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# Mathematics Reviewer for Career Service Professional Examination Part I Lesson 1.

## Equations and Inequalities

Many applications of mathematics require the solution of equations or inequalities. Define: An algebraic equation in the variable x is a statement that two algebraic expressions in x are equal. Variable- represent the unknown part of the equation. Domain-the set of numbers for which the algebraic equations are defined. Illustration 1. In the following algebraic equations, let x be a real number. x-7 = 0 (1) x + 12 = 7x (2) x + 5 = 5 + x (3) x/x = 1 (4) For (1) through (3), the domain is R. Because the left side of (4) is not defined if x=0, the domain of (4) is the set of real numbers except zero (0). Define: Solution is a number that made the statement true when replaced to the variable. Solution set is the set of all solutions. Solving is the process of determining the solution set of the equation. Equivalent equations are equations having the same solution. Example 1: 7x-21 = 0

7x=21

; x=3

Note: Replacing it with successions of equivalent equations to obtain an equivalent equation where the solution set is apparent often solves an equation. Properties of real numbers will be applied to replace an equation with its equivalent equation. Illustration 2. 2x - 3 = x + 4 2x x = 4 + 3 x=7 It is advisable to always check your solution of the equation to see if errors were made in the arithmetic procedures. You can check your solution by replacing it to the original equation.

For illustration 2, does 2(7) - 3 =7 + 4 ? 14 3 = 11 7 + 4 = 11 = 11 = 11 Define: Linear Equation is an equation of the form ax + b = 0; where a and b are real numbers and a 0. To solve linear equation ax + b = 0 for x, subtract b from both sides then divide both sides by a. ax + b = 0 ax + b b = 0 b ax=-b ax = -b a a x = -b a The linear equation ax + b = 0 has only one solution Example 2 Find the solution set for the equation 2 x+3 Solution = 5 2x-4 Observe that when x=-3 0r x = 2, one fraction has zero denominator for the given equation. Therefore 3 and 2 are not in the domain of the variable x. The LCD is (x+3)(2x-4). Multiplying both sides with the LCD, we have (x+3)(2x-4) 2 x+3 = 5(x+3)(2x-4) 2x-4

Does 2 -23 + 3

## (2x 4 ) 2 = 5(x+3) 4x 8 = 5x + 15 4x 5x = 15 + 8 -x = 23 x = -23 = 5 ? 2(-23) 4

2 -23 + 3

2 = -1 -20 10

5 2(-23) 4

5 -50

= -1 10

Applications of Linear Equations In most applications of algebra, problems are stated in words known as word problems. Relationship between the known and unknown numbers was given in the problem statement. In solving problems, there is no specific method to be used. Here are some steps in solving problems. 1. Read the problem carefully so that you can understand it. It will be helpful if you can relate the problem with previously solved ones. 2. Determine the known quantities and the unknowns. A variable is used to represent the unknowns in the equation you obtained. It is better to use only one variable. Express other unknown quantities with the chosen variable. Since variable represent number, its definition should indicate this fact. 3. Write numerical facts about the variable. 4. From the information derived in the given processes, form an equation. 5. Solve the equation that you have formulated. From the derived answer, make a conclusion that answer the question being asked. 6. Do not forget to write the proper unit of your answer. 7. Check your results if the conditions of the stated problem wee satisfied. This is to verify the accuracy of the equation obtained in step 4 as well as the accuracy of the solution set. Example 1. If a rectangle has length that is 4 centimeters less than four times width and its perimeter is 20 cm, what are the dimensions? Solution We wish to determine the number of centimeters of each dimensions. Let x= width of the rectangle in centimeters 4x 4 = length of the rectangle in centimeters P = x + 4x 4 + x + 4x 4 = 20 = 2x + 8x 8 = 20 2x + 8x = 20 + 8 10x = 28 x = 14 / 5; 4x-4= 36 / 5 The width of the rectangle is 14 / 5 cm and the length is 36 / 5 cm. Check The perimeter is 2(14 / 5) + 2 (36 / 5) which is equal to 100 / 5 = 20. Example 2 A man invested part of \$15,000 for 12 percent and the rest for 8 percent. If his annual income from his investment is \$1456, how much does he have invested at each rate? Solution Let x = amount invest for 12% 15,000 x = amount invested for 8% equation: .12(x) + .08(15,000 x) = 1456 .12x + 1200 - .08x = 1456 .12x - .08x = 1456 1200 .04x= 256 x= 6400 ; 15,000 x = 15,000 6400 = 8600 The man has invested \$6400 at 12% and \$8600 at 8%. Check: .12 (6400) + .08(8600) = 768 + 688 = 1456

