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Exploratory study of ICT in Schools

PGPPM DISSERTATION BY SATEESH HEGDE.

Serial Number
1

Chapter Number
Chapter 1 1.1 1.1.1 1.1.2 1.2 1.3 1.4 Chapter 2 2.1 Chapter 3 3..1 3.2 3.3 3.3.1 3.3.2 3.3.3 3.3.4 3.4.5 3.4.6 3.4.8 Chapter 4 4.1.1 4.1.2 4.1.3 4.2.1 4.2.2 4.2.3 4.2.4 4.2.5 4.2.6

Content
Introduction Background Need for powerful learning environment What is ICT? What is its role in education?. ICT initiatives in education in Karnataka. Research Objectives. Context of the research problem. Literature review. Prior research in use of ICT in teaching. Theoretical framework and Research Methodology. Research questions. Research Methodology. Data Source, Sample selection and data collection. Sample. Area Covered in the study. Secondary Data. Primary data. Instruments. Data Analysis. Limitations of the study. Findings Problems with Infrastructure. Poor quality of Para Teachers. Lack of Educational Leadership. Hardware and software resource usage in the class rooms. Subject wise ICT usage. Purposes of ICT usage. Problems of ICT usage in Class room. Equity of Access to ICT resources Computer usage by teachers outside class room. Conclusions Tables Data Analysis Area covered, Details of the high Schools visited Questionnaire for Teachers Questionnaire for Students References

Page Numbers
3 4 4-7 8 9 10 11-15

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17 17-18 18 18 18 18 18 18-19 19 19 20 20 21 22 23 23 23 24 24 25 26-30 30-32 33-34 35-36 37-39

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Chapter 5 Chapter 6 6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 Chapter 7

Chapter- 1 Introduction.
1.1 Background.
Rapid development and change in the computer technology in the last decade has changed peoples work, study and life, especially in education. Education is one important domain which appears to be most influenced by advances in the computer technology. The tremendous changes in the working environment have attributed to increase in investment on computers in the school system. There are sweeping changes in the workplaces where computer linked works, networking, emails have become routine. Policy makers all over the world are pressing the educators to get the students ready to suit the high tech work place. With the help of Information, Communication and Technology (ICT), importance of education has increased in all walks of life. The education fundamentally changed during past 20 years. Indian government is also spending lot of money on ICT in school education. The introduction of ICT in schools ( which is strongly supported by the government) encounters problems related with non integration of ICT into Teaching-learning process in the class room. Government is doing multi million rupees bet: if we wire the classrooms, students will be better learners and smarter people. In India, the ICT initiatives in schools are ten years old. Now, this is the time for us to pause and think again and ask ourselves whether this is wise. Despite spending significant amount of money on the ICT initiatives in schools, many educators, policy makers and officials of education department appear to have given little thought on how to use the machines in the class room environment. The focus seems to be on purchase of software and hardware but less on utilisation. I would argue that usage of computers in the class room and integration of ICT in the curriculum is more important. Question is whether these ICT initiatives are serving the purpose?. The question is whether the investments on ICT initiatives are worth the cost?. After ten years of ICT initiatives in the schools, this is the time to investigate how teachers use the machines for instructions. How

children are using the machines to learn? Ideally speaking a decade of heavy promotion of computers in the school system should change the teaching style. Hence, this is the right time to look into our school system to verify whether ICT initiatives are integrated with curriculum or not.

1.1.1 The need for powerful learning environment.


Education should offer to the students conditions needed to optimize learning and promote the transfer of knowledge and skills. Learning is not only transfer of ideas from one who knows to one who does not know, but learning is also a process of integrated transformative process where ideas, experiences and point of views are also transferred and new thinking is created Collins, 1996)1. Learning environments need to reflect the potential uses of knowledge that pupils are expected to master. In order to prevent the acquired knowledge from becoming inert, rich contexts and tasks that are as authentic as possible should be provided to the students by presenting links to the world outside school. In addition, teachers should stimulate pupil to engage in active knowledge construction. This is the reason for the need of open ended learning environment rather than mere transaction of facts from teacher to pupil. Demetriadis,S., et.al.20032 found that Cooperation and interaction among teachers and students in the class room environment are important in order to foster the acquisition of learning skills, problem solving skills and social relations. ( Susman,19983). The basic traditional idea of transformation of knowledge will change when ICT is introduced in class room environment. Introduction of ICT in the class rooms change the respective roles of the teachers and students, the goals of instruction and very concept of knowledge itself.

1.1.2 What is ICT? What is its role in education?


The definition of Information and Communication Technology (ICT ) is anything which allows us to get information, to communicate with each other , or to have an effect on the environment using electronic or digital equipment (Mohanty Laxman and Vohra Neharika (2006) .1 Information and Communication Technology (ICT ) refers to the integration of computing technology and communication. Some educators think that ICT enabled education
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Please see Mohanty Laxman, Director, Silicon Institute of Technology Bhubaneswar. Vohra Neharika, Associate Professor IIM Ahmedabad. ICT Strategies for schools; A guide for school administrators. Sage Publications- New Delhi. Year- 2006.

means teaching of IT skills. But others think that ICT in education refers to use of the technology in teaching and learning process. ICT is used as enabler to teach the subjects in the class room. Researchers found that students learning in Computer Aided Learning is much superior than in the traditional way of learning (Biswas 1994 as referred by Mohanty Laxman and Vohra Niharika 2006).2 Researchers felt that the use of technology should

involve the students in technical, practical and critical levels. Information literacy in the class room should enable the students to ask questions, access the information, analyze the data or problem, applying the thoughts and assessing the process ( 5 As of information literacy).3 The use of technology can enable interactive, student centred, participatory group learning. With focus on learning, Bransford, Brwon, and Cocking (2000)4 address the role of technology in learning in five ways: Students can feel the real world experiences in the class room through simulation, allowing students to participate in complex cognitive processes, ICT allows opportunities to teacher to give sophisticated and customised feedback, teachers can interact among themselves and share knowledge and experiences, students, parents and community members can play role in improvement of teaching and learning process. Researchers found that ICT is very important tool to support educators in designing the curriculum, stimulating the thought process and controlling teaching and learning processes in the classroom (Mooij Ton 20045). Following table reflects how ICT in education shifts the learner as passive consumer of educational offerings to an active knowledge seeker and active participant in learning activities.

Expected changes in educational society with the help of ICT in education.


Actor Education Society
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Industrial Education in Information Society.

