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Stats 1510 Research Project!

Stats 1510 Research Project: On the Relationship Between the Diameter and Circumference of Circular Objects Ashlan Napier Taft College

Stats 1510 Research Project!

The circumference, the enclosing boundary of a curved geometric gure, has

often been dened as the diameter of a curved gure multiplied by pi, a number approximating to about 3.14. Many students have accepted this formula as law without bothering to check the facts themselves, however, in the following experiment, I will seek to prove that the circumference can accurately be calculated by multiplying the diameter by pi. ! In this experiment, objects were measured using a piece of string and a number

of rulers. The string was placed along the center of the face of the circular object like so:

(Please not that tape was not used in the measurement process, but for photographing purposes only.) The string was then marked with a pencil where it met the edges of the

Stats 1510 Research Project!

face of the circular object. The space between these marks was measured with a ruler to record the diameter of the object as pictured below.

The same general process was used to measure the circumference of the circular object. The only difference being that the string was wrapped around the body of the object like so:

Stats 1510 Research Project!

Again, the tape was only used for photographing purposes. After the string was marked on the places it overlapped, the space between the two marks was measured as before. This technique was used by an online college statistics class to measure the circumference and diameter of 392 objects. Once the data was collected by the students, it was submitted to the moodle website where the professor compiled the information onto a spreadsheet. The data associated with 25 objects was randomly selected using a TI84 calculators randInt application (randInt->0,392, 25), and recorded in the following table. Also recorded was the Pi (circumference/diameter) of each object. Table 1 Experimental Data

Stats 1510 Research Project!

Item # 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23

Object Cup Mason Jar Lid Green Ball Quarter Clock Face Baseball Campbells Soup Vase Blue Bowl CD Toilet Paper Roll Yo-Yo Drum Tuna Can Trash Can Poker Chip AA Battery Corn Tortilla Ping Pong Ball Canned Peas PX Bottle Wall Clock Ranch Beans

Circumferenc e 262 8.75 6.2 3.375 73 30 8.5 19.25 11.5 18 27.946 8 37.75 10.625 27.5 122.5 43.8 45.7 5 9.25 4.25 31.5 283

Diameter 82.5 2.5 1.6 0.938 23.1 6 2.625 6 5.75 4.75 2.55 2.8 12.125 3.375 8.75 39 14 14 2 3 1.25 9 88.9

Pi 3.1758 3.5 3.875 3.5981 3.1602 5 3.2381 3.2083 2 3.7895 10.959 2.8571 3.1134 3.1481 3.1429 3.141 3.1286 3.2643 2.5 3.0833 3.4 3.5 3.1834

Stats 1510 Research Project!

Item # 24 25

Object Mirror Stove Knob

Circumferenc e 44.4 2.5

Diameter 36.25 1

Pi 1.2248 2.5

This data can be assumed to be representative of the population (the other objects measured by the students), because it was obtained through the randomizing features of the TI-84 calculator, which possesses no capacity for bias or human error. Using 1VarStats on the columns consisting of the measurements for Circumference, Diameter, and Pi, the following data was calculated.

Table 2 Statistics Related to the Circumference, Diameter, and Pi Calculation. Mean Median Standar d Deviatio n 73.2751 23.6046 1.6995 Q1 Q3 Min. Max.

Circumf erence

47.184

19.25 5.75 3.1758

8.25 2.525 3.0984

44.1 14 3.5

2.5 0.938 1.2248

283 88.9 10.9592

Diamete 14.9505 r Pi 3.4676

Although the statistics pertaining to both the circumference and the diameter of the data uctuates drastically, those related to Pi (circumference/diameter) stay relatively constant. The mean and median of the Pi data are within tenths of each other, suggesting that the data is normal. The standard deviation from the mean is also quite small, suggesting that the relationship between the circumference and the diameter of

Stats 1510 Research Project!

each object holds fairly constant as well. All of these qualities can be illustrated by the box and whisker plot found below. Figure 1. Pi Statistics Box and Whisker Plot

Upon examination of these statistics, it is reasonable to conclude that there is a denite relationship between the circumference of a curved geometrical gure and its diameter. This relationship can be found in the form of pi, a number approximating to about 3.14, however, the data shown above has a slightly higher median value of 3.18, which could easily be the result of human error in the measurement process. For example, the students might have improperly recorded the results of either their circumference or diameter measurement, or even measured incorrectly.

