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13.

13.021 Marine Hydrodynamics Lecture 1

Introduction Marine hydrodynamics is a large and diverse subject and only a few topics can be covered in an introductory course. Some course objectives to keep in mind throughout the semester are the following: Model testing similitude Effect of waves on resistance and ship motion Interaction between bodies and ideal fluids Viscosity and surface tension

Why study Marine Hydrodynamics? Studying marine hydrodynamics provides a greater understanding of a wide range of phenomena of considerable complexity involving fluids. Another benefit is that it allows predictions to be made in many areas of practical importance. Fluid mechanics is a way of looking at a group of particles without having to study each particle separately. A fluid at rest hydrostatics is a trivial case of fluid mechanics where no stresses due to fluid motion exist. Fluids have to be moving to be non-trivial. Fluid mechanics is fundamentally non-linear.

The mechanics of Fluids vs. Solids Most of us have taken some courses on solids or that relate to solids. Even those who havent can get an intuitive feel on some physical properties of a solid. Thus a comparison of solids and fluids will give some guidelines on which properties can be translated to fluids and on what terms.

Differences Fluids Fluids have no shape Fluids cannot sustain a shear force, i.e. a fluid is always in motion Stress is a function of the rate of strain, thus a fluid had a dynamic state The static properties of a fluid cannot be extended to dynamic properties. Solids Solids have a definite shape Solids can sustain a shear force; i.e. they remain static Stress is a function of strain, thus a solid maintains a static or quasi-static state. The static properties of a solid can be extended to dynamic properties.

13.021 Marine Hydrodynamics Lecture 1

Similarities The continuum hypothesis is used for both fluids and solids. The fundamental laws of mechanics apply to both fluids and solids. - Newtons law of motion (conservation of momentum) - Conservation of Mass - First law of thermodynamics (conservation of energy) The constitutive law relating stress and rate of strain also apply to both.

Sometimes it is hard to differentiate a liquid from a solid. This can be seen in the examples such as honey, jelly, paint,

Liquid vs. Gas Note that there are two separate terms that we are talking about here. Liquid and fluid. According to Websters Dictionary, a fluid is a body whose particles move easily among themselves. Fluid is a generic term, including liquids and gases as species. Water, air, and steam are fluids. A liquid is Being in such a state that the component parts move freely among themselves, but do not tend to separate from each other as the particles of gases and vapors do; neither solid nor aeriform. A liquid is generally incompressible and does not fill a volume by expanding into it. A gas on the other hand, is compressible and expands to fill any volume containing it.

Why is a liquid incompressible? The main difference between the study of hydrodynamics and the study of aerodynamics is the property if incompressibility. Hydrodynamic properties are generally incompressible while aerodynamic properties are compressible. Consider the following proof. Measuring the speed of sound in a medium will give a measure of compressibility of that medium. U: Characteristic fluid velocity C: Speed of sound in the medium M: Mach # U M C Cin air = 300 m/s air = 10 3 water

Min water << 1 incompressible

The Mach number is a measure of compression that can relate the speed of the fluid to the speed of sound. Thus in the case of water, the Mach number is very small, indicating a very small measure of compressibility. This ratio is negligible and shows that water is virtually incompressible. Note: An incompressible fluid does not mean constant density.

13.021 Marine Hydrodynamics Lecture 2

Chapter 1 - Basic Equations 1.1 Description of a Flow Flows are often defined either by a Eulerian description or a Lagrangian description. - Eulerian description: This is a field description that is often easy to apply. The velocities of the flow are given at fixed points in space as time varies. Imagine a case where both the measuring device and the frame of reference are fixed. The velocity, pressure, density, can be mathematically represented as follows: r v v v v v v ( x , t ), p ( x , t ), ( x , t ),... - Lagrangian description: This description is easier to understand but harder to apply. Here the quantities of the flow are given for a particular moving particle at varying times. The velocity, pressure, density, can be mathematically represented as follows: r v v v p (t ), p p (t ), p (t ),...

Useful terms for flow description Streamline: A line everywhere tangent to the fluid velocity at a given time. In an Eulerian description, it would be a snapshot of the flow.

Streakline: Instantaneous locus of all particles that pass a given point. In an Eulerian description, it would be a snapshot of certain particles.

Pathline: The trajectory of a given particle P in time. The photograph analogy would be a long time exposure of a given particle.

Some Eulerian Quantities of Interest Scalars: have magnitude only. v v Pressure: p( x , t ) ; Density: (x, t ) Vectors: have magnitude and direction v v j v ( x , t ) = ui + v + wk = u1 x1 + u 2 x 2 + u 3 x3

13.021 Marine Hydrodynamics Lecture 2

= u i xi
i =1

= u i xi

Einstein Notation

Einstein Notation: Repeated indices are summed by implication over all values of the index i. In this example, the summation is over i =1, 2, 3.
Note that if the equation looks like this: (u i )( xi ) , the indices are not summed.

Concept of Continuous Flow

v v For a fluid flow to be continuous, we require that the velocity v (x , t ) be a finite and v continuous function of x and t. v v v i.e. v and are finite but not necessarily continuous. t v v v Since v and < , there is no infinite acceleration, which is physically consistent. t
Consequences of Continuous Flow
- Material volume remains material No segment of fluid can be joined or broken apart. - Material surface remains material The interface between two material volumes always exists. - Material line remains material The interface of two material surfaces always exists. - Material neighbors remain neighbors To prove this mathematically, we must prove that, given two particles, the distance between them at time t is small, and the distance between them at time t + t is still small.
v v v Given: Two particles with initial position x and x + x t initial time v fluid velocity Proof: v v v v v [x (t ) + x (t )] + (v + x v )t v v x (t ) + x (t )

Material surface fluid a fluid b

v (x ) v x (t )

x(t + t )

v v v x (t + t ) = x (t ) + v t

The difference in position between the two particles is: v v v v v v v v v v [x (t ) + x (t )] + (v + x v )t - x (t ) + v t = x (t ) + x (t ) v t

v v v v x(t+t) = x (t ) + x (t ) v t x (t ) v v Therefore x(t+t) x (t ) since v is finite due to the continuous flow assumption. v v Therefore if x (t ) 0 , then x (t + t ) 0
v v In fact, for any time period T, x (t + T ) ~ x (t ) +
t +T

dtx v x
t

v v And x (t + T ) 0 as x (t ) 0 , therefore the particles will never be an infinite distance apart.

Thus the flow is continuous and two particles that are neighbors will always be neighbors.

Material/Substantial Derivative: D/Dt

A material derivative is the time derivative rate of change of a property following a fluid particle P. The material derivative is a Lagrangian concept but we will work in an Eulerian reference frame. v Consider an Eulerian quantity f ( x , t ) . Taking the Lagrangian time derivative of an Eulerian quantity gives the material derivative. Df df df = = (i.e. x is moving, following P) The Lagrangian time derivative is: Dt dt dt fixed w. r .t .
P

v v v v Df ( x , t ) f ( x + x , t + t ) f ( x , t ) = lim t 0 Dt t v v x P is moving at an Eulerian velocity v = . t Performing a 3D Taylor series on f gives:

v v f ( x + v t , t + t ) v f (x , t )
Particle at x

v v x + v t

13.021 Marine Hydrodynamics Lecture 2

2 v } f ( x , t ) v v v v v + x f ( x , t ) + ... (higher order terms) f ( x + x , t + t ) = f ( x , t ) + t { v t v t

Therefore the substantial derivative is: With the generalized notation:

Lagrangian

D Dt {

Df f v + v f = Dt t v + v 4 3 t 1 24
Eulerian

Example: Lagrangian acceleration of a particle

v Dv Then the Lagrangian acceleration is: Dt {

v v Consider the Eulerian velocity v (x , t )

Lagrangian acceleration

Eulerian acceleration

v v t {

v v + v 2v 3 1

Convective acceleration

Difference between Lagrangian time derivative and Eulerian time derivative Example: Consider an Eulerian quantity, temperature, in a room at points A and B where the temperature is different at each point.
Point A: 10o Point C:

T t

Point B: 1o

T which is an Eulerian time derivative. t

Example: Consider the same example as above: an Eulerian quantity, temperature, in a room at points A and B where the temperature varies with time.
o

Point A: 10

DT T v = + v T t Dt

Point B: 1o

Following a particle from point A to B, the Lagrangian time derivative would need to DT T v include the temperature gradient as time and position changed: = + v T t Dt

Concept of a Steady Flow

Assume a steady flow where the flow is observed from a fixed position. This is like D watching from a river bank, i.e. which is = 0 . Be careful not to confuse this with t Dt D more like following a twig in the water. Note that = 0 does not mean steady since the Dt flow could speed up at some points and slow down at others.

=0 t

1 13.021 Marine Hydrodynamics Lecture 3

1.2 Stress Tensor Stress Tensor ij: The stress (force per unit area) at a point in a fluid needs nine components so that it is completely specified. This is due to the two directions it requires for a complete description. The first index specifies the direction in which the stress component acts, and the second identifies which surface the component is acting on. Therefore, the ith component of the force acting on a surface whose outward normal points in the jth direction is ij.
X2 22 32 23 13 33 31 X1 12 21 11

Figure 1 - Shear stresses on an infinitesimal cube whose surfaces are parallel to the coordinate system.

X3 X2 A1 P 2

1 A3 3 R area A0 X3 A2 Q

X1

Figure 2 - Consider an infinitesimal body at rest with a surface PQR that is not perpendicular to any of the Cartesian axes. The unit normal vector to that surface is n = n1 x1 + n 2 x 2 + n3 x3 Area of surface = A0 Area of each surface to Xi: Ai = A0ni , for i = 1, 2, 3

Newtons law:

all 4 faces

F = (volume force) for i = 1, 2, 3

i
i

If is the typical dimension of the body: surface forces 2 : volume forces 3 Where surface forces are forces such as shearing forces and volumetric forces are forces such as gravity. At equilibrium, the surface forces and volumetric forces are equivalent.

13.021 Marine Hydrodynamics Lecture 3

As the body gets smaller, the mass of the body goes to zero. According to Newtons law, this makes the volumetric forces equal zero, leaving the sum of the surface forces equal zero. Fi = 0 for i = 1, 2, 3 So, as 0,
all 4 faces

iA0 = i1A1 + i2A2 + i3A3 = ijAj

But the area of each surface to Xi: Ai = A0ni Therefore iA0 = ijAj = ij(A0nj) where ijAj is the

notation.

Thus i = ijnj for i = 1, 2, 3 where i is the component of stress in the ith direction on a surface with a normal n . We call i the stress vector. ij is the stress matrix or tensor.

Example: Pascals Law for hydrostatics In a static fluid, the stress vector cannot be different for different directions of the surface normal since there is no preferred direction in the fluid. Therefore, at any point in the fluid, the stress vector must have the same direction as the normal vector n and the same magnitude for all directions of n . 0 0 p1 no 6summation 4 4 78 0 0 Pascals Law: for hydrostatics ij = ( pi )( ij ) p2 = 0 0 p3
pi: pressure acting to the ith surface If po is the pressure acting to the surface PQR, then i = -nipo , but i = ijnj = -(pi)ijnj = -(pi)(ni) po = pi , i = 1, 2, 3 and n is arbitrary.

Symmetry of the Stress Tensor

To prove symmetry of the stress tensor, j (i) surface force = body force + massacceleration ij Assume no symmetry. Balance the forces in the ith direction: ji ji (ij)TOP - (ij)BOTTOM = O(2) since surface forces 2 where the O(2) terms include body forces, etcper unit depth.
o

ij

(ii)

surface torque = body moment + angular acceleration

Assume no symmetry. Balance moment w.r.t. o: (ji) - (ij) = O(3) since body moment 3 As 0 , ij = ji

1.3 Mass and Momentum Conservation Consider a material volume m and recall that a material volume is a fixed mass of material. A material volume always encloses the same fluid particles despite a change in size, position, volume or surface area over time.
Sm(t)

1.3.1 Mass Conservation The mass inside the material volume is:

M(m ) = d
m ( t )

m ( t )

Therefore the time rate of increase of mass inside the material volume is:

d d M(m ) = d = 0 dt dt (t )
m

Conservation of mass for material volume m

1.3.2 Momentum Conservation ui: velocity of fluid inside the material volume in the ith direction.
Linear momentum of the material volume in the ith direction = u i d
m ( t )

Newtons law of motion: The time rate of change of momentum of the fluid in the material control volume must equal the sum of all the forces acting on the fluid in that volume. Thus:
d dt

(momentum)i = (body force)i + (surface force)i

d ui d = )Fi d + St ) ij n j dS { dt ( t ) m (t m(
m i

{ { v d = v nd S
j x j S v jn j

for tensors

ij
j

d =

ij

n j dS

Thus using divergence theorems:

ij d u i d = Fi + dt m ( t ) x j m ( t )

1.4 Kinematic Transport Theorems

Consider a flow through some moving control volume (t ) during a small time interval t. The conservation of mass in a fluid flow requires that the accumulation of mass inside a control volume is accounted for by the net flow of mass across the control surface because mass can neither be created nor destroyed.

v Let f (x , t ) be any (Eulerian) fluid property per unit volume of fluid (e.g. mass, momentum, etc.) S(t+t) v Consider the integral I(t) = f (x , t )d ( t + t )
(t )

d I( t + t ) I( t ) Then dt I(t) = lim t 0 t

( t )

S(t)

1 v v = lim t f ( x , t + t )d f ( x , t )d t 0 (t + t ) (t )
f v v v ( x , t ) + O (t ) 2 (i) f ( x , t + t ) = f ( x , t ) + t t
(ii) Taylor series expansion of f about t
S(t+t)
( t + t )

d = d + d
( t )
n

where

d = [U
s (t )

v ( x , t )t ] dS
v U n ( x , t )t + O( t ) 2

S(t) dS

13.021 Marine Hydrodynamics Lecture 3

So we have

1 f d I (t ) = lim df + t d + t dSU n f df + O( t ) 2 t 0 t t dt (t ) ( t ) S (t ) ( t )
v d f ( x , t ) v v v f ( x , t )d = t d + S) f ( x , t )U n ( x, t )dS dt ( t ) ( t ) (t
Kinematic Transport Theorem (KTT) Leibnitz rule in 3D

v If the control volume is a material volume: (t ) = m (t ) , then Un = v n

fluid particle velocity

Then

m i i

Using the divergence theorem:

v d = {
i x i

v n dS {
ini

v f (x , t ) d v v v f ( x , t )d = + ( f ( x , t )v )d 1 4243 dt m ( t ) t m ( t ) ( fv i ) xi
f = fluid property per unit volume

1.5 Continuity Equation

Let the fluid property per unit volume be mass per unit volume: f

0=

d dt

d = t + ( v )d
m m

conservation of mass

1 KTT

st

But, m is arbitrary, so the integrand 0 everywhere Therefore t + (v ) = 0

v v + [v + v ] = 0 t
D Dt

Differential form of conservation of mass i.e. Continuity equation

Therefore Dt + v = 0 In general, = (p, T, ) Special case: incompressible flow (Note that the density of the entire fluid flow will not be constant when the fluids interface. However, the density of each fluid particle is constant.)
D
Constant

Therefore, for an incompressible flow, Dt = 0

i v Then v = 0 or x = 0 i

1.6 Eulers Equation (differential form of conservation of momentum)

2nd Kinematic Transport Theorem ( = 1st KTT + continuity equation) If G = fluid property per unit mass, then G = fluid property per unit volume

d v )Gd = ) t (G) + (Gv )d dt m ( t m (t

v v G ( + v ) + ( G + v G ) d = t t m (t ) 4 4 14243 14243 =0 DG continuity Dt

7
DG

d dt

Gd = Dt d
m m

2nd Kinematic Transport Theorem (KTT)