Please see Mohanty Laxman, Director, Silicon Institute of Technology Bhubaneswar. Vohra Neharika, Associate Professor IIM Ahmedabad. ICT Strategies for schools; A guide for school administrators. Sage Publications- New Delhi. Year- 2006.P-22.
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Please refer http//www.technknowlogia.com. Browsed on 20-4-2011.

School

Separate society.

from

the Integrated with the society School functioning details

School functioning is openly available. confidential Teacher Initiator instruction. Whole class teaching. Evaluate the student. Places low emphasis on skills. skills. Mostly active. Learns mostly outside school. Much teamwork. Asks questions. Student Mostly passive. Learns mostly inside schools. Hardly any team work. Takes questions from books or from teacher. Learns Low learning. answers interest to in questions. Finds High learning. answers interest to in questions. communication of Collaborator Guides Helps High students student focus to on independent learning. evaluate himself. communication

Source -Pelgrum, ten Brummelhuis, Collis, Plomp, Janssen Reinen (1997). ICT in education can change the traditional method of teaching process, ultimately changing the goals of education. With increased use of technology in education, the shift in the

goals of education will be from memorising to problem solving, collecting information to processing information, sage on the stage teaching to sage by the side (guiding ) teaching. ICT can play major role in creating powerful learning environment. ICT provides opportunity to the pupil to look for abundance of information. Moreover ICT gives opportunity for the pupils to look the information in various perspectives thereby ICT fosters authenticity of learning environments. ICT makes the concepts easy for understanding and it ignites active learning and thinking among students. (Alexander,19996) v. Smeetts and Mooij, 20017 found that ICT provides opportunity for adopting learning content and tasks to the needs and capabilities. Research shows that the skill based traditional use of ICT is practiced in majority of the school in different parts of the world which leads to more understanding of the concepts (Smeets Ed 2005)8. In the ICT enabled learning environment, pupils have more autonomy over their learning process and they have more amount of control over their rate of learning and learning sequences. Students are in better position to judge their own learning needs, and construct their own knowledge based on the available information. Students may adopt a more favourable approach towards learning, and operate more efficiently in the learning environment (Lim Ping Cher, Chi Ching Sing 20049 ) . Some important contributions of technology towards class room learning are to support traditional classroom and to increase student achievement (Krentler & Wills- Flurry, 200510). Among different technologies, computer is most preferred technology as it provides support for various technologies like text and audio visual elements, as well as innovations in information and communication usage by the diffusion of the internet. Heinich, Molenda, Russel, and Smaldino (2002)11 classify the uses of the computer applications in class room instruction as an object of instruction, as a tool, as instructional device and as means of teaching and learning. (p-214). Following table reflects how ICT enables the class room environment and changes the teaching from instruction to construction.

From Instruction to construction.


Instruction Class Room activity Teacher role Teachers Centered Didactic Fact teller Always expert Construction Learners Centred Interactive Collaborator Sometimes learner

Student Role Instructional emphasis Concept of knowledge

Listener Always learner Facts Memorization Accumulation of facts

Collaborator Sometimes expert Relationships Inquiry and invention Transformation facts. of

Demonstration of success Success Technology use

Quantity Norm referenced Drill and Practice

Quality Criterion referenced Collaboration, Expression

Source - Sandholtz et,al. (1997)4

1.2 -- ICT initiatives in Schools by Government of Karnataka. A) Brief overview of education scenario in Karnataka. Karnataka is able to achieve its literacy rate of 75.6% % as of 2011 census report5 ranking 9 th in India from 66.6% in 2001. There are three kinds of schools in Karnataka, viz., government run schools, private aided schools ( finance aid is provided by the government) and private unaided ( no financial aid given by government). In majority of the schools language of teaching is Kannada or English. The syllabus taught in the schools is either of CBSE , ICSE or SSLC state syllabus defined by the Department of Public Instruction of Government of Karnataka. Department of Public Instructions coordinates the school education system in Karnataka. Department of State Education Research and Training ( DSERT), the academic wing of the DPI is responsible for the improvement of education system in secondary schools in Karnataka. DSERT has a separate wing called Technology Cell to handle the various ICT projects. DSERT undertakes teachers training aspects also.
Please refer Sandholtz Judith Haymore, Ringstaff Cathy , Dwayer C. David. Teaching with Technology : Creating Students Centred class rooms. Teachers College, Columbia University, New York. P-14. 5 Please see http//www. Karnataka.com. Browsed on 20-4-2011.
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Karnataka has 93566 (aided and unaided) high schools. There are 79496 teachers work in these high schools. B) ICT initiatives in education by Government of Karnataka. In Karnataka, department of Information Technology has the responsibility of promoting the growth of Information Technology in the state. Government has invested in ICT in schools so as to promote learning, so as to develop interest in children to attend schools and also to increase the quality of education. Government of Karnataka collaborated with Azim Premji Foundation to meet the goal of improved quality of teaching with use of Computers. Following table depicts ICT initiatives made by Government of Karnataka. DSERT7 has taken lot initiatives to strengthen the technology support in schools. The ICT initiatives in secondary schools in Karnataka start from 2001. Under Mahithi Sindhu program, Computer education and Computer based education has been taken up in 1000 secondary schools. The same has been extended to 1009 secondary schools in the year 2007-08. Further 150 government schools were given with Computers under Revised CLASS8 Project. The cost of the said project is 17.21 crore rupees. 88 secondary schools were given with computers under Eleventh Finance Commission Project in the year 2003-2004. The cost of the said project is 11.68 crore rupees. During 2005-2006, Government of India provided Computers for 480 secondary schools under ICT @schools project phase -1. During 2008-09 under ICT @Schools project phase-2, 1571 secondary schools were given with computers. The cost of this project is 105.26 crores of rupees. Now ICT @schools scheme is extended to 2633 aided high schools and to 1763 government secondary schools in the year 2010-11. We have to note here that since Mahithi Sindhu and Revised CLASS projects are 8 years old ICT @ Schools project once again covered 1763 high schools. Following table depicts the details of the Schemes, number of Secondary schools covered under the scheme and capital employed by the government. The aim the of Mahithi Sindhu program was giving free computer education and computer based education to the students of the government schools who come from remote villages and who cannot afford the Computers education, thereby enhancing the quality of education being given to them. Department of Education Government of Karnataka claims that following are the impacts of the Mahithi Sidhu program. 1) Rapid increase in enrolment.
Please refer http//www.schooloeducation.kar.nic.in./Secondary education. Department of State Education Research and Training. For details of ICT initiatives in schools, please visit the website http//www.dsret.kar.nic.in. 8 CLASS- Computer Literacy And Studies in Schools.
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2) Retention rate increased. 3) Increase in SSLC results. 4) Improvement in English language. 5) Reduction in dropout rate.

