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CHAPTER ONE 1.0 INTRODUCTION This study is in the causes of moral decadence among Youths in tertiary institution of learning within Maiduguri, Borno State. It is concerned with how Youths are morally degenerated owing to some reasons directly or indirectly. The researcher intends to changes brought about by moral degeneration in tertiary institution of learning and to find a lasting and effective solution. However, the level of moral decadence among the youths of today, particularly in tertiary institution is very alarming. You can find some youths engaging in maladjuistive behaviour, like stealing, drug addiction etc. it is in the light of this background that the causes and solutions to moral decadence among youths in tertiary institution needs to be address.

1.1 AIMS AND OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY This project study of bringing to the notices of the youths what moral decadence is all about. Moreover, the project is aimed at helping the youths to know the implication of immoral acts in tertiary institution of learning and elsewhere. This project also aimed at knowing why youths are morally degenerated in tertiary institution especially the western education institutions. The project also aimed at enlighten the parent on their roles in shaping the behaviours of their children.

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This research also focuses in identifying various forms of moral decadence existing within the environment and to see the extend of damage brought about by this activities. Finally, the study is also aimed at exposing the student in particular on how to do way with moral decadence of immoral behaviours not only in tertiary institution of learning but in the society at large in order to have a decent society.

1.2 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY This project is of great important or significant to the government, as it will guide the government to adult its programme on war against moral decadence in Nigerians institutions of learning, especially the free intermingling of the opposite sex. For Nigeria government should have to solve this problem about the moral activities e.g school cultism and drug abuse. The government in her effort to takes the responsibility of that matter in tertiary institutions. In this regard, one of the members of the house open on interviewed by BBC remarked that, they system will be applied in all Nigerian Institution of learning. This research will be of vital use to tertiary institutions of learning as it will help the school authorities or the administration to arrest the prevailing cases of immorality. This study will be of great importance to student in general and those in tertiary institution in particular (especially those engaged in cults and disorders) to realize how to adjust their way of life, in order to bring an end to the immoral

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characters exhibited by students which will eventually improve the spiritual, academic, social, emotional and physical aspect of their lives. In the light of the above, the research can therefore help the government to have more information on the causes of moral decadence in Nigerian Institution of learning and on how to arrest such problems.

1.3 SCOPE AND LIMITATION This study covers the causes of moral degeneration in tertiary institution of learning within Maiduguri Metropolitan with reference to Kashim Ibrahim College of Education, Maiduguri. The research is restricted to the causes of moral decadence among youths in tertiary institution of learning.

1.4 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM The research that induces the reason to embark upon writing this project is that modernization and the western technology which are encroaching into the youths which they consider as civilization. If left unchecked, such force will erode completely. The cherish values and customs of the youth will make it parts and force of their life, especially in the learning strategies. Some youths feels proud to be recognized, because their mode of dressing and order activities that where adopted, had conformed them with western values, such values involves mal-adjustive behaviour like, cultism, smoking, prostitution, examination mal-practices drug abuse alcoholism stealing etc.

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Something effective must be done to improve the condition of Nigeria youths. The youth situation can be described as one of the worst in the world. There is an urgent need to in still in youths, not only in knowledge and skills but also in motivation and values, to enhance their physical and mental health. Homes, schools, health care institution, community groups peer groups and the media must to more in the realm of health promotion, emphasizing health education building life skills and enhancing knowledge of human psychological system, so that youths can have good intrapersonal and interpersonal behaviours and through understanding of the state of their health so that they can avoid risking behaviours.

1.5 OPERATIONAL DEFINITION OF TERMS Morel was defined by dictionary of the social sciences as the ability for individual or group to carryout a course of action to completion. It is also referred to as degree of participation of group of members. It is also the degree to which individual needs will be stratified. Advanced learners dictionary defines the term morel as the principles of right and wrong. Moral was defined by Emmanuel Kant in (1724-1804) as the study of customs and characteristics of man kind. Decadence in order hand is defined as, the moral to a lower level. A person said to be decadence when he or she is decadence therefore, a combination of two separate words: moral.

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Decadence which combined can be defined as moral degeneration or the act of passing from a state of goodness to a lower by losing qualities which are considered to be normal and desirable. Moreover, moral decadence in tertiary institution refers to those kinds of Mal-adjustive behaviours exhibited. By students in tertiary institution of learning.