Stats 1510 Research Project!

Index Table 4. Data Collected by Professor Jean


Number 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 Object Measured Circumference Diameter Describe the Measurement Process Quarter 3.375 0.938 Nickel 3.125 0.875 Dime 2.5 6.88 Golf Ball 5.375 1.625 Progresso Soup 11.25 3.375 Pepsi 12 oz can 8.875 3.625 Can of almonds 10.75 3.25 WD 40 8 oz can 8.5 2.625 Water bottle 11.25 3.5 Campbells soup 8.5 2.625 Quarter coin 7.5 2.4 Nickel coin 6.6 2.1 Dime coin 5.5 1.7 Tennis ball 19.6 6.5 Garbanzo beans 23.2 7.3 Coca-Cola can 20.6 6.5 Disposable plate 80.1 25.5 Corn tortilla 45.7 14 CD 27 11.7 Disposable cup 30.7 9.8 Rice cooker 55.9 27.7 Trumpet's bell 39 12.2 Stand-alone fan 183.3 44.8 clock face 73 23.1 Clock 73 23.1 Quarter 3 1 Nickel 2.625 0.875 Dime 2.125 0.75 Ping Pong Ball 5 2 Refried beans 9 3 Dr. Pepper can 8.5 2.75 CD 16 5.5 Hairspray can 6.25 2 Beer cap (twist-off) 3.75 1 Sice C battery 3.25 1

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36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79

Vase Blue Bowl Quarter Nickel Dime Canned peas BaseBall Soda can wallet Money jar TC mug Mug Candle water bottle shaving cream quarter nickel dime baseball Quarter Del Monte peaches Nickel Dime Tennis Ball soda can Carnation Milk Can Coke Can penny cd Nescafe Jar Small saucepan Quarter Nickel Dime Baby Ball Gravy Can Soda Can Bottle of Wine Vitamin Bottle Candle Face cream jar Hair spray bottle Salt shaker Quarter

19 1/4 11.5 2 1.875 1.5 9.25 30 8.5 48.5 34 10.5 11.7 13.9 9.15 6.7 2.9 2.65 2.25 8.9 3.2 9.35 2.6 2.1 19.8 6.6 9.3 8.3 2.4 15 10.3 15.1 3.1 2.8 2.1 8 8.6 8.3 10.5 7.6 4 7.3 7.2 5.8 8

6 5.75 0.75 0.75 0.5 3 6 4.25 28.5 2.5 8 3.5 5.4 2.75 2.05 0.95 0.8 0.7 2.65 0.9 2.85 0.8 0.7 6.5 2.05 2.9 2 0.7 4.7 3.3 5.2 0.9 0.8 0.75 3.4 2.8 2.9 3.3 2.3 3.3 2.4 2.3 1.7 2.4

Stats 1510 Research Project!

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80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 123

Nickel 7.1 Dime 5.9 Baseball 22.5 Can of Sliced Peaches 23.6 Sliced Peaches can 23.6 Soda Can 20.8 0.15 oz Lip Balm 5.2 Nail Polish Bottle 8.3 Makeup Container 16.9 Compact-Makeup Container 22.9 Quarter 3.25 Nickel 2.5 Dime 2.25 Tennis Ball 8.5 15 oz Can of Chili 9.5 Soda Can 8 Chapstick 2 Hair Spray 6 Candle 9.25 Water Bottle 7.5 Spool of Thread 5 Bottle of Hot Sauce 5.25 Quarter 2.5 Nickel 2 Dime 1.5 Golf Ball 2.5 Kidney Beans 20.42 Soda Can 15.7 Nature's Made Vitamins 17.28 Grand's Biscuit container 22.31 Paper Towel Roll 13.19 Spray bottle 15.7 Powder supplement 36.86 Sour cream 29.85 paper plate 50.27 Quarter 3 Nickel 2.5 Dime 2.25 Basketball 29.33 Can of Soup 10.5 Can of Diet Coke 8.25 Can of hairspray 6.5 candle 9.5 Chap Stick 2.25

