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WCDMA Power and Scrambling Code Planning


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Chapter 1 Physical Layer Overview Chapter 2 Power Planning Chapter 3 Scrambling Code Planning

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Page 1

Radio Interface Protocol Structure


GC Nt DC Duplication avoidance GC C plane C-plane signaling Nt DC U-plane U plane information UuS boundary

RRC contro ol ol contro control control

control

L3 Radio Bearers PDCP PDCP BMC L2/PDCP L2/BMC

RLC

RLC

RLC

RLC RLC RLC RLC

RLC

L2/RLC

Logical Channels MAC L2/MAC Transport Channels L1

PHY

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WCDMA Radio Interface has three kinds of channels


In terms of protocol layer, the WCDMA radio interface has three channels: Physical channel transport channel and logical channel channel, channel. Logical channel: Carrying user services directly. According to the types of the carried services, it is divided into two types: Control channel and service channel channel. Transport channel: It is the interface of radio interface layer 2 and physical layer, and is the service provided for MAC layer by the physical l h i l layer. A According t whether th i f di to h th the information t ti transported i t d is dedicated information for a user or common information for all users, it is divided into dedicated channel and common channel. Physical channel: It is the ultimate embodiment of all kinds of information when they are transmitted on radio interfaces. Each kind of channel which uses dedicated carrier frequency, code (spreading code and scramble) and carrier phase (I or Q) can b regarded as a d bl ) d i h be d d dedicated channel.

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Radio Interface Channel Organisation

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Logical Channel
Dedicated traffic channel Common traffic channel (DTCH) (CTCH) Traffic h T ffi channel l

Broadcast control channel Paging control channel Dedicate control channel Common control channel

(BCCH) (PCCH) (DCCH) (CCCH) Control channel

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Transport Channel
Dedicated Channel (DCH)

-DCH is an uplink or downlink channel

Dedicated transport channel

Broadcast channel B d t h l Forward access channel Paging channel Random access channel

(BCH) (FACH) (PCH) (RACH) Common transport channel

High-speed downlink shared channel (HS-DSCH)

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Physical Channel
A physical channel is defined by a specific carrier frequency, code (scrambling code, spreading code) and relative phase. In UMTS system, the different code (scrambling code or spreading code) can di ti d ) distinguish th channels. i h the h l Most channels consist of radio frames and time slots, and each radio frame consists of 15 time slots slots. Two types of physical channel: UL and DL Physical Channel

Frequency, Code, Phase q y

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Downlink Physical Channel


Downlink Dedicated Physical Channel

(Downlink DPCH)
Downlink C D li k Common Ph i l Ch Physical Channel l

Common Control Physical Channel (CCPCH) Synchronization Channel y Paging Indicator Channel Acquisition Indicator Channel Common Pilot Channel ( (SCH) ) (PICH) (AICH) (CPICH)

Downlink Physical Channel

High-Speed Packet Downlink Shared Channel (HS-PDSCH) High-Speed Shared Control Channel (HS-SCCH)

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Uplink Physical Channel p y


Uplink Dedicated Physical Channel Uplink Dedicated Physical Data Channel (Uplink DPDCH) Uplink Dedicated Physical Control p y Channel (Uplink DPCCH) High-Speed Dedicated Physical Channel (HS-DPCCH) Uplink Physical Channel Ch l

Uplink Common Physical Channel Physical Random Access Channel (PRACH)

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Channel Mapping DL
Logical L i l Channels Transport Channels Physical Channels

P-SCH S-SCH CPICH

BCCH PCCH CCCH

BCH PCH

P-CCPCH P CCPCH S-CCPCH PICH

FACH CTCH DCCH DTCH


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AICH HS-PDSCH

DSCH DCH
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DPDCH DPCCH

Channel Mapping UL
Logical Channels Transport Channels Physical Channels

CCCH

RACH

PRACH

DCCH

CPCH

PCPCH

DTCH

DCH

DPDCH I branch DPCCH Q branch

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Function of physical channel


Synchronization& Cell broadcast channels to all UE in a cell
P-CPICH-Primary Common Pilot Channel S-CPICH-Secondary Common Pilot Channel P-CCPCH-Primary P CCPCH Primary Common Control Physical Channel SCH- Synchronisation Channel (Including P-SCH and S-SCH Channel)

Paging channels
S-CCPCH-Secondary Common Control Physical Channel PICH-Paging Indicator Channel

Random access channels


PRACH-Physical Random Access Channel

Node B

AICH-Acquisition Indicator Channel

UE

Dedicated channels
DPDCH-Dedicated Physical Data Channel DPCCH-Dedicated Physical Control Channel

High speed downlink share channels


HS-SCCH-High Speed Share Control Channel HS-PDSCH-High Speed Physical Downlink Share Channel HS-DPCCH-High Speed Dedicated Physical Control Channel

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UE Acquisition and Synchronization


Initial Cell Synchronization

UE Monitor Primary SCH Code, detect peak in matched filter output Slot Synchronization Determined UE Monitor Secondary SCH Code, detect Scrambling Code Group and frame start time offset

P-SCH S-SCH S SCH CPICH

Frame Synchronization and Scrambling Code Group Determined

UE determines Scrambling Code by correlating all possible codes in group Scrambling Code Determined UE Monitors and decodes BCH data BCH data, Super frame synchronization determined data Super-frame UE adjust transmit timing to match timing of BS

P-CCPCH

Cell Synchronization complete This procedure is applied whenever a UE needs to access a cell or measure the q p pp quality of a cell, i.e. during cell y , g selection, cell re-selection and soft handover HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD. All rights reserved

Physical Channel(DL) Transmission Timing

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Primary Synchronization Channel (P-SCH)


Used f U d for cell search and synchronization ll h d h i ti Two sub channels: P-SCH and S-SCH. SCH is transmitted at the first 10% of (256 chips) of e er time slot every slot. PSC is transmitted repeatedly in each time slot. SSC specifies the scrambling code groups of the cell. SSC is chosen from a set of 16 different codes of length 256 there 256, are altogether 64 primary scrambling code groups.