1.3 Research Objectives. The basic objective of this study is to understand how teachers of Secondary high schools use ICT in their class rooms. Following are the research objectives. 1) To understand how ICT is utilised in the class rooms. 2) To study the present model of ICT in schools. 3) To give policy suggestions.

1.4 Context of Research Problem.


Government of Karnataka has made lot efforts to introduce computers in the schools. Government spent lot of money on purchase of hardware and software believing that investment on ICT in schools will increase in quality of education. The ICT investment made by the Government is in the year 2000-01 which is almost ten years ago. Moreover the impacts given by the department of education is not supported by any concrete evidences. There are very few research work has been done on ICT initiatives in school system in Karnataka. Since Government is going to increase its investments on ICT in schools (even for primary schools) it is need of the hour that we should look into what is really happening at the ground level. The intended results of ICT initiatives in the schools can only be achieved when ICT is used for teaching and when it is integrated with the curriculum. Ideally speaking ten years of heavy promotion of ICT in the schools must change the traditional style of teaching. Hence this is an effort to look into the ground reality so as to investigate how far and what extent teachers are using computers to teach.

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Chapter -2.
2.0- Literature review. 2.1- Prior Research in ICT use and factors affecting the use of ICT in class rooms.
ICT is considered to be an important tool or catalyst which not only changes the learning style but also catalyses the education innovation.(Lower 1992; Pelgrum, 2001)12. Some researchers make startling claims about potential of computers in education. For example, Derrick Walker (1984, p-30)9 contends that the potential of computers for improving education is greater than that of any prior invention, including books and writing.. In 1984, Seymour Papert (quoted in Cuban, 1986, p.72)13 went one step further. He said that in the future, there will not be any schools; computers will blow up the schools.

Please refer Schofield Janet Ward University of Pitsburg , Name of the book Computers and Class room Culture, Cambridge University Press. In page-3, author mentions about Derrick Walker.
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But there are controversies about the probable positive effects of computers on education. Cuban, 198610 reminds us that overemphasis on investment on technology in schools without integrating ICT with the class room curriculum will not achieve the goals of ICT initiatives . He says that mere use of ICT in the class room will not help the students in learning. Other thinkers also took much more restrained view. For example, Cohen, 198811 points out that if usage of ICT becomes common practice in ordinary school settings and ICT activities will become drill and practice and will not add any value to the learning. In spite of divergence of opinion about the impact of ICT in the class room, there is wide expectation by public that the use of ICT in the class room will enhance education. Since the beginning of the information age, many researchers and policy makers found that ICT has maintained a crucial role in improving the quality of education. Policy makers in different parts of the world recognized and realized the significance of ICT integration with education system (UNESCO, 2003)12. Integration of ICT into class room education is defined as using ICT effectively and efficiently in all dimensions of the learning process, including the software, hardware, infrastructure, curriculum (Shapka.D, & Ferrari, 2003)14. In many countries, the introduction of ICT into class room education has been considered as necessary action for the qualitative improvement of teaching and learning process (OECD,2006 15 , Pedretti, Woodrow,1992)16. Introduction of ICT in schools is considered a necessity premised on economic, social, and pedagogical rationales (OECD, 2001)13 and many governments in different parts of the world have launched major programs and invested capital to support ICT in schools( Pelgrum,2001)17. These ICT initiatives are expected to foster the important educational reform that ICT-based teaching can hopefully supported by transforming students into active knowledge constructors. It is expected that an educated citizen in the year 2020 will be more valuable as an employee because he or she will be able to produce more builders of theory, synthesizers, and inventors of strategy than valuable as an employee who manages facts (Di Sessa, 1988 cited by Hamza & Alhalabi, 1999)18.

Please refer end note- 2 Please see Cohen, D.K. (1988). Educational Technology and school orgnisation. In R.S. Nickerson and P. P. Zodhiates . Technology in education: Looking beyond toward 2020.( pp-231-264). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum. 12 UNESCO - United Nations Education and Socio Cultural Organization. 13 OECD. (2001). Access to and use of ICT. Paris: Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development.
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Finally integration of technology in the class room curriculum and use of technology to instruct the students, lie in the hands of the teachers. New House (2002)14 states that computers can be used in education both as IT education and IT in education. Teachers play an important role in bringing the innovation in education system and in integrating the curriculum with ICT, thereby bringing change in learning style of the students (Tezci, 2009)19. Hence even if schools are wired, even if software and hardware are provided to the schools, the success or failure of the ICT initiatives in the schools depends on whether teachers use these ICT resources in the class room or not. But researchers in different parts of the world found that teachers in schools do not appear to make effective use of information technology for teaching by integrating technology with the curriculum.(Ely, 199320).Researchers found that teachers are technophobic and found to be resistant to change their traditional pedagogical beliefs (Gillman, 198921; Finlayson & Perry, 199522 ). Larry Cuban15 in his famous book Oversold and under used, argues that when teachers are not given a say in how technology might be used, computers are merely improved version of typewriters. ICT Policy in school education has been implemented by many governments in different nations. Many researchers worked on impact of ICT on educational change and learning environment. (Hamza M I et, al.2010 23). Research evaluations suggested that major investment of money, time and resources by policy makers to promote ICT in schools failed to justify to bring desired outcomes ( Cuban,200124). Andrews25 suggested that policy makers should not blindly invest on ICT resources in schools, unless a well designed ICT program (pilot) becomes successful. Young (1991)26 remarks that in many cases, introducing computers to the schools not as means but as an end. Nowadays, ICT could be a learning tool in education ( Melor, 2007b27). Computers have become part and parcel of the life and computers play major role in almost every field including education ( Sirekema, 200728). ICT is not just considered as a tool which can replace existing traditional method of tecahing, but ICT is seen as an important instrument to support new ways of teaching and learning. ICT must be used to develop students skills for cooperation,
Please refer Dr. C. Paul New House, 2002. The impact of ICT on learning and Teaching. Available at : http//www.det.wa.edu.au./education/cmis/eval/down;oad/pd/impactreview.pdf. 15 Please refer Oversold and underused by Larry Cuban ( Professor of Education at Stanford University and past president of American Education Research Association). The reflections of the book on the use of technology in classroom give us good reason to pause and think again about where we go with these technologies rather than be swept along by enthusiasm of the latest technologies.
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communication, problem solving and lifelong learning ( Plomp et al.,199629). Ilomaki (2004)30 found that ICT used to support learning activity in the classroom which was appreciated by both teachers and students in schools. The teachers found that the use of ICT encouraged them to diversify their methods of teaching and motivated them to experiment with new vistas of teaching. Research by Young (2003)31 revealed that the Internet was very useful in providing free environment for the students to express their opinions and thoughts freely. Research studies in education have shown that when ICT is integrated with classroom pedagogical strategy, ICT will facilitate and develop higher level of thinking skills of the students (Fontana32). The main motivation for integrating ICT in education is that, it allows autonomy to the students to construct their own knowledge which may not be possible in the traditional class room. But there are counterviews for these findings. Some of the researchers argue that learner autonomy may or may not be provided by ICT tools in the learning environment. Like other tools in the learning environment it can be used well or poorly. Lim Ping Cher, Hang David 200333 argues that No tool is good or bad in itself; its effectiveness results from and contributes to the whole environments, activities, contents, and interpersonal processes taking place in the context which it is been used. As ICT is integrated with the other tools and when participants in the learning environment use ICT innovatively, then ICT will enhance learning. Research also shows that students and teachers welcome ICT policies in schools and believe that technology could be useful in teaching and learning. BECTA, 200134 found that there were statistically significant associations (regression coefficient) between higher level ICT use and student achievement in Maths, Science, English and Languages and ICT initiatives. From many years, researchers have been interested to understand how users belief and attitudes affect the technology use in the class room. Researchers found that even though the availability of computers are made widely available, the use of ICT for learning - teaching processes is still very limited (Drent Marjolein 2008)35. But use of ICT in the school is affected by many factors. Wiring the schools is not the end of ICT initiatives. Policy makers have to identify the important factors in teaching- learning environment and carefully address the issues. There are many research findings about the factors affecting the use of ICT in the class room environment. For example, Veen (1994)36 found that the teacher factor play important role in integrating ICT in the class room instruction. He also found that teachers are the key agents for the success of ICT initiatives and other school factors are negligible. The research findings