Application:
G = ith momentum per unit mass = vi

Dv Fi + ij d = d ) x j dt )vi d = Dti d m ( t m (t m ( t )
conservation of momentum

2nd KTT

But m is an arbitrary material volume, therefore

Dvi v vi + v v = F + ij i t 1 3 2 i Dt x j vi vj x j

Eulers equation

v v Dv v v v v + v v = F + ~ Dt t

13.021 - Marine Hydrodynamics Lecture 4

Introduction Governing Equations so far: Knowns Fi Number of Equations Continuity(conservation of mass) Euler (conservation of momentum) Number of Unknowns 3 i 6 3 of 9 eliminated ij by symmetry 9

1 3 4

Therefore, some constitutive relationships are needed to relate i to ij. 1.7 Newtonian Fluid (i) Consider a fluid at rest (vi 0). Then according to Pascals Law, the shear stresses on a small area ij is: ps 0 0 ij = -ps ij (Pascals law) = 0 ps 0 0 0 ps Hydrostatic pressure Consider a fluid in motion. The fluid stress is defined as:

(ii)

ij = p ij + ij
Thermodynamic pressure Dynamic stress

The dynamic viscous stress ij can be related to velocities empirically. Experiments with a wide class of fluids obtain that, for most fluids, ij is a linear function of rate of strain and velocity gradient. Fluids with these characteristics are Newtonian fluids. X X Rate of strain: = ij t x x 2 t 13
u

u k x m

13.021 Marine Hydrodynamics Lecture 4

u k x m u k i.e. ij ijkm { x m

i, j, k, m = 1, 2, 3

For isotropic fluids, this reduces to:

u u j + ul ij ij = i + x x 2l j xi 13
v v

Where the fluid properties are : coefficient of dynamic viscosity and : bulk elasticity, second coefficient of viscosity For incompressible flow,
u l =0 xl

Therefore, for an incompressible, isotropic, Newtonian fluid:

u u j ij = i + x xi j

ij is the viscous stress

1.8 Navier-Stokes equations

Euler continuity constitutive(Newtonian)

# of equations 3 1 6 (symmetry) 10

ui p ij

# of unknowns 3 1 6 10

closure Substitute the Newtonian equation:

ij = p ij + ui +
x j
into Eulers equation:

ij Du i = Fi + Dt x j

u j xi

13.021 Marine Hydrodynamics Lecture 4

ij x j
where

p + xi x j

ui u j + x xi j

x j

2 ui u j u j = ui + + x x j j xi x j x j xi { due to continuity 0

Finally,
Du i u i u 1 p 2ui 1 = + uj i = + + Fi Dt t x j x i x jx j v v v 1v Dv v v v 1 = + v v = p + 2 v + F Dt t

Tensor form Vector form

where

Kinematic viscosity [ L2 T ]

Navier-Stokes equations for incompressible, Newtonian fluids # of equations 1 3 4 # of unknowns 3 1 4

continuity Navier-Stokes

ui p

1.9 Boundary Conditions

(i) Kinematic Boundary Conditions Specifies kinematics (position, velocity, ) On a solid boundary, velocity of the fluid = velocity of the body. i.e. velocity continuity
v v v=u
fluid body

no-slip boundary condition no flux --- continuous flow no slip --- finite shear stress

v v vn = un v v vt = ut

v v v u

(ii) Dynamic Boundary Conditions Specifies dynamics ( pressure, sheer stress, )

Stress continuity:
p'

ij '
p

p interface, ij interface

p = p ' + p interface

ij

ij = ij ' + ij interface
The most common example of interfacial stress is surface tension.

Surface Tension
The presence of surface tension implies that there exists a pressure jump across the interface. Therefore, gives a p across an interface. Surface Tension: [Tension force / Length] [Surface energy / Area] For a water/air interface: = 0.07 N/m This is a function of temperature, impurities etc 2D Example:
p p=p+p d/2

d d d 2 cos p Rd = 2sin 2 1 3 22 1 3 22
1 d 2

p =

Concave has higher pressure. 3D Example: Compound curvature

1 1 p = + R R 2 1

1.10 Body Forces Gravity

- Conservative force:

v v F dx = 0

A special case of a conservative force is gravity. v F = gk Gravitational potential: = gz v F = = (gz ) = gk {

hydrostatic pressure ps= -gz = -

Navier-Stokes: v v v Dv = p + F + 2 v Dt
v = p gz + 2 v v = (p + gz ) + 2 v v Dv 2v Therefore Dt = p d + v
total pressure dynamic pressure

but p - ps = pd and ps= -gz

Presence of gravity body force is equivalent to replacing total pressure p by dynamic pressure pd in the Navier-Stokes(N-S) equation. Solve the N-S equation with pd, then calculate p = pd + ps = pd - gz

13.021 Marine Hydrodynamics Lecture 5 Chapter 2 - Similitude Similitude is a method that allows you to get a conceptual picture of a complicated idea, occurrence or mechanism. Similitude: Similarity of behavior of different systems. Real world model (prototype) (physical experiment, mathematical, computer, ) Similarity Parameters (SPs) length ratios Displacement ratios, velocity ratios Force ratios, stress ratios, pressure ratios
For similitude, Similarity Parameters (SPs) required to be same for model and real world

Geometric Similitude Kinematic Similitude Dynamic (Internal Constitution) Internal Constitution Similitude Boundary Condition Similitude

2.1 - Dimensional Analysis (DA) to Obtain Similarity Parameters (SPs)

Buckinghams theory: Use to get meaningful formulae in applied math 1) Specify (all) the (say N) relevant variables (dependent or independent): x1, x2, xN e.g. time, force, fluid density, distance We want to relate the xis to each other ( x1, x2, xN) = 0 2) Identify (all) the (say P) relevant basic physical units (dimensions) e.g. M,L,T (P = 3)
N 1 2 3) Let = x1 x2 K x N be a dimensionless quantity formed from the xis

Suppose xi = Ci M mi Ll i T ti , i = 1,2, K , N

where Ci is a dimensionless constant

e.g. x1 = KE = 1 MV 2 = 1 M 1 L2T 2 , C1 = 1 , m1 = 1, l 1 = 2, t1 = 2 2 2 2
Then = C11 C2 2 KCNN M1m1+2m2 +K+NmN L1l1+2l2 +K+NlN T1t1+2t2 +K+NtN

For to be dimensionless, we require

4N 8 6 74 i m i = 0 P i l i = 0 (*) a P x N system of Linear Equations t = 0 i i { Notation Since (*) is homogeneous, it always has a trivial solution, i 0, i = 1, 2, , N (i.e. is constant) There are 2 possibilities: i) (*) has no nontrivial solution (only solution is = constant, i.e. independent of xis)

the N variable xi, I = 1, 2, , N are Dimensionally Independent (DI), i.e. they are unrelated and irrelevant to the problem. ii) (*) has J (J > 0) nontrivial solutions, 1, 2, , J
In general, J < N, in fact, J = N K where K is the rank or dimension of (*)

Model Law: Instead of relating the N xis by (x1, x2, xN) = 0, relate the J s by F(1, 2, J) = 0, where J = N K < N
For similitude, we require (model)j = (prototype)j where j = 1, 2, , J If 2 problems have all the same js, they have similitude (in the j senses), so s serve as similarity parameters. Note: if is dimensionless, so is constant * , const, 1/ , etc If 1, 2 are dimensionless, so is 1 * 2 , 1 / 2, 1const1 * 2const2, etc In general, we want the set (not unique) of independent js, e.g. 1, 2, 3 1, 1 * 2, 3
NOT: 1,

2, 1 * 2

Example: Application of Buckingham Theory Force on a smooth circular cylinder in steady incompressible fluid (no gravity)
F U , D

xi = F, U, D, , x i = ci M m i Ll i T t i

N=5 P=3 N=5 U D 0 0 1 1 -1 0

P=3

mi i ti

F 1 1 -2

1 -3 0

0 2 -1

= F 1 U 2 D 3 4 5
i m i = 0 Dimensionless: i l i = 0 () t = 0 i i
1 2 0 = 0 3 4 0 5

0 0 1 0 1 1 1 3 2 1 2 1 0 0 1

1 0 0 1 0 0 1 1 4 2 0 0 1 2 1

1 2 0 = 0 3 4 0 5

K=3 J=PK=5-3=2 Two families of solutions for i for each fixed pair of (4, 5), exists a unique solution for (1, 2, 3)

consider pairs of (4 = 1, 5 = 0) and (4 = 0, 5 = 1), all other cases are linear combinations of these two. (1) 4 = 1, 5 = 0

1 0 0 1 1 0 1 1 2 = 4 0 0 1 2 3 1 1 2 = 2 2 3
1 = F U D
1 2 3 4 5

U 2 D 2 = F
1 2

Conventionally, 1 21-1 1 = (2) 4 = 0, 5 = 1

F C d Drag coefficient U 2 D 2

1 0 0 1 0 0 1 1 2 = 2 0 0 1 1 3 1 0 2 = 1 1 3
2 = F 1 U 2 D 3 4 5 = UD UD R e Reynolds number or 1 = (2) or Cd = ( Re) UD F or ) =( 1 U 2 D 2 2

Conventionally, 2 2-1 2 =

Therefore

13.021 - Marine Hydrodynamics Lecture 6

2.2 Similarity Parameters (from governing equations) Non-dimensionalize and normalize basic equations by scaling: Identify characteristic scales for the problem v v velocity U v = Uv * v v length L x = Lx * time T t = Tt * pressure po- pv p = (p o p v )p * All ()* quantities are dimensionless and normalized (i.e. O(1)),
v v e.g. x = O(1)

Apply to governing equations: (also internal constitution, boundary conditions) continuity (incompressible flow):

v U v v v = v = 0, v = 0 L
Navier-Stokes:

v v v 1 v v + (v )v = p + 2 v g j t v U v U 2 v * v v + (v )v = poL pv p + LU 2v gj 2 T t L
L

v p p L v v v v gL 2v 2 j + ((v )v ) = o 2 v (p ) + U UL U UT t ~~~ ~~~ ~~~ ~~~~~

( )

Since all ()* terms are O(1), the coefficients ~~~ measure the relative importance of each term (as compared to the convective inertia term):
v v Eulerian inertia t L = S = Strouhal number v v UT convective inertia ( v ) v

is a measure of transient behavior e.g. if T >> L , S << 1, ignore U

v v assume steady-state t

13.021 Marine Hydrodynamics Lecture 6

p o pv 2 1 2 U

= = cavitation number

>> 1, no cavitation Alternatively, when cavitation is not a concern p = p o p

1 2

po U 2

= Eu = Euler number

pressure force inertia force

UL

= Re = Reynolds number

Re >> 1, ignore viscosity

U2 U = gL gL

= Fr = Froude number

Dynamic boundary conditions: p = pa + p where p = 1 + 1

R1 R2

1 1 2 where p = p + + = ( p o p v )L R1 R 2 ( p o p v )L U 2 L
a

u2L

= We = Weber number

13.021 Marine Hydrodynamics Lecture 6

Alternatively, using physical arguments: forces acting on a fluid particle U 2 2 2 a) inertial forces mass acceleration L3 L = U L U 2 u b) viscous forces area L = UL y L { shear stress

( )

( )

3 c) gravitational forces mass gravity (L )g

2 d) pressure forces ( p o p v ) L

For similar streamlines, particles must be acted on by forces whose resultant is in the same direction at geosimilar points. Therefore, forces must be in the same ratios:

inertia U 2 L2 UL = = Re UL viscous
2 U 2 L2 inertia U = Fr gravity gL3 = gL 2 1 1

1 inertia ( p p ) L2 p p 2 1o 2v 2 = 1o 2v = pressure 2 U L 2 U

Importance of Various Parameters e.g.

g U

Govern flow similitude of different systems. Provide guidance and approximate the complex physical problem.

Parameters:

S=

P P L U 2L , = 1o 2v , We = UT 2 U gL , Re = UL

Fr = U

Force on the foil: F = F

1 2

U L

2 2

= C F S , 1 , We , Fr , Re1

=0 t S >> 1, unsteady effect is dominant.

For S << 1, steady-state

S-1 = UT / L
S=O(1)

e.g. L = 10m, U = 10 m/s S=1 when T1 = 1 sec if T >> T1, then steady-state since S<<1.

Exact position of the cut depends on the problem and the quantities of interest. (2) = For steady-state problem: F * = C F 0, 1 , We , Fr , Re1 = C F 1 , We , Fr , Re1

Po Pv 2 1 2 U

No dependence on S

13.021 Marine Hydrodynamics Lecture 6

Pv: vapor pressure Po Pv: State of fluid changes from liquid to gas CAVITATION Mechanism: Po < Pv Tension force among molecules Fluids cannot withstand tensions, the state of fluids changes.

Consequence: (1) Unsteady Vibration of the structures (2) Unstable Sudden cavity collapses huge force acting on the structure fatigue of structure.

F* Strong cavitation

No cavitation

<< 1 : Cavitation >> 1: No cavitation e.g. Po Pa = 105 N/m2, Pv ~ 2x103N/m2 (20oC) water = 103kg/m3 = 1 when U1= 15m/sec U < U1 no cavitation U >> U1 cavitation (In practice, U > 30 m/sec to cause cavitation)

=O(1)

2 (3) W = U L o

)
3 3

( ), e.g.U = 1 m s , = 0.07 N m (water-air 20 C), =10 kg/m

W = 1 for L1 = 10-4m For L >> L1, W and W-1 0 (Neglect surface tension effect) For steady, non-cavitation, non-surface tension effect,
F * = C F 0,0,0, Fr , Re1 = C F Fr , Re1 (4) Fr = U

gL Froude # measures the effect of gravity.

For problems without dynamic boundary conditions(i.e. if free surface is absent) or if free surface effects are small (no waves), Fr is not important F* = C F R e 1

( )

e.g. (i)

(iv) deeply submerged body h Fr = 0 No waves

U Fr g0

h U

In general F * = C F Fr , Re1 = C1 (Fr )+ = C2 Re1 Froudes Hypothesis Dynamic similarity requires (Re)1 = (Re)2, (Fr)1 = (Fr)2 for two geometrically similar systems U1 = U2 , L1 = L2 for the same and g. (5) Re = UL/ For steady, no , no W, no gravity effects, F * = C F Re1 F*

( )

( )

Sphere

Re << 1, Stokes flow (creeping flow) Re < (Re)cr, Laminar flow Re > (Re)cr, Turbulent flow R , ideal flow e.g. U = 10m/sec , L = 10m = 10-6m2/sec R = 108 R-1 = 10-8 Re

Plate

(Re)cr

For steady, no , no W, no gravity effect, ideal fluid: F = C F (0,0,0,0,0 ) = constant = 0 DAlemberts Paradox: No drag force on moving body.
*

Lecture 7

Chapter 3 Ideal Fluid Flow

The structure of Lecture 7 has as follows: In paragraph 3.0 we introduce the concept of inviscid uid and formulate the governing equations and boundary conditions for an ideal uid ow. In paragraph 3.1 we introduce the concept of circulation and state Kelvins theorem (a conservation law for angular momentum). In paragraph 3.2 we introduce the concept of vorticity.