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CHAPTER TWO 2.0 REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE The researcher in this point reviews some important literatures of post researchers and scholars on moral decadence amongst youths. According to Ann Anosike (1988) in her article titled. Towards a better tomorrow for youths she opined the step mother and step father phenomenon has brought about enormous problem in many homes which was hitherto made many youths to immorality, aggressive and have thus developed psychopathic traits as a result of incompatibility or strained relationship between parents. She went further examples with youth in living in hotels in order to make both ends meet or living with men who would never marry them, all in the name of neglect by parents. Bamisaiya (1999) said The reason why some youths easily behaves immorally is not only that their ethnical structures are different from conventional ethnics, but just that some of their behaviors results from responses of the youths. Bamasaiye, as a social structure theorist believe that the school as on institution structure is capable of increasing and decreasing the immoral behaviours of students. In the work of Frank Peters Matins (psychology of youth). He opened, most immoral behaviours are from lower social economic home or class is at time confusing. If the records obtained from police and the probation department

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is something to reckon with, then the findings of moral decadence comes from lower class. Celestine (1980) said youths are advice to desist from acts which could be detrimental to them and the society in which they have. They should also be honest. He went further to say that training would produce discipline youths who can render selfless services to their communities. According to Roggers (1983), he opened that youths from lower class homes are ill prepared to meet the demand of the school which tend to value middle class standard. He went further to say that those who encounter a great deal of frustration and humiliation in their bid to meet with scholastic standard may form a group or groups, just for them to have an avenue to express their grievances. They may even drop out of school and on falling to secure employment, they turn to arm robbery and the boredom which they late force makes them to engage in violent acts, resentment and desire to material

affluence. Jones (1988) in one of his book titled child psychology and development. He opened that all youths behaviours result, from emotion deprivation. He went further to say that for a child to exhibit normal, emotional and intellectually, such as a child needs a stable and emotional satisfying relationship with his parents. The meaning of this, according to some psychologist psychiatrists is that parent are best in bringing up their children uprightly and early separation of the child from the parent would have unfortunate adverse effects.

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According to him many mental illness in children has been traced to emotional deprivation of children to their parent. For example when a child is deprived of material love and care, the deprivation manifest itself on the parts of the children, withdrawal strive, total rebellion, depression, lack of concentration of school, all which culminate into poor academic achievement and total frustration in all sphere of life. He went further to talk on the role of father in the family as on authority and attached to this authority is fear. Hence, in home where authority is lacking and there is no strong substitute (mother) the child tends to slack in his behaviour and thus become a truant, seriously rebellions and aggressive to the care. In the order hand such child who attach himself so much to the apron of the mother grow up to feel insecure and inferior in later life. Once this happens, the child develops into antisocial being or develops mal-adjustive behaviours like robbery, alcoholism, vandalism etc. He thus becomes so unconcern that he exhibit no sign of gait while displaying the antisocial behaviours. All these are common to children in remand homes. Frank Oroly (1985) opened that many immoral behaviours of youth have been reformed through improvement on their environment and the family set up. Other moral decadence through counselors especially, designed for

psychological purposes as seen in remind homes or other institutions. An example is the Borstal training institute in Kaduna specially established to take care of youths. Changes have been observed by youth who were caught and punished by low.

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Professor Soyinka (1985) said, that moral decadence amongst the youths is growing at an alarming rate and probably there will be a time when student will start to slap their teachers. The youth in tertiary institutions today are disrespectful truants, mannerless, etc. He further said that the causes of the ac by students or youth is that, the youth are brought up in an atmosphere which is critical to iterance and they, therefore easily become a passes immoral acts. According to Ezenweny, the causes of moral decadence amongst youth, arises from social and emotional disturbance. These disturbance could be cause by lack of basis and emotional needs of a person, this problems or needs include food, love, freedom, acceptance, belonging, security, control, consistency, etc intellectual stimulation, sense of worth, success and faith which are necessary for an emotional and socially healthy personality to evolve, she then said, when this basic and emotional needs of a person are not met, problems and conflicts arises, this include the unfortunate consequence in varying degree of frustration, which include anger, hostility, anxiety, fear and aggression, defensiveness and a host of other behaviour, will start to manifest. According to her still adjustment in meet the demands of life is the most desirable trait to be developed in a socially and emotionally health, personality. The Golden rule which says do unto others as you would want them to do unto you? Should be the goal or aim of life.

