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History Sukhoi Su-30MKI

The Sukhoi Su-30MKI[3] (NATO reporting name: Flanker-H) is an air superiority fighter jointly developed by Russia's Sukhoi and India's Hindustan Aeronautics Limited (HAL) for the Indian Air Force (IAF). A variant of the Sukhoi Su-30, it is a heavy, all-weather, longrange fighter. Development of the variant started after India signed a deal with Russia in 2000 to manufacture 140 Su-30 fighter jets.[4] The first Russian-made Su-30MKI variant was accepted into the Indian Air Force in 2002,[5] while the first indigenously assembled Su30MKI entered service with the IAF in 2004.[6] In 2007, the IAF ordered 40 additional MKIs.[7] The IAF has 137 Su-30MKIs in active service as of December 2011;[1] it plans to have a fleet of 272 MKIs.[8] The Su-30MKI is expected to form the backbone of the Indian Air Force's fighter fleet to 2020 and beyond.[9] The aircraft is tailor-made for Indian specifications and integrates Indian systems and avionics as well as[10] French and Israeli subsystems.[11] It has abilities similar to the Sukhoi Su-35 with which it shares many features and components.[12][13] The Su-30MKI was jointly designed by Russia's Sukhoi Corporation and India's Hindustan Aeronautics Limited (HAL).[14] The MKI's airframe evolved from that of the Sukhoi Su-27 while most of the avionics were developed by India.[15] The Su-30MKI is reputed to be more advanced than the basic Su-30MK, the Chinese Su-30MKK/MK2, and the Malaysian Su-30MKM.[16] It features state of the art avionics developed by Russia, India and Israel which includes display, navigation, targeting and electronic warfare systems. [17] Some avionics suites used in the aircraft were also sourced from France and South Africa.[18] After 2 years of evaluation and negotiations, India signed a US$1.462 billion deal with the Sukhoi Corporation on 30 November 1996 for the delivery of 50 Su-30MKI aircraft in five batches. The first batch were 8 Su-30MKs, the basic version of Su-30. The second batch were to be 10 Su-30Ks with French and Israeli avionics. The third batch were to be 10 Su30MKIs featuring canard foreplanes. The fourth batch of 12 Su-30MKIs and final batch of 10 Su-30MKIs aircraft all were to have the AL-31FP turbofans. These 50 aircraft were made by Sukhoi in Russia. In October 2000, a MoU (Memorandum of Understanding) was signed confirming the license production of 140+ Su-30MKIs in India and in December 2000, the deal was sealed at Russia's Irkutsk aircraft plant, with full technology transfer. The first Su-30MKIs from Nasik were to be delivered from 2004, with the staged production until 201718. However in November 2002, the delivery schedule was expedited with production to be completed in ten years by 2014-15 by increasing the annual rate of production from 10 to 14 aircraft annually.[19] An estimated 920 AL-31FP turbofans are to be manufactured at HAL's Koraput Division, while the mainframe and other accessories are to be manufactured at HAL's Divisions in Lucknow and Hyderabad. Final integration of the aircraft and its test

flight are to be carried out at HAL's Nasik Division.[20] The MKI production was planned to be done in four phases: Phase I, II, III and IV respectively. In 2007, another order of 40 Su-30MKIs was placed. In 2009, the planned fleet strength was to be 230 aircraft.[21] In 2008, Samtel HAL Display Systems (SHDS), a joint venture between Samtel Display Systems and HAL, won a contract to develop and manufacture multi-function avionics displays for the MKI.[22] A helmet mounted display, Topsight-I, based on technology from Thales and developed by SHDS will be integrated on the Su30MKI in the next upgrade.

Operational history
IAF Su-30MKI jet touches down at Mountain Home Air Force Base during Red Flag exercise. The Sukhoi Su-30MKI is the most potent fighter jet in service with the Indian Air Force in the late 2000s.[49] The MKIs are often fielded by the IAF in bilateral and multilateral air exercises. India exercised its Su-30MKIs against the Royal Air Force's Tornado ADVs in October 2006.[50] This was the first large-scale bilateral aerial exercise with any foreign air force during which the IAF used its Su-30MKIs extensively. This exercise was also the first in 43 years with the RAF. During the exercise, the RAF Air Chief Marshal Glenn Torpy was given permission by the IAF to fly the MKI. [51] The RAF's Air Vice Marshal Christopher Harper praised the MKI's dogfight ability, calling it "absolutely masterful and unbeatable".[52] In July 2007, the Indian Air Force fielded the MKI during the Indra-Dhanush exercise with Royal Air Force's Eurofighter Typhoon. This was the first time that the two jets had taken part in such a exercise.[53][54] The IAF did not allow their pilots to use the radar of the MKIs during the exercise so as to protect the highly classified N011M Bars. [55] Also in the exercise were RAF Tornado F3s and a Hawk. RAF Tornado pilots were candid in their admission of the Su-30MKI's superior manoeuvring in the air, and the IAF pilots were impressed by the Typhoon's agility.[56] The RAF stated that the Typhoon and Su-30MKIs did not go head to head in mock combat during that particular exercise.[citation needed] India sent Su-30MKs, an earlier variant of the Su-30MKI, to take part in war games with the United States Air Force (USAF) during Cope-India 04 in 2004. The results have been widely publicized, with the Indians winning "90% of the mock combat missions" against the USAF's F-15C.[57][58] In July 2008, the IAF sent 6 Su-30MKIs and 2 Il-78MKI aerial-refueling tankers, to participate in the Red Flag exercise.[59] The IAF again did not allow their pilots to use the radar of the MKIs during the exercise so as to protect the highly classified N011M Bars. In October 2008, a video surfaced on the internet which featured a USAF colonel, Corkey Fornoff, criticizing Su-30MKI's high friendly kill rate, serviceability issues, and relatively poor performance against the F-15C during the Red Flag exercise.[60][61] Several of his

claims were later rebutted by the Indian side and the USAF also distanced itself from his remarks.[62] In June 2010, India and France began the fourth round of their joint air exercises, "Garuda", at the Istres Air Base in France. During Garuda, the IAF and the French Air Force were engaged in various missions ranging from close combat engagement of large forces, slow mover protection, protecting and engaging high value aerial assets. This exercise marked the first time SU-30 MKI took part in a military exercise in France.[63]

Radar
The forward-facing NIIP N011M Bars (Panther) is a powerful integrated passive electronically scanned array radar. The N011M is a digital multi-mode dual frequency band radar.[43] The N011M can function in air-to-air and air-to-land/sea mode simultaneously while being tied into a high-precision laser-inertial or GPS navigation system. It is equipped with a modern digital weapons control system as well as anti-jamming features. N011M has a 400 km search range and a maximum 200 km tracking range, and 60 km in the rear hemisphere.[44] The radar can track 15 air targets and engage 4 simultaneously. [44] These targets can even include cruise missiles and motionless helicopters. The Su30MKI can function as a mini-AWACS as a director or command post for other aircraft. The target co-ordinates can be transferred automatically to at least four other aircraft. The radar can detect ground targets such as tanks at 4050 km.[44] The Bars radar will be replaced by Zhuk-AESA in the last batch of 40 aircraft.[ Su-30 MKI Vs Rafale India will soon be flying both of these aircraft so hopefully this question will be resolved soon. But just for the hell of it, which of these two aircraft is more capable in A2A combat? The Rafale has a significantly smaller RCS, but the Flanker is a much larger aircraft so it can fit a much larger, more powerful radar. Both of the aircraft will be getting AESA upgrades. I'd have to imagine that ones you hang bombs, fuel tanks etc. neither of these aircraft can be considered "stealthy," despite Dassault's marketing. Both aircraft are equipped with HMS and HOBS missiles. The Rafale is smaller and lighter but the Flanker series are well known for their impressive agility and the MKI has 3D thrust vectoring. The Rafale is more than double the price so I hope it does bring something more to the table. Dassault does tout SPECTRA an awful lot, but a lot of it seems to marketing. That system doesn't seem to have anything that most 4++ gen aircraft don't. Interestingly, both these aircraft participated in Red Flag back in '08. I'm sure many of us

are familiar with that series of videos from a USAF pilot at Nellis. He basically said the MKIs got housed by F-15Cs in A2A engagements but he did say that the MKI would be a little better than the F-15 and -16 once the Indians start learning how to use it. He did say it was vastly inferior to the -22. According to him, the French didn't do much and seemed to be only be there to spy.

Sukhoi Su-30MKI
The Su30-MKI(Flanker-H) is a customized Su27PU built according to Indian specifications. The M is for Modernized, K for Commercial and I for Indiski (India). It is probably the first time that an aircraft has been built in Russia for a foreign customer specifications. The Su30 was evaluated along-with the Mirage 2000-5, and found to be cheaper, hence was chosen. The Su27 was first evaluated by the Indian Air Force in 1994, when a team led by the Chief of Air Staff (ACM S.K.Kaul) in Russia. The contract for the first 40 Su30 fighters was signed in 1996, and the aircraft originally supposed to be delivered in batches and in a phased manner from 1997 through till 2000, with each batch being progressively more improved that the previous batch.In 1998, the IAF signed another contract for the delivery of a further 10 aircraft, originally scheduled to be delivered to Indonesia. In October of 2000, a Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) was signed, which paved the way for a complete Transfer of Technology (ToT) and the manufacture of a further 140 Su30MKIs in India by the Hindustan Aeronautics Limited(HAL). The deliveries were not with out their delays, which were flayed in the India media, however, the first batch of Su30MKIs were delivered in mid 2002 to the Lohegaon AFB in Pune.

Why and how was Su30 developed?


The emergence of more stringent requirements for interceptors, the sheer length of the Soviet Union's northern borders and the sheer scarcity of air-bases in the northern regions of the country, as well as of airborne command posts and AEW&C aircraft, were the factors that led the Sukhoi OKB to develop the Su-27UB trainer into a new specialized interceptor. Firstly, operational experience with single seat interceptors, including the Flanker, showed that working the weapons control system during a dogfight, coupled with the high-G loads, was just too much for the pilot. The problem was perhaps especially acute on the Su-27 with its impressive fuel load and long-range; the pilot would feel like a squeezed lemon when the day was done.

Secondly, the capabilities of today's avionics are more than one pilot can handle in a dogfight; to paraphrase a well-known ad, one man, one brain. A second crew-member was clearly needed to ease the pilot workload. Besides, giving the back-seater a second set of flight controls enabled the crew to operate more efficiently during long sorties. The pilot would fly the aircraft, select the weapons and take care of the close-in fighting while the Weapons Sytem Operator (WSO) would detect and destroy the enemy at long range; he could also take over if the pilot in the front seat was wounded or tired. Additionally, the WSO could give directions to other aircrafts during concerted action - that is, the aircraft could operate as a tactical airborne command post en miniature. To this end, it would be equipped with a tactical situation display in the rear cockpit and other appropriate avionics. In-flight refuelling capability became a must in this situation. Work on a two-seat interceptor/command post version of the Su-27 began in the mid-1980s with I.V.Yemelyanov as cheif project engineer. The Su-27UB with its large internal fuel volume and ten pylons for AAMs was chosen as the starting point. The encouraging results obtained with the aircraft 02-01 IFR system testbed showed that the Su-27P had room for improvement. In the summer and autumn of 1988 a group of Sukhoi engineers in Irkutsk and IAPO specialists modified two standard Su-27UBs to act as proof-of-concept aircraft and coded '05 Blue' and '06 Blue'. Both had the standard two-tone blue camouflage. New features included a retractable IFR probe, a new navigation suite and changes to the FBW controls, life support system and WCS. The aerodynamics remained unaltered. Designing and manufacturing some special tooling and cramming the new equipment into the old 'shell' of the standard Su-27UB was the hardest part of the job. It took the factory six months to do it. The 05-Blue entered flight test in autumn of 1988. Initially the aircraft were flown by IAPO test pilots, while later by Russian Air Force pilots. These trials proved successful and the aircraft were ordered into production in Irkutsk as the Su-30.

