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GREAT GRAY COVERAGE

Copyright 2007 David Velasco www.haircolortradesecrets.com David@dvsalon.com E-Book Version 1.0

Trade Secrets of Great Gray Coverage


Disclaimer This course is designed to educate and inform its readers of the subject matter covered herein. The publisher and author do not warrant any guarantee or responsibility to any person or entity with respect to any loss or damage caused directly or in directly by the information contained in this book. The reader is expressly warned to consider and adopt all safety precautions that might be indicated by the activities herein and to avoid all potential hazards. By following the instructions contained herein, the reader willingly assumes all risk and liability in connection with such instructions. If the reader does not wish to be bound by the above, this course may be returned to the publisher for a full refund.

Copyright 2007 David Velasco: All Rights Reserved: Salon Success Systems No part of this course may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording or by any information storage and retrieval system without written permission from the authors, except for the inclusion of brief quotation in a review. Images in this course are a combination of original photography by David Velasco Salon, Ltd., computer generated illustrations and stock photography from a verity of resources. Permission request for reprints may be submitted in writing to Publisher: Salon Success Systems, 150 South Main Street, Doylestown, PA. 18901

Copyright 2007 by David Velasco: All Rights Reserved : www.Haircolortradesecrets.com

Trade Secrets of Great Gray Coverage

WHAT INDUSTRY LEADERS ARE SAYING ABOUT TRADE SECRETS


In the early 1990s, I made this decision to switch to Wella Hair exclusively for the Bumble and bumble salon. As we had been using a mixture of 4/5 hair color brands, this was an extremely difficult transition. At that time, we had nine colorists and we were one of the busiest salons in New York. The first week of transition was extremely difficult with everyone completely confused and the results were varied. It was at this point that I first met David Velasco. He had just finished a long stint as the art director and head colorist for Wella US and he very much wanted to come work at Bumble. I hired him specifically to try and help us make sense of this new color methodology that we were going to be using. With David's help, things changed and improved almost immediately. Apart from his quiet leadership and charismatic way, he was simply never ruffled. Further, he has a very deep understanding of the basic concepts of hair color as well as the complex tasks that some clients choose to do. He managed very quickly to make sure that all nine colorists were confident in the new haircolor and made sure they continued to broaden the skills and knowledge that they were missing and strengthen their techniques. His overall personality and experience were huge boosts to a salon that had over 120 employees. After five years, David decided to return to his own salon. However, he had made an indelible mark on the quality of work that our hair color department was able to produce. I would say that every salon in America should have this book series. It is a must read, must know, must study book. Michael A. Gordon Founder Bumble and bumble

David, When you told me that you were writing a book I knew that it would be good, but what you wrote is the encyclopedia of haircolor! Dee Levin Salon Nornandee Secretary of Intercoiffure-America

Copyright 2007 by David Velasco: All Rights Reserved : www.Haircolortradesecrets.com

Trade Secrets of Great Gray Coverage


Dear David, I was reading your book again tonight. I must say, you have some INCREDIBLE CONTENT! You have a FABULOUS OPPORTUNITY to set a higher tone for haircolor education. I think this book could set a new standard for "Non-manufacturer" education. You have done an EXQUISITE job writing a truly definitive work. Again, your content is PHENOMENAL! Wishing you all the very best! Stay in touch, -- you are on to something very special. This shows what a wonderful teacher you are. Beth! Beth Minardi Co owner: Minardi Salon NYC www.minardieducation.com

David, I have just finished the first four chapters of your book and I must tell you that it is one of the best haircolor books I have ever seen. One of the easiest to follow, great comments on the 'trade secrets, non commercial, and it is very obvious that you have a lot of knowledge and experience on haircolor from being behind the chair. I look forward to reading the rest of the book and to seeing you in September Fondly, Sheila Sheila Zaricor Treasurer - International Haircolor Exchange

Copyright 2007 by David Velasco: All Rights Reserved : www.Haircolortradesecrets.com

Trade Secrets of Great Gray Coverage

Dedication
To my loving wife, Cynthia, and my two beautiful daughters, Bianca and Sienna, thank you all for always believing in me. You bring joy and happiness into my life everyday, I love you. To my brother and fellow hairdresser Danny, thank you for encouraging me to go to beauty school at the young age of 16. You have inspired me more than you will ever know. To my God for giving me the incredible gift of creating beauty with my own two hands, and be able to teach this gift to others.

Acknowledgements
I would like to thank Dee Levin and Beth Minardi for all they have taught me over the years and for their professional review of and suggestions for this manuscript. Thank you Dr. Deborah Schadler for your meticulous editing of this manuscript and your gentle nudging and encouragement along the way. I could not have done it without you. To Lucia Giancroce and Jamie Nace of DVS, thank you for all of your years of dedication to the salon and for the beautiful haircolor and styling work in many of the photos in this course. To all my staff at David Velasco Salon, Ltd., thank you for all your hard work and dedication to our salon. You make it a joy to come to work each day. May all of your careers be as fruitful and exciting as mine has been. I promise to do my part to help each one of you on your journey to success.

Copyright 2007 by David Velasco: All Rights Reserved : www.Haircolortradesecrets.com

TABLE OF CONTENTS Trade Secrets of Great Gray Coverage

What You Will Learn in this Book


Formulation Secrets for Working on 75% to 100% Gray (non-pigmented) Hair

Pg.

Introduction----------------------------------------------------------------------8 Great Gray Coverage---------------------------------------------------------18 Making Gray (non-pigmented) Hair Blonde (Levels 6-9)-------------22 Making Gray (non-pigmented) Hair Golden Blonde-----------------26 Making Gray (non-pigmented) Hair Ash Blonde---------------------27 Making Gray (non-pigmented) Hair Neutral Blonde----------------28 Making Gray (non-pigmented) Hair Red Blonde---------------------29 Making Gray (non-pigmented) Hair Double Process Blonde-------31 Making Gray (non-pigmented) Hair Brown (Levels 4,5,6)-----------33 Making Gray (non-pigmented) Hair Golden Brown-----------------33 Making Gray (non-pigmented) Hair Ash Brown---------------------34 Making Gray (non-pigmented) Hair Reddish-Brown---------------37 Making Gray (non-pigmented) Hair Red---------------------------------39 Making Gray (non-pigmented) Hair Light Red (Levels 7, 8, 9)----42 Making Gray (non-pigmented) Hair Medium Red (Levels 4,5,6)-45 Making Gray (non-pigmented) Hair Dark Red (Levels 3,4,5)------49
Copyright 2007 by David Velasco: All Rights Reserved : www.Haircolortradesecrets.com

Trade Secrets of Great Gray Coverage


WHAT YOU WILL LEARN IN THIS BOOK. (CONT.)
Pg.

Partial Coverage Techniques--------------------------------------------------50 Gray Reduction-Low Lights------------------------------------------------51 Gray Blending-Demi-color--------------------------------------------------52 Blonde on Gray-Foil Blonde------------------------------------------------55

Gray Coverage Color Corrective Procedures-----------------------------57 Keeping White Hair White-------------------------------------------------57 Always Using Neutral Base Colors as Part of the Formula--------59 Strategies for Covering Resistant Gray (non-pigmented) Hair----61 Glossary-------------------------------------------------------------------------75

Copyright 2007 by David Velasco: All Rights Reserved : www.Haircolortradesecrets.com

Trade Secrets of Great Gray Coverage

INTRODUCTION
Knowledge is Power
Knowledge is power. This power is having confidence in your skills and abilities as a professional haircolorist: the power to create beauty and make people feel great about themselves; the power to distinguish yourself as an authority in your field and gain praise and recognition from your peers and community. And, of course, this power translates into increasing your income according to your expertise. Yes, I know all of this can come true for you. How do I know? Because it happened to me and I have seen it happen to many hairdressers to whom I have had the pleasure of teaching these techniques and strategies over my thirty plus years in the beauty industry. You hold in your hands the power to achieve all of this and more. Napoleon Hill, famed author of one of the best personal achievement book ever written, Think and Grow Rich, called this type of knowledge Specialized Knowledge and it is #4 in his history-making book. He goes on to say that Specialized Knowledge is the kind that inspired people like Henry Ford and Thomas Edison to go on and achieve greatness in their lifetimes. This type of greatness cannot be achieved with only general knowledge. I am not saying that once you have studied this course, you will become the next Bill Gates of haircolor, but once you read and internalize the information in this course, it does have the power to change your career and your life forever.

Copyright 2007 by David Velasco: All Rights Reserved : www.Haircolortradesecrets.com

Trade Secrets of Great Gray Coverage

Why This Course is Titled: Trade Secrets of a Haircolor Expert


Websters Dictionary defines TRADE SECRET as: Main Entry: trade secret Function: noun something (as a formula) which has economic value to a business because it is not generally known or easily discoverable by observation.

The Wikipedia online encyclopedia defines TRADE SECRET as: A trade secret is a formula, practice, process, design, or compilation of information used by a business to obtain an advantage over competitors.

In this course, you will learn many formulation concepts that are not generally known by the masses of hairdressers. Sure, some of them will seem familiar to you and you may have heard them somewhere along the line in your training. However, hearing something and learning how to use what you have heard are two very different things. The main thing that is going to set you apart from your competition, giving you the status and recognition as a Haircolor Expert in your community is knowledge, not just any kind of knowledge, but, as stated before, Specialized Knowledge.

Copyright 2007 by David Velasco: All Rights Reserved : www.Haircolortradesecrets.com

Trade Secrets of Great Gray Coverage


You can only get this kind of knowledge two ways - by learning from trial and error (this will take years) or by learning from someone that has been there before you. Specialized Knowledge will not be found in the textbooks in our industry or by going to weekend hair shows that are designed to entertain hairdressers and sell products. When I first started to learn haircolor, well known hair colorists at that time used to keep their formulations under lock and key. They literally had metal strong boxes that they kept their client color cards in so that no one could steal their formulas. Thank God, today things are different. Most haircolorist are willing to share their ideas and color concepts with others. But the question now becomes - whose way is right; whose way is best and whos willing to guide me step-by-step through every haircolor procedure until I have the confidence to go it alone? In this course, you will find the Trade Secrets that will give you the confidence to go it alone, and, as a side benefit, you will also shave many years off of your learning curve. Instead of taking years and learning by trial and error, you will be able to refer back to this information over and over again throughout your career.

