna spantagude tepelis, patrikiosisa da laodikeis strategosis mier, gasrulda ivnisis TveSi, indiqtions 14, 6539 wels samyaros Seqmnidan. igulisxmeba romauli welTaRricxvis 1031 weli (6539-5508=1031). SeniSvnebi berZnuli warweris interpretaciasTan dakavSirebiT batoni alikos Targmani qmnida STabeWdilebas (aseve iyo ganmartebuli komentarebSi), rom warwera ukavSirdeboda katepan niketas da ara spantagude tepelis, romelic SesaZloa arc imyofeboda im dros balatunusSi. aseTi interpretaciis sisuste advilad Canda berZnuli teqstis pirvelive wakiTxvidan: bizantielebma katepan niketasis meTaurobiT balatunusi aiRes 1031 wlis gazafxulis dasawyisSi (martSi), xolo warwera Sesrulebulia amave wlis ivnisSi. amrigad, cxadia, rom berZnuli ke ; ktisqe ; n para ; Spantagoudh unda iTargmnos ara rogorc daarsebul iqna (an Tundac, dafinansda) spantagudes mier, aramed berZnuli enisaTvis gacilebiT ufro bunebrivad: aigo//aSenda spantagudes mier. meore Cemi SeniSvna exeboda kvlav berZnuli teqstis arabunebrivad wakiTxvas. Julien alikom sworad gansazRvra (amaSi mas daexmara berZnuli warweris qvemoT qarTuli warweris mxolod arsebobac ki), rom tepeli tbels unda aRniSnavdes. im codniT, rac tbelebTan dakavSirebiT man literaturidan moipova, cxadia, unda efiqra, rom tbeli gvaris aRmniSvneli saxelia da sruliad bunebrivad miiCnia, rom spantagude . . . tepeli erTi da imave piris saxeli da gvaria. igi imdenad darwmunebuli iyo aseT interpretaciaSi, rom angariSi ar gauwia kvlav berZnuli teqstis Cvenebas: Spantagoudh . . .tou' Thpeli, rac sityva-sityviT ueWvelad unda unda iTargmnos rogorc spantagude tepelisa anu spantagude tepelis Ze. aseTi gaazreba zusti analogiaa saxarebiseuli Sesityvebis: ! Iavkwbo Alfaivou (iakob alfesi anu iakob alfesis Ze) ! Iouda !Iakobou (iuda iakobisi anu iuda iakobis Ze) da a.S. mesame SeniSvna berZnuli teqstis aRdgenil dasawyiss exeboda. Cemi azriT, epigrafikuli teqsti, sadac urjuloebze mniSvnelovani gamarjvebis Sesaxeb aris laparaki, ar SeiZleba daiwyos gamoTqmiT Eteleiwvqh (amitomac iyo, rom igi Julien alikos TargmanSi sruliad ar aisaxa). garda amisa, qvis Camonatexi ufro meti moculobis teqsts gulisxmobs, vidre sityva Eteleiwvqh-s SeuZlia daikavos. Cemi varaudiT, da berZnuli epigrafikisa Tu saistorio TxzulebebisaTvis damaxasiaTebeli trafaretiT, teqstis dasawyisi unda aRdgeniliyo Semdegnairad: T u' Qeou' bohqevi an T u' Qe u' v SewevniTa RmrTisaTa. Julien alikom mTlianad gaiziara Cemi SeniSvnebi da sabolood berZnuli teqstis aRdgenam da Targmanma aseTi saxes miiRo: [ T u' Qeou' bohqevi qeovswston kavstr[on], o]n [oJ nwb]e[livss]imo [katepavnw Nikhv]ta , patrivkio , rJaivktwr jAntioceiva , ceiro ; ej[xhvrpase tw'n ejc]qrw'n barbavrwn ejpiv JRwmanou kai ; Zwh' ajnaktov(rwn) [filocrivst(wn) hJm(w'n) k]e ; ktisqe ; n para ; Spantagoudh, patri[k]ivou kai ; [strathgou Lao]dikeiva , tou' Thpeli, mh(ni ; ) ! Iounivw / , ijnd(iktiw'no ) idV [e [ t(ei) apo` kt(ivsew ) kovsm(ou).f]lq . an ; ; [ f ]

[RmrTis SewevniT] es RvTivdaculi (SeiZleba RmrTivxsnilic) kastroni, romelic ukeTilSobilesma katepanma niketasma, patrikiosma da antioqiis reqtorma mtrul barbarosebs xelidan gamostaca qristesmoyvare romanosisa da zoias mmarTvelobis dros, aSenebul iqna patrikiosisa da laodikeis strategosis spantagude tepelis Zis mier ivnisis TveSi, indiqtioni 14, [samyaros Seqmnidan welsa 65]39. berZnuli teqstis bizantiuri transkripcia kidev erTi, rac aucileblad unda iqnas gaTvaliswinebuli XI s-is berZnuli teqstis wakiTxvisas, es aris bizantiuri berZnuli warmoTqma. gansakuTrebiT, roca es exeba onomastikasa da anTroponimebs, miT ufro, Tu es onomastika da anTroponimebi ar aris berZnulenovani da saWiroebs identifikacias. - bizantiuri berZnulis da qarTuli enis fonetikuri Taviseburebebis gaTvaliswinebiT qarTulad SesaZlebelia gadmoices aseTi formebiT: spantaRud-i, spandaRud-i, spantaRut-i, spandaRut-i (Sdr. >aRapi)1. garda amisa, Spantagoudh ar aris Casmuli naTesaobiT brunvaSi, rogorc amas moiTxovs mis win mdgari para ; windebuli. am funqcias misTvis asrulebs genetivSi dayenebuli misi msazRvreli titulatura patri[k]ivou kai ; [strathgou]. Spantagoudh qarTulad me gadmoveci spantaRud-i formiT, rogorc es mosalodneli iyo qarTulisaTvis (saxelobiTi brunva). Cemi azriT, amis safuZvels iZleva bizantiur berZnulSi h-s i-T wakiTxvis tradicia. aseve, spantaRudis mamis saxeli tepeli-s pirveli marcvlis (eta) unda wavikiTxoT i-d (Sdr. zemoT - spandaRud-i): tipeli. ase ufro gasagebi gaxdeba, saidan gaCnda berZnulSi tp//tb Tanxmovnebs Soris i xmovani (Sdr. somx. Trdat > berZn. tiridates2). vinaidan bizantiur berZnulSi beta aRar gadmoscems b-s da ikiTxeba rogorc v, bunebrivia, rom b-s aRsaniSnavad gamoyenebulia p, (Sdr. bagrat//pankrat3, bakurian//pakurian). tepeli//tipeli, ra Tqma unda, bizantiuri gamoTqmaa qarTuli anTroponimisa tbeli: > (b>p), agreTve, or Tanxmovans Soris gaCenili i (Sdr. tfilis>tiflis). sayuradReboa, rom somxur saistorio mwerlobaSic (stefanos orbeliani, gv. 355) ivane tbelis saxeli am formiT gvxvdeba: . qarTuli warwera amis Semdeg ukve SegviZlia gadavideT balatunusis orenovani warweris qarTul nawilze. qarTuli warwera Sesrulebulia SedarebiT Rrmad amokveTili, sakmaod lamazi, sagangebo saWreTeliT SeiaraRebuli, gamocdili xeliT, mrgvlovani asomTavruliT. sityvaTa umravlesoba daqaragmebulia. sityvaTa Soris gankveTilobis niSnad gamoyenebulia erTi wertili. paleografiulad igi, bunebrivia, XI saukuniT TariRdeba. teqstis marjvena nawili (mayureblidan) mniSvnelovnad aris dazianebuli (SesaZloa atmosferuli zegavleniT), Tumca ikiTxeba, xolo erTgan amotexilia, ramac ramdenime grafema Seiwira. vinaidan qvis marcxena nawili Camotexilia, amasTanave qarTuli warweris meore striqonis pirveli oTxi grafema gadarecxilia, aRdgenis, qaragmebis gaxsnisa, sityvaTa daSoriSorebis gareSe da gankveTilobis niSnebiT (rogorc es teqstSia) igi ase ikiTxeba: ese.viTa.z~mo.b~rZld.sw~ria - - - {s}. Z~mn.a~ve. e.c~xe.ese.S~w{v} . . . R~TsaTa ese.viTa.z~mo.b~rZld.sw~ria
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ix. n. maxaraZe, bizantiuri berZnulis warmoTqmis sakiTxebi, Tb. 1978. ix. giorgi amartolis qronografia, georgika, IV, nakv. II, berZnuli teqsti qarTuli TargmaniTurT gamosca s. yauxCiSvilma, Tbilis, 1952, gv. 311. komentarisaTvis ix. iqve, gv. 274, sq. 4.