2.1 1.7 6.4 7.4 7.4 6.1 1.5 2.5 5.1 7.2 0.9375 0.875 0.6875 2.5 2.9375 2.5 1.625 1.875 2.875 2.375 1.5 1.75 7.85 6.28 4.71 7.85 6.5 5 5.5 7.1 4.2 5 11.7 9.5 16 1.2 0.75 0.9 9.34 3.25 2 2 3 0.5

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124 125 126 127 128 129 130 131 132 133 134 135 136 137 138 139 140 141 142 143 144 145 146 147 148 149 150 151 152 153 154 155 156 157 158 159 160 161 162 163 164 165 166 167

# 2 Pencil 1 Quarter 2.999 Nickel 2.622 Dime 2.214 Stress Ball 11.775 Banana Creme Pie Filling Can 10.598 Soda Can 7.85 Candle 4.71 Sobe LIfe water bottle 4.318 Fan 29.438 Vase 4.318 Quarter 3 Nickel 2.75 Dime 2 Tennis Ball 8 Tuna Can 10.25 Soda Can 8.5 Vehicle Steering Wheel 27 Class cup 9 Axe Spray Can 6.5 Quarter 2.9 Nickel 2.6 Dime 2.2 Ball (softball) 37.7 Canned food (green beans) 9 soda can (Pepsi) 6.7 coaster 11.8 candle 11.8 Pill bottle 4.7 Ring 2.6 Quarter 3.1 Nickel 2.6 Dime 2.2 Baseball 9 Rosarita's Canned Beans 9.25 Regular RiteAid Chapstick 2 8 oz. plastic, non-tapered cup 7.25 Drink coaster 12.75 CD 15 Soda Can 8.25 Quarter 78 Nickel 60 Dime 56 Basketball 1730

0.25 0.955 0.835 0.705 3.75 3.375 2.5 1.5 1.375 9.375 1.375 1 0.75 0.68 2.5 3.25 3 14.5 2.5 2 0.9 0.8 0.7 12 2.9 2.1 3.8 3.8 1.5 0.9 1 0.8 0.7 2.9 3 0.59375 2.5 4 4.75 2.8 24.8 19.1 17.83 550.68

Stats 1510 Research Project!

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168 169 170 171 172 173 174 175 176 177 178 179 180 181 182 183 184 185 186 187 188 189 190 191 192 193 194 195 196 197 198 199 200 201 202 203 204 205 206 207 208 209 210 211

Ranch Beans 283 Soda can 361 Tall Lamp 182 40 Oz Cup 780 Water bottle 375 Vault Handle 103 Trophy Top 738 Quarter 1 Minature Soccer Ball 18 15oz Canned Fruit 9 Soda Can 8 Wall Clock 31.5 Tall plastic cup 9.5 Large Metal Bowl 25 Large Metal Pot 30 quarter 3.25 nickel 2.875 dime 2.25 childs bouncy basketball 9.5 15oz canned product 9.5 soda can 8.5 penny 2.5 pill bottle 6 chapstick tube 2.125 dinner candle Feb 15, 2016 Stove Knob 2.5 Stove Knob 2.5 Stove Knob 2.5 Stove Knob 2.5 Stove Knob 2.5 Canister 10.25 Salt Shaker 7 Candle Stick 3.5 Lamp Shade 22 Vase 4.5 PX Bottle 4.25 Camera Lens 1 Fan 30 Mirror 44.5 Curling Iron 2 Soda Can 8.375 Canned Food 9 Baseball 3.75 dime 0.75