Copyright 2007 by David Velasco: All Rights Reserved : www.Haircolortradesecrets.com

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Trade Secrets of Great Gray Coverage

Why I Wrote This Course


I wrote this course because it symbolizes the book I wish I had thirty years ago. You see, when I first started doing haircolor in the mid 70s, this kind of knowledge was not available. Oh sure, haircolor manufacturers freely gave basic haircolor education as they do today; however, many of the instructors at these types of classes never really stood behind the chair and had to produce one great haircolor after another on a very demanding clientele eight to ten hours a day, five days a week. It is here in the trenches, that true expert haircolorists are made by learning to fix mistakes in record time and fly solo as the pressure builds and the clock ticks on, day after day, year after year. I remember back in the early days whenever I got stuck, I would have to pick up the phone and call one of my mentors such as Dee Levin or Beth Minardi just to find out how they would handle a certain haircolor situation. Eventually, these desperate phone calls became fewer and fewer as my confidence and skill level increased. However, it wasnt until I decided to specialize in haircolor and was able to do it every day, all day long, that I was able to call myself a true haircolor expert and teach my ideas, techniques and strategies to others. You see, even today with tons of books, videos and technique guides teaching every conceivable way to put in a foil, no one has addressed insider advanced strategies to help the haircolorist with the real work that goes on every day behind the chair. These include: Gray Coverage Issues Drab Redheads
Copyright 2007 by David Velasco: All Rights Reserved : www.Haircolortradesecrets.com

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Trade Secrets of Great Gray Coverage


Orange Brunettes Brassy Single Process Blondes Uneven Double Process Blondes And what about the products we use, how do they really work? What can you really do with them and not do with them? And what do you do if something goes wrong? Wouldnt it be great if you knew how to fix every haircolor problem that you will ever face? Have you ever wished that you could be a fly on the wall in the color department at a top New York salon just to see what they really do? Why have they developed the reputations that many of them have and be able to replicate that success in your own salon? Or have you ever wished that you could go behind the scenes of a world leading haircolor-manufacturing company and meet the chemist who actually makes the products that we work with every day? What would you ask them? What secrets would you want to uncover that would help you in your everyday work? Well, over the years, I have had the pleasure of doing just these things. My work has taken me around the world as a haircolor artist and educator. I have also had the wonderful experience of having held the positions as the National Artistic Director for the Wella Corporation for 10 years and the former Manager and Educator in the Haircolor Department at the Bumble and Bumble Salon in New York City. Presently, I own and operate my own haircolor specialty salon, David Velasco Salon, LTD (www.dvsalon.com) It is from this viewpoint that I have written this course, not as a manufacturers rep, for I no longer represent a manufacturing company; not as a chemist, for I am not and never will be one; and not as a Guest Artist at your local hair show demonstrating some outlandish haircolor technique that you will never use in your salon. I share the viewpoint of a haircolor specialist that faces the same issues you do every day and learned how to over come them.

Copyright 2007 by David Velasco: All Rights Reserved : www.Haircolortradesecrets.com

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Trade Secrets of Great Gray Coverage

A Word About Creativity


I feel the word creativity is used way too loosely in our industry. Dont get me wrong; there are some truly creative haircolorists in our industry who really know what they are doing. But for the most part, creativity is used to describe any haircolor work that is weird or different. This is ridiculous! We have all attended hair shows where some guest artist tries to pass off some absurd looking coloring technique as the next big trend. And guess what? When he/she goes back to the salon, he/she does the same things on their clients as you do. True creativity in your work can only come from one place after you have complete mastery over the fundamentals of haircolor. There is a quote that states, Technique Sets You Free. What this means is that once you understand the techniques, fundamentals and strategies of a given task, you will then, and only then, be able to be free to truly become creative. Until then, you are only playing a hit or miss game. Study any of the true creative geniuses throughout history. Even contemporary artists like Elton John, Frank Lloyd Wright, Andy Warhol and Joanne Rowling have all had extensive training in there given fields. Elton John was a classically trained musician long before he became a rock star. Frank Lloyd Wright was granted an honorary doctorate of fine arts from the University of Wisconsin-Madison College of Engineering. Andy Warhol had a successful career as a commercial illustrator before he went on to become one of the most creative artists that ever lived. Joanne Rowling, author of the Harry Potter fantasy series, studied French and the classics at the University of Exeter in England and Paris, getting her inspiration to write Harry Potter during a four-hour delayed-train trip between Manchester and London. She has gone on to become one of the most successful authors in history.

Copyright 2007 by David Velasco: All Rights Reserved : www.Haircolortradesecrets.com

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Trade Secrets of Great Gray Coverage


One of my favorite movies of all time is the original Karate Kid; not because I like martial arts, but because of the incredible way they brought out the fact that one can only achieve greatness when the fundamentals become second nature. In the movie, Mr. Miyagi (played by Pat Morita) is the elder Japanese karate master who teaches Daniel (played by Ralph Macchio), a young anxious American kid, that only after the fundamentals of the moves are mastered (in this case, by waxing Mr. Miyagis car) can the young boy expect to do well in the heat of competition. My point is that real creativity can only happen as a by-product of Specialized Knowledge, the kind of knowledge that you will gain as you study in information in this course.

Copyright 2007 by David Velasco: All Rights Reserved : www.Haircolortradesecrets.com

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Trade Secrets of Great Gray Coverage

How to Use This Course


This course is laid out in a progressive knowledge-based sequence. The first book, How Haircolor Really Works, is a must read book. The information in this book must be understood before moving on to the other books. In this book, you will learn the theories, techniques and strategies that I will refer to over and over as you progress throughout the rest of the course. Also, if you are experiencing gray coverage problems, I highly recommend that you read Great Gray Coverage next. Here is where you will learn 9 strategies for covering gray hair as well as how to work with gray hair in every conceivable situation. After you have studied these two books, you are free to jump around to the other books as you wish. In each of the five-haircolor books, you will find an introduction to that particular segment of the course, followed by special formulation strategies that will guarantee you success in performing every possible haircolor situation. Towards the end of each chapter, you will find a color correction section that will guide you, step-by-step through any haircolor problem that you will ever have. In this color correction section, you will not only learn how to fix every haircolor problem you will ever encounter, but you will also learn why this problem occurred and how to prevent it from happening in the future. Also, so that colorists around the world can utilize this course, no specific product name or shade is mentioned; instead, in each haircolor situation in this course, every effort has been made to refer to the formulation by level & tone only.
Copyright 2007 by David Velasco: All Rights Reserved : www.Haircolortradesecrets.com

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Trade Secrets of Great Gray Coverage


Therefore, it doesnt matter what haircolor manufacturer or brand name you are using, you will still be able to utilize all the information in this course. The one final caveat that I want to make you aware of is that a few of the haircolor manufacturers use a slightly different level system in that they call certain level numbers by different names. For example, Wella calls its level 5 - Light Brown and LOreal calls its level 6 - Light Brown. The examples in this course are based closer to the Wella level system than the LOreal level system. In writing this course, I had to pick one, so I went with the one that I use. However, it really doesnt matter what level system you presently use, all of the information in this course is still totally valid. If you are using a level system that is different than the one that I used to write this course, simply keep that slight difference in mind as you work through the formulations in this course and you will have no problem. Once you have internalized this information, you will see your creativity expand, feel your confidence grow and be well on your way to becoming a haircolor specialist and a true expert in the field. I truly wish you much success in your journey of becoming a haircolor expert and I would love to hear from you about your success along the way. Also, if you happen to encounter a haircolor situation that you cannot find the answer to in this course, please dont hesitate to email me at david@dvsalon.com and I will gladly assist you in any way I can. I wish you massive success in all your haircolor endeavors,

Copyright 2007 by David Velasco: All Rights Reserved : www.Haircolortradesecrets.com

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Trade Secrets of Great Gray Coverage

Copyright 2007 by David Velasco: All Rights Reserved : www.Haircolortradesecrets.com

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Trade Secrets of Great Gray Coverage

GREAT GRAY COVERAGE


Introduction It never fails. Every time I teach one of my color correction seminars, Im bombarded with questions from people having problems with getting good coverage on resistant gray (nonpigmented) hair. In this book Ill give you 11 techniques on how to handle every gray coverage situation. But first, lets look at some interesting secrets about gray hair. Haircolor Secret
Theres No Such Thing as Gray Hair!

First of all, theres no such thing as real gray hair. There is only pigmented hair (brown, red & blonde) and non-pigmented hair (white). What we perceive as being gray hair is actually a combination of pigmented hair mixed with white hair. The less white a person has, the grayer he/she tends to look. The more white a person has, the less gray he/she tends to look, but the more white his/her hair looks. This phenomenon is best explained with something called the Gray Scale. This is a tool used in Black & White photography & film, which allows our eyes to actually see different tones of color, which are only made up of the colors black and white intermixed into verging degrees. Back in the days of Black & White TV, we all knew that Lucille Ball had bright red hair even though no one had a color television. !

Copyright 2007 by David Velasco: All Rights Reserved : www.Haircolortradesecrets.com

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Trade Secrets of Great Gray Coverage


I will give one more example. Imagine that you have two buckets of paint, one black and one white. If you started to pour the white paint into the black paint, soon it will become a dark gray color. The more white paint poured into the black paint, the lighter the gray will appear until, at some point, if there is more white than black paint in the bucket, the light gray will start to appear white.

Note: In this book, we will use the term gray (non-pigmented) when speaking about white hair and gray hair when speaking about coverage issues. i.e.: gray coverage techniques.

Copyright 2007 by David Velasco: All Rights Reserved : www.Haircolortradesecrets.com

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Trade Secrets of Great Gray Coverage


There Are Warm Color Pigments in Gray (non-pigmented) Hair The next thing we need to understand about gray (nonpigmented) hair is that, even though there seems to be no color pigmentation in the hair to the naked eye, there is still some pheomelanin (red-yellow) pigment in the hair. This pigment contains considerable amounts of iron (warmth). This is why, when you bleach-up white or gray (non-pigmented) hair, you see yellow. Or, if one of your gray (non-pigmented) hair clients goes on vacation to a sunny climate, he/she may come back with a yellow cast in his/her gray (non-pigmented) hair. The sun has bleached the gray (non-pigmented) hair enough to expose the yellow contributing color pigment, which is still in his/her hair. The reason we go gray, in the first place, is due to the fact that, as we get older, our bodies begin to produce less melanin, which is the natural color pigments in the hair, skin and eyes. The best illustration of this is to see a color photograph of someone as a child, then as an adult and again as a senior citizen. You will notice that, not only has his/her hair changed color from pigmented to gray (non-pigmented), but his/her skin has also changed colors from rosy or warm to cool and sallow. As to the question of why some people go gray (non-pigmented) faster or younger than others is simply a case of genetics.

Copyright 2007 by David Velasco: All Rights Reserved : www.Haircolortradesecrets.com

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Trade Secrets of Great Gray Coverage


Gray (non-pigmented) Hair Has More Medulla One more observation about gray (non-pigmented) hair is that it seems to have more medulla than pigmented hair. This is the reason it tends to stick out from the rest of the hair and sometimes look wiry. This is important in haircoloring because wiry hair is usually a coarser texture than the rest of the hair and, therefore, sometimes more resistant to haircolor.

Copyright 2007 by David Velasco: All Rights Reserved : www.Haircolortradesecrets.com

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Trade Secrets of Great Gray Coverage

Making Gray (non-pigmented) Hair Blonde (Levels 6, 7, 8, 9)

At first thought, it probably seems like making gray (non-pigmented) hair blonde should be a very simple and straightforward process. It would seem that you just mix any blonde color you desire; simply apply it, re-growth to ends and you're done. If you've tried this before, you may get lucky once in a while, but eventually you will have problems such as: Gray (non-pigmented) hair. Is not actually covered Looks too drab Looks pink Looks brassy gold Has a greenish cast Has a bluish cast Looks orange etc.

Formulating for gray (non-pigmented) hair has a few secret ground rules which we have to abide by in order to be successful and create beautiful colors on gray (non-pigmented) hair.