Slot #0

Slot #1

Slot #14

Primary SCH Secondary SCH

ac p
i,0

ac p
i,1

ac p
i,14

ac s

ac s

acs

256 chips 2560 chips One 10 ms SCH radio frame

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Cell Synchronisation
Cell synchronisation is achieved with the Synchronisation Channel (SCH). This channel divides up into two sub-channels: 1. 1 Primary Synchronisation Channel (P-SCH) (SLOT and CHIP SYNCHRONIZATION)
A Primary Synchronisation Code (PSC) is transmitted the first 256 chips of a time slot. This is the case in every UMTS cell. If the UE detects the PSC, it has performed TS and chip synchronisation. This is typically done with a single matched filter matched to the primary synchronization code which is common for all cells cells. The slot timing of the cell can be obtained by decoding peaks in the matched filter output

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Cell Synchronisation
2. Secondary Synchronisation Channel ( y y (S-SCH) (FRAME SYNCH and Scrambling Code Group )( g p
DETECTION) The S-SCH also uses only the first 10% of a timeslot. There are 16 different SSCs, which are organised in a 10 ms frame (15 timeslots), giving us a sequence of 15 SSCs. There is a total of 64 different sequences of 15 SSCs, corresponding to the 64 primary scrambling code g p p g p y g groups.
Scrambling Code Group Group 0 Group 1 Group 2 Group 3 Group 4 Group 61 Group 62 Group 63 p #0 1 1 1 1 1 9 9 9 #1 1 1 2 2 2 10 11 12 #2 2 5 1 3 16 13 12 10 #3 8 16 15 1 6 10 15 15 #4 9 7 5 8 6 11 12 13 #5 10 3 5 6 11 15 9 14 slot number #6 #7 #8 15 8 10 14 16 3 12 16 6 5 2 5 15 5 12 15 13 9 9 13 14 16 11 15 #9 16 10 11 8 1 12 14 11 #10 #11 #12 #13 #14 2 7 15 7 16 5 12 14 12 10 2 16 11 15 12 4 4 6 3 7 15 12 16 11 2 14 10 11 13 16 13 16 15 12 14 14 16 11 16 10

The beginning of a 10 ms frame can be determined (frame synchronization) based on sequence of SSC 64 different SSC combinations within 10ms are identified The unique combination of SSCs identify the Scrambling Code Group

Slot # ? Slot #? P-SCH P SCH S-SCH

Slot #?

acp 16

acp 6

acp 11

..

256 chips 2560 chips

Group 2 Slot 7, 8, 9
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Scrambling Code
Scrambling code: Gold sequence. Scrambling code period: 10ms (38400 chips). The code used for scrambling of the uplink DPCCH/DPDCH may be of g yp g p either long or short type, There are 224 long and 224 short uplink scrambling codes. Uplink scrambling codes are assigned by higher layers. For downlink physical channels, a total of 218-1 = 262,143 scrambling codes can be generated. Only scrambling codes 0, 1, , 8191 are being used. Note: RNP engineer should plan the scrambling codes for each cell.

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Scrambling Code (SC)


scrambling code 0 Set 0 scrambling code 1

Scrambling Codes for downlink

Set 1

bli d scrambling code 15

Set 511

scrambling code 51116 scrambling code 51116

8192 Scrambling Codes

512 sets

scrambling code 5111615

Each set includes a primary scrambling code and 15 secondary scrambling codes.
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Primary Scrambling Code Group


PSC 0 Group 0 Primary Scrambling Codes for downlink Group 1 PSC 1 PSC 7

Group 63 G

PSC 63*8 PSC 63*8+1

PSC 63*87 512 Primary Scrambling Codes 64 Primary Scrambling Code Groups Each group consists of 8 Primary Scrambling Codes

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Common Pilot Channel (CPICH)


Divides up into a mandatory Primary Common Pilot Channel (P-CPICH) and optional Secondary CPICH (S-CPICH). Carries pre-defined sequence. Fixed rate 30Kbps SF=256 Primary CPICH (P-CPICH) Uses th fi d channel code -- C h 256 0 U the fixed h l d Cch, 256, Scrambled by the primary scrambling code Only one CPICH per cell Broadcast over the entire cell Used by UE to determine the Primary Scrambling Code Used as phase reference for most of the physical channels Used as measurement reference in the FDD mode (and partially in the TDD mode).
Pre-defined symbol sequence
Tslot = 2560 chips , 20 bits p

Slot #0

Slot #1

Slot # i 1 radio frame: Tr = 10 ms

Slot #14

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Primary Common Pilot Channel (P-CPICH)


10 ms Frame 2560 Chips Synchronisation Channel (SCH) CP 256 Chips

P-CPICH P CPICH

Cell scrambling code? I get it with trial & error! symbol-by-symbol correlation applied speading code = cells cell s primary scrambling code Cch,256,0 h 256 0

P-CPICH

A spreading code is the product of the cells primary scrambling code and the channelisation code. The channelisation code is fixed: Cch,256,0,UE uses the spread received signal (P-CPICH) to determine the cells primary scrambling code by trial and error (UE tries 8 SC Codes of the group identified) identified).

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P-CPICH as measurements reference


UE has to perform a set of L1 measurements, some of them refer to the C C channel: f f f f CPICH CPICH RSCP
RSCP stands for Received Signal Code Power. The UE measures the RSCP on the Primary-CPICH. The g y reference point for the measurement is the antenna connector of the UE. The CPICH RSCP is a power measurement of the CPICH. The received code power may be high, but it does not yet indicate the quality of the received signal, which depends on the overall noise level.

UTRA carrier RSSI.


RSSI stands for Received Signal Strength Indicator. The UE measures the received wide band power, which includes thermal noise and receiver generated noise. The reference point for the measurements is the antenna connector of the UE UE.