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Victoria in (1987) said that, youths have been charged with the responsibility for equipping themselves for future leadership of this time of transition of civil rule. Victoria when? Further said that such training will enhance their performance as future leaders as well as impact self discipline in them to enable them discharged their civil responsibility in the society. She then advised the youths to eschew all acts of indiscipline in them, adopt to a more formal and peaceful approach in solving issues on ear them. Conclusively moral decadence is of various types but the behaviour of immoral can be view in two ways. Socially, immorality which include maladjustive behaviour, such as drug addiction, truancy. Alcoholism prostitution, etc. This situation results to gangster of youths. The order types is the individual immorality or moral decadence where on individual choose to behave in a way he likes.

2.1 INDISCIPLINE Adedoyin in (2004) defined and observed moral decadence as extreme delinquent, disorderly, irregularity, destructive unjust and non-conforming behaviours characteristics of stratified people or individuals which continues to spread intra and inter-institutions campuses. Those problem reduce the value of education and destroy the human capacity for leadership and good citizenship its lowers the academic integrity of the institutions and destroy peaces, security progress and real development of the society, collectively, indiscipline lead to

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anti-human behaviours that have failed all tests of decency and civilized living conditions. Indiscipline continues to Proliferate in tertiary institution of learning because of the state of complete absence of morality in the society.

2.2 INJUSTICE For the Herculean task of youths immoral behaviours in tertiary institutions of learning. I believe that womanizers and prostitutes are not needed in educating our innocent youths. Lest they worsen the situation and destroys while trying to build. In spreading the education and the message of hope and prevention we need people of substance, men of honour, and integrity, women of honour and great value pious individual and godly groups. More especially let the sensitization education and application of knowledge start from the home level. Parent should rise up to the challenge.

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CHAPTER THREE 3.0 METHODOLOGY INTRODUCTION In this chapter one certain assumption of hypothesis were made as to the causes of moral decadence amongst youths in tertiary institution. The chapters intends describing the various strategies used for data collection and analysis. Each of the components of methodology will be used in testing the validity of the tested assumptions.

3.1 POPULATION AND SAMPLING The population used for data collection of this research were 100 students randomly sampled from levels in Sir Kashim College of Education (KICOE) as stated by the topic. The selected levels include: NCE I NCE II NCE III To get meaningful information about the causes of moral decadence among youths in tertiary institution of learning, especially in Sir Kashim College of Education, the researcher will use random sampling to get the required population for data collection in each of the four named levels.

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3.2 SOURCES AND TYPE OF DATA In order to ensure appropriate source of data on the causes of moral decadence amongst youths, the researcher will resort to the consultation of both primary and secondary sources. The primary sources for the data collection will be the questionnaire which will be administered to 100 students to find out their personal opinion in the causes of moral decadence amongst youths. The materials to be use for the secondary sources include, journals, text books, magazines and unpublished projects. The researcher also employed some human resources through the use of unstructured interview of both lectures and students as well as observation techniques.

3.3 METHOD OF DATA COLLECTION The main method of data collection in the study is the questionnaire method. The researcher will developed a formal questionnaire through the consultation made. The questionnaire will be constructed, on the basis of moral decadence amongst youths in tertiary institution of learning especially in Sir Kashim College of Education. The formal of the question indicated that both remedial and NCE I to NCE III are expected to put a thick ( provided, with correct information of their choices. For example; poverty accompanied with materialism lead to youths immoral acts Yes/No ) in the black boxes

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CHAPTER FOUR 4.0 DATA PRESENTATION ANALYSIS This study utilized the questionnaire method in comprehensive survey of Sir Kashim Ibrahim college of education (KICOE) over the causes of moral decadence amongst youth in tertiary institution. Through the means of respondent. I distributed about 100 copies of the questionnaire and different responses where given. Those that responded Yes, were about (60%) sixty while those that responded No were (40%) forty as shown below. Table 4.1.1 Demoralization of youths with bad companies leads to youths immoral behaviorurs. RESPONSE Yes No TOTAL FREQUENCY 80 20 100 PERCENTAGE (%) 80% 20% 100%

Table 4.1.2 Does the advancement of modern technology lead youth to immoral behaviour? RESPONSE Yes No TOTAL FREQUENCY 70 30 100 PERCENTAGE (%) 70% 30% 100%