Ideal Fluid Flow

Inviscid Fluid

=0 D = 0 or v = 0 Dt

3.0 Governing Equations and Boundary Conditions for Ideal Flow

Inviscid Fluid, Ideal Flow Recall Reynolds number is a qualitative measure of the importance of viscous forces compared to inertia forces, Re = UL inertia forces = viscous forces

For many marine hydrodynamics problems studied in 13.021 the characteristic lengths and velocities are L 1m and U 1m/s respectively. The kinematic viscosity in water is water = 106 m2 /s leading thus to typical Reynolds numbers with respect to U and L in the order of UL 106 >>> 1 0

Re =

1 viscous forces Re inertia forces

This means that viscous eects are << compared to inertial eects - or conned within very small regions. In other words, for many marine hydrodynamics prob lems, viscous eects can be neglected for the bulk of the ow. Neglecting viscous eects is equivalent to setting the kinematic viscosity = 0, but = 0 inviscid uid Therefore, for the typical marine hydrodynamics problems we assume incompressible ow + inviscid uid ideal uid ow which turns out to be a good approximation for many problems.

Governing Equations for Ideal Fluid Flow Continuity Equation: v =0

Momentum (Navier-Stokes Euler) equations:
v 1 + v v = p g j t By neglecting the viscous stress term (2 v) the Navier-Stokes equations reduce
to the Euler equations. (Careful not to confuse this with the Euler equation in
1.6).
The N-S equations are second order PDEs with respect to space
(2nd order in 2 ), thus: (a) require 2 kinematic boundary conditions, and (b)
produce smooth solutions in the velocity eld.
The Euler equations are rst order PDEs, thus: (a) require 1 kinematic bound
ary condition, and (b) may allow discontinuities in the velocity eld.
Boundary Conditions for Euler equations (Ideal Flow): KBC:

v n = u n = Un given

no ux + free (to) slip

Note: No slip condition v t = U t does not apply. The no slip condition is required to ensure that the velocity gradients are nite and therefore the viscous stresses ij are nite. But since = 0 the viscous stresses are identically zero (ij = = 0) and the velocity gradients can be innite. Or else the velocity eld need not be continuous.

u(dy)
u(0)

Viscousflow w <

u y < u y

Inviscidflow w 0

DBC: p = . . . Pressure given on the boundary

Similarly to the argument for the KBC, viscous stresses ij cannot be specied on any boundary since = 0.

Summary of consequences neglecting viscous eects this far: Neglecting viscous eects is equivalent to setting the kinematic viscosity equal to zero:
=0
Setting = 0 inviscid uid Setting = 0 the viscous term in the Navier-Stokes equations drops out and we obtain the Euler equations. The Euler equations are 1st order PDEs in space, thus (a) require only one boundary condition for the velocity and (b) may allow for velocity jumps. Setting = 0 all the viscous stresses ij = are identically 0. This may allow for innite velocity gradients. This aects (a) the KBC, allowing free slip, and (b) the DBC, where no viscous stresses can be specied on any boundary.

3.1 Circulation Kelvins Theorem

3.1.1 Instantaneous circulation around any arbitrary closed contour C.

v dx

v v

=
C

v dx
tangential velocity

The circulation is an Eulerian idea and is instantaneous, a snapshot.

3.1.2 Kelvins Theorem (KT) : For ideal uid under conservative body forces, d = 0 following any material contour C, dt i.e., remains constant under for Ideal Fluid under Conservative Forces (IFCF).
This is a statement of conservation of angular momentum.
(Mathematical Proof: cf JNN pp 103)
Kinematics of a small deformable body:
(a) Uniform translation Linear momentum (b) Rigid body rotation Angular momentum (c) Pure strain No linear or angular momentum involved (no change in volume (d) Volume dilatation For Ideal Fluid under Conservative body Forces: (a) Linear momentum Can change (b) Angular momentum By K.T., cannot change (c) Pure strain Can change (d) Volume dilatation Not allowed (incompressible uid) Kelvins Theorem is a statement of conservation of angular momentum under IFCF.

v1
r1 m1 r2

v2
m2

Angular momentum of point mass:

2 L

= |r (mv)| = mvr = mr

Conservation of angular momentum:

L

=
L

1 m1 v1 r1 = m2 v2 r2 = 2 v1 r1 = v2 r2 or 2 2 r1 1 = r2 2

m =m

Conservation of angular momentum does not imply constant angular velocity: Angular Momentum angular velocity

1 r1
Vm

2
r2
Vm

1 =
0

dr1 v1 =
0

dr2 v2 = 2

Example 3: Conservation of circulation around a shrinking arbitrary material vol ume Vm , Cm . 1 =

C1

v1 dx =
C2

v2 dx = 2

3.2 Vorticity
3.2.1 Denition of Vorticity =v = w v i y z w u j+ x z v u x y k

=
C

v dx =

any S covering C

any S covering C

3.2.2 What is Vorticity? For example, special case: 2D ow - w = 0; z =

z

= 0; y = x = 0 and

v u x y

(a) Translation: u = constant, v = constant

time t + t

ui + j
ui + j

ui + j ui + j

time t

v u = 0, = 0 z = 0 no vorticity x y 9

(b) Pure Strain (no volume change):

Areat + t

Areat

No volume change

Areat = Areat + t

u v u v = ; u = -v; = 0; = 0 z = 0 x y y x

10

(c) Angular deformation

x = u y dy t

= u y dy i + y dy j

time
t + t

dy

time t

=0
r

dx

y = x dx t
r = u x dx i + x dx j

= 0 only if

u v = x = y( for dx = dy) y x

11

(d) Pure rotation with angular velocity

time t + t
t

= dy i

time t
dy
t

=0

dx

r = dx j

v u = ; = ; z = 2 x y i.e. vorticity 2(angular velocity). 3.2.3 Irrotational Flow A ow is irrotational if the vorticity is zero everywhere or if the circulation is zero along any arbitrary closed contour: 0 everywhere 0 for any C Further on, if at t = to , the ow is irrotational, i.e., 0 for all C, then Kelvins theorem states that under IFCF, 0 for all C for all time t: once irrotational, always irrotational
(Special case of Kelvins theorem)

12

13.021 Marine Hydrodynamics Lecture 8 Vortex Lines, Tubes, etc..

v A vortex line is a line everywhere tangent to

A vortex tube (filament) is a bundle of vortex lines. Some Properties: Mathematical v v dV = 0 = ndS
V S

v ( n )out

Divergence Theorem
v ( n )in

v n = 0

(No net flux of vorticity through a closed surface.) e.g. Vortex Tube: As end areas A1 and A2 0, v v ( n )in A1 = ( n )out A 2

Vorticity cannot begin or end in a fluid. It either closes on itself or begins/ends at the fluid boundary. A vortex line/tube has no beginning and no end. Conservation of vorticity Flux
C3 S3

v v v 0 = 3 = v dx = ndS = 0
n1
C1 C3 C2

n2

v v v v 1 = v dx = n1dS = n2 dS = 2
C1 S1 S2

Therefore circulation around a vortex tube is the same in all circuits that embrace it (once) =
1

Special Case: Small Tube

A1

2 A2

= 1 A1 = 2 A2
2 1 A1 A2 = 2A1 2 = 1/2

Now consider a material patch Am on a vortex tube.

Am

Am

v By definition n = 0 on Am

Am =

Am

v v v v dx = nds = 0
Am

v Since Am is arbitrary, n = 0 still on Am Am is still on the vortex tube

Thus the vortex tube is a material tube (vortex line is a material line, etc.)

Vortex Stretching

Consider a small vortex filament of length L and radius R.

v tangent to tube.
a) = A = constant (in time)
Stokes Th.

under KC

Vortex Stretching (cont)

To maintain constant volume, as L increases, A decreases and R decreases, will increase. As a vortex tube stretches, its angular velocity increases thus momentum is conserved.

13.021 Marine Hydrodynamics Lecture 8

Bernoulli Equation

v p = f (v )

Eq ()

p v v v v = + gy

v2 v v v v v v v Now use v v = v ( v ) where v 2 = v v = v 2 2 v v v2 v v v v p v () v v v ( v ) = -v + gy 2 1 24 4v 3 v 14243 0 v v momentum () energy D v2 p v v2 p + + gy v + + gy = 0 = 2 Dt 2

streamline pathline

i.e.

v2 p + + gy = constant on a streamline 2

In general,

Assumptions: Ideal Steady (Rotational or not)

Vector Calculus:

v v v v v v v v v v (u v ) = (u )v + (v )u + u ( u ) + v ( u ) v v v v v u 2 = 2[(u )u + u ( u )]

( )

Example: Contraction in a water or wind tunnel:

Contraction Ratio: = R1/ R2 >> 1 = O(10) for wind ; = O(5) for water Let U1 and U 2 be average velocity at section 1 and 2 respectively. 1. Apply continuity 2.
2 U 1 R 1

)= ( )
U 2 R 2 2

R U 2 = 1 = 2 >> 1 U1 R 2

v 1

v 1

since

u v 0, 0 vortex ring r

/ L = constant

i.e.

Section 1

Section 2

13.021 Marine Hydrodynamics Lecture 8

Let U1 = U1 (1 + 1 ) and U 2 = U 2 (1 + 2 ) where 1 and 2 measure the relative velocity fluctuations. Apply the Bernoulli equation along a reference average streamline
2 2 P1 + 1 U1 = P2 + 1 U 2 _____(1) 2 2

Apply Bernoulli Equation to a particular streamline:

P1 + 1 [U1 (1 + 1 )] = P2 + 1 [U 2 (1 + 2 )] _____(2) 2 2
2 2

13.021 Marine Hydrodynamics, Fall 2004 Lecture 9

13.021 - Marine Hydrodynamics Lecture 9 Lecture 9 is structured as follows: In paragraph 3.5 we return to the full Navier-Stokes equations (unsteady, viscous momentum equations) to deduce the vorticity equation and study some additional properties of vorticity. In paragraph 3.6 we introduce the concept of potential ow and velocity potential. We formulate the governing equations and boundary conditions for potential ow and nally introduce the stream function.

3.5 Vorticity Equation

Return to viscous incompressible ow. The Navier-Stokes equations in vector form v p + v v = + gy + 2 v t By taking the curl of the Navier-Stokes equations we obtain the vorticity equation. In detail and taking into account u we have (Navier-Stokes) v + (v v) = t p + gy + 2 v

The rst term on the left side, for xed reference frames, becomes v = ( v) = t t t

In the same manner the last term on the right side becomes 2 v = 2 Applying the identity scalar = 0 the pressure term vanishes, provided that the density is uniform p ( + gy) = 0 1

The inertia term v v, as shown in Lecture 8, 3.4, can be rewritten as 1 v v = (v v) v ( v) = 2 v2 2 v where v 2 |v|2 = v v

and then the second term on the left side can be rewritten as (v ) v = v2 (v ) = ( v) 2 = (v ) ( ) v + ( v) + v ( )
incompressible uid

=0

=0 since (v)=0

Putting everything together, we obtain the vorticity equation D = ( ) v + 2 Dt Comments-results obtained from the vorticity equation Kelvins Theorem revisited - from vorticity equation: If 0, then
D Dt

= ( ) v, so if 0 everywhere at one time, 0 always.

can be thought of as diusivity of vorticity (and momentum), i.e., once generated (on boundaries only) will spread/diuse in space if is present.

v
v Dv v = 2v + ... Dt
v D D v = 2 + ... Dt

T Diusion of vorticity is analogous to the heat equation: = K2 T , where K is the t heat diusivity. Numerical example for 1 mm2 /s. For diusion time t = 1 second, diusion distance L O t O (mm). For diusion distance L = 1cm, the necessary diusion time is t O (L2 /) O(10)sec. In 2D space (x, y), v = (u, v, 0) and 0 z

So, = v is to v ( is parallel to the z-axis). Then,

( ) v = x + z + y v 0, y z x
0 0 0

so in 2D we have D = 2 Dt If = 0, D = 0, i.e., in 2D following a particle the angular velocity is conserved. Dt Reason: In 2D space the length of a vortex tube cannot change due to continuity.

In 3D space, Di = Dt j vi xj + 2 i xj xj
diusion

vortex turning and stretching

for example, u2 D2 = 1 + Dt x1
vortex turning

u2 x2

+ 3

u2 + diusion x3

vortex stretching

vortex turning

z x3
dy

z x3
dz

u2 dz > 0 x3

u2 = 0
x x1
u2 >0 x2

y x2 u2 dy > 0 x2
D2 >0 Dt 4 123 4

u2 = 0

y x2

x x1
3 >0 u2 D2 > 0 >0 Dt 4 x3 123 4

3.5.1 Example: Pile on a River

Scouring

What really happens as length of the vortex tube L increases? IFCF is no longer a valid assumption. Why? Ideal ow assumption implies that the inertia forces are much larger than the viscous eects. The Reynolds number, with respect to the vortex tube diameter D is given by UD As the vortex tube length increases the diameter D becomes really small that big after all. Re Therefore IFCF is no longer valid.

Re is not

3.6 Potential Flow

Potential Flow (P-Flow) is an ideal and irrotational uid ow Inviscid Fluid =0 Ideal Flow + Incompressible Flow v =0 + Irrotational Flow = 0 or = 0

P-Flow

3.6.1 Velocity potential For ideal ow under conservative body forces by Kelvins theorem if 0 at some time t, then 0 irrotational ow always. In this case the ow is P-Flow. Given a vector eld v for which = v 0, there exists a potential function (scalar) - the velocity potential - denoted as , for which v = Note that = v = 0 for any , so irrotational ow guaranteed automatically. At a point x and time t, the velocity vector v(x, t) in cartesian coordinates in terms of the potential function (x, t) is given by v (x, t) = (x, t) = , , x y z

(x)

x u >0 >0
u=0

x u

<0 <0

from low to high

The velocity vector v is the gradient of the potential function , so it always points towards higher values of the potential function. 3.6.2 Governing Equations and Boundary Conditions for Potential Flow (a) Continuity v = 0 = 2 = 0 Number of unknowns Number of equations 2 = 0

Therefore we have closure. In addition, the velocity potential and the pressure p are decoupled. The velocity potential can be solved independently rst, and after is obtained we can evaluate the pressure p. p = f (v) = f () Solve for , then nd pressure. 7

(b) Bernoulli equation for P-Flow This is a scalar equation for the pressure under the assumption of P-Flow for steady or unsteady ow. Euler equation: v + t v2 2 v = p + gy

Substituting v = and = 0 into Eulers equation above, we obtain or which implies that 1 p + ||2 + + gy = f (t) t 2 everywhere in the uid for unsteady, potential ow. The equation above can be written as p = 1 + ||2 + gy + F (t) t 2 p 1 + ||2 + + gy t 2 = 0, t + 1 ||2 2 = p + gy

DO NOT CONFUSE WITH

BERNOULLI EQUATION FROM 3.4,
USED FOR STEADY, ROTATIONAL FLOW

Summary: Bernoulli equationS for ideal ow. (a) For steady rotational or irrotational ow along streamline: p = 1 2 v + gy + C() 2

(b) For unsteady or steady irrotational ow everywhere in the uid: p = 1 + ||2 + gy + F (t) t 2

p = gy + c hydrostatic pressure (Archimedes principle)

(d) Steady and no gravity eect ( t = 0, g 0):

Eulerian inertia

p p

t v t

+ +

u p
x
9

p+

p x x

n

= given

Note: On a free-surface p = patm .