CPICH Ec/No
The CPICH Ec/No is used to determine the quality of the received signal. It gives the received energy per received chip divided by the bands power density. The quality is the primary CPICHs signal strength in band s density quality CPICH s relation to the cell noise. (Please note, that transport channel quality is determined by BLER, BER, etc. )

GSM carrier RSSI The wideband measurements are conducted on GSM BCCH carriers.

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P-CPICH as Measurement Reference


CPICH Ec/No CPICH RSCP UTRA carrier RSSI Received energy per chip divided by the power density in the band (dBm) Received Signal Code Power (dBm) Total Received wide band power, including thermal noise and noise generated in the receiver CPICH Ec/No = CPICH Ec/No 0: -24 1: -23 5 23.5 2: -23 3: -22.5 ... 47: -0.5 48: 0 Ec/No values in dB
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CPICH RSCP UTRA carrier RSSI CPICH RSCP 0: -115 1: -114 114 2: -113 : 88: -27 89: -26 UTRA carrier RSSI 0: -110 1: -109 2: -108 : 71: -39 72: -38 73: -37 RSSI values in dBm

RSCP values in dBm


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Primary Common Control Physical Channel (P-CCPCH)


The UE gain the cell system information (MIB SIB) which is transmitted on the physical channel P(MIB,SIB), P CCPCH. By reading the cell system information on the P-CCPCH, the UE learns everything about the configuration of the remaining common physical channels in the cell. Fixed rate, fixed OVSF code30kbpsCch256,1 Broadcast over the entire cell Carry BCH transport channel The PCCPCH is not transmitted during the first 256 chips of each time slot. Only data part
256 chips SCH T PCCPCH Data 18 bits slot = 2560 chips,20 bits

Slot #0

Slot #1

Slot #i 1 radio frame: T f = 10 ms

Slot #14

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Primary Common Control Physical Channel (P-CCPCH)


10 ms Frame 2560 Chips Synchronisation Channel (SCH) CP P-CCPCH 256 Chips

Channelisation code: Cch,256,1 no TPC no pilot sequence TPC, il t 27 kbps (due to off period) organised in MIBs and SIBs

Finally, Fi ll I get the t th cell system information

P-CCPCH

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Secondary Common Control Physical Channel (S-CCPCH)


Carry FACH and PCH. Two kinds of S-CCPCH: with or without TFCI UTRAN decides if a TFCI should be transmitted UE must support TFCI transmitted, TFCI. Possible rates are the same as that of downlink DPCH S-CCPCH is on air ONLY when there is data to transmit (FACH or Paging) FACH and PCH can be multiplexed t th d b lti l d to the same or separate SCCPCHs. If multiplexed to the same S-CCPCH, they can be mapped to the same fame. The first S-CCPCH must have a spreading S CCPCH m st ha e factor of 256, while the spreading factor of the remaining S-CCPCHs can range between 256 (30 Kbps or 15 Ksps) and 4 (1920 Kbps) We use SF = 64 120 Kbps (60 Ksps)

TFCI N TFCI bits

Data N Data bits T slot = 2560 chips, 20*2 k bits (k=0..6)

Pilot N Pilot bits

Slot #0

Slot #1

Slot #i 1 radio frame: T f = 10 ms

Slot #14

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Paging Indicator Channel (PICH)


PICH is a fixed-rate (30kbps,SF=256) physical channel used to carry the Paging Indicators (PI). Frame structure of PICH: one frame of length 10ms consists of 300 bits of which 288 bits are used to carry paging indicators and the remaining 12 bits are not defined. N paging indicators {PI0, , PIN-1} in each PICH frame, N=18, 36, 72, or 144. If a paging indicator in a certain frame is set to 1 it indicates that UEs associated with 1, this paging indicator should read the corresponding frame of the associated S-CCPCH.
288 bits for paging indication
b0 b1

12 bits (undefined)
b 287 b 288 b 299

One radio frame (10 ms)

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S-CCPCH and its associated PICH


S-CCPCH PICH = 7680 chips S-CCPCH frame, associated with PICH frame

PICH frame

for paging indication no transmission

b0

b1

b286

b287

b288

b299

# of paging indicators per frame (Np) Paging group

Subscribers with Pq indicator paged => {b16q, ,b16q+15} = {1,1,,1} b 15} {1 1 1} {b8q, , b8q+7} = {1,1,,1} {b4q, , b4q+3} = {1,1,,1} {b2q, b2q+1} = {1,1}

Subscribers with Pq indicator not paged => {b16q, {b16 ,b16q+15} = {0 0 b16 15} {0,0,,0} 0} {b8q, , b8q+7} = {0,0,,0} {b4q, , b4q+3} = {0,0,,0} {b2q, b2q+1} = {0,0}

#bit too less ,may be cannot detect if have fading

18 (16 bits) bit ) 32 (8 bits) 72 (4 bits) 144 (2 bits)

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Physical Random Access Channel (PRACH)


The random-access transmission data consists of two parts: One or several preambleseach preamble is of length 4096chips and consists of 256 repetitions of a signature whose length is 16 chips16 available signatures totally i ll 10 or 20ms message part Which signature is available and the length of message part are determined by hi h l higher layer

Preamble 4096 chips

Preamble

Preamble P bl

Message part M t

10 ms (one radio frame) Preamble Message part 20 ms (two radio frames)

Preamble 4096 chips

Preamble

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Acquisition Indicator Channel (AICH)


Frame structure of AICHtwo frames, 20 ms consists of a repeated sequence of 15 consecutive AS, each of length 20 symbols(5120 chips). Each time slot consists of two parts an Acquisition-Indicator(AI) and a partsan part of duration 1024chips with no transmission. Acquisition-Indicator AI have 16 kinds of Signature. CPICH is the phase reference of AICH.
AI part
a0 a1 a2 a30 a31 a32 a33

