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Report On Study Tour of Khulna TV Substation

Course Title: Television Engineering Sessional Course No: ECE 3202

Submitted To:
Sehrish Khan Associate Professor & S.M. Shamsul Alam Assistant Professor ECE Discipline Khulna University

Submitted By:
Faygun Nahar Roll: 080909 ECE Discipline Khulna University

Date of Submission: 20/03/2011

1.1 Introduction
We live in an age of science. Science has linked up the distant parts of the world by discovered many wonders in the field of communications. Television is one of them. We can see the pictures of the whole world on the screen of television .To do these the length of special technique is used. To observed this technique and fulfilled our sessional part of the subject titled Television Engineering we went to the Khulna TV Substation on 12th march. This TV substation is situated at Khalishpur of Khulna District. This TV substation doesnt located on a huge area but sufficient for its proper operation. For a long time, this TV substation is serving people of Khulna district by transmitting the signals of BTV and plays an important role of mass communication.

1.2 Objectives
Our main objectives of this tour to Khulna TV substation are: 1. To acquire knowledge television transmission system from a practical point of view. 2. To know the signal receiving and transmitting information of television signal. 3. To familiar with the audio and video signal reception technology. 4. To see the composite video signal and 625 lines of the composite signal individually. 5. To gather knowledge about the other required used machines for receiving and transmitting and their functioning method.

1.3 Basic Structure and Operating Principle Signal Reception


transmitter, channel, and receiver. There are 2 types of system in communication. They are a)

Terrestrial Communication:

In this communication system, signal is conceded from earth to earth by microwave links. Usually we called it station by station signal pass. Khulna TV substation uses this system generally. The mother station of the TV signal is at Rampura of Dhaka. Khulna TV substation received this signal by their antenna. The flow chart of this signal passing system is given below:
Romna Manikgon j Foridpu r

Rampura Transmitt er

Khulna TV Substation

Jessore

Magura

Three basic elements to every communication system namely

b) Satellite Communication: Another communication system that use Khulna TV substation is called satellite .Overall satellite system is divided into 3 zones. They are Indian Ocean Zone, Atlantic Ocean Zone, and Pacific Ocean Zone. Khulna TV substation is in the Asian Ocean Zone. The name of this satellite is ASIA SAT 3S. It is placed at a distance of 47000 km from the centre of the earth and at a distance of 36000 km from the earth. Its heading 105.5 east. Japan is situated at 0 position. This satellite is moving anticlockwise. Khulna TV substation gets signal from 35th transponder of this satellite. Transponder of a satellite is a part of the satellite that converts the Uplink signal to down link signal. Every transponder only converts the Uplink signal to down link signal for the earth station TV receiver. Every satellite has 3 states.Theyare i. ii. iii. Leo (LOW Earth Orbit) = 500 to 1500 kilometers above the Earth's surface Meo (Medium Earth Orbit) = 5000 to 18000 kilometers above the Earth's surface Geo (Geostationary Earth Orbit) = 35863 kilometers above the Earth's surface

Khulna TV substation uses Geo which uses C band. Its frequency range is 3.7 to 4.2 GHz.

Extracting the desired Composite Video Signal


After receiving the signal, we passed through a Band pass filter to gets the desired signal. There are 3 bands. i. ii. iii. Band 1: 41MHz to 68MHz. It has 4 channels. This band is used for navigation. Band 2: 88 MHz to 108MHz. This band used for FM transmission. Band 3: 174 MHz to 230MHz. this band is divided of 7MHz. It has 8 channels.

Khulna TV substation uses channel 11 that means it is in Band 3 and its frequency range is 216-230MHz. This time, the signal to noise ratio is also checked.

Modulation
In modulation section, different techniques used for Audio and Video modulation .Audio modulation is accomplished by frequency modulation. Frequency modulation is that form of angle modulation in which the instantaneous frequency is varied linearly with an incoming message signal .Video modulation is accomplished by amplitude modulation. Amplitude modulation in which the amplitude of a sinusoidal carrier is varied in accordance with an incoming message signal .After amplitude modulation, we transmit this signal through vestigial sideband (VSB). This technique has several advantages.

Mixing
After modulation, audio and video signal is mixed by a special type of coupling device called diplexer. In this diplexer unit, audio signal comes first. After mixing, this mixed signal is transmitted through the antenna.

Amplifier Section
There are 10 amplifiers in the amplifier section of the Khulna TV substation. No. 1 and No. 10 is used for audio and No. 2 to No. 9 are used for video. At present the no. 4 amplifier is not working in the Khulna TV Substation. There are 5 power supplies for these amplifiers and 8 transistors in every amplifier.

Transmission
Khulna TV substation is recently using analog transmitter for transmission. This transmitter is made by a French company named Theles Company. There is another analog transmitter that is made by a Japanese company named NEC Company. 2nd transmitter is used when 1st transmitter fails. Khulna TV substation has recently bought a digital transmitter to transmit parliamentary channel. This transmitter is made by an American Company named Axera. But the digital transmitter is not in used now .Because the government has not

allowed the authority of the Khulna TV substation yet to transmit parliamentary channel. The maximum power of the transmitter for video is 10KW and for audio is 1KW. Extraordinary cooling system is used for these transmitters. Room temperature is kept 17-18. For transmission Khulna TV substation uses an antenna. This antenna is OMNI directional. Type of this antenna is HKS-D-1214. Its height is 500 feet from the ground. It was made by Nippon Electronic Company LTD. Tokyo, Japan. This transmitter in progress its work from July, 1970.

Power System Of the TV centre


There is a dummy transmitter that consumes the whole power of the actual transmitter. There is also generator for back up supply. The authority uses this generator when main power fails. When main power fails, people dont get the TV signal that time as the authority needs some time to set up the generator.

1.4 Conclusion
Generally bookish knowledge does not satisfy us unless we see things with our own eyes. This tour widens our knowledge, ideas and outlook.