Development The Su-30MKI was jointly designed by Russia's Sukhoi and India's Hindustan Aeronautics Limited (HAL). The MKI's airframe is a development of the Russian Su-27 series while most of the avionics were developed by India. Su-30 MKK aircraft. Its avionics, aerodynamic features and components are similar to the Su-35. The aircraft featured many modifications over the Su-27 and the Su-30MK variant. These included canard fore-planes, 2-dimensional thrust vectoring control (TVC), Russian-made N011-M passive phased array radar (PESA) and a range of avionics complex sourced from Russia, France, Israel and India which includes display, navigation, targeting and electronic warfare systems. It is also speculated that the passive phased array Radar Irbis-E will be added to the fighter jet by 2010, when the first totally India-built Su-30MKI will roll out from HAL Nasik. The Su-30MKI is more advanced than the basic Su-30MK or the Chinese

Procurement
In 1996, after 2 years of evaluation and negotiations, India decided to purchase Su-30MKI aircraft. India signed a US$1.462 billion deal with the Sukhoi Corporation on 30 November 1996 for the delivery of 50 Su-30 aircraft. These aircraft were to be delivered in five batches. The first batch were 8 Su-30MKs , the basic version of Su-30. The second batch were to be 10 Su-30Ks with French and Israeli avionics. The third batch were to be 10 Su30MKIs featuring canard foreplanes. The fourth batch of 12 Su 30MKIs and final batch of 10 Su-30MKIs aircraft all were to have the AL-31FP turbofans. In 2000, another agreement was signed allowing the license production of 140 Su-30MKIs in India. The deal combined license production with full technology transfer and hence was called a

'Deep License'. The MKI production was planned to be done in four phases: Phase I, II, III and IV respectively.In 2007 another order of 40 Su-30MKIs have been made.

Design
Airframe
The Su-30MKI is a highly integrated twin-finned aircraft. The airframe is constructed of titanium and high-strength aluminium alloys. The engine nacelles are fitted with trouser fairings to provide a continuous streamlined profile between the nacelles and the tail beams. The fins and horizontal tail consoles are attached to tail beams. The central beam section between the engine nacelles consists of the equipment compartment, fuel tank and the brake parachute container. The fuselage head is of semi-monocoque construction and includes the cockpit, radar compartments and the avionics bay.

Cockpit and ergonomics


Cockpit instrumentation The displays include a highly customised version of the Elbit Su 967 head-up display consisting of bicubic phase conjugated holographic displays and seven liquid crystal multifunction displays, six 127 mm x 127 mm and one 152 mm x 152 mm. The HUD was widely misreported to be the VEH 3000 from Thales. Variants of the same HUD have also been chosen for the IAF's MiG-27 and sepecat-jaguar-shamsher upgrades, on grounds of standardisation. Flight information is displayed on four LCD displays which include one for piloting and navigation, a tactical situation indicator, and two for display systems information including operating modes and overall operation status. The rear cockpit is fitted with a larger monochromatic screen display for the air-tosurface missile guidance.

Flight control
The aircraft has a fly by wire (FBW) with quadruple redundancy. Depending on the flight conditions, signals from the control stick position transmitter or the FCS will be coupled to the remote control amplifiers. These signals are combined with feedback signals fed by acceleration sensors and rate gyros. The resultant control signals are coupled to the highspeed electro-hydraulic actuators of the elevators, rudders and the canard. The output signals are compared and, if the difference is significant, the faulty channel is disconnected. FBW is based on a stall warning and barrier mechanism which prevents development of aircraft stalls through a dramatic increase in the control stick pressure. This allows a pilot to effectively control the aircraft without running the risk of reaching the limit values of angle of attack and acceleration. Although the maximum angle of attack is limited by the canards the FBW acts as an additional safety mechanism.

General features

The Su-30MKI on-board health and usage monitoring system (HUMS) monitors almost every aircraft system and sub-system including the avionics sub-systems. It can also act as an engineering data recorder Navigation The aircraft is fitted with a satellite navigation system (A-737 GPS compatible), which permits it to make flights in all weather, day and night. The navigation complex comprises high accuracy SAGEM integrated global positioning system and ring laser gyroscope inertial navigation system. Pilot ejection The crew are provided with zero-zero KD-36DM ejection seats. The rear seat is raised for better visibility. The cockpit is provided with containers to store food and water reserves, a waste disposal system and extra oxygen bottles. The KD-36DM ejection seat is inclined at 30, to help the pilot resist aircraft accelerations in air combat.

Aerodynamics
Su-30MKI aerodynamic configuration is an unstable longitudinal triplane. The canard increases the aircraft lifting ability and deflects automatically to allow high angle-of-attack (AoA) flights allowing it to perform Pugachev's Cobrahigh-lift devices featured as deflecting leading edges, and flaperons acting as flaps and ailerons.The integral aerodynamic configuration combined with thrust vectoring results in extremely capable maneuverability, taking off and landing characteristics. This high agility allows rapid deployment of weapons in any direction as desired by the crew. The canard notably assists in controlling the aircraft at large angles-of-attack and bringing it to a level flight condition. The wing will have high-lift devices featured as deflecting leading edges and flaperons acting the flaps and ailerons. At subsonic flights, the wing profile curvature is changed by a remote control system which deflects the leading edges and flaperons versus the AoA (Angles of Attack)." .

Radar
The forward facing NIIP N011M Bars (Panther) is a powerful integrated passive electronically scanned array radar. The N011M is a digital multi-mode dual frequency band radar. The N011M can function in air-to-air and air-to-land/sea mode simultaneously while being tied into a high-precision laser-inertial or GPS navigation system. It is equipped with a modern digital weapons control system as well as anti-jamming features. N011M has a 350 km search range and a maximum 200 km tracking range, and 60 km in the rear hemisphere. The radar can track 15 air targets and engage the 4 most dangerous simultaneously. These targets can even include cruise missiles and motionless helicopters. The Su-30MKI can function as a mini-AWACS as a director or command post for other

aircraft. The target co-ordinates can be transferred automatically to at least 4 other aircraft. The radar can detect ground targets such as tanks at 4050 km. A modified Su-30MKI is being developed to carry BrahMos cruise missiles, with induction planned for 2012. The program is experiencing difficulties due to the enormous weight of the missile.

Avionics
Laser-optical locator system
OLS-30 laser-optical locator system to include a day and night FLIR capability and is used in conjunction with the helmet mounted sighting system. The OLS-30 is a combined IRST/LR device using a cooled, broader waveband, sensor. Detection range is up to 90 Km, whilst the laser ranger is effective to 3.5 Km. Targets are displayed on the same LCD display as the radar.

LITENING targeting pod


Israeli LITENING targeting pod is used to target the laser guided munitions. Litening incorporates in a single pod all the targeting features required by a modern strike fighter. The original Litening pod includes a long range FLIR, a TV camera, a flash-lamp powered laser designator, laser spot tracker for tracking target designated by other aircraft or from the ground, and an electro-optical point and inertial tracker, which enabled continuous engagement of the target even when the target is partly obscured by clouds or countermeasures. The pod integrates the necessary laser rangefinder and designator, required for the delivery of Laser Guided Bombs, cluster and general purpose bomb.

Electronic countermeasures
Sukhoi Su-30MKI has electronic counter-measure systems. The RWR system is an indigenously developed system by DRDO, called Tarang, (Wave in Sanskrit). It has direction finding capability and is known to have a programmable threat library. The RWR is derived from work done on an earlier system for India's MiG-23BNs known as the Tranquil, which is now superseded by the more advanced Tarang series. Elta EL/M-8222 a self-protection jammer developed by Israel Aircraft Industries is the MKI's standard EW pod, which the Israeli Air Force uses on its F-15s. The ELTA El/M-8222 Self Protection Pod is a power-managed jammer, air-cooled system with an ESM receiver integrated into

the pod. The pod contains an antenna on the forward and aft ends, which receive the hostile RF signal and after processing deliver the appropriate response.

Propulsion
The Su-30MKI is powered by the two AL-31FP turbofans, employing AL-100 vectoring nozzle. Each Al-31FP is rated at 12,500 kgf (27,550 lbf) of full afterburning thrust. Two AL-31FP by-pass thrust-vectoring turbojet reheated engines (25,000 kgf full afterburning thrust) ensure a 2M horizontal flight speed (a 1350 km/h ground-level speed) and a rate of climb of 230 m/s. The mean time between overhaul for the AL-31FP is given at 1,000 hours with a full-life span of 3,000 hours. The titanium nozzle has a mean time between overhaul of 500 hours. Al-31FP builds on the Al-37FU with the capability to vector in 2 planes. The TVC nozzles of the MKI are mounted 32 degrees outward to longitudinal engine axis (i.e. in the horizontal plane) and can be deflected 15 degrees in the vertical plane. This produces a cork-screw effect and thus enhancing the turning capability of the aircraft. There is no strain-gauge engine control stick to change the engine thrust in the cockpit, rather just a conventional engine throttle control lever. The pilot controls the aircraft with help of a standard control stick. On the pilot's right there is a switch which is turned on for performing difficult maneuvers. After the switch-over, the computer determines the level of use of aerodynamic surfaces and swiveling nozzles and their required deflection angles.

Fuel system
The Su-30MKI has a range of 5,000 km with internal fuel which ensures a 4.5 hour combat mission. Also, it has an in-flight refueling (IFR) probe that retracts beside the cockpit during normal operation. The air refueling system increases the flight duration up to 10 hours with a range of 8,000 km at a cruise height of 11 to 13 km. Su-30 MKIs can also use the Cobham 754 buddy refueling pods.

Operational history
The Sukhoi Su-30MKI is the most potent fighter jet in service with the Indian Air Force in the late 2000s. The MKIs are often fielded by the IAF in bilateral and multilateral air exercises. India exercised its Su-30MKIs against the Royal Air Force's Tornado ADVs in October 2006. This was the first large-scale bilateral aerial exercise with any foreign air force during which the IAF used its Su-30MKIs extensively. This exercise was also the first in 43 years with the RAF. During the exercise, RAF's Air Chief Marshall, Glenn Torpy, was given permission by the IAF to fly the MKI. RAF's Air-Vice Marshall, Christopher Harper, praised the MKI's dogfight ability, calling it "absolutely masterful". In July 2007, the Indian Air Force fielded the MKI during the Indra-Dhanush exercise with Royal Air Force's Eurofighter Typhoon. This was the first time that the two jets had taken part in such a exercise.[26][27] The IAF did not allow their pilots to use the radar of the MKIs during the exercise so as to protect the highly-classified N011M Bars. During the exercise,

the RAF pilots candidly admitted that the Su-30MKI displayed maneuvering superior to that of the Typhoon. An earlier variant of the Su-30MKI, the MK, took part in war games with the United States Air Force (USAF) during Cope-India 04, where USAF F-15 Eagles were pitted against Indian Air Force Su-30MKs, Mirage 2000s, MiG-29s and elderly MiG-21. The results have been widely publicized, with the Indians winning "90% of the mock combat missions". It must be noted that during the exercise, the USAF fighter jets did not exploit their beyond visual range offensive capabilities, unlike those of the IAF. In July 2008, the IAF sent 6 Su-30MKIs and 2 aerial-refueling tankers, the Il-78MKI, to participate in the Red Flag exercise. In October 2008, a video surfaced on the internet which featured a USAF colonel, Corkey Fornoff, criticizing Su-30MKI's high friendly kill rate and serviceability issues during the Red Flag exercise. A Sukhoi 30 MKI aircraft crashed on 30th April 2009 in the Pokhran region of Rajasthan after it took off from Pune during its routine sortie, killing one of its two pilots. This has been the only crash of the MKI, ever since its induction.