Unused part
a38 a39

AS #14

AS #0

AS #1

AS #i 20 ms

AS #14

AS #0

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Uplink Dedicated Physical Channel (DPDCH&DPCCH)


DPDCH and DPCCH are I/Q code multiplexed within each radio frame DPDCH carries d t generated at L i data t d t Layer 2 and hi h l d higher layer DPCCH carries control information generated at Layer 1 Each frame i 10 E hf is 10ms and consists of 15 time slots, each time slot d i f i l h i l consists of 2560 chips The spreading factor of DPDCH is from 4 to 256 The spreading factor of DPDCH and DPCCH can be different in the same Layer 1 connection y Each DPCCH time slot consists of Pilot, TFCI, FBI, TPC

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Frame Structure of Uplink DPDCH/DPCCH

DPDCH

Data N databits Pilot Npilot bits TFCI NTFCI bits FBI NFBI bits TPC NTPC bits

DPCCH

Tslot = 2560 chips, 10 k *2 bits (k=0..6)

Slot #0 Slot #1

Slot #i 1 radio frame: Tf = 10 ms

Slot #14

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Downlink Dedicated Physical Channel (DPDCH+DPCCH)


DCH consists of dedicated data and control information. Control information includesPilotTPCTFCI(optional). The spreading factor of DCH can be from 512 to 4,and can be changed during connection DPDCH and DPCCH is time multiplexed multiplexed.

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Frame Structure of Downlink DPCH

DPDCH Data1 D t 1 Ndata1 bits

DPCCH TPC NTPC bits TFCI NTFCI bits

DPDCH Data2 D t 2 Ndata2 bits

DPCCH Pilot Pil t Npilot bits

Tslot = 2560 chips, 10*2 k bits (k=0..7)

Slot #0

Slot #1

Slot #i One radio frame, Tf = 10 ms

Slot #14

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Physical Layer Data Bit Rates (R99)

Spreading factor (SF) = Chip Rate/Symbol Rate


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High-Speed Physical Downlink Shared Channel (HS-PDSCH)


Bear service data and layer2 overhead bits mapped from the transport c a e channel SF=16, several channels can be configured to enhance data service

Data N Data 1 bits T slot = 2560 chips, M*10*2 k bits (k=4)

Slot #0

Slot#1 1 subframe: Tf = 2 ms

Slot #2

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High-Speed Shared Control Channel (HS-SCCH)


Carries physical layer signalling to a single UE ,such as modulation scheme (1 bit) ,channelization code set (7 bit), transport Block size (6bit),HARQ process number (3bit), redundancy version (3bit), new data indicator (1bit), Ue identity (16bit) HS-SCCH is a fixed rate (60 kbps, SF=128) downlink physical channel used to carry downlink signalling related to HS DSCH transmission HS-DSCH

Data N Data 1bits T slot = 2560 chips, 40 bits

Slot Sl t #0

Slot#1 Sl t#1 1 subframe: T f = 2 ms

Slot Sl t #2

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High-Speed Dedicated Physical Control Channel (HS-DPCCH )


HS-DPCCH carries information to acknowledge downlink transport blocks and feedback information to the system for scheduling and link adaptation of transport block CQI and ACK/NACK Physical Ch Ph i l Channel, U li k SF 256 with power control l Uplink, SF=256, ith t l
T
s lo t

= 2 5 6 0 c h ip s

2T

s lo t

= 5 1 2 0 c h ip s CQI

H A R Q -A C K

O n e H S -D P C C H s u b fra m e (2 m s )

S u b fra m e # 0

S u b fra m e # i O n e ra d io fra m e T
f

S u b fra m e # 4

= 10 ms

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Chapter 1 Physical Layer Overview Chapter 2 Scrambling Code Planning Chapter 3 Power Planning

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Scrambling Code Planning Introduction


3GPP TS25.213 specifies that there are 512 downlink primary scrambling codes. Each primary scrambling code has 15 associated secondary scrambling codes. There are also additional scrambling codes which may be used during compressed mode mode. Each cell within the radio network plan must be assigned a primary scrambling code. There is no need for planners to assign secondary scrambling codes nor the compressed mode scrambling codes. If we plan the Scrambling Codes efficiently, then the cell search and syncronization p process time will be reduced. Scrambling code planning may require co-ordination at international borders. Scrambling code planning can be completed independently for each RF carrier. Scrambling code planning can be completed using either an automatic function in radio network planning tool (Genex U-Net) or a home-made tool e.g. mapbasic. It can also be completed manually for small areas areas. Genex U-Net is able to plan scrambling codes according to a specific strategy and exclude specific scrambling codes for future expansion.

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Scrambling Code Planning Concept


The most important rule for scrambling code p p g planning is that the isolation between cells which are g assigned the same scrambling code should be sufficiently great to ensure that a UE never simultaneously receives the same scrambling code from more than a single cell. DL scrambling code p g planning can be optimized so that cell reselections take less time. For initial cell g p selection, if the UE does not contain any stored information about the cell, then it will need to scan the whole 64 groups. In this scenario, SC planning does not affect the UEs performance The scrambling code p g planning strategy should account for future network expansion. Future network g gy p expansion could mean the inclusion of additional Node B, increased sectorization of existing Node B, or the evolution of Node B Type. Some Scrambling codes should be reserved for this purpose to minimize the impact on the original plan. Additional rules for scrambling code planning are required at locations close to international borders where there may be another 3G operator using the same RF carrier Scrambling code p g planning can be completed independently for different RF carriers. If a radio network g p p y includes Node B which are configured with two or three RF carriers then it is recommended that the same scrambling code plan is assigned to each carrier. This reduces system complexity and helps to reduce the work associated with planning and optimizing the network Scrambling code planning should be completed in conjunction with neighbor list planning. Scrambling code audits should be completed in combination with neighbor list audits. Checks should be made to ensure that no cells are neighbored to two or more cells which have neighbor lists including the same scrambling code for different target cells. HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD. All rights reserved