88.9 115 57.93 24.28 119.37 32.79 234.91 3 9 3 2.5 9 3.5 8.25 10 1 1.125 1 3 3 2.75 0.75 1.75 0.825 1 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.5 3.25 2.25 2 6.5 4.5 1.25 1 30 36.25 2.5 2.125 2.75 9 2.5

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212 213 214 215 216 217 218 219 220 221 222 223 224 225 226 227

Nickel Quarter clock plate soda can (pepsi) Roll of Painters tape Candle Orange Fire Extinguisher Trash can Coffee Can Hot sauce bottle Track ball Door knob soda can CD disc

2.88 3.25 120 21.98 8.188 12 13 10 14 29 13 8 7 7.5 9 392

0.76 0.99 16 9 2.62 2.5 3 3 4 10 4 2 2 2 2.5 121

228 Partial roll of duct tape 229 Small bike tire 230 Poker Chip 231 Pocket Watch

295 652 122.5 136

95 208 39 43.5

232 AA Battery

43.8

14

233 Flashlight 234 cup 235 Spool (for thread) 236 roll of toilet paper 237 238 239 240 241 242 243 244 245

178 262 98 394

57 82.5 32 125 4.125 1.5 4.125 4.625 2.5 8.25 9.75 9.25 6.25

Lid for protein shake container 14 Lid to vitamin bottle 5.875 coaster 13.5 DVD 14.625 Candle 8.25 Plate 25.875 Lid to cookie tin 33.75 Lid to cooking pot 29.625 Flower pot 19.875

I set the roll of tape on the table and used the cord to me I set the candle on the table and measured around and a I set the orange on the table and measured the orange a I set the re extinguisher on the table and measured arou I set the trash can on the table and measured around the I set the coffee can on the table and measured around th I set the hot sauce bottle on the table and measured aro I set the track ball on the table and measured around the I wrapped the cord around the door knob to measure aro I set the soda can on the table and used the cord to mea Circumference: Wrap the string/chord all the way around Diameter: Use the ruler to measure straight across the c -record both measurements Circumference: wrap the string in a straight line around t Diameter: use ruler to measure the "width" of the circle, Circumference: Wrap the string in a straight line around t Diameter: Use ruler to measure from the bottom of the ti Circumference: wrap string around the edge of the chip Diameter: use a ruler to measure, in millimeters, the line Use the string to wrap around the watch and mark it with use the ruler to measure across the clock to nd the diam -record data in millimeters Circumference: wrap string around the battery and mark Diameter: use the ruler to measure across the circle at th --record data in millimeters Circumference: wrap the string around the head of the Diameter: use the ruler to measure across the face of the Circumference: wrap the string around the rim of the cup Diameter: use the ruler to measure the center distance a Circumference: wrap the string around the rim of the spo Diameter: use the ruler to measure across center the at Circumference: wrap the string around the roll. Mark the Diameter: use the ruler to measure across the center of a I used a ruler to measure the diameter in inches of the ob I used a ruler to measure the diameter in inches of the ob I used a ruler to measure the diameter in inches of the ob I used a ruler to measure the diameter in inches of the ob I used a ruler to measure the diameter in inches of the ob I used a ruler to measure the diameter in inches of the ob I used a ruler to measure the diameter in inches of the ob I used a ruler to measure the diameter in inches of the ob I used a ruler to measure the diameter in inches of the ob

Stats 1510 Research Project!

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246 247 248 249 250 251 252 253 254 255 256 257 258 259 260 261 262 263 264 265 266 267 268 269 270 271 272 273 274 275 276