India Ordering, Modernizing SU-30MKIs

Indias SU-30MKI fighter-bombers are the pride of its fleet, and 272 have already been ordered in 4 stages: 50 SU-30MK and MKIs ordered directly from Russia in 1996, another 40 ordered direct in 2007, a license-build deal with Indias HAL that aims to produce up to 140 more planes from 2013-2017, and an improved set of 42 HAL-built SU-30MKI Super 30s were ordered in 2011. Earlier-model aircraft and crews performed very well at an American Red Flag exercise in 2008, and the RAFs respect for it in the 2007 Indra Dhanush exercise is equally instructive. Indias local Tejas LCA lightweight fighter program aims to fill its low-end fighter needs, and the $10+ billion M-MRCA competition will purchase an intermediate tier. India isnt neglecting its high end, either. Initial SU-30MK and MKI aircraft have all been upgraded to the full SU-30MKI Phase 3 standard, and India may follow that with a Super 30 upgrade program for serving aircraft. Meanwhile, HALs challenge is to meet those production targets

Contracts & Key Events [updated] Additional Readings

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Contracts & Key Events

SU-30MKI (click to view full) Dec 20/11: Russia has reportedly signed a preliminary deal with India to sell 42 upgraded Su-30MKI Super 30 fighters, to be added to HALs license production backlog. That brings total Indian SU-30 orders to 272. Key Super 30 upgrades are reported to include a new radar (probably AESA, and likely Phazotrons Zhuk-AE), improved onboard computers, upgraded electronic warfare systems, and the ability to fire the air-launched version of the Indo-Russian BrahMos supersonic cruise missile. Price was not reported, but Parliamentary transcripts place the budget for this buy at around $2.4 billion. The Super 30 deal is 1 of 5 trade & defense deals signed in Moscow during the summit meeting between Indian Prime Minister Manmohan Singh and Russian President Dmitry Medvedev. A proposed nuclear plant deal was not among them. Assam Tribune | Deccan Herald | AP. Dec 20/11: Indias fleet of SU-30MKIs resumes flying, after being informally grounded in the wake of the Pune crash. As for that crash, Daily Pioneer reports that: There was a problem in the fly-by-wire system This is a new thing. Pilot did not get any warning. There were no indications in the cockpit and the aircraft was out of control, the IAF chief told PTI here. He said the pilot tried his best to control the aircraft for 15-20 minutes before ejecting out along with the Weapon Systems Operator (WSO)... Dec 16/11: The Hindustan Times reports that perennial problems with Russian spares & reliability have become an urgent issue for the SU-30MKI fleet now: Prime Minister Manmohan Singh is expected to red-flag [SU-30] serviceability, product support and pending upgrade at the annual [Russian] summit meeting. Top government sources said that Air Headquarters has urgently requested the Prime Minister to raise the issue of engine serviceability with his Russian counterpart after few incidents of engine failures. the top brass has conveyed to government that shaft bearing failures have occurred in some [AL-31FP] engines. In peacetime, the fighter can land on the other engine but this can be a life and death situation in adverse conditions, said a senior official. Dec 13-15/11: An SU-30MKI crashes 25 minutes after takeoff, in the flying area of the Lohegaon IAF base, in Pune. Both pilots ejected safely. This is the IAFs 3rd SU-30MKI

crash; the 1st crash in 2009 was due to a fly-by-wire fault, and the 2nd also happened in 2009 when foreign matter was sucked into the planes engine. In response, A Court of Inquiry (CoI) has been ordered to look into the reasons behind the crash. India also grounds its SU-30MKI fleet, pending maintenance inspections and some idea of what caused this crash. Rediff | Economic Times of India | IBN Live | Indian Express | Hindustan Times Nov 23/11: Minister of State for Defence Shri MM PallamRaju is grilled about SU-30 deliveries by Parliamentarians in Rajya Sabha, and explains both the project history, and HALs manufacturing responses. So far, he says that Out of the total 180 aircraft, India has received 99 SU-30MKIs till 2010-11. That delivery total and date is very ambiguous. It implies orders with HAL for 180 planes, which would entail a 2nd contract for another 40-42 fighters (vid. Aug 9/10 entry). Earlier reports re: HAL deliveries (vid. June 26/10 entry) pegged them at 74 planes from HAL, and the Russian deliveries are expected to wrap up in 2012; 99 total planes from both sources would fit that model, if the answer is read as 99 by the beginning of the 2010-11 fiscal period. With expected 2010 production of 28 HAL SU-30MKIs, however, a read of 99 of 180 SU-30MKIs delivered as of November 2011 only makes sense if all the planes hes referring to are from HAL. HALs responses to production delays are said to include:

Commissioning of additional tooling jigs & fixtures in manufacturing and assembly Shops. Increased Outsourcing. Development of alternate vendors. Improvements in manufacturing processes & Operations in order to reduce cycle time. Effective monitoring and timely actions through Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP). Recruitment/Redeployment of manpower in critical work Centers.

Oct 11/11: India is reportedly looking at fitting its Su-30MKIs with Phazotrons Zhuk-AE active electronically scanned array (AESA) radars, instead of their present Tikhomrov N011M Bars passive mechanically scanned array radars. The switch would improve reliability, radar power, and performance, but the new radars would have to be tied into the combat system, tested for aerodynamic balance and other changes they might create, etc. The X-band Zhuk-AE can reportedly track 30 aerial targets in the track-while-scan mode, and engage 6 targets simultaneously in attack mode. Aviation Week. Aug 29/11: Russia and India have reached agreement on the technical specification of the Super 30 upgrade, including BrahMos missile integration and an AESA radar. The exact nature of that radar is still in question. Reports to date have discussed an enlarged version of the MiG-35s Phazotron Zhuk-AE, but Tikhomirovs NIIP could also be chosen, and the firm demonstrated an improved version at the Moscow Air Show (MAKS 2011). AIN.

SU-30MKIs (click to view full) Aug 18/10: Defence Minister Antony replies to Parliamentary questions about the Super 30 upgrade: There is proposal to upgrade the SU-30 MKI aircraft of the Indian Air Force by M/s Hindustan Aeronautics Limited (HAL) with the support of the Russian Original Equipment Manufacturer. The current estimated cost is Rs. 10920 crores and the aircraft are likely to be upgraded in a phased manner from year 2012 onwards. Note the word proposal. At this point, the estimate in rupees is equivalent to about $2.41 billion. Aug 9/10: Defense minister Antony offers an update re: additional SU-30MKI purchases, in a written Parliamentary reply to Shri Asaduddin Owaisi: The Defence Acquisition Council has accepted a proposal for the procurement of 42 Sukhoi-30 MKI aircraft from M/s Hindustan Aeronautics Limited, India. The proposal is being further progressed for submitting to the Cabinet Committee on Security. The estimated cost of the project is Rs. 20,107.40 crores [DID: about $4.36 billion, or about $104 million per plane] and the aircraft is planned to be delivered during 2014-2018. The proposal is being progressed as a repeat order from M/s Hindustan Aeronautics Limited, India under the Defence Procurement Procedure-2008. Thats even higher than the estimates in June 2010, when the story broke (vid. June 26/10 entry). The cost of this deal soon attracts controversy, especially given that a 2007 deal for 40 SU-30MKIs cost only $1.6 billion/ Rs 7,490 crore. That prompts speculation that these will be upgraded Super 30 aircraft. DNA India. July 4/10: Indias Economic times quotes unnamed sources within Indias MoD: As part of IAFs modernisation programme, we are going to upgrade 50 Sukhoi-30 MKI aircraft with help of original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) from Russia. The ones to be upgraded are from the first phase [from Russia, before the HAL order, of mixed SU30MKs and MKIs] and the project is likely to be completed in the next three to four years Details are consistent with earlier Super 30 reports. What this doesnt clearly say: is there, in fact, a contract to do this work?

June 26/10: The Times of India reports that Indias Cabinet Committee for Security has cleared a nearly Rs 15,000 crore (about $3.3 billion) order for another 42 Sukhoi-30 MKI fighters, for delivery by around 2018: The present order for 42 fighters was originally supposed to be 40, but two more were added to the order book to make up for the two crashed fighters. A senior official said that HAL is expected to complete all the SU-30 MKI orders by 2016-17 period. last year it delivered 23 of these fighters, this year it is expected to produce 28. HAL has already supplied 74 of these fighters. May 30/10: India Today magazine reports that India has placed orders with the Russian defense industry to modernize 40 Su-30MKI Flanker-H fighters to Super 30 status, with new radars, onboard computers, and electronic warfare systems, and the ability to fire the air-launched version of the Indo-Russian BrahMos supersonic cruise missile. RIA Novosti. Dec 7/09: Defense minister Antony offers an update on the existing program to assemble SU-30MKIs in India: In addition to licensed manufacture of 140 SU-30 aircraft by M/s Hindustan Aeronautics Limited (HAL), a contact for procurement of additional 40 SU-30 MKI was signed with M/s HAL in 2007. Out of these three aircraft have been delivered to the Indian Air Force and delivery of the remaining aircraft is expected to be completed by 2011-12 Nov 30/09: A SU-30MKI crashes near the firing range at Pokharan, triggering a fleet-wide grounding and investigation. Both pilots eject safely, and initial suspicion focuses on the planes engine. MoD announcement | Indian Express re: Grounding | Indian Express. An SU-30 had also crashed on April 30/09, reportedly due to the failure of its fly-by-wire system. These 2 accidents are the only SU-30 losses India has experienced. Nov 12/09: Indias Business Standard reports that the SU-30MKI program is about to include Samtel Display Systems multi-function displays; their first delivery will equip 6 Su-30MKIs in lieu of Thales systems manufactured under license by Hindustan Aeronautics Ltd in Nashik. Samtel has a joint venture with Thales, and went forward on its own through the 5-year road to airworthy certification from DRDOs CEMILAC. A public-private partnership with HAL has created Samtel HAL Display Systems (SHDS), which may create wider opportunities for Samtels lower-priced displays if both delivery and quality are up to par on the initial SU-30MKI orders. The article notes that Samtel has succeeded, in part, by embracing obsolete technology that others were abandoning (CRT displays), even as it prepares to leapfrog LCD displays with Organic Light Emitting Diodes. The road to military certification isnt an easy one, though: Starting with liquid crystal display (LCD) screens, commercially procured from Japan and Korea, Samtel has ruggedised them for use in military avionics. The display must be easily readable even in bright sunlight; it must be dim enough for the pilot to read at night

without losing night vision; it must work at minus 40 degrees Centigrade when conventional LCD screens get frozen solid; and it must absorb the repeated violent impacts of landing on aircraft carriers. Oct 9/09: The Indian Ministry of Defence issues a release regarding the 9th meeting of the Russia-India Inter-Governmental Commission on Military-Technical Cooperation on Oct 14-15/09: The modernisation of the SU 30 MKI aircraft is also expected to come up for discussion in the Commissions meeting. The aircraft, contracted in 1996, are due for overhaul shortly and the Russia side have offered an upgrade of the aircraft with incorporation of the latest technologies during the major overhaul. Obvious areas for modernization would include the aircrafts N011M Bars radar, now that Russian AESA designs are beginning to appear. Engine improvements underway for Russias SU-35 program would also be a logical candidate for any SU-30MKI upgrades. The most important modification, however, might be an upgraded datalink that could reduce the level of coalition fratricide observed in exercises like Red Flag 2008. Indian MoD | RIA Novosti.