Mixture Problem A mixture problem can involve mixing solutions containing different percent of a substance in order to obtain a solution containing a certain percent of the substance. Another kind is mixing commodities of different values to obtain a specific sum of money. Example 3 Determine how many liters of 12% acid solution should be mix with 15% acid solution to obtain 6 liters of a 14% acid solution. Solution Let x = volume of 12% acid solution 6 x = volume of the 15% acid solution .12x + .15(6-x) = .14(6) .12x + .9 - .15x = .84 -.03x = .84 -.9 x= -.06 / -.03 x=2 6 x =6 2 = 4 Two liters of 12% acid solution has to be mixed with four liters 15% acid solution. Problems involving uniform motion use the formula st = d where r is the rate of motion, t=time and d=distance traveled. Example 4 One racer took 3 min and 5 secs to complete a race and another racers requires 4 minutes to complete the same race. If the rate of the slower racer is 4.0 m/s less than the faster racer, find their rate. Solution: let r= rate of the faster racer r-4 = rate of the slower racer 185 s= time for the faster racer to cover the track 240 s= time for the slower racer to cover the same track r(185s)= (r-4)240s 185r = 240r 960 55r=960 r17.5 m/s

## r-417.5m/s 4m/s = 13.5 m/s

The rate of the faster racer is 17.5 m/s and 13.5 m/s for the slower racer. Example 5 In a subway station, two trains left the station at the same time moving in opposite direction. If train A has a speed of 11m/s and train B has a speed of 14m/s, how long will it take before they are 2.5 km apart? Solution: Let t= total time elapsed for both train to travel Equation d1 + d2 =2.5 km = 2500m s1 t + s2 t = 2500m (11m/s)(t) + (14m/s)(t) =2500m (11m/s + 14m/s)(t)=2500m t=2500m / 25m/s t-100s After 100 s, the two trains are 2.5 km apart.

Work problem -this are the types of problems that deals with specific job to be accomplished in a certain length of time. Example 6 Mario can paint their fence in 12 hours while his brother can do the job in 8 hours. How long will it take if they worked together? Solution Mario Joe
Fractional part Of work done per hour No. of working hours Fractional part of work done

1 / 12 1/8 x + x =1

x x 2x + 3x = 1

x / 12 x/8 5x = 24 x = 24 / 5

12 8 24 It will take Mario and Joe 24 / 5 hours to paint the fence together. Exercise Problems 1. A piece of steel bar 6 meters long is cut into 2 pieces which are in the ratio of 3 to 5. How long is each? 2. Find three consecutive even integers whose sum is 72. 3. Together. Inah and Norma have 2000 pesos. Normas money is 4 times than Inah. How much does Norma has? 4. Ella is twice as old as Allan. Seven years ago, Ella is thrice as old as Dindo? 5. The sum of the ages of Marvin and Donna is 38. Four years ago, Donna is the age of Marvin. How old is Donna? 6. Two cars left the same place at the same time. Car A is moving to the left direction with a velocity of 15 m/s. Car B is moving in the opposite direction with a velocity of 20m/s. How long will it take before they are 3.5 kilometers apart? 7. The fastest runner in the Olympics took 8.95 s to cover the 100 m-dash. Another runner made it for 10 s. What is the difference in the speed of the two runners? 8. Mr. Malibago invested 6 million in three ventures. One third of the money is invested with a return of 12%. One half of the total investment give a return of 17% and the rest has a return of 5%. If Mr. Malibago received 14% return for all the investment, how much money does he lost in one of the investments? 9. Mang Jose can do a piece of work in 30 days. After working for 20 days, he got sick. His son continued the work and finished it in 5 days. How many days can his son do the work alone? 10. A 100 ml solution contains 5% silver. Another solution of 150 ml has 18 ml silver. How many ml of the 5% silver solution must be added to the 150 ml solution to produce 200ml 7% silver solution?