10

3.6.3 Stream function Continuity: v = 0; Irrotationality: v = = 0 Velocity potential: v = , then v = () 0 for any , i.e., irrotationality is satised automatically. Required for continuity: v = 2 = 0 Stream function dened by
v =

Then v = 0 for any , i.e., satises continuity automatically. Required for irrotationality: v = 0 = 2 = 0

still 3 unknown
=(x ,y ,z )

(1)

For 2D and axisymmetric ows, is a scalar (stream functions are more use ful for 2D and axisymmetric ows). For 2D ow: v = (u, v, 0) and i v =
=

x x z

0.

j
y

k
z

y z

z +

z +
i j y
x k y
x
x
y

; y

v = x

0.

y r

r
x

v =
=
Again let

1
r

r r

er

re ez

vr

vz

z 1 1 z er
e + r
r
r

r r ez r

r = 0 and z = , then vr = 1 and v = r r

For 3D but axisymmetric ows, also reduces to (read JNN 4.6 for details).

12

Physical Meaning of . In 2D u= We dene

x x

and v = y x

(x, t) = (x0 , t) +

x0

v nd

= (x0 , t) +

x0

(udy vdx)

total volume ux from left to right accross a curve C between x and x0

v x

v t

v xo

For to be single-valued, =
C C

CC S

or
C

= 0

v
=0,
continuity

ds = 0

13

Let x1 , x2 be two points on a given streamline (v n = 0 on streamline)

streamline

x2

(x2 ) = (x1 ) +
2 1 x1

vn d
along a streamline

=0

Therefore, 1 = 2 , i.e., is a constant along any streamline. For example, on an impervious stationary body v n = 0, so = constant on the body is the appropriate boundary condition. If the body is moving v n = Un = 0 + Un d
given

on the boddy

= constant
u=0

=0 n

= given

14

Flux = vx = uy.
Therefore, u =
and v = x y

(x, y + y)

u -v streamline (x,y)

streamline

(x +x, y)

15

Summary of velocity potential formulation vs. stream-function formulation for ideal ows
use
For irrotational ow
For incompressible ow use

For P-Flow use or velocity potential denition continuity v = 0 irrotationality v = 0
2D: w = 0, z = 0

stream-function v = automatically satised = 2 = 0

v = 2 = 0 automatically satised

continuity irrotationality

2 = 0 automatically satised

automatically satised z : 2 = 0

Cauchy-Riemann equations for (, ) = (real, imaginary) part of an analytic complex function of z = x + iy u= v= vr = Polar (r,) v =
1 r x y r

Cartesian (x, y)

u=

v = x vr =
1 r

v = r

Given or for 2D ow, use Cauchy-Riemann equations to nd the other: e.g. If = xy, then = ? u= =y= x y v= =x= y x 1 = y 2 + f1 (x) 2

1 = (y 2 x2 ) + const 2 1
= x2 + f2 (y) 2 16

Lecture 10

3.7 Governing Equations and Boundary Conditions for P-Flow

3.7.1 Governing Equations for P-Flow (a) Continuity 2 = 0 1 2 (b) Bernoulli for P-Flow (steady or unsteady) p = t + || + gy + C(t) 2 3.7.2 Boundary Conditions for P-Flow Types of Boundary Conditions: (c) Kinematic Boundary Conditions - specify the ow velocity at boundaries. v = Un n

(d) Dynamic Boundary Conditions - specify force F or pressure p at ow boundary. 1 p = t + ()2 + gy + C (t) (prescribed) 2

The boundary conditions in more detail: Kinematic Boundary Condition on an impermeable boundary (no ux condition)

v U n = n =
uid velocity

Un
nornal boundary velocity

= Given

= v

boundary velocity

n = Un (n1 + n2 + n3 ) = Un x1 x2 x3 = n Un

v U

v n = (n1 , n 2 , n 3 ) v

Dynamic Boundary Condition: In general, pressure is prescribed 1 2 p = t + () + gy + C (t) = Given 2

3.7.3 Summary: Boundary Value Problem for P-Flow The aforementioned governing equations with the boundary conditions formulate the
Boundary Value Problem (BVP) for P-Flow.
The general BVP for P-Flow is sketched in the following gure.

KBC : (Lecture 19) Free surface DBC : ( + 1 ( ) 2 + gy ) + C (t ) = GIVEN t 2 123 non linear

2 = 0 1 2 p = (t + ( ) + gy ) + C (t ) 2

= U n = GIVEN n

It must be pointed out that this BVP is satised instantaneously.

3.8 Linear Superposition for Potential Flow In the absence of dynamic boundary conditions, the potential ow boundary value problem is linear. Potential function .

2 = 0 in V
= U n =f on B n

Stream function .

2 = 0 in V

=g on B

Linear Superposition: if 1 , 2 , . . . are harmonic functions, i.e., 2 i = 0, then = i i , where i are constants, are also harmonic, and is the solution for the boundary value problem provided the kinematic boundary conditions are satised, i.e., = (1 1 + 2 2 + . . .) = Un on B. n n The key is to combine known solution of the Laplace equation in such a way as to satisfy
the kinematic boundary conditions (KBC).
The same is true for the stream function . The K.B.C specify the value of on the
boundaries.

3.8.1 Example
Let i x denote a unit-source ow with source at xi , i.e., 1

i x source x,
xi
=
ln x
xi
(in 2D)
2
1 = 4 x xi (in 3D), then nd mi such that =
i

v x 2 v x 1

2 = 0 in V
v v x 3 x 4

=f n

Figure 1: Note: j , j = 1, . . . , 4 are not in the uid domain V .

x

3.9 - Laplace equation in dierent coordinate systems (cf Hildebrand 6.18) 3.9.1 Cartesian (x,y,z) = v u, v, w
i j k

= =

, , x y z

2 =

2 2 2 + + 2 x2 y 2 z

ez

P ( x, y , z )

ey

x
ex

3.9.2 Cylindrical (r,,z)

r 2 = x2 + y 2 , = tan1 (y/x) e e e 1 r z v = vr , v , vz = , , r r z

2 1 1 2 2 + + + 2 r2 r r r2 2 z 1 r r r ( r ) 1 1 2 2 2 = r + 2 2 + 2 r r r r z 2 =

ez
P (r , , z )

ey

x
ex

r 2 = x2 + y 2 + z 2 , = cos1 (z/r) z = r (cos ) = tan1 (y/x)

v = =

er e e vr , v , v

1 1 , , r r r(sin )

2

ez
P (r , , )

r O
y

ey

x
ex

3.10 Simple Potential ows

1. Uniform Stream 2 (ax + by + cz + d) = 0 1D: 2D: = U x + constant = U y +
constant;
= U x + V y + constant = U y V x +
constant;

v = (U, 0, 0)

v = (U, V, 0)

3D: = U x + V y + W z +
constant
2. Source (sink) ow 2D, Polar coordinates 1 = r r
2

v = (U, V, W )

1 2 r + 2 2 , with r = x2 + y 2 r r

An axisymmetric solution: = a ln r + b. Verify that it satises 2 = 0, except at r = x2 + y 2 = 0. Therefor, r = 0 must be excluded from the ow. Dene 2D source of strength m at r= 0: = m ln r 2

m m er = er vr = , v = 0 r 2r 2r

source (strength m)

C

v nds =

2 0 S

vds =

v nds =

vr r d =
m 2r

y
n

C S S x

m 2

Vr = m 2

=0

10

2

r r
2

Net outward volume ux is m 2 vr dS = 4r = m (m < 0 for a sink ) 2 4r

11

3. 2D point vortex 1 = r r
2

1 2 r + 2 2 r r

Another particular solution: = a + b. Verify that 2 = 0 except at r = 0. Dene the potential for a point vortex of circulation at r = 0. Then 1 vr = = 0, v = = and, 2 r r 2r 1 (rv ) = 0 except at r = 0 z = r r

ln r 2

v dx =
C2

v dx +

v dx =
0

rd = 2r

C1

C1 C2 R R z dS=0
S

vortex strength

12

4. Dipole (doublet ow)

A dipole is a superposition of a sink and a source with the same strength.

2D dipole: m 2 2 2 ln 2 = ln (x a) + y (x + a) + y 2 2 2 lim = ln (x ) + y a0 2 =0 = 2ma constant x x = = 2 x2 + y 2 2 r2 2D dipole (doublet) of moment at the origin oriented in the +x direction.
NOTE: dipole = (unit source)

13

unit source

x
x cos + y sin cos cos + sin sin = 2 + y2 2 x 2 r

= 3D dipole: = lim

m

4

1

where = 2ma xed

a0 2 2 2 + z2 2 + z2 (x a)
+ y (x + a)
+ y
1
x x
=
= = 4
4 (x2 + y 2 + z 2 )3/2 4 r3 (x
)2 + y 2 + z 2
=0

3D dipole (doublet) of moment at the origin oriented in the +x direction.

14

5. Stream and source: Rankine half-body It is the superposition of a uniform stream of constant speed U and a source of strength m.

U
m

2D: = U x +

m 2 ln x + y 2 2

v stagnation point v = 0
Dividing Streamline

m . U

3D: = U x

m
2 x
+ y 2 + z 2

stagnation point div. streamlines

m x =U+ 2 + y 2 + z 2 )3/2 x 4 (x m x u|y=z=0 = U + , v |y=z=0 = 0, w|y=z=0 = 0 4 |x|3 m = (u, v, w) = 0 at x = xs = V , y=z=0 4U u= For large x, u U and U A = m by continuity A = m . U

16

+m
a

-m

To have a closed body, a necessary condition is to have 2D Rankine ovoid: m = U x+ 2

min body = 0

m (x + a)2 + y 2 2 2 2 ln 2 ln (x + a) + y (x a) + y = U x+ ln 4 (x a)2 + y 2

3D Rankine ovoid: = Ux m 4 1 (x + a) +
2

y2 + z2 1
(x a) +
2

y2 + z2

17

For Rankine Ovoid,

m x+a xa u= =U+ x 4 (x + a)2 + y 2 + z 2 3/2 (x a)2 + y 2 + z 2 3/2 m 1 1 u|y=z=0 =U + 2 4 (x + a)2 (x a)
m (4ax)
=U + 4 (x2 a2 )2
2 m
u|y=z=0 =0 at x2 a2 = 4ax 4U At x = 0, u=U+ m 2a where R = y 2 + z 2 4 (a2 + R2 )3/2

R 0

2
0

uRdR = m

18

7. Stream + Dipole: circles and spheres

r U

x 2D: = U x + 2r2

x=r cos

. 2U

The radial velocity is then ur =

Setting the radial velocity vr = 0 on r = a we obtain a = for a stationary circle of radius a. Therefore, for = 2U a2 the potential = cos U r + 2r is the solution to ideal ow past a circle of radius a. Flow past a circle (U, a).

19

= U cos r + V =
1 r

V |r=a

2 = U sin 1 + a2 r = 0 at = 0, stagnation points = 2U sin 3 = 2U at = 2 , 2 maximum tangential velocity

a2 r

2U

2U

Illustration of the points where the ow reaches maximum speed around the circle.

3D: = U x +

U z

The radial velocity is then vr = = cos U r 2r3

20

Setting the radial velocity vr = 0 on r = a we obtain a = for a stationary sphere of radius a. Therefore, choosing = 2U a3 the potential = cos U r + 2r is the solution to ideal ow past a sphere of radius a.

2U

Flow past a sphere (U, a). a3 = Ur cos 1 + 3 2r 1 a3 v = = U sin 1 + 3 r 2r 3U = 0 at = 0, v |r=a = sin = 3U at = 2 2 2

3/ 2

3/ 2

21

8. 2D corner ow Velocity potential = r cos ; Stream function = r sin 2 2 (a) 2 = r2 + 1 r + r12 2 = 0 r (b) = r1 cos r
1
u = = r1 sin r u = 0 { or = 0} on = n, n = 0, 1, 2, . . . ur =
i.e., on = 0 = 0, , 2 , . . . (0 2)

i. Interior corner ow stagnation point origin: > 1. For example, = 1, 0 = 0, , 2, u = 1, v = 0

y

x =0

22

3 = 2, 0 = 0, , , ,2 u = 2x, v = 2 y 2 2 o
(90 corner) =0

=0

=2/3, = 0

= 3 2 , 0 = 0,
(120o corner)

2 4 , ,2 3 3

120o

120o 120
o

=0, = 0 =2, = 0

=4/3, = 0

23

ii. Exterior corner ow, |v| at origin: <1 0 = 0, only Since we need 0 2, we therefore require

1/2 < 1 0 = 0, For example,

= 1/2, 0 = 0, 2 (1/2 innite plate, ow around a tip)

=0, = 0 =2, = 0

=0, = 0

=3/2, = 0

24

Cartesian Coordinate System

Flow Streamlines Potential (x, y, z) Stream function (x, y)

Uniform ow

U x + V y + W z

U y V x

2D Source/Sink (m) at (xo , yo )

m 2

ln((x xo )2 + (y yo )2 )

m 2

yy arctan( xxo ) o

m 4 q

(xxo )2 +(yyo )2 +(zzo )2

NA

Vortex () at (xo , yo )

yy arctan( xxo ) o

2 ln((x xo )2 + (y yo )2 )

NA

25

Cylindrical Coordinate System

Flow Streamlines Potential (r, , z) Stream function (r, )

Uniform ow

U r cos + V r sin + W z

U r sin V r cos

m 2

ln r

m 2

3D Source/Sink (m) at (xo , yo , zo )

m 4r

NA

Vortex () at (xo , yo )

2 ln r

4 cos 2 r

NA

26

(2D)

= U x +

m 2

ln r

m xs = 2U

D=

m U

(3D)

= U x

m 4

1 x2 +y 2 +z 2

xs =

m 4U

A=

m U

(2D)

= U x +

m 2

ln((x + a)2 + y 2 ) ln((x a)2 + y 2 )

(3D)

= U x +

m 1 4 ( (x+a)2 +y 2 +z 2

1 ) (xa)2 +y 2 +z 2

(2D)

= U x +

x 2r 2

if = 2a2 U

= U cos (r +

a2 r )

(3D)

= U x +

cos 4r 2

if = 2a3 U

= U cos (r +

a3 2r 2 )

2D Corner Flow

(2D)

= Cr cos()

= Cr sin()

0 = 0, n

27

ln r

(2D) Dipole (3D)

1 r 1 r2

1 r2 1 r3

Vortex

(2D)

1 r

28

13.021 Marine Hydrodynamics Lecture 11 3.9 Forces on a body undergoing steady translation DAlemberts paradox 3.9.1 Fixed bodies & translating bodies Galilean transformation.
y
y

o z
Fixed in space

o z

v O : v, , p
U S

x = x + Ut

v O' : v' , ' , p

U

2 = 0

'2 ' = 0

v r v n = = U n = ( U ,0, 0) (n x , n y , n z ) n
= Un x on body (t) v v 0 v as x 0

v ' v'n ' = = 0 on Body (not function of t ) n'

v v ' ( U,0 ,0 ) v as x ' ' Ux

Galilean tranform: v v v( x, y, z, t ) = v' ( x ' = x Ut , y, z, t ) + ( U,0,0) ( x , y, z , t ) = ' ( x ' = x Ut , y, z, t ) + Ux ' Ux '+( x = x '+Ut , y, z, t ) = ' ( x' , y, z, t ) Pressure (no gravity)

1 p = v 2 + C o = C o 2
C o = C 'o

1 U 2 2

In O: steady flow ' 1 p s = v'2 + C'o { t { 2 0

0

' = Co

1 1 p s = U 2 U 2 + C o = U 2 + C o 2 2

ps p =

1 U 2 2

ps p =
Stagnation pressure

1 U 2 2

No shear stress

pndS
B

v Fs =

( pgyn )dS = ( ) ( pgy )d = pg j

Gauss Theorem
B

where =

d
B

Archimedes Principle

Hydrodynamic Force: Fd =

t + 2
1
B

n dS

v 1 For steady 0 motion: Fd = v 2 ndS 2 B t Example: Hydrodynamic force on 2D cylinder in steady translation
2 v 2 2 Fd = ndl = r =a nad 2 2 B 0

n
U S a B

v a 2 2 i Fx = F i = d r =a { n 2 0 cos

a = 2

cos d

a2 = U cos r + r r = a = v r
2 r =a

r =a

, v

r=a

, 1 = { r r r = a 4 4 0 r =a 1 2 3 2 U sin

= 4 U 2 sin 2
2

a Fx = 2

(
0

2 1 2 2 2 d 4 U sin cos = U ( 2a ) 2 dsin 23 cos 1 { 2 { 2 123 diameter 0 even odd p p or 3 s projection w .r .t , 144 2442 3 4 42

Fx = 0 no forces ( symmetry fore-aft of the streamlines) 1 2 2 Similarly, Fy = U (2a )2 d sin sin = 0 2 0

2

v In fact, in general we find that F 0 on any 2D or 3D body DAlemberts paradox No hydrodynamic force* acts on a body moving with constant(1) translational velocity in an infinite(2), inviscid(3), irrotational(4) fluid.
*

Note that the moment as measured in a local frame is not necessarily zero.