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Table 4.3 Have the environment where children come from influence their moral behaviour RESPONSE Yes No TOTAL FREQUENCY 60 40 100 PERCENTAGE (%) 60% 40% 100%

Table 4.1 Is there any relationship between the culture and the behavious of any child. RESPONSE Yes No TOTAL FREQUENCY 60 40 100 PERCENTAGE (%) 60% 40% 100%

Table 4.5 Does the attitudes of youth in Sir Kashim College of Education effects their learning processes RESPONSE Yes No TOTAL FREQUENCY 60 40 100 PERCENTAGE (%) 60% 40% 100%

Table 4.6 Poverty accompanied with materialism leads to youths immoral behaviour

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RESPONSE Yes No TOTAL

FREQUENCY 90 10 100

PERCENTAGE (%) 90% 10% 100%

Table 4.7 Does the lectures in KICOE intimidate their female student to commit premarital sex RESPONSE Yes No TOTAL FREQUENCY 95 5 100 PERCENTAGE (%) 95% 5% 100%

Table 4.8 Mal-adjustive behavious like smoking, drinking, fornication acceptable to the school rules and regulation. RESPONSE Yes No TOTAL FREQUENCY 30 70 100 PERCENTAGE (%) 30% 70% 100%

Table 4.9 Does the appearance of female student in tertiary institution especially in KICOE acceptable RESPONSE Yes FREQUENCY 20 PERCENTAGE (%) 20%

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No TOTAL

80 100

80% 100%

Table 4.10 lack of child upbringing lead to youth immoral behaviour RESPONSE Yes No TOTAL FREQUENCY 60 40 100 PERCENTAGE (%) 60% 40% 100%

From the above table the data shows that 60% agreed on poverty accompanied with materialism causes immoral behaviours of student in Sir Kashim College of Education, while 40% disagree.

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CHAPTER FIVE SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION 5.0 SUMMARY The summary of this research was to find out the causes of moral decadence amongst youths in tertiary institution. Especially in Kashim College of Education. In this chapter the researcher find out that the main causes of moral decadence in KICOE is attributable to lack of proper child upbringing, poverty accompanied.

5.1 CONCLUSION In conclusion, the researcher try to show that the causes of moral decadence on like other social factors a problems is not a product of single factors but that of a multiple ethnology which involves a definite inter play between many socio-cultural condition. The high rate of moral decadence among youths was not the reaction of inability to live up to the conventional criteria of status. Some of the traditional name has become meaningless to the youths. There is high degree of individual. Every one is concerned only with himself, and to get anything, one has to struggle by himself and this also applied to the youths. Also association of youths within other semi professional delinquents increase the rate of immoral acts amongst youths in the society. The researcher

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also found in this research that, impact of western educational, technology influences the behaviour of youths negatively.

5.2 RECOMMENDAITON The researcher hereby recommends a lasting solution to the causes of moral decadence amongst youths, this include; 1. The state government should act upon or set up a modern remind home with the necessary facilities for both the imamates and staff. 2. The three tiers of government (Federal, State and Local Government) should be organizing film show that talks or shows the negative effects of moral decadence. 3. Guidance and counseling should be in school curriculum in both secondary and tertiary institutions and should intensified through an experts in the field. 4. Recreational activity be resuscitated by government schools of both secondary and tertiary institution in order to occupy the mind of the students. 5. Youths in school should be given proper discipline by the school authority, in order for them not to have the room to join delinquent gangs and not to learn the immoral activities in school. 6. The State government should open an approved school to the state to take care of immoral act with serious offences who are not. Supposed to be in custody in the same place in mild offenders.

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7. Seminars and campaigns should be organized for youths during the long vocation to occupy their minds throughout that period instead of disco and roaming the street.

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REFERENCES A.K Cohen (1960) p.e Reviewed controlling social problems Prentica Hall (ed) New Jersey. R.K. Mirtion & R. misbet (1976 p.68). contemporary social problems Prentica Hall (ed) New York Highcourt Joanmich., Adegen Principles and Practice of education Cohen O.M. Delinquent Boys the culture of the gang the free press corporation (1995) William B. Sunder Juvenile Delinquent (1946).