Soue Dish 11.25 3.5 Mason Jar lid 8.75 2.5 Empty duct tape roll 10.25 3 Ortiz 3.3 9.1 Pink ball 2.7 10.3 golf ball 5.1 1.5 Volley ball 51.5 7 Green ball 6.2 1.6 White ball 5.8 1.5 Blue/yellow nerf ball 12.6 3.4 Blue ball 23.3 5.7 glass dish 9 5 wedding ring 3.25 0.9375 Top of can of Dry Roasted Peanuts 8.25 2.5 top of maritini glass 12.5 3.94 homemade coffee cup 15.75 5 Mixing bowl 28.88 9.25 bottom of 5 gallon Arrowhead water bottle 34 10.875 lid of an Isagenix snacks! bottle 6.88 2.13 Crock Pot 33.88 10.75 Base of Stand up Fan 39.5 12.5 Marliyn Monroe drink coaster 12.38 3.88 Tall glass 14.758 2.35 pill bottle 8.1875 2.5 Tapatio Bottle 0.9167 3.5625 Soda Can 8.25 2.625 Bottle of Lotion 5.9375 1.875 Little Pot 0.8333 3.5 Marker 2.25 0.5 Lamp 8.375 2.75 White Out Bottle 0.3333 1.1875 Cup 7.1875 2.125 Jar 12.125 3.5625 Small Bottle 8.625 2.625 Medium Bottle 10 3.25 Large Bottle 13.5 3.75 Paper Towel Roll 18.75 5.75 Large Candle 12.5 4 Empty Paper Towel Roll 4.5 1.5 DVD 14.625 4.625 Tiny Pot Medium Pot Large Pot 15.25 25 30

I used a ruler to measure the diameter in inches of the ob I used a ruler to measure the diameter in inches of the ob I used a ruler to measure the diameter in inches of the ob I used a ruler to measure the apple across from side to s I used a ruler to measure across for the diameter, and I I held the ruler in the middle of the ball to get its diamet I rst measured the balls diameter and then its circumfe I measured the green ball using a ruler and a piece of st The rst thing I did was use the ruler to measure the dia The ball was soft, so I had to be careful when I measure I measured rst the circumference then I measured the d I took the end of my string and placed it from the edge o I took a tape measure and put it across the center of the I put the tape measure across the top of the can for the d I put the tape measure across the top of the martini glas I put the tape measure across the top of the coffee cup f I put the tape measure across the top of the mixing bow I put the tape measure across the top of the water bottle I put the tape measure across the top of the bottle for th I put the tape measure across the top of the crock pot fo I put the tape measure across the base of the fan for the I put the tape measure across the top of the coaster for I used a ruler and a piece of string to measure the bottom I grabbed a srting and measured around the bottle then I grabbed a srting and measured around the bottle then I grabbed a srting and measured around the bottle then I grabbed a srting and measured around the bottle then I grabbed a srting and measured around the bottle then I grabbed a srting and measured around the bottle then I grabbed a srting and measured around the bottle then I grabbed a srting and measured around the bottle then I grabbed a srting and measured around the bottle then I grabbed a srting and measured around the bottle then I used a string to measure the circumference, and then u I used a string to measure the circumference and then a I used a string to measure the circumference and then a I used a string to measure the circumference and then a I used a string to measure the circumference and then a I used a string to measure the circumference and then a I used a string to measure the circumference and then a

4.875 I used a string to measure the circumference and then a 7.75 I used a string to measure the circumference and then a 9.375 I used a string to measure the circumference and then a

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coffee bean pot 17.2 Coffee Bean pot 17.2 Soda can base 6 wine bottle base 9.25 beer bottle base 8 clear wipes top 9.25 air freshener base 6.5 shaving cream bottle 6.5 candle jar base 12.8 margarin jar base 13 peanut butter jar base 16.5 Jar of Glitter 9.2 Can of cake frosting 10.7 Kirkland coffee can 19.7 Bottle of Ciroc 9.7 Lid of Vitamin container 7 Lid of pill bottle 4.7 Container of blank CD's 16.2 bottle body spray 7 can dog food 9.5 Lemonade Canister 16.5 round cheese wheel 14.25 lamp base 18.5 1 gallon can of paint 21 1 gallon can of paint 21 1 gallon can of paint 21 spool of thread 10.5 spray can 21 drinking glass 29 barrel of monkeys 22 can of soups lid 8 Can of tomato sauce 11.2 Plastic Tea container 14.5 Magnet Plate 18.06 Hat 23.6 Remote Control Car tire 13.2 Fire detector 18.8 Video Game Disc 14.8 Basketball 30.1 Baseball 8.75 Hockey Puck 9.1 Paintball hopper lid 9.7 Water bottle cap 3.61 Bowl 19.782