Copyright 2007 by David Velasco: All Rights Reserved : www.Haircolortradesecrets.com

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Trade Secrets of Great Gray Coverage

Secret Ground Rules


Secret Ground Rule #1 Never use a straight ash blonde tint on gray (non-pigmented) hair even if you want an ash blonde finished result. Gray (non-pigmented) hair is ash by nature; therefore, if you use a straight ash tint on it, you will get very drab results. Haircolor Secret Ash Hair + Ash Tint = More Ash/Drab Color The hair could look smoky, gunmetal green, lavender, or steel gray. Secret Ground Rule #2 To get total gray coverage on resistant gray (non-pigmented) hair, you will need to use a level 8 blonde or darker. (If the hair is a fine texture, level 9 may work). Most manufacturers will tell you that, in order to get good gray coverage on resistant gray (non-pigmented) hair, you need to use a level 8 or darker. This is because in most cases, there is not enough dye load into levels 9 or 10 to obtain adequate gray coverage on resistant gray (non-pigmented) hair. Secret Ground Rule #3 Never put a straight cool red tint on gray (non-pigmented) hair. Gray (non-pigmented) hair lacks warmth (contributing color pigment/golden & red), so it will always show the full impact of the base in a tint. Cool red colors such as RVs (red violet) and PRs (purple reds) will look pink in the lighter shades and lavender or mauve in the darker shades. This is because the hair itself has no gold (warmth) to compensate for the tint which would balance out the color.
Copyright 2007 by David Velasco: All Rights Reserved : www.Haircolortradesecrets.com

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Trade Secrets of Great Gray Coverage


The Secret Ground Rule #4 Gray (non-pigmented) hair will always turn yellow when lightened because of the pheomelanin (red-yellow) pigment which is still in the hair. I already stated this at the beginning of this book. The reason I am emphasizing it is to make sure you realize that, before lightening gray (non-pigmented) hair, be prepared to tone if necessary. Sometimes you'll get lucky and not have to use a toner at all, but in most cases, the yellow bleached-up gray (non-pigmented) hair will look raw or straw-like so just be ready to tone if needed. Secret Ground Rule #5 All gray (non-pigmented) hair is not created equal and, therefore, will not react the same to tinting, bleaching or toning. Coarse textured gray (non-pigmented) hair will always react slower and be more stubborn when tinting, bleaching or toning. Finer textured gray (non-pigmented) hair will always react quicker to tinting, bleaching and toning. Keep in mind that on the same head of hair, you will have a mixture of fine, medium and coarse gray (non-pigmented) hair. And in some cases, you may have to treat these different parts of the head with separate hair color formulas. Secret Ground Rule #6 In most cases, when covering 75% to 100% gray (non-pigmented) hair, you will have to mix the desired shade with either a gold base tint or a neutral/natural base tint in order to make up for the lack of warmth in the hair.

Copyright 2007 by David Velasco: All Rights Reserved : www.Haircolortradesecrets.com

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Trade Secrets of Great Gray Coverage


Most tints are made to be put on pigmented hair, which will give a contributing color pigment of red or gold. Therefore, if working on 100% gray (non-pigmented) hair, you will have to mix in the missing tone (gold/red), or both, in order to make up for the lack of this warmth in the gray (non-pigmented) hair.

Copyright 2007 by David Velasco: All Rights Reserved : www.Haircolortradesecrets.com

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Trade Secrets of Great Gray Coverage

Making Gray (non-pigmented) Hair Golden Blonde

When you want to make someone who is 75% to 100% gray (nonpigmented) into a natural looking golden blonde, keep this in mind: Straight gold tint on white (non pigmented) hair could produce a very strong, bold gold result or, at the very least, look too yellow. Also, some manufacturers use green in their lighter gold tints in order to keep the hair from becoming too gold. Both of these situations can result in a very unnatural and undesirable effect. In order to prevent either of these occurrences, do the following: 1. Do a strand test first. This will show exactly what you will get before doing anything. 2. Compensate for the lack of gold (warmth) and, at the same time, mellow out the BOLD GOLD effect by adding up to a half tube of a neutral/natural base tint in the same level as your gold base desired shade. 3. If the client is concerned about an obvious re-growth line use a demi-color in the gold or neutral family to get a very subtle gray blending effect.

Copyright 2007 by David Velasco: All Rights Reserved : www.Haircolortradesecrets.com

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Trade Secrets of Great Gray Coverage

Making Gray (non-pigmented) Hair Ash Blonde

If your client has gray (non-pigmented) hair and wants it covered but still wants an ash look, remember secret ground rule #1 -- never use a straight ash color on gray (non-pigmented) hair. With that said, you can use an ash base blond color mixed with a neutral/natural base color (up to half of the formula). In most cases, these natural/neutral base tints will give enough necessary warmth to make up for the lack of gold in the gray (non-pigmented) hair. In some cases, (depending on the manufacturer) you may be able to get a perfect ash blonde look by just using natural/neutral base tints without even using any ash base tint at all. Remember the natural/neutral base tints are made up of equal parts of the three primary colors. This results in all of the primary colors neutralizing each other out and creating a brown base. Think of your neutral/natural base tints as brown base hair color. In some cases, this may be a perfect blend to create an ash look on your client's gray (non-pigmented) hair.

Copyright 2007 by David Velasco: All Rights Reserved : www.Haircolortradesecrets.com

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Trade Secrets of Great Gray Coverage

Making Gray (non-pigmented) Hair Neutral Blonde

In some cases, you may want to make your client's gray (nonpigmented) hair a neutral blonde. This is particularly useful if you are using this color as the base color and then putting in highlights to enhance the overall look. A word of warning -- a straight neutral blonde can be made by using the neutral/natural tints, which your color line has. But if you do not plan on putting in some highlights to brighten up the hair, it will look drab and lackluster. This is to say that straight neutral/natural tints work great when used in combination with other color basis (ash, gold, red). However, used alone, these tints may tend to make the hair looked drab, boring and lifeless. But, as I have already mentioned, these colors work great as backdrops (base colors) for creative foiling procedures. Note: Remember, in the previous section when we spoke about making gray (non-pigmented) hair an ash color, I recommended using the neutral/natural tints as opposed to ash tints. This is fine as long as your desired end result is a drab color (ash color). But, if your client desires a softer neutral blonde, you will need to brighten up the overall look with additional color such as highlights. For more information on making great looking blondes see the book, Trade Secrets of Incredible Single Process Blondes.
Copyright 2007 by David Velasco: All Rights Reserved : www.Haircolortradesecrets.com

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Making Gray (non-pigmented) Hair Red Blonde

Red blonde hair can be as light as strawberry blonde, apricot blonde or copper blonde. All of these hair colors are made by mixing various degrees of red (primary color) and gold (primary color) in order to make some combination of orange. The more gold in the mixture, the lighter and blonder it will look. The more red in a mixture, the red color will look darker and more full-bodied. Therefore, if you want your red blonde to look mostly blonde with a hint of red, try using mostly a gold base color such as 7G, 8G or 9G and adding in a little of RG (Gold Red) to the base color the same level as the gold. If you want your red blonde to look a little full-bodied (stronger red), you will probably be able to use RG tints straight from the tube with little or no mixing at all. Keep in mind that the best redheads occur when a client's natural color helps to contribute some red to the overall finished color. (See book Trade Secrets of Amazing Redheads in this course). When working on gray (non-pigmented) hair, you will not have any natural contributing color pigment (red / gold) at all, so you are totally dependent upon the tint to do the whole job.
Copyright 2007 by David Velasco: All Rights Reserved : www.Haircolortradesecrets.com

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This may take a little experimenting in order to get a red blonde shade the client will like and that will hold its color from touch up to touch up. Don't become discouraged. Once you hit the right combination, it will look great and your client will love it. The one main exception to all this is that hair color has the best chance of looking good and holding well as long as the hair is in good condition. If the hair has been chemically abused by overtinting, chemically relaxing or perming, the red probably will not take or will not hold in this situation. Your best bet in these situations is trying to use a demi-color in the red gold family. For more information on making great looking redheads see: the book Trade Secrets of Amazing Redheads.

Copyright 2007 by David Velasco: All Rights Reserved : www.Haircolortradesecrets.com

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Trade Secrets of Great Gray Coverage

Making Gray (non-pigmented) Hair Double Process Blonde

At first, you may think that this should be the easiest of all procedures. The hair is already white, how much more work will you have to do to get platinum or some other shades of double process blonde? Well, it's true, the hair is almost there by nature, but you still have to go through the whole pre-bleach and toning process just as if the hair were pigmented. Remember, in making a double process blonde, you have to create "desirable porosity" in the hair before being able to use a toner. Even though the hair lacks pigmentation, if you truly desire a double process blonde look such as platinum, champagne, or ultra white, you must first pre-lighten the hair. This will remove some of the gold color pigment still residing in the cortex layer of the hair and, through the bleaching process, create this desired porosity. You will now be able to use toners, which are made with light pastel color bases, to give you the desired results. NOTE: Toners used in the double blonding process are very weak products. They are not made like traditional tints, which must be aggressive enough to change healthy natural color to another shade. Toners will only work on hair which has been pre-lightened to remove the unwanted natural pigmentation. They will simultaneously create the necessary porosity in the hair shaft to allow for the penetration of the toner.
Copyright 2007 by David Velasco: All Rights Reserved : www.Haircolortradesecrets.com

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To learn how to do this double process procedure, see the book, Trade Secrets of Stunning Double Process Blondes in this course.

Copyright 2007 by David Velasco: All Rights Reserved : www.Haircolortradesecrets.com

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Making Gray (non-pigmented) Hair Brown (Levels 4, 5 & 6)


Making Gray (non-pigmented) Hair Golden Brown

This is one of the easiest color applications of all. Most hair color lines have enough gold in their gold line of tints to compensate for the lack of gold in the hair. Also, at a color level depth of 4, 5 or 6, there is enough "depth of tone" to keep the hair from looking yellow and give the finished result of a nice full-bodied color without having to mix in other shades. However, some color lines still require the mixing of their neutral/natural tones as part of the formula.

Copyright 2007 by David Velasco: All Rights Reserved : www.Haircolortradesecrets.com

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Trade Secrets of Great Gray Coverage

Making Gray (non-pigmented) Hair Ash Brown

Ash tints in the brown family at levels five or darker have a color base made up of blue, green, dark violet (purple) or any other combination, which has a primary color blue in it. Anytime the primary color blue is mixed with either one of the other two primaries (red or gold), you will be making a cool base color. Fortunately for us, manufacturers have already done most of this mixing, so we don't have to think about it. If you're not sure what base color your color line uses to make a certain shade, put a little dab of your color straight out of the tube onto a piece of cotton and you'll immediately be able to see what the base is. Secret Ground Rule #6 told you that hair color manufacturers make ash tints primarily to be used on pigmented hair (brown) to help compensate for the unwanted warm tones, which will be created from the tinting process. If this same ash tint is used on pure white hair, it could have a tendency to look too cool. Given the same level, an ash base tint (blue, green or violet) will always look darker and drabber than a warm base tint (gold or red). With that in mind, a level 4 ash tint will look cooler (drabber and darker) then a level 4 gold base tint (warmer).