- - - s.Z~mn.av~e.e.cixe.ese.S~wv. . .R~TsaTa Tanamedrove qarTuli damwerlobiT, qaragmebis gaxsniTa da sityvaTa Soris intervalis dacviT warwera aseT saxes miiRebs: ese, viTa z(e)mo b(e)rZ(u)l(a)d sw(e)ria, - - -s Z(e)m(a)n av(ag)e .e. cixe ese S(e)w(e)v. . . . R(mr)T(i)sa()Ta. vcadoT axla balatunis qarTuli warweris aRdgena berZnuli warwerebis monacemebis gamoyenebiT. batoni alikos SeniSvniT qvas marcxena mxares mniSvnelovani nawili aqvs Camotexili, sadac daaxloebiT Tormeti berZnuli grafema daeteoda. qarTuli grafemebi, rom berZnulTan SedarebiT viwroa, amasTanave masSi TiTqmis yvela sityva daqaragmebulia, erTi SexedviTac cxadia. isic cxadia, rom daaxloebiT oTxi grafemis farglebSi, Camotexilamde, qarTuli warweris meore striqonis nawili gadarecxilia. amitom marcxniv aRsadgeni, Cemi azriT, ocamde qarTuli grafema unda iyos. amitom mTlianad qarTul warweras ase aRvadgendi: ese viTa z(e)mo b(e)rZ(u)l(a)d sw(e)ria, [me, p(a)tr(i)km(a)n sp(a)nt(a)R(u)d tb(e)l(i)]s Z(e)m(a)n, av(ag)e 5 ese cixe S(e)w(e)v[niTa] R(mr)T(i)sa()Ta. Var. [me, p(a)tr(i)km(a)n da l(ao)d(i)k()s str(ate)gm(a)n, sp(a)nt(a)R(u)d tb(e)l(i)]. . . spantaRudis titulaturis mTlianad aRdgena ver xerxdeba, vinaidan Camotexil nawilSi ar aris amisaTvis sakmarisi adgili. qarTuli warwera berZnulze ufro moklea da titulatura SesaZloa arc iyo (an srulad ar iyo) masSi Setanili. berZnuli warwerisagan gansxvavebiT qarTuli warwera azustebs, rom spantaRudma balatunusis kastronSi xuTi cixe aago (aRadgina). rogorc Cans, spantaRud tbelis Ze aWarbebs da xuT cixeSi balatunusis kastronis xuT burjs gulisxmobs. marTlac, balatunusi xuTi burjiT (citadeli) iyo gamagrebuli. SesaZloa, erTerTi maTgani aris swored is, sadac 2008 wels orenovani warwera aRmoCnda (ix. foto 2).

rogorc zemoTac iTqva, berZnuli warweris ke ; ktisqe ; n qarTuli warweris analogiiT, umjobesia iTargmnos agebul iqna/aSenebul iqna SesityvebiT. aqve minda xazi gavusva, rom qarTuli epigrafika (ara marto qarTuli) termin aSenebas ar ansxvavebs aRdgenisagan (restavracia). rogorc Cans, orenovani warwera Sesrulebulia spantaRudis dakveTiT da berZnul warweraSi mocemuli TariRi aRniSnavs cixeebis aRdgenis TariRs (amitom ar aris Tvis zusti ricxvi dasaxelebuli) da ara kastronis aRebisa nikita katepanis mier (maSin zusti TariRi iqneboda). rogorc warweridan davinaxeT, spantaRudi atarebda patrikiosis tituls da iyo laodikeis strategosi. patrikiosi (momdinareobs laT. patricius-isgan) bizantiis imperiis karze umaRlesi rangis Cinia, romelic SemoiRo konstantine didma rogorc sapatio, administraciuli funqciis gareSe. iustiniane I-is dros es tituli SeeZlo moepovebina

imperiis yvela warCinebuls damsaxurebis mixedviT. VIII-X ss-Si patrikiosis tituli avtomaturad eniWebodaT imperiis gansakuTrebiT mniSvnelovani regionebis ganmgeblebsa da sardlebs.4 swored aseTi iyo strategosi, romelic aRniSnavda romelime mniSvnelovani regionis sardals, xolo sanapiro zolSi _ admiralsac. XI s-isaTvis strategosi iyo Temis samxedro mmarTveli, romelic iTavsebda safinanso da iuridiul administracias.5 laodikea iyo sazRvao porti Crdilo siriaSi da siriis yvelaze ufro mdidari qalaqi, romelic 968 wels foka keisarma daibruna arabebisagan. spantaRudi atarebda patrikiosis tituls da iyo laodikeis Temis ganmgebeli da sardali (admirali). marTalia, XI s-Si patrikiosoba aRar iyo iseTi mniSvnelovani Cini, rogorc gvian antikur xanaSi, magram spantaRudi mas flobda swored im wesebiT da simaRleze, rogorc es miRebuli iyo ufro adre. qarTuli warwera specialuri saWreTeli iaraRiT aRWurvili profesionali qvaze mwerlis Sesrulebulia. igi, cxadia, gamocdilia warwerebis amokveTaSi, magram isic cxadia, rom mas saqarTvelodan specialurad amisTvis ver Camoiyvandnen, siriis am nawilSi ki es warwera qarTvelTa aq yofnis pirveli dadasturebaa. unda vivaraudoT, rom mwerali Camoyvanilia antioqiidan da spantaRudsac antioqeli qarTvelebi kargad icnobden.