5.15 5.15 1.95 2.8 2.1 2.8 2 2 3.8 4.95 4 2.6 3.5 6.1 3 2.4 1.5 5 2 3 5.5 4.25 6 6.5 6.5 6.5 3.1875 7 9 6.8 2.5 3.5 4.5 5.75 7.5 4.2 6 4.7 9.6 2.79 2.9 3.1 1.15 3.15

I used a ruler to measure the diameter and a tape measu I used a ruler to measure the diameter and a tape measu I used a ruler to measure the diameter and a tape measu I used a ruler to measure the diameter and a tape measu I used a ruler to measure the diameter and a tape measu I used a ruler to measure the diameter and a tape measu I used a ruler to measure the diameter and a tape measu I used a ruler to measure the diameter and a tape measu I used a ruler to measure the diameter and a tape measu I used a ruler to measure the diameter and a tape measu I used a ruler to measure the diameter and a tape measu I used a ruler to measure the diameter. Then went around Used a ruler to measure the diameter of the can. Then u I measured the bottom of the can with a ruler to get the d I used a ruler to measure the bottom of the bottle. I then I measured the diameter using a ruler then a piece of str I used a piece of string and went around the outside of t I used string to measure around the container. Then mar wrapped cord around object, measured cord to ruler. me wrapped cord around can. measured cord to ruler. ruler wrapped cord around can. measured cord to ruler. ruler wrapped cord around can. measured cord to ruler. ruler used a measuring tape around base of lamp for circ. me measuring tape around can for circ. measured across fo measuring tape around can for circ. measured across fo measuring tape around can for circ. measured across fo measuring tape around spool for circ. measured across measuring tape around can for circ. measured across fo measuring tape around glass for circ. measured across f measuring tape around barrel for circ. measured across I measured the diameter by using a ruler across the lid. t I used a ruler to measure the diameter of the lid. Then i u I used a piece of string to measue the circumference of t I set the plate down on a at surface and measured it in I place the hat down with a shirt in it to make sure the ha I measured from one thread to the thread on the other si Measured it as it was mounted on the wall. Placed it on a soft surface so I wouldn't damage it, then I found the diameter of the inated ball then I used the e Found the circumference of the baseball then I used the Placed the puck on my table and measured down the m Measured the item through the center Measured down the center I used a ruler and a piece of string to measure the bottom

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Bangle 14.758 Candle 8.164 Bottle cap 5.966 Pin 18.212 Hat Box 38 stool 39 candle lid 9.5 Bushes Baked Beans Can 10.5 medium sized plastic soda lid 13 coat rack 49 Orange 8.4 Toy caterpillar 57.125 fan 63.125 CD 15.1 cantaloupe 22 Tennis Ball 7.6 paper plate 27 Marble 2.7 Rubber Ball 7.5 Quarter 2.8 Livestrong Band 8.3 Penny 2.4 Plastic Cup 8.1 Can 8 Paper Towel Roll 15 Clock 34.5 Drum 37.75 Drum 33 Dresser Drawer Knob 5.2 Dresser Drawer Knob 5.2 Trash Can 27.5 Water Bottle 8.5 Peanut Butter Jar 11.75 Paper Plate 28.5 Coffee Jar (Folger's) 19.5 Cd 29.83 Sunglasses 15.7 Compact powder 16.014 Toilet paper roll 27.946 Candle in Glass Jar 13 Playskool Sit 'N Spin Spinner Portion 23.25 Febreeze Canister 7.5 Bottle of Baby Lotion 6.875 Tea Light Candle 5