Copyright 2007 by David Velasco: All Rights Reserved : www.Haircolortradesecrets.com

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Trade Secrets of Great Gray Coverage


Why is this so important? Because, as a professional hair colorist, it is your job to make sure the client leaves the salon looking great. Also, remember, as we get older, not only does our hair turn gray (nonpigmented), but also our skin tone becomes more sallow (grayish). Given this fact, if a person is old enough to have gray (nonpigmented) hair, giving him/her a true ash hair color may not be the best choice. Most people look better with a warmer tone in their skin and in their hair. Obviously, we can't do anything about their skin tone, but we can make their hair a little warmer, brighten up their look, and, hopefully, with a little makeup, they can take care of the rest. One more side note which I should mention here is that many women of the mature baby boomer generation will always ask you to give them an ash hair color. It seems that, when they were younger, ash tints had just been invented and, therefore, considered very fashionable. Also, during this time (1950s or 1960s), they had darker hair, and ash base tints worked for them. Now, the same women come into the salon all the time asking for ash brown color to be used on their hair. This is where you, as a professional hair colorist, must realize that most of these people don't even know what they're asking for. All they know is that, when they were younger, this type of color looked great on them. The bottom line is that you must make the decision as to what color you think will look best on them. Do not use an ash color just because they said to. If you do and the finished hair color service makes them look older, drab or artificial, they will blame you, not their request. So where does that leave us?
Copyright 2007 by David Velasco: All Rights Reserved : www.Haircolortradesecrets.com

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Trade Secrets of Great Gray Coverage


If a person has 75% to 100% gray (non-pigmented) hair and you desire to have a non-warm hair color result, I would recommend that you use a natural/neutral color line instead of the ash line of tints. Remember, I'm talking here about someone with 75% to 100% gray (non-pigmented) hair. If you are working on someone with more pigmented hair then 25%, you will want to use ash hair color in your color mixture. Anywhere from one quarter to three quarters of your mixture should be ash and the rest neutral/natural. For more information on making great looking brunettes see the book, Trade Secrets of Exotic Brunettes.

Copyright 2007 by David Velasco: All Rights Reserved : www.Haircolortradesecrets.com

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Trade Secrets of Great Gray Coverage

Making Gray (non-pigmented) Hair Reddish-Brown

In order to make a tint reddish-brown, you will need to have all three primaries in your mixture: gold, red and blue. This can be a very easy and straightforward hair color - right out of the tube. Most hair color manufacturers will have in their line several shades of red-browns to choose from, ranging from light auburns to deepest chestnuts, mahoganies, and purple plum reds. But if you want to make up some combinations of your own and experiment a little, here's what you need to know. Red is a primary color. In order to make it lighter, it must be mixed with yellow (gold) which will give you RG's and Ors, as we have already discussed in the section of this book on making gray (nonpigmented) hair blonde-red. For making gray (non-pigmented) hair red-brown, mix red with a gold or with the natural/neutral shade in levels 3,4, or 5 for a warm reddish-brown. Or mix red with a blue base color (ash in the same levels) in order to make a deep violet or purple base red to make a dark Auburn or Plum. The more blue in the mixture, the cooler your red will be. The more brown base color (neutral/natural or gold), the warmer your red will be.

Copyright 2007 by David Velasco: All Rights Reserved : www.Haircolortradesecrets.com

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The choice is yours. Personally, I prefer more natural looking shades. Therefore, in most cases, I would tend to use my natural/neutral or gold tints as my base in the level that I want. Then I would introduce some of the red violet tint in the same level until I am able to achieve the color I want. However, if you want to make a more burgundy color or purple/plum red, you would need to include a lot more blue in the mixture. This is achieved either by using your darkest red or by putting some blue and red mixed tone (pure base pigment) into the color formula. Again, this is a process of trial and error, so only do this if you want to experiment with a little mixology. In most hair color lines, you'll have the exact shade you need to make this a very simple and straightforward procedure.

Copyright 2007 by David Velasco: All Rights Reserved : www.Haircolortradesecrets.com

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Trade Secrets of Great Gray Coverage

Making Gray (non-pigmented) Hair Red

Some of the concepts in this section have already been discussed earlier. In this book, however, they are worth mentioning again in case you have been jumping around and not reading this book from beginning to end. For starters, keep in mind that we are talking here about a natural head of hair which is 75% to 100% gray (non-pigmented). In order to create a red hair color, you are totally depending upon your tint for your finished hair color (level and tone). When you compare this situation to making someone who has brown hair a redhead, you will quickly see that the person with brown hair has plenty of contributing natural hair color pigment to help give a fullbodied (rich) red color result versus someone with white hair which contributes nothing to the end color result. In essence, what I'm saying is that a person who is 75% to 100% gray (non-pigmented) hair is not your best candidate for a redhead, but if you are still determined to do it, heres how.

Copyright 2007 by David Velasco: All Rights Reserved : www.Haircolortradesecrets.com

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Trade Secrets of Great Gray Coverage

Understanding Red Hair Color Bases OR, RG, RV, BR, PR


Before we launch into a full discussion about making gray (nonpigmented) hair red, lets first make sure we have a basic understanding about how different shades of red hair color are made so that we can talk about why some reds work better on gray (non-pigmented) hair than others. First of all, keep in mind that when you put red hair color on someone who has pigmented hair (brown, dark blonde etc.), the red hair color works in combination with the exposed contributing natural pigment to create the red finished result the client desires. But when the hair is gray (non-pigmented) and has no contributing warm tones to help the red to look rich and long lasting, you are totally depending on the artificial dye to give the finished result. A quick review of the common red shades available will give some insight into what we need to do to create beautiful shades of red on 75%-100% gray (non-pigmented) hair. At this point, you know all colors are made from only the three primary colors (yellow, red & blue). But pure red, being one of the primary colors, would not look very natural on anyone, so we must mix it with other colors in order to make a more desirable shade. Fortunately, we dont actually have to mix them ourselves because the color manufacturers have already done most of the mixing for us. In general, all red shades must start out with red tint. This red tint will usually be any level from about 3 to 9. Any level darker than a 3 will probably be too dark to see any red tone. At a level 10, you would not see any color at all. When you see a tint labeled with 2 or more letters, the first letter indicates the dominant primary base in the color and the second and/or third letters indicate the secondary color(s) in the tube.
Copyright 2007 by David Velasco: All Rights Reserved : www.Haircolortradesecrets.com

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Example: Or means that this tint has a dominant primary color of orange (gold & red) and a secondary color of red (indicating that the red is not dominate and, therefore, more subtle). Or - is a combination of 2 reds and 1 yellow (O stands for Orange which is made up of 1 red part and 1 yellow, r stands for 1 part red) Rg is 1 part red and 1part yellow (gold) with red being the dominant color. Rv is 2 parts red and 1 part blue (R stands for 1 part red, V stands for violet which is made from 1 part red and 1 part blue). Also, sometimes you will see something like this:

RRvthis means that this tint has a dual primary color of red (double dye load of red) with a secondary dye load of violet, which is 1 part red and 1 part blue, making it a very strong and vibrant cool red tone.

Br is 1 part yellow, 1 part blue, 2 parts red (B stands for Brown which is equal parts of the three primary colors (just like your natural/neutral base colors) red, yellow and blue and R stands for red). This color would be brown with a hint of red.

Pr is a dark purple-red color with 2 parts red and 1 part dark blue (P stands for purple and is 1 part dark red with 1 part dark blue, r stands for red).

Copyright 2007 by David Velasco: All Rights Reserved : www.Haircolortradesecrets.com

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Trade Secrets of Great Gray Coverage

Making Gray (non-pigmented) Hair Light Red (Levels 7,8,9)

The best way to think about this is to pretend that you are going to paint on a white artists canvas. Whatever colors you mix on the artist palette will be on the canvas. This is because the white artist canvas is totally void of any color and, therefore, will not contribute any tone to the end color result. So what you mix is exactly what you will get. Contrast this with putting a tint on pigmented hair (brown, dark blonde or red) which will add a big dose of contributing natural pigment. You will quickly see why working on 75% to 100% gray (non-pigmented) hair is very different then working on pigmented hair. Contributing color pigment will always be warm (gold or red) and can be a very difficult thing to deal with if you desire a cool end result. But if you desire a red end result, contributing natural pigment is your best friend. It will not only add to the richness and boldness of your color, but also contribute greatly to the longevity (less fading) of the red color. So what can we do to make our 75% to 100% gray (non-pigmented) client the best redhead she can be?
Copyright 2007 by David Velasco: All Rights Reserved : www.Haircolortradesecrets.com

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Secret Ground Rule #1 Make sure the hair is in the best condition possible. Hair, which has been bleached, over-permed or abused in any way, will be too porous to ever hold a delicate light red color. Remember one of the rules of color is that porous hair will always reject warm tones and grab ash tones. Therefore, forget about it, if the hair has been subjected to this kind of abuse.

Secret Ground Rule #2 The darker you go in the level, the more dye load in the color and the better chance of the red color holding. Level 9OR (light apricot) looks beautiful on the right person, but it is one of the lightest and the faintest red hair colors that you can make. So if you are having problems getting this very light red color to hold, start introducing a little bit of the next darker red (level 8 or 7). Start slowly in ! tube increments, gradually increasing the darker red color until you hit on the right combination for your particular client. If you find that these red colors at a darker level are too pungent for your taste, try adding a little of your neutral/natural base tint into the mixture. Remember, all of these light red colors are made up of two primary pigments, red and gold. It is the delicate balance between these two colors, which you have to strike in order to achieve the exact color you desire.

Copyright 2007 by David Velasco: All Rights Reserved : www.Haircolortradesecrets.com

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Secret Ground Rule #3 If you are having trouble getting a permanent hair color to hold, try using a demi-color. Typically, the rule of thumb is to use a permanent color when you want to go lighter and/or brighter. And you use a demi-color when you want to either stay the same level with just changing the tone or you want to go darker. Well, if you are starting out with white hair, any color would be darker even a light red shade.

Haircolor Secret One of my little secrets is to first always try using the mildest color product possible to achieve a desired color effect. Then, if that doesnt work, gradually go to a stronger type of colorant.

I do this for two reasons: 1. To create less porosity in the hair, which will allow better color retention (less fading), 2. To keep the hair as shiny as possible. Shiny hair is healthy hair. Dry or overly porous hair will not be shiny because the cuticle layer of the hair is either too open or missing altogether. This is most likely due to an excess of aggressive products being used. Therefore, the hair will not reflect light which is what shine is. As long as you keep the cuticle layer of the hair intact and as flat as possible, the hair will reflect light and appear to be very shiny and healthy.
Copyright 2007 by David Velasco: All Rights Reserved : www.Haircolortradesecrets.com

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Trade Secrets of Great Gray Coverage

Making Gray (non-pigmented) Hair Medium Red (Levels 4,5,6)

The light reds (Rgs & Ors) have already been discussed in the previous section of this book and the darker reds will be addressed a little later in this book. For now, we will concentrate on the medium reds on gray (non-pigmented) hair (levels 4,5 and 6). These levels are what I call the transition levels. What I mean is that they can be warm (dark Ors, Rgs & Brs) or they can be cool (light Rvs Rbs & Prs). The selection you have will be largely dependent upon which manufacturers color line you use. But with this knowledge, you should be able to mix just about any medium red shades you want. So the question now becomes: How can you achieve a beautiful, full bodied red color on 75% to 100% gray (non-pigmented) hair without making it too bright, too pungent, or too hot? Haircolor Secret Always mix these colors with either a gold base tint or a neutral/natural base tint.