CURBING MORAL DECADENCE IN THE EDUCATIONAL SECTOR: YOUTHS INVOLVEMENT. What is Moral? And what is Decadence? Moral can be defined as giving guidance on how to behave decently and honestly. It can also be seen as relating to issues of right and wrong and to how individuals should behave. It can be seen as something ethical, good, right, proper, honourable, just, principled etc. Decadence means the process of decline or decay in a society especially in its morals. It's also a state of immorality, corruption, debauchery, dissolution, self indulgence, profligacy, excess etc.(Micro soft Student Encarta 2008.) From the above definitions of moral and decadence, we can easily say what moral decadence is all about. Moral decadence is decline, decay and profligate in the moral values of individuals and society at large. It is the decay in the ethical values and norms that govern an individual and the society at large. A society where there is decline in moral values, what is wrong becomes right, what society should abhor becomes what they uphold. Therefore relating this to the educational sector, our educational sector has been beclouded with immoral acts (moral decadence). What is said to be ivory tower or citadel

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of learning has been turned in to a breeding ground for hoodlums, rapist, prostitute, etc. The educational system is losing its moral and social values. The big question is who is responsible for all these immorality? What is the root cause of these social vices? What can possibly be done to curb these ugly vices in our educational system? All these and more will be deliberated in this chapter. Types of Moral Decadence.

Cultism. Rape. Examination Malpractices. Indecent dressing. Teenage Pregnancy. Student Prostitution. Sexual harassment. Sales of "Grade". Student Demonstration etc.

We will briefly discuss on the causes of some of these listed above. Cultism/ Secret Cult. According to Denga(1991),cultism is a system of religious belief and practice or an ideology. Orukpe (1988) defined secret cult as a group of people who share and propagate peculiar secret beliefs divulge only to members. In addition their initiation procedures often involves secret rituals like swearing by deity, human blood and other procedures which send shivers down the spines of most people. Origin of Cultism/ Secret Cult. The origin of secret cult could be traced back in 1953 in Nigeria tertiary institutionUniversity college, Ibadan now known as university of Ibadan(UI).It was formed by Nigeria's only Nobel laureate , Prof. Wole Soyinka.Their main objectives include: 1. To abolish conventions. 2. To revive the age chivalry. 3. To end tribalism and elitism. Their ideas were both patriotic and altruistic as it was not imagined as a secret cult, but simply known as the Pyrate confraternity or the National Association of sea dogs. Common examples of Secret Cult in our Institutions. According to Nwadike (2003) there are about 45 secret cults in Nigeria institutions of learning, and all are equipped with an elaborate hierarchy, insignia and distinct attire. Some of the most notable of these secret cults group include:

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1. Sea Dogs. 2. Black Axe. 3. Aiye. 4. Vickings. 5. Daughters of Jezebel. 6. Amazons. 7. White Angels. 8. Black Brassiers. 9. Buccaneers. 10. Morphite.etc Causes of Cultism/Secrete Cult among the youths/students. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. To gain recognition and popularity. Lack of proper upbringing by their parents. Bad association or company. Poverty. Fear of the Unknown-To fail exam, not being intimated by others, lovers rejection. 6. Broken Home. Etc

Effects of Secret Cult. 1. It leads to rustication or expulsion of both innocent and guilty students. 2. It leads to outburst of violence on campus which leaves many students wounded, maimed or killed as the case may be. 3. It leads to loss and lack of confidence to the affected students or group. 4. The affected live a life of regrets and pains. 5. Relationship with students, loved ones, parents become bitter, unfriendly or soiled. 6. Leads to armed robbery. 7. Lack of focus in all spheres of life. 8. Not being useful to the society. 9. Relationship with God becomes soiled.etc Curbing Cultism in our Institutions: The roles of the youths.