Scrambling Code Mapping


Code Group 1

j=PSC Group k=PSC Set

Primary Scrambling Code are seen for Planning engineer (i=0511) (i 0 511)

Real P i R l Primary Scrambling Code are implemented in RNC(i=08176)

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Scrambling Code Mapping


DL scrambling code (3GPP 25 213) bli d 25.213)
Primary Scrambling Code Secondary Scrambling Code The jth Scrambling Code Group , kth primary scrambling code set N = 16 * i , where i = 0,1,,511 N = 16*I + k , where i = 0,1,,511, k = 1,2,,15 N = 16*8*j + 16*k where j = 0 1 63 k = 0 1 7 16 8 j 16 k, 0,1,,63, 0,1,,7 Scrambling Code Group Group 0 ( j = 0 ) Group 1 ( j = 1 ) Group 63 ( j = 63 ) N = 0, 16, 32, 48, , 112 N = 128, 144, 160, , 240 N = 8064, 8080, 8096, , 8176 [ 8 codes] [ 8 codes] [ 8 codes]

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Scrambling Code Planning Strategy


The scrambling codes for the same site are allocated in the same scrambling code group The current cell s scrambling code cannot be reused by its neighbor cells and neighbor cells cells of other cells which belong to active set; The scrambling codes of current cells neighbor cells cannot be reused by neighbor cells of other cells which belong to active set; The scrambling code planning can be done to minimize the number of code groups used OR to make sure each code of the neighboring cells are from a different. The 3GPP g g specifications do not specify which approach is preferred, and it depends on the UEs implementation. The difference has not been quantified in the field and in practice, is likely to be very small (Huawei recommended different scrambling code group for neighbor sites)

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Scrambling Code Planning Method


1. Random Code Planning Randomly allocate the codes from any code groups to the cells. A planner must be aware of the distance g (coverage) between 2 cells using the same SC while utilizing this method. 2. Reuse Code Group Planning Divide 64 code groups into several sets based on the scale of a network (Hierarchical Cell Structure) and purpose of future expansion plan. ff

Reuse Code Group Planning is proposed by Huawei

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Scrambling Code Planning Method


1. Manual Method
When number of site is not much, the manual method can be used e.g. on MapInfo or homemade tools Locate the sites on MapInfo For each cell, roughly identify the neighboring cells. This step relies heavily cells on local knowledge, after some drive tests, we should be able to identify the neighbors y more accurately. Plan the SC in such a way that the primary cell and its neighbors are from the different g p code group. Remember to reserve some codes for future expansion. Have some minimum distance between two cells if the SC is to be reused. E.g. 5km in g urban areas. No need to plan too tightly. Repeat this process for the rest of the cell.

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Scrambling Code Planning Method


2. Genex U-net ( A t 2 G U t Automatic S ti Scrambling Planning Tool) bli Pl i T l)
An automatic scrambling code planning tool is available in U-Net. The code allocation is based on each cell existing neighborhood. The following constraints are applied when running the automatic planning algorithm: Domain constraint :this is required to distinguish different zones Groups: it is possible to define scrambling code groups Exceptional pairs: it is possible to define cell pairs that cannot have the same scrambling code Reuse distance : a minimum reuse distance is defined Additional constraints such as Ec/No

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Border Scrambling Code Planning


The same scrambling code might be assigned at the border areas degrading system performance. To avoid this, there needs to be prior agreement between responsible persons on the allowable scrambling codes used near the border. Make sure there is enough re-use distance for the used codes on both sides of the border. Have a li t of preferred codes/code groups f b d scrambling code H list f f d d / d for border bli d planning.

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Example of Scrambling Code Planning p g g

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Cluster1 Sector/Group S1 S2 S3 S4 Cluster2 Sector/Group S1 S2 S3 S4 Cluster3 Sector/Group S1 S2 S3 S4 Cluster4 Sector/Group S1 S2 S3 S4

Example I

Cluster5 A1 A2 A3 A4 A5 A6 A7 A8 A9 A10 A11 A12 A13 A14 A15 A16 Sector/Group 0 8 16 24 32 40 48 56 64 72 80 88 96 104 112 120 S1 1 9 17 25 33 41 49 57 65 73 81 89 97 105 113 121 S2 2 10 18 26 34 42 50 58 66 74 82 90 98 106 114 122 S3 3 11 19 27 35 43 51 59 67 75 83 91 99 107 115 123 S4 Cluster6 B1 B2 B3 B4 B5 B6 B7 B8 B9 B10 B11 B12 B13 B14 B15 B16 Sector/Group 128 136 144 152 160 168 176 184 192 200 208 216 224 232 240 248 S1 129 137 145 153 161 169 177 185 193 201 209 217 225 233 241 249 S2 130 138 146 154 162 170 178 186 194 202 210 218 226 234 242 250 S3 131 139 147 155 163 171 179 187 195 203 211 219 227 235 243 251 S4 Cluster7 C1 C2 C3 C4 C5 C6 C7 C8 C9 C10 C11 C12 C13 C14 C15 C16 Sector/Group 256 264 272 280 288 296 304 312 320 328 336 344 352 360 368 376 S1 257 265 273 281 289 297 305 313 321 329 337 345 353 361 369 377 S2 258 266 274 282 290 298 306 314 322 330 338 346 354 362 370 378 S3 259 267 275 283 291 299 307 315 323 331 339 347 355 363 371 379 S4 Cluster8 (IBC) D1 D2 D3 D4 D5 D6 D7 D8 D9 D10 D11 D12 D13 D14 D15 D16 Sector/Group 384 392 400 408 416 424 432 440 448 456 464 472 480 488 496 504 S1 385 393 401 409 417 425 433 441 449 457 465 473 481 489 497 505 S2 386 394 402 410 418 426 434 442 450 458 466 474 482 490 498 506 S3 387 395 403 411 419 427 435 443 451 459 467 475 483 491 499 507 S4