Copyright 2007 by David Velasco: All Rights Reserved : www.Haircolortradesecrets.com

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Trade Secrets of Great Gray Coverage

Warm Red Colors


Heres the Secret Rule to remember if you want to make a warm red color

A warm red color would be levels 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 or 9 with a base of

Or = Orange------

Rg = Red gold---

Br = Brown red-Working with these colors straight from the tube could produce a very intense, vibrant color when used on 75% to 100% gray (nonpigmented) hair. To prevent that from happening, mix your desired shade of warm red with a shade of a gold base tint in the same level. I would recommend that with this high percentage of gray (nonpigmented) hair, you start off with a 50/50 ratio of gold and red base tints. This will give you a good point of reference with which to start. If you feel that the end color was still too red, you can easily mellow out the red by applying a gold base demi-color over the bright red areas for about ten minutes or so. This will give the extra warmth you need to subdue the vibrancy of the red. But, hopefully, the color will be just right and your job will be done.

Copyright 2007 by David Velasco: All Rights Reserved : www.Haircolortradesecrets.com

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Trade Secrets of Great Gray Coverage

Cool Red Colors


Heres the Secret Rule to remember if you want to make a cool red color Cool red colors would be levels 3, 4, 5 & 6 with a base of:

Rv = Red Violet-----

Bv = Blue Violet----

Pr = Purple Red----Anything darker than a level 3 would be too dark (blue) to see any red. On the other hand, anything lighter than a level 6 would require gold (warmth) in the formula and would not be considered a cool base red. With these colors, you would follow exactly the same procedures as we just stated. The only exception would be that you would use a neutral or natural base tint as the brown base color instead of the gold base color. The reason is, if you want a cool red as a finished result, the extra gold in a gold base tint will tend to neutralize out some of the violet in the red tint and you will be making a brown red instead of a cool red. By using a neutral or natural base color as the mixing shade, you have a far better chance of keeping the red cool and strong.

Copyright 2007 by David Velasco: All Rights Reserved : www.Haircolortradesecrets.com

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Trade Secrets of Great Gray Coverage


Keep in mind, all of this information you have just read is only to be used on hair that is 75-100%, gray (non-pigmented). This means that if your client has a natural hair color 75-100% gray (non-pigmented), this formula can be used. However, when that same client comes back for a touch up, this formula ratio will be used on the natural gray (non-pigmented) regrowth area only. You will need a separate formula for your color balance on the midshaft and ends, without the gold or neutral brown base color at all. Typically for this color balance procedure, I would recommend a demi-color in the red family because youre not looking for any lift or gray coverage, just red deposit on the mid shaft and ends.

Copyright 2007 by David Velasco: All Rights Reserved : www.Haircolortradesecrets.com

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Trade Secrets of Great Gray Coverage

Making Gray (non-pigmented) Hair Dark Red (Levels 3,4,5)

When you want to make a red as deep and dark as a level 3 or 4, your choices are warm brown reds for the more natural looking woodsy colors like chestnut, mahogany and oak and cool violet reds like burgundy, plums and Bordeauxs. At this depth of tone, you shouldnt have any problem with hot or too vibrant hair color. You can use these dark red shades without having to mix them with any other color unless, of course, you want to make them less intense or a more mellow version of a particular red. If that is the case, simply experiment by adding in a little neutral or natural shade in the same level. Start with ! of your overall formula, adding more as you see fit until you reach the exact color you desire. A WORD OF WARNING: In general, these dark violet reds can be harsh looking on mature women. For this reason, these colors never really gained much popularity among the mainstream general public in America. It seems that here in the United States, these colors are more popular among the younger avant-garde types, but this is not so throughout the rest of the world. These dark Bordeaux and plum reds are very popular with the fashionable women in France, Italy, Germany and other areas of Europe. For more information on making great looking redheads see the book Trade Secrets of Amazing Redheads.
Copyright 2007 by David Velasco: All Rights Reserved : www.Haircolortradesecrets.com

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Partial Gray Coverage Techniques


Many times when someone is 75%-100% gray (non-pigmented), he/she is reluctant to get 100% gray coverage. First, he/she may not be ready for the dramatic change, which a total gray coverage service would bring. Secondly, he/she may not want the commitment to monthly touch ups that are costly and time-consuming. Lastly, he/she may feel (and rightfully so) going from total gray (nonpigmented) to total tinted hair will look fake and he/she would not feel comfortable with this dramatic change. All of these are very valid and understandable situations, so I am going to give you three of my favorite techniques for introducing these color-shy clients to hair color by taking baby steps (these techniques may also appear in other parts of this course).

Copyright 2007 by David Velasco: All Rights Reserved : www.Haircolortradesecrets.com

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Trade Secrets of Great Gray Coverage

1. Gray Blending

Gray Blending is used when you want to cover most of the gray (non-pigmented), but youre not looking for total gray coverage. The strategy is to choose a very light blonde demi-color in level 8 or 9 and apply re-growth to ends but, not necessarily for the full development time. If your demi-color usually requires a processing time of 30 minutes, you may take it off at 15-20 minutes. (You must check the hair at 5 minute intervals, until reaching the desired amount of gray coverage). Remember that you are not looking to cover all of the gray (nonpigmented), just a good portion of it. This happens because, as I said earlier, all gray (non-pigmented) hair is not created equal. The fine textured gray (non-pigmented) will take the color before the coarse textured gray (non-pigmented) will. Playing with this technique a few times will give you some formulas and timing which works best for your particular color lines.

Copyright 2007 by David Velasco: All Rights Reserved : www.Haircolortradesecrets.com

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Trade Secrets of Great Gray Coverage

2. Gray Reduction

Gray reduction is a form of foiling in low lights amongst the gray (non-pigmented) hair to give the illusion of darker (pigmented) hair. With this technique, you will have to make a few choices: 1. What shade or shades should you use for the low lights? 2. How many foils should you use? 3. How heavy or fine should your weaves be in the foils? Before I give you my suggestions on these three questions, I want to give you a few Secret Ground Rules that will make your gray reduction look outstanding.
Copyright 2007 by David Velasco: All Rights Reserved : www.Haircolortradesecrets.com

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Trade Secrets of Great Gray Coverage


Secret Ground Rule #1 Never put low light foils at the hairline around the face or right on the style parting. These are the most obvious places to put foils when wanting to make someone a highlighted blonde. But when you are putting in darker pieces among 75%-100% gray (non-pigmented) hair, putting low lights in either of these areas is the kiss of death to your color service. You ALWAYS want to keep a fine veil of natural color on both sides of the style or natural parting and around the hairline closest to the face. Secret Ground Rule #2 Never use straight horizontal or straight vertical sections with your low light foils unless you want to create a zebra stripe effect. The low lights could show up quite stripy if your client pulls her hair back into a ponytail, slicks her hair back with gel or puts her hair up into an up-do. In order to prevent this from happening, I recommend using diagonal partings on both the side and top of the head. If you desire, you can even do it in the back of the head. Secret Ground Rule #3 Decide ahead of time on the percentage of gray (non-pigmented) you want to color and make a notation of that percentage on his/her color card. The beauty of the Gray Reduction Technique is that you can eliminate the gray (non-pigmented) in varying degrees on the same head or eliminate a very small percentage of gray (nonpigmented). Over a few months, you can gradually increase the amount of gray (non-pigmented), which you are covering.
Copyright 2007 by David Velasco: All Rights Reserved : www.Haircolortradesecrets.com

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Trade Secrets of Great Gray Coverage


For example, you may start off at 10%, and then increase to 20%, then 30%, until you reach an amount with which you and your client feel comfortable. You can also use the technique in reverse. The Three Questions Question #1What color shade (or shades) should I use for the low lights? The answer to this question lies with the client; how bold or subtle does he/she want the color to look? You could keep the whole look very subtle and natural by simply weaving in 1, 2 or 3 shades in the blonde family such as 7N, 8N or 9N, or you could try to make it more like salt & pepper by weaving in 1N or 2N demi-color. Keep in mind that all color will fade to some degree, especially permanent colors due to the high percentage of ammonia. Therefore, I would recommend that you first try using a demicolor for this low light procedure. If for some reason you feel that you are not getting the gray coverage you desire, use a permanent color. Question #2How many foils should I use? Again, you should ask yourself how much gray (non-pigmented) you want to cover. A few foils scattered throughout the head will give a very subtle hint of dark color and, obviously, a lot of foils thought the whole head will produce a much higher amount of dark color. Question #3How heavy or fine should the weaves be? Do you want your gray reduction to look soft and natural or bold and obvious? A fine, subtle weave will always produce a natural effect, whether you are weaving in a lighter color or a darker color.
Copyright 2007 by David Velasco: All Rights Reserved : www.Haircolortradesecrets.com

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Trade Secrets of Great Gray Coverage


A thick, heavy weave will put very dark streaks in the hair and present a bold look when the hair is styled. The choice is up to you and your client. One final point, this Gray Reduction technique is also great when a client wishes to stop coloring his/her hair and you want to gradually take him/her off of haircolor. Simply color less and less hair each time he/she gets it done until you feel able to stop altogether.

3. Blonde on Gray (non-pigmented) (Foiling in Lightener)


In the beginning of this book and in Secret Ground Rule #4, you learned that when applying lightener to gray (non-pigmented) hair, it will turn yellow due to the pheomelanin (red-yellow) pigment which is still in the hair. I know that yellow hair doesnt sound attractive. However, if you lightened up the hair just a bit more into the pale yellow stage, this is a perfectly acceptable color for highlights on the gray (nonpigmented) hair without changing the base color. If youve never given someone a full foil using only lightener (oil or powder) on 75-100% gray (non-pigmented) hair without coloring the base color (keeping it gray (non-pigmented)), you may think that it would look odd. However, believe me, done correctly, it can look amazing. Also, you can become very creative and try a toner over the lightened highlight for a pearl finish, a caf latte look or any other tone which you think might look appropriate.

Copyright 2007 by David Velasco: All Rights Reserved : www.Haircolortradesecrets.com

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Trade Secrets of Great Gray Coverage


Remember, when left on for just a few minutes, the toner will grab only onto the pre-lightened strands and not onto the natural gray (non-pigmented) hair. However, do not exceed more than a couple minutes or you will start to expose some of the yellow contributing pigment in the natural gray (non-pigmented) hair. The overall look of this procedure is one, which says is his/her hair white or is it blonde? and it can look stunning on the right client.

Copyright 2007 by David Velasco: All Rights Reserved : www.Haircolortradesecrets.com

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Gray Coverage Color Corrective Procedures


1. Keeping White Hair White

SITUATION: Lets start off with a problem, which I alluded to in the introduction of this book . I used the example of the client who went on vacation to a warm climate and came back with yellow hair. Lets assume that this client looks good in his/her white hair and wants to keep it as white as possible without any yellow.

Copyright 2007 by David Velasco: All Rights Reserved : www.Haircolortradesecrets.com

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WHAT HAPPENED? The sun, salt water and chlorinated pools are all natural bleaching agents. As the hair is exposed to these environmental elements, it starts to become porous and, as mentioned before, the pheomelanin (red-yellow) pigment begins to show through. WHAT TO DO: Remember that the hair is porous at this point and porous hair will always grab ash tones and reject warm tones. So do a strand test first and then, if successful, do the rest of the hair. Use a demi-color with a very light violet base mixed 50/50 with a clear tone to dilute the intensity of the color, as the hair is yellow and needs the other two missing primary colors to neutralize the yellow. Apply the demi-color to your test strand and check at 5 minute intervals. If it grabs too dark or if it does not work at all, adjust the proportions of the formula (tint vs. clear tone) until you get it right.

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2.