Solved Problems 1. The sum of two consecutive even numbers is 50 , what are the numbers? Solution: Let x = first number X + 2 = second number x + (x + 2) = 50 2x + 2 = 50 2x = 50 2 = 48 x=24 x + 2= 26 2. The smaller of two numbers is 13 less than the larger and their sum is 42. Find the numbers. Soltuion: Let x = smaller number x + 13= larger number x + (x + 13 ) =42 2x + 13 = 42 x = 29 / 2 or 14.5 2x = 42 13 =29 x + 13 = 29 / 2 + 13 = (29 + 26)/ 2 = 55/2 or 22.5

3. The profit in a business are shared among three stockholders. The first stockholder receives twice as much as the second and the second received thrice as much as the third. If the profit for last year is 5 million, how much does each received? Solution: Let x = share of the third stockholder 3x= share of the second stockholder 6x=share of the first stockholder x+ 3x + 6x = 5,000,000 10x = 5,000,000 x=500,000 3x = 1,500,000

6x= 3,000,000

4. A lottery winner decided to invest 25 million in two business ventures. She made a profit of 20% for the first venture but lost 5% for the second venture. If her income from the two ventures is 12% of the total investment, how much has she invested in each venture? Solution: Let x= amount invested in the first venture 25,000,000 x = amount invested in the second venture 0.2x + (-0.05)(25,000,000 x) = 0.12(25,000,000) 0.2x 1,250,000 + 0.05x = 3,000,000 0.25x = 3,000,000 + 1,250,000 0.25x = 4,250,000 x= 17,000,000 25,000,000 x = 8,000,000

5. How much water is needed to dilute a 15 liter of solution that is 12% salt so that a 5% salt solution is obtained? Solution: Let x= amount of water to be added (0.12)(15) = (0.05)(15 + x) 1.8 = 0.75 + 0.05x 0.05x = 1.8 0.75 = 1.05 x= 1.05 / 0.05 x=21 6. Ann is twice as old as Marie. Seven years ago, Ann was 3 times as old as Marie. How old are they? Solution: Let x = age of Marie 7 years ago 3x= age of Ann 7 years ago x + 7=present age of Marie 2(x+7) = present age of Ann x + 7 = 2(x + 7) x + 7 = 2x + 14 x =7 3x=21 7. Mark is twice as old as Erick. Seven years hence, the sum of their ages is 44, how old are they? Solution: Let x= age of Erick 2x=age of Mark (x + 7 ) + ( 2x + 7) = 44 3x + 14 = 44 3x = 30 x = 10 2x = 20 8. Four years ago, Eden was 2 times as old as Gie and Gie is thrice as old as Jovy. The sum of the ages of Gie and Jovy 5 years hence is the sum of the ages of Eden and Jovy 4 years ago. What are their ages now? Solution: 4 years ago now 5 years hence Eden 6x 6x + 4 6x + 4 + 5 Gie 3x 3x + 4 3x + 4 + 5 Jovy x x+4 x+4+5 6x + x = (x + 4 + 5) + (3x + 4 + 5) 7x = 4x + 18 7x 4x =18 3x = 18 x=6 4 years ago now Eden 6x = 36 6x + 4 = 40 Gie 3x = 18 3x + 4 = 22 Jovy x =6 x + 4 = 10