D1 D2 D3 D4 D5 D6 D7 D8 D9 D10 D11 D12 D13 D14 D15 D16 4 12 20 28 36 44 52 60 68 76 84 92 100 108 116 124 5 13 21 29 37 45 53 61 69 77 85 93 101 109 117 125 6 14 22 30 38 46 54 62 70 78 86 94 102 110 118 126 7 15 23 31 39 47 55 63 71 79 87 95 103 111 119 127 D1 132 133 134 135 D1 260 261 262 263 D1 388 389 390 391 D2 140 141 142 143 D2 268 269 270 271 D2 396 397 39 398 399 D3 148 149 150 151 D3 276 277 278 279 D3 404 405 0 406 407 D4 156 157 158 159 D4 284 285 286 287 D4 412 413 13 414 415 D5 164 165 166 167 D5 292 293 294 295 D5 420 421 21 422 423 D6 172 173 174 175 D6 300 301 302 303 D6 428 429 29 430 431 D7 180 181 182 183 D7 308 309 310 311 D7 436 437 3 438 439 D8 188 189 190 191 D8 316 317 318 319 D8 444 445 446 447 D9 196 197 198 199 D9 324 325 326 327 D9 452 453 3 454 455 D10 204 205 206 207 D10 332 333 334 335 D10 460 461 61 462 463 D11 212 213 214 215 D11 340 341 342 343 D11 468 469 69 470 471 D12 220 221 222 223 D12 348 349 350 351 D12 476 477 478 479 D13 228 229 230 231 D13 356 357 358 359 D13 484 485 8 486 487 D14 236 237 238 239 D14 364 365 366 367 D14 492 493 93 494 495 D15 244 245 246 247 D15 372 373 374 375 D15 500 501 01 502 503 D16 252 253 254 255 D16 380 381 382 383 D16 508 509 09 510 511

According to the location of sites, divide 12 sites or l it di id it less i t into a group, and then allocate a scrambling code group Cluster for each group of sites according to that the reuse distance for each cluster is the longest. longest HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD. All rights reserved Page 51

Example II
512 Primary DL Scrambling Codes divided into (3GPP) 64 Codes Groups Each Code Group consists 8 code sets Proposed SC planning Considering future expansion, a number of code groups i b f d is reserved. (not all 64 code groups will be used) 264 codes will be used in this phase planning (code group 032) Remaining 248 codes (code g p group 33-63) are reserved for ) future expansion purpose Scrambling Code Utilization is 51.6%

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Example II

Scrambling Code reuse in this phase is

264 codes
i.e. 8 codes (from code set 0-7) in each 33 code groups (code group 0-32)

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Example II- Code allocation


Considering Cell search procedure, the scrambling code allocation requires:
sector : S.C G0-1

1. 2.

No duplicated DL scrambling code


a

No same code group among the neighboring cells.


sector : S.C G1-1

sector : S.C G2-1

SC Gj-k Where j = Scrambling code group (0,1,2,,63) ,,63) k =Primary scrambling code set (0,,7) (0,,7

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Example II
11Site in 1 SC-Set (33codes) 88Site in 1 Reuse (264codes)

Scrambling Code Planning Method


The network is divided into clusters
Each primary SC set b ild up a cluster of E h i t builds l t f different SC group 33 cells (11 of 3-sector sites) with different code group b t same code set, scrambling code but d t bli d could be assigned and built-up a sub area

8 sub areas (code set = 0-7) are built up ( ) p a cluster of 33 x 8 = 264 cells (88 sites)

Hence
Different Scrambling code and different scrambling code group within a BS and its neighboring cells could be achieved
SC-Set SC S 0 SC-Set 1 SC-Set 2 SC-Set SC S 4 SC-Set 5 SC-Set 6 SC-Set 7

Numerical value is SC Code Group No#.

SC-Set 3

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Example II Future Expansion


Scrambling code planning for the future new sites can be done with minimum changes of existing network by g g y Allocating the reserved code for the new sites Scrambling Code set used for new site is set same as the sub area to which it belongs. Code group to be selected for the new site should be considered with other new sites and surrounding cells cells. Thus, different code group among neighbor cells still achieve.

cluster

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Example III
64 Code Groups are divided into 3 sets. Set A: 36 groups reserved for Macro layer outdoor sites which can support
36 x 8codes = 288 codes = 288 cells = 96 sites for 1-time reuse

Set B: 18 groups for future expansion sites which can support


18 x 8codes = 144 codes = 144 cells = 48 sites for 1-time reuse

Set C: 9 groups for In-building, Micro and tested cells which can support
9 x 8codes = 72 codes = 72 cells = 24 sites for 1-time reuse
1 .. Set A 36 36 37 SC Group .. Set B 18 54 55 .. Set C 9 63

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Example III Outdoor sites SC Plan With Future Expansion


Planning Strategies:
1. 2.

Reuse patterns allocation based on the defined clusters. One reuse pattern can support 12 sites (36 groups) which means 2 reuse patterns in average are allocated for one particular cluster. (Because each cluster has around 20 sites in average, 2 reuse patterns g g ) together will have a margin of 4 sites for further added sites or cells.)

3. 4.

Deploy 8 reuse patterns. Avoid allocating 2 same code g p too close and a separation of 2 g groups p patterns is a safe margin.