Always use Neutral Base Colors as Part of the Formula SITUATION: Youve tinted a clients hair with a red base tint and her gray (non-pigmented) looks pink, Youve tinted a clients hair with a gold base tint and the gray (non-pigmented) looks too yellow, Youve tinted a clients hair with an ash base tint and his/her gray (non-pigmented) hair looks very drab or mauve.

WHAT HAPPENED? All of these hair color problems occurred because of the same reason-Not enough warmth and depth in the formula. WHAT TO DO: If you have a client sitting in your chair with one of the above problems, using a demi-color, select a shade in the brown or gold family in the same level as your desired shade. Mix it as the manufacturer recommends and apply it to the affected area (re-growth only or all over). Leave on for about 10 minutes and check to see if the color looks right. If not, leave on and continue checking every 5 minutes, until the desired shade is achieved. HOW TO PREVENT THIS IN THE FUTURE: Keep in mind that whenever you work on gray (nonpigmented) hair, you should always use a neutral or natural (depending on the manufacturer) base color as part of your overall formula. Neutral based colors are made up of equal
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parts of the three primary colors which, when mixed together, creates a brown base color. This brown base color needs to be part of your color formula in order to make up for the lack of brown in the gray (non-pigmented) hair. Usually, I recommend using a neutral or natural base color in the same level as the desired shade. EXAMPLE:

6rg & 6n..........

8a & 8n---------

The big question becomes - how much of the neutral base color should you use in relation to the desired shade? My rule of thumb is this: analyze the hair and decide what percentage of gray (non-pigmented) vs. pigmented hair there actually is (25% or less, 50% or 75% or more). Then, as a starting point, use the same percentage of neutral or natural base color as the amount of gray (non-pigmented) hair your client has. EXAMPLE: 25% gray (non-pigmented) or less = use 25% neutral base color75% desired shade 50% gray (non-pigmented) = use 50% neutral base color50% desired shade 75% gray (non-pigmented) or more = use 75% neutral base color 25% desired shade
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I recommend using this rule of thumb as a guide in order to have a safe ratio and to establish a point of reference. After you see how it comes out, you may decide that next time the client returns, you may want to change the formula slightly in order to make it brighter or deeper etc.

3.

9 Strategies for Covering Resistant Gray (non-

pigmented) Hair Below are nine more techniques to help you deal with resistant gray (non-pigmented) hair problems. They will help you tweak (get more out of) your demi-colors. Use them in descending and accumulative order. In other words, first try 3-a. If that doesnt do it, try 3-a and 3-b together, etc. 3a Take Thinner Sections In order to get adequate gray (non-pigmented) coverage, each individual hair must be completely coated with hair color. Sometimes we tend to make our sections too thick, picking up way too much hair at once and putting tint on only the exterior of the section. When we do this, the hair on the inside of that thick section does not get adequately saturated with tint and the result will look patchy on the gray (non-pigmented) hair and/or the gray (non-pigmented) hair will look stained but still visible. 3b Apply Product on Both Sides of a Section As you pick up each section, be sure that to paint tint on both sides of the section, not just on the top or bottom of a section. I often see this when someone is in a rush to get through and starts looking for shortcuts.

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3c Use Extra Product This does not mean to be wasteful, but so many times we try to stretch a tube or bottle of hair color when we really should use another ounce or two of product. If you try to skimp on product during the first application, you may find that youll need to use a second batch of product to redo the entire head. You will also have to use your valuable time to reapply it. 3d Extend the Timing Once youve tried 3a, 3b & 3c on a client and youre still having problems covering his/her gray (non-pigmented) hair, start leaving on the color for an extra 15 to 20 minutes. This will really make a difference if you are using demicolor. I think youll find that, if all these techniques are used, most of your gray (non-pigmented) coverage problems will be resolved. However, if they are not, the following techniques can be used. 3e Switch to Permanent Color If, at this point, you are still using demi-hair color on your client, consider switching to permanent hair color. Some gray (non-pigmented) hair is simply too resistant and coarse to use a demi-color and you need the extra amount of ammonia and peroxide, which only a permanent hair color can supply. However, you can still use the demi-color on the lengths and ends for color balancing, while using the permanent hair color on the new re-growth only.
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3f Double Pigmentation Double pigmentation is a technique used on very resistant gray (non-pigmented) hair for full head applications. It is a technique whereby you actually use twice the amount of hair color than you would normally use, not increasing the amount of developer, but, instead, increasing the volume from 20 volume to 30 volume. Example: 4oz. 30-Volume Developer to 4oz. tint, a ratio of 2:1 becomes 1:1 What this actually does is give double the amount of dye load in your formula in order to try to infuse extra dye molecules into the cortex layer of the hair. Using 30-volume developer instead of 20 volume gives the formula more much-needed oxygen in order to develop the dye molecules faster and, at the same time, remove some of the natural hair color molecules. 3g Pre-Pigmentation with Hair Color Pre-pigmentation is a technique used to achieve gray (nonpigmented) coverage on specific areas of the head. i.e.: temples, parting or any other resistant area. It uses the principle, which we all heard about in beauty school called pre-softening. However, in beauty school we were always told to pre-soften with peroxide, which is an acid. I believe this to be wrong. An acid actually closes down instead of opening up the cuticle layer of the hair, which is what you need in order to allow the color to penetrate and do its job in the cortex of the hair. What you really need to do is pre-soften or pre-pigment with hair color, which is an alkaline instead of an acid. An alkaline product such as hair color will actually open up the cuticle layer of the hair. This allows the color molecules to
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penetrate and develop deeper into the hair shaft in order to allow for maximum gray (non-pigmented) coverage. The procedure is as follows... Isolate the areas of the head, which you want to pre-pigment and then select a high lifting shade of tint. It really doesnt matter what shade you select because all we are looking for is something with a high ammonia content which will be present in any high -lifting shade (i.e.: 12a, 12n, 12g). By the way, this high-lifting tint has nothing to do with the finished desired color. At this point, if you are using a tube color, mix it with a little water in order to give a better viscosity with which to work. (About " oz. of a high-lifting tint and a " oz. of water should do the job). If you are using a liquid tint, you dont have to mix it at all. Just use it straight out of the bottle. Using a piece of cotton or a tint brush, apply a little of this high-lift tint mixture to the isolated resistant areas of the head. Let it set there while you mix and apply your actual desired shade to the rest of the hair. This will usually take about 10 to 15 minutes. After youve completed applying the desired shade to the rest of the hair, with a towel, wipe off the high lift tint in the areas where you applied it and then go right over these areas with your desired shade. Process the color for the normal time and check for adequate gray coverage before you shampoo. If gray (non-pigmented) is still not covered, leave the tint on the hair for an extra l0 to 15 minutes. Note: For extremely resistant gray (non-pigmented) hair, you can use the above technique, but instead of using a high lift tint, use mild oil lightener.
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3h Use a Darker Color If all else fails, the final technique requires you to try using a darker color. At first, try using your existing formula with a ! tube of the next darker level. If you are still not covering the gray (non-pigmented), try using " tube of the next darker level and continue in this manner until you have success. Also, if your clients hair is resistant only in a certain area such as the temples, use this technique only on that area. Note: If you are trying to cover gray (non-pigmented) with blonde tint, you must go darker than a level 8 in order to achieve adequate gray (non-pigmented) coverage. 3i Try Gray Magic This last suggestion is not really a hair coloring technique per se, but, instead, its a product. I normally dont like to promote products in this course, but I did want to tell you about this little secret weapon which I sometimes use. The product is called Gray Magic and its been around for many years. Below is an explanation taken from Gray Magics website as to why it works: Why does Gray Magic work? Gray hair is the result of the loss of red and yellow color pigment. Gray Magic adds concentrate red and yellow with wetting agents to replace the lost color pigment and moisture, to "lock-in" hair color.

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Why is Gray Magic effective on covering resistant gray hair? The loss of red and yellow, and the cuticle being very close to the cortex (preventing penetration of color) are factors of resistant gray hair. Gray Magic mixed with color and developer will lift the cuticle away from the cortex, allowing penetration. When color is then applied superior coverage is obtained, and up to 90% absorption of hair color.

To continue your haircolor education, learn advanced levels of haircolor formulation and how to correct any possible haircolor situation, see the other books in the Trade Secrets of a Haircolor Expert Course

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TRADE SECRETS OF HOW HAIRCOLOR REALLY WORKS

WHAT YOU WILL LEARN IN THIS BOOK Types of Products Used by the Professional Haircolorist Secrets of Temporary Haircolor Semi-Permanent Haircolor vs Demi-Permanent Haircolor Secrets of Semi-Permanent Haircolor Secrets of Demi-Permanent Haircolor Brief History of Demi-Permanent Haircolor Modern Demi Colors My Top 10 List for using Demi Color Secrets of Understanding Progressive Tints Secrets of Permanent Haircolor Secrets of Advance Haircolor Formulation Secrets of Why Using the Contributing Color Pigment Chart Doesnt Work
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WHAT YOU WILL LEARN IN THIS BOOK (CONT.) Texture Bars Explained Secrets of How to use the Exposed Contributing Pigment Chart for Tint-Backs Secrets of Porosity Secrets of Understanding Color Tones & Bases Secrets of Natural or Neutral Base Colors Secrets of Red Color Bases Secrets of Ash Base Colors Secrets of Gold Base Colors Secrets of High-Lift Super Blonde Haircolor Secrets of Toners Secrets of Lighteners (Bleaches): Powder and Oils Secrets of Color Removers Secrets of Henna & Polymer Colors Secrets of Developers

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TRADE SECRETS OF GREAT GRAY COVERAGE

WHAT YOU WILL LEARN IN THIS BOOK FORMULATION SECRETS FOR WORKING ON 75% TO 100% GRAY (NON-PIGMENTED) HAIR.