P3-is anderZi 1040 w. kalipos monasterSi (Savi mTa) ierusalimis jvris monastris winamZRvris proxoresaTvis gadawerili xelnaweris (amJamad peterburgSi inaxeba nomriT P3), kolofonSi vkiTxulobT: daiwera wmida ese wigni dasabamiTgan welTa xqkd(1020)6 eliTa CueniTa codviliTa da Seimosa-ca queyanasa asureTisasa antioqisaTa, sanaxebTa wmidisa smeon sakrvelTmoqmedisaTa, sayofelsa wmidisa RmrTismSobelisasa monastersa qarTvelTa kaliposs, mefobasa berZenTa zeda wmidisa mefisa mixailissa, da afxazTa
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The Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium. Prepared at Dumbarton Oaks, editor in chief Alexander P. Kazhdan, III, New York-Oxford, 1991, gv. 1600. iqve, gv. 1964. dasabamiTganSi Secdoma SeniSna jer kidev a. cagarelma da gaaswora (xqmd?) qoronikonis mixedviT. ix. . , , II, ., 1889, gv. 43-44. cota mogvianebiT igive Secdoma daafiqsira T. Jordaniamac da sqolioSi Secvala iseve, rogorc a. cagarelma: xqmd. ix. T. Jordania, qronikebi da sxva masala saqarTvelos istoriisa, I, tfilisi, 1892, axali gamocema Tbilisi, 2004, gv. 180, sq. 10.

da qarTvelTa zeda bagrat kurapalatisasa, adiden RmerTman mefoba maTi qoronikonsa s (1040). qriste, adide suliTa sula zolavari7 da Svilni maTni. RmerTo saxiero, adiden orTave cxorebaTa Sina stefane da vaCe erTobiT. ufalo RmerTo, Seiwyalen Zmani Cuenni sanano da vaSa ZmiTurT da Zmiswulni Cuenni giorgi, Teodore da iovane. qriste, mflobelo yovelTa arsTao, adide orTave cxorebaTa spandaRut patriki8, amen. ufalo RmerTo saxiero, Seiwyalen suliTa salamas Zeni Teodore da kaloJan.9 ra Tqma unda, kolofonSi moxseniebuli spandaRut patriki aris igive balatunusis berZnuli warweris spantaRud tbelis Ze. v. jobaZe, romelmac, cxadia, ar icis balatunusis warweris Sesaxeb, spandaRuts monastris Zmobis wevrad miiCnevs.10 anderZis mixedviT, SeiZleba vifiqroT, rom 1040 wels spandaRut patrikiosi ukve aRar aris laodikeis strategosi (aseTi daSveba ar aris savaldebulo, magram mosalodnelia, radgan strategosebis gaZlierebis SiSiT maT, rogorc wesi, mxolod 3-4 wliT niSnavdnen xolme), magram jer kidev gamoCenili saero moRvawe rom aris, cxadia. amaze miuTiTebs misi patrikiosad wodeba da monastris Zmobis mier qristesTvis Sevedreba, adidos igi orTave cxorebaTa Sina. vfiqrob, anderZSi kargad aris gamijnuli erTmaneTisgan saero pirebi da berebi, cocxalni Tu gardacvlilni. saeroni: qriste, adide suliTa sula zolavari da Svilni maTni; RmerTo saxiero, adiden orTave cxorebaTa Sina stefane da vaCe erTobiT; qriste, mflobelo yovelTa arsTao, adide orTave cxorebaTa spandaRut patriki, amen; ufalo RmerTo saxiero, Seiwyalen suliTa salamas Zeni Teodore da kaloJan. berebi: ufalo RmerTo, Seiwyalen Zmani Cuenni sanano da vaSa ZmiTurT da Zmiswulni Cuenni giorgi, Teodore da iovane; ufalo RmerTo saxiero, Seiwyalen suliTa salamas Zeni Teodore da kaloJan. aqve SeiZleba SevniSnoT, rom am xelnaweris kolofonis asomTavruliT naweri sazedao asoebi SesamCnevad gavs balatunusis qarTul warweris grafemebs. tbelebis sagvareulo axla ukve SegviZlia gadavideT spandaRutis mamis saxelze tbeli. X s-is manZilze tbelebi orjer TamaSobdnen mniSvnelovan rols saqarTvelos istoriaSi. orjerve isini saqarTvelos erTianobis winaaRmdeg gamodian. pirvelad isini daupirispirdnen afxazTa (dasavleT saqarTvelos) mefes giorgi II-s (922-957) da mxari dauWires mis gandgomil Zes konstantines. giorgim, matiane qarTlisas cnobiT, tbelebi mkacrad ar dasaja da somxeTis provinciaSi, vaspurakanSi (aspuragans) gaasaxla.11
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T. Jordanias sula zolavari sula kalmaxeli hgonia (iqve, sq. 12), magram aseT daSvebas qronologia uSlis xels. spantaRudis mixedviT Cans, rom mosaxsenebeli Sav mTasTan uSualo kavSirSi myof pirebs asaxelebs, xolo sula kalmaxeli 40-iani wlebSi saqarTveloSi imyofeba. v. jobaZe, rogorc Cans, Tvlis. rom sula da zolavari sxvadasxva piria (col-qmari) da maT Soris svams mZimes, albaT imitom, rom Svilni maTni mravlobiTi ricxviT aris gamoxatuli. magram zolavari, ra Tqma unda, zoravaria (sardali sula sardali, Sdr. zoravari aRmosavleTisa grigol bakurianis Ze, qarTlis cxovreba, gv. 301) da, rac mTavaria, mxolobiTSia dasmuli zmna adide, iseve rogorc spandaRutis SemTxvevaSi. iqve, sxva SemTxvevebSi, sadac ori an meti piria dasaxelebuli, yvelgan zmnac Sesatyvis ricxviT aris gamoxatuli _ adiden. a. cagarelma spantaRud sworad ver amoikiTxa da miiRo gaugebari siandaluk. ix. . , , gv. 43.
T. Jordania, qronikebi, I, 180; Materials for the Study of Georgian Monasteries in the environs of Antioch on the Orontes by Wakhtang Z. Djobadze, Louven, 1976, p. 10.

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iqve, gv. 109.

amiT qarTlSi tbelebis erisTavoba ar Sewyvetila. meored erTiani saqarTvelos pirveli mefes bagrat III-s (960-1014) dros qarTlis feodalebma, qavTar tbelis meTaurobiT 982 wlis axlos sastiki winaaRmdegoba gauwies saqarTvelos gaerTianebisaTvis brZolaSi, magram damarcxdnen sofel moRrisTan.12 wyarodan ara Cans, ra bedi ewiaT TviTon tbelebs, magram marcxis Sedegebi rom pirvel rigSi maT SeexebodaT, amaSi eWvi ar unda iyos: romelnime daocnes, romelnime daipyrnes da sxuani meotni gardaixuewnes da daifanCnes.13

tbeli _ anTroponimi marTalia tbeli qarTlis erisTavebis sagvareulo saxelia, magram amave sagvareuloSi igi anTroponimadac gvxvdeba. magaliTad SeiZleba davasaxeloT borcvis jvris warwera, romelSic moxseniebulia qavTaris Ze tbeli da tbelis oTxi Ze (am warweris Sesaxeb qvemoT calke iqneba saubari); cxrakaris warwera: qriste, adide oqropiri Ze tbelisa; iqve: qriste, ganusvene sulsa tbelisasa14. xobis monastris kuTvnil Wedur xatze (XI s.) moTavsebulia warwera tbel grigolis Zis, romelsac xati Seuwiravs mraval gamarjvebaTa sanacvlod15. tbeli, rogorc sagvareulo da sakuTari saxeli daaxloebiT amave xanebSi gavrcelda samxreT-dasavleT saqarTveloSic16, vinaidan aqac mdebareobda sofeli tbeTi da tbeTis monasteri, SemdegSi saepiskoposo (mtbevari) rezidencia. am saxelis matarebelTa yvelaze cnobili warmomadgenelia tbel abuseris Ze.17