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of Smeets et al (1999)37 shows that most important reason teachers mention for not using ICT in the school is that they are not familiar with ICT. It is also found that professional dialogue considered contributing significantly to teachers willingness to use ICT in classrooms (Mooij Ton., Smeets Ed.2000)38. Researchers found certain teachers factors and attitudes that affect ICT use in class . Those factors are as follows. Individual characteristics like gender, age number of years of teaching experience, ICT attitudes, Knowledge and use, self efficacy, anxiety, beliefs, experience of ICT use and training, learning and teaching approach, access to technology and attitudes (Zhou Quing et,al.2010)39. The number of computers as well as place of the equipment (whether inside the class or in separate room) plays major role in use of ICT by the teachers in teaching. Use of ICT is access to technology for both teachers and students.( Kennewell, Parkinson, and Tannee,200040.)Teachers skill in ICT functions also plays major role in use of technology in teaching ( Smmets et al.,1999; Veen 199541). Apart from the above factors, actual use of ICT in the class room depends on teachers perspectives about the pedagogy (Drenosyanni and Selwood,200142). Pisapia (1994b43) found that teachers- centred teachers tend to use traditional instructional methods. Demetriadis et al.( 2003)44 found that teachers are strongly oriented towards fulfilling the established school instructional targets. Integrating the technology into teaching and learning process is much complex process which has to face several barriers. Those barriers are lack of computers, lack of time for the teachers, resistance to change, lack of support from the management/administrative staff, technology misaligned curriculum, lack of incentives, poor training to the teachers, lack of vision as to how to integrate the technology into curriculum, negative attitude of the teachers, beliefs and unwillingness towards technology (Bariso,200345). Based on the opinions of the authors we can conclude that teachers try to ignore innovative learning activities because innovative learning requires more effort and self learning. Conlon (as referred in Gulbehar Yasimen 2007) 46 summarizes the use of technology in classroom as follows. The introduction of new technology will change our schools. But technology without philosophy is blind. Unless it is harnessed to a clear vision of change then chip by chip, the technology could take us into future that we would never willingly have chosen for ourselves. ( P-116). Since technology changes classroom instructions directly, the decisions about choosing the technology are very important. Gulbahar Yasemin 2007 47 says that Technology use is not about the hardware, internet connections and so on. What is important is how the technology is integrated with the instructional programmes. There are many studies about the usage of ICT in the classroom by teachers.

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Cuban16 suggest that, in secondary schools in particular, external tests, graded classes, self contained classrooms, departmental organisation and disciplinary training encourage teachers to behave as academic specialists whose primary concern is covering a specified curriculum over a set period. Becker (2000)48 conceded that computers have not transformed the classroom practice of most teachers, particularly teachers of secondary academic subjects, but concluded that technology has enabled some to put into practice more constructivist pedagogy attuned to their teaching philosophy. Cuban, Kirkpatriach , and Peck (2001)49 found that inconvenience and unreliability of new technologies under school conditions constituted important barriers to their use. And when these technologies were used, these were largely adopted in teacher centric instruction, with only minority of teachers modifying their lessons and classrooms in substantial ways to encourage autonomy and independence to the students so as to draw on sources of information beyond teacher and text book. Apart from teachers factors other school factors also affect ICT use in the class room. Diverse studies stress that when certain conditions are attained, the use of ICTs can have positive effect on teaching and learning. Those conditions are as follows; enough access to technology, adequate teacher training, effective curriculum, relevant and pertinent evaluation, stimulating school system, and an encouraging family and community. Two most frequent factors mentioned to assure success in learning with technology are to identify the uses that support learning with technology. ICT are just tools; their contribution t improve learning depends on how they are used (Sanchez Jaime, Salinas Alvaro( 2008).50 There is an interesting research by Mooij and Smeets (2001)51. They studied whether there are any models that schools would necessary go through while implementing ICT. They suggested five successive phases of ICT implementation within school which reflect different levels of ICT transformation of the educational and learning processes. These are as follows. 1) Isolated use of ICT by one or more teachers. 2) Increasing school awareness of ICT relevance for the schools at all levels. 3) Emphasis on ICT coordination and hardware within the school. 4) Emphasis on didactic innovation and ICT support. 5) Class room teaching integrated with ICT.

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Please see foot note 4.