5. Grouping 8 sites instead of 10 sites for 1 reuse pattern in the dense urban area (further expansion concern for this phase)

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Example III Outdoor sites SC Plan With Future Expansion


Rsv CG-0 CG-1 CG-2 CG-3 CG-4 CG-5 CG 5 CG-6 CG-7 CG-8 CG-9 CG-10 CG-11 CG-12 CG 12 CG-13 CG-14 CG-15 CG-16 CG-17 CG-18 CG-19 CG 19 CG-20 CG-21 CG-22 CG-23 CG-24 CG-25 CG-26 CG 26 CG-27 CG-28 CG-29 CG-30 CG-31 CG-32 CG-33 CG 33 CG-34 CG-35 CG-36 0 0 8 16 24 32 40 48 56 64 72 80 88 96 104 112 120 128 136 144 152 160 168 176 184 192 200 208 216 224 232 240 248 256 264 272 280 288 1 1 9 17 25 33 41 49 57 65 73 81 89 97 105 113 121 129 137 145 153 161 169 177 185 193 201 209 217 225 233 241 249 257 265 273 281 289 2 2 10 18 26 34 42 50 58 66 74 82 90 98 106 114 122 130 138 146 154 162 170 178 186 194 202 210 218 226 234 242 250 258 266 274 282 290 S.C. S C Set 3 4 3 4 11 12 19 20 27 28 35 36 43 44 51 52 59 60 67 68 75 76 83 84 91 92 99 100 107 108 115 116 123 124 131 132 139 140 147 148 155 156 163 164 171 172 179 180 187 188 195 196 203 204 211 212 219 220 227 228 235 236 243 244 251 252 259 260 267 268 275 276 283 284 291 292 5 5 13 21 29 37 45 53 61 69 77 85 93 101 109 117 125 133 141 149 157 165 173 181 189 197 205 213 221 229 237 245 253 261 269 277 285 293 6 6 14 22 30 38 46 54 62 70 78 86 94 102 110 118 126 134 142 150 158 166 174 182 190 198 206 214 222 230 238 246 254 262 270 278 286 294 7 7 15 23 31 39 47 55 63 71 79 87 95 103 111 119 127 135 143 151 159 167 175 183 191 199 207 215 223 231 239 247 255 263 271 279 287 295 Cell a b c a b c a b c a b c a b c a b c a b c a b c a b c a b c a b c a b c

36 / 3 = 12 sites

Macro Sites o

36 Code Groups with 8 reuse patterns, i.e. 1 reuse pattern can support:

8 Reuse Patterns
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Example III Outdoor sites SC Plan With Future Expansion


For the convenience of mapping the 8 reuse patterns onto the network, 8 different colors are assigned to each reuse pattern pattern.
R1 R2 R3 R4 R5 R6 R7 R8

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Example III Outdoor sites SC Plan With Future Expansion


Times of Usage 6 5 6 5 5 5 5 6

Pattern
R1 R2 R3 R4 R5 R6 R7 R8

Color

The average reuse SC pattern for this phase is 5.375 as shown in the snapshot and table table. Besides, each patterns times of usage is almost the same as 5 375 which 5.375 refers to every pattern has been fully utilized.

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Example III Outdoor sites SC Plan With Future Expansion


Following 2 graphs are the comparison of SC plan in the red circled dense urban areas (Cluster KL12 & KL13) based on the reuse pattern of 10 sites and 8 sites respectively.

Original SC Plan

Revised SC Plan

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Example III Outdoor sites SC Plan With Future Expansion


This picture is the example of the reuse distance. It s obvious that the separation with 2 or 3 distance Its patterns located in between.

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Chapter 1 Physical Layer Overview Chapter 2 Scrambling Code Planning Chapter 3 Power Planning

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WCDMA Power Planning (Downlink)


In a WCDMA system, the capacity on downlink is limited by Node B power which is the common shared resource between the different services and users In order to ensure system stability, we do not allow the mean transmitting power of the Node B to be more than 80% of the maximum transmitting power Part of power used for the control channel transmission reduces the overall network capacity for paying traffic traffic. The coverage of control channels must be large compared to the traffic channels in order for the mobile station to decode other base stations before entering the soft/softer handover zone The broadcast channel including the cell information has to be decoded before the mobile enters the coverage area of the cell, as a consequence it is necessary to plan how the power in the downlink is distributed between the common channels

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WCDMA Power Planning (Downlink) 20 W total


R99 R99+HSDPA HSDPA Only

7W 16 W
DCHs

HS-DSCH

15 W HS-DSCH

9W

DCHs

2W 2W

CCHs CPICH

2W 2W

CCHs CPICH

3W 2W

CCHs+DCHs (associated)

CPICH

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Downlink Common Channel Powers


The downlink common channels include the CPICH,P-SCH,S-SCH,P-CCPCH,S-CCPCH,PICH and AICH. There may be more than one S-CCPCH The P-CCPCH encapsulates the BCH whereas the S-CCPCH encapsulates the PCH, the user P CCPCH S CCPCH plane FACH and the control plane FACH.Other downlink common channels only exists at the physical layer A fixed downlink transmit power is assigned to each common channel This transmit power must channel. be sufficient for the common channels to be received reliably across the entire cell. The common channels consume a significant quantity of downlink transmit power (typically 2025% of the total downlink transmit power capability) f th t t l d li k t it bilit ) The activity of the common channels must be taken into account when computing their average power The timing of the common channels must be taken into account when computing their peak power The common channel powers define the upper limit for the CPICH Ec/No (typically -3 dB) The transmit power assigned to the PICH has the potential to be tuned according to the number of paging indicators per radio frame but this has relatively little impact upon the total common channel power h l
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Downlink Common Channel Powers

10% Cell Power Max

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Downlink Common Channel Power


During network planning stage, Uplink service, downlink service and P CPICH link budgets P-CPICH should be generated and agreed on a per project basis. Power allocation of CPICH depends on the result of Link Budget which typically about 10% of the total downlink transmit power capability. Common channel power calculations should be completed and presented to the operator on a per project basis. Power allocation of other Downlink Common Channels depends on the required demodulation Threshold (Eb/No) at receiver and channel bit rate. The simulation and field test result indicate the suitable power allocation for each common channels which relative to P-CPICH power Increases to the default common channel powers can be accepted as long as the operator is made aware of the implications upon the total downlink transmit power. Decreases to the default common channel powers should be avoided unless there is sufficient justification from field trials