IL-78MK Refuels IL-78 refuels SU-30MKIs Oct 2/09: Janes reports that India is looking to buy another 50 SU-30MKIs, quoting Air Chief Marshal P V Naik who said that the IAF was interested. This comes hard on the heels of comments that the IAFs fleet strength was 1/3 the size of Chinas, coupled with comments that the IAF would eliminate its fighter squadron deficit by 2022. Interest is not a purchase, but reported prices of $50-60 million for an aircraft that can can equal or best $110-120 million F-15 variants do make the SU-30 an attractive buy, even relative to options like the foreign designs competing for the MMRCA contract. Forecast International offers an additional possibility, citing the context within which that interest was expressed, and wondering if the new SU-30KIs might be tasked with a nuclear delivery role. Their range and payload would certainly make them uniquely suited to such a role within the IAF. If a purchase does ensue, it would be good news for a number of players, including Indian firms that have contributed technologies to the SU-30MKI design. Samtel Display Systems (SDS), who makes avionics for the SU-30MKIs cockpit, would be one example of a growing slate of private Indian defense firms with niche capabilities. Construction firms may also benefit; The Deccan Herald reports that:

The IAF is keeping one squadron of its most advanced Su-30 MKI fighters in Bareilly whose primary responsibility is the western and middle sector of the LAC. Similarly a Su30 base is being created in Tezpur, Assam, for the eastern sector [near China]. See: Janes | Russias RIA Novosti | Times of India | Associated Press of Pakistan | Pakistans Daily Times | Avio News | Forecast International | IAF size comments: Daily Pioneer and Sify News | Frontline Magazine on Indian-Chinese relations. March 31/06: Indias Cabinet Committee on Security approves the speeded-up delivery plan. The IAF signs revised contracts for 140 SU-30MKIs, to be delivered by 2014-15. A 2007 contract adds another 40 SU-30MKIs, by the same deadline, but those are ordered direct from Russia. Source. June 2005: IAF Headquarters looks at its fleet strength and planned aircraft retirements, and asks HAL if it could deliver all of the SU-30MKIs by 2015 instead. HAL responds with a proposal that they believe will get them to a full-rate assembly flow of 16 planes per year. Source. Dec 12/04: Irkut Corp. announces that they have begun delivery of final 3rd phase configuration Su-30MKIs to the Indian Air Force. Initial deliveries involved aircraft optimized for aerial combat, while Phase 2 added more radar modes for their NIIP N-011 radars, TV-guided Kh-59M missiles, the supersonic Kh31A/ AS-17 Krypton multi-role missile, and simultaneous attack of 4 aerial targets by guided air-to-air missiles. Phase 3 Su-30MKIs fully implement all navigation and combat modes in the contract, including laser-guided bombs, weapon launch in thrust-vectoring supermaneuverability mode, and engagement of up to 4 aerial targets in front or rear. Ramenskoye Design Bureau (RPKB) is responsible for the avionics and software, and also provide the Sapfir maintenance and mission planning ground suite. Oct 6/04: The SU-30MKIs Saturn AL-31FP engines have their Certificate of the AL31FP life-time signed by the leadership of the Russian Ministry of Defence, the Central Aviation Engines Institute (CIAM), NPO Saturn, UMPO, SUKHOI Corporation, and IRKUT Corporation. The statistics are: MTBO (Mean Time Between Overhauls) 1,000 hours, and 2,000 hours assigned life. The thrust-vectoring nozzles take a beating, though, with only 500 hours MTBO. Irkut Corp. January 2011: Indian government formally approves the SU-30MKI project, with an expected full-rate assembly flow of 12 planes per year, beginning in 2004-05 and continuing until 2017-18. Source. Dec 18/2000: Indias Cabinet Committee on Security (CCS) approves the project to assemble the SU-30MKIs in India. Source.

Oct 4/2000: Russia and India sign an Inter-Governmental Agreement (IGA) for transfer of License and Technical Documentation to India, for production of 140 SU-30 MKI Aircraft, its Engines and Aggregates.

IAF Sukhoi-30MKI to become 'Super Sukhois'


The Indian Air Force (IAF) Sukhoi-30MKI jets will be upgraded into 'Super Sukhois' with a fifth-generation combat features retrofit, Irkut president and chairman Alexy Fedorov has said. Under the overhaul programme, the Su-30MKI fleet will receive new cockpits, upgraded radar and advanced stealth characteristics. The advanced stealth characteristics will make the aircraft less visible to radar than the existing IAF Sukhoi-30 fleet. MiD DAY also quoted Fedorov as saying that upon modification, the aircraft will carry a heavier weapon load, including the airborne version of the BrahMos supersonic cruise missile. The IAF, which currently has five operational Sukhoi 30MKI squadrons numbering around 100 aircraft, will operate over 230 Sukhoi-30MKIs or 13 squadrons in its fleet. "The upgrade will apply not only to the aircraft in service with the Indian Air Force (IAF), but also to those yet to be delivered to India and to be licence-manufactured by HAL," Fedorov said.

VayuSena Irkut/HAL Su-30MKI Air Dominance Fighter Su-30MKI is a long-range, high-endurance, heavy-class Air Dominance Fighter with multi mission capabilities. It is currently the most advanced version of Su-27 Flanker flying anywhere in the world. The Su-27, which was first produced in the Former Soviet Union starting 1982 is counted among the world's best fighter aircraft even without any upgardes; but some of the the technology and capability that the Su-30MKI boasts has absolutely no parallels across the world's air forces. The Su-30MKI gives its operator, the Indian Air Force, a capability that will remain unmatched by all rivals for the forseeable future.

Evolution of the Flanker

World aviation today cannot be conceived of without the Su-27, a legendary aircraft. The Su-27 which formed the basic platform that has spawned countless derivatives has became the core of Russias combat aviation and Russian arms exports today. The Su-27 is seen as a befitting response by Sukhoi to the challenge of the West - the U.S. F-15 air superiority fighter. In the fall of 1969, Pavel Sukhoi, head of the Sukhoi Experimental Design Bureau, launched the T-10 project at his own initiative. The designers faced a most challenging task of developing an aircraft that would surpass the U.S. fighter which had overall technological superiority. On 20-May-1977, famous test pilot Vladimir Ilyushin took the Sukhoi T-10-1 for its first flight from the test center Zhukovski. However, before the aircraft could be put into series production it had to be drastically redesigned. There were very serious reasons for that - the designers of onboard equipment and missiles exceeded weight limits. The redesign work was headed by a design team woven around Mikhail Simonov. The original Su-27 design was rejected The Design Bureau and cooperating enterprises were set the task to find bold, unorthodox solutions in the project, and to improve every component of the plane, its onboard equipment and armament. The Su-27 for the first time incorporated solutions proposed for integrated supersonic designs in the 1950s by brilliant aircraft designer and scientist Robert Bartini (1897-1974). Pavel Sukhoi used Bartinis ideas in the T-10 design. This is why the Su-27s load-bearing airframe features high lift, low drag, air flow down-suction throughout the wingspan, and shock-free air flow in the area blending wing and it is leading-edge root extensions. The Su-27 is the worlds only fighter in which leading-edge root extensions reduce, rather than increase, drag. These solutions, combined with perfect design and minimal structural weight, provided much space for fuel and equipment, ensuring an exceptional flight range on internal fuel. The Su-27 markedly enhanced the Soviet Air Forces combat potential. NATO immediately saw the difference. In the previous years, the SR-71 reconnaissance aircraft often flew into Soviet airspace over the Kola Peninsula to check readiness of the Soviet Air Defense. The Su-27, with its high flight performance and perfect multichannel avionics system, sharply changed the situation, intercepting SR-71 aircraft in Soviet airspace. The F-16 fighter is considered by many as an american aerodynamic standard. However, this effort was clearly eclipsed by the remarkable qualities of the Su-27. The real triumph for the Su-27 came in 1989 when it made its first public appearance at the worlds largest air show Le Bourget near Paris. It was here that the now famous 'Cobra'

maneuver was premiered in the West. The pilot at the controls was Victor Pugachev hence the Cobra is often called the 'Pugachev Cobra'. A note on the designation 'Su-30MKI': 'Su' stands for a production fighter designed by the USSR/Russia's famed Sukhoi Experimental Designed Bureau. Su-30 derived from the Su-27UB, which is the twin-seat trainer-combat version of the Su-27. Therefore all Su-30 versions are twin seat (except for Su-30KI). 'MK' is a Russian acronym for MordernisedCommercial (not 'Multirole') while 'I' stands for Indiski(India) in the Su-30MKI, while 'K' stands for Kitei(China) in the Su-30MKK. Names apart, there are many central differences between the Su-30MKK and Su-30MKI * The sheer number of Su-27 variants is bewildering to say the least. Many developments have been made in 'parallel' over the decades, and hence there is no single timeline for the MKI. This space is not enough for discussing the many variants, and hence only some are discussed here. The first Su-27 variant with TVC was a Su-27UB designated "T-10-16" or the "LL-PS" (flying testbed - flat nozzle), built by by Sukhoi in 1989. The Chief Designer for the export Su-30MK is Alexcy Knyshev. According to Knyshev, the Su-30MK is capable of performing all tactical tasks of the Su-24 Fencer deep interdiction tactical bomber and the Su-27 Flanker A/B/C air superiority fighter while having around twice the combat range and 2.5 times the combat effectiveness (Sukhoi numbers). Russia vigourously promoted the Su-30. It has made regular airshow appearances after its debut at Paris AirShow 1999. However, initially the displayed aircrat was a Su-27UB which only carried a wide variety of air to ground misles (which it could not launch). The weapons were KAB-500KR TV guided bomb, Kh-29T and Kh-59M. At that moment there was no Su-30M nor Su-30MK, only the Su-27PUs were renamed as Su-30 (probably for marketing purposes). The real prototype of Su-30MK was converted from a Su-27PU in 1996. The modification included enlarged fins, the addtion of 2 underwing pylons (now to 8) and the carnard foreplanes similar to those of the Su-35 (or Su-27M). The SU-30MKI is the first Russian aircraft designed in collaboration with a foreign customer. It was born when the IAF decided to acquire the Su-30MK and include modifications according to its needs. Its competitor was the Mirage-2000-5, an excellent multirole aircraft in its own right. It had the advantage over the Su-30 given that the IAF was extremely satisfied with the results from the Mirage-2000H. However, the SU-30MKI was found to be a lot cheaper than the Mirage-2000-5, which ultimately proved to be the deciding factor. The induction of the Su-30 into the IAF is a bit confusing for some. This is due to the fact that three different deals where signed, delays in the program and also due the fact that IAF has been operating Su-30s (since 1997) which are not Su-30MKIs but Su-30MKs. However, since they are being operated by the IAF, they are referred to as Su-30MKIs by

some. Here Su-30MKI refers to the final version of the aircraft, and not those which saw service with the IAF since 1997. On July 24, 1994 an Indian delegation headed by the CAS of the IAF arrived in Russia to evaluate the aircraft. Deal I (30 Nov 1996) : The IAF signed a US $1462 million (equivalent to Rs 5122 crore) deal with Sukhoi on 30 November 1996 for the delivery of 40 Su-30 aircraft and the associated equipment from the Irkutsk plant in phased manner, spread out over four years from 1997 to 2000. The contract provided for setting up of a Service Support Centre in India which was to undertake extended second line repair tasks of aircraft, avionics, aeroengines and aggregates to avoid the need to despatch them to the manufacturer. Under this original contract, Su-30s would be delivered to the IAF in four batches:

The first batch (Su-30MK-I) of 8 aircraft would be delivered in 1997. These were 'standard' Su-30s (a development of the Su-27UB) and contained 100% (probably) Russian components and are primarily sir-superiority aircraft only. These fighters were first delivered to India at Lohegaon AFS in March 1997. They were inducted into the IAF on 11 June 1997 by the then Prime Minister, Inder Kumar Gujral. These planes are currently in service with IAF with serial nos SB001 to SB008 in the No. 24 Hawks squadron based at Lohegaon AFS. The second batch (Su-30MK-IIs) of another 8 aircraft would be delivered in 1998 and would be fitted with Sextant Avionique's avionics from France, liquid crystal multi-function displays (MFDs), a new flight data recorder, a dual ring laser gyro INS (inertial navigation system) with embedded GPS (Global Positioning Satellite), EW (Electronic Warfare) equipment procured from Israel's IAI (Israeli Aircraft Industries), a new electro-optical targeting system and a RWR (Radar Warning Receiver). The third batch (Su-30MK-IIIs) of 12 aircraft would be delivered in 1999 and would feature canard foreplanes The fourth and final batch (Su-30MKIs) of 12 aircraft would be delivered in 2000 and would add the AL-31FP turbofans.

The first 32 aircraft already delivered would then be upgraded to the Su-30MKI variant, in a phased manner. This plan was thought of because Su-30MKI would be the world's first of its kind, and not all technologies were completely developed in other Russian designs like the Su-35 and Su-37. Deal II (September 1998) : The IAF decided to buy 10 additional Su-30Ks for US $277.01 million (equivalent to Rs.1187 crore) and thus bring the total number of IAF Su30s on order to 50. These 10 were originally destined for Indonesia, but due to the financial crisis there Indonesia was unable to take delivery. The first 4 units were delivered in June 1999. These have updated electronic warfare suites, PGM (Precision Guided Munitions) capability and possibly updated radar. These planes are currently in service with IAF with serial nos SB009 to SB018 in the No. 24 Hawks squadron based at Lohegaon AFS.