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Chapter 3.
Research Methodology.
3.1- Research Questions. Review of literature has given me in depth knowledge about the factors affecting the use of ICT in the class room environment. Based on the literature review, I can formulate theoretical frame work and a model to guide my investigation. In Indian environment there are many

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questions unanswered. To know whether ICT initiatives by the government are properly planned? ICT initiatives in schools are properly implemented? Whether they are really used in teaching? Whether these indicatives are vendor driven?. However, the research studies about ICT in schools are inadequate especially to know whether heavy promotion of ICT in schools and use of ICT for ten years has changed the scenario or not. There are very less work done on the issues like the difference made by ICT on teaching and learning approach. There are certainly research gaps. Following are the research questions taken up for investigation. 1) What extent ICT is integrated with class room teaching and learning? 2) What hardware and software resources are used by the students as well as teachers in class room learning environment? 3) What purpose ICT is used by the students? 4) What is the students level of accessibility to the available ICT resources? 5) What are the problems of ICT usage ? 3.2- Research Methodology. Qualitative and quantitative research techniques were used for this descriptive study. Perceptions of the student and teachers were taken through questionnaires. Additionally unstructured interviews were done with teachers and principals to validate the data obtained through the questionnaires. Following are the qualitative methods used in the study. A ) Observation of ICT based lessons. The observation of ICT enabled lessons facilitated the collection of data in natural settings. Classroom observation helped to refine the questions during the informal and formal interviews with both the students as well as teachers. A semi structured observation method was adopted to look deep into the learning environment. During the observations, a record of events was kept based on the observation checklist which included layout of the class room, lesson objectives , lesson sequence, types of ICT, and roles of the students and teachers. B) Face to face to interview with the teachers. Although observations allowed collection of data of the learning environment it is always not possible to understand the perceptions of the ICT users. Hence face to face interviews were

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done with the teachers to understand the world of the teachers. This allowed for explanation of certain behaviours or actions of the teachers that had been observed. C) Focus group discussions with the students. Focus groups are group interviews that rely, not on questions and answer format of interview but on the interaction within the group. Students feel more at ease when they are in a group, and that may encourage more spontaneously especially if the students are classmates. 3.3 Data source, Sample selection and data collection. 3.3.1 Sample. The sample consisted of students in grade Tenth (SSLC) and teachers who were willing to take part in the study. Ten districts of Northern Karnataka are chosen for the study. The study was done in government high schools in remote village areas. The descriptions of districts, high schools and participants are depicted in Table-11. 3.3.2 Secondary Data. Secondary data is available at Department of Public Instructions, Sarva Shikshana Abhiyana Office Banglalore. The address of the schools, number of computers given etc are collected from DPI. Sample was selected from the said details. 3.3.3 Primary data. Primary data was collected through triangulation methods like questionnaire, focus group discussions, interviews, etc. The sample for the study included 50 high Schools, 461 students and 60 teachers. 3.3.4 Instruments. To find out the level of computer use by teachers in the class room a questionnaire composed of 34 questions was administered to students. The sections were addressing the various software and hardware usage such as: word processors, spread sheets, databases, Internet tools and services and hardware components, subjects in which ICT is used, purpose of ICT usage. This section contains questions about integration of ICT in class room teaching. Teachers were administered with another set of questions composed of 34 questions to gather the data about usage of ICT in classrooms and the attitude towards computers. The said

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instruments are once used and tested by Yasemin Gulbahar17. Instruments are depicted in T1to T-4 and S-1 toS-4. 3.3.5 Data Analysis. Frequency analysis was used to evaluate the likert type questions. These results were transformed into percentages to be presented in the study. Table- depicts data analysis. Open ended questions were analysed with the help of qualitative techniques. 3.3.6 Limitations of the study. Geographical limitations: Only ten districts are covered during the study. Duration of the study is limited to five months.

Chapter -4 Findings.

Please see, Technology planning: A roadmap to successful technology integration in schools.Yasemin Glbahar Department of Computer Education and Instructional Technology, Faculty of Education, Baskent University,Baglica Kampusu, Eskisehir Yolu 20 km, Ankara 06530, Turkey. Available at www.sciencedirect.com.
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4.1.1 Problems with the Infrastructure. During my data collection, I randomly visited the schools without giving any prior information to the officials of education department. Out of 50 schools I visited, 25 (50%) schools were not at all having any ICT set up because of various reasons. Main reason for not having full pledged ICT usage facility is because of obsolescence of computers. The said computers were given to schools in Mahithi Sindhu18 programme by state government of Karnataka during the year 2001-2006. Now, said computers are not in working condition. Next important reason for not having working IT system in the schools is because of lack computer teacher. This teacher has to be deputed by the private party as BOOT19 model adopted by the state government to implement ICT in schools. I found that in many schools, computers were lying in a room and were waiting for a year to be installed. 4.1.2 Poor quality of para-teachers. In the present system of PPP, teachers are hired by the private players and they are contractual employees. They are poorly paid and are not having capabilities to teach the students or to the teachers. These teachers are from the local villages and their qualification is also very poor. Important issue here is that in the whole system, regular teachers think that the ICT system is not part of their system and they feel that it is the responsibility of the Para teacher to take care of the ICT teaching. Ironically these para- teachers work totally unconnected to the regular teaching. It is quite astonishing that despite having well established system of training department, education department preferred to have a system where in poorly paid and less equipped para-teachers teach ICT in schools. These teachers are not having any background of education and their work is totally unconnected with the teaching and learning process. This is the main reason why the ICT is not integrated with the class room teaching and learning process.