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tbelni ganutevna mSdobiT asfuragans (qarTlis cxovreba, Tb. 2008, gv. 263). vfiqrob, ZiriTad teqstSi ukeTesi iyo am geografiuli saxelis anaseuli Cvenebis (aspuragans) atana. 2 qarTlis cxovreba, gv. 269. daTariRebasTan dakavSirebiT ix. zaza aleqsiZe, atenis sionis somxuri warwerebi, Tbilisi, 1978, gv. 54-56. 3 iqve, 269. 4 Nn. SoSiaSvili, v. ciskariSvili, sofel dodoTis cxrakaris eklesiis warwera, akad. s. janaSias saxelobis saxelmwifo muzeumis moambe, XIX-A da XXI-B, Tbilisi, 1957,Bgv. 96-98; lapidaruli warwerebi, I, aRmosavleT da samxreT saqarTvelo (V-X ss.), Seadgina da gamosacemad moamzada n. SoSiaSvilma, Tbilisi, 1980, gv. 178-183. 5 e. TayaiSvili, arxeologiuri mogzaurobani, II tf., 1914. gv. 145-146. 6 Tevdore tbelis Ze, ivane tbelis Ze. ix. tbeTis sulTa matiane, teqsti gamosacemad moamzada, gamokvleba da saZieblebi daurTo T. enuqiZem, Tbilisi, 1977, gv. 92, N245; gv. 88, N225. 7 ix. abuserisZe tbeli, Txzulebani, teqsti gamosacemad moamzades, gamokvleva, leqsikoni da saZiebeli daurTes nargiza goguaZem, mixeil qavTariam da raul Cagunavam, baTumi, 1998, gv. 86-87 (aqve ix. sakiTxTan dakavSirebuli literatura); v. silogava, tbeTis eparqia, religiis istoriis sakiTxebi, Tbilisi, 2010, gv. 92.

rogorc Cans, qarTlis tbelebs patrikiosis titulic hqondaT18 jer kidev saqarTveloSi, SesaZloa, mTeli X saukunis manZilze. am tituliT borcvisjvris warwerebSi (X s-is bolo) gvxvdeba tbeli, Ze qavTarisa;19 amave eklesiis warwerebs Soris yuradRebas iqcevs ori erTmaneTis momdevno warwera, romelTac v. Tofuria erT warwerad miiCnevs. erTSi moxseniebulia patrikiosi tbeli rogorc gardacvlili da misi meuRle(?) epraqsi20 (berZnuli warmoSobis saxeli evpraqsi dRevandel saqarTveloSic gvxvdeba), xolo meoreSi _ maTi oTxi vaJiSvili: oqropiri, spdR~d, daviT, qavTar. marTalia, es warwera 1924 wlidan ramdenjerme aris gamocemuli, magram specialistebma tbelis meore Svilis daqaragmebuli spdR~d-is gaxsna ver SesZles.21 dRes CvenTvis ukve naTelia, rom es aris tbelis Ze sp(an)d(a)R(u)d-i, swored is, sp(an)d(a)R(u)d-i<>spantaRud-i<>spandaRut (d<>t-s
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vinaidan tbeli sakuTar saxelad eer warmoudgenia (magaliTad, tbeli patriki Sdr. adarnase patriki), n. SoSiaSvili patriks sakuTar saxelad miiCnevs da kompromisul daskvnas akeTebs: sayuradReboa saxeli _ patrikis damowmeba tbelebSi. es saxeli SesaZloa imis maCvenebeli iyos, rom tbelebs IX an X ss-Si hqondaT bizantiuri tituli patriki (VII s-Si gamoiTqmoda patrikiosi), rac Semdeg sakuTar saxelad iqca am sagvareuloSi (lapidaruli warwerebi, gv. 60). Tu tbelebs qarTlis erisTavoba hqondaT mxolod X s-is dasawyisSi (lapidaruli warwerebi, gv. 59), maSin maT IX s-Si ver eqnebodaT patrikiosis (patrikis) tituli, radgan mis miRebas aucileblad erisTavoba sWirdeboda. tbelebis patrikiosobas dasaSvebad miiCnevs m. lorTqifaniZe. ix. feodaluri saqarTvelos politikuri gaerTianeba, Tbilisi, 1963, gv. 254. 9 aRniSnul SemTxvevebSi n. SoSiaSvili da v. ciskariSvili tbels miiCneven mxolod feodaluri saxlis ufrosis saxelwodebad da ara sakuTar saxelad (ix. sofel dodoTis cxrakaras eklesiis warwera, gv. 94). magram gaugebaria warweraSi pirovnebis moxsenieba sakuTari saxelis gareSe. magaliTad, winadadeba tbelis Ze qavTar maTi azriT miuTiTebs, rom qavTari tbelis (feodaluri saxlis ufrosis) Zea misi saxelis moxseniebis gareSe da TviTon ar SeiZleba iyos tbeli. imave warweras kidev ufro ucnaur ganmartebas urTavs r. mefisaSvili: warweraSi moxseniebulia qavTari Ze tbelisa, mamis saxeli ar axlavs. SeiZleba vifiqroT, rom es tbeli Tavisi drois imdenad gamoCenili piri iyo, rom misi saxelis aRniSvna zedmetad miiCnies. magram Zneli warmosadgenia warweraSi dasaxelebuli iyos feodaluri saxlis meTauri an gamoCenili piri sakuTari saxelis gareSe. warwerebi RmrTisa da momavlisaTvis keTdeboda da ara TanamedroveTaTvis. xom gvaqvs sxva SemTxvevebSi ivane erisTavman tbelman aRaSena ese wmida eklesia salocvelad misTs da xuTTa ZeTa misTa da a.S. qvemoT vnaxavT dokumentur dadasturebasac imisa, rom ivane tbelis Svilebi aseve tbelebi iyvnen. sagvareulo saxeli tbeli rom ojaxis yvela mamakac wevrs aRniSnavda da ara mxolod gvaris ufross, amaze miuTiTebs eredvis warwera: aReSena wmida eklesia ese yovelTa tbelTa brZanebiTa (lapidaruli warwerebi, gv. 173). SemdegSi n. SoSiaSvilma Seicvala Sexeduleba da tbeli sakuTar saxeladac miiCnia. marTalia, mas amis Sesaxeb ar umsjelia, magram pirTa saZiebelSi ki gaitana: tbeli (saxeli) (ix. lapidaruli warwerebi, gv. 329). 0 warwera dakargulia da mxolod m. broses (didi SecdomebiT) da v. Tofurias (1924 wels) kiTxvis niSnis qveS amokiTxviT aris SemorCenili (ix. v. Tofuria, Sida qarTlSi dacul zogierT siZveleTa warwerebi, saistorio moambe, II, Tfilisi, 1924, gv. 133): qriste ganusvene sulsa tbelisasa epraqsis dsa mssa. SoSiaSvili asworebs v. Tofurias wakiTxvas: qriste, ganusuene sulsa tbelisa patrikis, dResa mas. (lapidaruli warwerebi, gv. 182). Nn. SoSiaSvilis wakiTxva damajerebelia, magram mas, rogorc Cans SemTxveviT, gamorCa saxeli epraqsi. radgan amokiTxvaSi ar SegviZlia darwmunebuli viyoT, ufro