5 years hence 6x + 4 + 5 = 45 3x + 4 + 5 = 27 x + 4 + 5 = 15

9. A pair of rubber shoes is on 50% off during the Christmas season. It was again of by 15% during the inventory sale. If Carlo bought the shoes for 1200 during the inventory sales, how much is the original price of the shoes? Solution: Let x= original price x -.5x= price during the Christmas sale x 0.15(0.5x)= price during the inventory sale x - .5x (0.15)(0.5x) = 1200 x 0.5x 0.075x = 1200 0.425x = 1200 x 2823.5

10. In a paper factory, machine A can produce 500 pads of paper in a certain number of minutes and machine Bs turn out the same number of pads for twice the time of machine A. If they are used together, it will take 40 minutes to produce 500 pads. Find the number of minutes each machine needs to produce 500 pads? Solution: Let x = no. of minutes for machine A to produce 500 pads 2x = no. of minutes for machine B to produce 500 pads 1 x + 1 = 1 2x 40 =1 40 x = 60

2+1 2x

3(40) = 2x

Lesson 2 SYSTEMS OF EQUATIONS IN TWO VARIABLES The sum of two numbers is 5 and their difference is negative 1. This compound statement leads to two equations, x + y =5 x y = -1 This is called a system of equations in two variables. Solutions for system of equations 1. Elimination by addition - the variable to be eliminated have unlike signs.

Example 1 3x + y = 7 2x y = 4 5x = 11 x = 11/5

## 3(11/5) + y = 7 33/5 + y = 7 y = 7 33/5 y = (35 33)/5 y = 2/5

2. By subtraction - the variable to be eliminated have like signs. Example 2 8x 2y = 15 (1) 4(7/4) 2y = 8 4x 2y = 8 (2) 7 2y =8 4x = 7 (3) -2y = 1 x=7/4 (4) y = -1/2 Application 1. The sum of two numbers is 98 and their difference is 38. Find the numbers. Solution: Let x=1st number y= 2nd number x + y = 98 x y = 38 2x = 136 x=68 y=30 2. Maria and Ana made 20 hats. When Maria sold 7 hats and Ana sold 3 hats, the two has equal number of hats. How many hats does Maria made? Solution Let x= no. of hats of Maria y= no. of hats of Ana x + y = 20 x7=y3 xy=73 xy=4 x + y = 20 xy=4 2x = 24 x = 12 12 + y = 20 y=8

Lesson 3 Inequalities If a and b are real numbers, exactly one of the following is true; a<b a>b a=b If a, b, c are real numbers and if a < b and b<c, the a<c Properties of < (i) if a<b then a = c < b + c (ii) a < b then a-c < b-c (iii) a < b and c<0, then ac > bc

Illustration a) If x < y, then 4x < 4y. For instance, -5 < 3, then 4(-5) < 4(3). b) Because 5 < 3, then 5(-4) > 3(-4) Example 1. Find the solution set of the inequality 3x 8 < 7 Solution: 3x 8 < 7 3x < 7 + 8 3x < 15 x < 5 Example 2. Find the solution set of the inequality 3 < 4x + 7 15 Solution: 3 < 4x + 7 4x + 7 15 3 7 < 4x 4x 15 7 -4 < 4x 4x 8 -1 <x x 2 (-1, 2] Application 1. A company engaged in making and selling armchairs has a weekly overhead of 34,000 a week for operational cost. The cost of materials for each chair is 40 pesos and sold it for 200 pesos. At least how many chairs must be made to guarantee a profit? Solution: Let x= number of chairs to be made 200x = total weekly revenue P= profit P = 200x (34000 + 40x) P >0 34000 < 200x 40x 34000 <160x x > 212.5 Atleast 213 armchairs must be made weekly. 2. In a particular subject has the following scores for the three long exams, 87, 94 and 73. What must be the least score for the fourth exam so that the average is not lower than 85. Solution: Let x be the least score in the last exam 87 + 94 +73+x < 85 4 254 + x < 340 x < 340 254 x < 86 Lesson 4 Quadratic Equation Quadratic equations are equations of the form ax + bx + c = o where a, b and c are constants and a0. The word quadratic comes from the word quadrate, meaning square or rectangle. Solutions to quadratic equations 1. Solution by factoring. 2. Solution by square root. 3. Solution by quadratic formula