4.1.3 Lack of Education Leadership. When I raised the issues like out dated computers and poor quality of contracted teachers etc with the Head Masters, Block Education Officers and SDMC20 members, I came to know that
Mahithi Sindhu programme adopted in BOOT model by education department between the year 2001-2006 and outlay of money was 210 crores. 19 Build Own Operate and Transfer is the most popular PPP model. 20 SDMC School Development Management Committee.
18

22

large proportion of people working in education system see the problem as systemic. Everyone says that the problem is in others court. It is very common to see that most non teachers (BEOs, SDMC members, Students) to blame teachers (or the system), while teachers (privately) blame the thoughtlessness of those above them. Apathy and incompetence is very common and every one shows finger to the others. No clarity of roles and lack of accountability are leading to non implementation of ICT in schools. It is a classic problem of Education Leadership Management. 4.2.1 Hardware and software resource usage in the class rooms. I observed during the discussions in the FGD21s that even after government providing the ICT resources for government high schools, teachers are not using ICT resources to teach the subjects22. The same fact revealed during the survey also (refer Table-1 and table-7 ). research shows that there are some changes in the method of teaching. A ray of hope is that among ICT resources, Computers are used to a reasonable extent (15.8% of the student respondents said that teachers use computers in every class and 27% of the teachers said that they use computers in every class) in the class room by teachers to teach the subjects. Other ICT resources like Computer projector takes a back seat and used less frequently by the teachers to teach the students. (18.8% of the respondents said that teachers use computer projector more frequently and 30% said that computer projector is used sometimes in the class room). Internet being power full resource of information is not found to be used to large extent by the teachers (29.71% said sometimes used, 14.3% said frequently used). TV and Radio being powerful mediums to teach the subjects are also not used to full extent (15.1% of the respondents said that teachers use TV to teach the students frequently and 17.7% of the students said that teachers used Radio to teach in the class frequently). Blackboard and books are most preferred resources to teach and this shows that teachers are still not adopting ICT usage in the class room (48% and 64.3% of the student respondents felt that Black board and printed papers are most preferred resources of the teachers. In the same way 43% and 39% of the teacher respondents said that black board and printed materials are the daily used resources to teach.). But

FGD- Focused Group Discussion. But there are some unsung heroes who are putting lot of efforts to integrate ICT in their class rooms. In Government High School of a small village named Icchangi (Savanur taluk of Haveri district), I observed that mathematics teacher22 was mailing practice test questions for SSLC students. Students were very much enthusiastic to show their skills on the computers and they explained me how they used internet to explore the information to do their projects.
21 22

23

Opinion of the teachers with related to usage of ICT resources in class room teaching reveals that computer projectors are not used by the majority of the teachers (54% of the respondents told that they never used computer projector in class room environment). Usage of PC in class room teaching and usage of internet in class room teaching also take back seat as per the opinion of the teachers. (Please see table-7). Among software usage in the class room (Please refer Table-2 and Table-8) to teach, MS words usage is more as compared to other modules like excel or paint brush ( 23.42% of the students respondents said that MS words is used in every class and 21% of the teachers respondents said that they use MS words in every class) . Education software (Education software given by education department) are more frequently used (23% of the student respondents and 36.14% of the teachers respondents said teachers frequently use education software to teach in the class rooms). Internet browsing being a major tool to search information is sometimes used in the class (37% of the student respondents and 45% of the teacher respondents felt that internet is sometimes used in the class rooms23 and 41% of the student respondents said that teachers never used internet to teach the subjects). E mail is not used extensively by the teachers either to mail the home work or to communicate with the students (40% of the teacher respondents said that they never used E mail to communicate and 52% of the student respondents said that their teachers never used E mail to teach/ to do teaching related activity). Paint Brush and Power Point software are not used extensively by the teachers to teach in the class room (51% and 48% of the teacher respondents said that they never use Paint brush and Power Point to teach. Simultaneously 56% and 70% of the student respondents said that teachers never use Paint Brush and Power Point to teach in the class room). 4.2.2 Subject wise ICT usage. ICT usage is more in Science class (Table-3 ) (8.67% of the respondent said ICT is daily used, 21.04% said ICT is frequently used in science class In English and social studies classes ICT is used more frequently (20% of the respondents said that ICT is frequently used in English class and 19.95% of the respondents said that ICT is more frequently used in Social Studies class ). In Maths subject, teachers use ICT less frequently (25.37% of the respondents said that ICT is sometimes used in Social Studies class). 4.2.3
23

Purposes of ICT usage by the students.

I found during Focused Group Discussions that education department has limited access of 100 hours of internet usage to each high schools. In comparison with the number of students, it is impossible to use the internet to maximum extent to teach the students.

24

When we observe the purposes for which ICT is used by the students (Table-4), drawing pictures is the main purpose for which computers are used by the students (77% of the students responded that they use computers to draw the pictures). Next purpose for which computers are used is to type (70% of the respondents felt that they used computers to type. Further, students use computers to do their projects, to search information to lesser extent (55% of the students felt that they used computers to their projects and 52% of the student said that they use computers to search information). Very few students use computers to learn the subjects and to e-mail (43% of the students said that they use computers to learn maths and science and 21% said that they use computers to do e- mail). 4.2.4 Problems in ICT usage in the class room. Research revealed that main problem for not using ICT in the class room (Table-5 and Table9) is lack of sufficient number of computers (88% of the student respondents revealed that numbers of computers are not sufficient in schools). Next major obstacle for non integration of ICT in the class room is repair of computers (63% of the student respondents said that repair of computers is the major problem for not using ICT in the class room). Non integration of ICT and syllabus found to be next major obstacle for teachers not using ICT in the class room (56% of the student respondents felt that class syllabus is not integrated with ICT). Further, even though government has addressed the problem of electricity by providing sufficient numbers of batteries, still electricity shortage is a major problem ( 44% of the student respondents felt that electricity problem is a major cause for non usage of ICT in class room). Some of the student respondent felt that internet band width speed is not sufficient (44% of the student respondents felt that internet band width speed is slow and it is also a cause for non usage of ICT in class rooms). But the response of the teachers differed from the opinion of the students. Non integration of ICT with the syllabus and Not giving relevant training to use ICT are the major problems for the not using ICT in class room (90% of the teachers respondents and 80% of the teachers respondents felt that Non integration of ICT with the syllabus and training to use ICT are the major problems). Not giving relevant

4.2.5 Equity of access to ICT resources. With respect to accessibility of computers, research data (please refer Table- 6) shows that students are not getting sufficient time get time to use the computers. I observed that all the

25

schools are given with 11 computers irrespective of the strength of the students. 27% of the respondents said that they get less than 30 minutes time per week to use computers. 35.6% of the respondents said that they get 60-90 minutes per week to use the computers. 24.3% of the respondents said that they get 90-120 minutes per week to use computers. This means that accessibility of computers to the students is less. 4.2.6 Computer usage by teachers outside the classroom activities. With respect to computer usage by teachers outside the class room activities, it is found that computers are used for administrative works and for keeping the student records (36% of the teacher respondents said that they use computers for maintaining student records and also for other administrative purposes). (Refer Table- 10). Good sign is that many of the teacher community said that they use internet to search information (50% of the Teacher respondents said that they frequently use internet to search information). It is important to note here that Teachers use computers less frequently outside the class room activities.

Chapter- 5 Conclusions.