erTmaneTTan asimilaciis an disimilaciis mixedviT), romelmac balatunusis burjebi aRadgenina da orenovani warwerebi gaakeTebina. erTdroulad am saxelisa da mamis saxelis matarebeli sxva piri, ramdenadac me vici, ar aris dadasturebuli. amitom borcvis jvrisa da balatunusis warweris protagonistebi erTi da imave pirad unda CavTvaloT. Sida qarTlis warwerebis mixedviT spandaRudis mama tbeli patrikiosia da misi mamis saxelia qavTar. rogorc Cans, igi 982 wlis axlos Tavis mamasTan erTad ibrZoda bagrat mesamis winaaRmdeg da, SesaZloa, am brZolaSi daiRupa an sikvdiliT dasajes. eredvis warwerebis mixedviT unda vifiqroT, rom tbelis Svilebi X s-is bolo oceulis daswyisSi jer kidev arasrulwlovanebi an bavSvebi iqnebodnen da aman gadaarCinaT. amrigad, tbelebis am Stos genealogiuri xe aseTia: qavTar-i I tbel-i _ epraqs-i(?) I oqropir-i, spandaRud-i, daviT-i, qavTar-i spandaRudi _ tbelebis sagvareulo saxeli warwerebi tbelebis sagvareuloSi ueWvelad adastureben Semdeg saxelebs: ivane, tbeli, spandaRud, qavTar, oqropir, daviT, (sxvebs, romelTa Sesaxeb pirdapiri miTiTeba ar aris, magram SeiZleba varaudi, me ar Sevexebi). Teoriulad mosalodnelia sagvareuloSi saxelebi meordebodes. vnaxoT, rogor aris saqme am mxriv sakmaod uCveulo saxelis spandaRud-is mimarT. kldeisas warweraN 2010 wels xelnawerTa erovnul centrSi balatunusis bilingvis Sesaxeb wakiTxuli moxsenebis Semdeg CemTan movida xelovnebaTmcodne giorgi gagoSiZe da gadmomca kldeisis warweris foto, romelic 2009 wlis 15 maiss gadauRia reJisor gela qoqiaSvils (madlobas movaxseneb maT aseTi mniSvnelovani dokumentis mowodebisTvis). kldeisas RvTismSoblis saxelobis taZari mdebareobs TrialeTSi, xramis xeobaSi, kldeisis wylis napiras.22 samxreTi karis Tavze, TaRsa da balavris qvaze ganTavsebulia sami warwera.

bunebrivi iqneba, epraqsi tbelis meuRled miviCnioT. amis safuZvels gvaZlevs iqve, meore warweraSi CamoTvlili pirebis moxsenieba rogorc Svilni maTni (albaT tbelisa da epraqsis). v. Tofuria cnobiT, es warwerebi erTdrouli da erTi adamianis mier iyo Sesrulebuli. 1 n. SoSiaSvili da v. ciskariSvili mas kiTxvis niSnis qveS kiTxuloben rogorc spoRd. 2 . , , . 4, , 1913, gv. 116.

karis TaRis warwera (marjvena mxares dakargulia warweris daaxloebiT ori mesamedi): q~e S~e v~ne - - - (q~e S~e v~ne - - -); q(rist)e S(eiwyal)e v(a)ne - - (q(rist)e, S(eiwyal)e v(a)ne - - -). samxreTi karis kargad moCuqurTmebuli arqitravi (balavaris qva) gayofilia jvriT or nawilad. orive mxares ganTavsebulia warwera. marcxena mxares sam striqonad amokveTilia: 1. q~e S~e 2. sp~nd~R 3. od (1. q~eS~e 2. s~pnd~R 3. Ud); 1. q(rist)e S(eiwyal)e 2. Sp(a)nd(a)R 3. od (1. q(rist)e, 2. S(eiwyal)e 3. sp(a)nd(a)R 4. ud). marjvena mxares oTx striqonad amokveTilia: 1. q~e S~e 2. qv~T~r 3. t~bl 4. n~i (1. q~eS~e 2. qv~T~r 3. t~bl 4. ni); 1. 1. q(rist)e S(eiwyal)e 2. Q(a)vT(a)r 3. tb(e)l 4. n~i (1. q(rist)e, S(eiwyal)e 2. q(a)vT(a)r 3. tb(e)l 4. ni). warwera e. TayaiSvils, samwuxarod, gamoqveynebuli aqvs fotos gareSe. asomTavruliT igi sworad gadmoscems mas, magram kiTxulobs SecdomiT: sp(a)nd(a)Rud e. TayaiSvils wakiTxuli aqvs rogorc spiridon daRudi. am Secdomis wyaroa erTi mxriv misTvis sruliad ucnobi saxeli da meore mxriv erTi saxelis ori daqaragmebiT gadmocema (warmoidgina rogorc saxeli da wodeba an gvari), Tumca aseve ori daqaragmeba aqvs qavTarsac, magram es saxeli misTvis kargad iyo nacnobi. garda amisa, e. TayaiSvils ukvirs, ratom aris qavTar tbelni mravlobiTSi da TargmanSi wers mxolobiTs (tbeli) kiTxvis niSniT. cxadia, mas spiridon daRudi da qavTar tbeli erTi gvarisad ver warmoudgenia, radgan spiridons, misi azriT, Tavisi daRudi aqvs gvarad.23 CemTvis cxadia, rom balavris warwera ekuTvnis Zmebs spandaRud da qavTar tbelebs da igi ase unda iqnas wakiTxuli: q(rist)e S(eiwyal)e sp(a)nd(a)Rud; q(rist)e S(eiwyal)e q(a)vT(a)r _ tbelni.24 vfiqrob, cxadi unda iyos isic, rom samxreTis karis warwerebi qmnian erT jgufs da ekuTvnian erT ojaxs. didia albaToba, rom ivane aris mama (mTavari warwera), xolo spandaRudi da qavTari misi Svilebi. maTi saerTo sagvareulo saxelia tbeli (tbelni). ivane [tbelis] warwera amokveTilia satriumfo TaRze meti kaligrafiuli daxvewilobiT da, cxadia, is unda iyos eklesiis amSenebeli. dakargul nawilSi mosalodnelia, rom ewereboda misi sagvareulo saxeli da titulatura. paleografiulad es warwerebi X s-is meore naxevarze adrindeli ar unda iyos. eredvisa da dodoTis eklesiebis warwerebSi orjer gvxvdeba ivane tbelis saxeli: eredvSi is moxsenebulia rogorc qarTlis ufali, xolo dodoTis warweraSi rogorc erisTavi. n. SoSiaSvili maT erTsa da imave pirad miiCnevs da orive warweras aTari2 3 2 4

iqve, gv. 118. lapidaruli warwerebi, gv. 170-171.