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Since we have identified the origin, causes and effects of cultism in our higher institutions of learning, how can this menace be curb through our youth's involvement? Some of the workable solutions are as follows: 1. The youth should be properly counseled on peer group relationship. 2. Proper moral upbringing of children and wards by parent should be paramount. 3. Any act of intimidation by cultist should be reported to school authority/school security. 4. There should be improved facilities and living conditions on campuses. 5. Youth should have detailed knowledge of the word of God and its Application. 6. School authority should disassociated themselves from sponsoring cultist in order to achieve their selfish aims or desires like being the VC, HOD, DEAN, etc. 7. Youth should involve in aggressive campaign against cultism. 8. The study of guidance and counseling should be imperative in the school curriculum. 9. Students should be engaged in extra curricular activities; this will help to keep them busy and makes them become useful. 10. Youth should develop moral courage to say NO when such offer comes 11. Always have a positive mind set.etc Since cultism has no positive moral upbringing, benefits or development, let's shun cultism in all totality. DRUG ABUSE A drug is a substance of biological or chemical origin when applied to a living tissue produces an effect. Drugs include what are commonly called medicine. Therefore drug abuse refers to the use, especially by self administration of any drug in a manner that deviates from an approved medical or social pattern within a given culture. It is the abnormal use of drugs. Some of the noted illicit substances as drug abuse are: opiods, heroine, marijuana (Indian hemp), phenol barbitone, valium, cocaine, alcohol etc Forms of Drug Abuse. 1. Drug abuse through ignorance. 2. Deliberate drug abuse.

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3. Drug abuse for pleasure. 4. Drug abuse from curiosity. 5. Incorrect drug dosage. Kinds of Illicit Drugs. 1. Cannabiniods e.g. hashish, marijuana. 2. Depressants e.g. barbiturates, benzodiazepines, methaqualone. 3. Club Drugs e.g methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), Gamahydroxybutyrate (GHB), Rohypnol kelamine. 4. Hallucinogens e.g lysergic acid, diethylamide (LSD), Phencyclidine (PCP), Mescaline and psilocybin. 5. Opiods e.g codeine, fentanyl, heroin, morphine, opium, oxycodone, hydrocodone. 6. Stimulants e.g. nicotine, cocaine, amphetamines. 7. Inhalants e.g glue, gasoline, aerosol spray, paint thinner.
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Causes of Drug Abuse. 1. Social factor e.g. peer groups influence. 2. Parental factor e.g. lack of parental guidance, monitoring and control. Improper upbringing, broken home. 3. Economical Factor e.g poverty, unemployment and underemployment. 4. Psychological factor e.g. recognition, to belong and cheap popularity. 5. Genetic factor e.g. families that are into drug abuse tend to influence others. Symptoms of Drug Abuse among Youths/Students. 1. Change in activities e.g not doing home work, sport or spending time with new friends. 2. Behavioral Changes e.g. aggression, irritability, forgetfulness.

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3. Financial changes e.g request for money that cannot be explained, or disappearing money or valuables. 4. Risky behavior e.g drinking and driving or having unprotected sex. 5. Legal trouble eg getting arrested or always in police net. 6. Changes in appearance e.g being dirty. Effects of Drug Abuse. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Leads to madness in most cases if not properly handled. Loss of sensory perception Loss of appetite Low retentive memory. Leads to criminal acts e.g. stealing ,murdering, robbery etc Soiled relationship with God. The person academics/ education suffer. Always aggressive even when nothing offends him. Loses recognition and respects.etc

Preventive Measures: Youths Involvement. 1. Youths should involve in serious campaign against drug abuse. 2. Avoid risky situation or places eg parties or clubs or unsafe gathering of people. 3. Youths should develop the habit of being patient. 4. Seek help incase of mental disorder. 5. Parent should strengthen their relationship with their children. 6. Parents should set good example by not abusing drugs. 7. Youths should be open to their parents or guidance. 8. Youths should be properly guided in school and at home. 9. Youths should have priorities in life. 10. Study and apply the word of God in your daily living.etc "Why do you choose to destroy your future when God has prepared and given you a blissful future." INDECENT DRESSING.

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Our higher institutions of learning have been beclouded with indecent dressing most especially the female students. Most girls go bare, displaying their navels and boobs and wearing what just ample cleavages on display, depicting size and shape of their private parts with mini that barely skim the bottom. It appears now to be fashionable; one has to become half nude, dressed in sleeveless/see-through tops without bra. From the above description of indecent dressing, what then is indecent dressing? Indecent dressing is act of dressing contrarily or indecently to a normal dressing code. From Africa perspective, I believe every culture has its dressing code. Though the dressing code might vary from one culture to another but each culture has a standard and acceptable dressing code. So any deviation from such dressing code could be term as indecent dressing. Kinds of Indecent Dressing. 1. Mini and Micro mini skirt. 2. Handless Tops. 3. See-Through Tops. 4. Breast exposure Tops. 5. Pants exposure Trousers. 7. Navel exposure tops. 8. Pant-Free skirts.etc Causes of Indecent Dressing. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Bad association or company. Wrong use of internet. Parents. Want to be recognized and be popular. To seduce the opposite sex either in school or outside the school. Lack of basic knowledge on dressing code.