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Downlink Common Channels


The average power allocation is depends on the activity of the common channels

Downlink common channels CPICH P-SCH S-SCH P-CCPCH PICH AICH S-CCPCH Total Common channels Power Remaining power for traffic channels

Relative to CPICH Activity Average Power allocation with 20W max Power 0 dB -5 dB -5 dB -2 dB -7 dB -6 dB 1 dB 100% 10% 10% 90% 100% 100% 10% 2.0 20W 0.06 W 0.06 W 1.1 W 0.4 W 0.5 W 0.25 W 4.4 W Almost 50% is for CPICH

20-4.4 = 15.6 W

Worst case; Depends on the FACH bit rate; Depends on PCH and FACH traffic
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Downlink Dedicated Channel Powers (R99-Bearer)

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Downlink Dedicated Channel Powers (R-99 Bearer)

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HSDPA Power Resource Allocation


The total Transmit HSDPA DL power resource per cell is divided into three parts o o o

Common channel power HSDPA physical channel power (HS-PDSCH and HS-SCCH). DPCH power (associated

HSPDA power allocation schemes: ll ti h


o o

Static Allocation Dynamic Allocation

In order to achieve high HSDPA performance, is dynamically allocated between DPCH and HSDPA physical channel. HS-PDSCH transmit power is usually bigger than the DPCH channel to keep a proper transmit power.

Full usage of power Total Power

Power for HSDPA

The Node B detects the R99 power load for DPCH every 2ms TTI to determine the available power for HSDPA. In this way, the cell load is more stable.

Power for DPCH Power for CCH Flexible scheme Time

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HSDPA Static Power Allocation


Maximum transmission power for HS-PDSCH and HS-SCCH is configured in RNC o Transmission power shall not exceed that configured in RNC o Can be reconfigured in RNC by OM g y Associated DPCH channel will use all of the cell power except for power reserved for HSDPA and common channel. Different DPCH channel power is allocated by inner and outer power control

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HSDPA Dynamic Power Allocation


HS-PDSCH/HS-SCCH share the cell power with R99 channels
o R99 channel has higher priority o Remaining power can be allocated to HS PDSCH and HS-SCCH HS-PDSCH HS SCCH o Cell power is fully utilized

Dynamic power allocation is realized in Node B To avoid the DPCH channels power rise, we should keep the power margin while allocating HSDPA power (the recommended value is 10%)

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Power Resource available for HSDPA


With dynamical power allocation, Node B estimates the power available for the entire HSDPA channel per 2ms TTI as:

P(hsdpa) = P(total) - P(margin) - P(non-hsdpa)

with
P(total) P(t t l) : maximum d i downlink t li k transmission power f th cell th t i configured i RNC i i for the ll that is fi d in The P(non-hsdpa) : total transmitted carrier power of all codes not used for HS-PDSCH and HSSCCH. P(margin) : configurable value which is used for the case of power increase caused by R99 power control in each 2ms TTI

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Power Resource available for HSDPA


P(total) : 20W / 40W / 60W depending on power license The P(non-hsdpa) : CPICH + Common Channel + CS Data + R99 Data For CPICH 10% of the total power and for common channels about 15% is being allocated P(margin) : Is by default set to 0 (parameter HSPAPOWER) no extra power is being reserved for R99 Power control

BOTTOM LINE : P(CS) + P(R99) + P(hsdpa) = P(total) 10% (C C ) 15% (C (CS) ( ) ( ) ( ) % (CPICH) % (Common C Channels) )

75% of Total Power can be allocated for CS / R99 and HSDPA Services
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HSDPA Physical Channels ( y (HS-PDSCH / HS-SCCH) )

For each HS-PDSCH, SF=16

For each HS-SCCH, SF=128 Each cell is assigned up to 4 HSHS SCCH (limited by UE capability)

For each HS-DPCCH, SF=256 Each H has one HS-DPCCH.

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Associated Channel - DPCH


There is another dedicated physical channel named DPCH (R99) for each HSDPA user. It is used for signaling transport and power control. DPCH is reference channel for other channels (HS-SCCH and HS-DPCCH) in power control.
N ode B

H S -P D S C H

H S -S C C H

DPCH

H S -D P C C H

UE

Required DL Resources for HSDPA Channel


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HSDPA DL Channel Power Control

PHSDPA(HSDPA total transmit power) PHS-PDSCH + PHS-SCCH


The HSDPA resource distribution mode (static or dynamic) determines the total transmission power of the DL HSDPA channel.

HS-SCCH Power: Allocated depending on CQI


Power HS-SCCH Power HS-SCCH Power HS-SCCH Power HS-SCCH Max[dBm] Min[dBm] Max[W] Max[W] 33 23 2 0.2 30 23 1 0.2 28 23 0.63 0.2 25 23 0.32 0.2 23 23 0.2 02 0.2 02

CQI 1 to 8 9 to 11 12 to 14 15 to 24 25 to 30

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HSDPA DL Channel Power Control

PHSDPA(HSDPA total transmit power) PHS-PDSCH + PHS-SCCH


HS-PDSCH Power:
The transmit power is adjusted by Node B according to the following factors: CQI Amount of Data to be transmitted Available Power for HS-PDSCH HS PDSCH Available Code for HS-PDSCH

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HSDPA Power Distribution to Single Users


The NodeB distributes the available DL HSDPA power to the HS-SCCH and the HS-PDSCH based on the scheduling algorithm.

The scheduling algorithm ranks the HSDPA UEs in the cell based on their priorities, channel quality, waiting time, data flow and so on. The h d li Th scheduling algorithm distributes power t th HS-SCCH of the l ith di t ib t to the HS SCCH f th queue with the highest priority, Then the scheduling algorithm distributes power for the HS-PDSCH based on the data flow of the queue. If there is any power left, the scheduling algorithm repeats step 2) for the queue with the second highest priority, until the total power of the DL HSDPA is used up

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