Rebs 914 wlis axlo xanebiT, xolo r. mefisaSvilis azriT dodoTis warwera X-XI ss. mijniT unda daTariRdes. Cemi azriT, imdenad gansxvavebulia es ori warwera paleografiulad, rom erT periodSi dawerili ar unda iyos. meore (dodoTis) ivanes warwera aSkarad ufro gviandelia, vidre pirveli. zustad TariRis gansazRvra paleografiulad Znelia, magram radgan tbelebis warwerebi X s-is 80 wlebze gviani ar SeiZleba iyos, mis TariRis zeda zRvaric aseve unda ganisazRvros: X s-is II naxevari 80-ian wlebamde. kldeisis warweris ivane erisTavs an erisTavTa erisTavs me vaigiveb dodoTis warweris ivane erisTavTan: saxeliTa RmrTisaTa, ivane tbelman erisTavman aRaSena ese wmida eklesia salocvelad misTuis da xuTTa ZeTaTuis.25 e. TayaiSvils iqve eklesiasTan unaxavs qvebis grova, romelTa Sorisac misi varaudiT warwerianiebic iqneboda. samwuxarod, mas qvebis grovis gaSla da daTvaliereba ver mouxerxebia (mosalodnelia, rom samxreTis karis warweris nawilis moZebnac SesaZlebeli iqneboda), magram, risi (eklesiis garSemo mimofantuli qvebi) naxva da wakiTxvac SesZlo, Zalian mniSvnelovania. ai erTi maTganic, romelmac Cemi gansakuTrebuli yuradReba miipyro: 1. q sx~[eliTa] R~aTa meb~Ta w~sa Rm~Sb~T aR 2. vaSene ese- -ekles~ - - [gleT] iv~ne [e~]emn 1. q sx~[eliTa] R~aTa meb~Ta w~sa Rm~Sb~T aR 2. vaSene ese - - ekles~ - - [gleT] iv~ne [e~]eman qaragmebis gaxsniT warwera Semdeg saxes miiRebs: q sx~[eliTa] R~aTa meb~Ta w~sa Rm~Sb~T aR 2. vaSene - -ekles~ - - [gleT] iv~ne [e~]emn 1. q s(a)x[eliTa] R(mrTis)a()Ta, me(oxe)b(i)Ta w(midi)sa Rm(rTi)S(o)bl(isa)Ta aR 2. vaSene ese- - ekles(ia) - - [gleT] iv(a)ne [e(risTavT]e(risTav)man Zalian Znelia msjeloba warweraze, romlis arc fotoa gamoqveynebuli, arc monaxazi, arc paleografiuli aRweriloba da arc miaxloebiTi daTariReba. miuxedavad amisa, samxreTi karis TaRis warweris ivane da eklesiis saamSenebelo warweris ivane erisTavi (e. TayaiSvilis aRdgeniT _ erisTavT-erisTavi) me erTi da igive mgonia.

worbisis warwera 1980 wlis Semodgomaze Sida qarTlSi, tbelebis samflobeloSi aRmoCnda warweriani (asomTavruli) qva worbisis eklesiidan. pirvelad igi amoikiTxa da gamoaqveyna (1981 wels) i. megreliZem.26 samwuxarod, qronikonis amokiTxvaSi man Secdoma dauSva da warwera 880 wliT daaTariRa. imave 1981 wlis arqeologiuri eqspediciis rusulad gamoqveynebul angariSSi igive warwera axlad waikiTxa da TariRic samarTlianad gaaswora (960 w.) o. tyeSelaSvilma.27 fotosTan Sedarebis Semdeg teqstma sabolood aseTi saxe miiRo:
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iqve, gv. 176. erisTavT-erisTavis saxelo IX s-dan Cans qarTul wyaroebSi. Tavdapirvelad erisTavsa da erisTavT-erisTavs Soris arsebiTi gansxvaveba ar iyo, amitom erTi da igive pirebi erTsa da imave konteqstSi xan erisTavebd ixseniebodnen, xan ki erisTavT-erisTavebad. ix. k. kekeliZe, mTavarTa da erisTavTa dadginebis wesi Zvel qarTul mwerlobaSi, etiudebi Zveli qarTuli literaturis istoriidan, III, Tbilisi, 1955, gv.1158-159. 6 komunisti, 1981, 14 ivnisi. 7 . , , 1981 1984, gv. 71. arcerT am Sexedulebas ar iziarebs j. gvasalia qronologiur Seusabamobis gamo. vfiqrob, raRac gaugebrobasTan gvaqvs saqme, radgan dodoTis warweras igi, ratomRac, XI s-iT ixseniebs (ix. , , , 1991, gv. 65.

saxel(i)Ta RmrTis(a)Ta, ese k(o)nqi S(e)qmna iv(a)ne er(i)sT(a)vm(a)n) s(aloc)v(e)l(a)d m(a)Tda qr(o)n(i)k(o)nsa rp s(a)bais m(a)m(a)s(a)xl(i)s(o)b(a)sa. rogorc i. megreliZem, ise o. tyeSelaSvilma worbisis warweris ivane erisTavi ivane tbel erisTavTan gaaigives, magram TariRi rom sxvadasxva hqondaT, identifikaciac sxvadasxva ivanesTan gaakeTes. Cemi azriT, dodoTis, kldeisas da worbisis warweris ivane erisTavebi (erisTavT-erisTavebi) erTi da igive pirovnebaa da maTi qarTlis (ara mxolod Sida qarTlis) erisTavobis miaxloebiTi daTariRebisaTvis ukve sayrdenic mogvepoveba: es aris 960 wlis axlo periodi. Tu asea maSin, Cven SegviZlia tbelebis genealogiuri xisTvis kidev ori Taobis Semateba: rogorc Cans, tbelebis qarTls Sina ufloba gacilebiT metis mTqmeli iyo, vidre dRes Cven warmogvidgenia da arc maTi erisTavoba grZeldeboda sul raRac oci weli28. tbelebi eklesias aSeneben Sida qarTlSic da qvemo qarTlSic (samSvildis regionSi), xolo ivane tbeli qarTlis erisTavT-erisTavis titulsac atarebs. marTalia, qarTlis cxovrebis cnobebiT afxazTa mefeebi periodulad maT Secvlas cdiloben, magram, Cans, tbelebi Tavis uflebebs mTeli X s-is manZilze ara Tmoben da maTi meTaurobiT qarTlis warCinebulTa brZolac qveynis gasaerTianeblad mebrZoli afxazTa mefeebis winaaRmdeg, amis niSania. SemTxveviTi ar aris, rom kldekaris erisTavebis aRzeveba moRrisi brZolis Semdeg, tbelebis mier qarTlis erisTavobis dakargvis Semdeg iwyeba. romelnime daocnes, romelnime daipyrnes da sxuani meotni gardaixuewnes da daifanCnes ivane tbels xuTi vaJiSvili hyavda. amaTgan Cven ukve vicnobT spandaRudsasa da qavaTars. radgan qavTaris Ze tbeli misi SviliSvilia, me vuSveb SesaZleblobas, rom ivanes mesame vaJic tbelis saxels atarebda. bagrat III-sTan brZolaSi qarTlis didebulebs saTaveSi udgas qavTar tbeli. eWvi ar unda iyos, rom mas mxarSi amoudgebodnen Zma spantaRud da vaJi tbelic. Tqma ar unda, misi sul cota kidev erTi Zma, mosalodnelia saxelad tbeli, agreTve monawileobda brZolebSi. zemoTac davwere, rom bagrat mesamesTan brZolaSi mis mowinaaRmdegeTagan zogi rom daiRupa, zogi tyved Cavarda, xolo zogi gadaixvewa da gaifanta sxvadasxva mxares, cxadia pirvel rigSi tbelebs unda exebodes. sxvebis Sesaxeb zustad jer araferi viciT, magram qavTaris Ze tbeli rom gardacvlilia (albaT daRupuli), viciT borcvisjvris warweridan. isic kargad viciT balatunusis warweridan, rom spantaRud tbelis Ze 1031 wels bizantiis imperiis didi moxelea, laodikeis strategosi. daaxloebiT 982 wlidan 1031 wlamde gasulia 49 weli, xolo 1040 wlamde _ 58. Ggasagebia, rom moRrisis brZolis dros spantaRudi da misi Zmebi mcirewlovanebi iqnebodnen. magram qarTlSi maT mainc ar datovebdnen, asakSi Sesulebs Tavisi sagvareulo uflebebisTvis brZola rom ar daewyoT. spandaRud tbeli bizantiaSi spandaRudi ar unda iyos saqarTvelodan didi xnis, jer kidev bavSvobaSi wasuli. misTvis qarTul enaze warweris gakeTeba, miuxedavad imisa, eyoleboda Tu ara mas mkiTxveli, jer kidev didad mniSvnelovania. maS, sad aris igi mowifulobamde? sumbat daviTis Ze gvamcnobs: gardaicvala giorgi (giorgi I), mama amis bagratisi (bagrat IV), TrialeTs . . . qoronikonsa s~m~z (1027), Tuesa agstosa i~e (15) . . . da dajda Semdgomad missa mefed Ze misi bagrat cxrisa wlisa. xolo aznaurni taoelni warvides saberZneTs: vaCe kariWis-Ze da baneli episkoposi iovane, da amaT Tana umravlesni aznaurni taosa[ani], romelnime cixovanni da romelnime ucixoni. ganudges bagrats da mierTnes kostantines, Zmasa basili berZenTa mefisasa, romeli Semdgomad missa mefe iyo.29
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Sdr. lapidaruli warwerebi, gv. 59. Tbelebis sagvareulos mniSvnelobis Sesaxeb ix. m. lorTqifaniZe, feodaluri saqarTvelos politikuri gaerTianeba, gv. 252-257.