x = -b (b - 4ac) 2a Example 1 Find the solution set of the equation a) 6x = 10 + 11x b) 3x + 5x + 3 =0 Solution a) 6x - 11x 10 =0 x = 11 11 - 4(6)(-10) 2(6) = 11 361 12 = 11 +19 11 19 12 12 = 5/2 -2/3 Do example b using the same procedure. Application 1. A park containing a flower garden, 50 m long and 30 m wide, and a path of uniform width around it. If the area of the path is 600m, what is its width? Solution: Let w= width of the path ( in meters) Note: the area of the park minus the area of the garden equals the area of the path (50 + 2w)(30 + 2w) (50)(30) = 600 1500 +160w + 4w - 1500 =600 4w + 160 w 600 = 0 w + 40w 150 = 0 by quadratic equation w = -40 [ (40) -(4(1)(-150)] 2 = -40 (2200) 2 = -20 522 = -20 + 522 Reject the negative root = 3.45 m 2. It takes a boy 15 min longer to mow the lawn than his sister and if they work together, it takes them 56 minutes. How long does it take the boy to mow the lawn?

Solution: Let x = no. of minutes needed by the sister to mow the lawn x + 15= no of minutes needed by the boy to mow the lawn 1 x + 1 = 1 56

x + 15

x + x + 15
x(x + 15)

## = 1 56 112x + 840 = x + 15x x - 97x 840 = 0

2x + 15 = 1 x + 15x 56

## by quadratic equation x = 97 [(-97) - 4(1)(840)]1/2 2 =( 97 + 113) / 2 = 210 / 2 x = 105minutes

x + 15 = 120 minutes

Solved Problems 1. In a basketball game, team A has 65 % wins out of 40 games. At least how many games should they win for the last 30 games for them to have an overall performance of 70% and above? Solution: Let x = no. of games to be won for the last 30 games .65(40) = 26 games 26 + x 0.7(70) 26 + x 49 x 23 2.The sum of the digits of a two digits number is 7. If 27 is added into the number, the resulting number has the same digits in reverse order, what are the numbers? Solution: Let x= 1st digit y= 2nd digit x+y=7 10x + y + 27 = 10y + x 9x 9y = -27 x y = -3 x+y=7 x y = -3 2x = 4 x=2 2+y=7y=5 The number is 25.

3.Pedro runs his boat at a certain speed of an hour downstream and took 2 hours to run a distance of 24 km. If it took him 3 hours in returning, what is the speed of the current? Solution: Let x=speed of the boat y=speed of the current 2(x + y) = 24 3(x - y) = 24 x + y = 12 x - y = 8 10 + y = 12 y = 2 km / hr

2x = 20 x = 10 km / hr

4. Five squares were joined horizontally to make a rectangle. The perimeter of the rectangle is 372 cm. What is the area of each square? Solution: Let x= dimension of the square P= perimeter of the rectangle = x + 5x + x + 5x = 12x 12 x = 372 x = 31

A = x = 31 = 961 cm 5. A group of individual decided to contribute for a nursery swing amounting 1200 pesos. Four were not able to pay and each of the rest has to add 10 pesos more. How many individuals have agreed originally? Solution: Let x= original no. of individual 1200/x= individual contribution (x-4) (1200/x + 10) = 1200 1200 + 10x 4800/x - 40 = 1200 1200x + 10x -4800 40x =1200x 10x - 4800 - 40x =0 x - 4x 480 =0 x= 4 [(-4) - 4(1)(-480)] 2 = 4 44 2 x = 48 / 2 = 24