3.10 Lift due to circulation Example: force on a vortex in a uniform stream. U = Ux + 2

y

Fy Fx

Consider a control surface in the form of a circle radius R centered at the point vortex. Then according to Newtons law: d 0 = M cv = (Fcs + Fv ) + M in dt

Control volume

MCV = Total (linear) momentum of control volume FCS = Hydrodynamic force on CS by surrounding fluids FV = Hydrodynamic force on CS by vortex = -(force on vortex by fluid) MIN = net flux of momentum in CV through CS force on vortex F = -FV = FCS + MIN
v =

2r

cos Momentum flux: u = U sin , v = 2r 2r

Vr = U x = U cos r
2 2

(M x )IN = druVr = dr U sin U cos = 0 2r 0 0 (M y ) IN = drvVr = dr cos U cos 2r 0 0

2

U U = cos2 d = 2 0 2

p=

1 v2 v +C 2

2 2 v 2 2 2 V = u + v = U sin + cos 2r 2 r

= U2

U sin + r 2 r

(FCS )x (FCS )y

= drp( cos) = 0
0

Finally, Fx = (FCS ) x + (M x )IN = 0

Fy = (FCS ) y + (M y )IN = U i.e. the fluid exerts a downward force U on the vortex Kutta-Jaukowski law: F = U v v v F = U

Lecture 12

3.14 Lifting Surfaces

3.14.1 2D Symmetric Streamlined Body No separation, even for large Reynolds numbers.

stream line

Viscous eects only in a thin boundary layer. Small Drag (only skin friction). No Lift.

chord line

chord line

(c) or both

angle of attack

to U

3.15 Potential Flow and Kutta Condition

From the P-Flow solution for ow past a body we obtain

P-Flow solution, innite velocity at trailing edge. Note that (a) the solution is not unique - we can always superimpose a circulatory ow without violating the boundary conditions, and (b) the velocity at the trailing edge . We must therefore, impose the Kutta condition, which states that the ow leaves tangentially the trailing edge, i.e., the velocity at the trailing edge is nite. To satisfy the Kutta condition we need to add circulation.

Circulatory ow only. Superimposing the P-Flow solution plus circulatory ow, we obtain

Figure 1: P-Flow solution plus circulatory ow.

3.15.1 Why Kutta condition? Consider a control volume as illustrated below. At t = 0, the foil is at rest (top control volume). It starts moving impulsively with speed U (middle control volume). At t = 0+ , a starting vortex is created due to ow separation at the trailing edge. As the foil moves, viscous eects streamline the ow at the trailing edge (no separation for later t), and the starting vortex is left in the wake (bottom control volume).

t=0

=0

S
t=0 + U

starting vortex due to separation (a real fluid effect, no infinite vel of potetial flow)

S
for later t U

S
starting vortex left in wake

no

Kelvins theorem: d = 0 = 0 for t 0 if (t = 0) = 0 dt After a while the S in the wake is far behind and we recover Figure 1. 4

3.15.2 How much S ?

Just enough so that the Kutta condition is satised, so that no separation occurs. For
example, consider a at plate of chord and angle of attack , as shown in the gure
below.

chord length

1 U 2 l 2

= 2 2 for small sin

only for small

However, notice that as increases, separation occurs close to the leading edge.

Excessive angle of attack leads to separation at the leading edge.

When the angle of attack exceeds a certain value (depends on the wing geometry) stall occurs. The eects of stalling on the lift coecient (CL = 1 U 2 Lspan ) are shown in the 2 following gure.

L This region independent of R,

used only to get Kutta
condition
stall location f(R)

stall

O(5 o )

In experiments, CL < 2 for 3D foil - nite aspect ratio (nite span). With sharp leading edge, separation/stall to early.

sharp trailing edge round leading edge to forstall stalling to develop circulation

3.16 Thin Wing, Small Angle of Attack

Assumptions Flow: Steady, P-Flow. Wing: Let yU (x), yL (x) denote the upper and lower vertical camber coordinates, respectively. Also, let x = /2, x = /2 denote the horizontal coordinates of the leading and trailing edge, respectively, as shown in the gure below.

y=yU(x)

For thin wing, at a small angle of attack it is

yU yL , << 1 dyU dyL , << 1 dx dx The problem is then linear and superposition applies. Let (x) denote the camber line 1 (x) = (yU (x) + yL (x)), 2 and t(x) denote the half-thickness 1 t(x) = (yU (x) yL (x)). 2
Camber line t(x)

t(x)

(x)

For linearized theory, i.e. thin wing at small AoA, the lift on the wing depends only on the camber line but not on the wing thickness. Therefore, for the following analysis we approximate the wing by the camber line only and ignore the wing thickness. 7

Denitions In general, the lift on the wing is due to the total circulation around the wing. This total circulation can be given in terms due to a distribution of circulation (x) (Units: [LT 1 ]) inside the wing, i.e., =
/2 /2

(x)dx

(x)

Noting that superposition applies, let the total potential for this ow be expressed as the sum of two potentials = U x +
Free stream potential

Disturbunce potential

The ow velocity can by expressed as v = = (U + u, v) where (u, v) are given by = (u, v) and denote the velocity disturbance, due to the presence of the wing. For linearized wing we can assume u, v << U u v , << 1 U U

Consider a ow property q, such as velocity, pressure etc. Then let qU = q(x, 0+ ) and qL = q(x, 0 ) denote the values of q at the upper and lower wing surfaces, respectively.

Lift due to circulation Applying Bernoulli equation for steady, inviscid, rotational ow, along a streamline from to a point on the wing, we obtain 1 p p = |v|2 U 2 2 1 1 p p = (u U )2 + v 2 U 2 = (u2 + v 2 2uU ) 2 2 1 u v v + 2) p p = uU ( 2 U U u
<<1 <<1 1 u Dropping terms of order U , for thin wing at small AoA v U

<< 1 we obtained the linearized Bernoulli equation p p = uU

Integrating the pressure along the wing surface, we obtain an expression for the total lift L on the wing L = (p p )ny dS =
l/2 l/2 l/2

p(x, 0 ) p p(x, 0+ ) p dx
l/2

L =
l/2

p(x, 0 ) p(x, 0+ ) dx = U

u(x, 0 ) u(x, 0+ ) dx

(1)

l/2

To obtain the total lift on the wing we will seek an expression for u(x, 0 ).
Consider a closed contour on the wing, of negligible thickness, as shown in the gure
below. (x)

u ( x,0 + )

t0 u ( x,0 )

In this case we have (x)x = |u(x, 0+ )|x + u(x, 0 )x (x) = |u(x, 0+ )| + u(x, 0 ) For small u/U we can argue that u(x, 0+ ) u(x, 0 ), and obtain = u(x, 0 ) = (x) 2 (2)

From Equations (1), and (2) the total lift can be expressed as l/2 L = U (x)dx = U l/2
=

The same result can be obtained from the Kutta-Joukowski law (for nonlinear foil) /2 U (x)x = U L = U = U (x)x L =
/2

L = U = U (x) x

t0

= (x) x x

10

l 2

xcp

l 2

L(x) = U (x)x M = xL(x) = U x(x)x /2 U x(x)dx M =

/2

CM =

M
1 U 2 2 2

The center of pressure xcp , can be obtained by M = Lxcp /2 x(x)dx M /2 = /2 xcp = L (x)dx
/2

11

3.17 Simple Closed-Form Solutions for Theory

1. Flat plate at angle of attack , i.e., = x.

/2 /2 (x)dx

from Linear

Linear lifting theory gives (x), which can be integrated to give the lift coecient
CL , L/span = U CL = CL
/2

/2

(x)dx = = U 2

the moment coecient CM , M/span = U CM = CM =

/2

/2

x(x)dx = = 1 U 2 2 4

1 2

M/span 1 U 2 2 2

1 4

12

2. Parabolic camber = 0 {1 ( 2x )2 }, at zero AoA = 0. l

Linear lifting theory gives (x), which can be integrated to give the lift coecient
CL , L/span = U CL = 4 the moment coecient CM , M/span = 0 (from symmetry) CM = 0 and the center of pressure xcp xcp = 0 0
/2

/2

, where

13

2 2x . 3. Linear superposition: Both AoA and camber = x + 0 1

CL = CL + CL = 2 + 4

Lift coecient CL as a function of the angle of attack and

0 . l

In practice even if the camber is not parabolic, we still make use of the previous relations, i.e., CL ( = 0) 40 / . = Also note that the angle of attack for any camber is dened as ( /2) ( /2) = yU yL

and 0 is determined from , where = x.

14

13.021 Marine Hydrodynamics Lecture 13 3.11 Unsteady Motion Added Mass Dalembert: ideal, irrotational, unbounded, steady
Violations: 4 Koutta-Joakowski wall unsteady

Example 1: Force on a sphere accelerating (U=U(t), unsteady) in an unbounded fluid at rest. (at infinity) = U( t ) cos U(t) K.B.C on sphere: r r =a r x Solution: Simply a 3D dipole (no stream) 3D Dipole a3 a n = U ( t ) 2 cos 2r U(t) check: = U( t ) cos r r =a
2 1 Hydrodynamic Force: Fx = + nx dS t 2 B

On r = a:

3 1 & & a = U 2 cos r =a = Ua cos 2 r r =a 2r

1 r =a = U cos , U sin ,0 Vr V 2 = = 1
r

1 r sin

2 r =a

1 = U 2 cos 2 + U 2 sin 2 ; n = er , n x = cos 4

0

a sin

dS = (ad)(2a sin )
B

Finally,
1 2 & cos Ua cos + 1 U 2 cos 2 + 1 U 2 sin 2 Fx = ( )2a d(sin ) 12 n 3 2 2 1444 2444 3 0 4 4 4 x t 2

1 & = Ua 3 d sin cos 2 + U 2 a 2 d sin cos cos 2 + sin 2 4 0 0 14 244 4 3 144444 244444 3 4 4
23 = 0 D 'alembert revisited

General 6 degrees of freedom motions

Added mass matrix (tensor) mij ; i, j = 1,2 3, 4,2 6 12, 15, 3 3
& & & u,v,w

& & & x , y ,z

associated with force on body in i direction due to unit acceleration in j direction e.g. for sphere: m11 = m22 = m33 = =(mA) all other mij = 0 Some added masses of simple 2D geometries
x2 x1

circle

ellipse plate
2a

a b

square
2a

m11 = m22 4.754a2

2a

A reasonable estimate for added mass od a 2D body is to useee the displaced mass () of an equivalent cylinder of the same lateral dimension or one that rounds off the body. e.g. square
2a

(2)a

( )

arithmetic mean (i) + (ii) 4.71a2 2

General 6 degrees of freedom forces and moments on a rigid body moving in an unbounded fluid ( at rest at infinity)
x2
v U( t )

v U ( t ) = (U1 , U 2 , U 3 ) Translation
velocity

v (t ) = (1 , 2 , 3 )
x1

o x3
v ( t )

(U 4 , U 5 , U 6 ) rotation (velocity)
vector w.r.t o

(1) (2)

(1) ( 2 ) ( 3)

Einsteins Notation applies.

0 = 1 1
if any j.k.l are equal if j,k,l are in cyclic order i.e. (1,2,3), (2,3,1),or (3,1,2) if j,k,l are not in cyclic order i.e. (1,3,2), (2,1,3), (3,2,1)

E jkl =alternating tensor

& (1) if k 0 , Fj = U i m ji (as expected by definition of mij) & also if U 0, then F = 0 for any Ui, no force in steady translation
i j

v v v (2) Bl ~ U i m li added momentum due to rotation of axes, (2) ~ B where B is linear momentum. (momentum from 1 coordinate into new xj direction)

def .of mij

& Even with U = 0, M j 0 due to

Moment on a body due to pure steady translation Munk moment.

Example of Munk Moment a 2D submarine in steady translation

2 1

U1 = Ucos; U2 = -Usin
U

& steady: U = 0; k = 0
M 3 = E3klU kU i mli

(out of page)

1, 2

M 3 = E312 U 1 (U1m21 + U 2 m22 ) E321U 2 (U1m11 + U 2 m12 ) { { = U1U 2 (m22 m11 )

=1 = 1

= U 2 sin cos m22 m11 4 3 1 24 >0 M 3 > 0 for 0 < < 2 (" Bow up" ) A submarine under forward motion is unstable in pitch (yaw) (e.g. a small bow-up tends to grow with time) Need control surfaces: restoring moment (g)Hsin
B G H

critical speed Ucr given by: 2 (g)H sin U cr sin cos (m 22 m11 ) Usually m22 >> m11, m22 for small , cos 1 U 2 So U cr gH or Fcr cr 1 gH otherwise, control fins are required.

Ucr

13.021 Marine Hydrodynamics Lecture 14 Some Properties of Added-Mass Coefficients (1) mij= [function of geometry only]
& F, M = [linear function of mij] * [function of instantaneous U, U, ]
Not of motion history

(2) Relationship to momentum of fluid:

B U=0 t = 0, (t=0) = 0
& U( t )

B U=1 t = T, (t=T) 0

F(t)

V V

v v L = Vd = d =
Greens th.

B + 0 0 at

ndS

L x (t = T ) =

n dS
x B

T

& U] dt[ F (t )] = m Udt = m 23 = L (t = T ) L (t = 0) = n dS = m 1

A A t 0 x x x 0 0 mA B

mA = total fluid momentum for body moving at U = 1 (regardless of how we get there from rest) = fluid momentum per unit velocity of body. K.B.C.
= n = (u ,0,0 ) n = Un x , = n x for U = 1 n n m A = dS n B For general 6 DOF:

m ji =

i n j dS =

j n

dS

(3) Symmetry of added mass matrix mij = mji j m ji = i n dS = i j n dS = Div th. B B

(
i

(
)
V

j d

(
V

j + i 2 j d
i

m ji =

j d = m ij

36 21 independent coefficients

(4) Relationship to kinetic energy of fluid In general, for body motion Ui{(U1, U2, , U6)} = U i i ; i = pot. for U i = 1
notation

K.E. = 1 2

d = U
1 2 i V V

U j j d
notation

= 1 U i U j 2

j d = 1 m ij U i U j 2

K.E. depends only on mij and instantaneous Ui (5) Use of symmetry to simplify mij 36 sym 21 ? Choose coordinate system so that some mij = 0 by symmetry 2 e.g. 2
1 3

force

motion

0 m11 m12 m 22 0 m 33 m ij = sym U1 U 2 U 3

0 0 m 34 m 44

0 0 m 35 m 45 m 55 2

m 16 m 26 0 0 0 m 66 3

Fx Fy Fz Mx My Mz

12 independent coefficients

example 2: rotational (axi) sym. about x1

m11 m ij =

0 m 22

0 0 m 22

0 0 0 0 0 m 35 0 0 m 55

0 m 35 0 0 0 m 55

1 3

Where m22 = m33, m55 = m66 and m26 = m35 4 coefficients

How about 3 planes of symmetry (e.g. a cuboid); a cube; a sphere?? Work out detail! 3.12 Slender body Approximation Estimating mij of a slender 3D body using 2D strip-wise Mij
x2 x5 x1 x6 x3 x L M22(x), M33(x), M23(x), M44(x) x4 x3 x2

Idea mij = sum [Mij(x) contributions]

3D x 2D

e.g. m 33 = M 33 (x )dx;

m 53 =

( x )M
L

33

(x )dx
m 55 =

In general: Moment5 = (-x) force3(x) & & U 3 (x ) = ( x ) 5

( x )( x )M
L

33

(x )dx = x 2 M 33 (x )dx
L

Similarly for m22, m44, m42, How about m23, m25 ?? Work out the detail!!