IAF was to take delivery the 2nd batch of aircraft(Su-30MK-IIs) in 1998. However this was postponed due to delay specifying the requirements for the advanced avionics (French,Israeli and Indian). In March 1998 the agreements were signed with the concerned firms. The crash of the first Su-30MKI prototype T-10PMK-1 ("blue 01") at the Paris airshow did not help matters. Later it was decided to take delivery of full-standard Su-30MKIs directly and hence doing away with the upgradation and to avoid different grades of one aircraft in service at the same time. Also, the development of the Su-30MKI was nearing completion and first buying some airframes and then upgrading them is an avoidable hassle. Hence, all future deliveries would be Su-30MKIs. The first 4 Su-30MKI arrived in India, again at Lohegaon AFS in semi-knocked-down (SKD) form on June 22, 2002. After assembly,they were test flown initially by Russian test pilots on 25-July-2002. The first flight by an Indian pilot in India happened on 14-Aug-2002. The first 18 aircraft (8 Su-30MK-I and 10 Su- 30K) will be upgraded locally by Hindustan Aeronautics Limited (HAL). The upgrade is to be completed by 2004-2005. Deal III (October-December 2000) : A Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) was signed allowing the license production of 140 Su-30MKIs and in December 2000, the deal was sealed in Russia at the IAPO factory. The deal combines license production with full technology transfer and hence called a 'Deep License'. For instance, HAL Koraput will also produce 920 AL-31FP engines, while the mainframe and other accessories will be manufactured at HAL's Lucknow and Hyderabad Divisions. Final integration of the aircraft and its test flight would be carried out at HAL's Ozhar (Nasik) Division. The original plans called for the first Su-30MKIs from Nasik to be delivered to the IAF in 2004-05, with production increasing to a peak of 10 aircraft per year from 2007-08 onward at this rate the production would have stretched to 2017-18. At Air Force Commander's Conference held in Oct-2002, the Air Chief Marshal Krishnaswamy, asked the HAL to complete the project in 10 years. This was confirmed by N.R.Mohanty on 12-Nov-2002 while speaking to the press [6]. Therefore, the new schedule would mean that a maximum of 14 planes per year will be churned out by HAL and hence finishing in 2013. The original costs of Rs. 20,000 Cr remained as it is, even though such an action is expected to raise costs. According to Mohanty, HAL planned to counter the inflation by "outsourcing in low and medium type jobs while the critical items will be HAL's own." Deal IV (May 2005?) : It was originally planned that the 24 Sqn aircraft will be upgraded to the Su-30MKI Phase-III standard once the delivery is complete. However, the latest Russian offer is to replace these aircraft with newly built airframes at $270 Million in 2007. The reasoning being that some of the aircraft have already aged quite a bit - the first ones entered service in 1997. More importantly, the upgraded airframes would not have the same capability as the new airframes. The offer has reportedly cleared by the Defence Acquisition Council, but the exact status is not known at the moment. Deal V: Another 40 Su-30MKI were contracted from Russia.

End Result : IAF will eventually acquire a total of 230 Su-30MKI. Out of these 90 will be made in Russia by Irkutsk Aircraft Production Association (IAPO) while the rest will be produced in India by Hindustan Aeronautics Limited (HAL). Production might be increased if necessary. HAL chairman Nalini Ranjan Mohanty has said that the Indian-built Su-30s will cost only about $22.5 million a unit against the current import price of about $37.5 million [5]. The first Su-30MKI were delivered by IAPO on June 22, 2002 aboard an An-124. 2 more followed in the same month. The first batch of 10 Su-30MKIs were inducted into the Indian Air Force on 27-Sep-2002 at Lohegaon AFS where the No. 20 Lightnings was constituted. The Phase-III aircraft deliveries were completed by Dec 2004, when around the same time the first HAL assembled Su-30MKIs rolled out. By 2006 it is expected that Phase I and II aircraft will be up to the latest standard. The 31 Squadron is the latest IAF unit to be equipped with the Su-30MKI. India's Defence Minister George Fernandes laid the foundation stone of a new HAL factory at Sunabeda (20 kms from Koraput, Orissa) on Dec 15, 2002. This brand new facility is licenced to produce 1200 AL-31FPs. It is said that the manufacture of the AL-31FP engine "involved 31 new technologies required to be adopted and mastered" (Outlookindia.com). Is the development of the Su-30MKI complete? The originally envisaged goals for the program have been achieved with the delivery of the Phase-III aircraft. However, the development is not being frozen. Future updates are planned - including the airframe and radar (read below).
The Su-30MKI in the IAF

The induction of the Su-30 was'nt without its share of problems. The average servicibility of the 10 Su-30MKs fell to 69% during 1997-1998 and further reduced to 62% 1998-1999. Similarly, the average availability of SU-30K aircraft for operations also declined from six aircraft in 1997-98 to four aircraft in 1998-99, out of total strength of eight aircraft. This happened because the MoD did not order spares for the aircraft and the IAF was using spares supplied at the time of induction - supplied back in 1997. The MoD finally signed the general spares contract in January 1999. Problems were multiplied due to the poor poduct support from the manufacturers. Apart from delivery of eight SU-30K aircraft during 1997 the manufacturer was required to supply 72 associated equipment like tyres, brake parachutes, specialist vehicles etc. valuing US $ 347.85 million, equivalent to Rs 1252.25 crore during 1997-2000 in a phased manner. The contract explicitly stipulated that equipment to be delivered by the manufacturer would be new, unused, of current production and serviceable. However, the a large percentage of the equipment delivered by the manufacturer between 1997 and 1998 was old, used, corroded, defective and unserviceable, though full payment had been made. For example, the specialist vehicles supplied were old, corroded and inoperable and others items like parachutes were torn and damaged. Aircraft tyres were found to have cut marks during

initial inspection. The IAF made 48 claims from sukhoi but only 15 were cleared as of July 1999. Today the IAF operates at least 4 Su-30MKI squadrons. The pioneer No 24 Sqn has retired its 'vanilla' Su-30MK/K and replaced with MKIs. The No. 20 Sqn's pilots and crews were initially drawn from the first Sukhoi unit i.e. No.24 Hawks with which it shared Lohegaon AFS. It was considered to shift 24 Sqn to Chandigarh or Halwara to make space for 30 Sqn. Both Chandigarh and Halwara airbases have experience in handling the Su-30 - it is here that they are based when required to make a flypast on India's annual Republic Day (Jan 26), Air Force Day (Oct 08) and other such occasions. Ultimately 24 Sqn was housed at Bareilly. Being the first in the service to operate the type, the No 20's task was to develop the doctrine for the MKIs capabilities and hence was scheduled with a lot of training flights. A sign of increasing confidence of the IAF in the Su-30MKI is the wider range of tasks being assigned to them - recently it has come to light that the 20 Sqn is also training for the maritime role. This often entails flying for long hours over the sea, which is considered difficult due to lack of navigation aids on the 'ground'. Even though the vanilla Su-30K aircraft were meant to be upgraded to MKI standard the significant differences meant that the only viable option was to replace the aircraft completely. New build MKIs were supplied to replace them to 24 Sqn. Unit No. 24 Sqn AF Hawks No. 20 Sqn AF Lightnings No. 30 Sqn AF Rhinos No. 8 Sqn AF Pursoots No. 31 Sqn AF Lions # 01 Serial SB001 Location Bareilly AFS (Bareilly) ? AFS (Bareilly or Jodhpur?) ? AFS (Jamnagar or Tezpur?) Lohegaon AFS (Pune) ??? AFS Airframes 08 Su-30MK (Retired) 10 Su-30K (Retired) ??? Su-30MKI 10 Su-30MKI Phase-I ?? Su-30MKI Phase-II ??? Su-30MKI ??? Su-30MKI ??? Su-30MKI Serial No.s SB001 to SB008 SB009 to SB018 ??? SB019 to SB028 SB029 to ??? ??? ??? ???

Remarks Su-30MK (Retired) Ex 24 Sqn > Painted in temporary tri-colour scheme for R-Day Parade.

> Flypast @ Su-30MKI Induction ceremony, Lohegaon AFS (27.Sep.2002) > Ex Cope India 2006, Kalaikunda AFS (Nov 2005) 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 SB002 SB003 SB004 SB005 SB006 SB007 SB008 SB009 SB010 SB011 SB012 SB013 SB014 SB015 SB016 > Flypast @ Su-30MKI Induction ceremony, Lohegaon AFS (27.Sep.2002) > Deployed to Istres AFB, France (Ex Grauda II, Jun 2005) > Ex Cope India 2006, Kalaikunda AFS (Nov 2005) > Deployed to Istres AFB, France (Ex Grauda II, Jun 2005) > Static display @ Chennai Air Show, Old Meenambakkam Airport (31.Aug.2003) > Deployed to Istres AFB, France (Ex Grauda II, Jun 2005) > Ex Cope India 2006, Kalaikunda AFS (Nov 2005) > Static Display @ Vayu Sena Diwas, Palam AFS (08.Oct.2002) > Deployed to Istres AFB, France (Ex Grauda II, Jun 2005) > Ex Cope India 2006, Kalaikunda AFS (Nov 2005) > Static Display @ Su-30MKI Induction ceremony, Lohegaon AFS (27.Sep.2002) > Radome was seen in ealier photographs with a light grey colour covering two-thirds of the length > Static Display; Open Day at AFS Lohegaon > Deployed to Istres AFB, France (Ex Grauda II, Jun 2005) Su-30MKI Phase-I > Deployed to Istres AFB, France (Ex Grauda II, Jun 2005) > Ex Cope India 2006, Kalaikunda AFS (Nov 2005)

> Painted in temporary tri-colour scheme for R-Day Parade > Painted in temporary tri-colour scheme for R-Day Parade. > Flypast @ Su-30MKI Induction ceremony, Lohegaon AFS (27.Sep.2002) > Painted in temporary tri-colour scheme for R-Day Parade. Su-30K (Retired) Ex 24 Sqn

17

SB017

18

SB018

19 20

SB019 SB020

21 22

SB021 SB022

23

SB023

24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40

SB024 SB025 SB026 SB027 SB028

> Static Display @ Begumpet Air Port, Hyderabad (07.May.2003) > Flying Display @ Aeroindia 2003, Yelahanka AFS, Piloted by 20 Sqn CO Jamwal (05-09.Feb.2003) > Static Display @ Mumbai Airshow Chatrapathi Shivaji International Air Port (14.Oct.2004) > Confirmed 20 Sqn > Flypast @ Su-30MKI Induction ceremony, Lohegaon, Piloted by 20 Sqn CO Jamwal (27.Sep.2002) >Static display at Nagpur Air Show > Static Display @ Aeroindia 2003, Yelahanka AFS (0509.Feb.2003)

Su-30MKI Phase-II SB029 SB030 SB031 SB032 SB033 SB034 SB035 SB036 SB037 SB038 SB039 SB040 > Aeroindia 2005 Yelahanka AFS - reserve for flying display > Confirmed 30 Sqn > Static Display @ Aeroindia 2005 Yelahanka AFS > Confirmed 30 Sqn

> Flying Display @ Aeroindia 2005 Yelahanka AFS > Confirmed 30 Sqn It is unclear how these aircraft have been distributed between the No.20 and No.30 Squadrons. Su-30MKI Phase-III (Irkut) 41 SB041 > Confirmed 30 Sqn > Confirmed 30 Sqn 42 SB042 > Ex Red Flag 2008, Nellis AFB (trf to 20 Sqn?) 43 SB043