26

This is the case study which will help the educational community to plan and design the frame works about the technology planning. The aim of the case study is to know whether teachers and students are using the ICT resources in class room environment. In this process, hardware, software and other infrastructure resources are very important topics to deal with as initial point. But just having the up to date technology does not lead to a solution, if you suffer from various other factors like teachers and students capabilities and access to technological resources. Simultaneously, integrating technology with the curriculum, teachers training, are also important for any institution to have successful ICT integration. Integration of Technology with the curriculum, Teacher Training and Accessibility of ICT resources are the important factors important factors to be considered before implementation of any ICT programmes in schools. The findings of the study once again prove the three major guidelines of AL-Bataineh and
Brooks (2003) . These
52

guidelines are Teachers must receive ongoing training, technology use

must match with the ongoing curriculum, and adequate numbers of computers must be located in the class room.

Chapter- 6 6.1 Data Analysis.


Table-1

27 Usage of ICT resources in the class rooms by the teachers to teach the subjects as perceived by students. ICT Resources Not Used even once In % Sometimes Used In % (Once in a month) Male 51.6 41.1 Femal e CD/DVD 45.19 33 47.72 36.22 42.2 23.8 8 47.2 42.2 68.3 51.1 48.3 36.1 1.66 5.55 45.55 53.73 82.56 46.97 50.88 34.87 2.84 9.25 46.24 49.2 77 48.89 49.89 35.35 2.38 7.08 22.2 2 29.4 4 17.7 7 Calculator 20.5 5 TV 18.8 8 Radio 32.2 2 Black Board 12.2 2 Printed Paper 8.88 8.89 8.89 28.1 1 27.4 0 46.9 7 6.76 8.89 29.4 4 29.4 4 Table-2 Software usage in the class.- Opinion of the students. MS words 51.1 1 Excel/ sheet spread 57.7 7 70.5 5 Paint brush 56.1 1 37 44.4 6.66 41.63 52.9 10 42.7 48.59 30.96 38.82 11.6 6 10 20.2 8 11.7 4 11.7 4 29.1 8 20.39 14.4 4 4.6 8.4 5.55 3.5 4.3 11.06 21.6 7.11 12.79 3.88 1.42 2.3 11 21.1 11 14.9 16.9 37.2 26.6 30.8 28.8 8 3.8 4.2 19.9 23.4 2 4.1 12 18.87 67.2 2 62.2 2 64.2 0 12.8 41.21 30 9.9 24.07 24.4 9.9 15.6 1 17.7 8 19.30 56.6 43 48.3 7.22 1.77 3.9 25.16 26.6 35.9 4 31.6 7 34.8 7 29.8 9 2.84 29.9 3 29.7 1 8.67 38.39 28.63 20.5 5 21.6 6 24.4 4 23.3 3 24.4 12.8 1 18.8 21.9 12.2 2 10 1.7 4.9 7.89 9.54 7.8 14.3 1 19.30 10.5 5 3.88 3.55 3.68 4.6 6.94 15.3 18.8 18.1 4 5.33 11.71 11.6 6 9.44 18.5 0 4.6 15.8 3 6.50 19 6.11 6.7 6.50 Total M F T Frequently used. In %. (Once in a week) M F T M F T Daily used. Used in every class. In %

PC/Compute r
ProjectorComputer Internet/Web environment Slide Projector

Power point

28

Education software Internet

46.1 1 45.5 5 52.7 7

30.24 38.43 62.63

36.44 41.2 1 58.78

20 39.4 4 7.22

37.7 6 35.9 4 14.2 3

30.58 37.3 1 11.49

25.5 5 22 27.7 7

18.5 0 13.5 2 13.6

21.2 5 16.91 18.87

5 8.33 6.66

3.5 2.1 3.2

4.1 4.55 4.55

E mail

Table-3. Subject wise of usage of ICT.- Opinion of the students. Subject Not Used even once In % Sometimes Used In % (Once in a month) Male Science Maths English Social Studies Languages (Kannada, Sanskrit, Hindi). 21.67 49.44 45.55 38.33 64.44 Female 26.69 46.26 39.50 27.04 55.87 Total 24.72 47.50 41.86 31.45 59.21 M 34.44 18.33 18.8 22.22 15 F 36.29 29.89 26.33 30.24 14.23 T 35.5 25.37 23.42 27.11 14.53 Frequently used. In %. (Once in a week) M 27.77 25.55 18.33 29.44 13.88 F 16.72 11.03 21.35 13.87 6.40 T 21.04 16.7 20.1 19.95 9.32 M 10.55 6.11 4.44 2.77 3.33 F 7.47 3.55 5.33 3.2 0.35 T 8.67 4.55 4.98 3.03 1.51 Daily used. Used in every class. In %

Table-4 For what purposes students use ICT. Purpose of usage. To search information To do projects To type To learn maths and science To draw pictures To e mail. 84.44 29.44 72.95 16.37 77.44 21.47 Male in % 60.55 60.55 78.33 60 Female in % 47.33 51.6 64.76 32.38 Total in % 52.49 55.09 70 43.59

Table-5 What are the problems to use ICT in class room?

29

Problems No training for teachers Numbers are less. Electricity problem. Internet problem. Repair of computers Syllabus not integrated with ICT. bandwidth of computers

Male % 25 92.22 52.22 50.5 62.22 54.44

Female % 22.77 85.4 38.79 40.56 64.76 57.65

Total % 23.64 88.07 44.03 44.47 63.77 56.40

Table- 6 How much time computers used per week by students to access computers. Time used per week In minutes 0-30 31-60 61-90 91-120 121-150 22.78 37.8 27.78 4.5 1.7 29.8 34.1 22 2 2 27 35 24 3 2 Male% Female% Total %

Table-7 Usage of ICT in class rooms as perceived by Teachers. S.No Parameters Never used Some times used. Monthly once 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 CD/DVD PC ( Personal Computer Computer aided Projector system. Internet/ Web environment. Slide projector Calculator TV/ Video / Audio Players Black board Printed materials 14.46 12.05 54.22 26.51 90.66 8 15.66 0 0 20.48 45.78 34.94 7.23 9.64 15.66 27.71 2.41 8.43 48.19 14.45 8.43 26.50 0 24.09 39.75 54.2 51.0 16.87 27.71 2.4 15.66 0 50.60 16.7 43.37 39.76 Frequently used. Weekly Always used. Daily

30

Table- 8 Usage of ICT for different purposes as opined by Teachers. S.No Parameters Never used 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Word Processors ( Word) Spreadsheets (Excel) Presentation software ( Power Point) Paint brush Educational software Internet browsing E- Mail 36 21 6 40 48 12 45 9 12 30 21 24 3 36 14 15 12 22 51 Sometimes used. Monthly once 30 50 48 Frequentl y used. Weekly 36 14 0 Always used. Daily 2 12 0

Table-9 What are the problems to use ICT in class room?Opinion of the Teachers. Problems No training for teachers Numbers are less. Electricity problem. Internet problem. Repair of computers Syllabus not integrated with ICT. 66 81 bandwidth 33 43 of computers % 80 48

Table- 10

Attitudes towards ICT use.