Buoyancy Effects Due to Accelerating Flow Example 2: Force on a stationary sphere in a fluid that is accelerated against it.
U(t) a r

a3 (r, , t ) = U(t ) r + 2 2r & 3a = U cos t r = a 2

cos

3 9 2 1 r = a = 0, U sin , 0 ; = U 2 sin 2 r =a 8 k.b.c. 2 symmetry 2 9 & 3a Fx = ( ) 2r 2 d sin ( cos )U cos + U 2 sin 2 8 2 0 9 2 & = U 3a 3 d sin cos 2 + U 2 a d cos sin 3 4 0 0 14 244 4 3 14 244 4 3
=2 3 =0

& Fx = U
=

4 3 a + 3

2a 3 123 4 4

2 3 a 3 123

Example (1)

U(t)

(2)

m(1) m(1)

U(t) m(2) m(1) +

<

Part of Fx is due to the pressure gradient which must be present to cause the fluid to accelerate: U U U U 1 p (ignore g) U (t ) : N .S . +U +v +w = t x y 1 z x { 13 2 3 2 0
0 0

dp & = U For uniform (1D) accelerated flow dx Force on the body due to the pressure field v p & F = pndS = pd; Fx = d = U x B B B
Greens th.
B

Uniform accelerated flow

& Buoyancy force due to pressure gradient = U Analogue: Buoyancy force due to hydrostatic pressure gradient

& g = gravitational acceleration U = fluid acceleration ps = gy v j j ps = g Fs = g Archimedes pr.

Summary: Total force on a fixed sphere in an accelerated flow & & & Fx = U ( + m(1) ) = U 3 = U 3m(1) 2
Buoyancy = Added mass =

In general, for any body in an accelerated flow: & Fx = Fbuoyany + Um (1) Where m(1) is the added mass in still water (from now on, m) & & Fx = Um for body acceleration with U

Added mass coefficient m cm = in the presence of accelerated flow Cm = 1 + cm

13.021 - Marine Hydrodynamics Lecture 15 4.0 - Real Fluid Effects ( 0) Potential Flow (under DAlemberts Condition): Drag = 0 Observed experiment (real fluid << 1 but 0): Drag 0 4.1 - Drag on a Bluff Body
D (Drag) U

Consider a sphere of diameter d

Dimensional Analysis: C D =

1 2

In the 13.021 world, Drag coefficient (CD) for a sphere is: CD

0.5 0.25 Re

3x105

Why?

Total Drag (profile drag) D = pressure drag (form drag) + skin friction drag (shear drag, viscous drag) Pressure drag: drag force due to normal stress (pressure) Skin friction drag: drag due to tangential stress t tdS
t = is tangential unit vector t = surface shear stress pndS

For a bluff body, pressure drag >> friction drag. Why does pressure drag 0? By DAlembert (Potential Flow), pressure drag = 0

Flow separation

Real Flow

Potential Flow

Because of flow separation, DAlemberts flow symmetry is gone ! non-zero pressure force (drag) in addition to viscous drag. D C D (S )(Ps P )
Note that Ps P = 1 U 2 2

C D = C D (Re ) only weakly from experiments. The Reynolds number Re only plays a role in determining when and in what manner separation occurs.

Two regimes of real fluid flow exist: I- Laminar regime II- Turbulent regime I- Laminar regime: Re no separation < Re < Re critical 3 105

Separation pt

Drag

Stagnation pt

Separation pt

No Stagnation pt

Separation pt

Narrow wake delayed separation Smaller CD

Stagnation pt

Separation pt

No Stagnation pt

Consider a Cylinder
L

In the 13.021 world, Drag coefficient (CD) for a cylinder is:

CD
CD = D/L 2 1 2 U d
1.2 0.6 Re

3x105

For bodies with fixed separation points, the Drag coefficient is ~ constant. Consider a flat plate or disc:
Separation pt

CD 1 For 13.021, C D = 1.2

Separation pt

In non-potential flow, drag is dominated by pressure drag. In these cases, the drag is not a function of Re. Re is important for regime determination. Turbulent regime results follow potential flow more closely.

Boundary Layers and flow separation

v L v 2v v v v + (v v ) = ... + UT t UL {
1 Re L

( )

For most flows of interest to us: ReL >>1 Therefore viscosity can be ignored if U, L govern the problem, thus ideal flow can be assumed, but then by DAlembert, drag = 0!

Flaw: Boundary conditions go from no slip to free slip In reality, no slip can occur on a boundary for any existing viscosity 0

Prandtl: There must be some length (boundary layer thickness where <<L) over which velocity goes from potential flow U, to 0 (no slip) on the wall.
U u=U U L <<L x

u=0

Estimate : inside boundary layer, viscous effects ~ inertial effects. 2U U 2 ~U x y 1 ~ = << 1 L UL Re L Generally: ReL>>1,
U U2 2 ~ L

2 ~ UL L2

As Re L ,

<< 1 , thus potential flow is good to use outside a very thin L boundary layer, while real fluid effects occur inside the boundary layer. If the Reynolds number is on the order of 1 (Re ~ O(1)), then ~ L and Prandtls boundary layer idea is no longer valid. If separation occurs, then boundary layer idea is not valid.

Example: Flow past a circle

U = potential Flow x = arc length
p po = 1 U 2 ( x ) 2 dp dU = U dx dx
Uo y x

U = Umax U=0 U=0

dU >0 dx dp <0 dx

Acceleration Favorable pressure gradient

du <0 dx dp >0 dx

X2 X1

X3 X4 X5

X=X1

X2 > X1

P p

P p

U1 P>p

X3 > X2

X4 > X3

P p u

U3 U2 3 > 0

u v = 0, = 0 y

U4 U3

X5 > X4

U5

U4

=0 outside B.L.

(y)

4 = 0

(y)

Think of vorticity as heat; (y) is like a temperature distribution.

v v DV = ... + 2V Note: Dt

v D v = ... + 2 Dt

13.021 - Marine Hydrodynamics Lecture 16

Vortex Shedding and Vortex Induced Vibrations Consider a steady flow Uo on a bluff body with diameter D We would expect the average forces to be: F Fx Fy Fy Uo D Fx

The measured oscillatory forces are: F Average Fx

Average Fy t

Von Karman Uo D

Von Karman Street: Unsteady non-symmetric wake of staggered array of vortices. Frequency of vortex shedding f = /2 is given by a non-dimensional number.

fD = S(Re) Uo f: Strouhal frequency; d: body diameter; S: Strouhal number; Fx: Drag has frequency 2f, non-zero mean. Fy: Lift has frequency f, zero mean. For laminar flow: S ~ 0.22 for cylinder For turbulent flow: S ~ 0.3 for cylinder 0. 0.22 3x10 Local CL ~ O(1) comparable to CD Total CD, CL are functions of correlation lengths. For a moving cylinder attached to a cable, if the Strouhal frequency is close to the cable frequency f, lock-in occurs. Then frequency of motion Strouhal Frequency fS amplitude of motion Vortex induced vibration VIV

Uo

D b L

D
1 2

S (wetted area) one side of plate

(Lb ) {

= C f (Re, L b )

u Unlike a bluff body, Cf is a strong function of Re since D is proportional to . = y Flat Plate Drag
Cf
0.01 Laminar Turbulent

0.001 105 106 Re

Re depends on plate smoothness, ambient turbulence, In general, Cfs are much smaller than CDs (a factor of 10:100)

Therefore designing streamlined bodies allows minimal separation and form drag (at the expense of friction drag). In general, for streamlined bodies

C force is a combination of C D (Re ) and C f (Re ) where CD is a function of the regime and Cf is a function of ReL continuously. Governing equations:

v _________________(a) 1 v v v v 1v + (v )v = p + 2 v + f t v Conservation of mass: v = 0 _________________(b) Boundary conditions on v v v = U _________________(c) solid boundaries no-slip:
Navier-Stokes: Equations very difficult to solve, analytic solution only for a few very special cases v v (usually when (v )v = 0 ) 4.3 Steady Laminar Flow Between 2 Infinite Parallel Walls Plane Couette Flow
y U h x z

=0 t

for horizontal dimensions (x,z) >> h, we assume flow independent of x, z.

v v v v v v , = 0 v = v (y ) i.e. x z

k.b.c.

(b)

v u v w + + = 0 = 0 v = v ( x, z ) x y z y but v = 0 on y = 0, h from (d) v 0 v v v v v , ,v 0 (a) steady , no f , x z

x 2 2 2 u u u u v + u v + v v + w v = 1 y p + + + 2 x t w x w y w z w z y 2 z 2 u v w

u:

2 u 1 p = y 2 x p v: = 0 p = p ( x, z ) y w:
2 w 1 p = z y 2

2w p 0, then 2 = 0 , w = a + by We assume that p = p(x), i.e. y z But k.b.c.: w = 0 on y = 0, h w 0 Finally: v = w = 0, u = u(y), p = p(x)

d 2 u 1 dp = dy 2 dx
1 2 Solution: u = 2 y

1 p + C1 + C 2 y x

2 k.b.c.: C1 = 0, C2 = U h 2 dx u(0) = 0 u(h) = U

1 dp

whence: u= 1 (y h )y dp + Uy 2 dx h

v v v v v v , 0 v = v(r ) ; r 2 = y 2 + z 2 Assume steady and for L >> a, x

y a r

v v = (v x ,,vv , , v ) v v r v
x r

z L

k.b.c. vx(a) = 0 no slip; Solution:

dv x (0) = 0 symmetry dr
r=a

1 dp 2 v x (r )= a r2 4 dx

) Poiseuille flow Poiseuille flow

Vx(r)

4.5 Unsteady Flow ( boundary layer growth) over an infinite flat plate For steady (i) limit x
Couette flow, Poiseuille

h a

Couette flow for x >> a

(ii) limit t ( 4.5) Consider the simplest example of an infinite plate in unsteady motion:
y

U(t) x z

Assuming p = 0, we have
v v v = v ( y, t )

v v v v , =0 x z

can show v = w = 0 , u = u(y,t)

2u 2u 2u u u u u 1 p +u +v +w = + 2 + 2 + 2 x t x y z x y z
0 0 0 0 0 0 0

Finally:

momentum diffusivity

u u = 2 t y
2

heat diffusion equation ______________(*)

momentum (velocity)

b.c.: u(0,t) = U(t) t > 0; u bounded ( 0) as y + suitable initial condition. 4.5.1 Sinusoidally Oscillating Plate

U (t ) = U o cos t = Real U o e it
let u ( y, t ) = Real f ( y ) eit then (*)

if =

2 y

(1+i )

+ C 2e

(1+ i ) 2 y

2 y

U(t)

Uo

u ( y, t ) :

u 2u = 2 t y

t > 0; i.e. u(y,0) = 0

Problem has no explicit time scale, can use dimensional analysis to solve in terms of a similarity parameter: y u u = f ( y, t , ) = f = f () ; i.e. Uo U o Self-similar 2 t
similarity parameter solution

Solution:
2 u 2 = erfc() = 1 erf () = 1 e d Uo Complementary 0

error function

L

U, V potential u, v viscous flow x

Assume steady 0 t
Uo

2D

0 w, z

u (x, y ), v (x, y ), p (x, y ), U (x, y ), V ( x, y ) For <<L, use local coordinates (x,y) Governing Equations:

u v + = 0 x y

Continuity

(a) (b) (c)

u 2u 2u u 1 p = + 2 + 2 +v u x y x y x N S 2v 2v v 1 p v = + 2 + 2 u +v x x y y y
Boundary Layer Approximation Assume that R L =
UL >> 1, (u, v) is

confined to a thin layer of thickness (x ) << L .

For flows within this boundary layer, the appropriate order-of-magnitude scaling / normalization is: Variable u x y v
* *

Scale U L V=?

Normalization u=Uu* x=Lx* y=y* v=Vv*

U u V v (a) : + = 0 V = O U y L x L
(b) : U u UV u + L x {
2 *

O U2 L

u v y

2 2 u * 2 u * 1 p U + + = x 2 L2 x 2 y 2 4 4 2 1 ignore 3
<< 1 L
2

(b' )

Simplified x-mom (dimensional form):

ignore 68 7 1 u u u 1 p = + 2 1 + O u +v R x y y x L p From (b), in the case of = 0 (U=constant) x 2

U 2 U ~ 2 ~ L L

1 = << 1 UL R L

UV v V2 (c) : u + L { x {
U2 O L L

v 1 p v = + y y

U2 O L L

2 U 2 O 2 L LL <<1

V L2 {

2v V 2 + 2 x {

2v 2 y

U2 O L L

U2 U2 p p while from (b) = O = O L L L y x

p p p << 0; p = p( x ) y x y i.e. pressure is constant across the boundary layer thickness and is equal to the pressure outside b.l. imposed by the external potential flow

so

Summary: 2D, steady, laminar boundary layer equations. Valid inside boundary layer. Continuity:
U U x 0 678 2 1 p u u u u +v = + 2 x y x y p =0 y u v + =0 x y

x-mom: y_mom:

Governing equations for boundary layer approximation

Boundary conditions: on y=0, KBC: u = v = 0 Outside b.l. , KBC: u = U(x,y), v = V(x,y) In principle, U = U(x,y), outside b.l. So write:

Potential Flow

y y >> 1, but << 1 L

u x, y * = U(x,0), v x, y * = V(x,0) = 0

* For the pressure, as y ,

U U 1 dp 2U U +V = + 2 x-mom: x y dx y 0 0

dp U 2 1 so dx = U x or p( x ) = C 2 U (x ,0 )
In the b.l.