44 SB044 45 SB045 46 SB046 > Ex Red Flag 2008, Nellis AFB 47 SB047 48 SB048 > Ex Red Flag 2008, Nellis AFB 49 SB049 50 SB050 Last delivery Dec 2004. It is unclear how these aircraft have been distributed between the No.20 and No.30 Squadrons. Su-30MKI Phase-III (HAL) > First flight Oct 01, 2004. > Commisioned into IAF 28.Nov.2004 51 SB101 > Ceremonial first flight piloted by P.M.Sergei and Wg Cdr T.R. Ajit Kumar 52 SB102 > 53 SB103 > SB107 > SB110 > Ex Red Flag 2008, Nellis AFB SB115 > SB124 > Air Force Day 2007 SB127 > HAL has targetted FY 2014-15 for delivering the last Su-30MKI. Rate of production is reported to be 13 aircraft per annum [2], which would mean that atleast 20-25 aircraft have already been produced by HAL by the current financial year. However only SB101/2/3 have been sighted so far. Camouflage Scheme The 24 Sqn airframes (both K and MK series) are all painted in a very pretty blue sky pattern. Some of these these fighters have their numeric serial applied below the cockpit, which is not the practice in the other current aircraft of the Indian Air Force, and generally has never been. Only the Gnat/Ajeet and Vampire fighter aircraft ever carried the serial printed in a large size, but near to the exhaust, nowhere near the nose. The stylized Hawks insignia was also seen in the Su-30MKs at least initially, but it seems that some no longer sport it and it was never painted on the Su-30Ks anyway. Also unusual was the word Hawks in bright red beside the Hawk logo. Only few squadrons have their nicknames written on their aircraft. Such aircraft include MiG-21s of the Ankush sqn. Some 20 Sqn aircraft have a stylized Lightnings insignia, a very welcome change on IAF aircraft in the post-matt-grey era. At least four airframes of the Su-30MK series were temprarily dressed up in a ceremonial tri-colour scheme. The Dharma Chakra was also painted on the aircrafts' 'backs'. Originally

the Su-30MK/Ks had a light grey radome, but over the years some machines have been noticed with a darker shade of grey, though not black. (Pictures) Untill recently, the IAF never had any uniform camoflage scheme for its fleet, and it appears it was left to the units to decide how their machines looked. This is the reason for the inconsistent paint scheme throughout the IAF. However, since recent times all aircraft and even ground equipment like trucks and tractors also sport the Matt Grey livery. Some aircraft have been applied with a black coat of paint around the canopy area, to reduce reflection. Airframes identified with this paint are; SB023, SB024, SB035, SB040 and SB102.
Airframe and Aerodynamics

The Su-30MKI is a highly integrated twin-finned aircraft. The airframe is constructed of titanium and high-strength aluminium alloys. The engine nacelles are fitted with trouser fairings to provide a continuous streamlined profile between the nacelles and the tail beams. The fins and horizontal tail consoles are attached to tail beams. The central beam section between the engine nacelles consists of the equipment compartment, fuel tank and the brake parachute container. The fuselage head is of semi-monocoque construction and includes the cockpit, radar compartments and the avionics bay. Su-30MKIs also have a high percentage of composites used in the air-frame - rumoured to be 6% by weight. The Su-30MKI aerodynamic configuration is an unstable longitudinal triplane. The canard increases the aircraft lifting effectiveness. It deflects automatically and allows high angleof- attack flights. The integral aerodynamic configuration combined with thrust vectoring results in practically unlimited manoeuvrability and unique taking off and landing characteristics.

The Su-30MKI prototypes '01' (Left) and '06' (Right) Stability and control are assured by a digital FBW. The canard notably assists in controlling the aircraft at large angles of attack (AoA) and bringing it to a level flight condition. The aircraft has a newly developed wing with increased relative thickness, accommodating a larger amount of fuel. The wing will have high-lift devices featured as deflecting leading edges and flaperons acting the flaps and ailerons. At subsonic flights, the wing profile curvature is changed by a remote control system which deflects the leading edges and flaperons versus the AoA (Angles of Attack). The Su-30MKI will have a reinforced airframe in order to accommodate a weapons load of 17,650 lb (8,000 kg) compared with half that for the Su-30K, and the maximum takeoff weight is 38,800 kg versus 34,500 kg.

The term "super-maneuverability" was coined by Dr. Wolfgang Herbst, initiator of the USA's X-31 prototype program, in defining controllability up to 60 to 70 Angle-ofAttack with transients of 120 or more. The Su-30MKI has no AoA limitations: it can fly at even 180 degree AoA and still recover. This high super-agility allows rapid deployment of weapons in any direction as desired by the crew. The addition of another seat means that the pilot is free to concentrate on flying the aircraft while the second pilot can engage targets. Mikhail Simonov was stung by press criticism that this machine was appearing at airshows doing tailslides and Cobras without any underwing stores. So it was promptly fitted with a representative warload consisting of (from port wingtip) - AA-11, AA-11, AA-10, Kh-31P, 6 x OFAB-100-120 bombs on a MER fitted to the port lower intake, KAB-500KR on centreline pylon, Kh-29T on lower Stbd intake, Kh-59M, RVV-AE, AA-11, AA-11 and still did its full show routine! A similar performance was witnessed at an airshow where the Landing Gear could not retracted in a Su-37, but Yevgeny Frolov still went on do perform the show routine without any changes! Planned for incorporation into the Su-30MKI fuselage on a progressive basis from 2006 through to 2017 on 114 of the 140 HAL-built Su-30MKI Mk3s are all-composite structures like wing spars and wing boxes, air intakes, fairing skins, fairing blocks, co-cured cobonded fin and centre-fuselage components, elevators, rudder and its all-composite torque shaft, ailerons, belly fairings, landing gear doors, ceramic thermal barrier linings, and ceramic brake-pads. Interestingly, several such structures are currently being incorporated into the IAF's MiG-29B airframes as well.
Cockpit

The SU-30MKI employs extensive use of Sextant Avionique (now Thales Avionics) components in the cockpit. A total of 6 LCDs, 5 MFD-55s and 1 MFD-66 for displaying information and accepting commands are used. The six LCDs have a wide-screen, offer image-superimposing and are shielded to make them readable even in bright sunlight. All the flight information is displayed on these four LCD displays which include one for piloting and navigation, a tactical situation indicator, and two for display systems information including operating modes and overall operation status. The cockpit also retains some traditional dial displays as standbys. There is some confusion regarding the HUD. While reports say MKI has VEH-3000 series Holographic HUD from Sextant Avionique, photographic evidence suggests Elbit Systems' SU 967. SU 967 has been designed for large cockpit fighter/attack aircraft and features a 28 degree FOV. The aircraft is fitted with a satellite navigation system (A-737 GPS compatible), which permits it to make flights in all weathers; day and night. The navigation complex comprises of Thales Totem Inertial Directional System (INS) and short and long range radio navigation systems. It also has a laser attitude and a heading reference system. An automatic flight control system makes all phases of its flight automatic, including the

combat employment of its weapons. Once the automatic flight control system receives information from the navigation system, it solves the route flight tasks - involving a flight over the programmed waypoints, the return to the landing airfield, making a pre-landing maneuver and the approach for landing down to an altitude of 60 meters, as well as uses the data supplied from the weapons control and radio guidance command systems to direct the aircraft to the target and accomplish the attack. The communications equipment comprises secure VHF and HF radio sets, a secured digital telecommunications system, and antenna-feeder assembly. It mounts an automatic noiseproof target data exchange system, which provides for coordination of the actions of several fighter aircraft engaged in a group air combat. The voice radio communication with ground control stations and between aircraft is possible up to a range of 1,500 km in the Su-27SK, and the Su-30MKI should equal it if not better this. The Integrated Information System (IIS) allows the performance of a ground serviceability test of the entire equipment and the location of troubles to an individual plug-in unit. In case of an in-flight failure, the indicator of the integrated information system will provide the pilot with a text message about the failure and recommendations on how to correct it or will dictate further actions. The message is also duplicated by voice. A two-pilot crew provides higher work efficiency (thanks to distribution of the aircraft handling and armament control functions) as well as the engagement in close and long range combats and the air situation observation. Besides, the same dual control aircraft can be used as a combat and training aircraft. Additionally, the integrated air-borne equipment enables the aircraft to be used as an air command post to control the operation of other aircraft. In practice, the front seater is the pilot and the back seater is the "Wizzo", the WSO (Weapons Systems Operator). The pilot flies the aircraft and handles air-to-air and some ATG weapons, as well as countermeasures. The WSO takes care of the detailed aspects of navigation, ground radar mapping & target designation, setting up delivery solution for ATG weapons, designating for guided bombs/missiles, ECM, and so on. There are many tasks which overlap; either pilot or WSO can do the job depending on circumstances. The aircraft can be flown from either seat, however only the front cockpit driver can operate the helmet mounted sight (Sura) as sensors are only in the front. The rear cockpit has a HUD repeater. The crew are provided zero-zero KD-36DM ejection seats which have a slightly modified comm/oxygen interface block compared to the Su-27. Rear seat is raised for better visibility. The cockpit will be provided with containers to store food and water reserves, a waste disposal system and increased amounts of oxygen. The KD-36DM ejection seat is inclined at 30, to help the pilot resist aircraft accelerations in air combat.
Flight Control and Other Avionics

For flight control, reliability and survivability, the aircraft has a FBW with quadruple redundancy. Depending on the flight conditions, signals from the control stick position transmitter or the automatic FCS will be coupled to the remote control amplifiers. Upon

updating, depending on the flight speed and altitude, these signals are combined with feedback signals fed by acceleration sensors and rate gyros. The resultant control signals are coupled to the high-speed electro-hydraulic actuators of the stabilizers, rudders and the canard. For greater reliability, all the computers work in parallel. The output signals are compared and, if the difference is significant, the faulty channel is disconnected. An important part of the FBW is based on a stall warning and barrier mechanism with an individual drive of its own. It prevents development of aircraft stalls through a dramatic increase in the control stick pressure. This allows a pilot to effectively control the aircraft without running the risk of reaching the limit values of AoA and acceleration. The stall control is accomplished by the computer of a signal limiting system, depending on the configuration and loading of the aircraft. The same system sends voice and visual signals, as the aircraft nears a stall condition. An oft criticised aspect of Russian aircraft in general is their 'poor' servicebility. This is more of a perception, and in capable hands they can return more than satisfactory performance. The Su-30MKI does add some new features regarding this, including selfdiagnostic software that will indeed make life a lot easier for the airmen! For acquiring predictive maintenance capability, the IAF and Rosoboronexport FSUE have joined forces with South Africa 's Aerospace Monitoring And Systems (Pty) Ltd (AMS). Predictive maintenance means the on- and off-board processing of aircraft sub-systems data, resulting in an accurate, conclusive indication of the health and usage status of various airborne systems. The Su-30MKI Mk3's on-board health-and-usage monitoring system (HUMS) not only monitors almost every aircraft system and sub-system, including the avionics sub-systems, it can also act as an engineering data recorder. For the Su-30MKI Mk3, AMS was contracted for providing total HUMS solutions, starting with definition of the IAF's qualitative requirements, followed by systems provision (development and implementation), integration and support phases. Methods have since been co-developed by AMS and the IAF for the following:

fatigue loading spectra; fatigue analysis methods; material fatigue behaviour; fracture mechanics; damage tolerance analysis and testing of redundant metallic aircraft structures; fatigue crack growth analysis; crack growth, residual strength analyses aircraft structural integrity programmes; ageing aircraft issue.

Indian Contribution

The Su-30MKI contains not only Russian, French, South African and Israeli Customer Furnished Equipment (CFE), but also a substantial percentage of Indian designed and manufactured avionics. They took six years to develop from start to MKI. Advanced

avionics were developed by DRDO under a project code named "Vetrivale" (a Tamil name for the victorious lance carried by the youthful Lord Karthikeya or Murugan, a son of Parvati and Shiva) in close collaboration with the PSUs and the IAF. Indian avionics have been received and acknowledged enthusiastically by the Russian principals. The following are the components developed by Indian agencies:

Mission Computer cum Display Processor - MC-486 and DP-30MK (Defence Avionics Research Establishment - DARE) Radar Computer - RC1 and RC2 (DARE) Tarang Mk2 Radar Warning Receiver (RWR) + High Accuracy Direction Finding Module (HADF) (DARE IFF-1410A - Identification Friend or Foe (IFF) Integrated Communication suite INCOM 1210A (HAL) Radar Altimeter - RAM-1701 (HAL) Programmable Signal Processor (PSP) - (LRDE) Multi Function Displays (MFD) - Samtel/DARE

The 32-bit Mission Computer performs mission-oriented computations, flight management, reconfiguration-cum-redundancy management and in-flight systems self-tests. In compliance with MIL-STD-1521 and 2167A standards, Ada language has been adopted for the mission computer's software. The other DARE-developed product, the Tarang Mk2 (Tranquil) radar warning receiver, is manufactured by state-owned BEL at its Bangalore facility. These avionics equipment have also been certified for their airworthiness in meeting the demanding standards of Russian military aviation. The cumulative value of such indigenous avionic equipment is estimated to exceed Rs. 250 lakhs per aircraft. Since the core avionics were developed by a single agency (DRDO) - they have significant commonality of hardware and software amongst them using a modular approach to design. This obviously results in major cost and time savings in development; it also benefits the user in maintenance and spares inventories. The DRDO has gone a step further and come out with a new design of the Core Avionics Computer (CAC) which can be used with a single module adaptation across many other aircraft platforms. Thus the CAC which is derived from the computers designed for the Su30MKI will now be the centre piece of the avionics upgrades for the MiG-27 and Jaguar aircraft as well. The CAC was demonstrated by DRDO at the Aero India exhibition at Yelahanka and attracted a good deal of international attention. Taken together with the systems already developed indigenously for the LCA (such as the Digital Flight Control Computer and HUD), clearly Indian avionics have a significant export potential in the burgeoning global market for avionics modernisation. The navigation/weapons systems from the various countries were integrated by Ramenskoye RPKB.