MAKING GRAY (NON-PIGMENTED) HAIR BLONDE (LEVELS 6-9) Making Gray (non-pigmented) Hair Golden Blonde Making Gray (non-pigmented) Hair Ash Blonde Making Gray (non-pigmented) Hair Neutral Blonde Making Gray (non-pigmented) Hair Red Blonde MAKING GRAY (NON-PIGMENTED) HAIR DOUBLE PROCESS BLONDE MAKING GRAY (NON-PIGMENTED) HAIR BROWN (LEVELS 1-5) Making Gray (non-pigmented) Hair Golden Brown Making Gray (non-pigmented) Hair Ash Brown Making Gray (non-pigmented) Hair Reddish-Brown
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WHAT YOU WILL LEARN IN THIS BOOK (CONT.) MAKING GRAY (NON-PIGMENTED) HAIR RED Making Gray (non-pigmented) Hair Light Red (Levels 7, 8, 9) Making Gray (non-pigmented) Hair Medium Red (Levels 4, 5, 6) Making Gray (non-pigmented) Hair Dark Red (Levels 3, 4, 5) PARTIAL COVERAGE TECHNIQUES Gray (non-pigmented) Reduction-Low Lights Gray (non-pigmented) Blending-Demi Color Blonde on Gray (non-pigmented) Foil Blonde GRAY COVERAGE COLOR CORRECTIVE PROCEDURES Keeping White Hair White

Always Use Neutral Base Colors as Part of the Formula 9-Strategies for Covering Resistant Gray (non-pigmented) Hair

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TRADE SECRETS OF EXOTIC BRUNETTES

WHAT YOU WILL LEARN IN THIS BOOK Keeping a Natural Brunette Brunette Making Salt & Pepper Hair Rich Brunette Making 75-100% Non-pigmented/White Hair Brunette Making a Natural Blonde a Brunette Making a Natural Redhead a Brunette Making a Double-Process Blonde a Brunette How to do Tint Backs

COLOR CORRECTIVE PROCEDURES FOR BRUNETTES #1 Dark Brown Tint Went Black #2 Brown Shade Looks Reddish #3 Brown Tint Went to Dark on the Ends Only #4 Brown Tint Took too Dark in the Temples #5 Brown Tint Looks Reddish in the Re-growth Area Only #6 Brown Shade Becomes Red After Just A Few Weeks

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TRADE SECRETS OF AMAZING REDHEADS

WHAT YOU WILL LEARN IN THIS BOOK Stack the Deck on Your Side Best and Worst Candidates for Becoming a Redhead Formulating Red Haircolor Keeping Natural Redheads Red Making Gray (Non-pigmented) Hair Red Making Natural Blonde Hair Red Making Brunette Hair Red (Levels 2-5)

COLOR CORRECTIVE PROCEDURES FOR REDHEADS #1 Red Color is too Vibrant at Regrowth Area #2 The Ends of Your Clients Red Hair Looks Brown #3 The Client is Experiencing Early or Excessive Fading #4 Gray Hair Turns Pink or Mauve after applying a Red Tint #5 How to Brighten Natural Redheads #6 How to Highlight Natural Red Heads-Highlights Keep Disappearing

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TRADE SECRETS OF

INCREDIBLE SINGLE PROCESS BLONDES

WHAT YOU WILL LEARN IN THIS BOOK Who are the Best and Worst Candidates for Single Process Blonding Natural/Neutral Base Blondes Ash Base Blondes Gold Base Blondes Red Base Blondes Drabbers, Modifiers and Intensifiers Highlift Special Blondes

Color Corrective Procedures #1 Ash Blonde Looks Drab on Non-pigmented #2 Blonde Haircolor Did Not Cover Non-pigmented #3 Blonde Looks Brassy / Too Warm #4 Blonde Hair Looks Green #5 When Making Salt & Pepper Hair Blonde The Non-pigmented Looks Good but the Darker Hair Now Looks Red

#6 How to Use Single Process Blonde on Dark Hair

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TRADE SECRETS OF STUNNING DOUBLE PROCESS BLONDES

WHAT YOU WILL LEARN IN THIS BOOK How Haircolor Use To Be The Consultation The Products The Hair The Bleach-Out Doing a Virgin Bleach-Out Doing a Bleach-Out on Tinted Hair Doing a Bleach-Out on Previously Highlighted/Frosted Hair The Toner Hint and Tips For Better Double Process Blonding

Color Corrective Procedures #1 Blonde Looks Drab or Gray #2 Hair has a White Band about 1 inch from the Scalp #3 Hair has a Gold Band about 1 inch from the Scalp #4 In a Retouch Situation the Regrowth Area is warmer than the Rest of the Hair #5 The Bleach-out is Very Spotty and Uneven #6 The Hairline and or Temples Look Dark and Drab after Toning. #7 After Toning, the Hair is discolored i.e.: Green, Violet, Pink etc.

#8 Client is Experiencing Breakage


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I would like to thank the

International Haircolor Exchange


For their generosity in allowing me to use this

HAIRCOLOR TERMINOLOGY GLOSSARY


Also I would like to recommend this incredible, pure education event to all of you who wish to continue your education in the Art of Haircolor. For information on this outstanding organization contact:

www.int-haircolor-ex.org

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HAIRCOLOR TERMINOLOGY GLOSSARY


From the International Haircolor Exchange ACCELERATOR...(See ACTIVATOR) ACCENT COLOR... A concentrated color product that can be added to permanent, semi- permanent or temporary haircolor to intensify or tone down the color. Another word for concentrate. ACID.... An aqueous (water based) solution having a pH less than 7.0 on the pH scale. ACTIVATOR... An additive used to quicken the action or progress of a chemical. Another word for booster, accelerator, protenator or catalyst. ALKALINE.... An aqueous (water based) solution having a pH greater than 7.0 on the pH scale. The opposite of acid. ALLERGY...... A physical reaction resulting from extreme sensitivity to exposure, contact and/or ingestion of certain foods or chemicals. ALLERGY TEST... A test to determine the possibility or degree of sensitivity; also known as a patch test, predisposition test or skin test. AMINO ACIDS.... The group of molecules that the body uses to synthesize protein. There are 22 different amino acids found in living protein that serve as units of structure. AMMONIA.... A colorless pungent gas composed of hydrogen and nitrogen; in water solution is called ammonia water. Used in haircolor to swell the cuticle. When mixed with hydrogen peroxide, it activates the oxidation process on melanin, and allows the melanin to decolorize. AMMONIUM HYDROXIDE..... An alkali solution of ammonia in water; commonly used in the manufacturing of permanent haircolor, lightener preparations and hair relaxers. ANALYSIS (HAIR).... An examination of the hair to determine its
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condition and natural color. (SEE CONSULTATION, CONDITION) AQUEOUS..... Descriptive term for water solution or any medium that is largely composed of water. ASH... A tone or shade dominated by greens, blues, violets or grays. May be used to counteract unwanted warm tones. BASE (ALKALI)... (See pH; ALKALINE) BASE COLOR.... (See COLOR BASE) BLEACH... (See LIGHTENER) BLEEDING... Seepage of tint/lightener from the packet containing the hair to be colored or frosting cap due to improper application. BLENDING.... A merging of one tint or tone with another. BLONDING... A term applied to lightening the hair. BONDS.... The means by which atoms are joined together to make molecules. BOOSTER... (See ACTIVATOR) BRASSY TONE... Undesirable red, orange or gold tones in the hair. BREAKAGE... A condition in which hair splits and breaks off. BUFFER ZONE... Applying color away from the scalp to avoid chemical overlapping. BUILD-UP... Repeated coatings on the hair shaft. BUMPING THE BASE... A term used to describe a gentle degree of lift of the natural color. CATALYST... A substance used to alter the speed of a chemical
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reaction. CATEGORY... A method of defining natural hair to help determine the undertones. CAUSTIC... Strongly alkaline materials. At very high pH levels, can burn or destroy protein or tissue by chemical action. CERTIFIED COLOR... A color which meets certain standards for purity and is certified by the FDA. CERTIFIED HAIRCOLORIST.... A haircolorist who has passed a rigid examination process established by the American Board of Certified Haircolorists. CETYL ALCOHOL... Fatty alcohol used as an emollient. It is also used as a stabilizer for emulsion systems, and in haircolor and cream developer as a thickener. CHELATING STABILIZER.... A molecule that binds metal ions and renders them inactive. CHEMICAL CHANGE... Alteration in the chemical composition of a substance. CITRIC ACID.... Organic acid derived from citrus fruits and used for pH adjustment. Primarily used to adjust the acid-alkali balance. Has some antioxidant and preservative qualities. Used medicinally as a mild astringent. COATING... Residue left on the outside of the hair shaft. COLOR... Visual sensation caused by light. COLOR ADDITIVE... (see ACCENT COLOR) COLOR BASE... The combination of dyes which make up the tonal foundation of a specific haircolor.
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COLOR LIFT... The amount of change natural or artificial pigment undergoes when lightened by a substance. COLOR MIXING... Combining two or more shades together for a custom color. COLOR REFRESHER... (1) Color applied to midshaft and ends to give a more uniform color appearance to the hair. (2) Color applied by a shampoo-in method to enhance the natural color. Also called color wash, color enhancer, color glaze. COLOR REMOVER.... A product designed to remove artificial pigment from the hair. COLOR TEST.... The process of removing product from a hair strand to monitor the progress of color development during tinting or lightening. COLOR WHEEL.... The arrangement of primary, secondary and tertiary colors in the order of their relationships to each other. A tool for formulating. COMPLEMENTARY COLORS... A primary and secondary color positioned opposite each other on the color wheel. When these two colors are combined, they create a neutral color. Combinations are as follows: Blue/Orange, Red/Green,Yellow/Violet. CONCENTRATE... (See ACCENT COLOR) CONDITION.... The existing state of the hair; its elasticity, strength, texture, porosity and evidence of previous treatments. CONSULTATION.... Verbal communication with a client to determine desired result. [See ANALYSIS (HAIR)] CONTRIBUTING PIGMENT... The current level and tone of the hair. Refers to both natural contributing pigment and decolorized (lightened) contributing pigment. (See UNDERTONE) COOL TONES... (See ASH)
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CORRECTIVE COLORING... The process of correcting an undesirable color. CORTEX.... The second layer of hair. A fibrous protein core of the hair fiber, containing melanin pigment. COVERAGE... Reference to the ability of a color product to color gray, white or other colors of hair. CUTICLE.... The translucent, protein outer layer of the hair fiber. CYSTEIC ACID.... A chemical substance in the hair fiber, produced by the interaction of hydrogen peroxide on the disulfide bond (cystine). CYSTINE.... The disulfide amino acid, which joins protein chains together. D & C COLORS.... Colors selected from a certified list approved by the Food and Drug Administration for use in drug and cosmetic products. DECOLORIZE... A chemical process involving the lightening of the natural color pigment or artificial color from the hair. DEGREE.... Term used to describe various units of measurement. DEMI-COLOR... (See DEPOSIT-ONLY COLOR) DENSE.... Thick, compact, or crowded. DEPOSIT.... Describes the color product in terms of its ability to add color pigment to the hair. Color added equals deposit. DEPOSIT-ONLY COLOR... A category of color products between permanent and semi-permanent colors. Formulated to only deposit color, not lift. They contain oxidative dyes and utilize a low volume developer. DEPTH... The lightness or darkness of a specific haircolor. (See VALUE, LEVEL)
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DEVELOPER.... An oxidizing agent, usually hydrogen peroxide that reacts chemically with coloring material to develop color molecules and create a change in natural haircolor. DEVELOPMENT TIME (OXIDATION PERIOD).... The time required for a permanent color or lightener to completely develop. DIFFUSED.... Broken down, scattered; not limited to one spot. DIRECT DYE.... A preformed color that dyes the fiber directly without the need for oxidation. DISCOLORATION... The development of undesired shades through chemical reaction. DOUBLE PROCESS... A technique requiring two separate procedures in which the hair is decolorized or prelightened with a lightener, before the depositing color is applied. DRAB... Term used to describe haircolor shades containing no red or gold. (See ASH, DULL) DRABBER.... Concentrated color used to reduce red or gold highlights. DULL.... A word used to describe hair or haircolor without sheen. DYE.... Artificial pigment. DYE INTERMEDIATE... A material, which develops into color only after reaction with developer (hydrogen peroxide). Also known as oxidation dyes. DYE REMOVER (SOLVENTS)... (See COLOR REMOVER) DYE STOCK.... (See COLOR BASE) ELASTICITY... The ability of the hair to stretch and return too normal. ENZYME... A protein molecule found in living cells which initiates a
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chemical process. EUMELANINA dark brown to almost black color pigment that determines the depth of the hairs natural color. (Eumelanin and Pheomelanin are found in the cortex of the hair and are collectively known as Melanin) FADE... To lose color through exposure to the elements or other factors. FILLERS.... (1) Color product used as a color refresher or to replace undertones in damaged hair in preparation for haircoloring. (2) Any liquid-like substance to help fill the need for natural undertones. (See COLOR REFRESHER) FORMULAS.... Mixture of two or more ingredients. FORMULATE.... The art of mixing to create a blend or balance of two or more ingredients. FROSTING... The introduction of lighter strands to the hair; generally executed with a frosting cap. GLAZING A term used to describe a translucent color used on the hair after a previous haircolor; a blending color. GRAY HAIR. Hair with no natural pigment is actually white. White hairs look gray when mingled with pigmented hair. HAIR..... A slender threadlike outgrowth on the skin of the head and body. HAIR ROOT... That part of the hair contained within the follicle, below the surface of the scalp. HAIR SHAFT.... Visible part of each strand of hair. It is made up of an outer layer called the cuticle, an innermost layer called medulla and an in-between layer called the cortex. The cortex layer is where color changes are made.
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HARD WATER.... Water that contains minerals and metallic salts as impurities. HENNA A plant extracted coloring that produces bright shades of red. The active ingredient is lawsone. Henna permanently colors the hair by coating and penetrating the hair shaft. (See PROGRESSIVE DYE) HIGH LIFT TINTING... A single process color with a higher degree of lightening action and a minimal amount of color deposit. HIGHLIGHTING.... The introduction of a lighter color in small selected sections to increase lightness of the hair. HYDROGEN PEROXIDE... An oxidizing chemical made up of 2 parts hydrogen, 2 parts oxygen (H2O2) used to aid the processing of permanent haircolor and lighteners. Also referred to as a developer; available in liquid or cream. LEVEL... A unit of measurement used to evaluate the lightness or darkness of a color, excluding tone. LEVEL SYSTEM... In haircoloring, a system colorists use to analyze the lightness or darkness of a haircolor. LIFT.... The lightening action of a haircolor or lightening product on the hairs natural pigment. LIGHTENER... The chemical compound which lightens the hair by dispersing, dissolving and decolorizing the natural hair pigment. (See PRE-LIGHTEN) LIGHTENING.... (See DECOLORIZE) LINE OF DEMARCATION... An obvious difference between two colors on the hair shaft. LITMUS PAPER... A chemically treated paper used to test the acidity or alkalinity of products.
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MEDULLA... The center structure of the hair shaft. Very little is known about its actual function. MELANIN.... The tiny grains of pigment in the hair cortex which create natural haircolor. MELANOCYTES... Cells in the hair bulb that manufacture melanin. MELANOPROTEIN.... The protein coating of melanosome. METALLIC DYES.... Soluble metal salts such as lead, silver and bismuth produce colors on the hair fiber, by progressive build-up and exposure to air. MODIFIER.... A chemical found as an ingredient in permanent haircolors. Its function is to alter the dye intermediates. MOLECULE... Two or more atoms chemically joined together; the smallest part of a compound. NEUTRAL... (1) A color balanced between warm and cool, which does not reflect a highlight of any primary or secondary color. (2) Also refers to a pH of 7. NEUTRALIZATION... The process that counter-balances or cancels the action of an agent or color. NEUTRALIZE Render neutral; counter-balance of action or influence. (See NEUTRAL) NEW GROWTH... The part of the hair shaft that is between previously chemically treated hair and the scalp. NONALKALINE.... (See ACID) OFF THE SCALP LIGHTENER... Generally a stronger lightener (usually in powder form), not to be used directly on the scalp. ON THE SCALP LIGHTENER... A liquid, cream or gel form of
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lightener that can be used directly on the scalp. OPAQUE.... Allowing no light to shine through; flat; lack of translucency. OUT GROWTH... (See NEW GROWTH) OVER-LAP... Occurs when the application of color or lightener goes beyond the line of demarcation. OVER POROUS... The condition where hair reaches an undesirable stage of porosity requiring correction. OXIDATION.... (1) The reaction of dye intermediates with hydrogen peroxide found in haircoloring developers. (2) The interaction of hydrogen peroxide on the natural pigment. OXIDATIVE HAIRCOLOR.... A product containing oxidation dyes which require hydrogen peroxide to develop the permanent color. PARA TINT... A tint made from oxidation dyes. PARA-PHENYLENEDIAMINE... An oxidative dye used in most permanent haircolors, often abbreviated as P.P.D. PATCH TEST.... A test required by the Food and Drug Act. Performed by applying a small amount of the haircoloring preparation to the skin of the arm, or behind the ear to determine possible allergies (hypersensitivity). Also called pre- disposition or skin test. PENETRATING COLOR.... Color that penetrates the cortex or second layer of the hair shaft. PERMANENT COLOR.... (1) Haircolor products that do not wash out by shampooing. (2) A category of haircolor products mixed with developer that create a lasting color change. PEROXIDE... (See HYDROGEN PEROXIDE)
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Trade Secrets of Great Gray Coverage