Effects of Indecent Dressing. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Fall a victim of sexual harassment. Fall a victim of rituals. Lack of concentration in their studies. Might lead the person to steal. Develop the habit of telling lies. Have soiled relationship with God and other decent relations.

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Control Measures: Youths Involvement. 1. Youth should be contented with what they have. 2. Youth should be involved in campaign against indecent dressing. 3. Report to the school authority in case of any one that tries to lure you into such act. 4. Parent should be a very good role model. 5. Dressing code should be introduced into the higher institutions of learning. 6. Religious organization should stand firmly and preach against it.etc. 7. The legislators should make provision for such in our constitution. SEXUAL PROMISCUITY/ PROSTITUTION. This is an act of involving oneself in illicit sexual intercourse or relationship with an opposite sex, either for money making or for pleasures. The act of sexual promiscuity or prostitution is most common with our female students .In most higher institutions of learning, such act has become a money-making business to the female students. They could also use such act to get what they want on campus. Most students hostels and quarters have been turned into brothel. Students who for the first time gained some social freedom from their parents watchful eyes and guidance easily fall prey to the temptation of eating the "forbidden fruit". Some of them become so wild on the illicit love making that they give most of their time and attention to it to the detriment of their studies. They become so much engaged in NOCTURNAL activities that they sleep through out the daytime in hostels or during lectures for those who want to register their presence in classes. Some other one will completely abandon their lectures to keep appointment with their boy friends or "sugar daddies". Causes of Sexual Promiscuity/Prostitution. 1. Economic factor eg poverty, unemployment underemployment, high cost of living etc. 2. Parental Factor eg most parent encourage their wards to involve in such illicit act. Lack of parental care, counseling and control. 3. Social factor eg bad company, decadence in the social values of the society. 4. Lack of sex education at home and in schools. 5. Intimidation by lecturers/teachers and fellow students. 6. Students in quest of higher grade or to pass an examination. Etc. Effects of Sexual Promiscuity/ Prostitution.

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1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

Loss of social values among students and peers. Leads to unwanted pregnancy. Leads to pre mature death-incase of aborting the baby. Become prone to ritual. Poor performance in class. Fall a victim of accident. Can lead to barrenness as a result of chains of abortion. Soiled your relationship with God. Become a reproach to the society. etc.

Control Measures : Youths Involvement. 1. Have the moral courage to say NO, either from fellow students or lecturers/ teachers. 2. Escalate it to the higher authority in case of intimidation by lecturers/teachers or fellow students. 3. Know that your basic priority in school as a student is your education. 4. Avoid bad peers. 5. Parent should teach their wards sex education before exposing them to the four-walls of education. 6. The school authority with out prejudice or biasness should deal severely with offender. 7. Parent should be a role model; they lead and live by example. 8. Study the word of God and always apply it in all you do. 9. Always have/develop a positive mind-set in what ever you are doing. Etc. EXAMINATION MALPRACTICES. Examination Malpractice is any act of omission or commission, which compromises the validity and integrity of any examination.-(Ministry of Education, Benue State 2001).It is acting or going contrarily to the rules and regulations guiding the conduct of examinations. Examination which is said to be the true test of knowledge has lost its values as some student can get into any higher institutions with out written or oral examination. In fact this has really become a hard nut to crack among various examination bodies. Brief Histroy/ Origin of Examination Malpractices. The problem of examination malpractices in Nigeria seems to be as old as the introduction of formal system of education (Afigbo 1993).The first major Examination