amave movlenebis TviTmxilveli somexi istorikosi aristakes lastiverteli (XI s.) mogviTxrobs: 1027 wels mefem (bizantiis keisarma romanos mesamem _ z.a.) aRmosavleT mxareSi gamogzavna mmarTvelad saWurisi vinme nikit[a], romelic movida saqarTveloSi da macduri sityvebiT qveynis bevri aznauri gamoiyvana samSoblodan da mefis karze gagzavna. es rom [keisarma] ixila, ganixara, pativi sca maT didi ZRveniTa da saxelisuflebo CiniT, TviTeul maTgans uboZa maTi Rirsebisamebr soflebi da dabebi xelweriliTa da beWdiT samaradiso samemkvidreod.30 matiane qarTlisa31 da sumbat daviTis Ze32 ar asaxeleben bizantiis keisris mier aRmosavleTis mmarTvelad dayenebuli nikitas () saxels da moixsenieben mas TanamdebobiT _ katabani (berZn. katepano) aRmosavleTisa anu iberiis Temisa, iseve rogorc mis Semdeg gamogzavnil simons33 mxolod parkimanozis ( parakimenos, qarT. mesawoleT-uxucesi34) tituliT moixsenieben. didia albaToba, rom saWuris Nnikita katepanis mier gadabirebul qarTvel warCinebulTa Soris iyo taoSi gadaxvewili spantaRud tbelis Zec. rogorc Cans, amave rigis movlenas asaxavs meore somexi istorikosis maTeos urhaecis (XII s.) cnoba: romanos III-is alepoze laSqrobaSi (1030) monawileobs vinme mTavari apuqap (bizant. wyaroebSi apokapes, arab. Aabu xaf), romelic winaT qarTvelTa mefis daviT kurapalatis mesawoleT-uxucesi (somx. vranapahi, berZn. parakoimenos, qarTul wyaroebSi parkimanoz-i35) iyo. momdevno wels bizantiis keisari romanosi edesas iRebs da mas aZlevs edesis duqsis Tanamdebobas.36
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qarTlis cxovreba, gv. 374; am ambavs daaxloebiT aseve yveba matiane qarTlisa, iqve, 278. 0 , , . . , 1963, gv. 41. citirebulia gamocemidan: aristakes lastiverteci, istoria, qarTuli Targmani gamokvleviTa da komentarebiT gamosca e. cagareiSvilma, Tbilisi, 1974, gv. 24. Cems mier motanil teqtSi mcireodeni, araarsebiTi cvlilebia 1 qarTlis cxovreba, gv. 277. 2 iqve, gv. 373. 3 iqve, gv. 278-279. 4 garigeba elmwifis karisa, qarTuli samarTlis Zeglebi, II, teqtebi gamosca, SeniSvnebi da saZieblebi daurTo prof. i. doloiZem, Tbilisi, 1965, gv. 81, 8384, 91, 95-96. 5 qarTli cxovreba, gv. 374. parakoimenos-i bizantiaSi, gansakuTrebiT X-XI ss-Si Zalian maRali Tanamdeboba iyo. cxadia, aseve iqneboda daviT kurapalatis samefoSic, risi mowmobacaa apuqapis ase dawinaureba keisris karze. amitom misi Tanamdebobis Sesatyvisad ar viyenebT iseT qarTul terminebs, rogoric aris, magaliTad, sawolis mekre an sawolis daraja (garigeba elmwifis karisa, gv. 85), Tumca somxur vranapahs eseni ufro Seesatyvisebian. am terminebTan dakavSirebiT ix. ilia anTelava, saqarTvelos centraluri da adgilobrivi mmarTveloba (XI-XIII ss.), Tbilisi, 1983, gv. 32-35. 6 , , , gv. 57. mixedavad imisa, rom apuqapi qarTvelTa mefis daviT kurapalatis karis moxele iyo, h. aWarianma igi da misi Svili vasili Tavis leqsikonSi Seitana rogorc somexi moRvawe. ix. . , , , I, 1942, gv. 202; V, 1962, gv. 276; a. kaJdani Tvlida, rom apoqapebis qarTuli an somxuri warmoSobis ueWvelad dasabuTeba SeuZlebelia da maT (iseve rogorc Tornikianebsa da bakurianebs) somxur-qarTul sagvareulobebs uwodebs (ix. . . , XI-XII , , 1975, gv. 67-71. apoqapebis somxuri

vnaxoT axla, ra damTxvevebi gvaqvs movlenebsa da pirovnebebs Soris 1027 wels saqarTvelodan (taodan) saWuris nikita katepanis bizantiaSi dabrunebisa da Tan qarTveli warCinebulebis gayoliebis gaTvaliswinebiT. 1. saqarTvelodan dabrunebuli patrikiosi nikita katepani ramdenime wlis Semdeg xdeba antioqiis reqtori37 da xelmZRvanelobs Crdilo siriis makontrolirebeli Zlieri cixesimagris, balatunusis bizantiis imperiisaTvis dabrunebas. balatunusis bilingvis mixedviT, cixe-qalaqi 1031 wels daibruna saWurisma nikita katepanma da amave wels aRadgina laodikeis strategosma da patrikiosma spantaRud tbelis Zem, romelic rogorc laodikeis Temis jarebis sardali, ueWvelia qalaqis aRebaSic monawileobda da igi mis ganmgeblobaSi Sedioda. sad SeiZleboda eseni erTmaneTs Sexvedrodnen siriaze laSqrobamde, Tu ara taoSi, rodesac nikitam vaCe kariWisZe da sxva qarTveli didebulebi bizantiaSi waiyvana, xolo romanoz mesamem mis mxares gadasuli qarTvelebi sxvadasxva TanamdebobebiTa da teritoriebiT daasaCuqra. Tu vismes eqneboda sakmarisi motivacia saqarTvelos datovebisa, es unda yofiliyo bagrat mesamis winaaRmdeg mebrZoli qavTar tbelis SviliSvili spandaRud tbelis Ze. 2. Sav mTaze kalipos monastris xelnaweris (P3) kolofonSi spandaRudis zustad analogiuri epiTetiT (adide orTave cxorebaTa Sina), romelic bizantiaSi maRal administraciul an samxedro Tanamdebobas gulisxmobs, moxsenebulia vaCe, vfiqrob, seriozuli albaTobiT, igive vaCe kariWisZe. advili SesaZlebelia, rom vaCe kariWisZem romanoz mesamisgan misi Rirsebis Sesaferisi Tanamdeboba da mamulebi miiRo swored CrdiloeT siriaSi, ise rogorc apuqapma (edesa) da spandaRudma (laodikea). saqme is aris, rom am xanebSi bizantiisaTvis umTavresi mizani iyo siriis dabruneba arabebisgan da misi teritoriebis Tavisi erTguli pirebis mier aTviseba rogorc politikurad ise socialurad. gavrcelebuli SexedulebiT, vaCe kariWisZis Svilia Sav mTaze moRvawe efrem mcire. Tu vaCe 1027 wlis Semdeg dasaxlda am regionSi maSin gasagebia, rom efremi bavSvobidanve siriaSi aRizrdeboda, SesaZloa, Sav mTaze, radgan sxvagan kargi ganaTlebis miReba ver moxerxdeboda. ara mgonia, ueWveli iyos k. kekeliZis varaudi, TiTqos 1057 wels berZnebTan giorgi mTawmidlis kamaTis dros efremi jer kidev iq ara yofila, radgan berZnulidan qarTulad mTargmnelad mxolod giorgis asaxeleben qarTvelebi.38 cxadia, 1057 wels efremi Wabuki, ganswavlis procesSi iqneboda da mas giorgisTan aravin gaaTanabrebda.39 swored SeniSnavs q. bezaraSvili, rom efrem mcire Tavis kolofonebSi sakuTar moRvaweobasTan dakavSirebiT arsad axsenebs konstantinepols".40 amasve unda mowmobdes efrem mciris anderZi, romelSic igi pirdapir wers, rom berZnuli ganaTleba man Sav mTaze miiRo Jamsa siucbisa da siWabukisa Cemisasa.