Bernoulli eqt. for pot. flow outside

A solution to the laminar boundary layer equations . dp = 0... Simplest problem where U=U0 and dx
Steady flow over a flat plate Blasius laminar boundary layer
y

U = U0, V = 0,

dp =0 dx

Uo

2 y inside b.l. u u u u = 2 +v x y y u v + =0 x y
b.c. u =v = 0 on y = 0; v V = 0, u Uo outside b.l.

y >> 1
y Uo x

Mathematical solution in terms of the similarity parameter

u (x , y ) = F() Uo

Solution:

y = x

Rx
x Uo

y=

Summary of Blasius Laminar Boundary Layer Properties

x y u (x , y ) Uo = F() ; = y ; y U ; x = Uo x o

Rx
Local R #

x , i.e. .99 = 4.9 .99 4.9 Uo ~ x ,1 U o x * * , i.e. = 1.72 1.72 Uo 1 ~ = x Uox Rx x 0.664 Uo
1 / 2 U x = 0.322 U o2 Rx o 0.322U o2 o 1 3 o ~ ,U o / 2 x

1 / 2

Total drag on plate L x B

D = B o dx 0.664 U
0

2 o

width

(BL) U o L ; D ~ L1 / 2 , U 3 / 2 4 3 1 24
R L1 / 2

1 / 2

Friction (drag) coefficient:

CD = Cf =
Cf

1 2

(U ) (BL)
2 o

1.328R 1 / 2 ; C D ~ L

1 L

1 U

Blasius laminar b.l. C D ~ 0.008

1.328 RL
Turbulent b.l.

103

3x105

RL
Flat plate friction coeff. JNN 2.3 Turbulent b.l.

Transition at Rx ~ 1.2x105 R* ~ 600

Approximate solution method due to Polhausen for general geometry (dp/dx 0) using Von Karmans momentum integrals.(*) Assume an approximate velocity profile, say as a 4th order polynomial:

2 3 4

u u 2u = 1, = 0, = 0, at y = _____________(+) Use 3 bcs at y = : U y y 2

Using (+) in (o), we have finally only 1 unknown parameter : a = 2 + / 6, b = - / 2, c = -2 + / 2, d = 1 - / 6
Polhausen profiles a family of profiles as a function of a single parameter (shape function factor)

Some properties of Polhausen profiles:

u u U 2u u +v =U + 2 y at y = 0, u = v = 0: x y 1 x 2 3 0 0 1 240 4 y= 3 1 dp
dx
2 bU

1 dU 2 dU 2 , = b= and = so 2 dx dx

dU dx

dU , dx
; dU dx =

u 3 * = 1 dy = U 10 120 0

U 2+ 6

o =

u y

=
y=0

separation incipient at = -12

for

dU = 0 , Pohlhausen ( = 0) differs from Blasius by only a few percent. dx dU 0 , we find = (x) by substitution of for general dx o(), *(), () into Von Karmans momentum eqt.:

d 1 dU dx 2 h ( ) = g ( ) + du dx U dx dx
where g, h are known rational polynomial functions of ODE to solve for = (x) given U,
dU d 2 U , from potential theory dx dx 2

d2U

In general, we may try other approximations (o), use enough bcs at y = to reduce to a single unknown, then substitute into Von Karmans eqt. and solve.

Lecture 18

4.9 Turbulent Flow Reynolds Stress

Assume a ow v with a time scale T . Let denote a time scale << T . We can then write for each component of the velocity ui = u i + ui where by denition ui = It immediately follows that ui ui = ui ui = ui ui = 0, also ui =
etc.
x
x
Substitute Eq. (1) into continuity and average over , i.e., take ( )
ui ui ui =
+ = 0, xi xi xi
0 0

(1)

ui dt

ui =0 xi

but

ui = 0 =
xi
0

ui xi

, just shown

u +
i , xi

ui =0 xi

Substitute Eq. (1) into the momentum equations and take ( ) ui ui 1 ij 1 p + uj = = + 2 ui xi t xj xj 2

2 ui = ui
p xi

ui ui u =
+
i ; similarly t t t

( + p xi

p)=

p xi

etc.

uj

ui
ui ui u = u
+ uj j (i + ui ) = uj u + uj + uj i +uj u xj xj xj xj xj xj i
0 0

but from continuity we have uj

u
= u
u ui i xj xj j i uj xj
0by continuity

and thus we nally obtain

ui 1 p ui + uj = + 2 ui uu t
xj xi xj i j
1 xj ij

Reynolds averaged N-S equation:

ui ui 1 + uj = ij ui uj t xj xj

Reynolds stress:
Rij ui uj

4.10 Turbulent Boundary Layer Over a Smooth Flat Plate

We have already seen that the function of the friction coecient Cf (ReL ) diers for laminar and turbulent ows. In this paragraph we will discuss the case of a turbulent boundary layer. Following a procedure similar to that for ow past a body of general geometry, we will use an approximate velocity prole, obtain the P-Flow solution and eventually substitute everything into von Karmans momentum integral equation. The velocity proles used in practice are either empirical ((1/7)th power) or semi-empirical (logarithmic) laws.

log

u Uo

U
o

1/7

Uo

log

4.10.1 (1/7)th Power Velocity Prole Law Let the velocity prole be determined by the following empirical law y u = Uo where = (x) is to be determined. From equation (2) we can obtain directly and = 8 7 = = 0.0972 72
1/7

(2)

However, we need to use an additional empirical law to determine the skin friction. From Blasius law of friction for pipes we obtain an expression for o o = 0.0227 2 Uo 3 Uo
1/4

From P-Flow for ow past a at plate we have U (x) = U0 = const, and dp/dx = 0 Substituting , , o , Uo into von Karmans moment equation o d = () = 0.0227 2 dx Uo Uo
1/4

7 d 72 dx

This is a 1s t order ODE for . One BC is required. We assume that the the ow is tripped at x = 0, i.e., at x = 0 the ow is already turbulent. Further on, we assume that the turbulent boundary layer starts at x = 0, i.e., (0) = 0. It follows that (x) 0.373x = Compare: Laminar Boundary Layer Turbulent Boundary Layer (1/7th power law) (x) x4/5 (x) x 1/5 4 x 1.72 Uo 0.047 xo = = U Once the prole has been determined we can evaluate the friction drag
2 1/5 D = 0.036 Uo BL ReL

Uo x

1/5

1/5 = 0.373Rex x

Thus, the friction coecient for turbulent (tripped and/or ReL > 5 105 ) ow over a at plate is D 1/5 = 0.073ReL Cf = 1 U 2 BL 2 o 4.10.2 Logarithmic Velocity Prole Law If the velocity prole is determined by the semi-empirical logarithmic velocity pro le law, following an approach similar to that for the 1/7th power law, we obtain Schoenherrs formula for the friction coecient 0.242 = log10 (ReL Cf ) Cf 4

1/2 = 1.72xRex

2 1/5 o = 0.02297Uo Rex 2 1/5 D = 0.03625U0 (BL)ReL

Cf

D
2 Uo (BL)

1/2 = 1.328ReL

Cf

D
2 Uo (BL)

1/5 = 0.0725ReL

For o , the cross-over is at Rex 3.4 x 103 , i.e., (o )laminar > (o )turbulent for Rex < 3.4 103 (o )laminar (o )turbulent for Rex 3.4 103 (o )laminar < (o )turbulent for Rex > 3.4 103
Cf

C f L ~ RL

C fT ~ RL

Therefore, for most prototype scales: (Cf )turbulent > (Cf )laminar (o )turbulent > (o )laminar

~ 0.01 ln (RL) RL ~ 1.6 x 104

13.021 - Marine Hydrodynamics Lecture 19 Turbulent Boundary Layers: Roughness Effects So far, a smooth surface has been assumed. In practice, it is rarely so due to fouling, rust, rivets, etc.

Viscous sublayer Uo v k = characteristic roughness height

Equivalent sand roughness k Estimate k for actual surfaces e.g., ship hull For k < viscous sublayer thickness v, k does not affect the turbulent boundary layer significantly: C f C fsmooth ( Rl ) C f = C f ( Rl ), not k

( l)

Surface is hydraulically smooth for k < v For k >> v, :

separation

k v

Drag due to separation = form drag >> viscous drag C f = C frough > C fsmooth C frough = C f k

( l ) , not ( R )
l

Cf

C f rough

Rl

C f smooth

C D f (R )

In summary: Important parameter is k / :

k << 1 : hydraulically smooth ( x ) k >> 1 : rough ( x )

Therefore, for the same k, the smaller the , the more important the roughness k. Corollaries 1) Exactly scaled models (e.g. hydraulic models of rivers, harbors, etc) Same
k ~ const. for model and prototype l k k l k 15 ~ Rl = l l k for Rl

For Rmodel << Rprototype:

k k < m p

(C ) < (C )
f m f

Often, the model is hydraulically smooth while the prototype is rough In practice, roughness must be added to model elements. 2) Roughness Allowance e.g. for the same ship ( Rl same), different k gives different Rk =
Cf

Uk

Uk = Rk = constant
Cf remains~ constant with Rl

Rl

C f smooth

For a given Rk, Cf is increased by almost a constant amount from C f smooth over a wide range of Rl.

If we dont actually add roughness to model, how do we account for roughness?

C f = C f ( Rk ) , depends weakly on Rl

not ( Rl )

For ships, typically Cf = 0.0004 (gross estimate)

In reality:
Cf Spacing Cf with Rl

Rk = constant

Rl

C f smooth

k R R = k 4k ( l )Rl R l 5

( l ~ R )
15
l

k as Rl

Hughes Method:

C frough = C fsmooth (1 + ) i.e., C f = C fsmooth ( Rl ) As Rl , C f

Chapter 5 Model Testing 5.1 Steady Flow past a body In general: CD = CD (R) For a bluff body: Form drag >> Friction drag, therefore CD constant CP (within a regime) For a streamlined body: CD (R) = Cf (R) + CP Form drag (CP) not a function of Reynolds number within a regime. 1- Perform an experiment with a smooth model at Rm (Rm << Rship) and obtain CDm (drag of the model) 2- Calculate CPm = CDm Cfm (Rm) = CP ship = CP ; CDm measured, Cfm (Rm) assumed calculated. 3- Calculate CD ship = CP + Cf ship (Rship) 4- Add Cf for roughness if needed.
CP measured CD predicted Cf (Rm) calculated

friction U

Cf (Rship) R

Caution: In an experiment, the boundary layer must be in the same regime (i.e. turbulent) as the prototype.

Cf (Rship) calculated

Rm

Rship

Therefore add a turbulence stimulator:

TBL LBL CP turbulent regime U MODEL TBL

Laminar Cf

Turbulent Cf

Turbulent boundary layer to be triggered here

Drag on a ship hull: for a body near a free surface, Froude number F is important due to wave effects.

gL3 R Therefore CD = CD(R, F) and in general = F Cannot easily scale both R and F for similitude; e.g., R L 1 = constant and m = F L p 10 m g = 0.032 or m = 1000 ! p gp

Froudes Hypothesis:
calculate

CD ( R, F ) C f ( R ) + CR ( F )
flat plate friction for wetted area residual drag

measure indirectly

Assumption: Residual drag does not depend on Reynolds number.

OUTLINE OF PROCEDURE FOR FROUDE MODEL TESTING (S="SHIP" M="MODEL") 1. Given U S , calculate FS = U S / gLS 2. Tow model at U M = FS gLM 3. Measure total resistance (drag) DM of model
2 4. Calculate C DM = DM /(0.5 M U M S M )

( S M = wetted area of model; in general M P )

5. Calculate C RM = C DM C f ( RM ) 6. Froude's Hypothesis: C RM ( RM , F ) = C RM ( F ) = C RS ( F ) = C R ( F ) 7. C DS = C R ( F ) + C f ( RS ) + C f 8. Use ITTC line for C f ( RS ) , C f ( RM ) : (typically C f 0.0004) C f ( R) = 0.075(log10 R 2) 2 (in general M P )
2 9. DS = C DS (0.5 S U S S S )

10. Power:

PS = DS U S

Lecture 20

Chapter 6 - Water Waves

6.1 Exact (Nonlinear) Governing Equations for Surface Gravity Waves, Assuming Potential Flow
Free surface definition y = ( x, z , t ) or F ( x, y, z , t ) = 0

y
x
z
B(x, y, z,t) = 0

Unknown variables
Velocity eld:
v (x, y, z, t) = (x, y, z, t) Position of free surface:
y = (x, z, t) or F (x, y, z, t) = 0 Pressure eld:
Governing equations Continuity:
Bernoulli for P-Flow:
2 = 0 y < or F < 0
t

p (x, y, z, t)

+ 1 ||2 + 2

ppa

+ gy = 0; y < or F < 0 pa
atmospheric

/t, 0 and p =

gy
hydrostatic

Boundary Conditions 1. On an impervious boundary B (x, y, z, t) = 0, we have KBC: v n = n = = U (x, t) n (x, t) = Un on B = 0 n

Alternatively: a particle P on B remains on B, i.e., B is a material surface. For example if P is on B at t = t0 , P stays on B for all t. B(xP , t0 ) = 0, then B(xP (t), t) = 0 for all t, so that, following P B is always 0. DB B = + ( ) B = 0 on B = 0 Dt t

For example, for a at bottom at y = h B = y + h = 0 DB = Dt y (y + h) y

=1

=0

= 0 on B = y + h = 0 y

2. On the free surface, y = or F = y (x, z, t) = 0 we have KBC and DBC. KBC: free surface is a material surface, no normal velocity relative to the free surface. A particle on the free surface remains on the free surface for all times. DF D =0= (y ) = Dt Dt y
vertical velocity

z z t x x
slope of f.s. slope of f.s.

on y =

still unknown

non-linear term

+ g

still unknown

= pa on y =

6.2 Linearized (Airy) Wave Theory

Assume small wave amplitude compared to wavelength, i.e., small free surface slope A << 1

H = A/2

crest
Wave amplitude A

Water depth h

trough

wavelength

Wave period T

<< 1

For example: ()|y= = ()y=0 +

keep

6.2.1 BVP In this paragraph we state the Boundary Value Problem for linear (Airy) waves.
2 =0 +g y t 2

y=0

2 = 0

y = -h
=0 y

t

Innite depth 2 = 0, y < 0

2 = 0, h < y < 0
y

= 0, y = h

0, y 2 y = t , y = 0 2 + g = 0 y t + g = 0, y = 0

Introducing the notation {} for innite depth we can rewrite the BVP: Constant nite depth h 2 = 0, h < y < 0 = 0, y = h y 2 +g = 0, y = 0 y t2 Given calculate: (x, t) = p pa = 1 g t (x, t) =
y=0

(1) (2) (3)

1 g t

(4)
y=0

gy t
hydrostatic

p pa =

gy t
hydrostatic

(5)

dynamic

dynamic

6.2.2 Solution Solution of 2D periodic plane progressive waves, applying separation of variables. We seek solutions to Equation (1) of the form eit with respect to time. Using the KBC (2), after some algebra we nd . Upon substitution in Equation (4) we can also obtain . gA cosh k (y + h) = sin (kx t) cosh kh = A cos (kx t)
using (4)

gA = sin (kx t) eky = A cos (kx t)

using(4)

where A is the wave amplitude A = H/2. Exercise Verify that the obtained values for and satisfy Equations (1), (2), and (4). 6.2.3 Review on plane progressive waves (a) At t = 0 (say), = A cos kx periodic in x with wavelength: = 2/k Units of : [L]

k x K = wavenumber = 2 /

[L-1]

(b) At x = 0 (say), = A cos t periodic in t with period: T = 2/ Units of T : [T ]

T

t
(c) = A cos k x t k

= frequency = 2 /T

Units of

: k

L T

Following a point with velocity , i.e., xp = t + const, the phase of does k k not change, i.e., = Vp phase velocity. k T 5

6.2.4 Dispersion Relation So far, any , k combination is allowed. However, recall that we still have not made use of the FSBC Equation (3). Upon substitution of in Equation (3) we nd that the following relation between h, k, and must hold: 2 +g =0 t2 y 2 cosh kh + gk sinh kh = 0 2 = gk tanh kh

= gA sin(kxt)f (z)

This is the Dispersion Relation 2 = gk tanh kh 2 = gk (6)

Given h, the Dispersion Relation (6) provides a unique relation between and k, i.e., = (k; h) or k = k(; h). Proof

C kh

C
tanh kh

2h g

from (6)

C kh

kh kh =f(c)

Comments - General As then k , or equivalently as T then . g - Phase speed Vp = = tanh kh Vp = T k k g k

Therefore as T or as , then Vp , i.e., longer waves are faster in terms of phase speed. - Water depth eect For waves the same k (or ), at dierent water depths, as h then Vp , i.e., for xed k Vp is fastest in deep water. - Frequency dispersion Observe that Vp = Vp (k) or Vp (). This means that waves of dierent frequencies, have dierent phase speeds, i.e., frequency dispersion. 6

6.2.5 Solutions to the Dispersion Relation : 2 = gk tanh kh Property of tanh kh:

long waves shallow water

tanh kh =

h < /20 h> 2

short waves deep water

Shallow water waves or long waves kh << 1 h < /20 2 gk kh = gh k = = gh T

Intermediate depth or wavelength Need to solve 2 = gk tanh kh given , h for k (given k, h for - easy!)