31

Computer usage by teachers outside the classroom activities.

S.No

Parameters Never used

Sometimes used. Monthly once

Frequentl y used. Weekly 15 10 18 50 6 36 36

Always used. Daily 0 2 3 27 0 13 19

1 2 3 4 5 6 7

Creating the presentations. Preparing the homework Preparing for examination. Searching internet. E-mail Keeping student records Other administrative tasks

65 72 42 2 54 26 22

19 14 36 26 39 24 21

6.2 Area covered and details of the high schools covered in data collection. Table-11 Descriptions of the participants and area covered.
District Taluk Name of the High School ICT implem ented or not Mal e Stud ents Femal e (S) Mal e Total Tea cher s Teache rs Female Total

Davanagere

Honnali

1)Kattige 2)Jeenahally 3)Surtur 4)Kenchikoppa

Yes No Yes Yes Yes

10

6 0 9

11 20 5

18 20 14 5

Harapanahall y Harihara Shimoga Shikaripura

5)Harapanahall y-1 6)Telagi 7)Huliginakopp a 8)Mallenahally 9)Shiralakoppa Boys School 10)Shiralakopp

Yes Yes

8 6

12 15

20 21

1 1

2 1

No No

No

32

a Girls School 11)Bilaki School High No

12)Balligave Bellary Hadagali 13)Mailar 14)Budanur 15)Sonna 16)Kolachi 17)Sogi 18)M M Vada 19)Hirehadagal i 20)Magala 21)NagathiBas apura 22)Bannimatty H B Hally Raichur Raichur 23)Itagi 24)Chandaraba nda 25)Bijanagera 26)Askihala 27)Singanodi 28)Singanodi 29)Matamari 30)Kalmala Chitradurga Koppala Challekere Koppala 31)Koonabevu 32)Hyati 33)Karkihala 34)Girls School Koppala 35)Boys High High

No Yes Yes Yes No No No No 9 3 10 24 5 20 33 8 30 4 1 2 3 1 4 7 2 6

No No

No Yes Yes 12 0 17 17 29 1 2 1 3 2 5

No Yes No No No No Yes Yes Yes No 19 0 5 0 14 5 19 14 10 2 1 2 1 3 1 3 4 3 10 11 21 1 1 2

No

33

School Koppala 36)Ginigera 37)Bannikatty 38)Halageri Haveri Haveri 39)Basapura 40)Kallihala 41)Kulenur 42)Katenahally 43)Muncipal High School Haveri 440Second Number High School Haveri 45)Adur Savanur 46)Ichangi 47)Yalagachha Hanagal 48)Araleshwar a 49)Kanavally 50)Hosayellapu ra No Yes Yes Yes 4 5 9 9 13 16 13 18 25 1 2 4 1 3 1 2 5 5 No No No No Yes Yes Yes Yes No 7 10 11 7 3 16 17 10 10 26 28 17 1 2 2 3 3 2 2 2 4 4 4 5

Byadagi Gadag Shirahatty

Yes Yes

14 11

7 9

21 20

2 1

2 1

4 2

Total

180

281

461

42

41

83

6.3 Questionnaire for Teachers.

34

Usage of Hardware and software in the class rooms. Table- T-1 Teachers perceived ICT usage in the class room.

S.No

Parameters Never used

Sometimes used. Monthly once

Frequentl y used. Weekly

Always used. Daily

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

CD/DVD PC ( Personal Computer Computer aided Projector system. Internet/ Web environment. Slide projector Calculator TV/ Video / Audio Players Black board Printed materials

Table- T-2 Integration of ICT in curriculum.

Software usage of teachers in class room activities perceived by teachers.(%) S.No Parameters Never used Sometimes used. Monthly once 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Word Processors ( Word) Spreadsheets (Excel) Presentation Point) Data base( Access) Educational software Internet browsing E- Mail software ( Power Frequentl y used. Weekly Always used. Daily

Table- T- 3

35

Attitudes towards ICT use. Computer usage by teachers outside the classroom activities.-S.No Parameters Never used Sometimes used. Monthly once 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Creating the presentations. Preparing the homework Preparing for examination. Searching internet. E-mail Keeping student records Other administrative tasks Table T- 4 Possible reasons for not using ICT in curriculum. S. No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Parameters Lack of training Number of computers is less. Lack Electricity Lack of bandwidth. Repair and maintenance problems. Syllabus is not designed to use ICT in my class. % Frequentl y used. Weekly Always used. Daily

36

6.4 Questionnaire for Students.


Usage of Hardware and software in the class rooms.

Table - S-1 Students perceptions about the teachers ICT usage in the classroom. S.No Parameters Never used Sometimes used. Monthly once 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Calculator DVD/CD PC ( Personal Computer) Computer aided Projector Internet/ Web environment. Slide projector Black board Printed materials TV/ Video/audio Frequently used. Weekly Always used. Daily

Table- S-2 Software usage of teachers in class room activities perceived by students.(%) S.No Parameters Never used Sometimes used. Monthly once 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Word Processors ( Word) Spreadsheets (Excel) Presentation Point) Data base( Access) Educational software Internet browsing E- Mail software ( Power Frequently used. Weekly Always used. Daily

37

Table - S-3 In which subjects ICT is used by the teachers?

S.No

Parameters Never used

Sometimes used. Monthly once

Frequently used. Weekly

Always used. Daily

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

All teachers use ICT in class room. Science Maths English History Language Sanskrit) No teachers use ICT in class room ICT as separate subject. Table - S- 4 Possible reasons for not using ICT in curriculum ( Kannada, Hindi,

S. No. 1 2 3 4 5 6

Parameters Lack of training Number of computers is less. Lack Electricity Lack of bandwidth. Repair and maintenance problems. Syllabus is not designed to use ICT in my class.

38

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