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warmoSobisYyvelaze aqtiuri damcvelia v. aruTiunova-fidaniani (ix. .. , XI ., , 35, 1975, gv. 141-1524; .. -, - (X-XI .), . 1994. gv. 84, 85). Tavdapirvelad apuqarpis Sesaxeb mecnierulad swori da obiqturi pozicia daikava J. dedeianma: qarTveli an somexi qalkedoniti. ix. Grard Ddyan, Les princes armniens de lEuphratse et lEmpire Byzantyn (fin XI-milieu XII s.), LArmnie et Byzance, Paris, 1996, gv. 82. samwuxarod, sul male manac Seicvala pozicia, Tumca ufro rbilad: apuqapis, ufro mosalodnelia, somxuri saxli, qarTuli orientaciis marTlmadidebeli sarwmunoebisa. ix. G. Ddyan, Le RoleGdes armniens en Syrie du Nord pendant la reconquete Byzantine (vers 945-1031), Byzantinische Forshungen, Amsterdam, 1999, gv. 274. 7 Werner Seibt, Das Byzantinische militrkomando Iberia, samecniero paradigmebi, Tbilisi, 2009, gv. 147; qarTuli varianti ix. iqve, gv. 159. 8 korneli kekeliZe, Zveli qarTuli literatures istoria, I, Tbilisi. 1980, gv. 252. 9 qeTevan bezaraSvili, ritorikisa da Targmanis Teoria da praqtika grigol RvTismetyvelis TxzulebaTa qarTuli Targmanebis mixedviT, Tbilisi, 2004, gv. 100. 0 iqve, gv. 101.

kalipos monastris xelnaweris kolofonis mosaxsenebelSi, cxadia, SemTxveviTi pirovneba ver moxvdeboda. cxadia, agreTve, kolofonSi moxseniebul yvela pirs raRaca siaxlove da damsaxureba hqondaT Savi mTis qarTul monastrebTan. tbelebi svaneTSi matiane suaneTisa krebisa-Si (gamomcemeli p. ingoroyva XIII s-is meore naxevriT aTariRebs41) mas krebis mosaxsenebelSi 107-e nomrad dasaxelebulia g(iorg)i tbeliani42, xolo 67-e nomrad _ furTux tbeliani.43 ReSteris krebis mosaxsenebelSi 23-e nomrad dasaxelebulia i(van)e tbeliani.44 radgan svanTa gvarebis umetesoba saxelebidan an metsaxelebidan aris nawarmoebi, cxadia, ukve sxvadasxva ojaxad Camoyalibebuli tbelianebi tbelis Camomavlebi arian. sainteresoa, rom beCus krebis mosaxsenebelSi me-8 nomrad dasaxelebulia tbelis deda mTvare.45 es cnoba imis mimaniSnebelia, rom mosaxseneblis Sedgenisas saxeli tbeli svaneTSi jer kidev cocxalia. magram romeli tbeli unda asuliyo svaneTSi, samudamod iq dasaxlebuliyo da saTave daedo misi saxelis matarebeli sagvareulosaTvis, qarTlis Tu samxreT-dasavleTi saqarTvelosi? vfiqrob, svaneTis krebis matianem amisi pasuxic Semogvinaxa. lhas krebis mosaxsenebelSi 324-e nomrad dasaxelebulia spandaRudiani moma. saqme is aris, rom gamomcemelma pavle ingoroyvam (da yvelam sxvam, vinc ki am masalaze imuSava) ver warmoidgina, rom spandaRudi SeiZleba mTliani anTroponimi iyos da daSala or nawilad: spanda da Rudiani, sadac misi azriT spanda saxeli iyo, xolo Rudiani _ gvari.46 SeuZlebelia SemTxveviTi iyos tbelianisa da spandaRudianis erTdrouli dadastureba svaneTSi. cxadia, qarTlis tbelebi svaneTSi asulebi arian da aqve SeuqmniaT TavianTi sagvareulo: tbelianebi da spandaRudianebi. qarTlis tbelebis genealogia kidev ufro mniSvnelovani is aris, rom tbelebis sagvareuloSi unda vigulisxmoT ori tbelis (sakuTari saxeli) arseboba, radgan spandaRudis mama tbeli ukve qarTlSia gardacvlili (Tu mokluli) da svaneTSi ver gadasaxldeboda. rac Seexeba spandaRuds qarTlis tbelebSi ori gvyavs am saxelis matarebeli: spandaRud ivanes Ze da spandaRud tbelis Ze. spandaRud tbelis Ze bizantiaSi gadavida (Cemi azriT, taos gavliT), spandaRud ivanes Ze ki, rogrc Cans, svaneTSi.47 dagvrCa tbeli, romelsac adgili unda vupovoT X s-is tbelebis genealogiur xeSi. vinaidan ivane tbelis xuTi Svilidan jerjerobiT mxolod oris saxeli viciT, vvaraudob, rom ajanyebulTa meTauris, qavTar tbelis erTerTi Zma SesaZloa saxelad tbeli yofiliyo. amitom tbelebis zemoT aRdgenilAgenealogiur Stos SegviZlia gavukeToT damateba, romelic faqtiurad dafaravs mTel X s-s dasawyisidan 80-ian wlebamde:

ivane Uufali qarTlisa (X s-is pirveli oceuli) I Uucnobi


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p. ingoroyva, svaneTis saistorio Zeglebi, nakveTi meore, teqtebi, Tbilisi, 1941, gv. 114. 2 iqve, gv. 126 3 iqve, gv. 129. 4 iqve, gv. 121. 5 iqve, gv. 152. 6 iqve, gv. 139. 7 safiqrebelia, rom aseve gaCndnen svaneTSi rati da ratianebi, abuleTi da abuleTianebi.

I ivane erisTavi//erisTavT-erisTavi (960 weli da mis axlos) I spandaRud-i, qavTar-i, tbeli (?) da kidev ori Zma (960 wlis axlos) I tbel-i patriki _ epraqs-i? (982 wlis axlos) I oqropir-i, spandaRud-i, daviT-i, qavTar-i (982 wlis axlos)