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Online Railway Reservation System

Version 1.0

Department of Computer Science


Symbiosis Institute of Technology

Index
1. Abstract 2. Project Organization 3. Methods and Tools 4. Software Project Estimation using Function Point 5. Risk Management 6. Scope 7. Requirement 8. Data Model 9. Function Model 10. Conclusion 11. Reference

Abstract (Problem Statement)


Information about the route, cancellation of tickets, departure time, arrival time, number of trains available and other such information are provided. Store and retrieve information about the various transactions related to Rail travel. Keep track of all its passengers and thus schedule their journey accordingly. Maintains records of passengers travelling in the different trains on different dates reaching different destinations in the system. User can enquire about the PNR status, seat availability and trains on a route. User friendly interface to administrator and customer.

Spiral Model

Spiral Development Model The spiral model is a software development process combining elements of both design and prototyping-instages, in an effort to combine advantages of topdown and bottom-up concepts. This model of development combines the features of the prototyping model and the waterfall model. The spiral model is intended for large, expensive and complicated projects. A spiral model is divided into a number of framework activities Typically, there are between three and six task regions. Fig depicts a spiral model that contains six task regions:

Customer Communication: Tasks required to establish effective communication between developer and customer. Planning: Tasks required to define resources, timelines, and other project related information. Risk analysis: Tasks required to assess both technical and management risks. Engineering: Tasks required to build one or more representations of the application. Construction and release: Tasks required to construct, test, install, and provide user support (e.g., documentation and training). Customer evaluation: Tasks required to obtain customer feedback based on evaluation of the software representations created during the engineering stage and implemented during the installation stage. The following diagram illustrates the information, document and product flow between the lifecycle process.

Work Breakdown Structure

Identify Activities
Project is divided into major activities. The activities should be neither too small nor too long. 1. Communication: It involves meeting with stake holders, and communicate their requirements, information, and specific needs. In this project the specified needs are: Databases required Categories of trains Information about the working of the system

2. Planning: With reference to the information gathered planning is done to determine how the system will work. It includes: Planning about booking Planning about cancellation Planning about enquiry Planning about the availability status Planning about PNR Generation 3. Data Dictionary, ERD and DFD: Different databases of the system are decided and the entity relationship and data floe diagram is generated. Database of trains Database of PNR No. Database of registered accounts Transaction database 4. Design: Layout of the railway system is made which acts as an interface to the user.

5. Testing and Construction: Testing is done to check the reliability of the code and the project.

6. Deployment: The project is developed at the customers workplace explaining the user about the functionality of the project.

Dependencies
Tasks and subtasks have dependencies based on their sequencing that is, starting one task will depend on the completion of another task.

In the Online Railway Reservation System the dependencies will be

Communication Planning Planning Data Dictionary, ERD, DFD and Design Design Testing and Construction Testing and Construction Deployment and User Feedback

1.Dependency Diagram

Schedule Allocation
Software project scheduling is an activity that distributes estimated effort across the planned project duration by allocating the effort to specific software engineering tasks. Furthermore these activities are made concrete and the schedule along with start date, end date and duration is made. Activity Resource Gathering Cost Estimation Project Scheduling Risk Management Backend Coding Frontend Coding Module Coding Testing Backend Refinement Frontend Refinement Deployment Total Time Allocated 3 days 2 days 3 days 3 days 10 days 7 days 7 days 8 days 4 days 3 days 3 days 31 days

Resource Allocation
This distributes the work and responsibilities among the team members. The Resource Allocation Table is as below:

Sr Phase of SDLC Team Responsibility No. Members Involved Akshat Resource Prepare report of the initial Gathering Aman developer meeting, SRS

document
Analysis Design Anubhav Aman Akshat Project Plan with effort and cost estimation Prepare case diagram with specifications, Data Flow Diagram, Activity Diagram Develop Source Code of the System

Implementation Aman Akshat Anubhav Akshat 5Testing . Anubhav Deployment Akshat Aman

Prepare Testing document Deliver System as an installable package, User manual and guide

Timeline Chart

Activity Chart

Methods and Tools


Development Methodology:
The project shall use the spiral software development methodology to deliver the software products. The decision to use the Spiral methodology is due to the following characteristics of the project: The product definition is stable Requirements and implementation of the product are both very well-understood Technical tools and hardware technology are familiar and well-understood Waterfall methodology has proven successful for projects of this nature

Tools:
MySQL for database creation OLEDB for integration of databases PHP and java script for web pages and interfacing Microsoft Office

Context Diagram

Effort and Cost Estimation: Function Point


Fi Calculation:
Factor Backup and recovery Data communications Distributed processing Performance critical Existing operating environment Value 5 5 3 4 4

On-line data entry Input transaction over multiple screens Master files updated on-line Information domain values complex Internal processing complex Code designed for reuse Conversion/installation in design Multiple installations Application designed for change Total

5 4 4 5 5 4 4 5 5 62

Count Total
Domain No. of user inputs No. of user outputs No. of user inquiries No. of files No. of external interfaces Total FP=Count Total (0.65+0.01*62) FP=144*(1.27) FP=182.88 FP~=183 Count 8 2 2 4 1 Complex 6 7 6 15 10 Total 48 14 12 60 10 144

Cost per FP=$500 Total Cost=Cost/FP*FP Total Cost=$500*183 Total Cost=$91500 Productivity=5 FP/PM Effort=FP/Productivity Effort=183/5 PM Effort=36.6 PM Effort=~37 PM

The total cost is $91,500 and effort is 37 PM.

Risk Management
Risk Project Risks
Description Identifies potential budgetary, schedule, personnel (staffing and organization), resource, customer, and requirements problems and their impact on a software project. It threatens the project plan. That is, if project risks become real, it is likely that project schedule will slip and that costs will increase. Identifies potential design, implementation, interface, verification, and maintenance problems. Technical risks threaten the quality and timeliness of the software to be produced. If a technical risk becomes a reality, implementation may become difficult or impossible. Building a excellent product or system that no one really wants Losing budgetary or personnel commitment Those that can be uncovered after careful evaluation of the project plan. Extrapolated from past project experience They can and do occur, but they are extremely difficult to identify in advance. The degree of uncertainty that the resultant software will be easy to correct, adapt, and enhance. The degree of uncertainty that the project schedule will be maintained and that the product will be delivered on time.

Technical Risks

Market Risks Budget Risks Known Risks Predictable Risks Unpredictable Risks Support Risks Schedule Risks

System Requirement Specification


Scope The idea of efficient reservation is expected to prove very useful in the daily life of passengers as compared to the conventional system. If it turns out as expected, then it would create a huge impact on the turnaround of passengers toward the railways, increasing their level of trust.

Specific Hardware Requirements


Intel Dedicated Server Family High Speed Storage Dedicated lines for connectivity Network Storage Printer Monitor and other general peripherals

Data Model and Description

Entity Relationship Diagram

Functional Model and Description

User Level 1

Admin Level 1

User Level 2

Admin Level 2

Conclusion
The proposed system is error free, stable and capable of Handling load at the server even in the peak hours without losing stability or giving a down time. The software provides security to the user, administrator and the server. As for the user, the task of booking, cancelling a ticket or making an enquiry is made much easier and hassle free.

Reference

The material has been taken from the following places: www.wikipedia.org www.Scribd.com www.Handouts.org www.google.com