Mathematics Reviewer for Career Service Professional Examination Part II Lesson 1: Sequence

A sequence function is a function whose domain is a subset of positive integers. A sequence is consists of the elements of a sequence function Illustration 1 Let f be a function defined by f(n) = 2n n {R} f(1) = 2 f(2) = 4 The elements of the sequence defined by f are 2,4,6,8, Illustration 2 Let g be a function defined by g(n)= 1/n n{1,2,3,} The function g is an infinite series function. The elements are g(1) =1/1 g(2) = g(3) = 1/3 Exercises Find the elements of the following sequences 1. an = 2n 2. an = 2n if n is odd = 2an-1 for n is even 3. an = n + 2 / n(n + 1) Given the following elements of a sequence, find the sequence function 1. 1, 2, 3, 3, 5, 6, 7, 7, 2. 2, 14, 8, 16, 32, 64, 3. 1, 5, 9, 13, Lesson 2 : Arithmetic Progression Arithmetic progression is a sequence in which all elements except the first can be obtained by adding a constant to the preceding element. The recursive formula an-1= 2an + d where an is the last element and d is the common difference. Illustration 3 If a = 4, N=8 and an+1 = an + 3 The arithmetic sequence is 4, 7, 10, 13, 16, 19, 22, The Nth element of an arithmetic sequence is given by aN = a1 + (N 1)d

Example 1. Find the thirtieth element of the arithmetic sequence whose first element is 5 and the second element is 9. Solution a = 5 a2 = 9 d=4 aN = a1 + (N 1)d a30 = 5 + (30 1)4 = 5 + (29)4 = 121 Example 2. The fifth term of a sequence is 10 and the 3rd term is 16, find the 10th element. Solution: a 5= 10 a3 = 16 d=-3 a=22 a10 = a1 + (N 1)d 22 + (10-1)-3 22 +-3 (9) a10 =-7 Theorem If a, a2, a3 , ,aN is an arithmetic sequence with common difference d, and SN = a1 + a2 + a3 + + aN Then sN =N ( a1 + aN ) 2 Example 3 Find the sum of the positive even integers less than 100. Solution a 1= 2, d = 2 , N =49 s49 =49 ( 2 + 98 ) 2 = 2450 Lesson 3 Geometric Sequence and Series A geometric sequence is a sequence whose preceding element after the first can be obtained by multiplying a constant. Illustration 2 For the sequence 1,2,4,8,16,36, we have 2/1 = 2, 4/2=2 8/4=2, the common ratio is 2. A geometric sequence can be defined by giving the values of a and N and the recursive formula

an+1= an r
from which every element after the first can be obtained.

Theorem: The Nth element of a geometric sequence is given by aN = a1rN-1 Example 4: Find the 10th element of the geometric sequence where the first element is 5/2 and the second element is 5. Solution Let a10 be the 10th element, then 5/2, -5, a10 r=(-5) / (5/2) = -2 a10 = (5/2)(-29) = 1280 Example 5:Given the geometric progression 42, 4, -22, 2 , find the 5th element. Solution: aN = a1rN-1 r= 4 / -42 = -2 /2 a5 = (-42)(-2/2)4 =2