HAL will supply components to Irkut for 300 Su-30s meant for export to Malaysia and Algeria apart from those meant for IAF.[7]
Radar

The forward facing NIIP NO11M Bars (Panther) is a powerful integrated radar sighting system. The N011M is a digital multi-mode dual frequency band radar (X and L Band, NATO D and I). The N011M can function both in air-to-air and air-to-land/sea mode simultaneusly while being tied into a high-precision laser-inertial / GPS navigation system. It is equipped with a modern digital weapons control system as well as anti-jamming features. The aircraft has an opto-electronic surveillance and targeting system which consists of a IR direction finder, laser rangefinder and helmet mounted sight system. The HMS allows the pilot to turn his head in a 90 field of view, lock on to a target and launch the much-feared R-73E missile. The Sura-K HMS for the Su-30MKI has been supplied by the Ukranian Arsenal Company (the same also makes the APK-9 datalink pod for the Kh59M). The N011M radar has been under flight testing since 1993, fitted to Su-27M (Su-35) prototype '712'. It employs the same level of technology as the now abandoned N014 radar which was to have equipped Mikoyan's MFI "fifth-generation" fighter and was initiated by Tamerlan Bekirbayev. The nose of the Su-30MKI was modified (compared the Su-27) to accommodate the fixed antenna array and more avionics boxes. The first improved N011M radar for the Su-30MKI was flown on 26-Nov-2000. Note that the N011M is different from the N011 "Mech" radar: the latter is mechanical scanning and equips the No 24 Sqn aircraft.

Antenna diameter is 1m, antenna gain 36dB, the main sidelobe level is -25dB, average sideobe level is -48dB, beamwidth is 2.4 deg with 12 distinct beam shapes. The antenna weighs 100kg For aircraft N011M has a 350 km search range and a maximum 200 km tracking range, and 60 km in the rear hemisphere. A MiG-21 for instance can be detected at a distance of up to 135 km. Design maximum search range for an F-16 target was 140-160km. A Bars' earlier variant, fitted with a five-kilowatt transmitter, proved to be capable of detecting Su-27 fighters at a range of over 330 km. The radar can track 20 air targets and engage the 4 most threatening targets simultaneously (this capability was introduced in the Indian RC1 and RC2). These targets can include cruise/ballistic missiles and even motionless helicopters. For comparison, Phazotron-NIIRs Zhuk-MS radar has a range of 150-180km against a fighter and over 300km against a warship. "We can count the number of blades in the engine of the aircraft in sight (by the NO11M) and by that determine its type," NIIP says. The forward hemisphere is 90 in azimuth and 55 in elevation (+/-45 degrees vertical and +/-70 degrees horizontal have also been reported). N011M can withstand up to 5 percent transceiver loss without significant degredation in performance. The Su-30MKI can function as a 'mini-AWACS' and can act as a director or command post for other aircraft. The target co-ordinates can be transferred automatically to atleast 4 other aircraft. This feature was first seen in the MiG-31 Foxhound, which is equipped with a Zaslon radar. Radar Computers Purpose > Facilitate automatic PRF selection of hostile targets moving at blind speeds > Enhance tracking capability to 8 targets Characteristics > 486 main processor > 386 Summit processor > ARINC 429 Interface > Dimensions 32cm x 19cm x 19cm > Weight 14 kg each RC1 Functions > Interfaced to MCDP through ARINC and MIL-1553 BUS > Interfaced to RC2 via high speed parallel Q bus > Processes radar input and passes results to mission computer > Interfaced to PSP RC2 Functions > Interfaced to various radar devices and combat computer via Q bus Ground surveillance modes include mapping (with Doppler beam sharpening), search & track of moving targets, synthetic aperture radar and terrain avoidance. To penetrate enemy defenses, the aircraft can fly at low altitudes using the terrain following and obstacle avoidance feature. It enables the pilot to independently find his position without help from external sources (satellite navigation, etc.); detect ground targets and their AD systems; choose the best approach route to a target with continuous updates fed to the aircraft navigation systems; and provide onboard systems and armament with targeting data.

According to Sukhoi EDB the Su-30MKI is capable of performing all tactical tasks of the Su-24 Fencer deep interdiction tactical bomber and the Su-27 Flanker A/B/C air superiority fighter while having around twice the combat range and atleast 2.5 times the combat effectiveness. The N011M offers a quantum leap in technology over the earlier Russian radars. Small ground targets, like tanks, can be detected out to 40-50 km. The MiG-29, Su-27 and other fighters can be provided with a ground strike capability only if their radars can operate in the down-looking mode which generates a map of ground surface on a cockpit display (this mode is called the Mapping Mode). N011M ensures a 20 m resolution detection of large sea targets at a distance up to 400 km, and of small size ones - at a distance of 120 km. Coupled with the air-launched Brahmos-A AShM, the Su-30MKI will become an unchallanged platform for Anti-Ship duties. The Brahmos is a result of a joint collaboration between India and Russia and is a variant of the Yakhont AShM (which has not entered service). N011M Bars supplied to the IAF have progressively updated capabilities. Future upgradation plans include new gimbals for the antenna mount to increase the field of view to about 90-100 degrees to both sides. New software will enable a Doppler-sharpening mode and the capability to engage up to eight air targets simultaneously. Additionally the capability of the world-best PJ-10 Brahmos missile will be incorporated. The Air launched version of the missile 'Brahmos-A' requires modifications to the airframe due to high weight. As many as three can be carried on the MKI, but only if the weight of the missile can be reduced. Untill then a capability to carry one Brahmos and two Krypton ("mini moskit") missiles is being worked on. Aircraft Su-30MKI PhaseI Su-30MKI PhaseII Radar N011M Mk.1 N011M Mk.2 Remarks > Only Air-to-Air modes > Ability to engage targets with four R-77 > Ground mapping > Ground/Sea target search and lock > Integrated with Kh-31A and Kh-59ME > Russian C101 radar computer replaced by Indian processor. > Ground attack mode with simultaneus air target search > Integration with Rafael Litening pod > 2007 debut > New gimbals for the moving antenna: +/-100 degrees azimuth & elevation > New computer: 180 km tracking range

Su-30MKI PhaseIII

N011M Mk.3

Su-30MKI

N011M

Weapons and related Avionics

The Su-30MKI combat load is mounted on 12 stations. The maximum advertised combat load is 8000 kg (17,600 lbs). All compatible Russian/Soviet AAMs and AGMs are available to the IAF, which infact has quite a large variety of these weapons. The RVV-AE is not being inducted into the Russian Air Force but have been bought by the IAF. The aircraft features the built-in single-barrel GSh-301 gun (30 mm calibre, 150 rounds). Indian designed and manufactured Astra BVRAAM is planned for integration with the aircraft. [8] India and Russia are exploring integration of long range AAM KS-172 as well. Over 70 versions of guided and unguided weapon stores may be employed, which allows the aircraft to fly the most diverse tactical missions. Speculation is that the Su-30 can also carry a tactical nuclear payload, though only Jaguar and Mirage aircraft are known to be equipped for the role thus far.

The laser-optical locator system is advertised to include a day and night FLIR capability and is used in conjunction with the Helmet mounted sighting system. The Laser Guided Munitions will be employed in conjunction with the Rafael Litening pod. The APK-9 datalink pod is associated with the Kh-59ME. The OLS-27 (Izdeliye 36Sh) is a combined IRST/LR device for the Su-27, similar to the MiG-29's KOLS but more sophisticated, using a cooled, broader waveband, sensor. Tracking rate is over 25deg/sec. 50km range in pursuit engagement, 15km head-on. The laser rangefinder operates between 300-3000m for air targets, 300-5000m for ground targets. Search limits for the OLS-27 are 60deg azimuth, +60/-15 in elevation. Three different FOVs are used, 60 by 10, 20 by 5, and 3 by 3. Detection range is up to 50km, whilst the laser ranger is effective from 300-3000m. Azimuth tracking is accurate to 5 secs, whilst range data is accurate to 10m. Targets are displayed on the same CRT display as the radar. Weighs 174kg. The OLS-30 (36Sh-01), is an improved version of OLS-27 developed by UOMZ with a vibration-proof receiver, micro-cryogenic system, improved service life and new software. Perhaps also has TV channel. Range 90km in pursuit, 40km head-on. Possibly the same as Izdeliye-52Sh.

Official Sukhoi Literature - general description for the Su-30 family

Armament Loadouts: AAMs: Sample Weapon Configurations and Flight Air-to-Air Missiles Profile depending on R-27R1 mission: R-27P R-27T1 R-73 RVV-AE Air-to-Surface Missiles Kh-59ME Kh-31P, Kh-31A Kh-29T(TE) Kh-L Guided/Smart Bombs KAB-500KR, KAB-500 OD Maximum Pcs 06 02 02 06 06 Maximum Pcs 02 04 06 06 Maximum Pcs 06

ASMs:

Unguided Weapons:

KAB-1500KR, KAB1500L Unguided Projectiles S-8KOM, S-80M, S-8MB S-13T, S-13OF S-25 OFM-PU Unguided/Dumb Bombs FAB-500T BETAB-500ShP ODAB-500PM OFAB-250-270 OFAB-100-120 P-50T RBK-500 bomb clusters with PBE-D Incendiary tanks Other APK-9 (Datalink Pod) UPAZ-1 (IFR Pod) Elta EL/L-8222 (RF Jammer)

03 Maximum Pcs 04 blocks (80 pcs.) 04 blocks (20 pcs.) 04 Maximum Pcs 08 08 08 28 32 32 08 3B-500 Maximum Pcs 01 01 01(?)

An integrated ECM system turns on the warning units that provide signals about incoming enemy missiles, a new generation radio recon set, active jamming facilities and radar & heat decoys. It also includes an electronic intelligence unit, a chaff and flare dispenser and a RWR system. The RWR system is an indigenous product developed by DRDO called Tranquil (Tarang Mk2). Tarang is already deployed in IAF MiG-21 Bison and MiG-27ML fighters. Phase-I and Phase-II aircraft have SPO-32 (L-150) Pastel radar-warning receivers and no RF jammers. Latest aircraft are compatible with the Elta EL/M-8222 EW pod and so are the older Su-30MK/Ks.

Engines and Fuel System

The Su-30MKI is powered by the Al-31FP (P for povorotnoye meaning "movable"), which is a development of the Al-37FU (seen in the Su-37 Terminator). AL-31FP which is designed by the Lyulka Engine Design Bureau (NPO Saturn) is also different from Al-31F (by the same company). The Al-31F is the 'baseline' powerplant found in most Su-27 and its variants, and perhaps in the China's J-10 in the future and lacks TVC. The AL-31FP was only 110Kg heavier and 0.4 m longer than the AL-31F, while the thrust remains the same. Planes equipped with AL-31F can be upgraded to AL-31FP later on without any changes in the airframe. It is being produced now at the Saturn manufacturing facility at Ufa, Russia. The Al-37FU (FU stands for forsazh-upravlaemoye-sopo or "afterburningarticulating/steerable-nozzle") basically added 2D Thrust Vectoring Control (TVC) Nozzles to the Al-31F. 2D TVC means that the Nozzles can be directed/pointed in 2 axis or directions - up or down. TVC obviuosly makes an aircraft much more maneuverable. Al31FP builds on the Al-37FU with the capability to vector in 2 planes i.e. thrust can be directed side-ways also. The nozzles of the MKI are capable of deflecting 32 degrees in the horizontal plane and 15 degrees in the vertical plane. This is done by angling them inwards by 15 degrees inwards, which produces a cork-screw effect and thus enhancing the turning capability of the aircraft. The TVC nozzles will be made of titanium to reduce the nozzle's weight and can deflect together or differentially to achieve the desired thrust vector for a particular maneuver. The engine designers are also working to reduce the infrared signature for thrust settings below afterburner. Also, the 2-nozzles can be vectored un-symmetrically, i.e. each nozzle can point at different directions independent from the other nozzle and thus multiplying the effect.The aircraft is capable of near-zero speed airspeed at high angles of attack and super dynamic aerobatics in negative speeds up to 200 km/h.