PEROXIDE RESIDUE.... Traces of peroxide left in the hair after treatment with lightener or tint. PERSULFATE.... In haircoloring, a chemical ingredient commonly used in activators that increases the speed of the decolorization process. (See ACTIVATOR) pH.... The quantity that expresses the acid/alkali balance. A pH of 7 is the neutral value for pure water. Any pH below 7 is acidic; any pH above 7 is alkaline. The skin is mildly acidic, and generally in the pH 4.5 to 5.5 range. pH SCALE... A numerical scale from 0 (very acid) to 14 (very alkaline), used to describe the degree of acidity or alkalinity. PHEOMELANINRed and Yellow pigments that give the hair warmth to the natural color. (Eumelanin and Pheomelanin are found in the cortex of the hair and are collectively known as Melanin) PIGMENT.... Any substance or matter used as coloring; natural or artificial haircolor. POROSITY.... Ability of the hair to absorb water or other liquids. POWDER LIGHTENER... (See OFF THE SCALP LIGHTENER) PREBLEACHING (See PRELIGHTEN) PREDISPOSITION TEST.... (See PATCH TEST) PRELIGHTEN.... Generally, the first step of double process haircoloring. To lift or lighten the natural pigment. (See DECOLORIZE) PRESOFTEN.... The process of treating gray or very resistant hair to allow for better penetration of color. PRIMARY COLORS... Pigments or colors that are fundamental and cannot be made by mixing colors together. Red, yellow and blue are the primary colors.
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Trade Secrets of Great Gray Coverage


PRISM.... A transparent glass or crystal that breaks up white light into its component colors -the spectrum. PROCESSING TIME.... The time required for the chemical treatment to react on the hair. PROGRESSIVE DYES OR PROGRESSIVE DYE SYSTEM... (1) A coloring system which produces increased absorption with each application. (2) Color products that deepen or increase absorption over a period of time during processing. REGROWTH.... (See NEW GROWTH) RESISTANT HAIR... Hair that is difficult to penetrate with moisture or chemical solutions. RETOUCH.... Application of color or lightening mixture to new growth of hair. SALT AND PEPPER... The descriptive term for a mixture of dark and gray or white hair. SECONDARY COLOR... Colors made by combining two primary colors in equal proportion; green, orange and violet are secondary colors. SEMI-PERMANENT HAIRCOLORING.... A pre-oxidized haircolor requiring no catalyst that lasts through several shampoos. It stains the cuticle layer, slowly fading with each shampoo. SENSITIVITY... Skin that is highly reactive to the presence of a specific chemical. Skin reddens or becomes irritated shortly after application of the chemical. The reaction subsides when the chemical has been removed. SHADE... (1) A term used to describe a specific color. (2) The visible difference between two colors.
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Trade Secrets of Great Gray Coverage


SHEEN.... The ability of the hair to shine, gleam or reflect light. SINGLE PROCESS COLOR... Refers to an oxidative tint solution that lifts or lightens, while also depositing color in one application. (See OXIDATIVE HAIRCOLOR) SOFTENING AGENT... A mild alkaline product applied prior to the color treatment to increase porosity, swell the cuticle layer of the hair and increase color absorption. Tint that has not been mixed with developer is frequently used. (See PRE-SOFTEN) SOLUTION... A blended mixture of solid, liquid or gaseous substances in a liquid medium. SOLVENT... Carrier liquid in which other components may be dissolved. SPECIALIST.... One who concentrates on only one part or branch of a subject or profession. SPECTRUM.... The series of colored bands diffracted and arranged in the order of their wavelengths by the passage of white light through a prism. Shading continuously from red (produced by the longest wave visible) to violet (produced by the shortest):red, orange, yellow, green, blue, indigo and violet. SPOT LIGHTENING... Color correcting using a lightening mixture to lighten darker areas. STABILIZER... General name for ingredient, which prolongs life, appearance and performance of a product. STAGE... A term used to describe a visible color change that natural haircolor goes through while being lightened. STAIN REMOVER... Chemical used to remove tint stains from skin. STRAND TEST... Test given before treatment to determine development time, color result and the ability of the hair to withstand
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Trade Secrets of Great Gray Coverage


the effects of chemicals. STRIPPING... (See COLOR REMOVER) SURFACTANT.... An abbreviation for Surface Active Agent. A molecule which is composed of an oil-loving (oleophillic) part and a water-loving (hydrophilic) part. They act as a bridge to allow oil and water to mix. Wetting agents, emulsifiers, cleansers, solubilizers, dispersing aids and thickeners are usually surfactants. TABLESPOON.... 1/2 ounce; 2 teaspoons. TEASPOON.... 1/6 ounce; 1/2 of a tablespoon. TEMPORARY COLOR OR RINSES.... Color made from preformed dyes that are applied to the hair for short-term effect. This type of product is readily removed with shampoo. TERMINOLOGY.... The special words or terms used in science, art or business. TERTIARY COLORS.... The mixture of a primary and an adjacent secondary color on the color wheel. red-orange, yellow-orange, yellowgreen, blue-green, blue-violet, red-violet. Also referred to as intermediary colors. TEXTURE, HAIR.... The diameter of an individual hair strand. Termed: coarse, medium or fine. TINT.... Permanent oxidizing haircolor product, having the ability to lift and deposit color in the same process. Requires a developer. TINT BACK... To return hair back to its original or natural color. TONE... A term used to describe the warmth or coolness in color. TONER... A pastel color to be used after pre-lightening. TONING. Adding color to modify the end result.
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Trade Secrets of Great Gray Coverage


TOUCH-UP... (See RETOUCH) TRANSLUCENT... The property of letting diffused light pass through. TYROSINE.... The amino acid (tyrosine), which reacts together with the enzyme (tyrosinase) to form the hairs natural melanin. TYROSINASE... The enzyme (tyrosinase) which reacts together with the amino acid (tyrosine) to form the hairs natural melanin. UNDERTONE... The underlying color in melanin that emerges during the lifting process and contributes to the end result. When lightening hair, a residual warmth in tone always occurs. UREA PEROXIDE... A peroxide compound occasionally used in haircolor. It releases oxygen when added to an alkaline color mixture. VALUE.... (See LEVEL; DEPTH) VEGETABLE COLOR.... A color derived from plant sources. VIRGIN HAIR.... Natural hair that has not undergone any chemical or physical abuse. VISCOSITY... A term referring to the thickness of a solution. VOLUME.... The concentration of hydrogen peroxide in water solution. Expressed as volumes of oxygen liberated per volume of solution. 20 volume peroxide would thus liberate 20 pints of oxygen gas for each pint of solution. WARM... A term used to describe haircolor. Containing red, orange, yellow or gold tones.

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