Lesson 4: Fundamental Principle / Counting Principle In how many ways can a man enter and leave the building if there are 6 entrances and 5 exits? Let the entrance be consists of the set (d1 , d2, d3, d4, d5 ) and the exits as (e1 , e2, e3, e4, e5 ). If he enters d1 ,he can chose any of the exit doors for leaving. Hence there are 6 times 5 or 30 ways of entering and leaving the building. This is the so-called fundamental principle. If an act can be done in m ways and after can be done the second time in n ways, then there are (m)(n) ways to perform the act. Example 5. Nine different planes ply from Davao to Manila. If Jose goes to Manila in one of the planes and decided to return to Manila in a different plane, in how many ways can he do the trip? Solution: 9 ways of going to Manila 8 ways of going to DavaO 9 x 8 = 72 ways Example 6 For the birthday party of Marie, her mother ordered three cakes ( chocolate, butter and strawberry), four different ice creams ( rocky road, mocha, chocolate, coffee and vanilla) and three kinds of salads( fruit, macaroni and buko). How many ways can a guess choose from each if he has to take cake, ice cream and salad? Solution: 3 ways for the cake 4 ways for the ice cream 3 ways for the salad 3x 4 x 3 36 ways to choose

Lesson 5: Permutation There are 720 ways of arranging 6 books in a shelf. Three are physics and the other are Math. Math/Physics or Physics/Math. Given a set of objects, each different arrangement either has all or a part of the object is called permutation. A permutation of a set of elements is an arrangement of certain of these elements in a specified manner. In the above example, it can be written as 6P6. The rule of finding the value of nPr or nPn may be discovered by applying the fundamental principle. Example 6 From the ten finalists in a Mathematics competition, one will be chosen for the first, second third and fourth place. How many ways will the distinct winners emerged? Solution: 10P4 = (10)(9)(8)(7) = 5040 ways Example 7. For a group of 6, 3 boys and 3 girls, in how ways can a boy and girl be seated together? Solution 3P1 x 3P1 (3)(3)=9 ways For nPr = n(n-1)(n-2)(n-r+1). There are exactly r factors where the rth factor is (n-r+1) nPn = n(n-1)(n-2)(n-n+1). There are exactly n factors from n to 1. The product of n integers from n to 1 or from 1 to n can be written symbolically as n!, read as n factorial. nPn = n! Also nPn = n! (n-n)! and n! nPr = (n-r)!

Permutation subject to different restriction Example 8 There are ten chairs in presidential table and there are ten guest to occupy the chairs. In how many different ways can the guest be seated if two special guests must stay at the middle? Solution Assume that guest number 1 and 2 be the special guest to occupy the middle chairs that are also assumed to be chair 5 and 6. 8 ways for the 1st chair 4 ways for the 7th chair nd 7 ways for the 2 chair 3 ways for the 8th chair 6 ways for the 3rd chair 2 ways for the 9th chair th 5 ways for the 4 chair 1 way for the 10th chair
8P8 = 8! The two guest may exchange position, so 2P2 = 2!

## ( 8P8 )( 2P2 ) = (8!)(2!) = (40320)(2) = 80640 ways

Permutation of things some of which are the same The number of permutations of n things where p thing are the same, q things are the same and r things are the same is equal to n! / p! q! r! Example 9 Find the number of permutations for the word Missippi. Solution: i has 3! s has 2! p has 2! Therefore: 8!/ 3! x 2! x 2! = 40320 / (6)(2)(2) = 40320 / 24 = 1680 permutations Example 10 Mother has 6 candies, 2 are chocolate, 3 are mint and the other one is lemon. How many ways can she give these to her 6 grand children? Solution: 6! (2!)(3!)(1!) = 720 / 12 = 60 ways Combination Any group of things that is independent of the order of elements of the group is called a combination. The combination of n things taken r at a time is nCr which is equal to nCr = n! (n-r)!r! Example 11. How many committees of 6 members can be taken from 8 persons? Solution: 8C6 = 8! / (8-6)! 6! =(8 )(7) (2)(1) 56 / 2 = 28 Probability It is known to be the chance of an event to happen. In mathematical language, it is written as P = m /n Where m is the number of successful outcome and n is the number of possible outcomes. Example12. In a multiple-choice question, what is the probability of getting the right answer when you have four choices? Solution: Let m= number of choice=1 N= number of choices = 4 P=