TVC allows the MKI for example, to rapidly loose speed and turn in any direction and fire its weapons. The complete range of maneuveres possible in the MKI are impossible on any other combat fighter in production. "We even made a corkscrew spin a controllable manoeuvre - the pilot can leave it at any moment by a single motion of the stick that engages thrust-vectoring and aerodynamic surfaces," says Sukhoi's earlier general designer Mikhail Simonov. Two AL-31FP by-pass thrust-vectoring turbojet reheated engines (25000 kgf full afterburning thrust) ensure a 2M horizontal flight speed (a 1350 km/h ground-level speed) and a rate of climb of 230 m/s. The Mean Time Between Overhaul (MTBO) for the AL31FP is given at 1,000 hours with a full-life span of 3,000 hours. The titanium nozzle has a MTBO of 500 Hrs. The Al-31FP improves upon the Al-37FU in two ways:

Firstly, the Al-37FU cannot vector thrust in 2 planes unlike the Al-31FP. Secondly, the nozzle drive connection is effected now from the aircraft fuel system and not from the aircraft's hydraulic system. The change-over to the fuel system, to control swiveling nozzles, enhances the dependability of the aircraft and its survivability in air combat.

There is no a strain-gauge engine control stick to change the engine thrust in the cockpit, rather just a conventional engine throttle control lever. The pilot controls the aircraft with help of a standard control stick which is positioned between his legs. On the pilot's right there is a switch which is turned on for performing difficult maneuvers. After the switchover, the on-board computer determines the level of use of aerodynamic surfaces and swiveling nozzles and their required deflection angles. Saturn/Lyulka General Designer Victor Chepkin confirmed to Piotr Butowski (Jane's) that work on a three-dimensional (axisymmetrical) TVC nozzle was underway but that it was not planned for the Su-37 in the immediate future. Other future engines from Saturn are Al31FN and Al-41. The Su-30MKI has a large range of 3,000 km without refueling which allows for autonomous operations that require high endurance. Also, an inbuilt In-Flight Refueling (IFR) probe that is retracted beside the cockpit during normal operation. The IAF has placed an order for six IL-78MKI Midas refueling aircraft. As of June 2003, the first IL78MKI had been delivered to the IAF under the newly raised 78 Sqn. Another one was delivered within the next few months. A normal fuel load of 5270 kg ensures a 4.5 hour combat mission, and the air refuelling system increases the flight duration up to 10 hours with a range of 8000 km at a cruise height of 11 to 13 km. Thus the endurance of the aircraft is limited solely by the human factor, hence the logic of going for a twin-seat fighter. Prior to the arrival of the IL-78MKI, the average duration of sorties was 1.54 hours varying from a maximum of 2.08 to a

minimum of 1.45 hours*. Since the arrival of the IL-78MKI, IAF pilots have flown 10 Hr missions over the Andaman and Nicobar Islands from Pune. Interestingly, the total time spent in air combat manoeuvre varied from a maximum of 22.04 minutes to a minimum of 4.01 minutes, with an average of 14.04 minutes. In percentage figures, in long duration sorties, the pilot spent 12.5 percent of the time on ACM as compared to the total duration of the sortie. These figures are from studies conducted in 1998 on the un-upgraded Su-30MK variants*. * See Indian Journal of Aerospace Medicine 1998; 42(2): 6-9 The IAF in co-operation with the Defence Food Research Laboratories (DFRL) has designed "inflight meals" to provide nutrition to pilots flying long duration missions. IAF's Institute of Aerospace Medicine (IAM) personnel like Wg Cdr CK Ranjan and Wg Cdr AD Upadhyaya worked on these meals and their storage. The Mysore-based DFRL has developed nutritious coconut water and pineapple juice, besides ready to eat food like sooji halwa, ribbon and cheese sandwich and mince meat rice, packed specially for high endurance aircraft. The food is nutritiuos and is easy to eat in the cockpit environment, and the pilots can choose their meal. Engines manufactured were adapted under the grades of fuel used in India.
Tactics

Many wrongly believe that the Su-27+ cannot perform all maneovres in combat load. To counter such talk designer Mikhail Simonov, at the 1994 Farnborough airshow, sanctioned a Su-30MK to perform the airshow routine with ordnance on all 12 pylons - a total of 7000 kg!! It did a complete fighter-like routine with this asymmetric load - including a tail slide!!. In-Close, Stay-Close, and Kill-Close strategy is a way defeat the new generation of allaspect, high-off-boresight missiles such as the R-73, Python 4, MICA-IR, and AIM-9X. Obviously one has to survive the transit from beyond visual range (BVR), to within visual range (WVR), to inside of minimum range. Once there however, both Western and Russian gun systems are capable of all-aspect, high crossing angle kills at ranges inside of 1500 feet. Russian designers have stated that they believe that the key to dogfight supremacy rests in the pilot's ability to engage the enemy in any position relative to their own aircraft. While TVC permits post-stall maneuvering and pointing which are impossible in conventional aircraft, they are convinced that a rearward facing radar and missiles that can be fired in the aft-quadrant all join to make an unbeatable integrated weapons system.
In the News

Servicability. In September 2003 and again in December of the same year, the local media reported that some of the AL-31F turbofans had to be overhauled prematurely, after

completing an average of "700 Hrs", instead of the advertised 1000. The cause of this was described as "nicks" in the turbofan blades, and the whole squadron was reported to be completely "grounded". The IAF dismissed these allegations as only rumours, but admitted that some engines had developed these problems in their blades. Unfortunately, the accuracy of media reporting can be questioned considering that simultaneusly aircraft were appearing all over the country for aerobatic events in public events! In various interviews, IAF Chief ACM Krishnaswamy rejected the media reports as cynicism and stressed that blade nicks, which appear due to pebble ingestion, do happen and there is nothing unusual and specific to the sukhois. There were accompanying rumors that the IAF had even refused to accept a batch of SU-30MKI production, which were simply untrue. Su-30MKM. In 2003 Malaysia signed up for the delivery of 18 Su-30MKMs for their air force. The Su-30MKM, also to be manufactured by Irkut Corporation, is described as being identical to the MKI, but lacks the Israeli components, replaced instead by French avionics are included. Irkut has also subcontracted the task of manufacturing the canards, stabalisers and fins to HAL. This contract is valued between 25 to 30 Million USD for HAL. These composite parts will be manufactured at HAL Nasik. An eight-member Royal Malaysian air force team, led by the director of operations, major general Dato Azizan Bin Ariffin, visited the Lohegaon air force base in August 2003, to familiarise themselves with the training and maintenance activities of the advanced Sukhoi30 MKIs. Training of RMAF personnel is expected to start in 2006 (the contract is yet to be signed [4]). This is not the first time, however, that the IAF has offered assistance to RMAF. During 1994-95, IAF had conducted ground training on MiG-29 aircrafts for their Malaysian counterparts Su-30 for Algeria. Russia has been contracted by Algeria to supply 28 Su-30 fighters to Algeria. While the configuration is not known, Algeria reportedly wants it to match Su30MKI standard. Consequently some business is expected to come to Indian avionics manufacturers [3]. Exercises with other Air Forces. In Feb 2004, an IAF-USAF DACT camp was held at Maharajpur AFS, Gwalior. Titled "Ex Cope India 2004"; it was the first time F-15s and Flankers faced off with each other under the public eye. The results were, much to the surprise of many, were heavily in the IAF's favour. Read more about this watershed event elsewhere on this site. Article and here. Since then Su-30MKIs have also exercised with Republic of Singapore Air Force (RSAF) F-16s (Ex Sindex) and USAF F-16s (Ex Cope India 2005). Brahmos Missile. The Brahmos missile is the world's most lethal AShM. It is capable of low altitude flying at supersonic speeds with maneuvering to defeat defences. Both Air-toSurface and Air-to-Ship versions are being developed for the IAF. The first trial of the aircraft version of BrahMos will be conducted before December 2007. Only a limited number of aircraft will be modified to carry this missile. [1]

The Su-30s seem to have captured the nation's imagination; they are a favorite of the media and anybody interested in military matters. Public appearences are frequent - both in flypasts as well as static display. And everytime the public is left spellbound. It is should not come as a surprise, that the Su-30MKI has virtually become the mascot of the Indian Air Force and will continue to be one for the coming decades. Dimensions and Weights Dimensions Length Span Height Take-off Weight Normal Maximum Fuel weight, (spec. weight 0.785 g p cu. sm) kg Normal Maximum Other Max takeoff run with a normal takeoff weight (afterburner) Max landing run with a normal landing weight, with a drag parachute Max operating overload Revision History :
[v1.0] [v2.0] [v2.1] [v2.2] table [v2.3] [02.Aug.2002] [28.Dec.2003] [23.may.2004] [16.May.2005] First Upload Debugged and extensively redone News of 30 Sqn formation + photo Extensive debugging + latest S/N

21.9 m 14.7 m 6.4 m 24900 kg 38800 kg 5270 kg 9640 kg 550 m 750 m 9g

- [20.May.2005] - Details on AMS and planned upgrades

[v2.4] - [29.Jun.2005] - HUD, avionics, radar computer, RF Jammer, S/N table [v2.5] - [09.Jul.2005] - N011M info, Irbis, Brahmos // Ref Force magazine [v2.6] - [05.May.2006] - News, S/N Table, Kh-31 pic + References list started (long due!) [v2.7] - [07.Dec.2008] - Updated [v2.8] - [02.Feb.2009] - Noted 31 sqn

source: http://vayu-sena.tripod.com/info-su30mki.html#1
"Russia is our long-standing strategic partner but there are some areas of worry in the huge bilateral military-technical cooperation.

Defence minister A K Antony, in fact, raised these issues with his Russian counterpart, Sergei Ivanov, during Russian president Vladimir Putin's visit here last month," said a source. The defence ministry is particularly worried about the reliability of certain Russian-origin weapon systems and equipment like the Appassionata navigation systems for the 10 Kilo or Sindhugosh-class 877EKM submarines as well as the large number of Uran subsonic anti-ship cruise missiles in the Indian inventory. The IAF, on its part, is upset with the "distortions" on the canopies of the Sukhoi-30MKI Phase-3 fighter jets. This comes at a time when India is on the verge of signing a $1.6-billion deal with Russia to acquire another 40 Sukhoi-30MKIs, in addition to the 190 such jets already contracted through two big deals in 1996 and 2000. Though IAF simply loves the "air dominance" Sukhoi-30MKIs, which are the most potent fighters in its combat fleet, their induction programme has been dogged by several delays. Incidentally, a recent comptroller and auditor-general report has also raised several questions about the 2000 contract for the licensed production of 140 Sukhoi-30MKIs by Hindustan Aeronautics Ltd at Nasik. It even held that the average cost of a HAL-manufactured Sukhoi-30MKI is likely to be Rs 28.60 crore more than that of the same fighter imported from Russia. "There are also concerns about the unserviceability of a number of air-launched missiles, apart from delays in implementation of supply, repair and overhaul schedules for ongoing or past acquisitions," said the source. Huge multi-million contracts signed with Russia in recent years like the ones for the Suk-hoi-30MKI fighters, the T-90S main battle tanks and the Talwar-class stealth frigates have all been dogged by several delays.

Source: http://articles.timesofindia.indiatimes.com/2007-0217/india/27883500_1_weapon-systems-largest-defence-supplier-defence-ministry