2.35 1.3 0.95 2.9 12 12 3 3.25 5 15 2.6 18 21 4.6 10.375 2.4 8.5 0.7 2.4 0.8 2.6 0.6 2.7 2.5 4.75 11 12.125 10.5 1.6 1.6 8.75 2.625 3.75 9 6.25 4.75 2.5 2.55 4.45 4.25 7.25 2.375 2 1.5

I measured the length of the bangle from 1 end to the ot I took an unused candle and measured the bottom of the I Took a bottle cap from a water bottle and measured the I took a pin with my photo and measured it from left to ri I took my measuring tape and placed the end of it on the I took my measuring tape and placed the end of it on the I took my measuring tape and placed the end of it on the I took my measuring tape and placed the end of it on the I took my measuring tape and placed the end of it on the I took my measuring tape and placed the end of it on the Wrapped the the around the orange. Measured where th I took my measuring tape and placed the end of it on the I took my measuring tape and placed the end of it on the Put CD on ruler and measured the diameter. Wrapped th I took my measuring tape and placed the end of it on the Wrapped string around the tennis ball. Measured where I took my measuring tape and placed the end of it on the Wrapped sting around the marble. Marked where the str Wrapped the string around the ball and measured where Wrapped the string around the edge of the quarter and m Wrapped the string around the band and marked where Wrapped the string around the edge of the penny and m Wrapped the string around the top of the cup and measu Wrapped the string around the can and measured the st First, I measured the diameter of the paper towel roll by First, I measured the diameter of the clock by placing the First, I measured the diameter of the drum by placing the First, I measured the diameter of the drum by placing the First, I measured the diameter of the dresser drawer kno First, I measured the diameter of the dresser drawer kno First, I measured the diameter of the trash can by placing First, I measured the diameter of the water bottle by plac First, I measured the diameter of the peanut butter jar by First, I measured the diameter of the paper plate by plac First, I measured the diameter of the coffee jar by placing I found a cd and I took a ruler and I measured it straight I took a pair of aviators and I measured one eye. I measu I measured it with a ruler and a piece of string. Then I rec I got a full paper towel roll and I measured the roll from le To measure this blue candle in a glass jar, I used a meas To measure the spinner portion (the part that the child ho To determine the circumference of the base of the Febre To determine the circumference of the base of the baby To determine the circumference of the tea light candle, I

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Glass Cup 8.75 Half of a Banana 4.625 Peanut Butter Jar Lid 11.625 Wine Bottle Base 9.5 Tuna Can 10.625 Bottom of a drinking glass 7.5 YO-YO Life water bottle lid Bracelet 8 5 9

2.75 1.375 3.625 3 3.375 2.4 2.8 1.5 2.75 3.75 1.25 3 1.75 4 4.75

Ben and Jerry's pint ice cream lid 12 Auto-dri dog ear drops 4

Beeman crow magnum pellets case 8.5 Men's aftershave lid Folders coffee lis CD 6 12.5 18

To determine the circumference of the glass cup, I had to To determine the circumference of center of the banana, To determine the circumference of the peanut butter jar l To determine the circumference of the base of the wine b To determine the circumference of the top of the tuna ca Circumference: I took a string around the bottom of the g Diameter: I measured the diameter with a ruler. I put the Circumference: I took a string around the yo-yo once un Diameter: I measured the diameter with a ruler. I put the Circumference: I took a string around the lid once until th Diameter: I measured the diameter with a ruler. I put the Circumference: I took a string around the bracelet once u Diameter: I measured the diameter with a ruler. I put the Circumference: I took a string around the lid once until th Diameter: I measured the diameter with a ruler. I put the Circumference: I took a string around the bottom of the b Diameter: I measured the diameter with a ruler. I put the Circumference: I took a string around the container once Diameter: I measured the diameter with a ruler. I put the Circumference: I took a string around the lid once until th Diameter: I measured the diameter with a ruler. I put the Circumference: I took a string around the lid once until th Diameter: I measured the diameter with a ruler. I put the Circumference: I took a string around the CD once until t Diameter: I measured the diameter with a ruler. I put the