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Malpractice was in 1914, when the senior Cambridge local examination leaked. This scenario took an unprecedented surge in 1963 when two public examinations of 1967, 1977, 1981 and 1987 leaked. These leakages then attracted the attention of the federal government, which led to the promulgation of decree 27 of 1973, and miscellaneous decree 20 of 1984 to curb examination malpractices and the latter decree prescribed 21 years jail term for offenders. Causes of Examination Malpractices. Experts have identified the following as the causes of examination malpractices: 1. Inadequate qualified teachers. 2. Inadequate teaching and learning facilities. 3. Parental contribution. 4. Over population of students in a school. 5. Non completion of syllabus before examination. 6. Immorality in wider society. 7. Inadequate supervision of teachers by inspectors. 8. Absence of guidance and counseling services in school. 9. Constant closure of schools e.g teachers' strike or student demonstration. 10. Non provision of extra curricula activities. 11. Emphasis on paper qualification or certificate. 12. Students involvement in cultism, drug abuse, sexual promiscuity and truancy. Agents of Examination Malpractices. The following are the perpetrators of examination malpractices: 1. Parent/Guardians who buy exams papers or bribe the examiner on behalf of their wards. 2. Teachers/Head Teacher, those who collect money from the students to "settle" the invigilators. 3. Lazy Students. 4. Examiners/External Invigilators. 5. The Printer of the exam papers. 6. Government Officials. 7. Examination Bodies. etc Forms of Examination Malpractices. The various forms of examination malpractices are as follows: 1. 2. 3. 4. Leakages. Impersonation. External Assistance. Smuggling of foreign materials.

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5. Copying. 6. Collusion. 7. Intimidation. 8. Substitution of script. 9. Ghost Centers. 10. Marker malpractice. 11. Awards and Certificates. 12. Use of technological devices. Eg Hand set. 13. Use of body parts. 14. Signs and symbols. etc Effects of Examination Malpractices. The effects of examination malpractices are so enormous. Some of these are as follows: 1. It destroys the zeal to read. 2. Leads to churning out of half-baked graduates. 3. Makes the examination bodies not to be the true test of knowledge. 4. Makes it difficult for our students to study abroad, reason being that the western countries have lost confidence in our educational system. 5. Loss of confidence in the affected students. 6. It leads to sabotage on the economic values of a country. 7. Soils your relationship with God and others. 8. Some loss their lives while traveling to special centre for examination. 9.Brings disrespect between the students and the teachers/lecturers.etc. Control Measures : Youths Involvement. 1. Students/Youths should be able to have the moral courage to pin point any culprit that indulges in such act. 2. Reading culture should be imbibed among the students. Though reading might be a little bit strenuous but its very interest. The more you read the more knowledgeable you become. 3. Parents should live up to their integrity. Because any foundation you lay in a child is what he/she grows and go with. 4. Youths should avoid being lazy. Be up and doing with your academics.

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5. Students should always think of a better tomorrow-that is devoid of all kinds of corruption. Remember that corruption is a cankerworm that renders the entire system useless. 6. Students should involve themselves in extral mural classes. Classes /Lesson you attend after school hour is an added advantage. It makes you to be ahead of others. 7. Know that the most precious gift that money can not buy is integrity. Keep you integrity!!! Other Measures. 1. 30-50% should be deducted from any student involved in exam malpractices. 2. Disqualify any student involved from taking exam during the current year and coming year. 3. Government should live up their responsibilities. There should be no sacred cow for any culprit irrespective of his class or position. 4. Qualified and competent teachers should be recruited. 5. Education should be taken as a priority by the government and other stake holders. Education should be seen as a pillar and beacon of truth of any nation. 6. Examination bodies should be overhauled. The "bad eggs" should be fished out of the system, if not it might as well cause other eggs to rotten. 7. Examination bodies should partner with other integrity institutes that have proven and tested reputation. These institutes will help in examination supervision. The good news about these institutes is that most of them are NGOs that will require little or nothing to do the job. 8. Schools involved in exam malpractices should be suspended from taken any form of exams for 5 years. The head of schools/Proprietors and proprietress should be informed. 9. The Ministry of education should sanction teacher(s) that are involved in examination malpractices. The ministry could hold his/her salary for a year or suspend him. 10. "Special centers", "wonderful centers" as the implies should be put to stop. The examination bodies should have nothing to do with such centers. Etc Conclusion. The general increase in the social vices among students of all levels of educational system is alarming. Though this article centers on the role of the youths in curbing this ugly monster (moral decadence), but the truth still remains that all hands must be on deck if this situation is to be dealt with. The wealth of this nation lies in our vibrant youths. These youths when fully given the right mind set and right environment will reposition this nation. As we all know that education is the backbone of any nation, our educational system should not be allow to decay. It's possible to have a better Educational system. Ministry of education, Benue State 2001. "How to excel in examination and be free from cult.Makurdi, Nigeria. Ministry of education publication.

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Denga D.I 1991 "Nigerian Education system. Proposal for a smooth voyage to the year 2000 and beyond.

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