Deep water waves or short waves kh >> 1 h > /2

(a) Use tables or graphs (e.g.JNN g.6.3) 2 = gk g 2 2 = gk tanh kh = gk = T 2 k Vp (in ft.) 5.12T 2 (in sec.) = tanh kh = = k Vp (b) Use numerical approximation
(hand calculator, about 4 decimals )

i. Calculate C = 2 h/g ii. If C > 2: deeper kh C(1 + 2e2C 12e4C + . . .) If C < 2: shallower kh C(1 + 0.169C + 0.031C 2 + . . .) No frequency dispersion Vp = gh Frequency dispersion g tanh kh Vp = k Frequency dispersion g Vp = 2

6.3 Characteristics of a Linear Plane Progressive Wave

2 k= 2 = T
H = 2A
Dene U A Linear Solution: = A cos (kx t) ; 6.3.1 Velocity eld =

Vp A
MWL

(x,t) = y

Ag cosh k (y + h) sin (kx t) , where 2 = gk tanh kh cosh kh

Velocity on free surface v(x, y = 0, t) u(x, 0, t) Uo = A 1 cos (kx t) tanh kh v(x, 0, t) Vo = A sin (kx t) = t

Velocity eld v(x, y, t) u= Agk cosh k (y + h) cos (kx t) = cosh kh x cosh k (y + h) cos (kx t) = A sinh kh
U

v=

U

u = Uo

deep water shallow water

v = Vo

ky sinh k (y + h) e sinh kh 1+
y h

deep water shallow water

u is in phase with 8

Shallow water

Velocity eld v(x, y) Intermediate water

Deep water

6.3.2 Pressure eld Total pressure p = pd gy. Dynamic pressure pd = . t Dynamic pressure on free surface pd (x, y = 0, t) pdo Pressure eld Shallow water pd = g Intermediate water pd = gA cosh k (y + h) cos (kx t) cosh kh cosh k (y + h) = g cosh kh pd u same picture as Uo p do pd (h) 1 = cosh kh pdo Deep water pd = geky

pd (h) = 1 (no decay) p do p= g( y)

hydrostatic approximation

V p = gh
y

V p = g
y
x

y
x

kh << 1

kh >> 1

pd

p ( h)

pd o

p ( h)

pd o

p ( h)

pd o

p ( h)

Pressure eld in deep water

10

6.3.3 Particle Orbits (Lagrangian concept) Let xp (t), yp (t) denote the position of particle P at time t. Let (; y ) denote the mean position of particle P. x The position P can be rewritten as xp (t) = x + x (t), yp (t) = y + y (t), where (x (t), y (t)) denotes the departure of P from the mean position.
In the same manner let v v( y, t) denote the velocity at the mean position and x,
vp v(xp , yp , t) denote the velocity at P.
P (x , y ) P P

(x' , y ' )

vp = v( + x , y + y , t) = x
TSE

(x, y)

vp = v ( y, t) + x, vp v =

v v ( y, t) x + x, (, y, t) y + . . . x x y
ignore - linear theory

To estimate the position of P, we need to evaluate (x (t), y (t)): cosh k ( + h) y x = dt u ( y, t) = dt A x, cos (kx t) sinh kh cosh k ( + h) y = A sin (kx t) sinh kh sinh k ( + h) y dt v ( y, t) = dt A x, sin (kx t) y = sinh kh y sinh k ( + h) = A cos (kx t) sinh kh Check: On y = 0, y = A cos (kx t) = , i.e., the vertical motion of a free surface particle (in linear theory) coincides with the vertical free surface motion. It can be shown that the particle motion satises x2 y2 (xp x)2 (yp y )2 + 2 =1 + =1 2 2 2 b b a a cosh k ( + h) y sinh k ( + h) y where a = A and b = A , i.e., the particle orbits form sinh kh sinh kh closed ellipses with horizontal and vertical axes a and b. 11

crest
Vp
ky

A
A

(a) deep water kh >> 1: a = b = Ae ky circular orbits with radii Ae decreasing exponentially with depth

trough Ae
ky

A
(b) shallow water kh << 1: a= y A = const. ; b = A(1+ ) kh h
decreases linearly
with depth

Vp =

gh

A/kh

Vp

Vp
Q

A
Q S S R

f (y)

e.g.pd

= f1 (y)

eky

e.g.u, a

= f2 (y)

eky

1 kh

e.g. v, b

= f3 (y)

eky

1+

y h

13

= C (x)

u A

= C (x) f2 (y)

v A

= S (x) f3 (y)

pd gA

= C (x) f1 (y)

y A

= C (x) f3 (y)

x A

= S (x) f2 (y)

a A

= f2 (y)

b A

= f3 (y)

b a

14

Lecture 21

6.4 Superposition of Linear Plane Progressive Waves

1. Oblique Plane Waves
v k

kz z Vp x kx
v k = (k x , k z )

Consider wave propagation at an angle to the x-axis

kx

=A cos(kx cos + kz sin t) = A cos (kx x + kz z t) gA cosh k (y + h) = sin (kx cos + kz sin t) cosh kh 2 2 2 =gk tanh kh; kx = k cos , kz = k sin , k = kx + kz

2. Standing Waves

+ Same A, k, , no phase shift

y

=A cos (kx t) + A cos (kx t) = 2A cos kx cos t 2gA cosh k (y + h) = cos kx sin t cosh kh
90o at all times

y
2A amplitude

t = 0, T, 2T,

x node

t=

T 3T , ,L 2 2

antinode

t=

T 3T 5T , , L
4 4 4

n n = sin kx = 0 at x = 0, = x x k 2
= 0. To obtain a standing wave, it is necessary to have perfect
x

x=0 reection at the wall at x = 0. AR Dene the reection coecient as R ( 1). AI Therefore,

A I = AR AR R= =1 AI

I =A cos (kx cos + kz sin t) R =A cos (kx cos ( ) + kz sin ( ) t)

z
R

R = I

Note: same A, R = 1.
kx x kz zt

T = I + R = 2A cos (kx cos ) cos (kz sin t)

standing wave in x propagating wave in z

and x = Check: sin (kx cos ) = 0 on x = 0 x x 2 ; k cos VPx = 0; z = 2 ; k sin VPz = k sin

4. Partial Reection

I R

I =AI cos (kx t) = AI Re ei(kxt) R =AR cos (kx + t + ) = AI Re R ei(kx+t) R: Complex reection coecient R = |R| ei , |R| = AR AI T =I + R = AI Re ei(kxt) 1 + Re2ikx

|T |2 =A2 1 + |R|2 + 2 |R| cos (2kx + ) I

free surface wave envelope
2
1+ | R |2

| T | AI

node
antinode

At node, |T | = |T |min = AI (1 |R|) at cos (2kx + ) = 1 or 2kx + = (2n + 1) At antinode, |T | = |T |max = AI (1 + |R|) at cos (2kx + ) = 1 or 2kx + = 2n 2kL = 2 so L = |R | = 2

|T |max |T |min = |R (k)| |T |max + |T |min 4

5. Wave Group 2 waves, same amplitude A and direction, but and k very close to each other.

VP1

1 = 2 =
VP2

Aei(k1 x1 t) Aei(k2 x2 t)

1,2 =1,2 (k1,2 ) and VP1 VP2

T = 1 + 2 =

Aei(k1 x1 t) 1 + ei(kxt)

with k = k2 k1 and = 2 1

Vg
2A

g =

2 k
VP1 VP2

T=

Tg = 2 = 1 2
k1

In the limit, k, 0, Vg = and since d ,

dk

1 k2 k k

2 = gk tanh kh
1 2kh
Vg = 1+ k 2 sinh 2kh

Vp n

Vg Vp

1 2

Vg Vp

Vg

<n<1
2

Vg Vp
Appear

VP

Disappear

6.5 Wave Energy - Energy Associated with Wave Motion.

For a single plane progressive wave: Energy per unit surface area of wave Potential energy PE
0

Kinetic energy KE KEwave =

h

PE without wave =
h

gydy = 1 gh2 2

dy 1 (u2 + v 2 ) 2
1 gA2 4
KE const in x,t

PE with wave
h

gydy = 1 g ( 2 h2 ) 2 =
1 gA2 2

Deep water = = Finite depth =

PEwave =

1 g 2 2

cos (kx t)

Average energy over one period or one wavelength PEwave = 1 gA2 4 Total wave energy in deep water: E = PE + KE = 1 gA2 cos2 (kx t) + 2 E = 1 gA2 [ 2
1 2 1 2

KEwave = 1 gA2 at any h 4

Average wave energy E (over 1 period or 1 wavelength) for any water depth: +
PE KE

1 2

] = 1 gA2 = Es , 2

Es Specic Energy: total average wave energy per unit surface area. Linear waves: PE = KE = 1 Es 2 (equipartition). Nonlinear waves: KE > PE.
1 x
E Es

Vp x

Vp
PE = Es cos2 (kx t)

PE = 1 E 2

PE

KE KE = 1 E 2

Recall: cos2 x =

1 2

+ 1 cos 2x 2

6.6 Energy Propagation - Group Velocity

S x
E = E s per area

Vp

Consider a xed control volume V to the right of screen S. Conservation of energy: dW dE = = J dt dt rate of work done on S rate of change of energy in V energy ux left to right where

J= h

pu dy with p =
1 gA2 2 E

d + gy dt
2kh sinh 2kh n

and u =

J= -

k
Vp

1 2

1+

= E (nVp ) = EVg

Vg

6.7 Equation of Energy Conservation

x

1
F1 1

2
F2 2

x
E = E (x ), F = F ( x )

h = h(x)

J1 J2 t = Ex J2 = J1 + J
x +

x

1

E J + = 0, but J = Vg E t x
E

+ Vg E = 0 t x
1. E
= 0, Vg E = constant in x for any h(x). t

6.8 Steady Ship Waves, Wave Resistance

D
2A
1 E = 2 gA2

Vp = U

E = 0 ahead of ship

F = Vg E = ( 1 U ) 1 gA2 2 2

L
x=0 C.V.

Ship wave resistance drag Dw Rate of work done = rate of energy increase d EL = EU Dw U + J = dt
deep water

1 Dw = (EU EU 2 ) = 1 E = 1 gA2 Dw A2 2 4 U force / length energy / area Amplitude of generated waves The amplitude A depends on U and the ship geometry. Let
L

eective length.

+ L l

To approximate the wave amplitude A superimpose a bow wave (b ) and a stern wave (s ). b = a cos (kx) and s = a cos (k (x + )) T = b + s 1 A = |T |max = 2a sin 2 k envelope amplitude g Dw = 1 gA2 = ga2 sin2 1 k Dw = ga2 sin2 1 U 2 2 2 4 Wavelength of generated waves To obtain the wave length, observe that the phase speed of the waves must equal U . For deep water, we therefore have Vp = U deep = U water k 10 g U2 = U , or = 2 k g

Summary Steady ship waves in deep water.

U = ship speed g U2 g = U ; so k = 2 and = 2 k U g L =ship length, L 1 g ga2 sin2 Dw =ga2 sin2 1 U 2 ga2 sin2 = = 2 2Fr2L Vp =

1 2Fr2L

Fl =

Dw ga 2

max at:

0.56

U hull 0.56 gl 0.56 gL U hull L

Fl =

1
Small speed U Short waves Significant wave cancellation Dw ~ small

Increasing U

U , where l L gl

11

Lecture 22

6.9 Wave Forces on a Body

UP
U = A A U Re = = UT AT A Kc = = = 2

CF =

F gA

=f

A ,

, Re ,

h , roughness, . . .

Wave Diraction steepness parameter

6.9.1 Types of Forces 1. Viscous forces Form drag, viscous drag = f (Re , Kc , roughness, . . .). Form drag (CD ) Associated primarily with ow separation - normal stresses.

Friction drag (CF ) Associated with skin friction w , i.e., F w dS.

body (wetted surface)

b.l.

2. Inertial forces Froude-Krylov forces, diraction forces, radiation forces. Forces arising from potential ow wave theory, F = p ndS, where p = 1 + gy + ||2 t 2
=0, for linear theory, small amplitude waves

body (wetted surface)

For linear theory, the velocity potential and the pressure p can be decomposed to = I
Incident wave potential (a)

D
Diracted wave potential (b.1)

R
Radiated wave potential (b.2)

p =

I t

D t

R t

+ gy

(a) Incident wave potential Froude-Krylov Force approximation When << , the incident wave eld is not signicantly modied by the presence of the body, therefore ignore D and R . Froude-Krylov approximation: I I p + gy t FF K =
body surface

I can calculate + gy ndS wave kinematics knowing (incident) (and body geometry) t pI

Mathematical approximation After applying the divergence theorem, the FF K can be rewritten as FF K = pI ndS = pI d.
body surface body volume

If the body dimensions are very small comparable to the wave length, we can assume that pI is approximately constant through the body volume and pull the pI out of the integral. Thus, the FF K can be approximated as FF K = pI
at body center body volume

d =
body volume

pI
at body center

The last relation is particularly useful for small bodies of non-trivial geometry for 13.021, that is all bodies that do not have a rectangular cross section. 3

(b) Diraction and Radiation Forces (b.1) Diraction or scattering force When , the wave eld near the body < will be aected even if the body is stationary, so that no-ux B.C. is satised.

( + ) == =

FD =
body surface

D t

ndS

(b.2) Radiation Force - added mass and damping coecient Even in the absence of an incident wave, a body in motion creates waves and hence inertial wave forces.

FR =
body surface

R t

6.9.2 Important parameters

UT A

(1)Kc =

= 2

(2)diraction parameter

Interrelated through maximum wave steepness

A 0.07
A

0.07

If Kc 1: no appreciable ow separation, viscous eect conned to boundary layer (hence small), solve problem via potential theory. In addition, depending on the value of the ratio , If << 1, ignore diraction , wave eects in radiation problem (i.e., dij 0, mij mij innite uid added mass). F-K approximation might be used, calculate FF K . If

>> 1/5, must consider wave diraction, radiation ( A

0.07 /

0.035).

If Kc >> 1: separation important, viscous forces can not be neglected. Further on if 0.07 so << 1 ignore diraction, i.e., the Froude-Krylov approximation is valid. A/ 1 F = 2
2

U (t) |U (t)|CD (Re )

relative velocity

Intermediate Kc - both viscous and inertial eects important, use Morrisons formula. 1 F = 2 U (t)|U (t)|CD (Re ) + 3 U Cm (Re , Kc ) 2

Summary

I
Limiting case: wave breaking occurs

II

III

I. Use: CD and F K approximation. II. Use: CF and F K approximation. III. CD is not important and F K approximation is not valid.